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Sample records for single objective prior

  1. Hierarchical image segmentation for learning object priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Lakshman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yang, Xingwei [TEMPLE UNIV.; Latecki, Longin J [TEMPLE UNIV.; Li, Nan [TEMPLE UNIV.

    2010-11-10

    The proposed segmentation approach naturally combines experience based and image based information. The experience based information is obtained by training a classifier for each object class. For a given test image, the result of each classifier is represented as a probability map. The final segmentation is obtained with a hierarchial image segmentation algorithm that considers both the probability maps and the image features such as color and edge strength. We also utilize image region hierarchy to obtain not only local but also semi-global features as input to the classifiers. Moreover, to get robust probability maps, we take into account the region context information by averaging the probability maps over different levels of the hierarchical segmentation algorithm. The obtained segmentation results are superior to the state-of-the-art supervised image segmentation algorithms.

  2. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected ... and the learners is not motivated and interested to learn but still shows consistent low achievement. Dropouts mean learners who have. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives … .... the force field (v), network (connections, arrangement and.

  3. Impact of Prior Knowledge of Behavioural Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated impact of prior knowledge of behavioural objectives on students' academic achievements in physics. The quasi-experimental research design was used for the study. The sample for the study consisted of a total of one hundred and eighty eight (188) students drawn from secondary schools in Yakurr ...

  4. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The study examined the effect of prior knowledge of instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected difficult concepts in senior secondary school physics. A total of. 100 senior secondary two (SS II) physics students were involved in the study. A non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used.

  5. Effect of Prior Knowledge of Instructional Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of prior knowledge of instructional objectives on students' achievement in selected difficult concepts in senior secondary school physics. A total of 100 senior secondary two (SS II) physics students were involved in the study. A non-randomized pretest-posttest control group design was used.

  6. Single versus multiple objective(s) decision making: an application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Single objective approach is most widely used whereas consideration of multiple objectives is the rule rather than an exception in many real life decision-making circumstances. This paper, therefore, investigates whether or not single and multiple criteria/objective approaches necessarily lead to differing conclusions.

  7. SAR moving object imaging using sparsity imposing priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önhon, N. Özben; Çetin, Müjdat

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) returns from a scene with motion can be viewed as data from a stationary scene, but with phase errors due to motion. Based on this perspective, we formulate the problem of SAR imaging of motion-containing scenes as one of joint imaging and phase error compensation. The proposed method is based on the minimization of a cost function which involves sparsity-imposing regularization terms on the reflectivity field to be imaged, considering that it admits a sparse representation as well as on the spatial structure of the motion-related phase errors, reflecting the assumption that only a small percentage of the entire scene contains moving objects. To incorporate the spatial structure of the phase errors into the problem, we provide three different sparsity-enforcing prior terms. In order to achieve computational gains, we also present a two-step version of our approach, which first determines regions of interest that are likely to contain the moving objects and then applies our sparsity-driven approach for joint image reconstruction and autofocusing in such a spatially constrained setting. Our preliminary experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of this new moving target SAR imaging approach.

  8. Multi-objective vs. single-objective calibration of a hydrologic model using single- and multi-objective screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Shafii, Mahyar; Zink, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Thober, Stephan; Samaniego, Luis; Tolson, Bryan

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic models are traditionally calibrated against observed streamflow. Recent studies have shown however, that only a few global model parameters are constrained using this kind of integral signal. They can be identified using prior screening techniques. Since different objectives might constrain different parameters, it is advisable to use multiple information to calibrate those models. One common approach is to combine these multiple objectives (MO) into one single objective (SO) function and allow the use of a SO optimization algorithm. Another strategy is to consider the different objectives separately and apply a MO Pareto optimization algorithm. In this study, two major research questions will be addressed: 1) How do multi-objective calibrations compare with corresponding single-objective calibrations? 2) How much do calibration results deteriorate when the number of calibrated parameters is reduced by a prior screening technique? The hydrologic model employed in this study is a distributed hydrologic model (mHM) with 52 model parameters, i.e. transfer coefficients. The model uses grid cells as a primary hydrologic unit, and accounts for processes like snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics, infiltration, surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation. The model is applied in three distinct catchments over Europe. The SO calibrations are performed using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) algorithm with a fixed budget while the MO calibrations are achieved using the Pareto Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS) algorithm allowing for the same budget. The two objectives used here are the Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of the simulated streamflow and the NSE of the logarithmic transformation. It is shown that the SO DDS results are located close to the edges of the Pareto fronts of the PA-DDS. The MO calibrations are hence preferable due to their supply of multiple equivalent solutions from which the

  9. Visibility Restoration for Single Hazy Image Using Dual Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingye Ju

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single image haze removal has been a challenging task due to its super ill-posed nature. In this paper, we propose a novel single image algorithm that improves the detail and color of such degraded images. More concretely, we redefine a more reliable atmospheric scattering model (ASM based on our previous work and the atmospheric point spread function (APSF. Further, by taking the haze density spatial feature into consideration, we design a scene-wise APSF kernel prediction mechanism to eliminate the multiple-scattering effect. With the redefined ASM and designed APSF, combined with the existing prior knowledge, the complex dehazing problem can be subtly converted into one-dimensional searching problem, which allows us to directly obtain the scene transmission and thereby recover visually realistic results via the proposed ASM. Experimental results verify that our algorithm outperforms several state-of-the-art dehazing techniques in terms of robustness, effectiveness, and efficiency.

  10. Prior Knowledge of Object Associations Shapes Attentional Templates and Information Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rachel; Zhao, Jiaying

    2017-01-01

    Studies on attentional selection typically use unpredictable and meaningless stimuli, such as simple shapes and oriented lines. The assumption is that using these stimuli minimizes effects due to learning or prior knowledge, such that the task performance indexes a "pure" measure of the underlying cognitive ability. However, prior knowledge of the test stimuli and related stimuli acquired before or during the task impacts performance in meaningful ways. This mini review focuses on prior knowledge of object associations, because it is an important, yet often ignored, aspect of attentional selection. We first briefly review recent studies demonstrating that how objects are selected during visual search depends on the participant's prior experience with other objects associated with the target. These effects appear with both task-relevant and task-irrelevant knowledge. We then review how existing object associations may influence subsequent learning of new information, which is both a driver and a consequence of selection processes. These insights highlight the importance of one aspect of prior knowledge for attentional selection and information acquisition. We briefly discuss how this work with young adults may inform other age groups throughout the lifespan, as learners gradually increase their prior knowledge. Importantly, these insights have implications for developing more accurate measurements of cognitive abilities.

  11. Prior knowledge about objects determines neural color representation in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Meuwese, J.D.I.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2016-01-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and

  12. Prior Knowledge about Objects Determines Neural Color Representation in Human Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, A R E; Fahrenfort, J J; Meuwese, J D I; Scholte, H S; Lamme, V A F

    2016-04-01

    To create subjective experience, our brain must translate physical stimulus input by incorporating prior knowledge and expectations. For example, we perceive color and not wavelength information, and this in part depends on our past experience with colored objects ( Hansen et al. 2006; Mitterer and de Ruiter 2008). Here, we investigated the influence of object knowledge on the neural substrates underlying subjective color vision. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, human subjects viewed a color that lay midway between red and green (ambiguous with respect to its distance from red and green) presented on either typical red (e.g., tomato), typical green (e.g., clover), or semantically meaningless (nonsense) objects. Using decoding techniques, we could predict whether subjects viewed the ambiguous color on typical red or typical green objects based on the neural response of veridical red and green. This shift of neural response for the ambiguous color did not occur for nonsense objects. The modulation of neural responses was observed in visual areas (V3, V4, VO1, lateral occipital complex) involved in color and object processing, as well as frontal areas. This demonstrates that object memory influences wavelength information relatively early in the human visual system to produce subjective color vision. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Estimating posterior image variance with sparsity-based object priors for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujia; Lou, Yang; Eldeniz, Cihat; An, Hongyu; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2017-03-01

    Point estimates, such as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, are commonly computed in image re- construction tasks. However, such point estimates provide no information about the range of highly probable solutions, namely the uncertainty in the computed estimate. Bayesian inference methods that seek to compute the posterior probability distribution function (PDF) of the object can provide exactly this information, but are generally computationally intractable. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, which avoid explicit posterior computation by directly sampling from the PDF, require considerable expertise to run in a proper way. This work investigates a computationally efficient variational Bayesian inference approach for computing the posterior image variance with application to MRI. The methodology employs a sparse object prior model that is consistent with the model assumed in most sparse reconstruction methods. The posterior variance map generated by the proposed method provides valuable information that reveals how data-acquisition parameters and the specification of the object prior affect the reliability of a reconstructed MAP image. The proposed method is demonstrated by use of computer-simulated MRI data.

  14. A method of object recognition for single pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boxuan; Zhang, Wenwen

    2018-01-01

    Computational ghost imaging(CGI), utilizing a single-pixel detector, has been extensively used in many fields. However, in order to achieve a high-quality reconstructed image, a large number of iterations are needed, which limits the flexibility of using CGI in practical situations, especially in the field of object recognition. In this paper, we purpose a method utilizing the feature matching to identify the number objects. In the given system, approximately 90% of accuracy of recognition rates can be achieved, which provides a new idea for the application of single pixel imaging in the field of object recognition

  15. Single dose silodosin prior to voiding cystourethrogram: a pharmacological adjunct to enhance visualization of posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagathan, Deepak Sharanappa; Dalela, Divakar; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Goel, Apul; Dwivedi, Amod Kumar; Yadav, Rahul

    2014-03-04

    Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is needed to ascertain the upper end of urethral stricture. Occasionally, a patient is unable to open the bladder neck with resultant failure of the test. Realizing the strong and prompt alpha antagonistic action of silodosin, we evaluated single 8 mg dose as a pharmacological adjunct prior to VCUG to overcome this problem.

  16. Reliable Dual Tensor Model Estimation in Single and Crossing Fibers Based on Jeffreys Prior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianfei; Poot, Dirk H. J.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Su, Tanja; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; van Vliet, Lucas J.; Vos, Frans M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper presents and studies a framework for reliable modeling of diffusion MRI using a data-acquisition adaptive prior. Methods Automated relevance determination estimates the mean of the posterior distribution of a rank-2 dual tensor model exploiting Jeffreys prior (JARD). This data-acquisition prior is based on the Fisher information matrix and enables the assessment whether two tensors are mandatory to describe the data. The method is compared to Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) of the dual tensor model and to FSL’s ball-and-stick approach. Results Monte Carlo experiments demonstrated that JARD’s volume fractions correlated well with the ground truth for single and crossing fiber configurations. In single fiber configurations JARD automatically reduced the volume fraction of one compartment to (almost) zero. The variance in fractional anisotropy (FA) of the main tensor component was thereby reduced compared to MLE. JARD and MLE gave a comparable outcome in data simulating crossing fibers. On brain data, JARD yielded a smaller spread in FA along the corpus callosum compared to MLE. Tract-based spatial statistics demonstrated a higher sensitivity in detecting age-related white matter atrophy using JARD compared to both MLE and the ball-and-stick approach. Conclusions The proposed framework offers accurate and precise estimation of diffusion properties in single and dual fiber regions. PMID:27760166

  17. Effects of Prior Knowledge of Topics and the Instructional Objectives on Students' Achievement in Literature-in-English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbah, Blessing Akaraka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of prior knowledge of topics with their instructional objectives on senior secondary school class two (SS II) students. The study was carried out in Abakaliki Education Zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The design of the study is quasi experimental of pretest-posttest of non-equivalent control group. Two research…

  18. Single Object Tracking With Fuzzy Least Squares Support Vector Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhao, Sicong; Sui, Yao; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Single object tracking, in which a target is often initialized manually in the first frame and then is tracked and located automatically in the subsequent frames, is a hot topic in computer vision. The traditional tracking-by-detection framework, which often formulates tracking as a binary classification problem, has been widely applied and achieved great success in single object tracking. However, there are some potential issues in this formulation. For instance, the boundary between the positive and negative training samples is fuzzy, and the objectives of tracking and classification are inconsistent. In this paper, we attempt to address the above issues from the fuzzy system perspective and propose a novel tracking method by formulating tracking as a fuzzy classification problem. First, we introduce the fuzzy strategy into tracking and propose a novel fuzzy tracking framework, which can measure the importance of the training samples by assigning different memberships to them and offer more strict spatial constraints. Second, we develop a fuzzy least squares support vector machine (FLS-SVM) approach and employ it to implement a concrete tracker. In particular, the primal form, dual form, and kernel form of FLS-SVM are analyzed and the corresponding closed-form solutions are derived for efficient realizations. Besides, a least squares regression model is built to control the update adaptively, retaining the robustness of the appearance model. The experimental results demonstrate that our method can achieve comparable or superior performance to many state-of-the-art methods.

  19. Phrase translation probabilities with ITG priors and smoothing as learning objective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylonakis, M.; Sima'an, K.

    2008-01-01

    The conditional phrase translation probabilities constitute the principal components of phrase-based machine translation systems. These probabilities are estimated using a heuristic method that does not seem to optimize any reasonable objective function of the word-aligned, parallel training corpus.

  20. Single sided tomography of extremely large dense objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1993-03-24

    One can envision many circumstances where radiography could be valuable but is frustrated by the geometry of the object to be radiographed. For example, extremely large objects, the separation of rocket propellants from the skin of solid fuel rocket motor, the structural integrity of an underground tank or hull of a ship, the location of buried objects, inspection of large castings etc. The author has been investigating ways to do this type of radiography and as a result has developed a technique which can be used to obtain three dimensional radiographs using Compton scattered radiation from a monochromatic source and a high efficiency, high resolution germanium spectrometer. This paper gives specific details of the reconstruction technique and presents the results of numerous numerical simulations and compares these simulations to spectra obtained in the laboratory. In addition the author presents the results of calculations made for the development of an alternative single sided radiography technique which will permit inspection of the interior of large objects. As a benchmark the author seeks to obtain three dimensional images with a resolution of about one cubic centimeter in a concrete cube 30 centimeters on a side. Such a device must use photons of very high energy. For example 30 cm of concrete represents about 15 mean free paths for photons of 100 keV, whereas at 1 MeV the attenuation is down to about five mean free paths. At these higher energies Compton scattering becomes much more probable. Although this would appear to be advantageous for single sided imaging techniques, such techniques are hampered by two side effects. In this paper the results are given of numerous Monte Carlo calculations detailing the extent of the multiple scattering and the feasibility of a variety of imaging schemes is explored.

  1. From tomography to FWI with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2013-06-10

    Reflections in our seismic data induce serious nonlinear behavior in the objective function of full waveform inversion (FWI). Thus, without a good initial velocity model, that can produce the reflections within a cycle of the frequency used in the inversion, convergence to the solution becomes hard. Such velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, that are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements. As such, we promote an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping features, provide a frequency dependent traveltime function. With strong damping of the of the synthetic, potentially low frequency, data, this attribute admits first arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, like in wave equation tomography. As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped in an FWI type inversion. It, thus, provides a single objective function and a natural transition from traveltime tomography to full waveform inversion. A Marmousi example demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  2. Locally advanced cervix cancer: chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery or radiotherapy. A single institutional experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, C.; O'Donnell, A.; Tattersall, M.H.N.; Dalrymple, C.; Firth, I.

    2001-01-01

    Primary or neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy has potential advantages for locally advanced cervix cancer. It can down stage a cancer and allow definitive local therapy to be technically possible (surgery), or potentially more effective (radiotherapy). It can also eradicate subclinical systemic metastases. This report reviews a single institution's experience of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to definitive local therapy for cervix cancer over a 13-year period. One hundred and six patients were treated with this intent. The patients were analysed for their response to chemotherapy, treatment received, survival, relapse and toxicity. The chemotherapy was feasible and the majority of patients had a complete or partial response (58.5%). Eight patients did not proceed to local treatment. Forty-six patients had definitive surgery and 52 had definitive radiotherapy. The 5-year overall survival was 27% and the majority of patients died with disease. The first site of relapse was usually in the pelvis (46.2%). Late complications that required ongoing medical therapy (n = 6) or surgical intervention (n = 2) were recorded in eight patients (7.5%). On univariate analysis stage (P= 0.04), tumour size (P = 0.01), lymph node status (P=0.003), response to chemotherapy (P = 0.045) and treatment (P = 0.003) were all significant predictors of survival. On multivariate analysis, tumour size (P < 0.0001) and nodal status (P = 0.02) were significant predictors of survival. Despite the impressive responses to chemotherapy of advanced cervix cancer, there is evidence from randomized trials that it does not improve or compromise survival prior to radiotherapy. As its role prior to surgery remains unclear, it should not be used in this setting outside a prospective randomized trial. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Robust Single Image Super-Resolution via Deep Networks with Sparse Prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding; Wang, Zhaowen; Wen, Bihan; Yang, Jianchao; Han, Wei; Huang, Thomas

    2016-05-06

    Single image super-resolution is an ill-posed problem which tries to recover a high-resolution image from its lowresolution observation. To regularize the solution of the problem, previous methods have focused on designing good priors for natural images such as sparse representation, or directly learning the priors from a large data set with models such as deep neural networks. In this paper, we argue that domain expertise from the conventional sparse coding model can be combined with the key ingredients of deep learning to achieve further improved results. We demonstrate that a sparse coding model particularly designed for super-resolution can be incarnated as a neural network with the merit of end-to-end optimization over training data. The network has a cascaded structure which boosts the SR performance for both fixed and incremental scaling factors. The proposed training and testing schemes can be extended for robust handling of images with additional degradation such as noise and blurring. A subjective assessment is conducted and analyzed in order to thoroughly evaluate various SR techniques. Our proposed model is tested on a wide range of images, and it significantly outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods for various scaling factors both quantitatively and perceptually.

  4. Single-trial multisensory memories affect later auditory and visual object discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Antonia; Talsma, Durk; Murray, Micah M

    2015-05-01

    Multisensory memory traces established via single-trial exposures can impact subsequent visual object recognition. This impact appears to depend on the meaningfulness of the initial multisensory pairing, implying that multisensory exposures establish distinct object representations that are accessible during later unisensory processing. Multisensory contexts may be particularly effective in influencing auditory discrimination, given the purportedly inferior recognition memory in this sensory modality. The possibility of this generalization and the equivalence of effects when memory discrimination was being performed in the visual vs. auditory modality were at the focus of this study. First, we demonstrate that visual object discrimination is affected by the context of prior multisensory encounters, replicating and extending previous findings by controlling for the probability of multisensory contexts during initial as well as repeated object presentations. Second, we provide the first evidence that single-trial multisensory memories impact subsequent auditory object discrimination. Auditory object discrimination was enhanced when initial presentations entailed semantically congruent multisensory pairs and was impaired after semantically incongruent multisensory encounters, compared to sounds that had been encountered only in a unisensory manner. Third, the impact of single-trial multisensory memories upon unisensory object discrimination was greater when the task was performed in the auditory vs. visual modality. Fourth, there was no evidence for correlation between effects of past multisensory experiences on visual and auditory processing, suggestive of largely independent object processing mechanisms between modalities. We discuss these findings in terms of the conceptual short term memory (CSTM) model and predictive coding. Our results suggest differential recruitment and modulation of conceptual memory networks according to the sensory task at hand. Copyright

  5. Pinhole single-photon emission tomography reconstruction based on median root prior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohlberg, Antti; Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Ruotsalainen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    The maximum likelihood expectation maximisation (ML-EM) algorithm can be used to reduce reconstruction artefacts produced by filtered backprojection (FBP) methods in pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET). However, ML-EM suffers from noise propagation along iterations, which leads to quantitatively unpleasant reconstruction results. To avoid this increase in noise, the median root prior (MRP) algorithm for pinhole SPET was implemented. Projection data of a line source and Picker's thyroid phantom were collected using a single-head gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. MRP was added to existing pinhole ML-EM reconstruction algorithm and the phantom studies were reconstructed using MRP, ML-EM and FBP for comparison. Coefficients of variation, contrasts and full-widths at half-maximum were calculated and showed a clear reduction in noise without significant loss of resolution or decrease in contrast when MRP was applied. MRP also produced visually pleasing images even with high iteration numbers, free of the checkerboard-type noise patterns which are typical of ML-EM images. (orig.)

  6. Barack Obama Blindness (BOB): Absence of Visual Awareness to a Single Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persuh, Marjan; Melara, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we evaluated whether a perceiver's prior expectations could alone obliterate his or her awareness of a salient visual stimulus. To establish expectancy, observers first made a demanding visual discrimination on each of three baseline trials. Then, on a fourth, critical trial, a single, salient and highly visible object appeared in full view at the center of the visual field and in the absence of any competing visual input. Surprisingly, fully half of the participants were unaware of the solitary object in front of their eyes. Dramatically, observers were blind even when the only stimulus on display was the face of U.S. President Barack Obama. We term this novel, counterintuitive phenomenon, Barack Obama Blindness (BOB). Employing a method that rules out putative memory effects by probing awareness immediately after presentation of the critical stimulus, we demonstrate that the BOB effect is a true failure of conscious vision.

  7. Risk of uterine rupture with a trial of labor in women with multiple and single prior cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Mark B; Spong, Catherine Y; Thom, Elizabeth; Hauth, John C; Bloom, Steven L; Varner, Michael W; Moawad, Atef H; Caritis, Steve N; Harper, Margaret; Wapner, Ronald J; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Carpenter, Marshall; Peaceman, Alan M; O'sullivan, Mary J; Sibai, Baha M; Langer, Oded; Thorp, John M; Ramin, Susan M; Mercer, Brian M; Gabbe, Steven G

    2006-07-01

    To determine whether the risk for uterine rupture is increased in women attempting vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries. We conducted a prospective multicenter observational study of women with prior cesarean delivery undergoing trial of labor and elective repeat operation. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared among women attempting vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries and those with a single prior cesarean delivery. We also compared outcomes for women with multiple prior cesarean deliveries undergoing trial of labor with those electing repeat cesarean delivery. Uterine rupture occurred in 9 of 975 (0.9%) women with multiple prior cesarean compared with 115 of 16,915 (0.7%) women with a single prior operation (P = .37). Multivariable analysis confirmed that multiple prior cesarean delivery was not associated with an increased risk for uterine rupture. The rates of hysterectomy (0.6% versus 0.2%, P = .023) and transfusion (3.2% versus 1.6%, P cesarean deliveries compared with women with a single prior cesarean delivery attempting trial of labor. Similarly, a composite of maternal morbidity was increased in women with multiple prior cesarean deliveries undergoing trial of labor compared with those having elective repeat cesarean delivery (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.93). A history of multiple cesarean deliveries is not associated with an increased rate of uterine rupture in women attempting vaginal birth compared with those with a single prior operation. Maternal morbidity is increased with trial of labor after multiple cesarean deliveries, compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, but the absolute risk for complications is small. Vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries should remain an option for eligible women. II-2.

  8. Detecting Flying Objects Using a Single Moving Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozantsev, Artem; Lepetit, Vincent; Fua, Pascal

    2017-05-01

    We propose an approach for detecting flying objects such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and aircrafts when they occupy a small portion of the field of view, possibly moving against complex backgrounds, and are filmed by a camera that itself moves. We argue that solving such a difficult problem requires combining both appearance and motion cues. To this end we propose a regression-based approach for object-centric motion stabilization of image patches that allows us to achieve effective classification on spatio-temporal image cubes and outperform state-of-the-art techniques. As this problem has not yet been extensively studied, no test datasets are publicly available. We therefore built our own, both for UAVs and aircrafts, and will make them publicly available so they can be used to benchmark future flying object detection and collision avoidance algorithms.

  9. Single-molecule microscopy using silicone oil immersion objective lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Microscopy techniques capable of detecting individual molecules and providing quantitative data have the potential to offer great biological insight; however, such approaches require the efficient capture of light. Here, Mark Hink explains how the use of new silicone oil immersion objective lenses

  10. Multi-objective compared to single-objective optimization with application to model validation and uncertainty quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Riegert, R.; Krosche, M.; Stekolschikov, K. [Scandpower Petroleum Technology GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Fahimuddin, A. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    History Matching in Reservoir Simulation, well location and production optimization etc. is generally a multi-objective optimization problem. The problem statement of history matching for a realistic field case includes many field and well measurements in time and type, e.g. pressure measurements, fluid rates, events such as water and gas break-throughs, etc. Uncertainty parameters modified as part of the history matching process have varying impact on the improvement of the match criteria. Competing match criteria often reduce the likelihood of finding an acceptable history match. It is an engineering challenge in manual history matching processes to identify competing objectives and to implement the changes required in the simulation model. In production optimization or scenario optimization the focus on one key optimization criterion such as NPV limits the identification of alternatives and potential opportunities, since multiple objectives are summarized in a predefined global objective formulation. Previous works primarily focus on a specific optimization method. Few works actually concentrate on the objective formulation and multi-objective optimization schemes have not yet been applied to reservoir simulations. This paper presents a multi-objective optimization approach applicable to reservoir simulation. It addresses the problem of multi-objective criteria in a history matching study and presents analysis techniques identifying competing match criteria. A Pareto-Optimizer is discussed and the implementation of that multi-objective optimization scheme is applied to a case study. Results are compared to a single-objective optimization method. (orig.)

  11. Real-time single image dehazing based on dark channel prior theory and guided filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zan

    2017-10-01

    Images and videos taken outside the foggy day are serious degraded. In order to restore degraded image taken in foggy day and overcome traditional Dark Channel prior algorithms problems of remnant fog in edge, we propose a new dehazing method.We first find the fog area in the dark primary color map to obtain the estimated value of the transmittance using quadratic tree. Then we regard the gray-scale image after guided filtering as atmospheric light map and remove haze based on it. Box processing and image down sampling technology are also used to improve the processing speed. Finally, the atmospheric light scattering model is used to restore the image. A plenty of experiments show that algorithm is effective, efficient and has a wide range of application.

  12. Accelerated median root prior reconstruction for pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohlberg, Antti [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777 FIN-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Ruotsalainen, Ulla [Institute of Signal Processing, DMI, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 553 FIN-33101, Tampere (Finland); Watabe, Hiroshi [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujisihro-dai, Suita City, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Iida, Hidehiro [National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, 5-7-1 Fujisihro-dai, Suita City, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Kuikka, Jyrki T [Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, PO Box 1777 FIN-70211, Kuopio (Finland)

    2003-07-07

    Pinhole collimation can be used to improve spatial resolution in SPET. However, the resolution improvement is achieved at the cost of reduced sensitivity, which leads to projection images with poor statistics. Images reconstructed from these projections using the maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithms, which have been used to reduce the artefacts generated by the filtered backprojection (FBP) based reconstruction, suffer from noise/bias trade-off: noise contaminates the images at high iteration numbers, whereas early abortion of the algorithm produces images that are excessively smooth and biased towards the initial estimate of the algorithm. To limit the noise accumulation we propose the use of the pinhole median root prior (PH-MRP) reconstruction algorithm. MRP is a Bayesian reconstruction method that has already been used in PET imaging and shown to possess good noise reduction and edge preservation properties. In this study the PH-MRP algorithm was accelerated with the ordered subsets (OS) procedure and compared to the FBP, OS-EM and conventional Bayesian reconstruction methods in terms of noise reduction, quantitative accuracy, edge preservation and visual quality. The results showed that the accelerated PH-MRP algorithm was very robust. It provided visually pleasing images with lower noise level than the FBP or OS-EM and with smaller bias and sharper edges than the conventional Bayesian methods.

  13. Prior blunt chest trauma may be a cause of single vessel coronary disease; hypothesis and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Nielsen, PE; Sleight, P

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by a case where a patient (with no risk factors, and single vessel disease) developed angina pectoris after previous blunt chest trauma, we searched Medline for blunt chest trauma and myocardial ischaemia. We found 77 cases describing AMI after blunt chest trauma, but only one reporting ...... the situation and acute PCI must be considered preferable. It seems likely that lesser damage could lead to longer-term stenosis we suspect that this sequence is grossly under-reported. This could have medico-legal implications....

  14. Characterization and quantification of proteins secreted by single human embryos prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Maurizio; Ori, Alessandro; Child, Tim; Jaroudi, Souraya; Spath, Katharina; Beck, Martin; Wells, Dagan

    2015-11-01

    The use of in vitro fertilization (IVF) has revolutionized the treatment of infertility and is now responsible for 1-5% of all births in industrialized countries. During IVF, it is typical for patients to generate multiple embryos. However, only a small proportion of them possess the genetic and metabolic requirements needed in order to produce a healthy pregnancy. The identification of the embryo with the greatest developmental capacity represents a major challenge for fertility clinics. Current methods for the assessment of embryo competence are proven inefficient, and the inadvertent transfer of non-viable embryos is the principal reason why most IVF treatments (approximately two-thirds) end in failure. In this study, we investigate how the application of proteomic measurements could improve success rates in clinical embryology. We describe a procedure that allows the identification and quantification of proteins of embryonic origin, present in attomole concentrations in the blastocoel, the enclosed fluid-filled cavity that forms within 5-day-old human embryos. By using targeted proteomics, we demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying multiple proteins in samples derived from single blastocoels and that such measurements correlate with aspects of embryo viability, such as chromosomal (ploidy) status. This study illustrates the potential of high-sensitivity proteomics to measure clinically relevant biomarkers in minute samples and, more specifically, suggests that key aspects of embryo competence could be measured using a proteomic-based strategy, with negligible risk of harm to the living embryo. Our work paves the way for the development of "next-generation" embryo competence assessment strategies, based on functional proteomics. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Automated identification of brain tumours from single MR images based on segmentation with refined patient-specific priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSanjuán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumours can have different shapes or locations, making their identification very challenging. In functional MRI, it is not unusual that patients have only one anatomical image due to time and financial constraints. Here, we provide a modified automatic lesion identification (ALI procedure which enables brain tumour identification from single MR images. Our method rests on (A a modified segmentation-normalisation procedure with an explicit extra prior for the tumour and (B an outlier detection procedure for abnormal voxel (i.e. tumour classification. To minimise tissue misclassification, the segmentation-normalisation procedure requires prior information of the tumour location and extent. We therefore propose that ALI is run iteratively so that the output of Step B is used as a patient-specific prior in Step A. We test this procedure on real T1-weighted images from 18 patients, and the results were validated in comparison to two independent observers’ manual tracings. The automated procedure identified the tumours successfully with an excellent agreement with the manual segmentation (area under the ROC curve = 0.97 ± 0.03. The proposed procedure increases the flexibility and robustness of the ALI tool and will be particularly useful for lesion-behaviour mapping studies, or when lesion identification and/or spatial normalisation are problematic.

  16. Single-trial multisensory memories affect later auditory and visual object discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Antonia; Talsma Durk; Murray Micah M.

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory memory traces established via single-trial exposures can impact subsequent visual object recognition. This impact appears to depend on the meaningfulness of the initial multisensory pairing, implying that multisensory exposures establish distinct object representations that are accessible during later unisensory processing. Multisensory contexts may be particularly effective in influencing auditory discrimination, given the purportedly inferior recognition memory in this sensory ...

  17. Single-component reflecting objective for low-temperature spectroscopy in the entire visible region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fujiyoshi, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Kim, Changman; Matsushita, Michio; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Schmidt, Jan

    2007-01-01

    A single-component reflecting objective was constructed for low-temperature spectroscopy with optimal imaging and transmission properties at all visible wavelengths. The performance of the objective immersed in superfluid helium at a temperature of 1.5 K was tested by comparing dark-field images of

  18. Analysis and optimization with ecological objective function of irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Junle; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2016-01-01

    Ecological performance of a single resonance ESE heat engine with heat leakage is conducted by applying finite time thermodynamics. By introducing Nielsen function and numerical calculations, expressions about power output, efficiency, entropy generation rate and ecological objective function are derived; relationships between ecological objective function and power output, between ecological objective function and efficiency as well as between power output and efficiency are demonstrated; influences of system parameters of heat leakage, boundary energy and resonance width on the optimal performances are investigated in detail; a specific range of boundary energy is given as a compromise to make ESE heat engine system work at optimal operation regions. Comparing performance characteristics with different optimization objective functions, the significance of selecting ecological objective function as the design objective is clarified specifically: when changing the design objective from maximum power output into maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of efficiency is 4.56%, while the power output drop is only 2.68%; when changing the design objective from maximum efficiency to maximum ecological objective function, the improvement of power output is 229.13%, and the efficiency drop is only 13.53%. - Highlights: • An irreversible single resonance energy selective electron heat engine is studied. • Heat leakage between two reservoirs is considered. • Power output, efficiency and ecological objective function are derived. • Optimal performance comparison for three objective functions is carried out.

  19. Single-pixel non-imaging object recognition by means of Fourier spectrum acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huichao; Shi, Jianhong; Liu, Xialin; Niu, Zhouzhou; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-04-01

    Single-pixel imaging has emerged over recent years as a novel imaging technique, which has significant application prospects. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme that can achieve single-pixel non-imaging object recognition by acquiring the Fourier spectrum. In an experiment, a four-step phase-shifting sinusoid illumination light is used to irradiate the object image, the value of the light intensity is measured with a single-pixel detection unit, and the Fourier coefficients of the object image are obtained by a differential measurement. The Fourier coefficients are first cast into binary numbers to obtain the hash value. We propose a new method of perceptual hashing algorithm, which is combined with a discrete Fourier transform to calculate the hash value. The hash distance is obtained by calculating the difference of the hash value between the object image and the contrast images. By setting an appropriate threshold, the object image can be quickly and accurately recognized. The proposed scheme realizes single-pixel non-imaging perceptual hashing object recognition by using fewer measurements. Our result might open a new path for realizing object recognition with non-imaging.

  20. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Bineng; Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of tra...

  1. Application of a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approach to pharmacokinetic model building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Eric A; Sale, Mark E; Pollock, Bruce G; Belani, Chandra P; Egorin, Merrill J; Ivy, Percy S; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Manuck, Stephen B; Marder, Stephen R; Muldoon, Matthew F; Scher, Howard I; Solit, David B; Bies, Robert R

    2012-08-01

    A limitation in traditional stepwise population pharmacokinetic model building is the difficulty in handling interactions between model components. To address this issue, a method was previously introduced which couples NONMEM parameter estimation and model fitness evaluation to a single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm for global optimization of the model structure. In this study, the generalizability of this approach for pharmacokinetic model building is evaluated by comparing (1) correct and spurious covariate relationships in a simulated dataset resulting from automated stepwise covariate modeling, Lasso methods, and single-objective hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to covariate identification and (2) information criteria values, model structures, convergence, and model parameter values resulting from manual stepwise versus single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building for seven compounds. Both manual stepwise and single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm approaches to model building were applied, blinded to the results of the other approach, for selection of the compartment structure as well as inclusion and model form of inter-individual and inter-occasion variability, residual error, and covariates from a common set of model options. For the simulated dataset, stepwise covariate modeling identified three of four true covariates and two spurious covariates; Lasso identified two of four true and 0 spurious covariates; and the single-objective, hybrid genetic algorithm identified three of four true covariates and one spurious covariate. For the clinical datasets, the Akaike information criterion was a median of 22.3 points lower (range of 470.5 point decrease to 0.1 point decrease) for the best single-objective hybrid genetic-algorithm candidate model versus the final manual stepwise model: the Akaike information criterion was lower by greater than 10 points for four compounds and differed by less than 10 points for three

  2. Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Daston, Lorraine

    2010-01-01

    Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...

  3. Single-Incision Pediatric Endosurgery (SIPES oophoropexy in an adolescent with Hodgkin lymphoma prior to pelvic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Seims

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oophoropexy for fertility preservation during pelvic irradiation dates back to the mid-1960s. For Hodgkin lymphoma (HL, this was performed during a staging laparotomy. Laparoscopic ovarian fixation has supplanted open pexy with advancements in technology and abandonment of staging laparotomies. Single-Incision Pediatric Endosurgery (SIPES is applicable to numerous multi-port operations. Use of this technique for oophoropexy prior to pelvic irradiation, however, has not been reported. A 19 year-old with stage IVb HL involving the left iliac node basin was to receive radiotherapy and was evaluated for bilateral oophoropexy. An Olympus TriPort™ was introduced at the umbilicus, through which a 5 mm zero-degree laparoscope and a needle driver were introduced. Transabdominal passage of a ski needle through a 2 mm nick in the skin of the anterolateral wall allowed for right sided fixation of the ovaries. Operative recovery was uncomplicated, and post-operative imaging demonstrated satisfactory positioning of the gonads outside the planned radiation field. In conclusion, SIPES oophoropexy is a technically simple method for fertility preservation that offers improved cosmesis.

  4. A new method for solving single and multi-objective fuzzy minimum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several authors have proposed different methods for solving fuzzy minimum cost flow (MCF) problems. In this paper, some single and multi-objective fuzzy MCF problems are chosen which cannot be solved by using any of the existing methods and a new method is proposed for solving such type of problems. The main ...

  5. Single Quantum Dot with Microlens and 3D-Printed Micro-objective as Integrated Bright Single-Photon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sarah; Schlehahn, Alexander; Thoma, Alexander; Srocka, Nicole; Gissibl, Timo; Ristok, Simon; Thiele, Simon; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Strittmatter, André; Heindel, Tobias; Rodt, Sven; Herkommer, Alois; Giessen, Harald; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2017-06-21

    Integrated single-photon sources with high photon-extraction efficiency are key building blocks for applications in the field of quantum communications. We report on a bright single-photon source realized by on-chip integration of a deterministic quantum dot microlens with a 3D-printed multilens micro-objective. The device concept benefits from a sophisticated combination of in situ 3D electron-beam lithography to realize the quantum dot microlens and 3D femtosecond direct laser writing for creation of the micro-objective. In this way, we obtain a high-quality quantum device with broadband photon-extraction efficiency of (40 ± 4)% and high suppression of multiphoton emission events with g (2) (τ = 0) < 0.02. Our results highlight the opportunities that arise from tailoring the optical properties of quantum emitters using integrated optics with high potential for the further development of plug-and-play fiber-coupled single-photon sources.

  6. Plane-based optimization for 3D object reconstruction from single line drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzhuang; Cao, Liangliang; Li, Zhenguo; Tang, Xiaoou

    2008-02-01

    In previous optimization-based methods of 3D planar-faced object reconstruction from single 2D line drawings, the missing depths of the vertices of a line drawing (and other parameters in some methods) are used as the variables of the objective functions. A 3D object with planar faces is derived by finding values for these variables that minimize the objective functions. These methods work well for simple objects with a small number N of variables. As N grows, however, it is very difficult for them to find expected objects. This is because with the nonlinear objective functions in a space of large dimension N, the search for optimal solutions can easily get trapped into local minima. In this paper, we use the parameters of the planes that pass through the planar faces of an object as the variables of the objective function. This leads to a set of linear constraints on the planes of the object, resulting in a much lower dimensional nullspace where optimization is easier to achieve. We prove that the dimension of this nullspace is exactly equal to the minimum number of vertex depths which define the 3D object. Since a practical line drawing is usually not an exact projection of a 3D object, we expand the nullspace to a larger space based on the singular value decomposition of the projection matrix of the line drawing. In this space, robust 3D reconstruction can be achieved. Compared with two most related methods, our method not only can reconstruct more complex 3D objects from 2D line drawings, but also is computationally more efficient.

  7. Effects of Implied Motion and Facing Direction on Positional Preferences in Single-Object Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Langlois, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    Palmer, Gardner, and Wickens studied aesthetic preferences for pictures of single objects and found a strong inward bias: Right-facing objects were preferred left-of-center and left-facing objects right-of-center. They found no effect of object motion (people and cars showed the same inward bias as chairs and teapots), but the objects were not depicted as moving. Here we measured analogous inward biases with objects depicted as moving with an implied direction and speed by having participants drag-and-drop target objects into the most aesthetically pleasing position. In Experiment 1, human figures were shown diving or falling while moving forward or backward. Aesthetic biases were evident for both inward-facing and inward-moving figures, but the motion-based bias dominated so strongly that backward divers or fallers were preferred moving inward but facing outward. Experiment 2 investigated implied speed effects using images of humans, horses, and cars moving at different speeds (e.g., standing, walking, trotting, and galloping horses). Inward motion or facing biases were again present, and differences in their magnitude due to speed were evident. Unexpectedly, faster moving objects were generally preferred closer to frame center than slower moving objects. These results are discussed in terms of the combined effects of prospective, future-oriented biases, and retrospective, past-oriented biases.

  8. Convolutional Deep Belief Networks for Single-Cell/Object Tracking in Computational Biology and Computer Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bineng; Pan, Shengnan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Tian; Du, Jixiang; Chen, Duansheng; Cao, Liujuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose deep architecture to dynamically learn the most discriminative features from data for both single-cell and object tracking in computational biology and computer vision. Firstly, the discriminative features are automatically learned via a convolutional deep belief network (CDBN). Secondly, we design a simple yet effective method to transfer features learned from CDBNs on the source tasks for generic purpose to the object tracking tasks using only limited amount of training data. Finally, to alleviate the tracker drifting problem caused by model updating, we jointly consider three different types of positive samples. Extensive experiments validate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Tabletop single-shot extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography of an extended object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Erik B; Monserud, Nils C; Brown, Christopher G; Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Xu, Huiwen; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik; Marconi, Mario C

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate single and multi-shot Fourier transform holography with the use of a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser. The reference wave was produced by a Fresnel zone plate with a central opening that allowed the incident beam to illuminate the sample directly. The high reference wave intensity allows for larger objects to be imaged compared to mask-based lensless Fourier transform holography techniques. We obtain a spatial resolution of 169 nm from a single laser pulse and a resolution of 128 nm from an accumulation of 20 laser pulses for an object ~11x11μm(2) in size. This experiment utilized a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser that produces a highly coherent ~1.2 ns laser pulse at 46.9 nm wavelength.

