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Sample records for single mothers experience

  1. Undergraduate Single Mothers' Experiences in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Using Astin's (1993) College Impact Model, this chapter explores the current literature as it relates to single mothers in undergraduate postsecondary education. The chapter looks at the ways that undergraduates who are single mothers are counter to the "ideal-student" norms. Policy and best-practice recommendations conclude the chapter.

  2. How to stimulate single mothers on welfare to find a job : Evidence from a policy experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoef, M.G.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from a policy experiment in which single mothers on welfare were stimulated to enter the labor market and increase their work experience. The aim of the policy was not per se for single mothers to leave welfare completely but to encourage them to find a job if only a part-time

  3. Physical Activity Experiences and Beliefs among Single Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single motherhood has been associated with negative health consequences such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity might reduce these consequences, but little is known about physical activity experiences and beliefs that might inform interventions and programs for single mothers. The present study used…

  4. How to Stimulate Single Mothers on Welfare to Find a Job : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoef, M.G.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present the results from a natural experiment in which single mothers on welfare were stimulated to find a job. Two policy instruments were introduced: an earnings disregard and job creation. The experiment was performed at the level of municipalities in The Netherlands, a country with relatively

  5. Types of work-related behavior and experiences and stress coping strategies among single mothers and mothers in relationships differentiating role of work satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora, Elżbieta; Andruszkiewicz, Anna; Basińska, Małgorzata Anna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study has been to describe functioning of single and mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) at work and verify if the declared degree of work satisfaction differentiates types of behavior at work and stress coping strategies in both groups of mothers. The study was conducted on equal samples of single mothers (N = 186) and mothers from 2-parent families (N = 186) using Latack Coping Scale that measures work-related stress coping strategies, the AVEM (Arbeitsbezogenes Verhaltens- und Erlebensmuster - Work-Related Behavior and Experience Pattern) questionnaire, and a survey. It showed similarity between the studied groups in terms of the measured variables. There were considerable differences between single and married mothers in terms of support seeking strategies. The interaction of work satisfaction and the type of motherhood significantly differentiates (p = 0.03) the avoidance strategy of resignation. That strategy of resignation was more frequently used by single mothers with lower work satisfaction, who were distinctly different from those whose work satisfaction was higher, and from the mothers in relationships (married or in informal relationships) (regardless of the level of their work satisfaction). Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):55-69. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. Image-Based Single Cell Profiling: High-Throughput Processing of Mother Machine Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Christian Carsten; Grünberger, Alexander; Helfrich, Stefan; Probst, Christopher; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Nöh, Katharina

    Microfluidic lab-on-chip technology combined with live-cell imaging has enabled the observation of single cells in their spatio-temporal context. The mother machine (MM) cultivation system is particularly attractive for the long-term investigation of rod-shaped bacteria since it facilitates continuous cultivation and observation of individual cells over many generations in a highly parallelized manner. To date, the lack of fully automated image analysis software limits the practical applicability of the MM as a phenotypic screening tool. We present an image analysis pipeline for the automated processing of MM time lapse image stacks. The pipeline supports all analysis steps, i.e., image registration, orientation correction, channel/cell detection, cell tracking, and result visualization. Tailored algorithms account for the specialized MM layout to enable a robust automated analysis. Image data generated in a two-day growth study (≈ 90 GB) is analyzed in ≈ 30 min with negligible differences in growth rate between automated and manual evaluation quality. The proposed methods are implemented in the software molyso (MOther machine AnaLYsis SOftware) that provides a new profiling tool to analyze unbiasedly hitherto inaccessible large-scale MM image stacks. Presented is the software molyso, a ready-to-use open source software (BSD-licensed) for the unsupervised analysis of MM time-lapse image stacks. molyso source code and user manual are available at https://github.com/modsim/molyso.

  7. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  8. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  9. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  10. Risk factors for vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus: a single center experience with 710 HCV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Tejedor, Amparo; Maiques-Montesinos, Vicente; Diago-Almela, Vicente José; Pereda-Perez, Antonio; Alberola-Cuñat, Vicente; López-Hontangas, José Luís; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Perales, Alfredo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors on the perinatal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV). A retrospective cohort study with 711 infants born to 710 HCV-infected mothers was conducted at the Hospital La Fe, in Valencia, Spain, from 1986 to 2011. As potential risk factors for transmission we analyzed: maternal age, mode of acquisition of HCV infection, HIV co-infection, antiretroviral treatment against HIV, CD4 cell count, HIV and HCV viral load, liver enzyme levels during pregnancy, smoking habit, gestational age, intrapartum invasive procedures, length of rupture of membranes, length of labor, mode of delivery, episiotomy, birth weight, newborn gender and type of feeding. Overall perinatal HCV transmission rate was 2.4%. The significant risk factors related with HCV transmission were maternal virus load >615copies/mL (OR 9.3 [95% CI 1.11-78.72]), intrapartum invasive procedures (OR 10.1 [95% CI 2.6-39.02]) and episiotomy (OR 4.2 [95% CI 1.2-14.16]). HIV co-infection and newborn female were near significance (p=0.081 and 0.075, respectively). Invasive procedures as fetal scalp blood sampling or internal electrode and episiotomy increase vertical transmission of HCV, especially in patients with positive HCV RNA virus load at delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experiences and Motives of Australian Single Mothers by Choice Who Make Early Contact with their Child's Donor Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Fiona J; Dempsey, Deborah J