  10. Single parent status and children's objectively measured level of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhammer, John; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian; Lund-Kristensen, Peter; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo

    Single-parent family status has been investigated as a possible psychosocial determinant of children's level of physical activity (PA)-although with mixed and inconclusive results. Prevailing evidence of the importance of two-parent family status as a resource for children's PA is based on a mix of subjective and objective measurements of PA. Objectives: To investigate if the level of PA among children living with a single parent was lower compared to children living with two parents by means of a meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies. We restricted our analysis to studies with objective measurements of PA. Data sources: The databases, Social Science Citation Index, PsycINFO, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched (1987-2013). Study eligibility criteria: Observational studies comparing objectively measured PA between single-parent children and children from two-parent families. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: We used guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions and a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale overall to assess the quality of the included studies. We refrained from calculation of summary scores. Twelve studies met the following inclusion criteria of which six were unpublished: (a) child age (6-18 years) and (b) objectively measured level of PA. Meta-analysis revealed pooled estimates of -0.01 for boys (95 % CI -0.04-0.03, p  = 0.77, I 2  = 6.5 %, p  = 0.38) and 0.01 for girls (95 % CI -0.03-0.04, p  = 0.62, I 2  = 21.0 %, p  = 0.24), respectively. Estimates show no differences in objectively measured physical activity between children living in single-parent families compared to children living with two parents. Analyses investigating seven potential moderators did not yield any statistical significant effect size estimates. No evidence of heterogeneity between studies was observed. Limitations: Retrieved articles were assessed by several of the authors. Blinding of the

  11. Entanglement of a Single Spin-1 Object: An Example of Ubiquitous Entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Binicioglu, Sinem; Can, M. Ali; Klyachko, Alexander A.; Shumovsky, Alexander S.

    2006-01-01

    Using a single spin-1 object as an example, we discuss a recent approach to quantum entanglement. The key idea of the approach consists in presetting of basic observables in the very definition of quantum system. Specification of basic observables defines the dynamic symmetry of the system. Entangled states of the system are then interpreted as states with maximal amount of uncertainty of all basic observables. The approach gives purely physical picture of entanglement. In particular, it sepa...

  12. The role of auditory cortices in the retrieval of single-trial auditory-visual object memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Pawel J; Thelen, Antonia; Amrein, Sarah; Geiser, Eveline; Anken, Jacques; Murray, Micah M

    2015-03-01

    Single-trial encounters with multisensory stimuli affect both memory performance and early-latency brain responses to visual stimuli. Whether and how auditory cortices support memory processes based on single-trial multisensory learning is unknown and may differ qualitatively and quantitatively from comparable processes within visual cortices due to purported differences in memory capacities across the senses. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as healthy adults (n = 18) performed a continuous recognition task in the auditory modality, discriminating initial (new) from repeated (old) sounds of environmental objects. Initial presentations were either unisensory or multisensory; the latter entailed synchronous presentation of a semantically congruent or a meaningless image. Repeated presentations were exclusively auditory, thus differing only according to the context in which the sound was initially encountered. Discrimination abilities (indexed by d') were increased for repeated sounds that were initially encountered with a semantically congruent image versus sounds initially encountered with either a meaningless or no image. Analyses of ERPs within an electrical neuroimaging framework revealed that early stages of auditory processing of repeated sounds were affected by prior single-trial multisensory contexts. These effects followed from significantly reduced activity within a distributed network, including the right superior temporal cortex, suggesting an inverse relationship between brain activity and behavioural outcome on this task. The present findings demonstrate how auditory cortices contribute to long-term effects of multisensory experiences on auditory object discrimination. We propose a new framework for the efficacy of multisensory processes to impact both current multisensory stimulus processing and unisensory discrimination abilities later in time. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Single Unexpected Change in Target- but Not Distractor Motion Impairs Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke S. Meyerhoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addresses the question whether motion information of multiple objects contributes to maintaining a selection of objects across a period of motion. Here, we investigate whether target and/or distractor motion information is used during attentive tracking. We asked participants to track four objects and changed either the motion direction of targets, the motion direction of distractors, neither, or both during a brief flash in the middle of a tracking interval. We observed that a single direction change of targets is sufficient to impair tracking performance. In contrast, changing the motion direction of distractors had no effect on performance. This indicates that target- but not distractor motion information is evaluated during tracking.

  14. High-throughput imaging of self-luminous objects through a single optical fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barankov, Roman; Mertz, Jerome

    2014-11-20

    Imaging through a single optical fibre offers attractive possibilities in many applications such as micro-endoscopy or remote sensing. However, the direct transmission of an image through an optical fibre is difficult because spatial information is scrambled upon propagation. We demonstrate an image transmission strategy where spatial information is first converted to spectral information. Our strategy is based on a principle of spread-spectrum encoding, borrowed from wireless communications, wherein object pixels are converted into distinct spectral codes that span the full bandwidth of the object spectrum. Image recovery is performed by numerical inversion of the detected spectrum at the fibre output. We provide a simple demonstration of spread-spectrum encoding using Fabry-Perot etalons. Our technique enables the two-dimensional imaging of self-luminous (that is, incoherent) objects with high throughput in principle independent of pixel number. Moreover, it is insensitive to fibre bending, contains no moving parts and opens the possibility of extreme miniaturization.

  15. Design of a hybrid double-sideband/single-sideband (schlieren) objective aperture suitable for electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buijsse, Bart; Laarhoven, Frank M.H.M. van [FEI Company, PO Box 80066, 5600 KA Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schmid, Andreas K.; Cambie, Rossana; Cabrini, Stefano; Jin, Jian [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Glaeser, Robert M., E-mail: rmglaeser@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    A novel design is described for an aperture that blocks a half-plane of the electron diffraction pattern out to a desired scattering angle, and then - except for a narrow support beam - transmits all of the scattered electrons beyond that angle. Our proposed tulip-shaped design is thus a hybrid between the single-sideband (ssb) aperture, which blocks a full half-plane of the diffraction pattern, and the conventional (i.e. fully open) double-sideband (dsb) aperture. The benefits of this hybrid design include the fact that such an aperture allows one to obtain high-contrast images of weak-phase objects with the objective lens set to Scherzer defocus. We further demonstrate that such apertures can be fabricated from thin-foil materials by milling with a focused ion beam (FIB), and that such apertures are fully compatible with the requirements of imaging out to a resolution of at least 0.34 nm. As is known from earlier work with single-sideband apertures, however, the edge of such an aperture can introduce unwanted, electrostatic phase shifts due to charging. The principal requirement for using such an aperture in a routine data-collection mode is thus to discover appropriate materials, protocols for fabrication and processing and conditions of use such that the hybrid aperture remains free of charging over long periods of time. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New objective-aperture design is proposed for imaging weak-phase objects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design produces single-sideband contrast at low spatial frequencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design also retains Scherzer-defocus phase contrast at higher resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proof-of-concept results are presented for microfabricated apertures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Charging of such apertures during use remains an experimental challenge.

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization of a Turbofan for an Advanced, Single-Aisle Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Guynn, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable interest surrounds the design of the next generation of single-aisle commercial transports in the Boeing 737 and Airbus A320 class. Aircraft designers will depend on advanced, next-generation turbofan engines to power these airplanes. The focus of this study is to apply single- and multi-objective optimization algorithms to the conceptual design of ultrahigh bypass turbofan engines for this class of aircraft, using NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project metrics as multidisciplinary objectives for optimization. The independent design variables investigated include three continuous variables: sea level static thrust, wing reference area, and aerodynamic design point fan pressure ratio, and four discrete variables: overall pressure ratio, fan drive system architecture (i.e., direct- or gear-driven), bypass nozzle architecture (i.e., fixed- or variable geometry), and the high- and low-pressure compressor work split. Ramp weight, fuel burn, noise, and emissions are the parameters treated as dependent objective functions. These optimized solutions provide insight to the ultrahigh bypass engine design process and provide information to NASA program management to help guide its technology development efforts.

  17. Perception of animacy from the motion of a single sound object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Høll; Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    Research in the visual modality has shown that the presence of certain dynamics in the motion of an object has a strong effect on whether or not the entity is perceived as animate. Cues for animacy are, among others, self-propelled motion and direction changes that are seemingly not caused...... by entities external to, or in direct contact with, the moving object. The present study aimed to extend this research into the auditory domain by determining if similar dynamics could influence the perceived animacy of a sound source. In two experiments, participants were presented with single, synthetically...... generated “mosquito” sounds moving along trajectories in space, and asked to rate how certain they were that each sound emitting entity was alive. At a random point on a linear motion trajectory, the sound source would deviate from its initial path and speed. Results confirm findings from the visual domain...

  18. From Single- to Multi-Objective Auto-Tuning of Programs: Advantages and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Durillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic tuning (auto-tuning of software has emerged in recent years as a promising method that tries to automatically adapt the behaviour of a program to attain different performance objectives on a given computing system. This method is gaining momentum due to the increasing complexity of modern multicore-based hardware architectures. Many solutions to auto-tuning have been explored ranging from simple random search to more sophisticate methods like machine learning or evolutionary search. To this day, it is still unclear whether these approaches are general enough to encompass all the complexities of the problem (e.g. search space, parameters influencing the search space, input data sensitivity, etc., or which approach is best suited for a given problem. Furthermore, the growing interest in auto-tuning a program for several objectives is increasing this confusion even further. The goal of this paper is to formally describe the problem addressed by auto-tuning programs and review existing solutions highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of different techniques for single-objective as well as multi-objective auto-tuning approaches.

  19. Time-domain single-source integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdés, Felipe

    2013-03-01

    Single-source time-domain electric-and magnetic-field integral equations for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects are presented. Their temporal discretization is effected by using shifted piecewise polynomial temporal basis functions and a collocation testing procedure, thus allowing for a marching-on-in-time (MOT) solution scheme. Unlike dual-source formulations, single-source equations involve space-time domain operator products, for which spatial discretization techniques developed for standalone operators do not apply. Here, the spatial discretization of the single-source time-domain integral equations is achieved by using the high-order divergence-conforming basis functions developed by Graglia alongside the high-order divergence-and quasi curl-conforming (DQCC) basis functions of Valdés The combination of these two sets allows for a well-conditioned mapping from div-to curl-conforming function spaces that fully respects the space-mapping properties of the space-time operators involved. Numerical results corroborate the fact that the proposed procedure guarantees accuracy and stability of the MOT scheme. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. High resolution tomography of objects with access to a single side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoe, R.S.

    1993-03-24

    The author is developing a technique which will enable one to obtain high-contrast, high-spatial resolution, three-dimensional images in opaque objects. The only constraint will be the radiation source and detector(s) will be located on the same side of the object. The goal is to obtain images with a spatial resolution of {approximately}1 mm at depths of 10 mm and {approximately}3 mm at depths of 30 mm in materials of moderate density (brass, steel, etc.). The author`s technique uses a highly-collimated beam of monochromatic gamma rays and a slit collimated high-resolution, high-efficiency, coaxial germanium spectrometer. If the geometry is well known, the spectrum of Compton scattered radiation can be used to map out the density as a function of depth. By scanning the object in two dimensions, a full three-dimensional image of the electron density can be reconstructed. The resolution is dependent on the incident beam collimation and the energy resolution of the spectrometer. For his system, the author anticipates a resolution of about 1 mm{sup 3}. The apparatus, reconstruction algorithms and current data verifying his predictions are presented here. Also included are the details on how the system can be modified to increase the efficiency by over two orders of magnitude. This system will have several advantages over conventional transmission radiographic and tomographic systems: (1) It requires the use of a high specific intensity isotopic source of modest activity (< 100 mCi). (2) It requires only a single high-resolution spectrometer used in conjunction with an array of low-resolution detectors (all readily available). (3) It allows for the recording of three-dimensional images of object even though both detector and source are located on the same side of the object.

  1. Single-objective optimization of thermo-electric coolers using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanh, Doan V. K.; Vasant, P.; Elamvazuthi, Irraivan; Dieu, Vo N.

    2014-10-01

    Thermo-electric Coolers (TECs) nowadays is applied in a wide range of thermal energy systems. This is due to its superior features where no refrigerant and dynamic parts are needed. TECs generate no electrical or acoustical noise and are environment friendly. Over the past decades, many researches were employed to improve the efficiency of TECs by enhancing the material parameters and design parameters. The material parameters are restricted by currently available materials and module fabricating technologies. Therefore, the main objective of TECs design is to determine a set of design parameters such as leg area, leg length and the number of legs. Two elements that play an important role when considering the suitability of TECs in applications are rated of refrigeration (ROR) and coefficient of performance (COP). In this paper, the review of some previous researches will be conducted to see the diversity of optimization in the design of TECs in enhancing the performance and efficiency. After that, single objective optimization problems (SOP) will be tested first by using Genetic Algorithm (GA) to optimize geometry properties so that TECs will operate at near optimal conditions. In the future works, multi-objective optimization problems (MOP) using hybrid GA with another optimization technique will be considered to give a better results and compare with previous research such as Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) to see the advantages and disadvantages.

  2. From tomography to full-waveform inversion with a single objective function

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-02-17

    In full-waveform inversion (FWI), a gradient-based update of the velocity model requires an initial velocity that produces synthetic data that are within a half-cycle, everywhere, from the field data. Such initial velocity models are usually extracted from migration velocity analysis or traveltime tomography, among other means, and are not guaranteed to adhere to the FWI requirements for an initial velocity model. As such, we evaluated an objective function based on the misfit in the instantaneous traveltime between the observed and modeled data. This phase-based attribute of the wavefield, along with its phase unwrapping characteristics, provided a frequency-dependent traveltime function that was easy to use and quantify, especially compared to conventional phase representation. With a strong Laplace damping of the modeled, potentially low-frequency, data along the time axis, this attribute admitted a first-arrival traveltime that could be compared with picked ones from the observed data, such as in wave equation tomography (WET). As we relax the damping on the synthetic and observed data, the objective function measures the misfit in the phase, however unwrapped. It, thus, provided a single objective function for a natural transition from WET to FWI. A Marmousi example demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  4. Analysis of process parameters in surface grinding using single objective Taguchi and multi-objective grey relational grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant J. Patil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Close tolerance and good surface finish are achieved by means of grinding process. This study was carried out for multi-objective optimization of MQL grinding process parameters. Water based Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids of various concentrations are used as lubricant for MQL system. Grinding experiments were carried out on instrumented surface grinding machine. For experimentation purpose Taguchi's method was used. Important process parameters that affect the G ratio and surface finish in MQL grinding are depth of cut, type of lubricant, feed rate, grinding wheel speed, coolant flow rate, and nanoparticle size. Grinding performance was calculated by the measurement G ratio and surface finish. For improvement of grinding process a multi-objective process parameter optimization is performed by use of Taguchi based grey relational analysis. To identify most significant factor of process analysis of variance (ANOVA has been used.

  5. Subjective and Objective Quality Assessment of Single-Channel Speech Separation Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Saeidi, Rahim; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on performance evaluation of single-channel speech separation (SCSS) algorithms mostly focused on automatic speech recognition (ASR) accuracy as their performance measure. Assessing the separated signals by different metrics other than this has the benefit that the results...... are expected to carry on to other applications beyond ASR. In this paper, in addition to conventional speech quality metrics (PESQ and SNRloss), we also evaluate the separation systems output using different source separation metrics: blind source separation evaluation (BSS EVAL) and perceptual evaluation...... that PESQ and PEASS quality metrics predict well the subjective quality of separated signals obtained by the separation systems. From the results it is observed that the short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) measure predict the speech intelligibility results....

  6. Randomised controlled single-blind study of conventional versus depot mydriatic drug delivery prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madge Simon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A prerequisite for safe cataract surgery is an adequately dilated pupil. The authors conducted a trial to assess the efficacy (in terms of pupil diameter of a depot method of pre-operative pupil dilatation, as compared with repeated instillations of drops (which is time-consuming for the nursing staff and uncomfortable for the patient. Methods A prospective randomised masked trial was conducted comprising 130 patients with no significant ocular history undergoing elective clear corneal phacoemulsification. 65 patients had mydriatic drops (Tropicamide 1%, Phenylephrine 2.5%, Diclofenac sodium 0.1% instilled prior to surgery, 65 had a wick soaked in the same drop mixture placed in the inferior fornix. Horizontal pupil diameters were recorded on a millimetre scale immediately prior to surgery. Results There was no significant difference in pupil size between the two groups (p = 0.255, Student's t-test. Conclusion There was no significant difference between the mydriasis obtained with the depot system compared with conventional drop application. Use of a depot mydriatic delivery system appears to be a safe and efficient method of drug delivery. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN78047760

  7. Controlling for Prior Attainment Reduces the Positive Influence that Single-Gender Classroom Initiatives Exert on High School Students' Scholastic Achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Charlotte R; Kaye, Linda K; Qureshi, Adam W; Heim, Derek

    2018-01-01

    Research points to the positive impact that gender-segregated schooling and classroom initiatives exert on academic attainment. An evaluation of these studies which reveal positive effects highlights, however, that students are typically selectively assigned to single- or mixed-gender instructional settings, presenting a methodological confound. The current study controls for students' prior attainment to appraise the efficacy of a single-gender classroom initiative implemented in a co-educational high school in the United Kingdom. Secondary data analysis (using archived data) was performed on 266 middle-ability, 11-12 year-old students' standardized test scores in Languages (English, foreign language), STEM-related (Mathematics, Science, Information and Communication Technology), and Non-STEM subjects (art, music, drama). Ninety-eight students (54, 55% female) were taught in single-gender and 168 (69, 41% female) in mixed-gender classrooms. Students undertook identical tests irrespective of classroom type, which were graded in accordance with U.K national curriculum guidelines. Controlling for students' prior attainment, findings indicate that students do not appear to benefit from being taught in single-gender relative to mixed-gender classrooms in Language and STEM-related subjects. Young women benefitted from being taught in mixed-gender relative to single-gender classes for Non-STEM subjects. However, when prior ability is not controlled for, the intervention appears to be effective for all school subjects, highlighting the confounding influence of selective admissions. These findings suggest that gender-segregated classroom initiatives may not bolster students' grades. It is argued that studies that do not control for selection effects may tell us little about the effectiveness of such interventions on scholastic achievement.

  8. Prior data for non-normal priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Sander

    2007-08-30

    Data augmentation priors facilitate contextual evaluation of prior distributions and the generation of Bayesian outputs from frequentist software. Previous papers have presented approximate Bayesian methods using 2x2 tables of 'prior data' to represent lognormal relative-risk priors in stratified and regression analyses. The present paper describes extensions that use the tables to represent generalized-F prior distributions for relative risks, which subsume lognormal priors as a limiting case. The method provides a means to increase tail-weight or skew the prior distribution for the log relative risk away from normality, while retaining the simple 2x2 table form of the prior data. When prior normality is preferred, it also provides a more accurate lognormal relative-risk prior in for the 2x2 table format. For more compact representation in regression analyses, the prior data can be compressed into a single data record. The method is illustrated with historical data from a study of electronic foetal monitoring and neonatal death.

  9. 3D Imaging with a Single-Aperture 3-mm Objective Lens: Concept, Fabrication and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniski, Ron; Bae, Sam Y.; Shearn, Mike; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    There are many advantages to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An endoscope is the optical system of choice by the surgeon for MIS. The smaller the incision or opening made to perform the surgery, the smaller the optical system needed. For minimally invasive neurological and skull base surgeries the openings are typically 10-mm in diameter (dime sized) or less. The largest outside diameter (OD) endoscope used is 4mm. A significant drawback to endoscopic MIS is that it only provides a monocular view of the surgical site thereby lacking depth information for the surgeon. A stereo view would provide the surgeon instantaneous depth information of the surroundings within the field of view, a significant advantage especially during brain surgery. Providing 3D imaging in an endoscopic objective lens system presents significant challenges because of the tight packaging constraints. This paper presents a promising new technique for endoscopic 3D imaging that uses a single lens system with complementary multi-bandpass filters (CMBFs), and describes the proof-of-concept demonstrations performed to date validating the technique. These demonstrations of the technique have utilized many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components including the ones used in the endoscope objective.

  10. Perception of Animacy from the Motion of a Single Sound Object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Høll; Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel

    2015-02-01

    Research in the visual modality has shown that the presence of certain dynamics in the motion of an object has a strong effect on whether or not the entity is perceived as animate. Cues for animacy are, among others, self-propelled motion and direction changes that are seemingly not caused by entities external to, or in direct contact with, the moving object. The present study aimed to extend this research into the auditory domain by determining if similar dynamics could influence the perceived animacy of a sound source. In two experiments, participants were presented with single, synthetically generated 'mosquito' sounds moving along trajectories in space, and asked to rate how certain they were that each sound-emitting entity was alive. At a random point on a linear motion trajectory, the sound source would deviate from its initial path and speed. Results confirm findings from the visual domain that a change in the velocity of motion is positively correlated with perceived animacy, and changes in direction were found to influence animacy judgment as well. This suggests that an ability to facilitate and sustain self-movement is perceived as a living quality not only in the visual domain, but in the auditory domain as well. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  11. A split-optimization approach for obtaining multiple solutions in single-objective process parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajora, Manik; Zou, Pan; Yang, Yao Guang; Fan, Zhi Wen; Chen, Hung Yi; Wu, Wen Chieh; Li, Beizhi; Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    It can be observed from the experimental data of different processes that different process parameter combinations can lead to the same performance indicators, but during the optimization of process parameters, using current techniques, only one of these combinations can be found when a given objective function is specified. The combination of process parameters obtained after optimization may not always be applicable in actual production or may lead to undesired experimental conditions. In this paper, a split-optimization approach is proposed for obtaining multiple solutions in a single-objective process parameter optimization problem. This is accomplished by splitting the original search space into smaller sub-search spaces and using GA in each sub-search space to optimize the process parameters. Two different methods, i.e., cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategy, were used to split the original search space, and their efficiency was measured against a method in which the original search space is split into equal smaller sub-search spaces. The proposed approach was used to obtain multiple optimal process parameter combinations for electrochemical micro-machining. The result obtained from the case study showed that the cluster centers and hill and valley splitting strategies were more efficient in splitting the original search space than the method in which the original search space is divided into smaller equal sub-search spaces.

  12. Dynamic Non-Rigid Objects Reconstruction with a Single RGB-D Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the 3D reconstruction problem for dynamic non-rigid objects with a single RGB-D sensor. It is a challenging task as we consider the almost inevitable accumulation error issue in some previous sequential fusion methods and also the possible failure of surface tracking in a long sequence. Therefore, we propose a global non-rigid registration framework and tackle the drifting problem via an explicit loop closure. Our novel scheme starts with a fusion step to get multiple partial scans from the input sequence, followed by a pairwise non-rigid registration and loop detection step to obtain correspondences between neighboring partial pieces and those pieces that form a loop. Then, we perform a global registration procedure to align all those pieces together into a consistent canonical space as guided by those matches that we have established. Finally, our proposed model-update step helps fixing potential misalignments that still exist after the global registration. Both geometric and appearance constraints are enforced during our alignment; therefore, we are able to get the recovered model with accurate geometry as well as high fidelity color maps for the mesh. Experiments on both synthetic and various real datasets have demonstrated the capability of our approach to reconstruct complete and watertight deformable objects.

  13. The influence of prior multiport experience on the learning curve for single-port thoracoscopic lobectomy: a multicentre comparative study†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ucar, Antonio E; Aragon, Javier; Bolufer Nadal, Sergio; Galvez Munoz, Carlos; Luo, Qigang; Perez Mendez, Itzel; Sihoe, Alan D L; Socci, Laura

    2017-06-01

    Competency in video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) lobectomy is estimated to be reached after the surgeon completes 50 cases. We wanted to explore the impact of competency in performing multiport VATS lobectomies on completing the needed number of single-port VATS. In a retrospective multicentre study, 6 individual surgeons (3 with previous competency in multiport VATS lobectomy and 3 without) submitted their first 50 cases of single-port VATS lobectomies. Extended and sublobar resections were excluded. Pre-, peri- and postoperative data were compared between the groups of surgeons. Chi-square and Wilcoxon's rank tests were used. The less experienced surgeons had previously attended dedicated training courses and visited with experts. A total of 300 cases were included [150 in Group A (surgeons with previous experience performing multiport VATS) and 150 in Group B (surgeons without extensive experience performing multiport VATS)]. Surgeons in Group B performed significantly more elective open lobectomies during their learning curve period than surgeons of Group A (58 vs 1). Patients in Group B were older and had more risk factors. There were 3 in-hospital deaths (respiratory failure, sepsis and fatal stroke). There were no differences between the groups in operative time, intensive care unit admissions, hospital stay, total complications, tumour size or number of N2 stations explored. Only the duration of intercostal drainage (2 vs 3 days, 0.012), incidence of respiratory tract infections (1% vs 7%, P  = 0.002) and conversion rates (4% vs 12%, P  = 0.018) were better in Group A. Patients characteristics played a role in the development of respiratory infections and longer drainage times but not in the need for conversion. Overall, postoperative outcomes during the learning curve period for single-port VATS lobectomies are not noticeably affected by previous multiport VATS experience. Less experienced surgeons were more selective in order to achieve

  14. Visualisasi Perkembangan Janin Manusia menggunakan Augmented Reality dengan teknik Single Marker Multi Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andria Kusuma Wahyudi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Embriologi adalah bagian dari cabang ilmu pengetahuan alam biologi yang mempelajari tentang perkembangan embrio atau calon janin dalam rahim. Dimana usia dari calon janin di dalam kandungan dihitung saat seorang wanita telah dibuahi oleh sperma pria dalam kurun waktu tujuh hari sebelum ovulasi. Media pembahasan mengenai perkembangan janin di dalam kandungan terdapat di buku-buku pelajaran, artikel umum, dan website khusus ibu hamil kurang menarik minat karena terlalu banyak teks dan memiliki tampilan belum atraktif. Paper ini menggunakan teknologi Augmented Reality yang dapat merealisasikan dunia virtual ke dunia nyata secara real-time sebagai media pembahasan yang dapat memberikan kemudahan dalam memberikan informasi mengenai perkembangan janin didalam kandungan. Dengan menggunakan teknologi Augmented Reality, maka pengguna dapat menggunakan kamera smartphone berbasis Android untuk menangkap marker yang dapat memperlihatkan objek virtual pada dunia nyata. Dalam pembahasan paper ini, kami menggunakan single marker multi object sehingga marker yang diperlukan cukup satu saja untuk menampilkan semua objek 3D yang ada. Aplikasi visualisasi pengenalan perkembangan janin manusia dalam kandungan menggunakan teknologi Augmented Reality dapat memberikan informasi yang dapat ditangkap dengan mudah bagi pengguna mulai dari kalangan remaja hingga orang dewasa.

  15. Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and evolutionary algorithms have been applied to solve numerous problems in engineering design where they have been used primarily as optimization procedures. These methods have an advantage over conventional gradient-based search procedures became they are capable of finding global optima of multi-modal functions and searching design spaces with disjoint feasible regions. They are also robust in the presence of noisy data. Another desirable feature of these methods is that they can efficiently use distributed and parallel computing resources since multiple function evaluations (flow simulations in aerodynamics design) can be performed simultaneously and independently on ultiple processors. For these reasons genetic and evolutionary algorithms are being used more frequently in design optimization. Examples include airfoil and wing design and compressor and turbine airfoil design. They are also finding increasing use in multiple-objective and multidisciplinary optimization. This lecture will focus on an evolutionary method that is a relatively new member to the general class of evolutionary methods called differential evolution (DE). This method is easy to use and program and it requires relatively few user-specified constants. These constants are easily determined for a wide class of problems. Fine-tuning the constants will off course yield the solution to the optimization problem at hand more rapidly. DE can be efficiently implemented on parallel computers and can be used for continuous, discrete and mixed discrete/continuous optimization problems. It does not require the objective function to be continuous and is noise tolerant. DE and applications to single and multiple-objective optimization will be included in the presentation and lecture notes. A method for aerodynamic design optimization that is based on neural networks will also be included as a part of this lecture. The method offers advantages over traditional optimization methods. It is more

  16. Single-objective vs. multi-objective autocalibration in modelling total suspended solids and phosphorus in a small agricultural watershed with SWAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolomanana, Santatriniaina Denise; Lessard, Paul; Vanrolleghem, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    To obtain greater precision in modelling small agricultural watersheds, a shorter simulation time step is beneficial. A daily time step better represents the dynamics of pollutants in the river and provides more realistic simulation results. However, with a daily evaluation performance, good fits are rarely obtained. With the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) method embedded in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), two calibration approaches are available, single-objective or multi-objective optimization. The goal of the present study is to evaluate which approach can improve the daily performance with SWAT, in modelling flow (Q), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP). The influence of weights assigned to the different variables included in the objective function has also been tested. The results showed that: (i) the model performance depends not only on the choice of calibration approach, but essentially on the influential parameters; (ii) the multi-objective calibration estimating at once all parameters related to all measured variables is the best approach to model Q, TSS and TP; (iii) changing weights does not improve model performance; and (iv) with a single-objective optimization, an excellent water quality modelling performance may hide a loss of performance of predicting flows and unbalanced internal model components.

  17. Functional instability of the ankle: differences in patterns of ankle and knee movement prior to and post landing in a single leg jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, B M; Garrett, M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate motor control in subjects with functional instability of the ankle joint. This was achieved by analysing patterns of lower extremity motion prior to and immediately following landing during single leg jumping in subjects with functional instability of the ankle. Fourteen subjects with unilateral functional instability and 10 healthy control subjects performed single leg jumps from a 40 cm height whilst angular displacement of their ankle and knee joints were recorded. Subjects with functional instability demonstrated significantly greater ankle dorsiflexion over the period encompassing 10 ms pre landing to 20 ms post landing (p < 0.05). They also exhibited a significantly greater level of knee flexion than controls over the period from 20 ms pre landing to 60 ms post landing (p < 0.05). The timing of these significant differences leads us to conclude that they do not arise as a result of reflexively mediated peripheral events following landing.

  18. Analyses of 32 Loci Clarify Phylogenetic Relationships among Trypanosoma cruzi Lineages and Support a Single Hybridization prior to Human Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-López, Carlos A.; Machado, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been traditionally divided in two major groups, T. cruzi I and II, corresponding to discrete typing units TcI and TcII-VI under a recently proposed nomenclature. The two major groups of T. cruzi seem to differ in important biological characteristics, and are thus thought to represent a natural division relevant for epidemiological studies and development of prophylaxis. To understand the potential connection between the different manifestations of Chagas disease and variability of T. cruzi strains, it is essential to have a correct reconstruction of the evolutionary history of T. cruzi. Methodology/Principal Findings Nucleotide sequences from 32 unlinked loci (>26 Kilobases of aligned sequence) were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of strains representing the known genetic variability of T. cruzi. Thorough phylogenetic analyses show that the original classification of T. cruzi in two major lineages does not reflect its evolutionary history and that there is only strong evidence for one major and recent hybridization event in the history of this species. Furthermore, estimates of divergence times using Bayesian methods show that current extant lineages of T. cruzi diverged very recently, within the last 3 million years, and that the major hybridization event leading to hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI occurred less than 1 million years ago, well before the contact of T. cruzi with humans in South America. Conclusions/Significance The described phylogenetic relationships among the six major genetic subdivisions of T. cruzi should serve as guidelines for targeted epidemiological and prophylaxis studies. We suggest that it is important to reconsider conclusions from previous studies that have attempted to uncover important biological differences between the two originally defined major lineages of T. cruzi especially if those conclusions were obtained from single

  19. Referential Interactions of Turkish-Learning Children with Their Caregivers about Non-Absent Objects: Integration of Non-Verbal Devices and Prior Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Beyza S.; Küntay, Aylin C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the way children younger than two use non-verbal devices (i.e., deictic gestures and communicative functional acts) and pay attention to discourse status (i.e., prior mention vs. newness) of referents in interactions with caregivers. Data based on semi-naturalistic interactions with caregivers of four children, at ages 1;00,…

  20. Object-oriented identification of forested landslides with derivatives of single pulse LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; Kerle, Norman; Poesen, Jean; Hervás, Javier

    2012-11-01

    In contrast to the many studies that use expert-based analysis of LiDAR derivatives for landslide mapping in forested terrain, only few studies have attempted to develop (semi-)automatic methods for extracting landslides from LiDAR derivatives. While all these studies are pixel-based, it has not yet been tested whether object-oriented analysis (OOA) could be an alternative. This study investigates the potential of OOA using only single-pulse LiDAR derivatives, such as slope gradient, roughness and curvature to map landslides. More specifically, the focus is on both LiDAR data segmentation and classification of slow-moving landslides in densely vegetated areas, where spectral data do not allow accurate landslide identification. A multistage procedure has been developed and tested in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium). The procedure consists of (1) image binarization and multiresolution segmentation, (2) classification of landslide parts (main scarps and landslide body segments) and non-landslide features (i.e. earth banks and cropland fields) with supervised support vector machines at the appropriate scale, (3) delineation of landslide flanks, (4) growing of a landslide body starting from its main scarp, and (5) final cleaning of the inventory map. The results obtained show that OOA using LiDAR derivatives allows recognition and characterization of profound morphologic properties of forested deep-seated landslides on soil-covered hillslopes, because more than 90% of the main scarps and 70% of the landslide bodies of an expert-based inventory were accurately identified with OOA. For mountainous areas with bedrock, on the other hand, creation of a transferable model is expected to be more difficult.

  1. Impact of imatinib interruption and duration of prior hydroxyurea on the treatment outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edesa, W.A.; Abdel-malek, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Optimal response requires that patients should be maintained on the drug continuously. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of imatinib interruption and prior hydroxyurea use on the outcome of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Materials and methods: Between January 2010 and November 2013, patients with chronic phase who received imatinib at the Kasr Al-ainy Center of Clinical Oncology were included. Results: Sixty patients were included in this study, thirty three patients (55%) received imatinib upfront, while 27 (45%) received imatinib post hydroxyurea. Imatinib was not given regularly in 50% of patients. In terms of response, only major molecular response and complete molecular response were statistically significant in favor of patients who were receiving imatinib regularly compared to those who had interruption (ρ < 0.001, ρ < 0.001, respectively) , while there was no difference in patients stratified according to prior hydroxyurea. The median progression free survival was 30.3 months (95% CI 24.3–36.3). Among the group of patients who received imatinib regularly, progression free survival was longer (ρ = 0.049), there was no difference between those who received prior hydroxyurea versus those who did not (ρ = 0.67). Conclusion: Duration of prior hydroxyurea had no impact on response or progression free survival, while patients regular on imatinib had statistically significant difference with respect to major molecular response, complete molecular response and progression free survival compared to those who had periods of drug interruption, thus we need more governmental support to supply the drug without interruption to improve the outcome of therapy

  2. Design of a box trainer for objective assessment of technical skills in single-port surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeman, Tim; Sun, Siyu; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.; Jansen, Frank William; Meijerink, Jeroen W. J. H. J.; Dankelman, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic single-port (SP) surgery uses only a single entry point for all instruments. The approach of SP has been applied in multiple laparoscopic disciplines owing to its improved cosmetic result. However, in SP surgery, instrument movements are further restricted, resulting in increased

  3. Long working distance objective lenses for single atom trapping and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, J. D., E-mail: jonathan.pritchard@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Isaacs, J. A.; Saffman, M. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    We present a pair of optimized objective lenses with long working distances of 117 mm and 65 mm, respectively, that offer diffraction limited performance for both Cs and Rb wavelengths when imaging through standard vacuum windows. The designs utilise standard catalog lens elements to provide a simple and cost-effective solution. Objective 1 provides NA = 0.175 offering 3 μm resolution whilst objective 2 is optimized for high collection efficiency with NA = 0.29 and 1.8 μm resolution. This flexible design can be further extended for use at shorter wavelengths by simply re-optimising the lens separations.

  4. Early clinical and immune response to NNRTI-based antiretroviral therapy among women with prior exposure to single-dose nevirapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Benjamin H; Sinkala, Moses; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Cantrell, Ronald A; Mtonga, Velepi; Bulterys, Marc; Zulu, Isaac; Kankasa, Chipepo; Wilfert, Catherine; Weidle, Paul J; Vermund, Sten H; Stringer, Jeffrey S A

    2007-05-11

    To determine whether prior exposure to single-dose nevirapine (NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) is associated with attenuated CD4 cell response, death, or clinical treatment failure in women starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI). Open cohort evaluation of outcomes for women in program sites across Zambia. HIV treatment was provided according to Zambian/World Health Organization guidelines. Peripartum NVP exposure status was known for 6740 women initiating NNRTI-containing ART, of whom 751 (11%) reported prior use of NVP for PMTCT. There was no significant difference in mean CD4 cell change between those exposed or unexposed to NVP at 6 (+202 versus +182 cells/microl; P = 0.20) or 12 (+201 versus +211 cells/microl; P = 0.60) months. Multivariable analyses showed no significant differences in mortality [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.2; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-1.8] or clinical treatment failure (adjusted HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.5). Comparison of recent NVP exposure with remote exposure suggested a less favorable CD4 cell response at 6 (+150 versus +219 cells/microl; P = 0.06) and 12 (+149 versus +215 cells/microl; P = 0.39) months. Women with recent NVP exposure also had a trend towards elevated risk for clinical treatment failure (adjusted HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7). Exposure to maternal single-dose NVP was not associated with substantially different short-term treatment outcomes. However, evidence was suggestive that exposure within 6 months of ART initiation may be a risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, highlighting the importance of ART screening and initiation early in pregnancy.

  5. Few-view single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction based on a blurred piecewise constant object model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Paul A.; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Schmidt, Taly G.

    2013-01-01

    A sparsity-exploiting algorithm intended for few-view Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) reconstruction is proposed and characterized. The algorithm models the object as piecewise constant subject to a blurring operation. To validate that the algorithm closely approximates the true...

  6. A calderón-preconditioned single source combined field integral equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects

    KAUST Repository

    Valdés, Felipe

    2011-06-01

    A new regularized single source equation for analyzing scattering from homogeneous penetrable objects is presented. The proposed equation is a linear combination of a Calderón-preconditioned single source electric field integral equation and a single source magnetic field integral equation. The equation is immune to low-frequency and dense-mesh breakdown, and free from spurious resonances. Unlike dual source formulations, this equation involves operator products that cannot be discretized using standard procedures for discretizing standalone electric, magnetic, and combined field operators. Instead, the single source equation proposed here is discretized using a recently developed technique that achieves a well-conditioned mapping from div- to curl-conforming function spaces, thereby fully respecting the space mapping properties of the operators involved, and guaranteeing accuracy and stability. Numerical results show that the proposed equation and discretization technique give rise to rapidly convergent solutions. They also validate the equation\\'s resonant free character. © 2006 IEEE.

  7. A new method for solving single and multi-objective fuzzy minimum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    advantage of the proposed method over existing methods is that the fuzzy MCF prob- lems which can be ... objective fuzzy MCF problems which cannot be solved by using the existing methods are solved by ...... paper. Mehar is a lovely daughter of Parmpreet Kaur (Research Scholar under my supervision). References.

  8. Optimal Deflection of Earth-Crossing Object Using a Three-Dimensional Single Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Hee Mihn

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimization problems are formulated to calculate optimal impulses for deflecting Earth-Crossing Objects using a Nonlinear Programming. This formulation allows us to analyze the velocity changes in normal direction to the celestial body's orbital plane, which is neglected in many previous studies. The constrained optimization in the three-dimensional space is based on a patched conic method including the Earth's gravitational effects, and yields impulsive Δ V to deflect the target's orbit. The optimal solution is dependent on relative positions and velocities between the Earth and the Earth-crossing objects, and can be represented by optimal magnitude and angle of Δ V as a functions of a impulse time. The perpendicular component of Δ V to the orbit plane can sometimes play un-negligible role as the impulse time approaches the impact time. The optimal Δ V is increased when the original orbit of Earth-crossing object is more similar to the Earth's orbit, and is also exponentially increased as the impulse time reaches to the impact time. The analyses performed in present paper can be used to the deflection missions in the future.

  9. Optical encryption of multiple three-dimensional objects based on multiple interferences and single-pixel digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2018-03-01

    We present an optical encryption method of multiple three-dimensional objects based on multiple interferences and single-pixel digital holography. By modifying the Mach–Zehnder interferometer, the interference of the multiple objects beams and the one reference beam is used to simultaneously encrypt multiple objects into a ciphertext. During decryption, each three-dimensional object can be decrypted independently without having to decrypt other objects. Since the single-pixel digital holography based on compressive sensing theory is introduced, the encrypted data of this method is effectively reduced. In addition, recording fewer encrypted data can greatly reduce the bandwidth of network transmission. Moreover, the compressive sensing essentially serves as a secret key that makes an intruder attack invalid, which means that the system is more secure than the conventional encryption method. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method and show that the system has good security performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405130 and 61320106015).

  10. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Son [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Tabarin, Thibault [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Rossy, Jérémie [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Böcking, Till [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Leis, Andrew [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Gaus, Katharina, E-mail: k.gaus@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Mak, Johnson, E-mail: j.mak@deakin.edu.au [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  11. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Son; Tabarin, Thibault; Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna; Rossy, Jérémie; Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex; Böcking, Till; Leis, Andrew; Gaus, Katharina; Mak, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  12. The Technique and Benefits of Angiographic Embolization of Inferior Epigastric Arteries Prior to Pedicled TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction: Results from a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Alysse J; Patel, Chirag; Albeer, Yahya; Darian, Vigen B

    2017-12-01

    To report a single center's experience with selective arterial embolization of the deep inferior epigastric arteries (DIEA) prior to pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction including techniques and outcomes. Retrospective chart review was performed for 15 patients who underwent pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction after selective embolization of bilateral DIEA. Data were analyzed to display the spectrum of postoperative outcomes following the TRAM flap procedure status post-selective angiographic embolization of the bilateral DIEA to improve vascularity of the TRAM flaps by rendering the tissue partially ischemic to undergo neovascularization. We then compared our results to historical controls of those delayed by ligating the DIEA via traditional surgical means to see if the outcomes are similar. We also compared our results to historical non-delayed TRAM flap reconstruction. One patient had a small area of partial flap skin necrosis, and no patients had total flap loss. 13.3% of patients had clinically significant TRAM flap fat necrosis. Outcomes of TRAM flaps delayed by selective arterial embolization are comparable to historical controls of those delayed by traditional surgical means and better than non-delayed flaps. Angiographic delayed TRAM flap reconstruction procedure is a reasonable safe alternative to the surgical delayed TRAM flap reconstruction procedure with less morbidity and is better than non-delayed TRAM flap procedures.