    2017-01-30

    An increasing number of Australian parents of donor-conceived children are making contact with their child's donor relatives prior to their child reaching the age of majority. This process, often referred to as 'donor linking', can be achieved in Australia through either formal or informal mechanisms. Formal mechanisms exist in three states, each of which has legislation enabling donor linking in certain circumstances. Donor linking may also be achieved through informal mechanisms, such as online donor registries, social media searches, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and fertility clinics which act as intermediaries between donors and recipients. Drawing on qualitative interview data, this article explores the donor linking practices of twenty-five single women who conceived using donated gametes. The findings suggest that early contact with donors is extremely popular among single women and that, even when formal legislative mechanisms are available, informal linking remains common. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Experiences and Motives of Australian Single Mothers by Choice who make Early Contact with their Child’s Donor Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An increasing number of Australian parents of donor-conceived children are making contact with their child’s donor relatives prior to their child reaching the age of majority. This process, often referred to as ‘donor linking’, can be achieved in Australia through either formal or informal mechanisms. Formal mechanisms exist in three states, each of which has legislation enabling donor linking in certain circumstances. Donor linking may also be achieved through informal mechanisms, such as online donor registries, social media searches, direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and fertility clinics which act as intermediaries between donors and recipients. Drawing on qualitative interview data, this article explores the donor linking practices of twenty-five single women who conceived using donated gametes. The findings suggest that early contact with donors is extremely popular among single women and that, even when formal legislative mechanisms are available, informal linking remains common. PMID:28137771

  13. Resettlement and reintegration: single mothers' reflections after homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Tischler, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has identified that most families who become homeless are women with dependent children. Homeless families are reported to have a variety of complex needs however little is known about the experiences of families once they are re-housed. The aim of this study was to explore psychosocial issues related to the resettlement experiences of single mothers following a period of homelessness. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used to gather data from twenty one women livi...

  14. The Influence of Grandparents in Single-Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This article examines whether children living with single mothers benefit when they also live with a grandparent, using data from the 1979 to 2002 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file (N = 6,501). Results indicate that for White children, living with a single mother and a grandparent is associated with…

  15. Respite Care for Single Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyches, Tina Taylor; Christensen, Ruthann; Harper, James M.; Mandleco, Barbara; Roper, Susanne Olsen

    2016-01-01

    Single mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders are rarely studied, yet they may experience unique stressors. Researchers asked 122 single mothers to complete questionnaires concerning respite care, daily hassles/uplifts, depression, and caregiver burden. More than half (59.8%) accessed respite care, which was provided for 1h per day,…

  16. Stress Level and Adversity Quotient among Single Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Bautista Solis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study identified the profile of the single working mothers in terms of number of children, number of years as a single parent and reason for being a single parent; assessed the single mothers’ stress level and adversity quotient; determined the significant difference of stress level and adversity quotient of single mothers when grouped according to profile variables; determined the best predictor of stress level and adversity quotient. Moreover this research endeavoured to test significant relationship between the adversity quotient and stress level of single working mothers. Lastly, it proposed a stress management program for single working mothers for them to cope with their stress and adversities in life. The researcher employed quantitative method using standardized questionnaires namely Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS and Adversity Response Profile (ARP. The respondents were twenty five (25 single working mothers of the students of Batangas State University. From the results, majority of the respondents have 3 children, widow and in early years as single parent; with a normal level of stress and an average adversity quotient.. There are no significant differences on the stress level and adversity quotient of the respondents when grouped according to profile variables. Finally, stress level has no significant effect on adversity quotient of single working mothers. From the findings, the researcher further recommends that the Office of Guidance and Counseling should update the student information database to determine students with a single working mother. The Parent-Teacher Association may form a single-parent subgroup for the single working mothers to be able to identify to other mothers with same situation. Moreover, the proposed stress management program may be reviewed and implemented by the Office of Guidance and Counseling in coordination with the Parent-Teacher Association of Batangas State University. Future researchers

  17. Experiences of student mother in Ugandan universities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduction of various programmes such as: distance learning, evening, and weekend programmes coupled with the growing number of private Universities that currently stand at more than 10 in number. For this study, which inquired about the experiences of student mothers in Ugandan Universities, data was collected ...