  13. Characterisation of a single photon counting pixel system for imaging of low-contrast objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulec, B; Dipasquale, G; Schwarz, C; Watt, J

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the Medipix collaboration the PCC, a single photon counting pixel chip, has been developed with the aim of improving the contrast resolution in medical imaging applications. The PCC consists of a matrix of 64x64 square pixels with 170 mm side length, each pixel comprising a 15 bit counter and a pulse height discriminator. The chip has been bump bonded to equally segmented 200 mm thick SI-LEC GaAs detectors showing a very high absorption energy for X-rays used in diagnostics. An absolute calibration of the system with a radioactive source and a synchrotron beam are described resulting in the value of the test input capacitance of ~24.7 fF. Using this value a full characterisation of the system from electrical measurements is presented. The entire system can reach a minimum threshold of ~2100 e- with ~250e- rms noise. One of the characteristics of the PCC is the possibility to adjust the thresholds of all pixels on a pixel-by-pixel basis with 3-bit precision. The threshold distribution after...

  14. Single-shot color fringe projection for three-dimensional shape measurement of objects with discontinuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meiling; Yang, Fujun; He, Xiaoyuan

    2012-04-20

    A simple but effective fringe projection profilometry is proposed to measure 3D shape by using one snapshot color sinusoidal fringe pattern. One color fringe pattern encoded with a sinusoidal fringe (as red component) and one uniform intensity pattern (as blue component) is projected by a digital video projector, and the deformed fringe pattern is recorded by a color CCD camera. The captured color fringe pattern is separated into its RGB components and division operation is applied to red and blue channels to reduce the variable reflection intensity. Shape information of the tested object is decoded by applying an arcsine algorithm on the normalized fringe pattern with subpixel resolution. In the case of fringe discontinuities caused by height steps, or spatially isolated surfaces, the separated blue component is binarized and used for correcting the phase demodulation. A simple and robust method is also introduced to compensate for nonlinear intensity response of the digital video projector. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Defending a single object against an attacker trying to detect a subset of false targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, R.; Zhai, Q.Q.; Levitin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of false targets can be a very important and effective measure for enhancing the survivability of an object subjected to intentional attacks. Existing papers have assumed that false targets are either perfect or can be detected with a constant probability. In practice, the attacker may allocate part of its budget into intelligence actions trying to detect a subset of false targets. Analogously, the defender can allocate part of its budget into disinformation actions to prevent the false targets from being detected. In this paper, the detection probability of each false target is assumed to be a function of the intelligence and disinformation efforts allocated on the false target. The optimal resource distribution between target identification/disinformation and attack/protection efforts is studied as solutions of a non-cooperative two period min–max game between the two competitors for the case of constrained defense and attack resources. - Highlights: • A defense-attack problem is studied as a two-period min–max game. • Both intelligence contest over false targets and impact contest are considered. • Optimal defense and attack strategies are investigated with different parameters.

  16. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Detection of Buried Objects Using Single Sided Backscattered Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Yip

    Full Text Available Detection of buried improvised explosive devices (IEDs is a delicate task, leading to a need to develop sensitive stand-off detection technology. The shape, composition and size of the IEDs can be expected to be revised over time in an effort to overcome increasingly sophisticated detection methods. As an example, for the most part, landmines are found through metal detection which has led to increasing use of non-ferrous materials such as wood or plastic containers for chemical based explosives being developed.Monte Carlo simulations have been undertaken considering three different commercially available detector materials (hyperpure-Ge (HPGe, lanthanum(III bromide (LaBr and thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl, applied at a stand-off distance of 50 cm from the surface and burial depths of 0, 5 and 10 cm, with sand as the obfuscating medium. Target materials representing medium density wood and mild steel have been considered. Each detector has been modelled as a 10 cm thick cylinder with a 20 cm diameter.It appears that HPGe represents the most promising detector for this application. Although it was not the highest density material studied, its excellent energy resolving capability leads to the highest quality spectra from which detection decisions can be inferred.The simulation work undertaken here suggests that a vehicle-born threat detection system could be envisaged using a single betatron and a series of detectors operating in parallel observing the space directly in front of the vehicle path. Furthermore, results show that non-ferrous materials such as wood can be effectively discerned in such remote-operated detection system, with the potential to apply a signature analysis template matching technique for real-time analysis of such data.

  17. A new hybrid genetic algorithm for optimizing the single and multivariate objective functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar [Idaho National Laboratory; McCulloch, Richard Chet James [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-07-01

    In this work a new hybrid genetic algorithm was developed which combines a rudimentary adaptive steepest ascent hill climbing algorithm with a sophisticated evolutionary algorithm in order to optimize complex multivariate design problems. By combining a highly stochastic algorithm (evolutionary) with a simple deterministic optimization algorithm (adaptive steepest ascent) computational resources are conserved and the solution converges rapidly when compared to either algorithm alone. In genetic algorithms natural selection is mimicked by random events such as breeding and mutation. In the adaptive steepest ascent algorithm each variable is perturbed by a small amount and the variable that caused the most improvement is incremented by a small step. If the direction of most benefit is exactly opposite of the previous direction with the most benefit then the step size is reduced by a factor of 2, thus the step size adapts to the terrain. A graphical user interface was created in MATLAB to provide an interface between the hybrid genetic algorithm and the user. Additional features such as bounding the solution space and weighting the objective functions individually are also built into the interface. The algorithm developed was tested to optimize the functions developed for a wood pelleting process. Using process variables (such as feedstock moisture content, die speed, and preheating temperature) pellet properties were appropriately optimized. Specifically, variables were found which maximized unit density, bulk density, tapped density, and durability while minimizing pellet moisture content and specific energy consumption. The time and computational resources required for the optimization were dramatically decreased using the hybrid genetic algorithm when compared to MATLAB's native evolutionary optimization tool.

  18. Numerical correction of anti-symmetric aberrations in single HRTEM images of weakly scattering 2D-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Ossi; Geiger, Dorin; Lee, Zhongbo; Whitwick, Michael Brian; Chen, Ming-Wei; Kis, Andras; Kaiser, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a numerical post-processing method for removing the effect of anti-symmetric residual aberrations in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images of weakly scattering 2D-objects. The method is based on applying the same aberrations with the opposite phase to the Fourier transform of the recorded image intensity and subsequently inverting the Fourier transform. We present the theoretical justification of the method, and its verification based on simulated images in the case of low-order anti-symmetric aberrations. Ultimately the method is applied to experimental hardware aberration-corrected HRTEM images of single-layer graphene and MoSe 2 resulting in images with strongly reduced residual low-order aberrations, and consequently improved interpretability. Alternatively, this method can be used to estimate by trial and error the residual anti-symmetric aberrations in HRTEM images of weakly scattering objects

  19. Results of single-staged rotational osteotomy in a child with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis: subjective and objective evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingade, Viraj U; Shingade, Rashmi V; Ughade, Suresh N

    2014-01-01

    For congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis, both conservative and operative treatments have been described. Most of the studies describing surgical interventions are based on subjective evaluation of the forearm function and have used severe degree of forearm pronation as an indication for surgery. This study describes a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the described surgical procedure by subjective and objective evaluations of the forearm function. Forty-eight children with congenital proximal radioulnar synostosis were evaluated by subjective and objective assessments and were followed up prospectively. Subjective evaluation consisted of a set of 12 questions regarding the basic activities of life. Objective evaluation was made using the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test and a classification system used by Failla and colleagues for 15 tasks described by Morrey and colleagues. Eleven children were treated conservatively. Thirty-six children underwent a single-staged rotational osteotomy of the proximal third ulna and distal third radius. After surgery, the evaluations were repeated. The mean age at surgery was 8.6±3.7 years, and the mean postoperative follow-up period was 54±13 months. All operated forearms showed a statistically significant improvement in functioning after surgery as per the subjective and objective evaluations. The mean time taken to carry out all activities before surgery was 47.7+10.0 seconds, which significantly reduced to 33.3+6.6 seconds after surgery (P=0.0001) as per the results of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test. All good (n=19) and fair (n=11) results were converted to excellent (n=30) after surgery as per the modified Failla classification. There were no neurovascular injuries as compared with other published techniques. Only 1 child had delayed union, and 1 had persistent dorsal angulation at the radial osteotomy site. For

  20. Woodland Mapping at Single-Tree Levels Using Object-Oriented Classification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (uav) Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenari, A.; Erfanifard, Y.; Dehghani, M.; Pourghasemi, H. R.

    2017-09-01

    Remotely sensed datasets offer a reliable means to precisely estimate biophysical characteristics of individual species sparsely distributed in open woodlands. Moreover, object-oriented classification has exhibited significant advantages over different classification methods for delineation of tree crowns and recognition of species in various types of ecosystems. However, it still is unclear if this widely-used classification method can have its advantages on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) digital images for mapping vegetation cover at single-tree levels. In this study, UAV orthoimagery was classified using object-oriented classification method for mapping a part of wild pistachio nature reserve in Zagros open woodlands, Fars Province, Iran. This research focused on recognizing two main species of the study area (i.e., wild pistachio and wild almond) and estimating their mean crown area. The orthoimage of study area was consisted of 1,076 images with spatial resolution of 3.47 cm which was georeferenced using 12 ground control points (RMSE=8 cm) gathered by real-time kinematic (RTK) method. The results showed that the UAV orthoimagery classified by object-oriented method efficiently estimated mean crown area of wild pistachios (52.09±24.67 m2) and wild almonds (3.97±1.69 m2) with no significant difference with their observed values (α=0.05). In addition, the results showed that wild pistachios (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.92) and wild almonds (accuracy of 0.90 and precision of 0.89) were well recognized by image segmentation. In general, we concluded that UAV orthoimagery can efficiently produce precise biophysical data of vegetation stands at single-tree levels, which therefore is suitable for assessment and monitoring open woodlands.

  1. Whisking Kinematics Enables Object Localization in Head-Centered Coordinates Based on Tactile Information from a Single Vibrissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anne E T; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2016-01-01

    During active tactile exploration with their whiskers (vibrissae), rodents can rapidly orient to an object even though there are very few proprioceptors in the whisker muscles. Thus a long-standing question in the study of the vibrissal system is how the rat can localize an object in head-centered coordinates without muscle-based proprioception. We used a three-dimensional model of whisker bending to simulate whisking motions against a peg to investigate the possibility that the 3D mechanics of contact from a single whisker are sufficient for localization in head-centered coordinates. Results show that for nearly all whiskers in the array, purely tactile signals at the whisker base - as would be measured by mechanoreceptors, in whisker-centered coordinates - could be used to determine the location of a vertical peg in head-centered coordinates. Both the "roll" and the "elevation" components of whisking kinematics contribute to the uniqueness and resolution of the localization. These results offer an explanation for a behavioral study showing that rats can more accurately determine the horizontal angle of an object if one column, rather than one row, of whiskers is spared.

  2. Whisking kinematics enables object localization in head-centered coordinates based on tactile information from a single vibrissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne En-Tzu Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During active tactile exploration with their whiskers (vibrissae, rodents can rapidly orient to an object even though there are very few proprioceptors in the whisker muscles. Thus a long-standing question in the study of the vibrissal system is how the rat can localize an object in head-centered coordinates without muscle-based proprioception. We used a three-dimensional model of whisker bending to simulate whisking motions against a peg to investigate the possibility that the 3D mechanics of contact from a single whisker are sufficient for localization in head-centered coordinates. Results show that, for nearly all whiskers in the array, purely tactile signals at the whisker base – as would be measured by mechanoreceptors, in whisker-centered coordinates – could be used to determine the location of a vertical peg in head-centered coordinates. Both the roll and the elevation components of whisking kinematics contribute to the uniqueness and resolution of the localization. These results offer an explanation for a behavioral study showing that rats can more accurately determine the horizontal angle of an object if one column, rather than one row, of whiskers is spared.

  3. Automated single-trial assessment of laser-evoked potentials as an objective functional diagnostic tool for the nociceptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, S M; Hu, L; Ragé, M; Gierasimowicz, A; Plaghki, L; Bouhassira, D; Attal, N; Iannetti, G D; Mouraux, A

    2012-12-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of an automated analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). Nociceptive laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and non-nociceptive somatosensory electrically-evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 37 patients with syringomyelia and 21 controls. LEP and SEP peak amplitudes and latencies were estimated using a single-trial automated approach based on time-frequency wavelet filtering and multiple linear regression, as well as a conventional approach based on visual inspection. The amplitudes and latencies of normal and abnormal LEP and SEP peaks were identified reliably using both approaches, with similar sensitivity and specificity. Because the automated approach provided an unbiased solution to account for average waveforms where no ERP could be identified visually, it revealed significant differences between patients and controls that were not revealed using the visual approach. The automated analysis of ERPs characterized reliably and objectively LEP and SEP waveforms in patients. The automated single-trial analysis can be used to characterize normal and abnormal ERPs with a similar sensitivity and specificity as visual inspection. While this does not justify its use in a routine clinical setting, the technique could be useful to avoid observer-dependent biases in clinical research. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrofitting of heat exchanger networks involving streams with variable heat capacity: Application of single and multi-objective optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreepathi, Bhargava Krishna; Rangaiah, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Heat exchanger network (HEN) retrofitting improves the energy efficiency of the current process by reducing external utilities. In this work, HEN retrofitting involving streams having variable heat capacity is studied. For this, enthalpy values of a stream are fitted to a continuous cubic polynomial instead of a stepwise approach employed in the previous studies [1,2]. The former methodology is closer to reality as enthalpy or heat capacity changes gradually instead of step changes. Using the polynomial fitting formulation, single objective optimization (SOO) and multi-objective optimization (MOO) of a HEN retrofit problem are investigated. The results obtained show an improvement in the utility savings, and MOO provides many Pareto-optimal solutions to choose from. Also, Pareto-optimal solutions involving area addition in existing heat exchangers only (but no new exchangers and no structural modifications) are found and provided for comparison with those involving new exchangers and structural modifications as well. - Highlights: • HEN retrofitting involving streams with variable heat capacities is studied. • A continuous approach to handle variable heat capacity is proposed and tested. • Better and practical solutions are obtained for HEN retrofitting in process plants. • Pareto-optimal solutions provide many alternate choices for HEN retrofitting

  5. Impact of imatinib interruption and duration of prior hydroxyurea on the treatment outcome in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: Single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Abdelgawad Edesa

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Duration of prior hydroxyurea had no impact on response or progression free survival, while patients regular on imatinib had statistically significant difference with respect to major molecular response, complete molecular response and progression free survival compared to those who had periods of drug interruption, thus we need more governmental support to supply the drug without interruption to improve the outcome of therapy.

  6. Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.

  7. Algorithm for extracting multiple object waves without Fourier transform from a single image recorded by spatial frequency-division multiplexing and its application to digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Akamatsu, Takanori; Arai, Yasuhiko; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Kakue, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel algorithm that does not require any Fourier transform to extract multiple object waves in a single image recorded with spatial frequency-division multiplexing. Smoothing is utilized to extract the desired object-wave information from a spatially multiplexed image. Numerical and experimental results show its validity and applicability for image and Fresnel digital holography. Our investigations clarify the speeding up of both the object-wave extractions and multiple object-image reconstructions quantitatively.

  8. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Johannes M. [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Ambinder, Emily McIntosh [John Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (United States); Ghodadra, Anish [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Xing, Minzhi [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Prajapati, Hasmukh J. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Kim, Hyun S., E-mail: kevin.kim@yale.edu [Yale University, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2016-07-15

    ObjectiveTo investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival.MethodsA single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low (<10 %) LSF. Baseline comparisons were performed using Fisher’s exact tests for categorical and Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Univariate (Wilcoxon rank-sum test) and multivariate analyses (Cox Proportional Hazard Model) for risk factor analysis were performed.ResultsThere was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, race, tumor properties, or previous treatments between patients with high (n = 15) and low (n = 29) LSF. The median OS was 27.4 months (95 %CI 12.73–55.23), with 4.77 months (95 %CI 2.87–26.73) for high and 42.77 months (95 %CI 18.47–59.73) for low LSF (p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis identified high LSF (p = 0.001), total serum bilirubin >1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival.ConclusionsLSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  9. Comparison of single distance phase retrieval algorithms by considering different object composition and the effect of statistical and structural noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R C; Rigon, L; Longo, R

    2013-03-25

    Phase retrieval is a technique for extracting quantitative phase information from X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PPCT). In this paper, the performance of different single distance phase retrieval algorithms will be investigated. The algorithms are herein called phase-attenuation duality Born Algorithm (PAD-BA), phase-attenuation duality Rytov Algorithm (PAD-RA), phase-attenuation duality Modified Bronnikov Algorithm (PAD-MBA), phase-attenuation duality Paganin algorithm (PAD-PA) and phase-attenuation duality Wu Algorithm (PAD-WA), respectively. They are all based on phase-attenuation duality property and on weak absorption of the sample and they employ only a single distance PPCT data. In this paper, they are investigated via simulated noise-free PPCT data considering the fulfillment of PAD property and weakly absorbing conditions, and with experimental PPCT data of a mixture sample containing absorbing and weakly absorbing materials, and of a polymer sample considering different degrees of statistical and structural noise. The simulation shows all algorithms can quantitatively reconstruct the 3D refractive index of a quasi-homogeneous weakly absorbing object from noise-free PPCT data. When the weakly absorbing condition is violated, the PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA obtain better result than PAD-BA and PAD-MBA that are shown in both simulation and mixture sample results. When considering the statistical noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio values decreases as the photon number is reduced. The structural noise study shows that the result is progressively corrupted by ring-like artifacts with the increase of structural noise (i.e. phantom thickness). The PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA gain better density resolution than the PAD-BA and PAD-MBA in both statistical and structural noise study.

  10. Calibration and Validation Parameter of Hydrologic Model HEC-HMS using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithms – Single Objective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Garmeh

    2016-02-01

    model that simulates both wet and dry weatherbehavior.Programming of HEC –HMS has been done by MATLAB and techniques such as elite mutation and creating confusion have been used in order to strengthen the algorithm and improve the results. The event-based HEC-HMS model simulatesthe precipitation-runoff process for each set of parameter values generated by PSO. Turbulentand elitism with mutation are also employed to deal with PSO premature convergence. The integrated PSO-HMS model is tested on the Kardeh dam basin located in the Khorasan Razavi province. Results and Discussion: Input parameters of hydrologic models are seldomknown with certainty. Therefore, they are not capable ofdescribing the exact hydrologic processes. Input data andstructural uncertainties related to scale and approximationsin system processes are different sources of uncertainty thatmake it difficult to model exact hydrologic phenomena.In automatic calibration, the parameter values dependon the objective function of the search or optimization algorithm.In characterizing a runoff hydrograph, threecharacteristics of time-to-peak, peak of discharge and totalrunoff volume are of the most importance. It is thereforeimportant that we simulate and observe hydrographs matchas much as possible in terms of those characteristics. Calibration was carried out in single objective cases. Model calibration in single-objective approach with regard to the objective function in the event of NASH and RMSE were conducted separately.The results indicated that the capability of the model was calibrated to an acceptable level of events. Continuing calibration results were evaluated by four different criteria.Finally, to validate the model parameters with those obtained from the calibration, tests perfomed indicated poor results. Although, based on the calibration and verification of individual events one event remains, suggesting set is a possible parameter. Conclusion: All events were evaluated by validations and the

  11. The number of prior lines of systemic therapy as a prognostic factor for patients with brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery: Results of a large single institution retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Claire M; McTyre, Emory; LeCompte, Michael; Cramer, Christina K; Hughes, Ryan; Watabe, Kounosuke; Lo, Hui-Wen; O'Neill, Stacey; Munley, Michael T; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; Ruiz, Jimmy; Chan, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    It is presently unknown whether patients with brain metastases from heavily pre-treated cancers have a significantly different prognosis than those with less pre-treatment. In this study we sought to identify whether the number of prior lines of systemic therapy are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with brain metastases who received stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Between July 2000 and July 2017, 377 patients with brain metastases were treated with upfront SRS. We performed a large, single institution retrospective analysis of these patients. Kaplan Meier analysis was used to estimate survival times. Competing risk analysis was used to estimate times to local failure (LF) and distant brain failure (DBF). Multivariate analysis was performed to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS), neurologic and non-neurologic death for patients with 1, 2 and 3+ lines of prior systemic therapy. Of the 1077 patients with brain metastases treated with SRS, 377 received prior systemic therapy with a median of 1 (range: 1-9) lines of prior therapy. Median OS was 8.70 months (95% CI, 7.9-9.5). Median OS for patients with 1 prior line of therapy, 2 prior lines of therapy and 3 or greater lines of therapy were 9.93-, 9.05-, and 6.18-months, respectively (log rank p = .04). Lines of therapy as a continuous variable was not associated with LF or DBF on competing risk analysis. The percentage of patients that died of neurological death was 36%. Greater prior lines of therapy (1 vs. 2 vs. 3 and greater) was associated with a greater likelihood of dying of non-neurologic death (gray's p = .01), but was not associated with likelihood of dying of neurologic death (p = .57). Lines of therapy are associated with OS and non-neurologic death but are not associated with neurologic death, LF or DBF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Matthew B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of a whey protein supplement in conjunction with an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise, in recreationally-active males, on serum insulin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis: insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 10 males ingested 1 week apart, either 10 g of whey protein (5.25 g EAAs or carbohydrate (maltodextrose, 30 min prior to a lower-body resistance exercise bout. The resistance exercise bout consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 reps at 80% of the one repetition maximum (RM on the angled leg press and knee extension exercises. Blood and muscle samples were obtained prior to, and 30 min following supplement ingestion and 15 min and 120 min post-exercise. Serum and muscle data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results No significant differences were observed for IGF-1 (p > 0.05. A significant main effect for Test was observed for serum insulin (p 0.05. For the Akt/MTOR signaling intermediates, no significant Supplement × Test interactions were observed (p > 0.05. However, significant main effects for Test were observed for phosphorylated concentrations of IRS, mTOR, and p70S6K, as all were elevated at 15 min post-exercise (p Conclusion Ingestion of 10 g of whey protein prior to an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise had no significant preferential effect compared to carbohydrate on systemic and cellular signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis in untrained individuals.

  13. Serial Measurements of Apoptotic Cell Numbers Provide Better Acceptance Criterion for PBMC Quality than a Single Measurement Prior to the T Cell Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Wunsch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As soon as Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC are isolated from whole blood, some cells begin dying. The rate of apoptotic cell death is increased when PBMC are shipped, cryopreserved, or stored under suboptimal conditions. Apoptotic cells secrete cytokines that suppress inflammation while promoting phagocytosis. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells in PBMC may modulate T cell functions in antigen-triggered T cell assays. We assessed the effect of apoptotic bystander cells on a T cell ELISPOT assay by selectively inducing B cell apoptosis using α-CD20 mAbs. The presence of large numbers of apoptotic B cells did not affect T cell functionality. In contrast, when PBMC were stored under unfavorable conditions, leading to damage and apoptosis in the T cells as well as bystander cells, T cell functionality was greatly impaired. We observed that measuring the number of apoptotic cells before plating the PBMC into an ELISPOT assay did not reflect the extent of PBMC injury, but measuring apoptotic cell frequencies at the end of the assay did. Our data suggest that measuring the numbers of apoptotic cells prior to and post T cell assays may provide more stringent PBMC quality acceptance criteria than measurements done only prior to the start of the assay.

  14. Euclidean Position Estimation if Features on a Moving Object Using a Single Camera: A Lyapunov-Based Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chitrakaran, V. K; Dawson, D. M; Chen, J; Dixon, W. E

    2004-01-01

    .... No explicit model is used to describe the movement of the object. Homography-based techniques are used in the development of the object kinematics, while Lyapunov design methods are utilized in the synthesis of the adaptive estimator...

  15. A single blind randomised controlled trial of the impact on patient-reported pain of arm elevation versus exsanguination prior to tourniquet inflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, D A; Penny, J B; Baker, P

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the pain caused by the application of a tourniquet after exsanguination of the upper limb with that occurring after simple elevation. We used 26 healthy volunteers (52 arms), each of whom acted as their own matched control. The primary outcome measure was the total pain experienced by each volunteer while the tourniquet was inflated for 20 minutes. This was calculated as the area under the pain curve for each individual subject. Secondary outcomes were pain at each time point; the total pain experienced during the recovery phase; the ability to tolerate the tourniquet and the time for full recovery after deflation of the tourniquet. There was a significant difference in the area under the pain curves in favour of exsanguination (mean difference 8.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0 to 13.7, p = 0.004). There was no difference between the dominant and non-dominant arms (mean difference -0.2; 95% CI -23.2 to 22.8, p = 0.99). The area under both recovery curves were similar (mean difference 0.7; 95% CI -6.0 to 4.6, p = 0.78). There was no statistical difference in recovery time, the actual mean difference being 30 seconds longer in the elevation group (p = 0.06). Many orthopaedic and plastic surgery procedures are done under local anaesthetic or regional block where a bloodless field and a motionless patient are essential. Optimising patient comfort during surgery with the tourniquet inflated is thus a priority. This study is useful in that it compares two common methods of preparation of the upper limb prior to tourniquet inflation and which have not previously been compared in this context. Following on the results of this study, we can confidently conclude that exsanguinating the upper limb before inflating a tourniquet is more comfortable than simply elevating the arm for patients undergoing a procedure under local or regional block, both during the procedure and in the recovery phase. Exsanguination rather than elevation is

  16. Lung Shunt Fraction prior to Yttrium-90 Radioembolization Predicts Survival in Patients with Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases: Single-Center Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Johannes M; Ambinder, Emily McIntosh; Ghodadra, Anish; Xing, Minzhi; Prajapati, Hasmukh J; Kim, Hyun S

    2016-07-01

    To investigate survival outcomes following radioembolization with Yttrium-90 (Y90) for neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NETLMs). This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Y90 radioembolization and to evaluate lung shunt fraction (LSF) as a predictor for survival. A single-center, prospective study of 44 consecutive patients (median age: 58.5 years, 29.5 % male) diagnosed with pancreatic (52.3 %) or carcinoid (47.7 %) NETLMs from 2006 to 2012 who underwent Y90 radioembolization was performed. Patients' baseline characteristics, including LSF and median overall survival (OS) from first Y90 radioembolization, were recorded and compared between patients with high (≥10 %) and low (1.2 mg (p = 0.016), and lack of pretreatment with octreotide (p = 0.01) as independent prognostic factors for poorer survival. Tumor type and total radiation dose did not predict survival. LSF ≥10 %, elevated bilirubin levels, and lack of pretreatment with octreotide were found to be independent prognostic factors for poorer survival in patients with NETLMs.

  17. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with hysterectomy in patients with prior cesarean section: comparison of surgical outcomes with bladder dissection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Eun Ju; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare operative outcomes from 300 patients who underwent laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) with hysterectomy (H) according to previous cesarean section and to describe the bladder dissection technique in detail. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian task classification II-2). A university hospital, research hospital, and a tertiary care center. In total, 300 LESS-H procedures were performed for benign gynecologic disease, cervical disease, and endometrial disease at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between May 2008 and February 2012. Patients were categorized into 2 groups according to previous cesarean history: the previous cesarean section group (n = 98) and the no history of previous cesarean section group (n = 202). LESS-H with vaginal or lateral approach for bladder dissection. Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics, except for age, were generally the same between the 2 groups. The operative outcomes including operative time, uterine weight, estimated blood loss, hemoglobin change, hospital stay, and transfusion rate were not different between the 2 groups. Adhesiolysis was required more in the previous cesarean section group (p = .002). LESS failure requiring additional trocars occurred more often in the previous cesarean section group (p = .041), but the rates of conversion to laparotomy were not different (p = .327). The overall surgical complication rate except transfusion was 2.67% in this study. Two cases of urologic problems with ureter injury or bladder injury were reported in the previous cesarean section group. In the no previous cesarean section group, there were 2 urologic problems. LESS-H is a feasible procedure with a lateral approach or vaginal approach for bladder dissection, even in patients with previous cesarean section. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  19. Selvester QRS score and total perfusion deficit calculated by quantitative gated single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with prior anterior myocardial infarction in the coronary intervention era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Satoshi; Shimonaga, Takashi; Ikenaga, Hiroki; Watanabe, Noriaki; Higaki, Tadanao; Ishibashi, Ken; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Yukihiro; Kihara, Yasuki

    2017-04-01

    Selvester QRS scoring system has an advantage of being inexpensive and easily accessible for estimating myocardial infarct (MI) size. We assessed the correlation and agreement between QRS score and total perfusion deficit (TPD) calculated by quantitative gated single-photon emission computed tomography (QGS) in patients with prior anterior MI undergoing coronary intervention. Sixty-six patients with prior anterior MI and 66 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled. QRS score was obtained using a 50-criteria and 31-point system. QRS score was significantly higher in patients with prior anterior MI than control subjects (12.8 ± 8.9 vs 1.1 ± 2.7 %, p < 0.001). In overall patients (n = 132), QRS score was correlated well with TPD (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). This good correlation was found even in patients with TPD ≤40 % (n = 126) or in patients with TPD ≤30 % (n = 117). In overall patients, MI size estimated by QRS score was 7.0 ± 8.8 %, which was significantly smaller than TPD, 11.4 ± 14.0 % (p < 0.001). Bland-Altman plot showed that there was an increasing difference between QRS score and TPD with increasing MI size. When Blant-Altman plots were applied to patients with TPD ≤40 % and further in patients with TPD ≤30 %, the difference between QRS score and TPD became smaller, and the agreement became better. In overall patients, QRS score was correlated well with QGS measurements, such as end-diastolic volume (r = 0.62, p < 0.001), end-systolic volume (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), or ejection fraction (r = -0.73, p < 0.001). Our results suggest that QRS score reflects TPD well in patients with prior anterior MI, whose TPD is less than approximately 30 % even in the coronary intervention era.

  20. A single night of sleep loss impairs objective but not subjective working memory performance in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rångtell, Frida H; Karamchedu, Swathy; Andersson, Peter; Liethof, Lisanne; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Lampola, Lauri; Schiöth, Helgi B; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Benedict, Christian

    2018-01-31

    Acute sleep deprivation can lead to judgement errors and thereby increases the risk of accidents, possibly due to an impaired working memory. However, whether the adverse effects of acute sleep loss on working memory are modulated by auditory distraction in women and men are not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether sleep loss alters the way in which men and women perceive their working memory performance. Thus, 24 young adults (12 women using oral contraceptives at the time of investigation) participated in two experimental conditions: nocturnal sleep (scheduled between 22:30 and 06:30 hours) versus one night of total sleep loss. Participants were administered a digital working memory test in which eight-digit sequences were learned and retrieved in the morning after each condition. Learning of digital sequences was accompanied by either silence or auditory distraction (equal distribution among trials). After sequence retrieval, each trial ended with a question regarding how certain participants were of the correctness of their response, as a self-estimate of working memory performance. We found that sleep loss impaired objective but not self-estimated working memory performance in women. In contrast, both measures remained unaffected by sleep loss in men. Auditory distraction impaired working memory performance, without modulation by sleep loss or sex. Being unaware of cognitive limitations when sleep-deprived, as seen in our study, could lead to undesirable consequences in, for example, an occupational context. Our findings suggest that sleep-deprived young women are at particular risk for overestimating their working memory performance. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Cognitive Temporal Document Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetz, M.H.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal information retrieval exploits temporal features of document collections and queries. Temporal document priors are used to adjust the score of a document based on its publication time. We consider a class of temporal document priors that is inspired by retention functions considered in

  2. Single drop based-liquid phase microextraction using ionic liquid as extractor solvent for extraction and preconcentration of copper and silver from food and water samples prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    j Abolhasani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A new single drop micro-extraction method based on ionic liquids was developed for the pre-concentration of ultra-traces of silver and copper prior to its determination by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS. An 8-μL drop of ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C6MIM][PF6], was used for the extraction of silver and copper ions as dithizone complex. Important variables affecting microextraction efficiency and ETAAS signal, such as pyrolysis and atomization temperature, dithizone concentration, extraction time, drop volume and stirring rate were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limits (3 s of the method were 4 and 8 ng L-1, for Ag and Cu, respectively and corresponding relative standard deviations (0.1 μg L-1, n = 6 were 4.2% and 4.8%. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of copper and silver in food and water samples.

  3. A Real-Time Method to Detect and Track Moving Objects (DATMO from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs Using a Single Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce MacDonald

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop a real-time method to detect and track moving objects (DATMO from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs using a single camera. To address the challenging characteristics of these vehicles, such as continuous unrestricted pose variation and low-frequency vibrations, new approaches must be developed. The main concept proposed in this work is to create an artificial optical flow field by estimating the camera motion between two subsequent video frames. The core of the methodology consists of comparing this artificial flow with the real optical flow directly calculated from the video feed. The motion of the UAV between frames is estimated with available parallel tracking and mapping techniques that identify good static features in the images and follow them between frames. By comparing the two optical flows, a list of dynamic pixels is obtained and then grouped into dynamic objects. Tracking these dynamic objects through time and space provides a filtering procedure to eliminate spurious events and misdetections. The algorithms have been tested with a quadrotor platform using a commercial camera.

  4. Stallion spermatozoa selected by single layer centrifugation are capable of fertilization after storage for up to 96 h at 6°C prior to artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the challenges faced by equine breeders is ensuring delivery of good quality semen doses for artificial insemination when the mare is due to ovulate. Single Layer Centrifugation (SLC) has been shown to select morphologically normal spermatozoa with intact chromatin and good progressive motility from the rest of the ejaculate, and to prolong the life of these selected spermatozoa in vitro. The objective of the present study was a proof of concept, to determine whether fertilizing ability was retained in SLC-selected spermatozoa during prolonged storage. Findings Sixteen mares were inseminated with SLC-selected sperm doses that had been cooled and stored at 6°C for 48 h, 72 h or 96 h. Embryos were identified in 11 mares by ultrasound examination 16–18 days after presumed ovulation. Conclusion SLC-selected stallion spermatozoa stored for up to 96 h are capable of fertilization. PMID:22788670

  5. Arthur Prior and 'Now'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    On the 4th of December 1967, Hans Kamp sent his UCLA seminar notes on the logic of ‘now’ to Arthur N. Prior. Kamp’s two-dimensional analysis stimulated Prior to an intense burst of creativity in which he sought to integrate Kamp’s work into tense logic using a one-dimensional approach. Prior...... to a one-dimensional tense logic containing the ‘now’ operator J. Drawing on material from the Prior archive, and the paper “‘Now”’ that detailed Prior’s findings, we retell this story. We focus on Prior’s completeness conjecture for the hybrid system and the role played by temporal reference....

  6. Finding a Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Distribution Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana; Atwood, Corwin

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straight-forward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in closed form, and so an approximate beta distribution is used in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial aleatory model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that is often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  7. Hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective single machine group scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and learning effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lei; Guan, Zailin; Saif, Ullah; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Group scheduling is significant for efficient and cost effective production system. However, there exist setup times between the groups, which require to decrease it by sequencing groups in an efficient way. Current research is focused on a sequence dependent group scheduling problem with an aim to minimize the makespan in addition to minimize the total weighted tardiness simultaneously. In most of the production scheduling problems, the processing time of jobs is assumed as fixed. However, the actual processing time of jobs may be reduced due to "learning effect". The integration of sequence dependent group scheduling problem with learning effects has been rarely considered in literature. Therefore, current research considers a single machine group scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and learning effects simultaneously. A novel hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm (HPABC) with some steps of genetic algorithm is proposed for current problem to get Pareto solutions. Furthermore, five different sizes of test problems (small, small medium, medium, large medium, large) are tested using proposed HPABC. Taguchi method is used to tune the effective parameters of the proposed HPABC for each problem category. The performance of HPABC is compared with three famous multi objective optimization algorithms, improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Results indicate that HPABC outperforms SPEA2, NSGAII and PSO and gives better Pareto optimal solutions in terms of diversity and quality for almost all the instances of the different sizes of problems.

  8. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  9. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  10. Effects of a balanced energy and high protein formula diet (Vegestart complet®) vs. low-calorie regular diet in morbid obese patients prior to bariatric surgery (laparoscopic single anastomosis gastric bypass): a prospective, double-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, M A; Castro, Maria J; Kleinfinger, S; Gómez-Arenas, S; Ortiz-Solórzano, J; Wellman, R; García-Ianza, C; Luque, E

    2010-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered the only therapeutic alternative for morbid obesity and its comorbidities. High risks factors are usually linked with this kind of surgery. In order to reduce it, we consider that losing at least 10% of overweight in Morbid Obese (MO) and a minimum of 20% in Super- Obese patients (SO) before surgery, may reduce the morbidity of the procedure. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the effectiveness and tolerance of a balanced energy formula diet at the preoperative stage, comparing it against a low calorie regular diet. We studied 120 patients divided into two groups of 60 each, group A was treated 20 days prior to bariatric surgery with a balanced energy formula diet, based on 200 Kcal every 6 hours for 12 days and group B was treated with a low calorie regular diet with no carbs or fat. The last eight days prior to surgery both groups took only clear liquids. We studied the evolution of weight loss, the BMI, as well as behavior of co-morbidities as systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, glucose controls and tolerance at the protocol. The study shows that patients undergoing a balanced energy formula diet improved their comorbidities statistically significant in terms of decrease in weight and BMI loss, blood pressure and glucose, compared to the group that was treated before surgery with a low calorie regular diet. Nevertheless both groups improving the weight loss and co-morbidities with better surgical results and facilities. A correct preparation of the Morbid Obese patients prior of surgery can reduce the operative risks improving the results. Our study show that the preoperative treatment with a balanced energy formula diet as were included in our protocol in patients undergoing bariatric surgery improves statistical better their overall conditions, lowers cardiovascular risk and metabolic diseases that the patients with regular diet alone.

  11. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  12. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    This RS code is to do Object-by-Object analysis of each Object's sub-objects, e.g. statistical analysis of an object's individual image data pixels. Statistics, such as percentiles (so-called "quartiles") are derived by the process, but the return of that can only be a Scene Variable, not an Object...... an analysis of the values of the object's pixels in MS-Excel. The shell of the proceedure could also be used for purposes other than just the derivation of Object - Sub-object statistics, e.g. rule-based assigment processes....... Variable. This procedure was developed in order to be able to export objects as ESRI shape data with the 90-percentile of the Hue of each object's pixels as an item in the shape attribute table. This procedure uses a sub-level single pixel chessboard segmentation, loops for each of the objects...

  13. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy in patients with or without prior Heller's myotomy: comparing long-term outcomes in a large U.S. single-center cohort (with videos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaocen; Modayil, Rani J; Friedel, David; Gurram, Krishna C; Brathwaite, Collin E; Taylor, Sharon I; Kollarus, Maria M; Modayil, Sony; Halwan, Bhawna; Grendell, James H; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2017-11-06

    Heller's myotomy (HM) is one of the most effective treatments for esophageal achalasia. However, failures do exist, and the success rate tends to decrease with time. The efficacy of rescue treatments for patients with failed HM is limited. A few small-scale studies have reported outcomes of per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in these patients. We conducted this study to systematically assess feasibility, safety, and efficacy of POEM on patients who have had HM. Patients at least 3 months out from POEM were selected from our prospective database: 318 consecutive POEMs performed from October 2009 to October 2016. The efficacy and safety of POEM were compared between the 46 patients with prior HM and the remaining 272 patients. Patients with prior HM had longer disease history, more advanced disease, more type I and less type II achalasia, lower before-POEM Eckardt scores, and lower before-POEM lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure (all P < .01). Procedure parameters and follow-up results (clinical success rate, Eckardt score, LES pressure, GERD score, esophagitis, and pH testing) showed no significant difference between the 2 groups. For the 46 HM-POEM patients, no clinically significant perioperative adverse events occurred. Their overall clinical success rate (Eckardt score ≤3 and no other treatment needed) was 95.7% at a median follow-up of 28 months. POEM as a rescue treatment for patients with achalasia who failed HM is feasible, safe, and highly effective. It should be the treatment of choice in managing these challenging cases at centers with a high level of experience with POEM. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    by the robot. This also leads to the concept of an "object" as a set of features that change predictably over different frames. The system is equipped with a certain degree of generic prior knowledge about the world in terms of a sophisticated visual feature extraction process in an early cognitive vision......We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects...... interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...

  15. Dense Plasma Focus: physics and applications (radiation material science, single-shot disclosure of hidden illegal objects, radiation biology and medicine, etc.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.; Miklaszewski, R.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Chernyshova, M.; Pisarczyk, T.; Pimenov, V. N.; Demina, E. V.; Niemela, J.; Crespo, M.-L.; Cicuttin, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Pytel, K.; Zawadka, A.; Giannini, G.; Longo, F.; Talab, A.; Ul'yanenko, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    The paper presents some outcomes obtained during the year of 2013 of the activity in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency Co-ordinated research project "Investigations of Materials under High Repetition and Intense Fusion-Relevant Pulses". The main results are related to the effects created at the interaction of powerful pulses of different types of radiation (soft and hard X-rays, hot plasma and fast ion streams, neutrons, etc. generated in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) facilities) with various materials including those that are counted as perspective ones for their use in future thermonuclear reactors. Besides we discuss phenomena observed at the irradiation of biological test objects. We examine possible applications of nanosecond powerful pulses of neutrons to the aims of nuclear medicine and for disclosure of hidden illegal objects. Special attention is devoted to discussions of a possibility to create extremely large and enormously diminutive DPF devices and probabilities of their use in energetics, medicine and modern electronics.