  18. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee

    2017-01-01

    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  19. Living Arrangements among Single Mothers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swain, Pushpanjali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishA large proportion of two parent households transition into single parenthouseholds upon marital disruption. Single parent households, especially femaleheaded households face an increase in the risk of poverty. This study focuses onwhether widow status in India influences the likelihood of household headshipin India. This study is based on the most recent National Family Health Survey1998-1999, in India. The population of interest includes all mothers aged 15 to49 years, without a spouse, living with one or more of their own children under18 years of age. We find that being a widow increases the likelihood of being ahousehold head compared to the likelihood of household headship among thedivorced and the separated in India. This study provides some evidence on thecontinuing social discrimination against widows in India. The implication of thefindings are discussed.FrenchUne grande proportion des ménages biparentaux se transforme en ménagesmonoparentaux après une séparation maritale. Les ménages monoparentaux,spécialement ceux qui sont dirigés par une femme, font face à un danger plusélevé de sombrer dans la pauvreté. Cette étude examine à quel point le faitd’être veuve influence la probabilité de se retrouver à la tête d’un ménage enInde. Cette étude est basée sur le recensement sur la santé des familles de 1998-1999, le plus récent en Inde. La population d’intérêt comprend toutes les mèresâgées de 15 à 49 ans, sans époux et qui vivent avec au moins un de leurs propresenfants de moins de 18 ans. Nous avons trouvé qu’en Inde, le fait d’être veuveaugmente la probabilité qu’une femme se retrouve à la tête de son ménage encomparaison aux femmes divorcées ou séparées. Cette étude avance despreuves de cette discrimination sociale continue en Inde envers les veuves. Lesimplications de ces constatations sont discutées.

  20. Single mothering as experienced by Burundian refugees in Australia: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Lily P; Barr, Jennieffer A; Welch, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Refugee mothers have fled from their homeland to escape persecutions with their children only to find other threats to their well-being in the new country. Building on previous research, it is known that being a new immigrant is challenging and requires adaptation. The adaptation process, known as acculturation, may not be successful leading to psychological distress. It is also known that a generation gap can occur when children acculturate faster than their parents. What was lacking was understanding about the experiences of single refugee mothers. Interpretative phenomenological study was undertaken to explore the lived experiences of eight Burundian refugee single mothers in Australia. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Each interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed three themes. First theme 'Traditional mothering practices of Burundian culture' illustrated mothering strategies as practiced prior to their arrival in Australia including mothering with sufficient social support, strong position of parents, and regular use of physical disciplining. Second theme 'Challenges identified after arrival to new country' revealed that mothers felt their children acculturated faster than themselves which led to intergenerational gap. This has also led participants to live in a continuous dilemma, experiencing inner conflicts and struggles associated with their mothering practices, especially when mothers had arrived with a lack of knowledge relating to acceptable mothering practices in a new culture. Final theme, 'Reforming family life in Australia' highlighted the decisions made by single refugee mothers which is to embrace both new and original cultures, leading to successful acculturation. However, lack of appropriate knowledge of acceptable mothering practices led to involvement of legal authorities who threatening to remove children from the mother's care. This has led mothers feeling change of power from 'mother to

  1. Unsettled scripts: intimacy narratives of heterosexual single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on contemporary theories of intimacy, this study explores the intimacy narratives and practices of single mothers at a time of, it is argued, social and cultural change in terms of intimacy. Narrative interviews of twenty-four single mothers draw out layers of personal, social and cultural complexity in terms of understanding, experiencing and making choices about intimacy in their everyday lives. The concept of ‘intimacy scripts’ (developed from Simon and Gagnon, 1973) is deployed to...

  2. Single Mothers by Choice and Inwedlock Mothers: Sex-Role Orientation, Locus of Control, and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Kimberly Ann

    An emerging family constellation is the family headed by a "single mother by choice," a structure in which both single marital status and parental status are chosen. This study was conducted to determine whether single mothers by choice (N=12) differed significantly from inwedlock mothers (N=18) regarding their childbearing decisions.…

  3. Work life and mental wellbeing of single and non-single working mothers in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2009-08-01

    This study examined levels and predictors of mental wellbeing in Scandinavian working single and non-single mothers, with a special focus on financial stress, job characteristics and work-family conflict. The European Social Survey Round 2 (2005) provided questionnaire data from 73 single and 432 non-single working mothers in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Respondents answered questions about the outcome variables life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, and predictor variables financial stress, job characteristics, work-family conflict, and social support. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the relationships between predictor variables and mental wellbeing outcomes. Single working mothers scored significantly lower on life satisfaction and happiness, but not on positive affect, than did non-single mothers. Financial stress was higher in the single mother group. There were no significant differences in levels of enriching or stressful job characteristics, or in levels of social support. While financial stress and work-family conflict were important predictors in both groups, the relationship between financial stress and wellbeing was far stronger in the single mother group. Confidant support was a significant predictor only in the single mother group, and social participation only in the non-single mothers group. This study suggests that the Scandinavian welfare democracies have not yet been successful in relieving the financial pressure experienced by single working mothers. Development of efficient financial support systems should be prioritized. Ways to reduce work-family conflict in both single and non-single mothers in Scandinavia should also be given increased attention.

  4. [Children of single mothers: health risks and environmental stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharte, M; Bolte, G

    2012-03-01

    In Germany the risk for relative poverty has increased profoundly during the last 15 years, especially among single parent families. As poverty is often associated with bad health we examined the physical and mental health as well as health-related behaviour, housing and environmental conditions in children with lone mothers versus children in couple families. In 3 cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-2007 in 3 cities and 3 rural areas in Bavaria data on 19 039 pre-school children (47% female) were collected. Health, behaviour and exposure assessment was based on parental reports. The 18 327 cases with complete information on family status were analysed. 10% of the children grew up with single mothers. Single mothers evaluated the general state of health of their children more often as moderate to very poor than couple parents (OR [95% CI]: male: 1.37 [1.07-1.77], female 1.77 [1.33-2.35]). Sons with single mothers were more often obese (1.44 [1.09-1.90]). They scored significantly higher in the SDQ total difficulties score (1.94 [1.44-2.62]), on the emotional problem scale (1.91 [1.40-2.59]) as well as on the hyperactivity scale (1.82 [1.35-2.47]) compared to boys from couple families. No difference was found in prosocial behaviour. Girls with single mothers revealed more often conduct problems 1.36 [1.02-1.81] compared to those from couple families. They also showed a significantly higher prevalence of asthma (2.06 [1.29-3.30]). Children living with their single mothers were less often members of sports clubs and the boys were less physical active. No difference was found regarding the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Single mother family was associated with children's environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (2.03 [1.79-2.29]). Single mothers perceived higher environmental exposures to noise and air pollution, suffered more often from a lack of accessible green spaces in the neighbourhood and reported a higher traffic load on the residential

  5. Women and Work-Life Balance: A Narrative Inquiry of Working Single Mothers Balancing Family and Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Casheena A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore working single mothers' work-life balance in order to better understand how employers can assist them. Role theory, role conflict theory, and spillover theory were utilized to examine how working single mothers experience work-life balance and how they perceive it. In this study, the researcher sought to…

  6. The Parenting Experiences of Mothers with Dissociative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lynn R.; Benjamin, Robert; Rind, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    Presents a qualitative analysis of the experience of parenting of mothers with dissociative disorders. Using the mothers' words, describes how the five symptom areas of dissociation impeded their parenting efforts. Discusses the necessity of addressing parenting in the treatment of client-mothers with dissociative disorders. (Author/MKA)

  7. Mothering and acculturation: experiences during pregnancy and childrearing of Filipina mothers married to Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uayan, Maria Luisa Tumandao; Kobayashi, Sayuri; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Haruna, Megumi; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to describe the lived experiences of Filipina mothers married to Japanese during pregnancy and childrearing. Eight focus group interviews (FGI) were conducted among 39 Filipino mothers who are currently residing in Japan to obtain significant information with regard to their pregnancy and childrearing experiences. Content analysis was used to extract relevant themes that will describe the experiences of this group of migrant mothers. The findings revealed three major themes: 1) cultural barriers during pregnancy and childrearing; 2) mothering at the different stages of childrearing; and 3) positive adjustments to a new role in a new environment. The establishment of means of communication with migrant mothers effectively enabling them to understand important information for promoting healthy pregnancy and childrearing is strongly recommended. Provision of school information in the English language and enhancing the resilient character of the Filipina are important strategies in promoting positive pregnancy and childrearing experiences among Filipina migrant mothers.

  8. Nutritional status and health profile among single mothers in Kota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... subjects have normal BMI, 6.0% of them fall in the category of underweight, 39.0% were overweight and 22.0% were obese. It is suggested that future intervention programs should focus on preventing obesity problems related to chronic diseases. Keywords: nutritional status; single mother; health profile; Kelantan; obesity ...

  9. A Supportive Service to Single Mothers and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Donna Tubach

    1977-01-01

    Describes a supportive program for single, young mothers in need of low-cost housing, job-training or schooling, social services and day care. Most enrollees gained a saleable skill and made progress in personal growth and the development of independent living skills. Techniques included a team approach and use of short-term contracts. (BF)

  10. MOTHERS' EXPERIENCES OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT-A QUALITATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg Salomonsson, Majlis; Barimani, Mia

    2017-07-01

    As part of a larger research project in Sweden, a qualitative study investigated mother-infant psychoanalysis (MIP). Earlier, a randomized controlled trial compared two mother-infant groups. One received MIP, and the other received standard child health center care. Previous articles have reported long-term effects: MIP-group mothers were less depressed throughout a 3-year posttreatment period, and their children demonstrated better global functioning and psychological well-being (Winberg Salomonsson, Sorjonen, & Salomonsson, ). The present study's objectives were to describe the mothers' experiences of MIP and deepen the understanding of the MIP process. Six months after treatment started, all mothers were interviewed. Transcribed interviews of 10 (of 33) MIP-group participants were randomly selected and analyzed in detail. Thematic analysis was used on the interview data. Two main themes emerged: (a) transition to motherhood and (b) relationships with the infant and family. MIP facilitated mother-infant relationship development and familial relationship development and clarified mothers' views of how their personal histories were connected with their motherhood experiences. Mothers reported that the analysts had succeeded in balancing the mothers' own needs and those of the infant. Their accounts of therapy matched the published descriptions of MIP. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Experiences, perceptions and preferences of mothers towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their preferred communication modes were cell phone calls (57.6%) or text messages/SMS (35.6%). Only 2.2% preferred home-visits and 0.4%, e-mails. About 4% were not willing to receive any form of immunization reminder/recall. Mothers with post-secondary education were more likely to prefer SMS than other mothers ...

  12. "Teen Mothers' experience of Intimate Partner Violence; a metasynthesis."