  16. Dynamic emotion perception and prior expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzafic, Ilvana; Martin, Andrew K; Hocking, Julia; Mowry, Bryan; Burianová, Hana

    2016-06-01

    Social interactions require the ability to rapidly perceive emotion from various incoming dynamic, multisensory cues. Prior expectations reduce incoming emotional information and direct attention to cues that are aligned with what is expected. Studies to date have investigated the prior expectancy effect using static emotional images, despite the fact that dynamic stimuli would represent greater ecological validity. The objective of the study was to create a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to examine the influence of prior expectations on naturalistic emotion perception. For this purpose, we developed a dynamic emotion perception task, which consisted of audio-visual videos that carry emotional information congruent or incongruent with prior expectations. The results show that emotional congruency was associated with activity in prefrontal regions, amygdala, and putamen, whereas emotional incongruency was associated with activity in temporoparietal junction and mid-cingulate gyrus. Supported by the behavioural results, our findings suggest that prior expectations are reinforced after repeated experience and learning, whereas unexpected emotions may rely on fast change detection processes. The results from the current study are compatible with the notion that the ability to automatically detect unexpected changes in complex dynamic environments allows for adaptive behaviours in potentially advantageous or threatening situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  18. Example-driven manifold priors for image deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jie; Turaga, Pavan; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama

    2011-11-01

    Image restoration methods that exploit prior information about images to be estimated have been extensively studied, typically using the Bayesian framework. In this paper, we consider the role of prior knowledge of the object class in the form of a patch manifold to address the deconvolution problem. Specifically, we incorporate unlabeled image data of the object class, say natural images, in the form of a patch-manifold prior for the object class. The manifold prior is implicitly estimated from the given unlabeled data. We show how the patch-manifold prior effectively exploits the available sample class data for regularizing the deblurring problem. Furthermore, we derive a generalized cross-validation (GCV) function to automatically determine the regularization parameter at each iteration without explicitly knowing the noise variance. Extensive experiments show that this method performs better than many competitive image deconvolution methods.

  19. Energy policy in the European Community: conflicts between the objectives of the unified single market, supply security and a clean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1992-01-01

    Policies for energy and the environment in Europe were previously the preserve of national governments, but the Commission of the European Community has gained a role in both policy areas in the past few years. This was due to the 1987 Single European Act which, in effect, extends the writ of competition law throughout the energy and other previously excluded sectors, expresses the desire to reduce acid rain and greenhouse gas emissions, and reaffirms Europe's renewed concern for long-term oil and gas supply security after the Gulf War and the disintegration of the USSR. The Commission's proposals for the unified internal energy market were driven by concern for competition and free market forces, and seemed to exclude any scope for long-term policy considerations. This paper argues that the implementation of those proposals will be uneven and protracted, and that the Commission's more recent proposals for reducing CO 2 emissions and the European Energy Charter appear to mark positive steps towards a long-term strategy for a clean environment, energy efficiency, and oil and gas supply security. 27 refs., 4 tabs

  20. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  1. Single versus Multiple Objective(s) Decision Making: An Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    production of each of these crops less consumption and sales should be greater or equal to 0. Subsistence requirement of cereals: The representative farm household is assumed to be of 5.0 (persons) adult equivalents. Following Gryseels (1988) and Kassie et al. (1999), 200 kilo grams of cereals is considered to be the.

  2. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    mathematics program. Ir this study he measured mathenatics skills, mathematics application, ard student attitudes. Ne used the Stanford Achievement...34most vague" (5). Means and variances were computed for each Item on the questionnaire, Correlations were then ccinputed between and among the...between subjects’ ratings of objectives with direct objects and objectives containing "x" and "y." This is reflected in tests computed separately for

  3. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service ...

  4. Multi objective optimization of performance parameters of a single cylinder diesel engine running with hydrogen using a Taguchi-fuzzy based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Probir Kumar; Deb, Madhujit; Banerjee, Rahul; Majumder, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels are the major concerns over the past two decades to search for alternative fuels. Among various alternatives hydrogen is a long-term renewable and least polluting fuel. Its clean burning capability helps to meet the stern emission norms. Full substitution of diesel with hydrogen may not be convenient for the time being but employing of hydrogen in a diesel engine in dual fuel mode is possible. In this experimental investigation a TMI (timed manifold injection) system has been developed using ECU (electronic control unit) with varying injection strategy to deliver hydrogen on to the intake manifold. Through adopting this technique in the existing diesel engine a momentous improvement in performance and combustion parameters has been observed. The study also attempts to explain the application of the fuzzy logic based Taguchi analysis to optimize the performance parameters i.e. BSEC (Brake specific energy consumption), Vol. Eff. (Volumetric efficiency) and BTHE (brake thermal efficiency) for the different hydrogen injection strategies. - Highlights: • A timed manifold injection system has been developed which enhances the BTHE by 31.74% at full load conditions. • Use of hydrogen-diesel dual fuel of BSEC was reduced by a maximum of 68.98% at full load condition compared to diesel. • Τhe Vol. Eff. reduced by 73.14% in dual fuel mode as compared to 77.23% at full load condition with base diesel. • A fuzzy based Taguchi's parameter design technique has been involved in multi objective optimization for prediction. • Predicted optimum combination improved BTHE and Vol. Eff. by 24.04% and 72.87% respectively and reduced BSEC by 59.03%

  5. Mnemonic strategy training improves memory for object location associations in both healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, single-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampstead, Benjamin M; Sathian, Krish; Phillips, Pamela A; Amaraneni, Akshay; Delaune, William R; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mnemonic strategy training versus a matched-exposure control condition and to examine the relationship between training-related gains, neuropsychological abilities, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and age-matched healthy controls. Twenty-three of 45 screened healthy controls and 29 of 42 screened patients with aMCI were randomized to mnemonic strategy or matched-exposure groups. Groups were run in parallel, with participants blind to the other intervention. All participants completed five sessions within 2 weeks. Memory testing for object-location associations (OLAs) was performed during sessions one and five and at a 1-month follow-up. During Sessions 2-4, participants received either mnemonic strategy training or a matched number of exposures with corrective feedback for a total of 45 OLAs. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed in most participants, and medial temporal lobe volumetrics were acquired. Twenty-one healthy controls and 28 patients with aMCI were included in data analysis. Mnemonic strategy training was significantly more beneficial than matched exposure immediately after training, p = .006, partial η2 = .16, and at 1 month, p Mnemonic strategy-related improvement was correlated positively with baseline memory and executive functioning and negatively with inferior lateral ventricle volume in patients with aMCI; no significant relationships were evident in matched-exposure patients. Mnemonic strategies effectively improve memory for specific content for at least 1 month in patients with aMCI.

  6. A single-item self-rated health measure correlates with objective health status in the elderly: a survey in suburban Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin eMeng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe measurement of health status of the elderly remains one important topic. Self-rated health status (SRH is considered to be a simple indicator to measure the health status of the old population. But some researchers still take a skeptical view about its reliability. This study aims to investigate the association between self-rated health indicator and health status of the elderly and discuss its subsequent public health implications.MethodsIn a total 1096 people who were 60 years of age or older from 1784 households from a suburban area of Beijing were interviewed using multistage stratified cluster sampling. SRH was measured by a single question please choose one point in this 0-100 scale which can best represent your health today?. The disease status and physical functional status were also obtained. A multiple linear regression was conducted to test the associate between SRH and individual’s disease/functional status.ResultsThe average of SRH scores of the elderly was 72.49±15.64 (on a 1 to 100 scale. The SRH scores declined not only with the severity of self-reported mental/disease status, but also with the decrease of physical functional status. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for other variables, two-week sickness, chronic diseases, hospitalization, and ability of self-care (washing and dressing were able to explain 35% of the variation in SRH among the elderly. Among them, disease status and self-care ability were the most powerful predictor of SRH. After adjusting other variables, physical functional status could explain only 5% of the variation in SRH.ConclusionSRH reflects the disease/functional health status of the elderly. It is an easy-to-implement variable and it can reduce both recall bias and investigator bias, thus being widely used in health surveys. It is a cost-effective means of measuring the health status. However, the comparability of SRH in different populations should be studied

  7. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  8. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  9. Uninformative priors prefer simpler models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Henry; Abbott, Michael; Machta, Benjamin

    The Bayesian framework for model selection requires a prior for the probability of candidate models that is uninformative-it minimally biases predictions with preconceptions. For parameterized models, Jeffreys' uninformative prior, pJ, weights parameter space according to the local density of distinguishable model predictions. While pJ is rigorously justifiable in the limit that there is infinite data, it is ill-suited to effective theories and sloppy models. In these models, parameters are very poorly constrained by available data, and even the number of parameters is often arbitrary. We use a principled definition of `uninformative' as the mutual information between parameters and their expected data and study the properties of the prior p* which maximizes it. When data is abundant, p* approaches Jeffreys' prior. With finite data, however, p* is discrete, putting weight on a finite number of atoms in parameter space. In addition, when data is scarce, the prior lies on model boundaries, which in many cases correspond to interpretable models but with fewer parameters. As more data becomes available, the prior puts weight on models with more parameters. Thus, p* quantifies the intuition that better data can justify the use of more complex models.

  10. Modeling the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.; Forrest, S.; Ackley, D.H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Perelson, A.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    We performed computer simulations to study the effects of prior infection on vaccine efficacy. We injected three antigens sequentially. The first antigen, designated the prior, represented a prior infection or vaccination. The second antigen, the vaccine, represented a single component of the trivalent influenza vaccine. The third antigen, the epidemic, represented challenge by an epidemic strain. For a fixed vaccine to epidemic strain cross-reactivities to the vaccine and to the epidemic strains. We found that, for many cross-reactivities, vaccination, when it had been preceded by a prior infection, provided more protection than vaccination alone. However, at some cross-reactivities, the prior infection reduced protection by clearing the vaccine before it had the chance to produce protective memory. The cross-reactivities between the prior, vaccine and epidemic strains played a major role in determining vaccine efficacy. This work has applications to understanding vaccination against viruses such as influenza that are continually mutating.

  11. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  12. The Prior Internet Resources 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Albretsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The Prior Internet Resources (PIR) are presented. Prior’s unpublished scientific manuscripts and his wast letter correspondence with fellow researchers at the time, his Nachlass, is now subject to transcription by Prior-researchers worldwide, and form an integral part of PIR. It is demonstrated...... that the PIR, defined as the virtual space delimited by the three content areas and Internet domains: 1) Priorstudies, 2) Prior Virtual Lab, and 3) Nachlass), contains six information systems of five distinct types. The informations systems are grouped into a “Transcriber Loop” to illustrate how unpublished...... material from the archive boxes goes through a transcription process to end in the Nachlass. A box taxonomy defines the transcription project’s hub. Together with the “Transcriber Loop” this setup makes it possible to use the boxlists in conjunction with a Priorbibliography also in PIR as a showcase...

  13. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  14. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... of the enlargement of the cult into individual behaviour....

  15. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  16. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  17. Prior information in structure estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Nedoma, Petr; Khailova, Natalia; Pavelková, Lenka

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 643-653 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075102; GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : prior knowledge * structure estimation * autoregressive models Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0411258.pdf

  18. The Impact of Prior Upper Extremity Surgery on Orthopaedic Injury and Surgery in Collegiate Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Caitlin Marie; Wang, Dean; Mayer, Erik; Berger, Neal; Vail, Jeremy; Sulzicki, Pamela; Hame, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Upper extremity injuries are common in youth, collegiate, and professional athletics, and may require operative management. The influence of a prior upper extremity surgery on subsequent athletic participation, injury, and surgery in college is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prior upper extremity surgery in Division I collegiate athletes on participation, injury rates, and surgery rates in college. Methods: Division I athletes who began participation in collegiate athletics from 2003 - 2009 were retrospectively identified. These athletes represented 21 sports teams at a single institution. Athletes with prior upper extremity orthopaedic surgery, including shoulder, elbow, and wrist/hand surgery, were identified through preparticipation evaluation forms. Sport, seasons played, injuries sustained during college, days missed, and college orthopaedic surgeries and diagnostic imaging were collected through sports archives, medical records, and the Sports Injury Monitoring System (SIMS) and compared to athletes with no prior history of upper extremity surgery. Subgroup analysis was performed for athletes with a history of shoulder, elbow, and wrist/hand surgeries. Results: Between 2003 and 2009, 1,145 athletes completed pre-participation evaluation forms. In total, 77 athletes (6.7%) had a history of one or more upper extremity surgeries prior to collegiate athletics. History of upper extremity surgery was most common in incoming men's water polo (15.0%), baseball (14.9%), and football (12.6%) athletes. Athletes with a prior upper extremity surgery had a higher rate of upper extremity injury in college compared to controls (Hazard Ratio = 4.127, p Athletes with a prior shoulder surgery (n=20) also had a higher rate of upper extremity injury in college compared to controls (Hazard Ratio= 15,083, p=0.02). They missed more total athletic days per season (77.5 days vs. 29.8 days, p athletes with a history of upper

  19. Correspondence propagation with weak priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Yan, Shuicheng; Liu, Jianzhuang; Tang, Xiaoou; Huang, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    For the problem of image registration, the top few reliable correspondences are often relatively easy to obtain, while the overall matching accuracy may fall drastically as the desired correspondence number increases. In this paper, we present an efficient feature matching algorithm to employ sparse reliable correspondence priors for piloting the feature matching process. First, the feature geometric relationship within individual image is encoded as a spatial graph, and the pairwise feature similarity is expressed as a bipartite similarity graph between two feature sets; then the geometric neighborhood of the pairwise assignment is represented by a categorical product graph, along which the reliable correspondences are propagated; and finally a closed-form solution for feature matching is deduced by ensuring the feature geometric coherency as well as pairwise feature agreements. Furthermore, our algorithm is naturally applicable for incorporating manual correspondence priors for semi-supervised feature matching. Extensive experiments on both toy examples and real-world applications demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over the state-of-the-art feature matching techniques.

  20. Alteração de mobilidade de prega vocal unilateral: avaliação subjetiva e objetiva da voz nos momentos pré e pós-fonoterapia Unilateral vocal fold mobility alteration: objective and subjective evaluation of voice quality on prior and post speech therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Cortes Gama

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar de forma subjetiva e objetiva a voz de pacientes com paralisia unilateral de prega vocal nos momentos pré-tratamento e pós-tratamento. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo por meio de revisão de prontuário, que analisou as gravações de vozes de 12 indivíduos com diagnóstico otorrinolaringológico de paralisia unilateral de prega vocal. O material de voz colhido foi a emissão sustentada da vogal /a/, seguida de fala encadeada. As vozes pré e pós-terapia foram analisadas por meio da escala GRBASI, análise espectrográfica e medida do tempo máximo de fonação (TMF. Os parâmetros para análise espectrográfica foram: forma do traçado, grau de escurecimento dos harmônicos, continuidade do traçado, presença de ruídos, presença de sub-harmônicos e harmônicos definidos. A medida do TMF da vogal /a/ representou a maior de três emissões. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análise descritiva de tendência central e dispersão, e ao Teste Wilcoxon. RESULTADOS: na análise perceptivo-auditiva, o parâmetro que mais se modificou no momento pós- tratamento foi o de soprosidade (B (p=0,003, seguido do grau da disfonia (G (p=0,004 e astenia (A (p=0,01, sendo que estes resultados foram estatisticamente significantes. Com relação ao espectrograma, houve melhora do traçado em 91% dos pacientes, e os parâmetros que mais se modificaram foram: aumento do número de harmônicos (32% e diminuição do ruído (24%. A medida do TMF da vogal /a/ apresentou-se significantemente maior no momento pós-fonoterapia (p=0,003%. CONCLUSÃO: pacientes com paralisia de prega vocal que foram submetidos ao tratamento fonoaudiológico apresentaram melhora dos dados perceptivo-auditivos, espectrográfico e do TMF.PURPOSE: this study aims to analyze the objective and subjective evaluation of voice quality in a unilateral vocal fold mobility alteration on prior and post speech therapy. METHODS: this is a retrospective study

  1. Object detection and tracking system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tian J.

    2017-05-30

    Methods and apparatuses for analyzing a sequence of images for an object are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the method identifies a region of interest in the sequence of images. The object is likely to move within the region of interest. The method divides the region of interest in the sequence of images into sections and calculates signal-to-noise ratios for a section in the sections. A signal-to-noise ratio for the section is calculated using the section in the image, a prior section in a prior image to the image, and a subsequent section in a subsequent image to the image. The signal-to-noise ratios are for potential velocities of the object in the section. The method also selects a velocity from the potential velocities for the object in the section using a potential velocity in the potential velocities having a highest signal-to-noise ratio in the signal-to-noise ratios.

  2. SUSPENSION OF THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION ACCORDING TO LABOR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae, GRADINARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct the prior disciplinary investigation, the employee shall be convoked in writing by the person authorized by the employer to carry out the research, specifying the subject, date, time and place of the meeting. For this purpose the employer shall appoint a committee charged with conducting the prior disciplinary investigation. Prior disciplinary research cannot be done without the possibility of the accused person to defend himself. It would be an abuse of the employer to violate these provisions. Since the employee is entitled to formulate and sustain defence in proving innocence or lesser degree of guilt than imputed, it needs between the moment were disclosed to the employee and the one of performing the prior disciplinary investigation to be a reasonable term for the employee to be able to prepare a defence in this regard. The employee's failure to present at the convocation, without an objective reason entitles the employer to dispose the sanctioning without making the prior disciplinary investigation. The objective reason which makes the employee, that is subject to prior disciplinary investigation, unable to present to the preliminary disciplinary investigation, should be at the time of the investigation in question.

  3. HipMatch: an object-oriented cross-platform program for accurate determination of cup orientation using 2D-3D registration of single standard X-ray radiograph and a CT volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Zhang, Xuan; Steppacher, Simon D; Murphy, Stephen B; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Tannast, Moritz

    2009-09-01

    The widely used procedure of evaluation of cup orientation following total hip arthroplasty using single standard anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is known inaccurate, largely due to the wide variability in individual pelvic orientation relative to X-ray plate. 2D-3D image registration methods have been introduced for an accurate determination of the post-operative cup alignment with respect to an anatomical reference extracted from the CT data. Although encouraging results have been reported, their extensive usage in clinical routine is still limited. This may be explained by their requirement of a CAD model of the prosthesis, which is often difficult to be organized from the manufacturer due to the proprietary issue, and by their requirement of either multiple radiographs or a radiograph-specific calibration, both of which are not available for most retrospective studies. To address these issues, we developed and validated an object-oriented cross-platform program called "HipMatch" where a hybrid 2D-3D registration scheme combining an iterative landmark-to-ray registration with a 2D-3D intensity-based registration was implemented to estimate a rigid transformation between a pre-operative CT volume and the post-operative X-ray radiograph for a precise estimation of cup alignment. No CAD model of the prosthesis is required. Quantitative and qualitative results evaluated on cadaveric and clinical datasets are given, which indicate the robustness and the accuracy of the program. HipMatch is written in object-oriented programming language C++ using cross-platform software Qt (TrollTech, Oslo, Norway), VTK, and Coin3D and is transportable to any platform.

  4. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureldin Mohamed Abdelaal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were selected; they were asked to sit a two-passage reading comprehension exam. According to the questionnaire and the short prior quiz, students had high prior knowledge in one of the two passages, and low prior knowledge in the other. The result showed significantly high relationship between the high prior knowledge and reading comprehension. However, the results showed significantly low relationship between low prior knowledge and reading comprehension. Yet the performance of students in a reading comprehension with high prior knowledge was significantly better than reading comprehension with low prior knowledge.

  5. Mountain bike racing - the influence of prior glycogen-inducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate the effect of pre-exercise glutamine supplementation and the influence of a prior acute bout of glycogen-reducing exercise on the general stress and immune response to acute high-intensity cycling. Design. Randomised, double-blind, cross-over supplementation study. Setting and intervention.

  6. Prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between the prior experience, cognitive perceptions and psychological skills of senior rugby players in South Africa. The study population included 139 trans-national players, 106 provincial players and 95 club rugby players (N=340). A cross-sectional design was ...

  7. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available . Aggressive use of action priors performs context based pruning of the available actions, thus reducing the complexity of look ahead during search. We additionally define action priors over observation features, rather than states, which provides further...

  8. Iterated random walks with shape prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new framework for image segmentation using random walks where a distance shape prior is combined with a region term. The shape prior is weighted by a confidence map to reduce the influence of the prior in high gradient areas and the region term is computed with k-means to estimate th...

  9. 34 CFR 642.32 - Prior experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior experience. 642.32 Section 642.32 Education....32 Prior experience. (a)(1) The Secretary gives priority to each applicant that has conducted a... points to be awarded each eligible applicant, the Secretary considers the applicant's prior experience of...

  10. Looking as if you know: Systematic object inspection precedes object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Linus; Eriksson, Johan; Andersson, Linus

    2008-04-18

    Sometimes we seem to look at the very object we are searching for, without consciously seeing it. How do we select object relevant information before we become aware of the object? We addressed this question in two recognition experiments involving pictures of fragmented objects. In Experiment 1, participants preferred to look at the target object rather than a control region 25 fixations prior to explicit recognition. Furthermore, participants inspected the target as if they had identified it around 9 fixations prior to explicit recognition. In Experiment 2, we investigated the influence of semantic knowledge in guiding object inspection prior to explicit recognition. Consistently, more specific knowledge about target identity made participants scan the fragmented stimulus more efficiently. For instance, non-target regions were rejected faster when participants knew the target object's name. Both experiments showed that participants were looking at the objects as if they knew them before they became aware of their identity.

  11. Channels as Objects in Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There is often a sort of a protocol associated to each class, stating when and how certain methods should be called. Given that this protocol is, if at all, described in the documentation accompanying the class, current mainstream object-oriented languages cannot provide for the verification of client code adherence against the sought class behaviour. We have defined a class-based concurrent object-oriented language that formalises such protocols in the form of usage types. Usage types are attached to class definitions, allowing for the specification of (1 the available methods, (2 the tests clients must perform on the result of methods, and (3 the object status - linear or shared - all of which depend on the object's state. Our work extends the recent approach on modular session types by eliminating channel operations, and defining the method call as the single communication primitive in both sequential and concurrent settings. In contrast to previous works, we define a single category for objects, instead of distinct categories for linear and for shared objects, and let linear objects evolve into shared ones. We introduce a standard sync qualifier to prevent thread interference in certain operations on shared objects. We formalise the language syntax, the operational semantics, and a type system that enforces by static typing that methods are called only when available, and by a single client if so specified in the usage type. We illustrate the language via a complete example.

  12. Neutrino masses and their ordering: global data, priors and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, S.; Archidiacono, M.; de Salas, P. F.; Mena, O.; Ternes, C. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a full Bayesian analysis of the combination of current neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay and Cosmic Microwave Background observations. Our major goal is to carefully investigate the possibility to single out one neutrino mass ordering, namely Normal Ordering or Inverted Ordering, with current data. Two possible parametrizations (three neutrino masses versus the lightest neutrino mass plus the two oscillation mass splittings) and priors (linear versus logarithmic) are exhaustively examined. We find that the preference for NO is only driven by neutrino oscillation data. Moreover, the values of the Bayes factor indicate that the evidence for NO is strong only when the scan is performed over the three neutrino masses with logarithmic priors; for every other combination of parameterization and prior, the preference for NO is only weak. As a by-product of our Bayesian analyses, we are able to (a) compare the Bayesian bounds on the neutrino mixing parameters to those obtained by means of frequentist approaches, finding a very good agreement; (b) determine that the lightest neutrino mass plus the two mass splittings parametrization, motivated by the physical observables, is strongly preferred over the three neutrino mass eigenstates scan and (c) find that logarithmic priors guarantee a weakly-to-moderately more efficient sampling of the parameter space. These results establish the optimal strategy to successfully explore the neutrino parameter space, based on the use of the oscillation mass splittings and a logarithmic prior on the lightest neutrino mass, when combining neutrino oscillation data with cosmology and neutrinoless double beta decay. We also show that the limits on the total neutrino mass ∑ mν can change dramatically when moving from one prior to the other. These results have profound implications for future studies on the neutrino mass ordering, as they crucially state the need for self-consistent analyses which explore the

  13. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-05-25

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users\\' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  14. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Ge, Jianye; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Gill-King, Harrell

    2011-06-27

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds.

  15. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from d...

  16. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  17. Relationship between Prior Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between prior knowledge and reading comprehension in second language among postgraduate students in UPM. Participants in the study were 20 students who have the same level in English as a second language from several faculties. On the basis of a prior-knowledge questionnaire and test, students were…

  18. Directional interactions between current and prior saccades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Anne Holland Jones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One way to explore how prior sensory and motor events impact eye movements is to ask someone to look to targets located about a central point, returning gaze to the central point after each eye movement. Concerned about the contribution of this return to centre movement, Anderson et al. (2008 used a sequential saccade paradigm in which participants made a continuous series of saccades to peripheral targets that appeared to the left or right of the currently fixated location in a random sequence (the next eye movement began from the last target location. Examining the effects of previous saccades (n-x on current saccade latency (n, they found that saccadic reaction times (RT were reduced when the direction of the current saccade matched that of a preceding saccade (e.g. two left saccades, even when the two saccades in question were separated by multiple saccades in any direction. We examined if this pattern extends to conditions in which targets appear inside continuously marked locations that provide stable visual features (i.e. target ‘placeholders’ and when saccades are prompted by central arrows. Participants completed 3 conditions: peripheral targets (PT; continuous, sequential saccades to peripherally presented targets without placeholders; PT with placeholders; and centrally presented arrows (CA; left or right pointing arrows at the currently fixated location instructing participants to saccade to the left or right. We found reduced saccadic RT when the immediately preceding saccade (n-1 was in the same (vs. opposite direction in the PT without placeholders and CA conditions. This effect varied when considering the effect of the previous 2-5 (n-x saccades on current saccade latency (n. The effects of previous eye movements on current saccade latency may be determined by multiple, time-varying mechanisms related to sensory (i.e., retinotopic location, motor (i.e., saccade direction, and environmental (i.e., persistent visual objects

  19. Dictionary learning based statistical interior reconstruction without a prior knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yongyi; Mou, Xuanqin

    2016-10-01

    Despite the significantly practical utilities of interior tomography, it still suffers from severe degradation of direct current (DC) shift artifact. Existing literature suggest to introducing prior information of object support (OS) constraint or the zeroth order image moment, i.e., the DC value into interior reconstruction to suppress the shift artifact, while the prior information is not always available in practice. Aimed at alleviating the artifacts without prior knowledge, in this paper, we reported an approach on the estimation of the object support which could be employed to estimate the zeroth order image moment, and hence facilitate the DC shift artifacts removal in interior reconstruction. Firstly, by assuming most of the reconstructed object consists of soft tissues that are equivalent to water, we reconstructed a virtual OS that is symmetrical about the interior region of interest (ROI) for the DC estimation. Hence the DC value can be estimated from the virtual reconstruction. Secondly, a statistical iterative reconstruction incorporated with the sparse representation in terms of learned dictionary and the constraint in terms of image DC value was adopted to solve the interior tomography. Experimental results demonstrate that the relative errors of the estimated zeroth order image moment are 4.7% and 7.6%, corresponding to the simulated data of a human thorax and the real data of a sheep lung, respectively. Reconstructed images with the constraint of the estimated DC value exhibit greatly superior image quality to that without DC value constraint.

  20. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  1. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....

  2. Relationship of Prior Antidepressant Exposure to Long-Term Prospective Outcome in Bipolar I Disorder Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Rowe, Mike; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Goodwin, Frederick K.

    Objective:The long-term impact of prior antidepressant exposure on the subsequent course of bipolar illness remains controversial. Method: 139 outpatients (mean age, 42 years) with bipolar I disorder diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria had a detailed retrospective examination of their prior course of

  3. Prior Entry and Temporal Attention: Cueing Affects Order Errors in RSVP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkenmeier, Frederic; Olivers, Christian N. L.; Scharlau, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    The law of prior entry states that attended objects come to consciousness more quickly than unattended ones. This has been well established in spatial cueing paradigms, where two task-relevant stimuli are presented near-simultaneously at two different locations. Here, we suggest that prior entry also plays a pivotal role in temporal attention…

  4. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects...

  5. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects...

  6. Object Recognition using Feature- and Color-Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan; Duong, Vu; Stubberud, Allen

    2008-01-01

    An improved adaptive method of processing image data in an artificial neural network has been developed to enable automated, real-time recognition of possibly moving objects under changing (including suddenly changing) conditions of illumination and perspective. The method involves a combination of two prior object-recognition methods one based on adaptive detection of shape features and one based on adaptive color segmentation to enable recognition in situations in which either prior method by itself may be inadequate. The chosen prior feature-based method is known as adaptive principal-component analysis (APCA); the chosen prior color-based method is known as adaptive color segmentation (ACOSE). These methods are made to interact with each other in a closed-loop system to obtain an optimal solution of the object-recognition problem in a dynamic environment. One of the results of the interaction is to increase, beyond what would otherwise be possible, the accuracy of the determination of a region of interest (containing an object that one seeks to recognize) within an image. Another result is to provide a minimized adaptive step that can be used to update the results obtained by the two component methods when changes of color and apparent shape occur. The net effect is to enable the neural network to update its recognition output and improve its recognition capability via an adaptive learning sequence. In principle, the improved method could readily be implemented in integrated circuitry to make a compact, low-power, real-time object-recognition system. It has been proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by integrating a 256-by-256 active-pixel sensor with APCA, ACOSE, and neural processing circuitry on a single chip. It has been estimated that such a system on a chip would have a volume no larger than a few cubic centimeters, could operate at a rate as high as 1,000 frames per second, and would consume in the order of milliwatts of power.

  7. Image super-resolution with sparse representation prior on primitive patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haifeng; Xiong, Hongkai; Qian, Liang

    2010-07-01

    We focus on the problem of single image super-resolution in this paper. Given a low-resolution image, we seek to synthesize its underlying high-resolution details using a learning based method. Inspired by recent progress in compressive sensing, we use sparse representation prior to regularize this ill-posed problem. On the other hand, with natural image statistics taken into consideration, we enforce the prior only on those image patches associated with image primitives rather than on arbitrary ones. Specifically, each patch from primitive layer of the lowresolution image, which can be viewed as a low-dimensional projection of a high-resolution primitive patch, is conjectured to have a sparse representation concerning an over-complete dictionary. Under mild conditions, the sparse representation can be correctly restored from the low-dimensional projection according to the theory of compressive sensing. We also construct a dictionary using image primitive patches which works well on generic input images. Experiment results show the efficiency of our method by outperforming other learning-based methods both subjectively and objectively.

  8. Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Hertel, P.; Mackintosh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined

  9. Prior Authorization of PMDs Demonstration - Status Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS implemented a Prior Authorization process for scooters and power wheelchairs for people with Fee-For-Service Medicare who reside in seven states with high...

  10. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Single Item Inventory Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Bazsa-Oldenkamp; P. den Iseger

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThis paper extends a fundamental result about single-item inventory systems. This approach allows more general performance measures, demand processes and order policies, and leads to easier analysis and implementation, than prior research. We obtain closed form expressions for the

  12. Risk factors of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, S.; Lijfering, W. M.; Coppens, M.; Hamulyák, K.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.; Middeldorp, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The effect of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRs) and thrombophilic defects on the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Objective. We investigated whether the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications is

  13. Risk factors of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, S.; Lijfering, W. M.; Coppens, M.; Hamulyak, K.; Prins, M. H.; Buller, H. R.; Middeldorp, S.

    Background. The effect of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRs) and thrombophilic defects on the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications in patients with prior venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Objective. We investigated whether the risk of arterial cardiovascular complications is

  14. Inference with the Median of a Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad-Djafari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of inference on one of the two parameters of a probability distribution when we have some prior information on a nuisance parameter. When a prior probability distribution on this nuisance parameter is given, the marginal distribution is the classical tool to account for it. If the prior distribution is not given, but we have partial knowledge such as a fixed number of moments, we can use the maximum entropy principle to assign a prior law and thus go back to the previous case. In this work, we consider the case where we only know the median of the prior and propose a new tool for this case. This new inference tool looks like a marginal distribution. It is obtained by first remarking that the marginal distribution can be considered as the mean value of the original distribution with respect to the prior probability law of the nuisance parameter, and then, by using the median in place of the mean.

  15. Targeted Memory Reactivation during Sleep Depends on Prior Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creery, Jessica D; Oudiette, Delphine; Antony, James W; Paller, Ken A

    2015-05-01

    When sounds associated with learning are presented again during slow-wave sleep, targeted memory reactivation (TMR) can produce improvements in subsequent location recall. Here we used TMR to investigate memory consolidation during an afternoon nap as a function of prior learning. Twenty healthy individuals (8 male, 19-23 y old). Participants learned to associate each of 50 common objects with a unique screen location. When each object appeared, its characteristic sound was played. After electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes were applied, location recall was assessed for each object, followed by a 90-min interval for sleep. During EEG-verified slow-wave sleep, half of the sounds were quietly presented over white noise. Recall was assessed 3 h after initial learning. A beneficial effect of TMR was found in the form of higher recall accuracy for cued objects compared to uncued objects when pre-sleep accuracy was used as an explanatory variable. An analysis of individual differences revealed that this benefit was greater for participants with higher pre-sleep recall accuracy. In an analysis for individual objects, cueing benefits were apparent as long as initial recall was not highly accurate. Sleep physiology analyses revealed that the cueing benefit correlated with delta power and fast spindle density. These findings substantiate the use of targeted memory reactivation (TMR) methods for manipulating consolidation during sleep. TMR can selectively strengthen memory storage for object-location associations learned prior to sleep, except for those near-perfectly memorized. Neural measures found in conjunction with TMR-induced strengthening provide additional evidence about mechanisms of sleep consolidation. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Bayesian inference from count data using discrete uniform priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoglio, Federico; Fracchia, Letizia; Rinaldi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We consider a set of sample counts obtained by sampling arbitrary fractions of a finite volume containing an homogeneously dispersed population of identical objects. We report a Bayesian derivation of the posterior probability distribution of the population size using a binomial likelihood and non-conjugate, discrete uniform priors under sampling with or without replacement. Our derivation yields a computationally feasible formula that can prove useful in a variety of statistical problems involving absolute quantification under uncertainty. We implemented our algorithm in the R package dupiR and compared it with a previously proposed Bayesian method based on a Gamma prior. As a showcase, we demonstrate that our inference framework can be used to estimate bacterial survival curves from measurements characterized by extremely low or zero counts and rather high sampling fractions. All in all, we provide a versatile, general purpose algorithm to infer population sizes from count data, which can find application in a broad spectrum of biological and physical problems.

  17. Object interaction competence model v. 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Schulte, C.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching and learning object oriented programming has to take into account the specific object oriented characteristics of program execution, namely the interaction of objects during runtime. Prior to the research reported in this article, we have developed a competence model for object interaction...

  18. Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpart, Paula; Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2018-05-01

    Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. In contrast, we show at the computational level (where algorithmic restrictions are set aside) that it is never optimal to discard information. Through a formal Bayesian analysis, we prove that popular heuristics, such as tallying and take-the-best, are formally equivalent to Bayesian inference under the limit of infinitely strong priors. Varying the strength of the prior yields a continuum of Bayesian models with the heuristics at one end and ordinary regression at the other. Critically, intermediate models perform better across all our simulations, suggesting that down-weighting information with the appropriate prior is preferable to entirely ignoring it. Rather than because of their simplicity, our analyses suggest heuristics perform well because they implement strong priors that approximate the actual structure of the environment. We end by considering how new heuristics could be derived by infinitely strengthening the priors of other Bayesian models. These formal results have implications for work in psychology, machine learning and economics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Numbers and prior knowledge in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether the comprehension of sentences that contained numerical information could benefit from presenting numbers in Arabic format and from using prior knowledge. Participants read sentences including numbers (Arabic digits or number words while the comprehension accuracy was evaluated. In addition, the sentences were biased or unbiased by people's prior knowledge about quantities. The results showed better comprehension for sentences that contained Arabic digits as compared to number words. Moreover, biased sentences were understood more accurately than unbiased sentences. These results indicate that information about magnitude in sentence context is comprehended better when quantities are presented in Arabic format and when they are associated with participants' world knowledge.

  20. Can natural selection encode Bayesian priors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Camilo; Marshall, James A R

    2017-08-07

    The evolutionary success of many organisms depends on their ability to make decisions based on estimates of the state of their environment (e.g., predation risk) from uncertain information. These decision problems have optimal solutions and individuals in nature are expected to evolve the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if using the optimal solutions. Bayesian inference is the optimal method to produce estimates from uncertain data, thus natural selection is expected to favour individuals with the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if they were computing Bayesian estimates in typically-experienced environments, although this does not necessarily imply that favoured decision-makers do perform Bayesian computations exactly. Each individual should evolve to behave as if updating a prior estimate of the unknown environment variable to a posterior estimate as it collects evidence. The prior estimate represents the decision-maker's default belief regarding the environment variable, i.e., the individual's default 'worldview' of the environment. This default belief has been hypothesised to be shaped by natural selection and represent the environment experienced by the individual's ancestors. We present an evolutionary model to explore how accurately Bayesian prior estimates can be encoded genetically and shaped by natural selection when decision-makers learn from uncertain information. The model simulates the evolution of a population of individuals that are required to estimate the probability of an event. Every individual has a prior estimate of this probability and collects noisy cues from the environment in order to update its prior belief to a Bayesian posterior estimate with the evidence gained. The prior is inherited and passed on to offspring. Fitness increases with the accuracy of the posterior estimates produced. Simulations show that prior estimates become accurate over evolutionary time. In addition to these 'Bayesian' individuals, we also

  1. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    to estimate SNP effects, except in the case of fat yield. The small size of the Jersey validation set meant that these improvements in accuracy were not significant using a Hotelling-Williams t-test at the 5% level. An increase in accuracy of 1-2% for all traits was observed in the Australian Holstein...... population when using a prior derived from the Nordic Holstein population compared to using no prior information. These improvements were significant (PHotelling Williams t-test for protein- and fat yield Conclusion For some traits the method might be advantageous compared to pooling...

  2. Single Nanoparticle Plasmonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Sriram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of plasmonic nanomaterials in optical sensors, coupled with the advances in detection techniques, has opened the way for biosensing with single plasmonic particles. Single nanoparticle sensors offer the potential to analyse biochemical interactions at a single-molecule level, thereby allowing us to capture even more information than ensemble measurements. We introduce the concepts behind single nanoparticle sensing and how the localised surface plasmon resonances of these nanoparticles are dependent upon their materials, shape and size. Then we outline the different synthetic approaches, like citrate reduction, seed-mediated and seedless growth, that enable the synthesis of gold and silver nanospheres, nanorods, nanostars, nanoprisms and other nanostructures with tunable sizes. Further, we go into the aspects related to purification and functionalisation of nanoparticles, prior to the fabrication of sensing surfaces. Finally, the recent developments in single nanoparticle detection, spectroscopy and sensing applications are discussed.

  3. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  4. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an ...

  5. routine saline infusion sonohysterography prior to assisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The outcome of assisted reproductive technique largely depends on the receptivity of the endometrial lining of the uterus. Measures aimed at evaluating the uterine cavity prior to treatment are very vital for decision making and hence contribute to the overall success rate. The true prevalence of intrauterine ...

  6. Validity in assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2015-01-01

    , the article discusses the need for specific criteria for assessment. The reliability and validity of the assessment procedures depend on whether the competences are well-defined, and whether the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures. Keywords: assessment, prior learning, adult...... education, vocational training, lifelong learning, validity...

  7. Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo

    This thesis presents a collection of statistical models that attempt to take advantage of every piece of prior knowledge available to provide the models with as much structure as possible. The main motivation for introducing these models is interpretability since in practice we want to be able to...

  8. Reichenbach, Prior and Hybrid Tense Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we combine central insights of Prior and Reichenbach in the framework of hybrid tense logic. We do so in a way that overcomes a well-known defect of Reichenbach’s original tense schema, namely that it gives multiple representations to sentences in the Future perfect and the Future...... on the range of tense operators....