    OpenAIRE

    Bekaert, S.; SmithBattle, L.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers beco...

  13. An approach to emotion recognition in single-channel EEG signals: a mother child interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A.; Quintero, L.; López, N.; Castro, J.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we perform a first approach to emotion recognition from EEG single channel signals extracted in four (4) mother-child dyads experiment in developmental psychology. Single channel EEG signals are analyzed and processed using several window sizes by performing a statistical analysis over features in the time and frequency domains. Finally, a neural network obtained an average accuracy rate of 99% of classification in two emotional states such as happiness and sadness.

  14. 9592 THE EXPERIENCES OF HIV-POSITIVE MOTHERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    explorative, descriptive qualitative study design was employed to describe the experiences of HIV-positive mothers in Swaziland breastfeeding exclusively. Seven exclusive breastfeeding, HIV-positive mothers, aged 21-41 years, married and unemployed, participated during two visits to the study site. Responses to semi-.

  15. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web.

  16. MOTHERHOOD EXPERIENCE: ADOPTIVE AND BIOLOGICAL MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia F. Lakhvich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To become a mother … To be a mother … What does it mean for a woman? And what else changes her life so irreversibly, allows to see the world in a different way and discovers new, earlier unknown features? Probably, nothing does. However, there is also a question how a woman bearing a child and carrying out motherhood responsibilities and a woman who has not given life to a child, but carrying out the same responsibilities, goes through the process of motherhood. It is one of the questions that was studied in a comparative research of the adaptation process in the Belarusian adoptive and biological families in case of a child appearing in the family. The study involved 64 adoptive and 62 biological mothers.

  17. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Method Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. Results All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented...... as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional...... breastfeeding mother should include facilitation of the transition to motherhood, learning to read the baby's cues, developing a sense of the right attachment at the breast, and building up the mother's confidence in her capability to care for the baby and produce a sufficient milk supply....

  18. Homelessness Pathways for Australian Single Mothers and Their Children: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Warburton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would have been most helpful. In this sample of single mothers and their children, early experiences of homelessness and domestic violence contributed most commonly to homelessness episodes. Almost immediate engagement with welfare agencies seemed to be protective against re-experiencing homelessness, however Australian restrictions on length of program involvement and limited housing options for mothers exiting homelessness programs, may place such mothers and their children at high risk of re-entering homelessness. Younger mothers had greater needs and benefited most from personalised one-on-one support that addressed key parenting and life skills. The implications of these findings are considered in relation to service delivery to this vulnerable group and avenues for future research are noted.

  19. Neither father nor biological mother. A qualitative study about lesbian co-mothers' maternity care experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Bente; Malterud, Kirsti

    2015-10-01

    To explore lesbian co-mothers' maternity care experiences and their implications for the caring encounter. A qualitative interview study with data from a convenience sample of eleven Norwegian comothers was conducted. Systematic text condensation was used for data analysis. Analysis showed that ordinary tokens of recognition created feelings of being included, while lesbian self-confidence played a major role in awkward encounters. Being neither father nor biological mother sometimes challenged parental identity. Being women helped co-mothers understand what their partners went through but they had to find other ways of mothering than if they had given birth themselves. Co-mothers addressed themselves with different terms and perceived some concepts as unnatural or excluding. Parental identity was defined by their relationship to baby, and the term "co-mother" was perceived as a bureaucratic concept. For lesbian co-mothers, being recognized in maternity care implies that they are valued for the qualities that separate them from other user groups on a personal level. On a societal level, being recognized is related to acknowledgement of inventive ways of doing family. Everyday signs of recognition may prevent moral violation, and by paying particular attention to use of language, staff can help co-mothers feel acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic renal disease: the mother's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, H

    1995-01-01

    In a qualitative study, mothers (N = 4) of children with chronic renal disease were asked to share the meaning they assigned to their child's illness. The central theme of "uncertainty" emerged from the data and was described in three phases: (a) finding out, (b) learning to live with chronic illness, and (c) worries and dreams about the future. In this article phase three, labeled "learning to live with chronic illness," is presented.

  1. Team mums: team sport experiences of athletic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Batey, Jo; Owton, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining involvement in sport and exercise activities is a challenge for mothers with young children. This study therefore qualitatively explores the experiences of 7 mothers who have managed to remain physically active in team sports exploring how the team environment might meet their psychological needs. We analyse the results through Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed to reveal the following themes: perceived benefits of sport, perceiv...

  2. Singled Out for Success: A Narrative Inquiry of Single Mothers in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bober, Delia A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand single-mother community college students' perceptions of their ability to succeed. The theoretical framework that guided this research was Bandura's (1977) social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy, defined as a person's belief in his or her ability to succeed. Given…

  3. Becoming a mother: teenage mothers’ experiences of first pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Maputle

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was firstly to explore and describe the experiences of teenage mothers of first pregnancy. Secondly, to develop guidelines of a support programme that is contextual and relevant to the needs of teenage mothers. The guidelines are aimed at assisting midwives in meeting the needs of teenage mothers. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was used. The phenomenological approach was implemented to collect and analyze data from a purposively selected sample of fourteen (14 teenage mothers who were pregnant for the first time. The model of Guba and Lincoln (1985: 301-318 was implemented to ensure trustworthiness in this qualitative study. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Guidelines and recommendations for support programme were developed.

  4. EXPERIENCES OF MOTHERS ACCOMPANYING HOSPITALIZED CHILDREN UNIT IN PEDIATRIC CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Marques dos Santos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the experience of mothers accompanying hospitalized children in the Pediatric Clinic of a hospital in the interior of Bahia. METHODS: Descriptive, exploratory and qualitative study which complied with Resolution 196/96 and was developed in the Pediatric Unit, in the period between September and December 2009 through semi-structured interviews with eleven accompanying mothers. RESULTS:The illness and hospitalization occurr abruptly and generate the need for reorganization of family dynamics to meet the demands of the family members. As the accompanying mother will understand the dynamics of health workers, they stay calmer and try to understand the disease, care and her responsabilities. CONCLUSIONS: The accompanying mother needs to be recognized as a constant in the lives of sick children and within their family context, so that their actions and reactions child during hospitalization.

  5. Everyday life and occupational deprivation in single migrant mothers living in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard, Kamilla; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Socio-economically disadvantaged single migrant mothers in Denmark risk poor health and social marginalisation, which affects participation in relevant occupations. Literature focusing on occupational deprivation in vulnerable groups such as migrants is sparse. Aim/objectives......ABSTRACT Background: Socio-economically disadvantaged single migrant mothers in Denmark risk poor health and social marginalisation, which affects participation in relevant occupations. Literature focusing on occupational deprivation in vulnerable groups such as migrants is sparse. Aim....../objectives: To explore how single migrant mothers experience their living conditions and the significance of those conditions on their exclusion from everyday life occupations. Material and methods: In-depth interviews were used to find how occupational deprivation manifests in the everyday lives of three women. Based...... the women of participation in social and work-related occupations. The women handled these conditions by trying to create a well-functioning family life. Conclusions and significance: Experiences of occupational deprivation take place in interaction with cultural norms, social position and lack of social...

  6. Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Based on a sample of 432 poor Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years; 51.2% girls; mean age of mothers = 43.5 years) in Hong Kong, the interaction effect of mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control on filial piety of Chinese adolescents was examined. Results of polynomial multiple regression analyses showed that the interaction between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predicted perceived filial piety in adolescents. At high levels of mother-reported maternal control, high adolescent-perceived parental control was associated with higher filial piety. At low levels of mother-reported maternal control, filial piety increased initially and then decreased when adolescents reported higher levels of maternal control. Using multiple group analyses, these associations were found to be stable across gender and age. The present findings provide insights on how congruencies and discrepancies between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predict filial piety of Chinese adolescents growing up in poor single-mother families. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breastfeeding Infants with Ankyloglossia: Insight into Mothers' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Patel, Punam; Cohen, Michael B; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-03-01

    Breastfeeding difficulty from ankyloglossia can affect both the mother and baby in a breastfeeding dyad. With renewed emphasis in today's culture on breast milk, mothers may feel increasing pressure to breastfeed, and the inability for some to do so may cause significant distress. Recently, online parenting forums have seen exponential growth; these forums allow mothers to connect with peers undergoing similar life transitions. The purpose of this study was to review online discussions regarding ankyloglossia to understand mothers' experiences with breastfeeding. We performed an ethnographic content analysis of 76 online threads and 501 posts regarding ankyloglossia based on six domains: (1) initial expectations, (2) breastfeeding complications, (3) questions, (4) diagnosis, (5) treatment, and (6) outcomes. About one-fourth of women who participated in online forum discussions had initial expectations to breastfeed, however, many found it impossible due to poor latch or pain. Concerns were frequently exacerbated by healthcare providers who reportedly missed or overlooked ankyloglossia. Although these complications made breastfeeding a challenging experience, mothers often described both subjective and physical improvements after frenotomy. Breastfeeding difficulty was a commonly voiced concern in online ankyloglossia forums. Forum analysis is an effective way to gain insight into patients' experiences, which allows providers to anticipate concerns and provides more effective counseling.

  8. We are mothers too: childbearing experiences of lesbian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Michelle T

    2007-01-01

    To describe lesbians' personal and health care experiences of becoming pregnant, giving birth, and being mothers and comothers within the context of potentially oppressive family, social, and political structures. Critical ethnography. Participants' homes, lesbian mother support group, and prenatal clinics and hospitals in the Pacific Northwest. English-speaking self-identified lesbian women, including 21 interview and six focus-group participants and approximately 43 observed in a support group. In-depth open-ended interviews, focus group, and participant observation. Content/categorical analysis followed by discussion of the mother's stories and a critical conversation about lesbian mothering. The seven organizing themes are as follows: preparing the way: becoming ready; conception: you can't just fall into it; you can hear a heartbeat: pregnancy; birthing our babies; the work of mothers and mothers who work; families who sustain and families who oppose; and sources of support in everyday life. The first four are described in this article. Health care providers, policy makers, and the public can be better informed about the specific needs of childbearing lesbians.