  9. Utilizing knowledge from prior plans in the evaluation of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanhope, Carl; Wu, Q Jackie; Yuan, Lulin; Liu, Jianfei; Hood, Rodney; Yin, Fang-Fang; Adamson, Justus

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest regarding sensitivity of pre-treatment intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA) to delivery errors has led to the development of dose-volume histogram (DVH) based analysis. This paradigm shift necessitates a change in the acceptance criteria and action tolerance for QA. Here we present a knowledge based technique to objectively quantify degradations in DVH for prostate radiotherapy.Using machine learning, organ-at-risk (OAR) DVHs from a population of 198 prior patients’ plans were adapted to a test patient’s anatomy to establish patient-specific DVH ranges. This technique was applied to single arc prostate VMAT plans to evaluate various simulated delivery errors: systematic single leaf offsets, systematic leaf bank offsets, random normally distributed leaf fluctuations, systematic lag in gantry angle of the mutli-leaf collimators (MLCs), fluctuations in dose rate, and delivery of each VMAT arc with a constant rather than variable dose rate.Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic suggests V 75Gy dose limits of 15% for the rectum and 25% for the bladder, however the knowledge based constraints were more stringent: 8.48   ±   2.65% for the rectum and 4.90   ±   1.98% for the bladder. 19   ±   10 mm single leaf and 1.9   ±   0.7 mm single bank offsets resulted in rectum DVHs worse than 97.7% (2σ) of clinically accepted plans. PTV degradations fell outside of the acceptable range for 0.6   ±   0.3 mm leaf offsets, 0.11   ±   0.06 mm bank offsets, 0.6   ±   1.3 mm of random noise, and 1.0   ±   0.7° of gantry-MLC lag.Utilizing a training set comprised of prior treatment plans, machine learning is used to predict a range of achievable DVHs for the test patient’s anatomy. Consequently, degradations leading to statistical outliers may be identified. A

  10. Object models and object representation Tutorial 4

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Mahey, Mahendra

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial will provide a practical overview of current practices in modelling complex or compound digital objects. It will examine some of the key scenarios around creating complex objects and will explore a number of approaches to packaging and transport. Taking research papers, or scholarly works, as an example, the tutorial will explore the different ways in which these, and their descriptive metadata, can be treated as complex objects. Relevant application profiles and metadata formats will be introduced and compared, such as Dublin Core, in particular the DCMI Abstract Model, and MODS, alongside content packaging standards, such as METS MPEG 21 DIDL and IMS CP. Finally, we will consider some future issues and activities that are seeking to address these. The tutorial will be of interest to librarians and technical staff with an interest in metadata or complex objects, their creation, management and re-use.

  11. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...

  12. Adapting prior knowledge activation: Mobilisation, perspective taking, and learners' prior knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., Kester, L., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2011). Adapting prior knowledge activation: Mobilisation, perspective taking, and learners’ prior knowledge [Special issue]. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(1), 16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.004

  13. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract...

  14. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  15. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disney, M.J.; Veron, P.

    1977-01-01

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  16. Designing the Object Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filip, Diane; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    The Object Game is an exploratory design game and an experiment of developing a tangible object that can spark dialogue and retrospection between collaborative partners and act as a boundary object. The objective of this article is to show and elaborate on the development of the Object Game......, and to provide case examples of the game in action. The Object Game has two parts – Story-building and Co-rating of objects – with the aim of stimulating a collaborative reflection on knowledge sharing with different objects. In Story-building, the participants visualize their knowledge sharing process...... these facilitated knowledge transfer, knowledge exchange, knowledge generation, and knowledge integration. The participants collaborative reflected on their use of different objects for knowledge sharing and learn which objects have been effective (and which have not been effective) in their collaborative...

  17. Effect of objective function on multi-objective inverse planning of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoli; Wu Yican; Song Gang; Wang Shifang

    2006-01-01

    There are two kinds of objective functions in radiotherapy inverse planning: dose distribution-based and Dose-Volume Histogram (DVH)-based functions. The treatment planning in our days is still a trial and error process because the multi-objective problem is solved by transforming it into a single objective problem using a specific set of weights for each object. This work investigates the problem of objective function setting based on Pareto multi-optimization theory, and compares the effect on multi-objective inverse planning of those two kinds of objective functions including calculation time, converge speed, etc. The basis of objective function setting on inverse planning is discussed. (authors)

  18. ATLAS measurements of boosted object production

    CERN Document Server

    Arguin, Jean-Francois; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This talk reviews ATLAS Standard Model measurements performed with boosted objects, i.e. boosted top quarks and W and Z bosons, which decay hadronically and are reconstructed as a single large radius jet.

  19. Random template placement and prior information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roever, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  20. Prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to central venous catheter placement in patients with thrombocytopenia: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weerdt, Emma K; Biemond, Bart J; Zeerleder, Sacha S; van Lienden, Krijn P; Binnekade, Jan M; Vlaar, Alexander P J

    2018-02-20

    Severe thrombocytopenia should be corrected by prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to central venous catheter (CVC) insertion, according to national and international guidelines. Even though correction is thought to prevent bleeding complications, evidence supporting the routine administration of prophylactic platelets is absent. Furthermore, platelet transfusion bears inherent risk. Since the introduction of ultrasound-guided CVC placement, bleeding complication rates have decreased. The objective of the current trial is, therefore, to demonstrate that omitting prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC placement in severely thrombocytopenic patients is non-inferior compared to prophylactic platelet transfusion. The PACER trial is an investigator-initiated, national, multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled, non-inferior, two-arm trial in haematologic and/or intensive care patients with a platelet count of between 10 and 50 × 10 9 /L and an indication for CVC placement. Consecutive patients are randomly assigned to either receive 1 unit of platelet concentrate, or receive no prophylactic platelet transfusion prior to CVC insertion. The primary endpoint is WHO grades 2-4 bleeding. Secondary endpoints are any bleeding complication, costs, length of intensive care and hospital stay and transfusion requirements. This is the first prospective, randomised controlled trial powered to test the hypothesis of whether omitting forgoing platelet transfusion prior to central venous cannulation leads to an equal occurrence of clinical relevant bleeding complications in critically ill and haematologic patients with thrombocytopenia. Nederlands Trial Registry, ID: NTR5653 ( http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/index.asp ). Registered on 27 January 2016. Currently recruiting. Randomisation commenced on 23 February 2016.

  1. Incorporating biological prior knowledge for Bayesian learning via maximal knowledge-driven information priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluki, Shahin; Esfahani, Mohammad Shahrokh; Qian, Xiaoning; Dougherty, Edward R

    2017-12-28

    Phenotypic classification is problematic because small samples are ubiquitous; and, for these, use of prior knowledge is critical. If knowledge concerning the feature-label distribution - for instance, genetic pathways - is available, then it can be used in learning. Optimal Bayesian classification provides optimal classification under model uncertainty. It differs from classical Bayesian methods in which a classification model is assumed and prior distributions are placed on model parameters. With optimal Bayesian classification, uncertainty is treated directly on the feature-label distribution, which assures full utilization of prior knowledge and is guaranteed to outperform classical methods. The salient problem confronting optimal Bayesian classification is prior construction. In this paper, we propose a new prior construction methodology based on a general framework of constraints in the form of conditional probability statements. We call this prior the maximal knowledge-driven information prior (MKDIP). The new constraint framework is more flexible than our previous methods as it naturally handles the potential inconsistency in archived regulatory relationships and conditioning can be augmented by other knowledge, such as population statistics. We also extend the application of prior construction to a multinomial mixture model when labels are unknown, which often occurs in practice. The performance of the proposed methods is examined on two important pathway families, the mammalian cell-cycle and a set of p53-related pathways, and also on a publicly available gene expression dataset of non-small cell lung cancer when combined with the existing prior knowledge on relevant signaling pathways. The new proposed general prior construction framework extends the prior construction methodology to a more flexible framework that results in better inference when proper prior knowledge exists. Moreover, the extension of optimal Bayesian classification to multinomial

  2. Prior buprenorphine experience is associated with office-based buprenorphine treatment outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Roose, Robert J.; Starrels, Joanna L.; Giovanniello, Angela; Sohler, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives As buprenorphine treatment and illicit buprenorphine use increase, many patients seeking buprenorphine treatment will have had prior experience with buprenorphine. Little evidence is available to guide optimal treatment strategies for patients with prior buprenorphine experience. We examined whether prior buprenorphine experience was associated with treatment retention and opioid use. We also explored whether type of prior buprenorphine use (prescribed or illicit use) was associated with these treatment outcomes. Methods We analyzed interview and medical record data from a longitudinal cohort study of 87 individuals who initiated office-based buprenorphine treatment. We examined associations between prior buprenorphine experience and 6-month treatment retention using logistic regression models, and prior buprenorphine experience and any self-reported opioid use at 1, 3, and 6 months using non-linear mixed models. Results Most (57.4%) participants reported prior buprenorphine experience; of these, 40% used prescribed buprenorphine and 60% illicit buprenorphine only. Compared to buprenorphine-naïve participants, those with prior buprenorphine experience had better treatment retention (AOR=2.65, 95% CI=1.05–6.70). Similar associations that did not reach significance were found when exploring prescribed and illicit buprenorphine use. There was no difference in opioid use when comparing participants with prior buprenorphine experience to those who were buprenorphine-naive (AOR=1.33, 95% CI=0.38–4.65). Although not significant, qualitatively different results were found when exploring opioid use by type of prior buprenorphine use (prescribed buprenorphine vs. buprenorphine-naïve, AOR=2.20, 95% CI=0.58–8.26; illicit buprenorphine vs. buprenorphine-naïve, AOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.07–3.46). Conclusions Prior buprenorphine experience was common and associated with better retention. Understanding how prior buprenorphine experience affects treatment outcomes

  3. Grasping trapezoidal objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinholdermann, Urs; Brenner, Eli; Franz, Volker H; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2007-07-01

    When grasping rectangular or circular objects with a precision grip the digits close in on the object in opposite directions. In doing so the digits move perpendicular to the local surface orientation as they approach opposite sides of the object. This perpendicular approach is advantageous for accurately placing the digits. Trapezoidal objects have non-parallel surfaces so that moving the digits in opposite directions would make the digits approach the contact surfaces at an angle that is not 90 degrees . In this study we examined whether this happens, or whether subjects tend to approach trapezoidal objects' surfaces perpendicularly. We used objects of different sizes and with different surface slants. Subjects tended to approach the object's surfaces orthogonally, suggesting that they aim for an optimal precision of digit placement rather than simply closing their hand as it reaches the object.

  4. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3)

  5. The Effects of Prior Outcomes on Risky Choice: Evidence from the Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How do prior outcomes affect the risk choice? Research on this can help people to understand investors’ dynamic decisions in financial market. This paper puts forward a new value function. By analyzing the new value function, we find that the prior gains and losses have an impact on the form of value function and the current investors’ risk attitude. Then the paper takes the behavior of the whole stock market as the research object, adopts aggregative index number of 14 representative stocks around the world as samples, and establishes a TVRA-GARCH-M model to investigate the influences of prior gains and losses on the current risk attitude. The empirical study indicates that, at the whole market level, prior gains increase people’s current willingness to take risk assert; that is to say, the house money effect exists in the market, while people are more risk aversion following prior losses.

  6. Grasping trapezoidal objects

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinholdermann, Urs; Brenner, Eli; Franz, Volker H.; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2007-01-01

    When grasping rectangular or circular objects with a precision grip the digits close in on the object in opposite directions. In doing so the digits move perpendicular to the local surface orientation as they approach opposite sides of the object. This perpendicular approach is advantageous for accurately placing the digits. Trapezoidal objects have non-parallel surfaces so that moving the digits in opposite directions would make the digits approach the contact surfaces at an angle that is no...

  7. [Historiography of medical objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Felip

    2008-01-01

    It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.

  8. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  9. Grasping trapezoidal objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kleinholdermann (Urs); E. Brenner (Eli); V.H. Franz (Volker); J.B.J. Smeets (Jeroen)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWhen grasping rectangular or circular objects with a precision grip the digits close in on the object in opposite directions. In doing so the digits move perpendicular to the local surface orientation as they approach opposite sides of the object. This perpendicular approach is

  10. Grasping trapezoidal objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinholdermann, U; Brenner, E.; Franz, V.H.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2007-01-01

    When grasping rectangular or circular objects with a precision grip the digits close in on the object in opposite directions. In doing so the digits move perpendicular to the local surface orientation as they approach opposite sides of the object. This perpendicular approach is advantageous for

  11. The Language of Objection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever the author talks to audiences about transforming school systems, without exception people raise objections. The half dozen most common objections often come in the form of "Yes, nice idea but..." What follows the "but" is the objection. The author learned a technique for responding to these "buts" from family members who work in sales.…

  12. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  13. Shared Recoverable Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Kienzle, Jörg; Strohmeier, Alfred; Harbour, Michael Gonzalez; de la Puente, Juan A.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes an implementation of recoverable objects that can be accessed concurrently. After a brief description of the possible uses of recoverable objects and after reviewing some of the new features of Ada 95 used in the implementation, the design issues are discussed and the interface of the recoverable object class is presented. An example application using multitasking demonstrates its applicability.

  14. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  15. Implementation of vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery to decrease endometritis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Laura; Paternostro, Amanda; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Baxter, Jason; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2018-01-17

    Endometritis is a postpartum complication that is more common after cesarean delivery. It frequently requires intravenous antibiotic administration, prolonged hospital stays, and carries a risk of sepsis or abscess formation. Precesarean vaginal preparation has been shown to decrease the risk of endometritis in patients who have labored or have ruptured membranes. The objective of this study was to assess the practical implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery and the subsequent effect on endometritis rates in a clinical setting. This is a before-after retrospective cohort study evaluating the first 6 months of implementation of a vaginal cleansing protocol at a single institution. The primary outcome was the rate of implementation. Secondary outcomes included endometritis and other postoperative complications. The rate of implementation after 6 months was 68.3% (p < .001) and postoperative endometritis rates decreased from 14.0% before implementation to 11.7% after implementation (p .49, OR 0.77, CI 0.36-1.62). Postoperative fever decreased from 22.3% to 18.3% (p .256, OR 0.70, CI 0.37-1.30) and infectious wound complications were 4.5% and 5.8%, respectively (p .76, OR 1.07, CI 0.69-3.64). Implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery in women with ruptured membranes or in labor has high uptake, but in almost a third of eligible women it was not performed. The implementation, has led to a clinical, although not statistical, decrease in postoperative endometritis. Continued research is needed to explore how to improve uptake of this quality improvement measure.

  16. A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blinded, Head-to-Head Long-Term Outcome Study, Comparing Intrathecal (IT) Boluses With Continuous Infusion Trialing Techniques Prior to Implantation of Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) for the Treatment of Severe Intractable Chronic Nonmalignant Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Maged; Doleys, Daniel M; Saleh, Islam A; Medvedovsky, Andrew; Verdolin, Michael H; Hamza, Monalyce

    2015-10-01

    The study aims to compare intrathecal (IT) boluses to continuous infusion trialing techniques prior to implantation of drug delivery systems (DDS) for the treatment of severe intractable chronic nonmalignant pain. This is a prospective, randomized, head-to-head long-term outcome study. Forty patients with comparable patient demographics were randomly assigned to two cohorts. Cohort A trialed with intermittent boluses; Cohort B trialed with continuous infusion. One patient failed trial in each group. Nineteen patients were implanted in each group. Follow-up was for 36 months with intervals at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 months. The Brief Pain Inventory was used was used for assessment. We used the Brief Pain Inventory to measure pain (worst and average), physical function (walking, normal work, and general activity), behavioral function (mood, sleep, and relations with others), IT dose, and oral opioid use. We observed statistically significant reduction in pain and improvement of function in both cohorts following DDS implantation throughout the observation period. The IT dose remained virtually unchanged throughout as well, with overall limited dose escalation. Oral opioid use was significantly reduced. There was no statistically significant difference in prediction of trial success or long-term outcomes between the two cohorts. Low-dose IT opioids via DDS can provide significant and long-lasting reduction in pain, and improvement in function (physical and behavioral) for patients with chronic nonmalignant pain. The two trialing techniques tested, intermittent boluses, and continuous infusion delivered intrathecally showed no clinical significance difference in terms of predicting trial success or long-term outcomes. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Aldrin at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edward E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. and his wife, Lois, stand before a painting of an Apollo/Saturn V launch vehicle at the pad in the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft component displays and multimedia presentations. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  18. Models for Validation of Prior Learning (VPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Søren

    The national policies for the education/training of adults are in the 21st century highly influenced by proposals which are formulated and promoted by The European Union (EU) as well as other transnational players and this shift in policy making has consequences. One is that ideas which in the past...... would have been categorized as utopian can become realpolitik. Validation of Prior Learning (VPL) was in Europe mainly regarded as utopian while universities in the United States of America (USA) were developing ways to obtain credits to those students which was coming with experiences from working life....

  19. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  20. Delayed Single Stage Perineal Posterior Urethroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Shahnawaz; Shahzad, I.; Baloch, M. U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture/distraction defect. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology: Patients were selected for delayed single stage perineal posterior urethroplasty for treatment of posterior urethral stricture / distraction defect. All were initially suprapubically catheterized followed by definitive surgery after at least 3 months. Results: Thirty male patients were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 10 months, 2 patients were excluded as they developed failure in first 3 months postoperatively. Mean patients age was 26.25 ± 7.9 years. On follow-up, 7 patients (23.3 percentage) experienced recurrent stricture during first 10 months. Five (16.6 percentage) patients were treated successfully with single direct visual internal urethrotomy. Two patients (6.6 percentage) had more than one direct visual internal urethrotomy and considered failed. Re-do perineal urethroplasty was eventually performed. The overall success rate was 93.3 percentage with permissive criteria allowing single direct visual internal urethrotomy and 76.6% with strict criteria allowing no more procedures postoperatively. Conclusion: Posterior anastomotic urethroplasty offers excellent long-term results to patients with posterior urethral trauma and distraction defect even after multiple prior procedures. (author)

  1. Nutrient deficiencies prior to bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roust, Lori R; DiBaise, John K

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update of recent additions to our understanding of the prevalence of nutrient deficiencies and the potential role of preoperative weight loss in contributing to these deficiencies in obese individuals planning to undergo bariatric surgery. Recent reports that have included bariatric surgery candidates from sites around the world have shown consistent deficiencies in a variety of nutrients. Although protein-energy malnutrition is uncommon preoperatively, micronutrient deficiencies occur commonly with multiple deficiencies often present in the same individual. No difference in the prevalence of deficiency between men and women is apparent, and a standard profile of susceptibility to deficiency has not been identified. In the only studies that have evaluated dietary intake of total energy, macronutrients and micronutrients preoperatively, despite an excess of calories ingested, micronutrient intake tends to be lower than recommended. A high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, especially vitamin D, folate, B12 and iron, is present in obese individuals being considered for bariatric surgery. Despite high-caloric intake, the deficiencies present appear to be related to the poor quality of the diet and low micronutrient intake. These findings strengthen prior recommendations of routine preoperative nutritional screening. Because a standard profile of susceptibility to deficiency has not been identified, extensive nutritional screening, including micronutrient testing, should be considered in all patients in the preoperative setting. Finally, we recommend early supplementation of vitamins and minerals based on laboratory assessment and incorporation of a program to optimize eating behaviors prior to surgery.

  2. Prior Pronunciation Knowledge Bootstraps Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khia Anne Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Learners often struggle with L2 sounds, yet little is known about the role of prior pronunciation knowledge and explicit articulatory training in language acquisition. This study asks if existing pronunciation knowledge can bootstrap word learning, and whether short-term audiovisual articulatory training for tongue position with and without a production component has an effect on lexical retention. Participants were trained and tested on stimuli with perceptually salient segments that are challenging to produce. Results indicate that pronunciation knowledge plays an important role in word learning. While much about the extent and shape of this role remains unclear, this study sheds light in three main areas. First, prior pronunciation knowledge leads to increased accuracy in word learning, as all groups trended toward lower accuracy on pseudowords with two novel segments, when compared with those with one or none. Second, all training and control conditions followed similar patterns, with training neither aiding nor inhibiting retention; this is a noteworthy result as previous work has found that the inclusion of production in training leads to decreased performance when testing for retention. Finally, higher production accuracy during practice led to higher retention after the word-learning task, indicating that individual differences and successful training are potentially important indicators of retention. This study provides support for the claim that pronunciation matters in L2 word learning.

  3. Prior knowledge-based approach for associating ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating the potential human health and/or ecological risks associated with exposures to complex chemical mixtures in the ambient environment is one of the central challenges of chemical safety assessment and environmental protection. There is a need for approaches that can help to integrate chemical monitoring and bio-effects data to evaluate risks associated with chemicals present in the environment. We used prior knowledge about chemical-gene interactions to develop a knowledge assembly model for detected chemicals at five locations near two wastewater treatment plants. The assembly model was used to generate hypotheses about the biological impacts of the chemicals at each location. The hypotheses were tested using empirical hepatic gene expression data from fathead minnows exposed for 12 d at each location. Empirical gene expression data was also mapped to the assembly models to statistically evaluate the likelihood of a chemical contributing to the observed biological responses. The prior knowledge approach was able reasonably hypothesize the biological impacts at one site but not the other. Chemicals most likely contributing to the observed biological responses were identified at each location. Despite limitations to the approach, knowledge assembly models have strong potential for associating chemical occurrence with potential biological effects and providing a foundation for hypothesis generation to guide research and/or monitoring efforts relat

  4. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  5. Prior opportunities to identify abuse in children with abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letson, Megan M; Cooper, Jennifer N; Deans, Katherine J; Scribano, Philip V; Makoroff, Kathi L; Feldman, Kenneth W; Berger, Rachel P

    2016-10-01

    Infants with minor abusive injuries are at risk for more serious abusive injury, including abusive head trauma (AHT). Our study objective was to determine if children with AHT had prior opportunities to detect abuse and to describe the opportunities. All AHT cases from 7/1/2009 to 12/31/2011 at four tertiary care children's hospitals were included. A prior opportunity was defined as prior evaluation by either a medical or child protective services (CPS) professional when the symptoms and/or referral could be consistent with abuse but the diagnosis was not made and/or an alternate explanation was given and accepted. Two-hundred-thirty-two children with AHT were identified; median age (IQR) was 5.40 (3.30, 14.60) months. Ten percent (22/232) died. Of the 232 patients diagnosed with AHT, 31% (n=73) had a total of 120 prior opportunities. Fifty-nine children (25%) had at least one prior opportunity to identify abuse in a medical setting, representing 98 prior opportunities. An additional 14 (6%) children had 22 prior opportunities through previous CPS involvement. There were no differences between those with and without a prior opportunity based on age, gender, race, insurance, mortality, or institution. Children with prior opportunities in a medical setting were more likely to have chronic subdural hemorrhage (48 vs. 17%, p<0.01) and healing fractures (31 vs. 19%, p=0.05). The most common prior opportunities included vomiting 31.6% (38/120), prior CPS contact 20% (24/120), and bruising 11.7% (14/120). Improvements in earlier recognition of AHT and subsequent intervention might prevent additional injuries and reduce mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  7. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  8. Non-convex multi-objective optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, Panos M; Žilinskas, Julius

    2017-01-01

    Recent results on non-convex multi-objective optimization problems and methods are presented in this book, with particular attention to expensive black-box objective functions. Multi-objective optimization methods facilitate designers, engineers, and researchers to make decisions on appropriate trade-offs between various conflicting goals. A variety of deterministic and stochastic multi-objective optimization methods are developed in this book. Beginning with basic concepts and a review of non-convex single-objective optimization problems; this book moves on to cover multi-objective branch and bound algorithms, worst-case optimal algorithms (for Lipschitz functions and bi-objective problems), statistical models based algorithms, and probabilistic branch and bound approach. Detailed descriptions of new algorithms for non-convex multi-objective optimization, their theoretical substantiation, and examples for practical applications to the cell formation problem in manufacturing engineering, the process design in...

  9. [Medical evaluation prior to fertility treatment--time for reconsideration?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Segev; Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit; Lavie, Ofer; Auslender, Ron

    2011-11-01

    The aim of modern obstetrics is to bring a healthy child to a healthy mother. Preconception counseling is a form of preventive medicine that consists of three main components: risk assessment, health promotion and intervention, in order to improve pregnancy outcome. A large proportion of women, who need assisted reproductive technologies (ART) due to infertility, are older than the average pregnant women. The risk for chronic maternal disease such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and malignant disease greatly increases with maternal age. Chronic maternal illness might increase the risk of in vitro fertilization procedure and is also associated with increased obstetrics risk and even death. A previous study has shown that most maternal deaths in the USA, due to chronic maternal disease, are potentially preventable through better medical care from preconception, yet most studies that deal with preconception care in infertility patients only address the problems of infertility. Therefore, similar to the recommendations of the American Heart Association before non-competitive physical activity, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists before an elective surgery, we suggest a pre-ART medical assessment. Our objective is to outline the potential risks for older women who undergo ART procedure and potentially, pregnancy, and to characterize guidelines for evaluation prior to enrolling them in ART programs. Pre-ART assessment should include a thorough medical questionnaire and medical examination. Appropriate treatment for women with medical conditions prior to ART procedure and optimizing disease control in preparation for pregnancy including changing a potentially teratogenic treatment, can improve women's health status prior to pregnancy and reduce pregnancy related complications. At the end of the evaluation, and before ART treatment, the women should be consulted, based on the results of tests, on the possible risks

  10. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how an initial indexing of objects through gesture and talk provides a residual basis for later indexical development across a stretch of discourse. I show how participants are able to perform an initial mobilization of affordances (Hutchby, 2001) of objects in the immediate...... the interactional resources which mundane everyday objects provide interactants in the multimodal design of their turns-at-talk. Although the objects which feature in the data – for example notepads, tables, computer monitors – have practical functions within the social ecology of these institutional settings...

  11. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  12. Discriminative Prior - Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing Reconstruction for Low-Dose CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Liu, Jin; Xie, Lizhe; Hu, Yining; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Zhang, Libo; Gui, Zhiguo; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2017-10-24

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely used to provide patient-specific anatomical information in the forms of tissue attenuation. However, the cumulative radiation induced in CT scan has raised extensive concerns in recently years. How to maintain reconstruction image quality is a major challenge for low-dose CT (LDCT) imaging. Generally, LDCT imaging can be greatly improved by incorporating prior knowledge in some specific forms. A joint estimation framework termed discriminative prior-prior image constrained compressed sensing (DP-PICCS) reconstruction is proposed in this paper. This DP-PICCS algorithm utilizes discriminative prior knowledge via two feature dictionary constraints which built on atoms from the samples of tissue attenuation feature patches and noise-artifacts residual feature patches, respectively. Also, the prior image construction relies on a discriminative feature representation (DFR) processing by two feature dictionary. Its comparison to other competing methods through experiments on low-dose projections acquired from torso phantom simulation study and clinical abdomen study demonstrated that the DP-PICCS method achieved promising improvement in terms of the effectively-suppressed noise and the well-retained structures.

  13. Variable Selection with Prior Information for Generalized Linear Models via the Prior LASSO Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; He, Yunxiao

    2015-01-01

    LASSO is a popular statistical tool often used in conjunction with generalized linear models that can simultaneously select variables and estimate parameters. When there are many variables of interest, as in current biological and biomedical studies, the power of LASSO can be limited. Fortunately, so much biological and biomedical data have been collected and they may contain useful information about the importance of certain variables. This paper proposes an extension of LASSO, namely, prior LASSO (pLASSO), to incorporate that prior information into penalized generalized linear models. The goal is achieved by adding in the LASSO criterion function an additional measure of the discrepancy between the prior information and the model. For linear regression, the whole solution path of the pLASSO estimator can be found with a procedure similar to the Least Angle Regression (LARS). Asymptotic theories and simulation results show that pLASSO provides significant improvement over LASSO when the prior information is relatively accurate. When the prior information is less reliable, pLASSO shows great robustness to the misspecification. We illustrate the application of pLASSO using a real data set from a genome-wide association study. PMID:27217599

  14. Carotid Artery Stenting prior to Cardiac Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Heyden, J.A.S.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the strategy of the management and treatment of patients with concomitant significant carotid and coronary artery disease. The short and long term outcome of a single centre experience is reported and compared with general common practise. The author conducted different

  15. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.

  16. Bayesian inference from count data using discrete uniform priors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Comoglio

    Full Text Available We consider a set of sample counts obtained by sampling arbitrary fractions of a finite volume containing an homogeneously dispersed population of identical objects. We report a Bayesian derivation of the posterior probability distribution of the population size using a binomial likelihood and non-conjugate, discrete uniform priors under sampling with or without replacement. Our derivation yields a computationally feasible formula that can prove useful in a variety of statistical problems involving absolute quantification under uncertainty. We implemented our algorithm in the R package dupiR and compared it with a previously proposed Bayesian method based on a Gamma prior. As a showcase, we demonstrate that our inference framework can be used to estimate bacterial survival curves from measurements characterized by extremely low or zero counts and rather high sampling fractions. All in all, we provide a versatile, general purpose algorithm to infer population sizes from count data, which can find application in a broad spectrum of biological and physical problems.

  17. Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero, Joaquin

    2002-01-01

    In extended linear models the input space is projected onto a feature space by means of an arbitrary non-linear transformation. A linear model is then applied to the feature space to construct the model output. The dimension of the feature space can be very large, or even infinite, giving the model...... a very big flexibility. Support Vector Machines (SVM's) and Gaussian processes are two examples of such models. In this technical report I present a model in which the dimension of the feature space remains finite, and where a Bayesian approach is used to train the model with Gaussian priors...... on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....

  18. Optimal scheduling of micro grids based on single objective programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue

    2018-04-01

    Faced with the growing demand for electricity and the shortage of fossil fuels, how to optimally optimize the micro-grid has become an important research topic to maximize the economic, technological and environmental benefits of the micro-grid. This paper considers the role of the battery and the micro-grid and power grid to allow the exchange of power not exceeding 150kW preconditions, the main study of the economy to load for the goal is to minimize the electricity cost (abandonment of wind), to establish an optimization model, and to solve the problem by genetic algorithm. The optimal scheduling scheme is obtained and the utilization of renewable energy and the impact of the battery involved in regulation are analyzed.

  19. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...

  20. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  1. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...

  2. Composing Concurrent Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk

    1994-01-01

    Adopting the object-oriented paradigm for the development of large and complex software systems offers several advantages, of which increased extensibility and reusability are the most prominent ones. The object-oriented model is also quite suitable for modelling concurrent systems. However, it

  3. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...

  4. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  5. Savings for visuomotor adaptation require prior history of error, not prior repetition of successful actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    When we move, perturbations to our body or the environment can elicit discrepancies between predicted and actual outcomes. We readily adapt movements to compensate for such discrepancies, and the retention of this learning is evident as savings, or faster readaptation to a previously encountered perturbation. The mechanistic processes contributing to savings, or even the necessary conditions for savings, are not fully understood. One theory suggests that savings requires increased sensitivity to previously experienced errors: when perturbations evoke a sequence of correlated errors, we increase our sensitivity to the errors experienced, which subsequently improves error correction (Herzfeld et al. 2014). An alternative theory suggests that a memory of actions is necessary for savings: when an action becomes associated with successful target acquisition through repetition, that action is more rapidly retrieved at subsequent learning (Huang et al. 2011). In the present study, to better understand the necessary conditions for savings, we tested how savings is affected by prior experience of similar errors and prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors using a factorial design. Prior experience of errors induced by a visuomotor rotation in the savings block was either prevented at initial learning by gradually removing an oppositely signed perturbation or enforced by abruptly removing the perturbation. Prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors in the savings block was either deprived or enforced by manipulating target location in preceding trials. The data suggest that prior experience of errors is both necessary and sufficient for savings, whereas prior repetition of a successful action is neither necessary nor sufficient for savings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  7. Prior Health Care Utilization Patterns and Suicide among U.S. Army Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicole S.; Harford, Thomas C.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Hollander, Ilyssa E.; Kay, Ashley B.

    2010-01-01

    Suicides among U.S. Army soldiers are increasing and, in January 2009, outpaced deaths due to combat. For this study, 1,873 army suicides identified through death, inpatient, and emergency room records were matched with 5,619 controls. In multivariate models, older, male, White, single, and enlisted soldiers with a prior injury (OR = 2.04, 95% CI…

  8. Vision-based robotic system for object agnostic placing operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rofalis, Nikolaos; Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Andersen, Nils Axel

    2016-01-01

    to operate within an unknown environment manipulating unknown objects. The developed system detects objects, finds matching compartments in a placing box, and ultimately grasps and places the objects there. The developed system exploits 3D sensing and visual feature extraction. No prior knowledge is provided...... to the system, neither for the objects nor for the placing box. The experimental evaluation of the developed robotic system shows that a combination of seemingly simple modules and strategies can provide effective solution to the targeted problem....

  9. Obstetric outcomes in women with two prior cesarean deliveries: is vaginal birth after cesarean delivery a viable option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison; Pare, Emmanuelle; Stamilio, David M; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Stevens, Erika; Sammel, Mary; Peipert, Jeffrey

    2005-04-01

    This study was undertaken to compare clinical outcomes in women with 1 versus 2 prior cesarean deliveries who attempt vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) and also to compare clinical outcomes of women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries who attempt VBAC or opt for a repeat cesarean delivery. We performed a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study, in which the medical records of more than 25,000 women with a prior cesarean delivery from 16 community and tertiary care hospitals were reviewed by trained nurse abstractors. Information on demographics, obstetric history, medical and social history, and the outcomes of the index pregnancy was obtained. Comparisons of obstetric outcomes were made between women with 1 versus 2 prior cesarean deliveries, and also between women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries who opt for VBAC attempt versus elective repeat cesarean delivery. Both bivariate and multivariate techniques were used for these comparisons. The records of 20,175 women with one previous cesarean section and 3,970 with 2 prior cesarean sections were reviewed. The rate of VBAC success was similar in women with a single prior cesarean delivery (75.5%) compared with those with 2 prior cesarean deliveries (74.6%), though the odds of major morbidity were higher in those with 2 prior cesarean deliveries (adjusted odd ratio[OR] = 1.61 95% CI 1.11-2.33). Among women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries, those who opt for a VBAC attempt had higher odds of major complications compared with those who opt for elective repeat cesarean delivery (adjusted OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.17-4.37). The likelihood of major complications is higher with a VBAC attempt in women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries compared with those with a single prior cesarean delivery. In women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries, while major complications are increased in those who attempt VBAC relative to elective repeat cesarean delivery, the absolute risk of major complications remains low.

  10. Optimization of Evacuation Warnings Prior to a Hurricane Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that optimization of evacuation warnings by time period and impacted zone is crucial for efficient evacuation of an area impacted by a hurricane. We assume that people behave in a manner consistent with the warnings they receive. By optimizing the issuance of hurricane evacuation warnings, one can control the number of evacuees at different time intervals to avoid congestion in the process of evacuation. The warning optimization model is applied to a case study of Hurricane Sandy using the study region of Brooklyn. We first develop a model for shelter assignment and then use this outcome to model hurricane evacuation warning optimization, which prescribes an evacuation plan that maximizes the number of evacuees. A significant technical contribution is the development of an iterative greedy heuristic procedure for the nonlinear formulation, which is shown to be optimal for the case of a single evacuation zone with a single evacuee type case, while it does not guarantee optimality for multiple zones under unusual circumstances. A significant applied contribution is the demonstration of an interface of the evacuation warning method with a public transportation scheme to facilitate evacuation of a car-less population. This heuristic we employ can be readily adapted to the case where response rate is a function of evacuation number in prior periods and other variable factors. This element is also explored in the context of our experiment.

  11. Real Objects Can Impede Conditional Reasoning but Augmented Objects Do Not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuri; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Knauff and Johnson-Laird's (2002) visual impedance hypothesis (i.e., mental representations with irrelevant visual detail can impede reasoning) is applied to the domain of external representations and diagrammatic reasoning. We show that the use of real objects and augmented real (AR) objects can control human interpretation and reasoning about conditionals. As participants made inferences (e.g., an invalid one from "if P then Q" to "P"), they also moved objects corresponding to premises. Participants who moved real objects made more invalid inferences than those who moved AR objects and those who did not manipulate objects (there was no significant difference between the last two groups). Our results showed that real objects impeded conditional reasoning, but AR objects did not. These findings are explained by the fact that real objects may over-specify a single state that exists, while AR objects suggest multiple possibilities. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. The Effect of Prior Term Birth on Risk of Recurrent Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Turitz, Amy L; Elovitz, Michal A; Levine, Lisa D

    2018-03-01

     The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior term birth on recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) risk.  Retrospective cohort study of 211 women with prior sPTB, comparing women with and without prior term births. The primary outcome was recurrent sPTB term births (28.9 vs. 37.7%, p  = 0.2). Among women with prior second-trimester loss (16-23 6/7 weeks), those with a term birth had a decreased sPTB rate (15.4 vs. 43.2%, p  = 0.02), which persisted after adjusting for age and 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate use. For women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks, there was no difference in sPTB with and without prior term births (29.5 vs. 26.6%, p  = 0.7). A term birth as the most recent delivery lowered, but did not eliminate, the sPTB risk (19.1 vs. 36.4%, p  = 0.1).  Prior term birth lowers the risk of recurrent sPTB for women with prior second-trimester loss, but not for women with prior sPTB ≥24 weeks. Women with prior preterm and term births should be counseled accordingly and all sPTB prevention strategies should be recommended. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Trends in celecoxib and etoricoxib prescribing following removal of prior authorization requirement in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Martínez, E; Pia-Morandeira, A; Figueiras, A

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies indicate that the implementation of a prior authorization requirement for coxibs was followed by a sharp decline in their use. There are no studies showing what happens if coxib prior authorization is removed. The objective of this study is to assess the trend in the use of coxibs marketed in Spain, following removal of their respective prior authorization requirements in November 2006 for celecoxib and February 2007 for etoricoxib. We calculated the monthly number of defined daily doses per thousand inhabitants per day (DDD/TID) of coxibs dispensed in a health area of Spain from mid-2005 to December 2007. Data were analysed both graphically and by means of a segmented regression model. At the start of the study period, use of coxibs showed no growth. At the date when prior authorization of celecoxib was removed (November 2006), however, DDD/TID of the coxib whose prior authorization had not been removed - namely etoricoxib - remained unchanged, whereas consumption of celecoxib increased significantly (by the end of the study period, celecoxib use displayed a relative increase of 615% in terms of the DDD/TID prescribed before the removal of its prior authorization requirement). Similarly, etoricoxib use remained unchanged until its prior authorization was removed (February 2007), from which time DDD/TID of etoricoxib also underwent a considerable increase (by the end of the study period, etoricoxib use displayed a relative increase of 793% in terms of the DDD/TID prescribed before the removal of its prior authorization). Segmented regression analysis showed a sharp, statistically significant rise and change in slope in both celecoxib and etoricoxib use immediately after removal of their respective prior authorizations. Use of celecoxib and etoricoxib rose sharply after removal of their respective prior authorizations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prior Prelabor or Intrapartum Cesarean Delivery and Risk of Placenta Previa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Katheryne L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Albert, Paul S.; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery prior to onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002–2010) with restriction to the first two singleton deliveries of women nulliparous at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as 1) vaginal (reference); 2) cesarean delivery prior to labor onset (prelabor); or 3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by prior delivery mode using logistic regression and adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, co-morbidities, prior pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Results The majority of first deliveries were vaginal (82%, n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%, n=3,931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%, n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by prior delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pdelivery, prior prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62 [95% confidence interval, 1.24–5.56]). There was no significant association between prior intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa [adjusted odds ratio, 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.68–2.19)]. Conclusion Prior prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a more than two-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, while the approximately 20% increased risk of previa associated with prior intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after prior prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering non-medically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. PMID:25576818

  15. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment: a cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Garde, Ewoudt M. W.; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; van der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  16. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment : A cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Garde, Ewoudt M W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841528; Natsch, Stephanie; Prins, Jan M.; Van Der Linden, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  17. Antibiotic prescribing on admission to patients with pneumonia and prior outpatient antibiotic treatment: a cohort study on clinical outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garde, E.M. van de; Natsch, S.S.; Prins, J.M.; Linden, P.D. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most pneumonia treatment guidelines recommend that prior outpatient antibiotic treatment should be considered when planning inpatient antibiotic regimen. Our purpose was to study in patients admitted for community-acquired pneumonia the mode of continuing antibiotic treatment at the

  18. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating color descriptors for object and scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Koen E A; Gevers, Theo; Snoek, Cees G M

    2010-09-01

    Image category recognition is important to access visual information on the level of objects and scene types. So far, intensity-based descriptors have been widely used for feature extraction at salient points. To increase illumination invariance and discriminative power, color descriptors have been proposed. Because many different descriptors exist, a structured overview is required of color invariant descriptors in the context of image category recognition. Therefore, this paper studies the invariance properties and the distinctiveness of color descriptors (software to compute the color descriptors from this paper is available from http://www.colordescriptors.com) in a structured way. The analytical invariance properties of color descriptors are explored, using a taxonomy based on invariance properties with respect to photometric transformations, and tested experimentally using a data set with known illumination conditions. In addition, the distinctiveness of color descriptors is assessed experimentally using two benchmarks, one from the image domain and one from the video domain. From the theoretical and experimental results, it can be derived that invariance to light intensity changes and light color changes affects category recognition. The results further reveal that, for light intensity shifts, the usefulness of invariance is category-specific. Overall, when choosing a single descriptor and no prior knowledge about the data set and object and scene categories is available, the OpponentSIFT is recommended. Furthermore, a combined set of color descriptors outperforms intensity-based SIFT and improves category recognition by 8 percent on the PASCAL VOC 2007 and by 7 percent on the Mediamill Challenge.

  20. The relevance of prior knowledge in learning and instructional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailikari, Telle; Katajavuori, Nina; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari

    2008-10-15

    To determine how different types of prior knowledge (declarative and procedural) impact student achievement and how prior-knowledge assessment can be used as an instructional design tool. A questionnaire was developed based on the prior-knowledge model, which distinguishes between declarative and procedural knowledge. One hundred fifteen pharmacy students were tested prior to beginning 4 successive basic science courses and then prior to beginning a pharmaceutical chemistry course. Regression analysis was used to determine which type of knowledge was the best predictor of student achievement. The 4 course instructors were interviewed and their comments analyzed. Prior knowledge from previous courses significantly influenced student achievement. Procedural knowledge was especially related to student achievement. Instructors and students had mainly positive reactions towards the prior-knowledge tests. Students' prior knowledge should be taken into consideration in instructional design and curriculum planning. Furthermore, the results of prior-knowledge assessments may be used as a tool for student support in addressing areas of deficiency.

  1. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  2. Objective Force Warrior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shisler, Vernon

    2001-01-01

    This presentation concerns technology aimed at the dismounted soldier, Capstone demonstrations for FY06-07, fielding in the Objective Force time frame, strong interest in a lightweight weapon family...