  9. The children of homosexual and heterosexual single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, G A

    1993-01-01

    Children reared in homes headed by homosexual and heterosexual mothers were compared with respect to the mothers' and children's attitudes towards marriage, procreation and homosexuality. The mothers did not prefer their children to be homosexual; they desired them to marry and procreate. This was expressed more unambiguously for their sons. The children mirrored these expectations, boys with greater frequency than the girls. Most of the children expressed reservations about having a homosexual mother.

  10. Perjuangan Tokoh Aoyagi Koharu sebagai Single Mother di Jepang dalam Drama Woman Karya Sutradara Nobuo Mizuta

    OpenAIRE

    ANGELINA, BUANA MARCHEL

    2014-01-01

    Angelina, Buana Marchel. 2014. “PERJUANGAN TOKOH AOYAGI KOHARU SEBAGAI SINGLE MOTHER DI JEPANG DALAM DRAMA WOMAN KARYA SUTRADARA NOBUO MIZUTA”, Program Studi Sastra Jepang, Jurusan Bahasa dan Sastra, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Brawijaya.Pembimbing : (1) Eka Marthanty Indah Lestari, M.Si (2) Iizuka Tasuku, MAKata Kunci: Drama, Perjuangan, Single Mother, Masyarakat Jepang.Skripsi ini membahas tentang perjuangan single mother dalam drama Woman. Perjuangan merupakan sebuah USAha atau ...

  11. Mothers' experience of not breastfeeding in a breastfeeding culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvatum, Ingjerd; Glavin, Kari

    2017-10-01

    To describe women's experience of not breastfeeding in a breastfeeding culture. Breastfeeding represents a fundamental cultural value in Norway and many other countries, and a mother may often have intense emotions about breastfeeding her child. Political and health authorities in many countries have given high priority to encourage breastfeeding among mothers. However, breastfeeding can be challenging and sometimes affects mothers' mental health and the joy of interaction. Qualitative design. Individual semistructured interviews with 12 mothers. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Three main categories emerged from the data: (1) desire to adapt to Norwegian culture, (2) feeling as though one was breaking the law and (3) lack of and unbalanced information. The mothers in this study wanted to breastfeed, both to do the best for their child and to fulfil cultural expectations. They knew about the advantages of breastfeeding. When breastfeeding was stopped, they needed social support because they felt it was difficult to do the opposite of what was most common in the culture. Healthcare workers should consider the mother's individual situation when providing breastfeeding guidance. Information about the advantages should be adequately balanced and nuanced to prevent shame and guilt. Healthcare workers should have sufficient knowledge about how to ensure that infant formula is used correctly. Healthcare workers should pay attention to the mother if she has limited social support, and they should organise peer support. Healthcare workers must ensure that mothers get balanced information about the benefits of breastfeeding and about the differences between breastmilk and infant formula. To ensure that infant formula is used correctly and to reduce stigma, healthcare workers should have sufficient knowledge about formula feeding and health authorities could provide information about how to prepare infant formula. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Multiple birth families with children with special needs: a qualitative investigation of mothers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Christie E; Davis, Peter G; Umstad, Mark P; Fisher, Jane R W

    2012-08-01

    Multiple birth remains prevalent, with prematurity and subsequent disability being common complications. However, little is known of the experiences of mothers living with the combined circumstances of multiple birth, prematurity, and special needs. This paper reports an exploratory study using the qualitative technique of thematic analysis, to describe and interpret the experiences of 10 mothers of prematurely born multiple birth children with diverse special needs. Mothers were shocked to learn they were carrying multiple fetuses, including those who underwent in vitro fertilization with dual embryo transfer. Most experienced protracted concern over one or more babies' survival during pregnancy, and prescribed bed rest was frequently associated with increased anxiety and other adverse psychological effects. Some experienced disenfranchised grief, such as those grieving the opportunity to bear a single child. The contrast with experiences of mothers of healthy, term singletons caused considerable distress. Feelings of detachment and unreality were common in the immediate postpartum period, possibly due to transient depersonalization. Having more than one newborn created practical and psychological problems during the neonatal period, particularly when infants were separated due to differences in medical status. The extent to which hospitals accommodated the multiple birth relationship varied and significantly affected mothers' postnatal experiences. Mothers often felt guilty, particularly regarding inequality of care and attention they were able to provide to each child. This was especially problematic for multiples discordant for special needs status. The presence of one normally developing child complicated adjustment to the other's difficulties, and several experienced chronic sorrow. Serious maternal mental health difficulties were common but not universal. Available formal supports were generally perceived as inadequate, addressing some, but not all, of the

  13. Minimum Wages and the Economic Well-Being of Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1992 to 2005 March Current Population Survey (CPS), this study examines the relationship between minimum wage increases and the economic well-being of single mothers. Estimation results show that minimum wage increases were ineffective at reducing poverty among single mothers. Most working single mothers…

  14. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  15. The Lived Experiences of Mothers whose Children were Sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child sexual abuse is a global phenomenon that affects many families and appears to be increasing dramatically in South Africa. The literature on child sexual abuse focuses mainly on the victims and perpetrators while largely ignoring the experiences of non-offending mothers. The objective of this study was to explore the ...