  3. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  4. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  5. Manipulator for hollow objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawley, W.E.; Frantz, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    A device is described for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck. This device includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object. 3 claims, 4 figures

  6. Measuring Object Salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.F Clarke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years work on visual salience has been restricted to models of low-level, bottom-up salience that give an estimate of the salience for every pixel in an image. This study concerns the question of how to measure the salience of objects: given an image and a list of areas of interest (AOIs, can we assign salience scores to the AOIs that reflect their visual prominence? There is increasing evidence that fixations locations are best explained at an object level and an object-level notion of visual salience can easily be incorporated with other object features task relevance and concepts such as scene context. However, extracting scores for AOIs from the saliency maps output by existing models is a non-trivial task. Using simple psychophysical (1/f-noise stimuli, we demonstrate that simple methods for assigning salience score to AOIs (such as taking the maximum, mean, or sum of the relevant pixels in the salience map produce unintuitive results, such as predicting that larger objects are less salient. We also evaluate object salience models over a range of tasks and compare to empirical data. Beyond predicting the number of fixations to different objects in a scene, we also estimate the difficulty of visual search trials; and incorporate visual salience into language production tasks. We present a simple object-based salience model (based on comparing the likelihood of an AOI given the rest of the image to the likelihood of a typical patch of the same area] that gives intuitive results for the 1/f-noise stimuli and performs as well as existing methods on empirical datasets.

  7. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  8. Electroencephalographic slow waves prior to sleepwalking episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Rosemarie; Carrier, Julie; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the onset of sleepwalking episodes may be preceded by fluctuations in slow-wave sleep electroencephalographic characteristics. However, whether or not such fluctuations are specific to sleepwalking episodes or generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers remains unknown. The goal of this study was to compare spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) as well as slow oscillation density before the onset of somnambulistic episodes versus non-behavioral awakenings recorded from the same group of sleepwalkers. A secondary aim was to describe the time course of observed changes in slow-wave activity and slow oscillations during the 3 min immediately preceding the occurrence of somnambulistic episodes. Twelve adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically during the course of one night. Slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density were significantly greater prior to patients' somnambulistic episodes as compared with non-behavioral awakenings. However, there was no evidence for a gradual increase over the 3 min preceding the episodes. Increased slow-wave activity and slow oscillation density appear to be specific to sleepwalking episodes rather than generalized to all sleep-wake transitions in sleepwalkers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Communicative predictions can overrule linguistic priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczek, Leon O H; Gunter, Thomas C

    2017-12-14

    Predictions allow for efficient human communication. To be efficient, listeners' predictions need to be adapted to the communicative context. Here we show that during speech processing this adaptation is a highly flexible and selective process that is able to fine-tune itself to individual language styles of specific interlocutors. In a newly developed paradigm, speakers differed in the probabilities by which they used particular sentence structures. Probe trials were applied to infer participants' syntactic expectations for a given speaker and to track changes of these expectations over time. The results show that listeners fine-tune their linguistic expectations according to the individual language style of a speaker. Strikingly, nine months after the initial experiment these highly specific expectations could be rapidly reactivated when confronted with the particular language style of a speaker but not merely on the basis of an association with speaker identity per se. These findings highlight that communicative interaction fine-tunes and consolidates interlocutor specific communicative predictions which can overrule strong linguistic priors.

  10. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Obstetrics in Mexico prior to 1600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Patten, N

    1932-03-01

    Surviving Indian codices and inscriptions, reports written down by the Spanish, and continuity of practice from pre-conquest times are the sources of knowledge about obstetrics in Mexico prior to 1600. Antenatal care included avoidance of exposure to heat, no sleep during the day, and plenty of nourishment, although certain dietary precautions were recommended. Moderate intercourse during the first trimester was permitted but prohibited near the time of parturition. In general, midwives counseled the prospective mother to eat well, to rest physically and mentally, and to engage very moderately in manual labor. Massage was given at regular intervals, and vapor baths were taken. Juices of medicinal plants were administered during labor both to expedite it and to relieve pain. Women assumed a squatting position during labor, which was also assisted by abdominal massage and the manual dilation of the vulva. If parturition was prolonged, pressure was applied by the midwife who used her feet for this purpose. The child was bathed immediately after birth. Lactation was prolonged among the Mexicans.

  12. Multi-objective convex programming problem arising in multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    objective convex programming problem. The objective functions are convex and there is a single linear constraint with some upper and lower bounds. We also consider a two dimensional multivariate problem when the cost is minimized. A numerical ...

  13. Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles

  14. Figure-ground segmentation based on class-independent shape priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Liu, Yang; Liu, Guojun; Guo, Maozu

    2018-01-01

    We propose a method to generate figure-ground segmentation by incorporating shape priors into the graph-cuts algorithm. Given an image, we first obtain a linear representation of an image and then apply directional chamfer matching to generate class-independent, nonparametric shape priors, which provide shape clues for the graph-cuts algorithm. We then enforce shape priors in a graph-cuts energy function to produce object segmentation. In contrast to previous segmentation methods, the proposed method shares shape knowledge for different semantic classes and does not require class-specific model training. Therefore, the approach obtains high-quality segmentation for objects. We experimentally validate that the proposed method outperforms previous approaches using the challenging PASCAL VOC 2010/2012 and Berkeley (BSD300) segmentation datasets.

  15. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald David Hoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a conscious agent. We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  16. Effect of general and specific behavioural objectives on students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the data analysis indicated that students presented with specific behavioural objectives prior to instruction in social studies had a significantly higher academic achievement than those presented with general objectives, who in turn had a significantly higher academic achievement than those presented with no ...

  17. Early Limits on the Verbal Updating of an Object's Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by 30 months of age, children can successfully update their representation of an absent object's location on the basis of new verbal information, whereas 23-month-olds often return to the object's prior location. The current results show that this updating failure persisted even when (a) toddlers received visual and…

  18. A memory efficient method for fully three-dimensional object reconstruction with HAADF STEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Broek, W.; Rosenauer, A.; Van Aert, S.; Sijbers, J.; Van Dyck, D.

    2014-01-01

    The conventional approach to object reconstruction through electron tomography is to reduce the three-dimensional problem to a series of independent two-dimensional slice-by-slice reconstructions. However, at atomic resolution the image of a single atom extends over many such slices and incorporating this image as prior knowledge in tomography or depth sectioning therefore requires a fully three-dimensional treatment. Unfortunately, the size of the three-dimensional projection operator scales highly unfavorably with object size and readily exceeds the available computer memory. In this paper, it is shown that for incoherent image formation the memory requirement can be reduced to the fundamental lower limit of the object size, both for tomography and depth sectioning. Furthermore, it is shown through multislice calculations that high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy can be sufficiently incoherent for the reconstruction of single element nanocrystals, but that dynamical diffraction effects can cause classification problems if more than one element is present. - Highlights: • The full 3D approach to atomic resolution object retrieval has high memory load. • For incoherent imaging the projection process is a matrix–vector product. • Carrying out this product implicitly as Fourier transforms reduces memory load. • Reconstructions are demonstrated from HAADF STEM and depth sectioning simulations

  19. Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G.; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the extent to which Danish women attending antenatal care plan their pregnancies and to determine the association between pregnancy planning and the intake of folic acid, alcohol consumption and smoking habits prior to conception and before the 16th week of gestation...

  20. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eWulff

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. 14 neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N=6 whose accuracy was 2SD below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note the impaired had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1 motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2 semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3 impaired action decision is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4 lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  2. Patients' existential situation prior to colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moene, Monica; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Skott, Carola

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a hermeneutic phenomenological study illuminating patients' existential situation prior to colorectal surgery. The intention was also to explore the value of the encounter between patient and nurse. Patients waiting for major surgery experience multifarious reactions. Emotions of anxiety, fears of the unknown, anaesthesia, cancer diagnosis and death can arise. Several earlier studies have reported the importance of information, coping strategies and the need to reduce anxiety and stress in relation to surgery. However, there is a lack of studies focusing on patients' existential situation in the preoperative phase. Conversational interviews were conducted with 28 patients 1 week before their surgery during autumn 2002. Analysis of the data was influenced by van Manen's existential themes: lived space/spatiality, lived body/corporeality, lived time/temporality and lived relation/relationality. Participants expressed either hope of increased spatiality or fear of restricted spatiality, according to whether they had a benign or malign diagnosis. Statements about lived time were also related to the diagnosis. Patients waiting for surgery for a benign diagnosis could use the time to relax and gather energy, while malignancy gave them high levels of anxiety and stress. Lived body experiences showed the ambivalence felt in entrusting one's body to professionals. Statements about lived relations drew attention to the need for considerate caregivers to enhance feelings of security and continuity. The existential situation of patients in a preoperative context was shown to be a state of uncertainty with regard to lived space, body, time and relation. The significance of meeting and talking to the nurse did not appear in the statements. The nurse was invisible. If nurses were to employ the existential themes proposed by van Manen in preoperative encounter with patients, their need for care might be more clearly identified and affirmed.

  3. Advances in single chain technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Marina; Latorre-Sanchez, Alejandro; Pomposo, José A

    2015-10-07

    The recent ability to manipulate and visualize single atoms at atomic level has given rise to modern bottom-up nanotechnology. Similar exquisite degree of control at the individual polymeric chain level for producing functional soft nanoentities is expected to become a reality in the next few years through the full development of so-called "single chain technology". Ultra-small unimolecular soft nano-objects endowed with useful, autonomous and smart functions are the expected, long-term valuable output of single chain technology. This review covers the recent advances in single chain technology for the construction of soft nano-objects via chain compaction, with an emphasis in dynamic, letter-shaped and compositionally unsymmetrical single rings, complex multi-ring systems, single chain nanoparticles, tadpoles, dumbbells and hairpins, as well as the potential end-use applications of individual soft nano-objects endowed with useful functions in catalysis, sensing, drug delivery and other uses.

  4. Media, journalism, objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlajki Emil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the text around the themes: Media and Journalism, are confronted two directions of opinions: humanism and elitism. Humanism believes that media and journalism must be metaphysically objective: able to tell the truth regardless of time, place and terms of events. Another approach, elitism, is connected with Hegel's philosophy of history. Hegel's conceptual apparatus includes: Idea, History dialectic, 'cunning mind,' self- development and self-realization. In this context, media and journalism are considered as organic unity, an inseparable part of some dialectical totality. More specifically media and journalism can be objective only if they defend concrete ideological assumptions of society to which they belong. Any other understanding of these two concepts is non-objective, mere moralizing and / or demagoguery.

  5. Modelling Digital Media Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgaard, Rasmus

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate two relevant issues regarding computational representation and classification of digital multi-media objects. With a special focus on music, a model for representation of objects comprising multiple heterogeneous data types is investigated. Necessary...... to this work are considerations regarding integration of multiple diverse data modalities and evaluation of the resulting concept representation. Regarding modelling of data exhibiting certain sequential structure, a number of theoretical and empirical results are presented. These are results related to model....... The particular aspects considered in the publications are sound, song lyrics, and user-provided metadata. This model integrates the diverse data types comprising the objects and defines concrete unified representations in a joint “semantic” space. Within the context of this model, general measures of similarity...

  6. TESS Objects of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team

    2018-01-01

    We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

  7. [Geriatric assessment prior to oncological therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, U

    2013-06-01

    Ageing is the single most important risk factor for cancer. This is also true for most cancer diseases of the genitourinary tract. In combination with the demographic changes in Germany and most other countries, the consequence is a substantial increase in the number of elderly patients with cancer. Most therapies in oncology have a high risk for toxic side effects. Ageing is a very heterogeneous process. The chronological age of a patient insufficiently reflects the individual resources, deficits and risk factors but this can be assessed by a structured geriatric assessment. Integration of geriatric assessment into oncological treatment decisions is still low and is one of the major tasks in cancer care in the future.

  8. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  9. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj......Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which...

  10. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  11. Objective Bayesian Analysis of Skew- t Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    BRANCO, MARCIA D'ELIA

    2012-02-27

    We study the Jeffreys prior and its properties for the shape parameter of univariate skew-t distributions with linear and nonlinear Student\\'s t skewing functions. In both cases, we show that the resulting priors for the shape parameter are symmetric around zero and proper. Moreover, we propose a Student\\'s t approximation of the Jeffreys prior that makes an objective Bayesian analysis easy to perform. We carry out a Monte Carlo simulation study that demonstrates an overall better behaviour of the maximum a posteriori estimator compared with the maximum likelihood estimator. We also compare the frequentist coverage of the credible intervals based on the Jeffreys prior and its approximation and show that they are similar. We further discuss location-scale models under scale mixtures of skew-normal distributions and show some conditions for the existence of the posterior distribution and its moments. Finally, we present three numerical examples to illustrate the implications of our results on inference for skew-t distributions. © 2012 Board of the Foundation of the Scandinavian Journal of Statistics.

  12. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  13. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, M.; Frehen, R.; Schotman, P.C.; Bauer, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for estimating time-varying betas of individual stocks that incorporates prior information based on fundamentals. We shrink the rolling window estimate of beta towards a firm-specific prior that is motivated by asset pricing theory. The prior captures structural

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic Modelling of FE 999049, a Recombinant Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, in Healthy Women After Single Ascending Doses

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Trine H?yer; R?shammar, Daniel; Erichsen, Lars; Grundemar, Lars; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for a novel recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (FE 999049) expressed from a human cell line of foetal retinal origin (PER.C6?) developed for controlled ovarian stimulation prior to assisted reproductive technologies. Methods Serum FSH levels were measured following a single subcutaneous FE 999049 injection of 37.5, 75, 150, 225 or 450?IU in 27 pituitary-suppressed healthy female subjects...

  15. The Object of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Jonathan; Figueiredo, Bernardo; Pico Larsen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    The paper outlines a methodological approach for investigating how consumers create brand meaning using the material resources companies provide. The approach draws from Material Engagement Theory—to discuss the role of consumers in creating patterns of meaning by engaging with objects. It also...

  16. Forecasters' Objectives and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinovic, Iván; Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2013-01-01

    This chapter develops a unified modeling framework for analyzing the strategic behavior of forecasters. The theoretical model encompasses reputational objectives, competition for the best accuracy, and bias. Also drawing from the extensive lit- erature on analysts, we review the empirical evidenc...

  17. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  18. ALGORITHM OF OBJECT RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Alexey Alexeevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The second important problem to be resolved to the algorithm and its software, that comprises an automatic design of a complex closed circuit television system, represents object recognition, by virtue of which an image is transmitted by the video camera. Since imaging of almost any object is dependent on many factors, including its orientation in respect of the camera, lighting conditions, parameters of the registering system, static and dynamic parameters of the object itself, it is quite difficult to formalize the image and represent it in the form of a certain mathematical model. Therefore, methods of computer-aided visualization depend substantially on the problems to be solved. They can be rarely generalized. The majority of these methods are non-linear; therefore, there is a need to increase the computing power and complexity of algorithms to be able to process the image. This paper covers the research of visual object recognition and implementation of the algorithm in the view of the software application that operates in the real-time mode

  19. Technical objectives of inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, R.J.; Stewart, K.B.; Schneider, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The various technical objectives of inspection are discussed in a very general manner. The discussion includes how the inspection function is related to the assumed threat, the various degrees of assurance and reliance on criteria, and the hierarchy of assurance which is obtained from the various types or levels of inspection

  20. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    -effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  1. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these obj...

  2. Testing object Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grüner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we provide a unit testing approach for multi-purposes object-oriented programming languages in the style of Java and C#. Our approach includes the definition of a test specification language which results from extending the programming language with new designated specification

  3. Robust video object cosegmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenguan; Shen, Jianbing; Li, Xuelong; Porikli, Fatih

    2015-10-01

    With ever-increasing volumes of video data, automatic extraction of salient object regions became even more significant for visual analytic solutions. This surge has also opened up opportunities for taking advantage of collective cues encapsulated in multiple videos in a cooperative manner. However, it also brings up major challenges, such as handling of drastic appearance, motion pattern, and pose variations, of foreground objects as well as indiscriminate backgrounds. Here, we present a cosegmentation framework to discover and segment out common object regions across multiple frames and multiple videos in a joint fashion. We incorporate three types of cues, i.e., intraframe saliency, interframe consistency, and across-video similarity into an energy optimization framework that does not make restrictive assumptions on foreground appearance and motion model, and does not require objects to be visible in all frames. We also introduce a spatio-temporal scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) flow descriptor to integrate across-video correspondence from the conventional SIFT-flow into interframe motion flow from optical flow. This novel spatio-temporal SIFT flow generates reliable estimations of common foregrounds over the entire video data set. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a new extensive data set (ViCoSeg).

  4. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália

    2007-01-01

    Twelve expert observers from nine different countries convened in a workshop to evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment. Cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software, an objective method for the aesthetic evaluation of breast cancer conservative treatment. Experts were initiall...

  5. SINGLE TREE DETECTION FROM AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA USING A MARKED POINT PROCESS BASED METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree detection and reconstruction is of great interest in large-scale city modelling. In this paper, we present a marked point process model to detect single trees from airborne laser scanning (ALS data. We consider single trees in ALS recovered canopy height model (CHM as a realization of point process of circles. Unlike traditional marked point process, we sample the model in a constraint configuration space by making use of image process techniques. A Gibbs energy is defined on the model, containing a data term which judge the fitness of the model with respect to the data, and prior term which incorporate the prior knowledge of object layouts. We search the optimal configuration through a steepest gradient descent algorithm. The presented hybrid framework was test on three forest plots and experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  7. Characterization and quantification of proteins secreted by single human embryos prior to implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Poli, Maurizio; Ori, Alessandro; Child, Tim; Jaroudi, Souraya; Spath, Katharina; Beck, Martin; Wells, Dagan

    2015-01-01

    The use of in?vitro fertilization (IVF) has revolutionized the treatment of infertility and is now responsible for 1?5% of all births in industrialized countries. During IVF, it is typical for patients to generate multiple embryos. However, only a small proportion of them possess the genetic and metabolic requirements needed in order to produce a healthy pregnancy. The identification of the embryo with the greatest developmental capacity represents a major challenge for fertility clinics. Cur...

  8. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  9. Prior Sensitivity Analysis in Default Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Sara; Mulder, Joris; Oberski, Daniel L

    2017-11-27

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information. However, the prior can have a serious influence on the estimation of the model parameters, which affects the mean squared error, bias, coverage rates, and quantiles of the estimates. In this article, we investigate the performance of three different default priors: noninformative improper priors, vague proper priors, and empirical Bayes priors-with the latter being novel in the BSEM literature. Based on a simulation study, we find that these three default BSEM methods may perform very differently, especially with small samples. A careful prior sensitivity analysis is therefore needed when performing a default BSEM analysis. For this purpose, we provide a practical step-by-step guide for practitioners to conducting a prior sensitivity analysis in default BSEM. Our recommendations are illustrated using a well-known case study from the structural equation modeling literature, and all code for conducting the prior sensitivity analysis is available in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Azevedo, E.F.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  11. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  12. An equalised global graphical model-based approach for multi-camera object tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Weihua; Cao, Lijun; Chen, Xiaotang; Huang, Kaiqi

    2015-01-01

    Non-overlapping multi-camera visual object tracking typically consists of two steps: single camera object tracking and inter-camera object tracking. Most of tracking methods focus on single camera object tracking, which happens in the same scene, while for real surveillance scenes, inter-camera object tracking is needed and single camera tracking methods can not work effectively. In this paper, we try to improve the overall multi-camera object tracking performance by a global graph model with...

  13. Objectively combining AR5 instrumental period and paleoclimate climate sensitivity evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicholas; Grünwald, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Combining instrumental period evidence regarding equilibrium climate sensitivity with largely independent paleoclimate proxy evidence should enable a more constrained sensitivity estimate to be obtained. Previous, subjective Bayesian approaches involved selection of a prior probability distribution reflecting the investigators' beliefs about climate sensitivity. Here a recently developed approach employing two different statistical methods—objective Bayesian and frequentist likelihood-ratio—is used to combine instrumental period and paleoclimate evidence based on data presented and assessments made in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Probabilistic estimates from each source of evidence are represented by posterior probability density functions (PDFs) of physically-appropriate form that can be uniquely factored into a likelihood function and a noninformative prior distribution. The three-parameter form is shown accurately to fit a wide range of estimated climate sensitivity PDFs. The likelihood functions relating to the probabilistic estimates from the two sources are multiplicatively combined and a prior is derived that is noninformative for inference from the combined evidence. A posterior PDF that incorporates the evidence from both sources is produced using a single-step approach, which avoids the order-dependency that would arise if Bayesian updating were used. Results are compared with an alternative approach using the frequentist signed root likelihood ratio method. Results from these two methods are effectively identical, and provide a 5-95% range for climate sensitivity of 1.1-4.05 K (median 1.87 K).

  14. Objectively combining AR5 instrumental period and paleoclimate climate sensitivity evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicholas; Grünwald, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Combining instrumental period evidence regarding equilibrium climate sensitivity with largely independent paleoclimate proxy evidence should enable a more constrained sensitivity estimate to be obtained. Previous, subjective Bayesian approaches involved selection of a prior probability distribution reflecting the investigators' beliefs about climate sensitivity. Here a recently developed approach employing two different statistical methods—objective Bayesian and frequentist likelihood-ratio—is used to combine instrumental period and paleoclimate evidence based on data presented and assessments made in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Probabilistic estimates from each source of evidence are represented by posterior probability density functions (PDFs) of physically-appropriate form that can be uniquely factored into a likelihood function and a noninformative prior distribution. The three-parameter form is shown accurately to fit a wide range of estimated climate sensitivity PDFs. The likelihood functions relating to the probabilistic estimates from the two sources are multiplicatively combined and a prior is derived that is noninformative for inference from the combined evidence. A posterior PDF that incorporates the evidence from both sources is produced using a single-step approach, which avoids the order-dependency that would arise if Bayesian updating were used. Results are compared with an alternative approach using the frequentist signed root likelihood ratio method. Results from these two methods are effectively identical, and provide a 5-95% range for climate sensitivity of 1.1-4.05 K (median 1.87 K).

  15. Micromirror arrays for object selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldis, Severin; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Clerc, Pierre-Andre; Zickar, Michael; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2007-10-01

    We report on micromirror arrays being developed for object selection in Multi Object Spectrographs for astronomical applications. The micromirrors are etched in bulk single crystal silicon whereas the cantilever type suspension is realized by surface micromachining. One micromirror element is 100μm × 200μm in size. The micromirrors are actuated electrostatically by electrodes located on a second chip. The use of silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers for both mirror and electrode chip ensures thermal compatibility for cryogenic operation. A system of multiple landing beams has been developed, which passively locks the mirror at a well defined tilt angle when actuated. The mechanical tilt angle obtained is 20° at a pull-in voltage of 90V. Measurements with an optical profiler showed that the tilt angle of the actuated and locked mirror is stable with a precision of one arc minute over a range of 15V. This locking system makes the tilt angle merely independent from process variations across the wafer and thus provides uniform tilt angle over the whole array. The precision on tilt angle from mirror to mirror measured is one arc minute. The surface quality of the mirrors in actuated state is better than 10nm peak-to-valley and the local roughness is around 1nm RMS. Preliminary cryogenic tests showed that the micromirror device sustains 120K without any structural damage.

  16. Dynamic multi-objective optimisation using PSO

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available are called non-dominated solutions. The goal when solving a DMOOP is not to find a single solution, but to find the POF. This chapter introduces the usage of the vector evaluated particle swarm optimiser (VEPSO) to solve DMOOPs. Every objective is solved...

  17. Assessing the Cartographic Visualization of Moving Objects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four representations are considered in this research: the single static map, multiple static maps, animation, and the space-time cube. The study is conducted by considering four movement characteristics (or aspects of moving objects): speed change, returns, stops, and path of movement. The ability of users to perceive and ...

  18. Efficient exact optimization of multi-objective redundancy allocation problems in series-parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Dingzhou; Murat, Alper; Chinnam, Ratna Babu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a decomposition-based approach to exactly solve the multi-objective Redundancy Allocation Problem for series-parallel systems. Redundancy allocation problem is a form of reliability optimization and has been the subject of many prior studies. The majority of these earlier studies treat redundancy allocation problem as a single objective problem maximizing the system reliability or minimizing the cost given certain constraints. The few studies that treated redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective optimization problem relied on meta-heuristic solution approaches. However, meta-heuristic approaches have significant limitations: they do not guarantee that Pareto points are optimal and, more importantly, they may not identify all the Pareto-optimal points. In this paper, we treat redundancy allocation problem as a multi-objective problem, as is typical in practice. We decompose the original problem into several multi-objective sub-problems, efficiently and exactly solve sub-problems, and then systematically combine the solutions. The decomposition-based approach can efficiently generate all the Pareto-optimal solutions for redundancy allocation problems. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method over meta-heuristic methods on a numerical example taken from the literature.

  19. Object recognition - Convergence of vision, audition, and touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassuba, Tanja

    to auditory object recognition which depends on prior associations between object and sound, vision and touch share the extraction of an object's shape. Thereby, the visual system processes features constituting an object's shape at one glance rather than sequentially as touch does. Given this difference......Recognizing objects is one of the most fundamental capabilities we use in every day interaction with our environment. As object information can be conveyed by different senses, real-life object perception is usually a multisensory experience. Thereby, we do not perceive an accumulation of features...... of object information across audition and touch or across all thee senses. Further, even though object recognition within different senses is to some degree redundant, the different senses differ with respect to their intrinsic efficiency in extracting types of information (Lederman & Klatzky, 2009...

  20. Numerical Analysis Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Michael

    1997-08-01

    The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.

  1. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  2. Regularized image reconstruction algorithms for dual-isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) imaging using a cross-tracer prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Cheng, Lishui; Fessler, Jeffrey A; Frey, Eric C

    2011-06-01

    In simultaneous dual-isotope myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) imaging, data are simultaneously acquired to determine the distributions of two radioactive isotopes. The goal of this work was to develop penalized maximum likelihood (PML) algorithms for a novel cross-tracer prior that exploits the fact that the two images reconstructed from simultaneous dual-isotope MPS projection data are perfectly registered in space. We first formulated the simultaneous dual-isotope MPS reconstruction problem as a joint estimation problem. A cross-tracer prior that couples voxel values on both images was then proposed. We developed an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the MPS images that converges to the maximum a posteriori solution for this prior based on separable surrogate functions. To accelerate the convergence, we developed a fast algorithm for the cross-tracer prior based on the complete data OS-EM (COSEM) framework. The proposed algorithm was compared qualitatively and quantitatively to a single-tracer version of the prior that did not include the cross-tracer term. Quantitative evaluations included comparisons of mean and standard deviation images as well as assessment of image fidelity using the mean square error. We also evaluated the cross tracer prior using a three-class observer study with respect to the three-class MPS diagnostic task, i.e., classifying patients as having either no defect, reversible defect, or fixed defects. For this study, a comparison with conventional ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction with postfiltering was performed. The comparisons to the single-tracer prior demonstrated similar resolution for areas of the image with large intensity changes and reduced noise in uniform regions. The cross-tracer prior was also superior to the single-tracer version in terms of restoring image fidelity. Results of the three-class observer study showed that the proposed cross-tracer prior and the convergent algorithms improved the

  3. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motin, J.D.; Reformatsky, I.A.; Sinitsyn, P.R.; Ivanov, N.M.; Ivanov, B.I.; Malakhov, I.K.

    1979-01-01

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  4. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    The Danish amateur scholar Christian Jürgensen Thomsen has often been described as a founder of modern “scientific” archaeology. Thomsen's innovation, this essay argues, reflects developments within neighboring fields, such as philology and history. He reacted against historians who limited...... themselves to histories of texts and therefore abandoned the earliest human history. Instead, he proposed a new history of objects, which included the entire history of humankind. Thomsen's work as director of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities in Copenhagen was especially important for this renewal...

  5. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...

  6. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible. © 2016 The Authors Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Object linking in repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, David (Editor); Beck, Jon; Atkins, John; Bailey, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This topic is covered in three sections. The first section explores some of the architectural ramifications of extending the Eichmann/Atkins lattice-based classification scheme to encompass the assets of the full life cycle of software development. A model is considered that provides explicit links between objects in addition to the edges connecting classification vertices in the standard lattice. The second section gives a description of the efforts to implement the repository architecture using a commercially available object-oriented database management system. Some of the features of this implementation are described, and some of the next steps to be taken to produce a working prototype of the repository are pointed out. In the final section, it is argued that design and instantiation of reusable components have competing criteria (design-for-reuse strives for generality, design-with-reuse strives for specificity) and that providing mechanisms for each can be complementary rather than antagonistic. In particular, it is demonstrated how program slicing techniques can be applied to customization of reusable components.

  8. Review of Meeting Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-01-01

    This is the 21st meeting of the International Atomic and Molecular Data Centres Network. The traditional DCN meeting objectives are: to exchange information about activities in the Centres and review progress; to coordinate work in the Centres; to assess priorities in data evaluation and data production; to make plans for specific evaluations; and to evaluate and revise procedures for collection and exchange of bibliographical and numerical data. All of these are objectives for the present meeting too. In addition to the presentations from DCN and prospective DCN members we have two participants from outside the field of fusion data: Dr N. Mason will tell us about coordination of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre and Dr S. Simakov will describe the manner in which nuclear structure and cross-section database development is coordinated by our colleagues in the Nuclear Data Section. In the discussions on Thursday and Friday there are two topics that need special attention this year: the future of our bibliographical data compilation and ways in which we can strengthen data evaluation activities, all with emphasis on collision processes and plasma-material interaction. The first 3 Data Centre Network meetings were held in 1977, 1980 and 1982 and the reports of those meetings make interesting reading and can still provide inspiration for the present meeting. I show some excerpts in the presentation. In 1977 the emphasis was on the coordination of the bibliographical database, AMBDAS, and a collision data index, CIAMDA, as the initial activities of the Network and of the newly formed IAEA A+M Data Unit. In 1980 the central topic of discussion at the meeting shifted to the numerical database and to data evaluation. The Network recommended that numerical data be reviewed by a selected group of scientists and that no unevaluated numerical A+M collision data should be distributed by the IAEA. The report of the meeting in 1982 shows that the bibliographical

  9. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  10. ARTEMIS Science Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Brain, D. A.; Delory, G. T.; Eastwood, J. P.; Farrell, W. M.; Grimm, R. E.; Halekas, J. S.; Hasegawa, H.; Hellinger, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA's two spacecraft ARTEMIS mission will address both heliospheric and planetary research questions, first while in orbit about the Earth with the Moon and subsequently while in orbit about the Moon. Heliospheric topics include the structure of the Earth's magnetotail; reconnection, particle acceleration, and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere, at the bow shock, and in the solar wind; and the formation and structure of the lunar wake. Planetary topics include the lunar exosphere and its relationship to the composition of the lunar surface, the effects of electric fields on dust in the exosphere, internal structure of the Moon, and the lunar crustal magnetic field. This paper describes the expected contributions of ARTEMIS to these baseline scientific objectives.

  11. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genter, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this symposium was to discuss the sorts of evidence of molecular alterations in DNA which can be used to study causation of the stochastic effects of importance in radiation protection. Specifically, the aim was to address the following: what sort of indications might show whether a cancer was caused by radiation; whether there is a radiogenic signature to distinguish damage caused by ionizing radiation; whether bio-markers might be available for susceptibility, for exposure, for biological consequences. Despite a number of epidemiological studies (referred to), there is no clear, credible, defensible answer as to whether low-level radiation increases the risk of cancer. A new ethical question is, what rules should be in place for identifying and protecting genetically sensitive individuals. 1 tab

  12. Handling Digital Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd De Beer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present project was borne out of the collaborative partnership fostered by the 2014 conference, ”Invention and Imagination in British Art and Architecture, 600–1500”. The British Museum’s medieval collections were embedded into the fabric of the conference through a series of gallery talks and handling sessions that explored the conference’s themes of experimentation, the exceptional, envisioning, process, and the roles of response. Making the British Museum’s collection accessible and freely available to all “studious and curious persons” has been at the core of its mission since the eighteenth century, and it was important that there was an opportunity for conference delegates to engage directly with objects.

  13. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  14. Crowdsourcing prior information to improve study design and data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz

    Full Text Available Though Bayesian methods are being used more frequently, many still struggle with the best method for setting priors with novel measures or task environments. We propose a method for setting priors by eliciting continuous probability distributions from naive participants. This allows us to include any relevant information participants have for a given effect. Even when prior means are near-zero, this method provides a principle way to estimate dispersion and produce shrinkage, reducing the occurrence of overestimated effect sizes. We demonstrate this method with a number of published studies and compare the effect of different prior estimation and aggregation methods.

  15. Iterative CT shading correction with no prior information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengwei; Sun, Xiaonan; Hu, Hongjie; Mao, Tingyu; Zhao, Wei; Sheng, Ke; Cheung, Alice A.; Niu, Tianye

    2015-11-01

    Shading artifacts in CT images are caused by scatter contamination, beam-hardening effect and other non-ideal imaging conditions. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel and general correction framework to eliminate low-frequency shading artifacts in CT images (e.g. cone-beam CT, low-kVp CT) without relying on prior information. The method is based on the general knowledge of the relatively uniform CT number distribution in one tissue component. The CT image is first segmented to construct a template image where each structure is filled with the same CT number of a specific tissue type. Then, by subtracting the ideal template from the CT image, the residual image from various error sources are generated. Since forward projection is an integration process, non-continuous shading artifacts in the image become continuous signals in a line integral. Thus, the residual image is forward projected and its line integral is low-pass filtered in order to estimate the error that causes shading artifacts. A compensation map is reconstructed from the filtered line integral error using a standard FDK algorithm and added back to the original image for shading correction. As the segmented image does not accurately depict a shaded CT image, the proposed scheme is iterated until the variation of the residual image is minimized. The proposed method is evaluated using cone-beam CT images of a Catphan©600 phantom and a pelvis patient, and low-kVp CT angiography images for carotid artery assessment. Compared with the CT image without correction, the proposed method reduces the overall CT number error from over 200 HU to be less than 30 HU and increases the spatial uniformity by a factor of 1.5. Low-contrast object is faithfully retained after the proposed correction. An effective iterative algorithm for shading correction in CT imaging is proposed that is only assisted by general anatomical information without relying on prior knowledge. The proposed method is thus practical

  16. Angular trapping of anisometric nano-objects in a fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebrano, Michele; Rosman, Christina; Sönnichsen, Carsten; Krishnan, Madhavi

    2012-11-14

    We demonstrate the ability to trap, levitate, and orient single anisometric nanoscale objects with high angular precision in a fluid. An electrostatic fluidic trap confines a spherical object at a spatial location defined by the minimum of the electrostatic system free energy. For an anisometric object and a potential well lacking angular symmetry, the system free energy can further strongly depend on the object's orientation in the trap. Engineering the morphology of the trap thus enables precise spatial and angular confinement of a single levitating nano-object, and the process can be massively parallelized. Since the physics of the trap depends strongly on the surface charge of the object, the method is insensitive to the object's dielectric function. Furthermore, levitation of the assembled objects renders them amenable to individual manipulation using externally applied optical, electrical, or hydrodynamic fields, raising prospects for reconfigurable chip-based nano-object assemblies.

  17. Chromosomal differences between acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in patients with prior solid tumors and prior hematologic malignancies. A study of 14 cases with prior breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuris, Z.; Dumont, J.; Dutrillaux, B.; Aurias, A.

    1989-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of 14 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (S-ANLL) with prior treatment for breast cancer is reported. The chromosomes recurrently involved in numerical or structural anomalies are chromosomes 7, 5, 17, and 11, in decreasing order of frequency. The distribution of the anomalies detected in this sample of patients is similar to that observed in published cases with prior breast or other solid tumors, though anomalies of chromosome 11 were not pointed out, but it significantly differs from that of the S-ANLL with prior hematologic malignancies. This difference is principally due to a higher involvement of chromosome 7 in patients with prior hematologic malignancies and of chromosomes 11 and 17 in patients with prior solid tumors. A genetic determinism involving abnormal recessive alleles located on chromosomes 5, 7, 11, and 17 uncovered by deletions of the normal homologs may be a cause of S-ANLL. The difference between patients with prior hematologic malignancies or solid tumors may be explained by different constitutional mutations of recessive genes in the two groups of patients

  18. Storage and binding of object features in visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, Paul M; Wu, Emma Y; Husain, Masud

    2010-01-01

    An influential conception of visual working memory is of a small number of discrete memory “slots”, each storing an integrated representation of a single visual object, including all its component features. When a scene contains more objects than there are slots, visual attention controls which objects gain access to memory.

  19. Optimal segmentation scale parameter selection for object-oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ikkguy001

    2013-08-05

    Aug 5, 2013 ... Abstract. Multi-scale image segmentation produces high level object features at more than one level, compared to single scale segmentation. Objects generated from this type of segmentation hold additional attributes such as mean values per spectral band, distances to neighbouring objects, size, and ...

  20. A Bayesian alternative for multi-objective ecohydrological model specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yating; Marshall, Lucy; Sharma, Ashish; Ajami, Hoori

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have identified the importance of vegetation processes in terrestrial hydrologic systems. Process-based ecohydrological models combine hydrological, physical, biochemical and ecological processes of the catchments, and as such are generally more complex and parametric than conceptual hydrological models. Thus, appropriate calibration objectives and model uncertainty analysis are essential for ecohydrological modeling. In recent years, Bayesian inference has become one of the most popular tools for quantifying the uncertainties in hydrological modeling with the development of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. The Bayesian approach offers an appealing alternative to traditional multi-objective hydrologic model calibrations by defining proper prior distributions that can be considered analogous to the ad-hoc weighting often prescribed in multi-objective calibration. Our study aims to develop appropriate prior distributions and likelihood functions that minimize the model uncertainties and bias within a Bayesian ecohydrological modeling framework based on a traditional Pareto-based model calibration technique. In our study, a Pareto-based multi-objective optimization and a formal Bayesian framework are implemented in a conceptual ecohydrological model that combines a hydrological model (HYMOD) and a modified Bucket Grassland Model (BGM). Simulations focused on one objective (streamflow/LAI) and multiple objectives (streamflow and LAI) with different emphasis defined via the prior distribution of the model error parameters. Results show more reliable outputs for both predicted streamflow and LAI using Bayesian multi-objective calibration with specified prior distributions for error parameters based on results from the Pareto front in the ecohydrological modeling. The methodology implemented here provides insight into the usefulness of multiobjective Bayesian calibration for ecohydrologic systems and the importance of appropriate prior

  1. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  2. Further evidence in favor of prior entry from endogenous attention to a location in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Ralph S; d'Entremont, Ghislain; Klein, Raymond M

    2017-05-01

    Titchener's (1908) law of prior entry states that "the object of attention comes to consciousness more quickly than the objects which we are not attending to," or otherwise, that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Shore, Spence, and Klein (Psychological Science, 12, 205-212. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00337 , 2001) showed that endogenous visuospatial orienting does in fact elicit prior-entry effects, albeit to a smaller degree than does exogenous visuospatial orienting. In disagreement with this finding, Schneider and Bavelier (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 333-366. doi: 10.1016/S0010-0285(03)00035-5 , 2003) found no effect of their instruction to attend. They concluded that nonattentional effects could masquerade as prior entry, which could account for findings such as those in Shore et al.'s endogenous condition. We investigated this empirical and theoretical discord by replicating the temporal-order judgment task used by Shore, Spence, and Klein, while manipulating and measuring endogenous orienting by way of an orthogonal color probe task. We showed evidence of prior entry as a consequence of endogenous orienting, supporting the conclusions of Shore, Spence, and Klein.

  3. Joint Prior Learning for Visual Sensor Network Noisy Image Super-Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Bo; Wang, Shuang; Liang, Xuefeng; Jiao, Licheng; Xu, Caijin

    2016-02-26

    The visual sensor network (VSN), a new type of wireless sensor network composed of low-cost wireless camera nodes, is being applied for numerous complex visual analyses in wild environments, such as visual surveillance, object recognition, etc. However, the captured images/videos are often low resolution with noise. Such visual data cannot be directly delivered to the advanced visual analysis. In this paper, we propose a joint-prior image super-resolution (JPISR) method using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to improve VSN image quality. Unlike conventional methods that only focus on upscaling images, JPISR alternatively solves upscaling mapping and denoising in the E-step and M-step. To meet the requirement of the M-step, we introduce a novel non-local group-sparsity image filtering method to learn the explicit prior and induce the geometric duality between images to learn the implicit prior. The EM algorithm inherently combines the explicit prior and implicit prior by joint learning. Moreover, JPISR does not rely on large external datasets for training, which is much more practical in a VSN. Extensive experiments show that JPISR outperforms five state-of-the-art methods in terms of both PSNR, SSIM and visual perception.

  4. Prior Familiarization With Takeover Requests Affects Drivers' Takeover Performance and Automation Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergeth, Sebastian; Lorenz, Lutz; Krems, Josef F

    2017-05-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate the effects of prior familiarization with takeover requests (TORs) during conditional automated driving on drivers' initial takeover performance and automation trust. System-initiated TORs are one of the biggest concerns for conditional automated driving and have been studied extensively in the past. Most, but not all, of these studies have included training sessions to familiarize participants with TORs. This makes them hard to compare and might obscure first-failure-like effects on takeover performance and automation trust formation. A driving simulator study compared drivers' takeover performance in two takeover situations across four prior familiarization groups (no familiarization, description, experience, description and experience) and automation trust before and after experiencing the system. As hypothesized, prior familiarization with TORs had a more positive effect on takeover performance in the first than in a subsequent takeover situation. In all groups, automation trust increased after participants experienced the system. Participants who were given no prior familiarization with TORs reported highest automation trust both before and after experiencing the system. The current results extend earlier findings suggesting that prior familiarization with TORs during conditional automated driving will be most relevant for takeover performance in the first takeover situation and that it lowers drivers' automation trust. Potential applications of this research include different approaches to familiarize users with automated driving systems, better integration of earlier findings, and sophistication of experimental designs.

  5. Food and housing insecurity and health status among U.S. adults with and without prior military service

    OpenAIRE

    Schure, Marc B.; Katon, Jodie G.; Wong, Edwin; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Food and housing insecurity may contribute to poorer mental and physical health. It is unclear as to whether those with prior military service, compared to those without, are more vulnerable to these current stressors. The objective of this study was to use U.S. population-based data to determine whether prior military service moderates the association of food and housing insecurity with poor mental and physical health. We analyzed data from nine states administering the Social Context module...

  6. Sleep Restriction Therapy for Insomnia is Associated with Reduced Objective Total Sleep Time, Increased Daytime Somnolence, and Objectively Impaired Vigilance: Implications for the Clinical Management of Insomnia Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D.; Miller, Christopher B.; Rogers, Zoe; Siriwardena, A. Niroshan; MacMahon, Kenneth M.; Espie, Colin A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether sleep restriction therapy (SRT) is associated with reduced objective total sleep time (TST), increased daytime somnolence, and impaired vigilance. Design: Within-subject, noncontrolled treatment investigation. Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Sixteen patients [10 female, mean age = 47.1 (10.8) y] with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI), reporting TST ≤ 6 h. Interventions: Patients were treated with single-component SRT over a 4-w protocol, sleeping in the laboratory for 2 nights prior to treatment initiation and for 3 nights (SRT night 1, 8, 22) during the acute interventional phase. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was completed at seven defined time points [day 0 (baseline), day 1,7,8,21,22 (acute treatment) and day 84 (3 mo)]. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed at baseline, w 1-4, and 3 mo. Measurement and results: Subjective sleep outcomes and global insomnia severity significantly improved before and after SRT. There was, however, a robust decrease in PSG-defined TST during acute implementation of SRT, by an average of 91 min on night 1, 78 min on night 8, and 69 min on night 22, relative to baseline (P sleep restriction therapy is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime sleepiness, and objective performance impairment. Our data have important implications for implementation guidelines around the safe and effective delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. Citation: Kyle SD; Miller CB; Rogers Z; Siriwardena AN; MacMahon KM; Espie CA. Sleep restriction therapy for insomnia is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime somnolence, and objectively impaired vigilance: implications for the clinical management of insomnia disorder. SLEEP 2014;37(2):229-237. PMID:24497651

  7. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  8. Data quality objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeberer, F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or open-quotes betterclose quotes data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used

  9. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope; Aufbau und Test des Protonenmikroskops PRIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-15

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm{sup 2}. Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  10. EEG Sequence Imaging: A Markov Prior for the Variational Garrote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sofie Therese; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2013-01-01

    We propose the following generalization of the Variational Garrote for sequential EEG imaging: A Markov prior to promote sparse, but temporally smooth source dynamics. We derive a set of modied Variational Garrote updates and analyze the role of the prior's hyperparameters. An experimental...

  11. Effects of Prior Knowledge on Memory: Implications for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Yee Lee; Brod, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    The encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of events and facts form the basis for acquiring new skills and knowledge. Prior knowledge can enhance those memory processes considerably and thus foster knowledge acquisition. But prior knowledge can also hinder knowledge acquisition, in particular when the to-be-learned information is inconsistent with…

  12. Bayesian Inference for Structured Spike and Slab Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Riis; Winther, Ole; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sparse signal recovery addresses the problem of solving underdetermined linear inverse problems subject to a sparsity constraint. We propose a novel prior formulation, the structured spike and slab prior, which allows to incorporate a priori knowledge of the sparsity pattern by imposing a spatial...

  13. Designing conjoint choice experiments using managers' prior beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandor, Z; Wedel, M

    2001-01-01

    The authors provide more efficient designs for conjoint choice experiments based on prior information elicited from managers about the parameters and their associated uncertainty. The authors use a Bayesian design procedure that assumes a prior distribution of likely parameter values and optimizes

  14. Non-negative matrix factorization with Gaussian process priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Laurberg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    We present a general method for including prior knowledge in a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), based on Gaussian process priors. We assume that the nonnegative factors in the NMF are linked by a strictly increasing function to an underlying Gaussian process specified by its covariance...

  15. Short Communications The effect of shearing pregnant ewes prior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shearing of winter-lambing ewes prior to lambing, although effects on lamb birth mass and survival were ... The effect on lambs of shearing ewes prior to lambing in pad- docks has not been researched to the same ..... production and feed intake in unmated and mated Border Leicester x. Romney crossbred ewes shorn in ...

  16. 34 CFR 303.403 - Prior notice; native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior notice; native language. 303.403 Section 303.403... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.403 Prior notice; native language. (a... file a complaint and the timelines under those procedures. (c) Native language. (1) The notice must be...

  17. Recognition of Prior Learning as an integral component of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Similarly, a person could gain re- cognition for prior learning in respect of an entire qualification, pro- vided that such a person is able to demonstrate the full competence associated with the qualification." The National Framework for Recognition of Training in Australia uses the following definition: "Recognition of Prior ...

  18. Prior Learning Experiences: Handbook for Portfolio Process. Alternative Learning Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiro, Judy

    This handbook presents information to aid students in applying for prior learning credit at Whatcom Community College (WCC). First, introductory material outlines the types of activities that may qualify a student for prior experiential learning credit and presents a flowchart illustrating the accrediting process. Next, a step-by-step guide is…

  19. Prior distributions for item parameters in IRT models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matteucci, M.; S. Mignani, Prof.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the choice of suitable prior distributions for item parameters within item response theory (IRT) models. In particular, the use of empirical prior distributions for item parameters is proposed. Firstly, regression trees are implemented in order to build informative

  20. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  1. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  2. BAYESIAN ANALYSIS FOR THE PAIRED COMPARISON MODEL WITH ORDER EFFECTS (USING NON-INFORMATIVE PRIORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghausia Masood Gilani

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it may be difficult for a panelist to rank or compare more than two objects or treatments at the same time. For this reason, paired comparison method is used. In this study, the Davidson and Beaver (1977 model for paired comparisons with order effects is analyzed through the Bayesian Approach. For this purpose, the posterior means and the posterior modes are compared using the noninformative priors.

  3. Workshop objectives and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of the Workshop was to create a platform in order to better understand different approaches to managing uncertainty in post-closure safety cases and regulatory approaches in different national waste management programmes. The principal objectives of the Workshop were to: - To identify common elements in different approaches for managing uncertainty. - To facilitate information exchange and to promote discussion on different technical approaches to the management and characterisation of uncertainty and on the role of risk. - To explore the merits of alternative approaches to risk-informed decision making. - To identify the potential for further developments of methods or strategies to support the management of uncertainties. The workshop was organised into plenary sessions and working group discussions: The first plenary session focused on establishing a framework for understanding the management of uncertainties and the use of risk. It comprised oral presentations drawing on a range of experience from both active participants in the development and assessment of safety cases and keynotes presentations by external participants involved in risk management in other sectors. The working group discussions covered three technical themes: Risk management and decision making. Regulatory requirements and review of uncertainty and risk in safety cases. Practical approaches and tools for the management of uncertainties and the assignment of probabilities, the use of expert judgements, and the presentation of information on uncertainties and risk were examined. The aim of the working groups was to develop an understanding of the specific issues, and to identify any further activities that will support the development and/or evaluation of safety cases. The round up plenary session brought together information and conclusions from each of the working groups. Common elements in the different approaches to treating uncertainty and risk were identified, along with

  4. Using a staircase procedure for the objective measurement of auditory stream integration and segregation thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Isabel Spielmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory scene analysis describes the ability to segregate relevant sounds out from the environment and to integrate them into a single sound stream using the characteristics of the sounds to determine whether or not they are related. This study aims to contrast task performances in objective threshold measurements of segregation and integration using identical stimuli, manipulating two variables known to influence streaming, inter-stimulus-interval (ISI and frequency difference (Δf. For each measurement, one parameter (either ISI or Δf was held constant while the other was altered in a staircase procedure. By using this paradigm, it is possible to test within-subject across multiple conditions, covering a wide Δf and ISI range in one testing session. The objective tasks were based on across-stream temporal judgments (facilitated by integration and within-stream deviance detection (facilitated by segregation. Results show the objective integration task is well suited for combination with the staircase procedure, as it yields consistent threshold measurements for separate variations of ISI and Δf, as well as being significantly related to the subjective thresholds. The objective segregation task appears less suited to the staircase procedure. With the integration-based staircase paradigm, a comprehensive assessment of streaming thresholds can be obtained in a relatively short space of time. This permits efficient threshold measurements particularly in groups for which there is little prior knowledge on the relevant parameter space for streaming perception.

  5. Compositional mining of multiple object API protocols through state abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziying; Mao, Xiaoguang; Lei, Yan; Qi, Yuhua; Wang, Rui; Gu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  6. Compositional Mining of Multiple Object API Protocols through State Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziying Dai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available API protocols specify correct sequences of method invocations. Despite their usefulness, API protocols are often unavailable in practice because writing them is cumbersome and error prone. Multiple object API protocols are more expressive than single object API protocols. However, the huge number of objects of typical object-oriented programs poses a major challenge to the automatic mining of multiple object API protocols: besides maintaining scalability, it is important to capture various object interactions. Current approaches utilize various heuristics to focus on small sets of methods. In this paper, we present a general, scalable, multiple object API protocols mining approach that can capture all object interactions. Our approach uses abstract field values to label object states during the mining process. We first mine single object typestates as finite state automata whose transitions are annotated with states of interacting objects before and after the execution of the corresponding method and then construct multiple object API protocols by composing these annotated single object typestates. We implement our approach for Java and evaluate it through a series of experiments.

  7. Passive Aerial Grasping of Ferrous Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Fiaz, Usman Amin

    2017-10-19

    Aerial transportation is probably the most efficient way to supply quick and effective aid especially in cases of emergency like search and rescue operations. Thus the ability to grasp and deliver objects is of vital importance in all sorts of unmanned and autonomous aerial operations. We detail a simple yet novel approach for aerial grasping of ferrous objects using a passive magnetic pickup and an impulse based drop mechanism. The design enables our gripper to grasp ferrous objects using single as well as multiple gripping pads, with visual as well as pickup and drop feedback. We describe the various components of the gripper with emphasis on its low mass and high lift capability since weight is a matter of high consideration in all aerial applications. In addition, we investigate and address the issues that may cause our design to fail. We demonstrate by experiments that the proposed design is robust and effective, based on its high payload capability, its sturdiness against possible slide during aggressive aerial maneuvers, and optimum performance of the drop mechanism for the designed range of payloads. We also show that the gripper is able to pick up and drop a single as well as multiple ferrous objects of different shapes, curvature, and inclination, which also involves picking up an object and then grasping the next, while keeping hold of the previous one.

  8. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  9. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  10. Preserving urban objects of historicaland architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal'zannikova Ekaterina Mikhailovna

    2014-01-01

    structural elements, delivering building materials, preparing the construction site and the basic period when condemned structures are demolished, new design elements are formed and assembled, interior finishing work is performed and the object facade is restored. In contrast to it, our method includes additional periods and a performance list. In particular, it is proposed to carry out a research period prior to the preparatory period, and after the basic period there should be the ending period.Thus, during the research period it is necessary to study urban development features in architectural and town-planning environment, to identify the historical and architectural value of the object, to estimate its ramshackle state and whether it is habitable, to determine the relationship of the object with the architectural and aesthetic image of surrounding objects and to develop a conservation program; and during the ending period it is proposed to assess the historical and architectural significance of the reconstructed object in relation to the aesthetic and architectural image of the surrounding area. The proposed complex method will increase the attractiveness of a historical and architectural heritage object and its surrounding area for tourists and, consequently, raise the cultural level of the visitors. Furthermore, the method will ensure the construction of recreation zones, their more frequent usage and visiting surrounding objects of social infrastructure, because more opportunities for cultural and aesthetic pastime will be offered. The method will also provide a more reasonable and effective use of available funding due to the careful analysis and proper choice of the methods to preserve objects of historical and architectural heritage.

  11. Immune dysfunction prior to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a determinant of long-term mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A Greenberg

    Full Text Available The clinical implications for patients who survive serious infections are not well understood. It has been hypothesized that the excess mortality for survivors of sepsis observed in epidemiological studies is due to increased vulnerability to subsequent infections. We undertook this study to identify characteristics of patients who are at high risk for death after surviving a common type of blood-stream infection.At a single academic medical center, 237 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia admitted during a three-year period were retrospectively identified. The primary outcomes were 30-day and 31 to 90-day mortality after the first positive blood culture. The primary predictor variable of interest was clinical immune dysfunction prior to bacteremia.The 30-day mortality was not significantly different for patients with and without prior immune dysfunction. However, during days 31 to 90, 11 patients (20% with prior immune dysfunction compared to 10 patients (8.6% without prior immune dysfunction died (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.03-6.53, p = 0.04. In a Cox-proportional hazard model controlling for age, there was a significant association between prior immune dysfunction and greater 31 to 90 day mortality (HR 2.44, 95% CI 1.01-5.90, p = 0.05 and a non-significant trend towards occurrence of subsequent infections and greater 31 to 90 day mortality (HR 2.12, 95% CI 0.89-5.07, p = 0.09.Patients with prior immune dysfunction are at high risk for death 31 to 90 days, but not <30 days, after S. aureus bacteremia. Further investigation is needed to determine if this finding is due to poor prognosis of chronic disease or increased vulnerability to subsequent infections.

  12. The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Broers, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., Kester, L., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Broers, N. J. (2011). The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 274-291. doi: 10.1348/000709910X517425

  13. Object recognition based on reflectance and geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Shree K.; Bolle, Ruud M.

    1993-06-01

    In the past, recognition systems have relied solely on geometric properties of objects. This paper discusses the simultaneous use of geometric as well as reflectance properties for object recognition. Neighboring points on a smoothly curved surface have similar surface orientations and illumination conditions. Hence, their brightness values can be used to compute the ratio of their reflectance coefficients. Based on this observation, we develop an algorithm that estimates a reflectance ratio for each region in an image with respect to its background. The algorithm is computationally efficient as it computes ratios for all image regions in just two raster scans. The region reflectance ratio represents a physical property of a region that is invariant to the illumination conditions. The reflectance ratio invariant is used to recognize three-dimensional objects from a single brightness image. Object models are automatically acquired and represented using a hash table. Recognition and pose estimation algorithms are presented that use the reflectance ratios of scene regions as well as their geometric properties to index the hash table. The result is a hypothesis for the existence of an object in the image. This hypothesis is verified using the ratios and locations of other regions in the scene. The proposed approach to recognition is very effective for objects with printed characters and pictures. We conclude with experimental results on the invariance of reflectance ratios and their application to object recognition.

  14. The role of HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aviad; Almog, Benny; Cohen, Yoni; Bibi, Guy; Rimon, Eli; Levin, Ishai

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the role HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment as a predictor for treatment success. Medical records of all women who were diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy between January 2001 and June 2013 were reviewed. Four hundred and nine patients received methotrexate due to ectopic pregnancy. The "single dose" methotrexate protocol with 50mg/m 2 was administered to patients with progressing ectopic pregnancy. HCG levels in days 1, 4 and 7 were used to evaluate methotrexate treatment success. The percentage of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate treatment was compared between patients who were successfully treated and those who failed treatment with methotrexate. Single dose methotrexate was successful in 309 patients (75.4%, success group). The medians of HCG change in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration were significantly higher in the "failure group" (21% vs. 4%, pHCG percent increment prior to methotrexate administration was shown to be an independent predictor for treatment outcome. Receiver operator characteristic curve for HCG percent change was 0.751, at a cutoff value of HCG increment HCG increment in the 48h prior to methotrexate administration is an independent predictor for methotrexate treatment success. HCG increment <12% prior to methotrexate treatment is a good predictor for treatment success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of achromatic and apochromatic plastic micro-objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greisukh, Grigoriy I; Ezhov, Evgeniy G; Levin, Il'ya A; Stepanov, Sergei A

    2010-08-10

    The possibility and the efficiency of using a single diffractive lens to achromatize and apochromatize micro-objectives with plastic lenses are shown. In addition, recommendations are given on assembling the starting configurations of the objectives and calculating the design parameters required for subsequent optimization. It is also shown that achievable optical performance of achromatic and apochromatic micro-objectives with plastic lenses satisfy the qualifying standards for cell-phone objectives and closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras.

  16. Effect of General and Specific Behavioural Objectives on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research design adopted for the study was pretest-post test control group experimental design. Three Social Studies topics were taught within the eight weeks of the field work. The results indicated that students presented with specific behavioural objectives prior to instruction in social studies had a significantly higher ...

  17. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  18. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  19. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew; Reislev, Nina Linde; Ørting, Silas N; Nielsen, Mads; Garde, Ellen; Feragen, Aasa

    2016-04-15

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we demonstrate that our framework also retains support for conventional interactive constraints such as waypoint regions. We apply our approach to the open access, high quality Human Connectome Project data, as well as a dataset acquired on a typical clinical scanner. Our results show that the use of a learned prior substantially increases the overlap of tractography output with a reference atlas on both populations, and this is confirmed by visual inspection. Furthermore, we demonstrate how a prior learned on the high quality dataset significantly increases the overlap with the reference for the more typical yet lower quality data acquired on a clinical scanner. We hope that such automatic incorporation of prior knowledge and the obviation of expert interactive tract delineation on every subject, will improve the feasibility of large clinical tractography studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of prior 810-nm-diode intracanal laser irradiation on hydrophilic resin-based sealer obturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacio Moura-Netto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentin wall structural changes caused by 810-nm-diode laser irradiation can influence the sealing ability of endodontic sealers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the apical leakage of AH Plus and RealSeal resin-based sealers with and without prior diode laser irradiation. Fifty-two single-rooted mandibular premolars were prepared and divided into 4 groups, according to the endodontic sealer used and the use or non-use of laser irradiation. The protocol for laser irradiation was 2.5W, continuous wave in scanning mode, with 4 exposures per tooth. After sample preparation, apical leakage of 50% ammoniacal silver nitrate impregnation was analyzed. When the teeth were not exposed to irradiation, the RealSeal sealer achieved the highest scores, showing the least leakage, with significant differences at the 5% level (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.0004, compared with AH Plus. When the teeth were exposed to the 810-nm-diode laser irradiation, the sealing ability of AH Plus sealer was improved (p = 0282. In the RealSeal groups, the intracanal laser irradiation did not interfere with the leakage index, showing similar results in the GRS and GRSd groups (p = 0.1009.

  1. Object grammars and random generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dutour

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach for the uniform random generation of combinatorial objects. The method is based on the notion of object grammars which give recursive descriptions of objects and generalize context-freegrammars. The application of particular valuations to these grammars leads to enumeration and random generation of objects according to non algebraic parameters.

  2. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    Typically, objects are monolithic entities with a fixed interface. To increase the flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct. An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects. It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process. With support for feature access and late-bound method calls object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible. The approach is made precise by means of a small calculus, and the soundness of its type...

  3. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  4. Assessment of unskilled adults’ prior learning – fair to whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    2014-01-01

    As in many other countries, Danish adult education policy focuses on how to encourage adults for education; the most important and challenging group of adults being those with few or no formal qualifications. Assessment of prior learning (APL) is perceived as an important tool for motivating adults...... for education and training. The most important part of the adults’ prior learning has been obtained outside the formal school system, typically consisting of their work experiences. This paper discusses research that examined the meeting between on the one hand the adults’ prior learning and on the other...... and the qualification standards, formulated in the learning outcome descriptions of the programs...

  5. Bayesian Inference for Structured Spike and Slab Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Riis; Winther, Ole; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sparse signal recovery addresses the problem of solving underdetermined linear inverse problems subject to a sparsity constraint. We propose a novel prior formulation, the structured spike and slab prior, which allows to incorporate a priori knowledge of the sparsity pattern by imposing a spatial...... Gaussian process on the spike and slab probabilities. Thus, prior information on the structure of the sparsity pattern can be encoded using generic covariance functions. Furthermore, we provide a Bayesian inference scheme for the proposed model based on the expectation propagation framework. Using...

  6. Source-specific Informative Prior for i-Vector Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou

    2015-01-01

    An i-vector is a low-dimensional fixed-length representation of a variable-length speech utterance, and is defined as the posterior mean of a latent variable conditioned on the observed feature sequence of an utterance. The assumption is that the prior for the latent variable is non......-informative, since for homogeneous datasets there is no gain in generality in using an informative prior. This work shows that extracting i-vectors for a heterogeneous dataset, containing speech samples recorded from multiple sources, using informative priors instead is applicable, and leads to favorable results...

  7. Prior source exposure and persuasion: further evidence for misattributional processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Max; Mackie, Diane M; Garcia-Marques, Teresa

    2003-06-01

    To assess the persuasive impact of prior source exposure, two studies paired persuasive messages with a source to whom participants had previously been exposed subliminally, explicitly, or not at all. In Experiment 2, participants' attention also was drawn to information that potentially undermined the implications of any reaction to re-exposure. Compared to no exposure, prior subliminal exposure increased the source's persuasiveness, an effect not mediated by source liking. Explicit exposure increased source persuasiveness to the extent that the source was liked more and only absent a recall cue. Results favored misattributional accounts of prior exposure effects.

  8. Relationship Between Learner Attitudes, Prior Achievement, and Performance in a General Education Course: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, J. Daniel; Hurst, Richard S.; Keely, Edward J.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 335 undergraduates enrolled in introductory psychology courses at two universities found that learner initial attitudes were predictors of academic achievement and that prior academic achievement was the single predictor variable in a logistic regression analysis of whether students earned satisfactory grades. These results support the…

  9. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  10. Object-Interviews: Folding, Unfolding, and Refolding Perceptions of Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Naomi Nordstrom PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the object-interview as a Deleuzian space in which subjects and objects, living and nonliving, entangle together. I developed the object-interview to understand the connections that 11 Midwestern family history genealogists made between objects (e.g., documents, photographs, and other artifacts and their ancestors. The object-interview suggests an alternative way to think and do qualitative interviews informed by poststructural theories. The method draws on French philosopher Deleuze's concepts of the fold, events, and a life, as well as conventional qualitative interview literature. Deleuze's concepts offer a way to rethink objects and subjects as fibrous, connective, and folding entities in qualitative interviews. Such a rethinking offers an alternative to subject-centered conventional qualitative interviews in which subjects are teased apart from objects and subjects primarily produce knowledge. The object-interview, then, is a Deleuzian space in which the supposed distinctions between subjects and objects, as well as other binary divisions, become indistinct, or entangled, as both subjects and objects produce knowledge. That space enabled me to create the concept ensemble of life—a constantly shifting group of objects associated with a person's life. In this article, I describe the theoretical entanglement of the object-interview, the object-interview itself, the data it produced in my dissertation study, and the significance of the method to the field of qualitative research methods.

  11. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  12. GNSS Single Frequency, Single Epoch Reliable Attitude Determination Method with Baseline Vector Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ang; Zhao, Xiubin; Pang, Chunlei; Duan, Rong; Wang, Yong

    2015-12-02

    For Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) single frequency, single epoch attitude determination, this paper proposes a new reliable method with baseline vector constraint. First, prior knowledge of baseline length, heading, and pitch obtained from other navigation equipment or sensors are used to reconstruct objective function rigorously. Then, searching strategy is improved. It substitutes gradually Enlarged ellipsoidal search space for non-ellipsoidal search space to ensure correct ambiguity candidates are within it and make the searching process directly be carried out by least squares ambiguity decorrelation algorithm (LAMBDA) method. For all vector candidates, some ones are further eliminated by derived approximate inequality, which accelerates the searching process. Experimental results show that compared to traditional method with only baseline length constraint, this new method can utilize a priori baseline three-dimensional knowledge to fix ambiguity reliably and achieve a high success rate. Experimental tests also verify it is not very sensitive to baseline vector error and can perform robustly when angular error is not great.

  13. Impact of prior interventions on outcomes during per oral endoscopic myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Brian E; Schneider, Andreas M; Schembre, Drew B; Aye, Ralph W

    2017-04-01

    Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is performed by accessing the submucosal space of the esophagus. This space may be impacted by prior interventions such as submucosal injections, dilations or previous myotomies. These interventions could make POEM more difficult and may deter surgeons during their initial experience. We sought to determine the impact of prior interventions on our early experience. Prospective, single-center study of consecutive patients undergoing POEM. Patients were grouped according to their anticipated complexity: Group A: no prior interventions (N = 19); Group B: prior interventions such as submucosal injections and/or dilations (N = 11) and  Group C: sigmoidal esophagus, prior esophageal surgery, balloon dilation >30 mm (N = 8). We compared operative times, inadvertent mucosotomy rates, complications and short-term outcomes between groups. A total of 38 patients underwent POEM for achalasia subtypes: I (N = 9), II (N = 19) and III (N = 7). Three had other dysmotility disorders. Patients between the groups were similar. Operative times were similar between Group A and Group B but significantly longer for Group C (133 vs. 132 vs. 210 min, p = 0.001). Mucosotomy rates were highest in Group A (6/19) with 1 each in Group B/C (p = 0.46). One patient in Group A required an esophageal stent. Eckardt scores improved in all groups (6-1; 8-2; 6-0.5, p = 0.73), and postoperative GERD-HRQL scores were similar. One patient underwent laparoscopic myotomy for persistent symptoms with no improvement, and one patient underwent esophagectomy for a sigmoid esophagus and persistent symptoms despite adequate myotomy. A prior intervention does not seem to impact short-term clinical outcomes with POEM. Patients who had submucosal injections or small caliber dilations are similar to patients with no prior inventions; however, patients with a sigmoid-shaped esophagus and/or a prior myotomy require nearly double the operative time. Endoscopists

  14. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  15. On the prior probabilities for two-stage Bayesian estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1992-01-01

    The method of Bayesian inference is reexamined for its applicability and for the required underlying assumptions in obtaining and using prior probability estimates. Two different approaches are suggested to determine the first-stage priors in the two-stage Bayesian analysis which avoid certain assumptions required for other techniques. In the first scheme, the prior is obtained through a true frequency based distribution generated at selected intervals utilizing actual sampling of the failure rate distributions. The population variability distribution is generated as the weighed average of the frequency distributions. The second method is based on a non-parametric Bayesian approach using the Maximum Entropy Principle. Specific features such as integral properties or selected parameters of prior distributions may be obtained with minimal assumptions. It is indicated how various quantiles may also be generated with a least square technique

  16. Estimating Functions with Prior Knowledge, (EFPK) for diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Kim; Kessler, Mathieu; Madsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction of a...... of an estimating function. It may be useful when the full Bayesian analysis is difficult to carry out for computational reasons. This is almost always the case for diffusions, which is the focus of this paper, though the method applies in other settings.......In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction...

  17. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  18. Prior knowledge regularization in statistical medical image tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crimi, Alessandro; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    for regularizing thecovariance matrix using prior knowledge. Our method is evaluated forreconstructing and modeling vertebra and cartilage shapes from a lowerdimensional representation and a conditional model. For these centralproblems, the proposed methodology outperforms the traditional MLEmethod...

  19. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we......Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior...... demonstrate that our framework also retains support for conventional interactive constraints such as waypoint regions. We apply our approach to the open access, high quality Human Connectome Project data, as well as a dataset acquired on a typical clinical scanner. Our results show that the use of a learned...

  20. Maternal and newborn outcomes after a prior cesarean birth by planned mode of delivery and history of prior vaginal birth in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Celeste D; Janssen, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    As rates for cesarean births continue to rise, more women are faced with the choice to plan a vaginal or a repeat cesarean birth after a previous cesarean. The objective of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to compare the safety of planned vaginal birth with cesarean birth after 1-2 previous cesarean sections. We identified singleton term births in British Columbia from 2000 to 2008 using data from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. Women carrying a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at term (37-41 weeks of gestation completed) with 1-2 prior cesarean births were included. Those with gestational hypertension, pre-existing diabetes and cardiac disease were excluded. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were classified as either life-threatening or non-life threatening. We compared outcomes among women with none versus at least 1 previous vaginal birth, by planned method of delivery. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for composite outcomes using Poisson regression. Of the 33 812 women in the sample, 5406 had a history of vaginal delivery and 28 406 did not. The composite risk for life-threatening maternal outcomes was elevated among women planning vaginal compared with cesarean birth both with and without a prior vaginal birth (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.52) and (2.52, 95% CI 2.04-3.11). Absolute differences (attributable risk [AR]) were 1.01% and 1.31% respectively. Non-life threatening maternal outcomes were decreased among women planning a vaginal birth if they had had at least 1 prior vaginal delivery (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33-0.77; AR 1.17%). The composite risk of intrapartum stillbirth, neonatal death or life-threatening neonatal outcomes did not differ among women planning vaginal or cesarean birth with a prior vaginal delivery and non-life threatening neonatal outcomes were decreased, (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.86); AR 1.92%). After 1 or 2 previous cesarean births, risks for adverse outcomes between planned

  1. Preventing Ototoxic Synergy of Prior Noise Trauma During Aminoglycoside Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Johns Hopkins University. 212 p (2007). 9. Liao S, et al. Noise Exposure in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit : A Prospective Study. American Academy...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0006 TITLE: Preventing Ototoxic Synergy Of Prior Noise Trauma During Aminoglycoside Therapy ...Dec 2014 - 30 Nov 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Preventing Ototoxic Synergy Of Prior Noise Trauma During Aminoglycoside Therapy

  2. Interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Thornton

    Full Text Available We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6 than they could track (M = 4.0, but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design. Compared to single-task baseline, iMOT performance decreased and MOT performance increased when the two tasks had to be completed together. Overall, these findings suggest: 1 There is a clear limit to the number of items that can be simultaneously controlled, for a given speed and display density; 2 participants can control more items than they can track; 3 task-relevant action appears not to disrupt MOT performance in the current experimental context.

  3. The Power of Objectives: Moving beyond Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jack J.; Phillips, Patti P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the need for project objectives is obvious, their value and role are much broader than most think. In this article, we explore the need for higher levels of objectives, along with tips and techniques to develop them properly. More important, we examine the benefits of objectives from many perspectives. In today's competitive environment,…

  4. Two-dimensional displacement measurement using static close range photogrammetry and a single fixed camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah M. Khalil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a simple approach to measure the displacement of a moving object in two directions simultaneously. The proposed approach is based on static close range photogrammetry with a single camera and the well-known collinearity equations. The proposed approach requires neither multi-camera synchronization nor mutual camera calibration. It requires no prior knowledge of the kinematic and kinetic data of the moving object. The proposed approach was used to evaluate predefined two-dimensional displacements of a moving object. The root mean square values of the differences between the predefined and evaluated displacements in the two directions are 0.11 and 0.02 mm.

  5. Fractional Gaussian noise: Prior specification and model comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-07-07

    Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) is a stationary stochastic process used to model antipersistent or persistent dependency structures in observed time series. Properties of the autocovariance function of fGn are characterised by the Hurst exponent (H), which, in Bayesian contexts, typically has been assigned a uniform prior on the unit interval. This paper argues why a uniform prior is unreasonable and introduces the use of a penalised complexity (PC) prior for H. The PC prior is computed to penalise divergence from the special case of white noise and is invariant to reparameterisations. An immediate advantage is that the exact same prior can be used for the autocorrelation coefficient ϕ(symbol) of a first-order autoregressive process AR(1), as this model also reflects a flexible version of white noise. Within the general setting of latent Gaussian models, this allows us to compare an fGn model component with AR(1) using Bayes factors, avoiding the confounding effects of prior choices for the two hyperparameters H and ϕ(symbol). Among others, this is useful in climate regression models where inference for underlying linear or smooth trends depends heavily on the assumed noise model.

  6. Wild geese do not increase flight behaviour prior to migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Green, Jonathan A; White, Craig R; Guillemette, Magella; Butler, Patrick J

    2012-06-23

    Hypertrophy of the flight muscles is regularly observed in birds prior to long-distance migrations. We tested the hypothesis that a large migratory bird would increase flight behaviour prior to migration, in order to cause hypertrophy of the flight muscles, and upregulate key components of the aerobic metabolic pathways. Implantable data loggers were used to record year-round heart rate in six wild barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis), and the amount of time spent in flight each day was identified. Time in flight per day did not significantly increase prior to either the spring or the autumn migration, both between time periods prior to migration (5, 10 and 15 days), or when compared with a control period of low activity during winter. The lack of significant increase in flight prior to migration suggests that approximately 22 min per day is sufficient to maintain the flight muscles in condition for prolonged long-distance flight. This apparent lack of a requirement for increased flight activity prior to migration may be attributable to pre-migratory mass gains in the geese increasing workload during short flights, potentially prompting hypertrophy of the flight muscles.

  7. The evaluation of relationship between prior uterine surgery and adenomyosis incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azin Alavi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Adenomyosis is a common benign disorder in premenopausal women. It may be presents with uterus enlargement, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrheal. The main objective of this study was to assess prior uterine surgery was a risk factor for adenomyosis. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed the medical records of all women who underwent hysterectomy for benign and nonemergency gynecologic condition between 2001 – 2006 in Shariate hospital of Bandar Abbas. Data included: age, gravidity, parity, abortion, prior uterine surgery and uterine size by physical examination before hysterectomy, were collected from the clinical records and the information about adenomyosis was obtained from pathology records. Analysis was done using SPSS-16, descriptive statistics, T test and ANOVA. Significant level was set as P<0.05. Results: Of the 191 participants , 72 (37.7% women had pathologically confirmed adenomyosis. The prevalence of adenomyosis in this study was 37.7%. women with adenomyosis reported a history of prior uterine surgery more frequently than women without adenomyosis but age, menarch, gravidity, parity and history of abortion were similar between the 2 groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that adenomyosis had significant correlation with prior uterine surgery. And, confirmed that we can decrease prevalence of adenomyosis with decreased unnessecery uterine surgery.

  8. Developer Tools for Evaluating Multi-Objective Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Mark E.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective algorithms for scheduling offer many advantages over the more conventional single objective approach. By keeping user objectives separate instead of combined, more information is available to the end user to make trade-offs between competing objectives. Unlike single objective algorithms, which produce a single solution, multi-objective algorithms produce a set of solutions, called a Pareto surface, where no solution is strictly dominated by another solution for all objectives. From the end-user perspective a Pareto-surface provides a tool for reasoning about trade-offs between competing objectives. From the perspective of a software developer multi-objective algorithms provide an additional challenge. How can you tell if one multi-objective algorithm is better than another? This paper presents formal and visual tools for evaluating multi-objective algorithms and shows how the developer process of selecting an algorithm parallels the end-user process of selecting a solution for execution out of the Pareto-Surface.

  9. Using virtual reality to test the regularity priors used by the human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Eric; Kwon, TaeKyu; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2017-09-01

    Virtual reality applications provide an opportunity to test human vision in well-controlled scenarios that would be difficult to generate in real physical spaces. This paper presents a study intended to evaluate the importance of the regularity priors used by the human visual system. Using a CAVE simulation, subjects viewed virtual objects in a variety of experimental manipulations. In the first experiment, the subject was asked to count the objects in a scene that was viewed either right-side-up or upside-down for 4 seconds. The subject counted more accurately in the right-side-up condition regardless of the presence of binocular disparity or color. In the second experiment, the subject was asked to reconstruct the scene from a different viewpoint. Reconstructions were accurate, but the position and orientation error was twice as high when the scene was rotated by 45°, compared to 22.5°. Similarly to the first experiment, there was little difference between monocular and binocular viewing. In the third experiment, the subject was asked to adjust the position of one object to match the depth extent to the frontal extent among three objects. Performance was best with symmetrical objects and became poorer with asymmetrical objects and poorest with only small circular markers on the floor. Finally, in the fourth experiment, we demonstrated reliable performance in monocular and binocular recovery of 3D shapes of objects standing naturally on the simulated horizontal floor. Based on these results, we conclude that gravity, horizontal ground, and symmetry priors play an important role in veridical perception of scenes.

  10. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation and hid...... and hiding. The behavour of a composite object is straightforwardly derived from the behavour of the constituent objects. Defining refinement as a strengthened form of trace inclusion, object composition and refinement togehter form a basis for step-wise development....

  11. On the Distribution of Salient Objects in Web Images and Its Influence on Salient Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauerte, Boris; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In recent years it has become apparent that a Gaussian center bias can serve as an important prior for visual saliency detection, which has been demonstrated for predicting human eye fixations and salient object detection. Tseng et al. have shown that the photographer's tendency to place interesting objects in the center is a likely cause for the center bias of eye fixations. We investigate the influence of the photographer's center bias on salient object detection, extending our previous work. We show that the centroid locations of salient objects in photographs of Achanta and Liu's data set in fact correlate strongly with a Gaussian model. This is an important insight, because it provides an empirical motivation and justification for the integration of such a center bias in salient object detection algorithms and helps to understand why Gaussian models are so effective. To assess the influence of the center bias on salient object detection, we integrate an explicit Gaussian center bias model into two state-of-the-art salient object detection algorithms. This way, first, we quantify the influence of the Gaussian center bias on pixel- and segment-based salient object detection. Second, we improve the performance in terms of F1 score, Fβ score, area under the recall-precision curve, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and hit-rate on the well-known data set by Achanta and Liu. Third, by debiasing Cheng et al.'s region contrast model, we exemplarily demonstrate that implicit center biases are partially responsible for the outstanding performance of state-of-the-art algorithms. Last but not least, we introduce a non-biased salient object detection method, which is of interest for applications in which the image data is not likely to have a photographer's center bias (e.g., image data of surveillance cameras or autonomous robots).

  12. On the Distribution of Salient Objects in Web Images and Its Influence on Salient Object Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Schauerte

    Full Text Available In recent years it has become apparent that a Gaussian center bias can serve as an important prior for visual saliency detection, which has been demonstrated for predicting human eye fixations and salient object detection. Tseng et al. have shown that the photographer's tendency to place interesting objects in the center is a likely cause for the center bias of eye fixations. We investigate the influence of the photographer's center bias on salient object detection, extending our previous work. We show that the centroid locations of salient objects in photographs of Achanta and Liu's data set in fact correlate strongly with a Gaussian model. This is an important insight, because it provides an empirical motivation and justification for the integration of such a center bias in salient object detection algorithms and helps to understand why Gaussian models are so effective. To assess the influence of the center bias on salient object detection, we integrate an explicit Gaussian center bias model into two state-of-the-art salient object detection algorithms. This way, first, we quantify the influence of the Gaussian center bias on pixel- and segment-based salient object detection. Second, we improve the performance in terms of F1 score, Fβ score, area under the recall-precision curve, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and hit-rate on the well-known data set by Achanta and Liu. Third, by debiasing Cheng et al.'s region contrast model, we exemplarily demonstrate that implicit center biases are partially responsible for the outstanding performance of state-of-the-art algorithms. Last but not least, we introduce a non-biased salient object detection method, which is of interest for applications in which the image data is not likely to have a photographer's center bias (e.g., image data of surveillance cameras or autonomous robots.

  13. Incorporating Network Built-in Priors in Weakly-supervised Semantic Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Fatemehsadat; Aliakbarian, Mohammad Sadegh; Salzmann, Mathieu; Petersson, Lars; Alvarez, Jose M; Gould, Stephen

    2017-06-08

    Pixel-level annotations are expensive and time consuming to obtain. Hence, weak supervision using only image tags could have a significant impact in semantic segmentation. Recently, CNN-based methods have proposed to fine-tune pre-trained networks using image tags. Without additional information, this leads to poor localization accuracy. This problem, however, was alleviated by making use of objectness priors to generate foreground/background masks. Unfortunately these priors either require pixel-level annotations/bounding boxes, or still yield inaccurate object boundaries. Here, we propose a novel method to extract accurate masks from networks pre-trained for the task of object recognition, thus forgoing external objectness modules. We first show how foreground/background masks can be obtained from the activations of higher-level convolutional layers of a network. We then show how to obtain multi-class masks by the fusion of foreground/background ones with information extracted from a weakly-supervised localization network. Our experiments evidence that exploiting these masks in conjunction with a weakly-supervised training loss yields state-of-the-art tag-based weakly-supervised semantic segmentation results.

  14. First Canadian experience with robotic single-incision pyeloplasty: Comparison with multi-incision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jeffrey; Rowe, Neal; Archambault, Jason; Nastis, Sofia; Sener, Alp; Luke, Patrick P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the outcomes of single-incision, robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty vs. multiple-incision pyeloplasty using the da Vinci robotic system. We reviewed all consecutive robotic pyeloplasties by a single surgeon from January 2011 to August 2015. A total of 30 procedures were performed (16 single:14 multi-port). Two different single-port devices were compared: the GelPort (Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA) and the Intuitive single-site access port (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). Patient demographics were similar between the two groups. Mean operating time was similar among the single and multi-port groups (225.2 min vs. 198.9 minutes [p=0.33]). There was no significant difference in length of hospital stay in either group (86.2 hr vs. 93.2 hr [p=0.76]). There was no difference in success rates or postoperative complications among groups. Single-port robotic pyeloplasty is non-inferior to multiple-incision robotic surgery in terms of operative times, hospitalization time, success rates, and complications. Verifying these results with larger cohorts is required prior to the wide adoption of this technique. Ongoing objective measurements of cosmesis and patient satisfaction are being evaluated.

  15. A behavioral task sets an upper bound on the time required to access object memories before object segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Joseph L; Peterson, Mary A

    2016-12-01

    Traditional theories of vision assume that object segregation occurs before access to object memories. Yet, behavioral evidence shows that familiar configuration is a prior for segregation, and electrophysiological experiments demonstrate these memories are accessed rapidly. A behavioral index of the speed of access is lacking, however. Here we asked how quickly behavior is influenced by object memories that are accessed in the course of object segregation. We investigated whether access to object memories on the groundside of a border can slow behavior during a rapid categorization task. Participants viewed two silhouettes that depicted a real-world and a novel object. Their task was to saccade toward the real-world object as quickly as possible. Half of the nontarget novel objects were ambiguous in that a portion of a real-world object was suggested, but not consciously perceived, on the groundside of their borders. The rest of the nontargets were unambiguous. We tested whether saccadic reaction times were perturbed by the real-world objects suggested on the groundside of ambiguous novel silhouettes. In Experiments 1 and 2, saccadic reaction times were slowed when nontargets were ambiguous rather than unambiguous. Experiment 2 set an upper limit of 190 ms on the time required for object memories in grounds to influence behavior. Experiment 3 ruled out factors that could have produced longer latencies other than access to object memories. These results provide the first behavioral index of how quickly memories of objects suggested in grounds can influence behavior, placing the upper limit at 190 ms.

  16. Incorporation of local dependent reliability information into the Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) reconstruction algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaegler, Sven; Sauer, Otto; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Hesser, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of dose in cone beam computer tomography (CBCT) arises from the decrease of the tube current for each projection as well as from the reduction of the number of projections. In order to maintain good image quality, sophisticated image reconstruction techniques are required. The Prior Image Constrained Compressed Sensing (PICCS) incorporates prior images into the reconstruction algorithm and outperforms the widespread used Feldkamp-Davis-Kress-algorithm (FDK) when the number of projections is reduced. However, prior images that contain major variations are not appropriately considered so far in PICCS. We therefore propose the partial-PICCS (pPICCS) algorithm. This framework is a problem-specific extension of PICCS and enables the incorporation of the reliability of the prior images additionally. We assumed that the prior images are composed of areas with large and small deviations. Accordingly, a weighting matrix considered the assigned areas in the objective function. We applied our algorithm to the problem of image reconstruction from few views by simulations with a computer phantom as well as on clinical CBCT projections from a head-and-neck case. All prior images contained large local variations. The reconstructed images were compared to the reconstruction results by the FDK-algorithm, by Compressed Sensing (CS) and by PICCS. To show the gain of image quality we compared image details with the reference image and used quantitative metrics (root-mean-square error (RMSE), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR)). The pPICCS reconstruction framework yield images with substantially improved quality even when the number of projections was very small. The images contained less streaking, blurring and inaccurately reconstructed structures compared to the images reconstructed by FDK, CS and conventional PICCS. The increased image quality is also reflected in large RMSE differences. We proposed a modification of the original PICCS algorithm. The pPICCS algorithm

  17. Real-Time Video Stylization Using Object Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cewu; Xiao, Yao; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2017-05-05

    We present a real-time video stylization system and demonstrate a variety of painterly styles rendered on real video inputs. The key technical contribution lies on the object flow, which is robust to inaccurate optical flow, unknown object transformation and partial occlusion as well. Since object flows relate regions of the same object across frames, shower-door effect can be effectively reduced where painterly strokes and textures are rendered on video objects. The construction of object flows is performed in real time and automatically after applying metric learning. To reduce temporal flickering, we extend the bilateral filtering into motion bilateral filtering. We propose quantitative metrics to measure the temporal coherence on structures and textures of our stylized videos, and perform extensive experiments to compare our stylized results with baseline systems and prior works specializing in watercolor and abstraction.

  18. Conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated prior to cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suto C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikako Suto1,2, Masahiro Morinaga1,2, Tomoko Yagi1,2, Chieko Tsuji3, Hiroshi Toshida41Department of Ophthalmology, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo; 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital, Saitama; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Shizuoka Hospital, Izunokuni, Shizuoka, JapanObjective: To determine the trends of conjunctival sac bacterial flora isolated from patients prior to cataract surgery.Subjects and methods: The study comprised 579 patients (579 eyes who underwent cataract surgery. Specimens were collected by lightly rubbing the inferior palpebral conjunctival sac with a sterile cotton swab 2 weeks before surgery, and then cultured for isolation of bacteria and antimicrobial sensitivity testing. The bacterial isolates and percentage of drug-resistant isolates were compared among age groups and according to whether or not patients had diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, dialysis therapy, oral steroid use, dry eye syndrome, or allergic conjunctivitis.Results: The bacterial isolation rate was 39.2%. There were 191 strains of Gram-positive cocci, accounting for the majority of all isolates (67.0%, among which methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci was the most frequent (127 strains, 44.5%, followed by methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (37 strains, 12.7%. All 76 Gram-positive bacillary isolates (26.7% were from the genus Corynebacterium. Among the 16 Gram-negative bacillary isolates (5.9%, the most frequent was Escherichia coli (1.0%. The bacterial isolation rate was higher in patients >60 years old, and was lower in patients with dry eye syndrome, patients under topical treatment for other ocular disorders, and patients with hyperlipidemia. There was no significant difference in bacterial isolation rate with respect to the presence/absence of diabetes mellitus, steroid therapy, dialysis, or

  19. First-Class Object Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Typically, an object is a monolithic entity with a fixed interface.  To increase flexibility in this area, this paper presents first-class object sets as a language construct.  An object set offers an interface which is a disjoint union of the interfaces of its member objects.  It may also be used...... for a special kind of method invocation involving multiple objects in a dynamic lookup process.  With support for feature access and late-bound method calls, object sets are similar to ordinary objects, only more flexible.  Object sets are particularly convenient as a lightweight primitive which may be added...

  20. Object knowledge modulates colour appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Valkova, Hanna; Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective) colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis. PMID:23145224

  1. Object Knowledge Modulates Colour Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Witzel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the memory colour effect for colour diagnostic artificial objects. Since knowledge about these objects and their colours has been learned in everyday life, these stimuli allow the investigation of the influence of acquired object knowledge on colour appearance. These investigations are relevant for questions about how object and colour information in high-level vision interact as well as for research about the influence of learning and experience on perception in general. In order to identify suitable artificial objects, we developed a reaction time paradigm that measures (subjective colour diagnosticity. In the main experiment, participants adjusted sixteen such objects to their typical colour as well as to grey. If the achromatic object appears in its typical colour, then participants should adjust it to the opponent colour in order to subjectively perceive it as grey. We found that knowledge about the typical colour influences the colour appearance of artificial objects. This effect was particularly strong along the daylight axis.

  2. Two Types of Visual Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypulec Błażej

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that human vision represents objects, it is less clear which of the various philosophical notions of ‘object’ adequately characterizes visual objects. In this paper, I show that within contemporary cognitive psychology visual objects are characterized in two distinct, incompatible ways. On the one hand, models of visual organization describe visual objects in terms of combinations of features, in accordance with the philosophical bundle theories of objects. However, models of visual persistence apply a notion of visual objects that is more similar to that endorsed in philosophical substratum theories. Here I discuss arguments that might show either that only one of the above notions of visual objects is adequate in the context of human vision, or that the category of visual objects is not uniform and contains entities properly characterized by different philosophical conceptions.

  3. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  4. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  5. Short-term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: An Assessment of Effect Modification by Prior Allergic Disease History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Noh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases. Methods Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10], a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season. Results A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3% in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O3 concentration. IQR changes in NO2 and PM10 concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM10 concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7% than in patients with no such history. Conclusions Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis.

  6. Relevance of different prior knowledge sources for inferring gene interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catharina; Bontempi, Gianluca; Emmert-Streib, Frank; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    When inferring networks from high-throughput genomic data, one of the main challenges is the subsequent validation of these networks. In the best case scenario, the true network is partially known from previous research results published in structured databases or research articles. Traditionally, inferred networks are validated against these known interactions. Whenever the recovery rate is gauged to be high enough, subsequent high scoring but unknown inferred interactions are deemed good candidates for further experimental validation. Therefore such validation framework strongly depends on the quantity and quality of published interactions and presents serious pitfalls: (1) availability of these known interactions for the studied problem might be sparse; (2) quantitatively comparing different inference algorithms is not trivial; and (3) the use of these known interactions for validation prevents their integration in the inference procedure. The latter is particularly relevant as it has recently been showed that integration of priors during network inference significantly improves the quality of inferred networks. To overcome these problems when validating inferred networks, we recently proposed a data-driven validation framework based on single gene knock-down experiments. Using this framework, we were able to demonstrate the benefits of integrating prior knowledge and expression data. In this paper we used this framework to assess the quality of different sources of prior knowledge on their own and in combination with different genomic data sets in colorectal cancer. We observed that most prior sources lead to significant F-scores. Furthermore, their integration with genomic data leads to a significant increase in F-scores, especially for priors extracted from full text PubMed articles, known co-expression modules and genetic interactions. Lastly, we observed that the results are consistent for three different data sets: experimental knock-down data and two

  7. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heußer, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.heusser@dkfz-heidelberg.de; Brehm, Marcus [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ritschl, Ludwig [Ziehm Imaging GmbH, Donaustraße 31, 90451 Nürnberg (Germany); Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc [Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich–Alexander–University (FAU) of Erlangen–Nürnberg, Henkestraße 91, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data.

  8. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Brehm, Marcus; Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data

  9. Object Recognition by Contour Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ir Peter Boots; Ir. Dick van Schenk Brill

    2002-01-01

    This article deals with automatic object recognition. The goal is that in a certain grey-level image, possibly containing many objects, a certain object can be recognized and localized, based upon its shape. The assumption is that this shape has no special characteristics on which a dedicated

  10. An Object -Based VRML Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Shinji; Suzaki, Kenichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    This paper proposes an object-based VRML interface that can reduce the burden of both users and developers. In order to automatically generate the object menu, a new VRML node type that defines the names of objects in a scene graph is introduced together with the methods for real-time control of an active viewpoint node.

  11. Independent effects of colour on object identification and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J; Nakabayashi, Kazuyo

    2009-02-01

    We examined the effects of colour on object identification and memory using a study-test priming procedure with a coloured-object decision task at test (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured). Objects were selected to have a single associated colour and were either correctly or incorrectly coloured. In addition, object shape and colour were either spatially integrated (i.e., colour fell on the object surface) or spatially separated (i.e., colour formed the background to the object). Transforming the colour of an object from study to test (e.g., from a yellow banana to a purple banana) reduced priming of response times, as compared to when the object was untransformed. This utilization of colour information in object memory was not contingent upon colour falling on the object surface or whether the resulting configuration was of a correctly or incorrectly coloured object. In addition, we observed independent effects of colour on response times, whereby coloured-object decisions were more efficient for correctly than for incorrectly coloured objects but only when colour fell on the object surface. These findings provide evidence for two distinct mechanisms of shape-colour binding in object processing.

  12. Segmentation of kidney using C-V model and anatomy priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinghua; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Wenjia

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents an approach for kidney segmentation on abdominal CT images as the first step of a virtual reality surgery system. Segmentation for medical images is often challenging because of the objects' complicated anatomical structures, various gray levels, and unclear edges. A coarse to fine approach has been applied in the kidney segmentation using Chan-Vese model (C-V model) and anatomy prior knowledge. In pre-processing stage, the candidate kidney regions are located. Then C-V model formulated by level set method is applied in these smaller ROI, which can reduce the calculation complexity to a certain extent. At last, after some mathematical morphology procedures, the specified kidney structures have been extracted interactively with prior knowledge. The satisfying results on abdominal CT series show that the proposed approach keeps all the advantages of C-V model and overcome its disadvantages.

  13. Postoperative effects of neuromuscular exercise prior to hip or knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    neuromuscular exercise prior to total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee did not confer additional benefits 3 months postoperatively compared with TJA alone. However, the intervention group experienced a statistically significant short-term benefit in ADL and pain, suggesting an earlier onset......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the postoperative efficacy of a supervised programme of neuromuscular exercise prior to hip or knee arthroplasty. METHODS: In this assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial, we included 165 patients scheduled for hip or knee arthroplasty due to severe osteoarthritis (OA......). An 8-week preoperative neuromuscular supervised exercise programme was delivered twice a week for 1 h as adjunct treatment to the standard arthroplasty procedure and compared with the standard arthroplasty procedure alone. The primary outcome was self-reported physical function measured...

  14. A new prior for bayesian anomaly detection: application to biosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y; Cooper, G F

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian anomaly detection computes posterior probabilities of anomalous events by combining prior beliefs and evidence from data. However, the specification of prior probabilities can be challenging. This paper describes a Bayesian prior in the context of disease outbreak detection. The goal is to provide a meaningful, easy-to-use prior that yields a posterior probability of an outbreak that performs at least as well as a standard frequentist approach. If this goal is achieved, the resulting posterior could be usefully incorporated into a decision analysis about how to act in light of a possible disease outbreak. This paper describes a Bayesian method for anomaly detection that combines learning from data with a semi-informative prior probability over patterns of anomalous events. A univariate version of the algorithm is presented here for ease of illustration of the essential ideas. The paper describes the algorithm in the context of disease-outbreak detection, but it is general and can be used in other anomaly detection applications. For this application, the semi-informative prior specifies that an increased count over baseline is expected for the variable being monitored, such as the number of respiratory chief complaints per day at a given emergency department. The semi-informative prior is derived based on the baseline prior, which is estimated from using historical data. The evaluation reported here used semi-synthetic data to evaluate the detection performance of the proposed Bayesian method and a control chart method, which is a standard frequentist algorithm that is closest to the Bayesian method in terms of the type of data it uses. The disease-outbreak detection performance of the Bayesian method was statistically significantly better than that of the control chart method when proper baseline periods were used to estimate the baseline behavior to avoid seasonal effects. When using longer baseline periods, the Bayesian method performed as well as the

  15. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  16. Exploring Power with Object Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Ylirisku, Salu; Knutz, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores Object Theatre as an approach to address power in design. We understand power as a relational activity that emerges and is upheld through particular ways of relating (Elias, 1991; Stacey, 2007). The spontaneity in participant actions through Object Theatre exercises renders...... processes of relating tangible and negotiable. In this study Object Theatre was applied in exploration of a new walking aid for elderly people. We argue that the shift in perspective that Object Theatre allows designers to achieve can be effectively harnessed to explore issues arising from power relating...... amongst people – and between people and objects....

  17. The problem of predestination: as a prelude to A. N. Prior's tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per Frederik Vilhelm

    2012-01-01

    by examples discussed in this paper. A particularly important theme is the problem of predestination. This paper presents comprehensive evidence that this theme, which was Prior’s most important single preoccupation as a theological writer, was a most important source of inspiration for his development...... of tense logic. Via questions regarding divine foreknowledge and human free will, predestination was to motivate Prior as a logician to focus on time and tense. Whilst investigating this development, the paper also traces Prior’s parallel development from Calvinist Christian believer to a more agnostic...

  18. Cardiovascular events prior to or early after diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus in the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urowitz, M B; Gladman, D D; Anderson, N M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of myocardial infarction (MI) prior to the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and within the first 2 years of follow-up. METHODS: The systemic lupus international collaborating clinics (SLICC) atherosclerosis inception cohort enters patients withi...

  19. Use of Saliva for Assessment of Stress and Its Effect on the Immune System Prior to Gross Anatomy Practical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, S. Reid; Brown, Jason R.; Aycock, Jeffrey E.; Grubbs, S. Lee; Johnson, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal effects of a series of stressful gross anatomy tests on the immune system. Thirty-six freshman occupational therapy students completed a written stress evaluation survey, and saliva samples were obtained at baseline and prior to each of three timed-practical gross anatomy tests.…

  20. The impact of dyslipidaemia on cardiovascular mortality in individuals without a prior history of diabetes in the DECODE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Qiao, Q.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of dyslipidaemia on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to fasting (FPG) and 2-h (2hPG) plasma glucose levels in individuals without a prior history of diabetes. METHODS: Data from 14 European population-based prospective studies of 9132 men and 8631...

  1. Assessment of Prior Learning in Adult Vocational Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibe Aarkrog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals about the results of a study of school-based Assessment of Prior Learning of adults who have enrolled as students in a VET college in order to qualify for occupations as skilled workers. Based on examples of VET teachers’ methods for assessing the students’ prior learning in the programs for gastronomes, respectively child care assistants the article discusses two issues in relation to Assessment of Prior Learing: the encounter of practical experience and school-based knowledge and the validity and reliability of the assessment procedures. Through focusing on the students’ knowing that and knowing why the assessment is based on a scholastic perception of the students’ needs for training, reflecting one of the most important challenges in Assessment of Prior Learning: how can practical experience be transformed into credits for the knowledge parts of the programs? The study shows that by combining several Assessment of Prior Learning methods and comparing the teachers’ assessments the teachers respond to the issues of validity and reliability. However, validity and reliability might be even further strengthened, if the competencies are well defined, if the education system is aware of securing a reasonable balance between knowing how, knowing that, and knowing why, and if the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures.

  2. Prior CT May Improve Diagnostic Confidence in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pareen; Wassef, Heidi; Colletti, Patrick M

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with matching myocardial perfusion imaging defects may have prior CT examinations that include the myocardial region of interest, such as a CT chest or CT abdomen. We correlate these perfusion defects with available prior CT examinations to determine if this will improve diagnostic confidence. Myocardial perfusion scans were reviewed to identify cases with myocardial perfusion defects and prior CT imaging that included the myocardium. The CT was reviewed for evidence of myocardial injury that correlated with the perfusion defect. A retrospective review of 732 myocardial perfusion scans was performed, of which 69 cases with perfusion defects were identified that also had prior CT imaging available for review. Of this subset of patients, 19 patients had findings on the CT scan compatible with ischemia or infarction in the expected region of the perfusion defect, which allowed for a more confident diagnosis. Reviewing a prior CT scan, if available, during the interpretation of a myocardial perfusion scan, can help improve diagnostic confidence in over 25% of cases. This can lead to decreased indeterminate results and can be used to potentially avoid unhelpful further testing.

  3. A Noninformative Prior on a Space of Distribution Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Terenin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a given problem, the Bayesian statistical paradigm requires the specification of a prior distribution that quantifies relevant information about the unknowns of main interest external to the data. In cases where little such information is available, the problem under study may possess an invariance under a transformation group that encodes a lack of information, leading to a unique prior—this idea was explored at length by E.T. Jaynes. Previous successful examples have included location-scale invariance under linear transformation, multiplicative invariance of the rate at which events in a counting process are observed, and the derivation of the Haldane prior for a Bernoulli success probability. In this paper we show that this method can be extended, by generalizing Jaynes, in two ways: (1 to yield families of approximately invariant priors; and (2 to the infinite-dimensional setting, yielding families of priors on spaces of distribution functions. Our results can be used to describe conditions under which a particular Dirichlet Process posterior arises from an optimal Bayesian analysis, in the sense that invariances in the prior and likelihood lead to one and only one posterior distribution.

  4. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential

  5. Treatment of technical objects as complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, T. K.

    1986-02-01

    Formalization and automation of new design in modern technology requires the system approach to an object. The simplest treatment of a technical object as a single entity is not adequate for new developments in aircraft technology, neither is the next step of treating it as one made of indivisible interacting components with more than one possible realization. The approach must be extrapolated to treating a technical object as a complex system. In this way, the history of design analysis and synthesis becomes analogous to a trajectory in the phase space up to any point representing the present status. Problems of optimal design can be formulated on this basis, considering a problem may be a multitarget one and that a global extremum may be sought as a solution implied to be unique. As problems become more multivariant or multicriterial, or both, for objects operating in more than one mode, it becomes necessary to combine design and control of complex systems with appropriate simulation. The six basic methods of simulation for aircraft objects are: (1) as stochastic processes; (2) as sets or tubes defined mathematically by inequalities; (3) as sets of processes within the region of given motion describable by Liapunov functions; (4) with the mathematical apparatus of diffuse spaces; (5) with the aid of a characteristic function and mathematical logic calculus including predicates; and (6) by programming on a computer in the language best suited for a given algorithm of solution.

  6. Risk-based screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prior to intrauterine device insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grentzer, Jaclyn M; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Zhao, Qiuhong; McNicholas, Colleen; Secura, Gina M; Madden, Tessa

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to compare three strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae screening prior to intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. This was a secondary analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. We measured the prevalence of C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae at the time of IUD insertion. We then compared sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, and likelihood ratios for three screening strategies for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prior to IUD insertion: (a) "age-based" — age ≤25 years alone; (b) "age/partner-based" — age ≤25 and/or multiple sexual partners; and (c) "risk-based" — age ≤25, multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and/or history of prior sexually transmitted infection (STI). Among 5087 IUD users, 140 (2.8%) tested positive for C. trachomatis, 16 (0.3%) tested positive for N. gonorrhoeae, and 6 (0.1%) were positive for both at the time of IUD insertion. The "risk-based" screening strategy had the highest sensitivity (99.3%) compared to "age-based" and "age/partner-based" screening (80.7% and 84.7%, respectively.) Only one (0.7%) woman with a chlamydia or gonorrhea infection would not have been screened using "risk-based" screening. A risk-based strategy to screen for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prior to IUD insertion has higher sensitivity than screening based on age alone or age and multiple sexual partners. Using a risk-based screening strategy (age≤25, multiple sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and/or history of an STI) to determine who should be screened for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prior to IUD insertion will miss very few cases of infection and obviates the need for universal screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Duality and calculus of convex objects (theory and applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhuis, Ya; Tikhomirov, V M

    2007-01-01

    A new approach to convex calculus is presented, which allows one to treat from a single point of view duality and calculus for various convex objects. This approach is based on the possibility of associating with each convex object (a convex set or a convex function) a certain convex cone without loss of information about the object. From the duality theorem for cones duality theorems for other convex objects are deduced as consequences. The theme 'Duality formulae and the calculus of convex objects' is exhausted (from a certain precisely formulated point of view). Bibliography: 5 titles.

  8. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    Most real-world optimization problems are of a multi-objective nature, involving objectives which are conflicting and incomparable. Solving a multi-objective optimization problem requires a method which can generate the set of rational compromises between the objectives. In this paper, we propose...... are strengthened by cutting planes. In addition, we suggest an extension of the branching strategy "Pareto branching''. Extensive computational results obtained for the bi-objective single source capacitated facility location problem prove the effectiveness of the algorithms....

  9. Object recognition memory: neurobiological mechanisms of encoding, consolidation and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Boyer D; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Tests of object recognition memory, or the judgment of the prior occurrence of an object, have made substantial contributions to our understanding of the nature and neurobiological underpinnings of mammalian memory. Only in recent years, however, have researchers begun to elucidate the specific brain areas and neural processes involved in object recognition memory. The present review considers some of this recent research, with an emphasis on studies addressing the neural bases of perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition memory processes. We first briefly discuss operational definitions of object recognition and the common behavioural tests used to measure it in non-human primates and rodents. We then consider research from the non-human primate and rat literature examining the anatomical basis of object recognition memory in the delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS) and spontaneous object recognition (SOR) tasks, respectively. The results of these studies overwhelmingly favor the view that perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical region for object recognition memory. We then discuss the involvement of PRh in the different stages--encoding, consolidation, and retrieval--of object recognition memory. Specifically, recent work in rats has indicated that neural activity in PRh contributes to object memory encoding, consolidation, and retrieval processes. Finally, we consider the pharmacological, cellular, and molecular factors that might play a part in PRh-mediated object recognition memory. Recent studies in rodents have begun to indicate the remarkable complexity of the neural substrates underlying this seemingly simple aspect of declarative memory.

  10. Evaluating Prior Learning Assessment Programs: A Suggested Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan L. Travers and Marnie T. Evans

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, American institutions have been expected to include systematic program reviews to meet accrediting standards, either by independent or governmental review agencies. Program evaluation is critical for several reasons: it provides systematic ways to assess what needs improvement or what needs changing and it provides ways to validate practices, whether to internal or external audiences (Mishra, 2007. Most program evaluative models are focused on academic programs, which don’t fit the uniqueness of prior learning assessment programs. This paper proposes an evaluative framework for prior learning assessment programs, which takes into account the type of work within prior learning assessment programs and uses program portfolios, similar to how students are asked to document their work.

  11. Reducing complexity of inverse problems using geostatistical priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus; Cordua, Knud Skou

    can practically never hope to generate a posterior sample, others are just ’difficult’ and require special methods to become tractable, while others again are easily solved. We discuss how difficult nonlinear inverse problems can be handled such that their complexity, i.e. the time taken to obtain......In a probabilistic formulation of inverse problems the solution can be given as a sample of the posterior probability distribution. All realizations retained in the posterior sample are consistent with both an assumed prior model and observed data. Some inverse problems are unsolvable, in that one......, and another approach makes use of conditional re-simulation to sample the prior that works for both 2-point and multiple point random models. The latter approach is shown to be superior in terms of computational efficiency. We quantify the information content given by a specific choice of prior model...

  12. Drug repurposing and the prior art patents of competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Drug repurposing (i.e., finding novel indications for established substances) has received increasing attention in industry recently. One challenge of repositioned drugs is obtaining effective patent protection, especially if the 'novel' indications have already been claimed by competitors within the same drug class. Here, I report the case of patents relating to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Patentees of later-filed patents on novel indications (even when they could not observe prior patenting of their direct competitors) filed patents for which patent examiners did not see the prior-filed patents of the competitors as relevant prior art, whereas these follower patent applications often failed because of other reasons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low Complexity Bayesian Single Channel Source Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Thomas; Pedersen, Brian Dam; Winther, Ole

    2004-01-01

    We propose a simple Bayesian model for performing single channel speech separation using factorized source priors in a sliding window linearly transformed domain. Using a one dimensional mixture of Gaussians to model each band source leads to fast tractable inference for the source signals. Simul...

  14. Neutrino mass priors for cosmology from random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Raveri, Marco; Hu, Wayne; Dodelson, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Cosmological measurements of structure are placing increasingly strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses, Σ mν, through Bayesian inference. Because these constraints depend on the choice for the prior probability π (Σ mν), we argue that this prior should be motivated by fundamental physical principles rather than the ad hoc choices that are common in the literature. The first step in this direction is to specify the prior directly at the level of the neutrino mass matrix Mν, since this is the parameter appearing in the Lagrangian of the particle physics theory. Thus by specifying a probability distribution over Mν, and by including the known squared mass splittings, we predict a theoretical probability distribution over Σ mν that we interpret as a Bayesian prior probability π (Σ mν). Assuming a basis-invariant probability distribution on Mν, also known as the anarchy hypothesis, we find that π (Σ mν) peaks close to the smallest Σ mν allowed by the measured mass splittings, roughly 0.06 eV (0.1 eV) for normal (inverted) ordering, due to the phenomenon of eigenvalue repulsion in random matrices. We consider three models for neutrino mass generation: Dirac, Majorana, and Majorana via the seesaw mechanism; differences in the predicted priors π (Σ mν) allow for the possibility of having indications about the physical origin of neutrino masses once sufficient experimental sensitivity is achieved. We present fitting functions for π (Σ mν), which provide a simple means for applying these priors to cosmological constraints on the neutrino masses or marginalizing over their impact on other cosmological parameters.

  15. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Prior Task Success on Older Adults' Memory Performance: Examining the Influence of Different Types of Task Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; Hughes, Matthew L; Miller, Tyler M; De Forrest, Ross L

    2016-01-01

    Negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. Yet, memory performance can be improved if older adults have a single successful experience on a cognitive test prior to participating in a memory experiment (Geraci & Miller, 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 340-345). The current study examined the effects of different types of prior task experience on subsequent memory performance. Before participating in a verbal free recall experiment, older adults in Experiment 1 successfully completed either a verbal or a visual cognitive task or no task. In Experiment 2, they successfully completed either a motor task or no task before participating in the free recall experiment. Results from Experiment 1 showed that relative to control (no prior task), participants who had prior success, either on a verbal or a visual task, had better subsequent recall performance. Experiment 2 showed that prior success on a motor task, however, did not lead to a later memory advantage relative to control. These findings demonstrate that older adults' memory can be improved by a successful prior task experience so long as that experience is in a cognitive domain.

  18. A Survey of Multi-Objective Sequential Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Roijers, D.M.; Vamplew, P.; Whiteson, S.; Dazeley, R.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives arise naturally in practice and pose unique challenges for research in decision-theoretic planning and learning, which has largely focused on single-objective settings. This article surveys algorithms designed for sequential decision-making problems with multiple objectives. Though there is a growing body of literature on this subject, little of it makes explicit under what circumstances special methods are needed to solve multi-obj...

  19. Robot Object Manipulation Using Stereoscopic Vision and Conformal Geometric Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Zamora-Esquivel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses geometric algebra to formulate, in a single framework, the kinematics of a three finger robotic hand, a binocular robotic head, and the interactions between 3D objects, all of which are seen in stereo images. The main objective is the formulation of a kinematic control law to close the loop between perception and actions, which allows to perform a smooth visually guided object manipulation.

  20. Phase transitions in restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Adriano; Genovese, Giuseppe; Sollich, Peter; Tantari, Daniele

    2017-10-01

    We study generalized restricted Boltzmann machines with generic priors for units and weights, interpolating between Boolean and Gaussian variables. We present a complete analysis of the replica symmetric phase diagram of these systems, which can be regarded as generalized Hopfield models. We underline the role of the retrieval phase for both inference and learning processes and we show that retrieval is robust for a large class of weight and unit priors, beyond the standard Hopfield scenario. Furthermore, we show how the paramagnetic phase boundary is directly related to the optimal size of the training set necessary for good generalization in a teacher-student scenario of unsupervised learning.

  1. Prior knowledge processing for initial state of Kalman filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2010), s. 188-202 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/06/P434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Kalman filter ing * prior knowledge * state-space model * initial state distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/suzdaleva-prior knowledge processing for initial state of kalman filter .pdf

  2. Total Variability Modeling using Source-specific Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou

    2016-01-01

    trained matrix, for the short2-short3 task in SRE’08, five out of eight female and four out of eight male common conditions, were improved. For the core-extended task in SRE’10, four out of nine female and six out of nine male common conditions were improved. When incorporating prior information...... into the training of the T matrix itself, the proposed method beats the baselines for six out of eight female and five out of eight male common conditions, for SRE’08, and five and six out of nine conditions, for the male and female case, respectively, for SRE’10. Tests using factor analysis for estimating priors...

  3. C. A. Meredith, A. N. Prior, and Possible Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Per Frederik Vilhelm; Rybaříková, Zuzana

    of Meredith’s and Prior’s work. On the one hand, it might cause corruption of Meredith’s system of logic and lead to paradoxes, as Prior pointed out in ‘Modal Logic with Functorial Variables and a Contingent Constant’. On the other hand, considering Prior as a mere follower of Meredith could cause......, their understanding of the relevant formal representations and indeed their general approach to modal logic considerably differed. These differences should be pointed out in order to more precisely appreciate the contribution of each of these authors. To neglect the differences could cause the misinterpretation...

  4. Relating microbiological criteria to food safety objectives and performance objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schothorst, van M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Buchanan, R.L.; Cole, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiological criteria, food safety objectives and performance objectives, and the relationship between them are discussed and described in the context of risk-based food safety management. A modified method to quantify the sensitivity of attributes sampling plans is presented to show how sampling

  5. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    -dependent or as, e.g., in the case of a pointing direction convey important information. One common way to achieve recognition is by using 3D human body tracking followed by action recognition based on the captured tracking data. For the kind of scenarios considered here we would like to argue that 3D body...... tracking and action recognition should be seen as an intertwined problem that is primed by the objects on which the actions are applied. In this paper, we are looking at human body tracking and action recognition from a object-driven perspective. Instead of the space of human body poses we consider...... the space of the object affordances, i.e., the space of possible actions that are applied on a given object. This way, 3D body tracking reduces to action tracking in the object (and context) primed parameter space of the object affordances. This reduces the high-dimensional joint-space to a low...

  6. Rough multiple objective decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jiuping

    2011-01-01

    Rough Set TheoryBasic concepts and properties of rough sets Rough Membership Rough Intervals Rough FunctionApplications of Rough SetsMultiple Objective Rough Decision Making Reverse Logistics Problem with Rough Interval Parameters MODM based Rough Approximation for Feasible RegionEVRMCCRMDCRM Reverse Logistics Network Design Problem of Suji Renewable Resource MarketBilevel Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Hierarchical Supply Chain Planning Problem with Rough Interval Parameters Bilevel Decision Making ModelBL-EVRM BL-CCRMBL-DCRMApplication to Supply Chain Planning of Mianyang Co., LtdStochastic Multiple Objective Rough Decision Multi-Objective Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling UnderRough Random EnvironmentRandom Variable Stochastic EVRM Stochastic CCRM Stochastic DCRM Multi-Objective rc-PSP/mM/Ro-Ra for Longtan Hydropower StationFuzzy Multiple Objective Rough Decision Making Allocation Problem under Fuzzy Environment Fuzzy Variable Fu-EVRM Fu-CCRM Fu-DCRM Earth-Rock Work Allocation Problem.

  7. Ferromagnetic Objects Magnetovision Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of a weak magnetic fields magnetovision scanning system for detection of dangerous ferromagnetic objects. A measurement system was developed and built to study the magnetic field vector distributions. The measurements of the Earth’s field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The ability for passive detection of hidden or buried dangerous objects and the determination of their location was demonstrated.

  8. Rethinking the objectivity of ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Charles Burke

    2011-01-01

    Commonsense says that morality is objective. But skeptics deny that the normativity and fallibility that characterize this objectivity really exist. I disagree. I develop an account of moral facts that vindicates the objectivity of ethics. Moreover, I do this without relying on either the strong foundational claims of realism and constructivism, or the revisionary logic of expressivism. Instead, I build from a moral psychology that is modest and familiar--one that focuses on the distinctive, ...

  9. Object Learning Through Active Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Ivaldi, Serena; Sao Mai Nguyen; Lyubova, Natalia; Droniou, Alain; Padois, Vincent; Filliat, David; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Sigaud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This paper addresses the problem of active object learning by a humanoid child-like robot, using a developmental approach. We propose a cognitive architecture where the visual representation of the objects is built incrementally through active exploration. We present the design guidelines of the cognitive architecture, its main functionalities, and we outline the cognitive process of the robot by showing how it learns to recognize objects in a human-robot interaction s...

  10. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  11. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Maria; McGowan, Jennifer; Treml, Eric A; Green, Alison L; White, Alan T; Wolff, Nicholas H; Klein, Carissa J; Mumby, Peter J; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-09-14

    Multinational conservation initiatives that prioritize investment across a region invariably navigate trade-offs among multiple objectives. It seems logical to focus where several objectives can be achieved efficiently, but such multi-objective hotspots may be ecologically inappropriate, or politically inequitable. Here we devise a framework to facilitate a regionally cohesive set of marine-protected areas driven by national preferences and supported by quantitative conservation prioritization analyses, and illustrate it using the Coral Triangle Initiative. We identify areas important for achieving six objectives to address ecosystem representation, threatened fauna, connectivity and climate change. We expose trade-offs between areas that contribute substantially to several objectives and those meeting one or two objectives extremely well. Hence there are two strategies to guide countries choosing to implement regional goals nationally: multi-objective hotspots and complementary sets of single-objective priorities. This novel framework is applicable to any multilateral or global initiative seeking to apply quantitative information in decision making.

  12. Development of hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with absence of tumors on a prior ultrasound examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Chung, Yong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Background: To evaluate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that developed in patients with no evidence of a tumor during a prior ultrasound (US) performed within 1 year of the diagnosis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data for 100 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis who had undergone US within 1 year prior to HCC diagnosis and who showed no liver lesions on the previous US. Size and T stage of HCC were assessed as well as whether patients met surgical criteria for liver transplantation as HCC treatment [Milan or University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) criteria]. Results: The mean interval between the negative and diagnostic scans was 5 months, 13 days. HCC presented as a single nodule in 69 patients (size, 0.8–8.0 cm), as two or more nodules in 18 patients, and as the diffuse form of HCC in 13 patients. HCC presented as a small tumor (<3 cm) in 48 patients. T stages were: T1 in 26 patients, T2 in 45, T3 in 18, and T4 in 11. The Milan criteria were met in 79 patients. Eighty-five patients fulfilled the UCSF. Conclusion: Patients may present with advanced HCC, even if sonographic findings were negative within 1 year prior to diagnosis.

  13. On the Aging of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2016-01-01

    The article seeks to develop a new conceptual framework suitable for analysing the ageing processes of objects in modern culture. The basic intuition is that object experience cannot be analysed separately from collective participation. The article focuses on the question of the ‘timeless’ nature...... of modernist design and seeks to understand why modernist objects age more slowly than other objects. First, inspired by the late Durkheim’s account of symbolism, I turn to the experiential effects of collective embeddedness. Second, I enter the field of architectural practices and architectural theory...

  14. Object 'Ukryttya' 1986-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Shcherbin, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph summarizes the materials pertaining to 'Ukryttya' Object state. The results of researches of fuel containing materials conditions and of forecast of their future behavior are demonstrated, aerosol characterizations, mechanisms of production of liquid radioactive waste, radiation conditions at SO industrial site and NSC assembly site, as well as analysis of 'Ukryttya' Objects environmental impact, are performed. The conditions of 'Ukryttya' Object building structures are described. Preparation and realization of international projects for conversion of 'Ukryttya' Object into an ecologically safe system, including the 'Ukryttya' Implementation Plan (SIP), are considered

  15. Aggregating and Disaggregating Flexibility Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Valsomatzis, Emmanouil; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    In many scientific and commercial domains we encounter flexibility objects, i.e., objects with explicit flexibilities in a time and an amount dimension (e.g., energy or product amount). Applications of flexibility objects require novel and efficient techniques capable of handling large amounts...... and aiming at energy balancing during aggregation. In more detail, this paper considers the complete life cycle of flex-objects: aggregation, disaggregation, associated requirements, efficient incremental computation, and balance aggregation techniques. Extensive experiments based on real-world data from...

  16. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  17. Object Detection using Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Jalled, Fares; Voronkov, Ilia

    2016-01-01

    An Unmanned Ariel vehicle (UAV) has greater importance in the army for border security. The main objective of this article is to develop an OpenCV-Python code using Haar Cascade algorithm for object and face detection. Currently, UAVs are used for detecting and attacking the infiltrated ground targets. The main drawback for this type of UAVs is that sometimes the object are not properly detected, which thereby causes the object to hit the UAV. This project aims to avoid such unwanted collisio...

  18. Identification of computer graphics objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossinskyi Yu.M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of computer graphics methods in problems of creating drawings, charts, drafting, etc. The widespread use of these methods requires the development of efficient algorithms for the identification of objects of drawings. The article analyzes the model-making algorithms for this problem and considered the possibility of reducing the time using graphics editing operations. Editing results in such operations as copying, moving and deleting objects specified images. These operations allow the use of a reliable identification of images of objects methods. For information on the composition of the image of the object along with information about the identity and the color should include information about the spatial location and other characteristics of the object (the thickness and style of contour lines, fill style, and so on. In order to enable the pixel image analysis to structure the information it is necessary to enable the initial code image objects color. The article shows the results of the implementation of the algorithm of encoding object identifiers. To simplify the process of building drawings of any kind, and reduce time-consuming, method of drawing objects identification is proposed based on the use as the ID information of the object color.

  19. Abdominal multi-organ segmentation from CT images using conditional shape–location and unsupervised intensity priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linguraru, Marius George; Hori, Masatoshi; Summers, Ronald M; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the automated segmentation of multiple organs in upper abdominal computed tomography (CT) data. The aim of our study is to develop methods to effectively construct the conditional priors and use their prediction power for more accurate segmentation as well as easy adaptation to various imaging conditions in CT images, as observed in clinical practice. We propose a general framework of multi-organ segmentation which effectively incorporates interrelations among multiple organs and easily adapts to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. The features of the framework are as follows: (1) A method for modeling conditional shape and location (shape–location) priors, which we call prediction-based priors, is developed to derive accurate priors specific to each subject, which enables the estimation of intensity priors without the need for supervised intensity information. (2) Organ correlation graph is introduced, which defines how the conditional priors are constructed and segmentation processes of multiple organs are executed. In our framework, predictor organs, whose segmentation is sufficiently accurate by using conventional single-organ segmentation methods, are pre-segmented, and the remaining organs are hierarchically segmented using conditional shape–location priors. The proposed framework was evaluated through the segmentation of eight abdominal organs (liver, spleen, left and right kidneys, pancreas, gallbladder, aorta, and inferior vena cava) from 134 CT data from 86 patients obtained under six imaging conditions at two hospitals. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed prediction-based priors and the applicability to various imaging conditions without the need for supervised intensity information. Average Dice coefficients for the liver, spleen, and kidneys were more than 92%, and were around 73% and 67% for the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. PMID:26277022

  20. Transsaccadic memory of multiple spatially variant and invariant object features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyachandra, Jerrold; Nam, Yoongoo; Kim, YoungWook; Blohm, Gunnar; Khan, Aarlenne Z

    2018-01-01

    Transsaccadic memory is a process by which remembered object information is updated across a saccade. To date, studies on transsaccadic memory have used simple stimuli-that is, a single dot or feature of an object. It remains unknown how transsaccadic memory occurs for more realistic, complex objects with multiple features. An object's location is a central feature for transsaccadic updating, as it is spatially variant, but other features such as size are spatially invariant. How these spatially variant and invariant features of an object are remembered and updated across saccades is not well understood. Here we tested how well 14 participants remembered either three different features together (location, orientation, and size) or a single feature at a time of a bar either while fixating either with or without an intervening saccade. We found that the intervening saccade influenced memory of all three features, with consistent biases of the remembered location, orientation, and size that were dependent on the direction of the saccade. These biases were similar whether participants remembered either a single feature or multiple features and were not observed with increased memory load (single vs. multiple features during fixation trials), confirming that these effects were specific to the saccade updating mechanisms. We conclude that multiple features of an object are updated together across eye movements, supporting the notion that spatially invariant features of an object are bound to their location in memory.