  16. Mothers' experiences when their infants were diagnosed with cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditionally the diagnosis of cleft lip and palate was made at birth or soon thereafter, but modern technology has led to the identification of cleft lip prenatally. The aim of this study was to describe 16 mothers' experiences of pre- and postnatal diagnosis of their infants' cleft lip and palate, and to develop clinical guidelines for ...

  17. “Raising Him … to Pull His Own Weight”: Boys’ Household Work in Single- Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Clara W.; Romich, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine boys’ household work in low- and moderate-income single-mother families. Through describing the work that boys do, why they do this work, and the meaning that they and their mothers give to this work, they add to the understanding of housework as an arena for gender role reproduction or interruption. Their data reveal that adolescent boys did a significant amount of work and took pride in their competence. Mothers grounded their expectations of boys’ household contributions in life experience. They both needed their sons’ day-to-day contributions and wanted their sons to grow into men who were competent around the house and good partners. In demanding household work from their sons, these single mothers themselves work to undermine the traditional gendered division of such labor. PMID:22773881

  18. Kangaroo Mother Care: A review of mothers׳'experiences at Bwaila hospital and Zomba Central hospital (Malawi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisenga, Jayne Z; Chalanda, Marcia; Ngwale, Mathews

    2015-02-01

    Kangaroo Mother Care is an intervention that can help reduce neonatal mortality rate in Malawi but it has not been rolled out to all health facilities. Understanding the mothers׳ experience would help strategise when scaling-up this intervention. to review experiences of mothers Kangaroo Mother Care at two hospitals of Bwaila and Zomba. quantitative, descriptive using open interviews. two central hospitals in Malawi. 113 mothers that were in the Kangaroo Mother Care unit and those that had come for follow-up two weeks after discharge before the study took place. mothers had high level of knowledge about the significant benefits of Kangaroo Mother Care but 84% were not aware of the services prior to their hospitalisation. 18.6% (n=19) were not counselled prior to KMC practice. Mothers preferred KMC to incubator care. There were factors affecting compliance and continuation of KMC, which were lack of support, culture, lack of assistance with skin-to-skin contact, multiple roles of the mother and stigma. mothers had a positive attitude towards KMC once fully aware of its benefits. there is need for awareness campaigns on KMC services, provision of counselling, support and assistance which can help motivate mothers and their families to comply with the guidelines of KMC services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single Black Working Mothers' Perceptions: The Journey to Achieve Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglin, Sherrell

    2017-01-01

    Single Black working mothers faced significant challenges in achieving high-level or senior-level leadership positions. The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to collect, analyze and code the stories told by 10 participants to understand the perceptions and insights of the challenges and barriers single Black working mothers faced in…

  20. Poverty Trends for Families Headed by Working Single Mothers, 1993-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathryn H.; Dupree, Allen

    This analysis examines poverty in families headed by working single mothers, addressing whether and to what degree their economic situations have improved. It investigates the effect of the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, which moved single mothers from welfare to work. Poverty data from the annual Census…

  1. The Power of a Single Mother: The Influence of Black Women on Their Sons' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Quintin L.; Werblow, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the ways single Black mothers contribute to the educational success of their 11th-grade sons, despite the fact that their sons are enrolled in "failing schools." Data from five interviews and one focus group reveal common characteristics of how single-Black mothers help their sons beat the odds.

  2. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  3. Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression for Adolescents in Single-Mother and Two-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L.; McArthur, Brae Anne; Steinberg, Laurence; Abramson, Lyn. Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2017-01-01

    Although research consistently suggests that adolescents in single-mother families are at increased risk for depression, the mechanisms that explain this relationship are unclear. In a community sample of adolescents (N = 368; ages 12–16; 50% female; 50% White) and their mothers (42% single), adolescents completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and depressogenic inferential style at baseline and two yearly follow-ups. Mothers reported on stressful events that occurred in the child’s life from birth until baseline. Adolescents raised by single mothers, relative to partnered mothers, experienced more childhood stressors and higher rumination levels at one-year follow-up. Additionally, higher rumination mediated the relationship between single motherhood and greater youth depressive symptoms at the two-year follow-up. Clinical implications and developmental considerations are discussed. PMID:27858293

  4. Mothers' experiences of genetic counselling in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Megan; Glass, Merlyn; Wessels, Tina-Marié; Kromberg, Jennifer G R

    2015-02-01

    Genetic counselling is offered in diverse settings, and patient reactions vary due to differences in personal, family and community beliefs, local healthcare settings, as well as cultural background. Together, these factors influence how individuals experience genetic counselling. This study aimed to describe and document the experiences of thirteen mothers, with children with Down syndrome, oculocutaneous albinism or haemophilia B, who had received genetic counselling at state hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. A qualitative research design drawing on principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was used. Four voice-recorded focus groups were conducted and the resulting data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Five themes were identified in the data: thrown into the unknown; a worthwhile experience; a break in communication; telling the family and the community; and spreading the word. It was seen that genetic counselling cannot be viewed as a singular experience, but rather as one which is influenced by mothers' lived experiences and their interactions with other healthcare services, family and community members. The results from this study showed that genetic services and conditions were poorly understood, that the experience of genetic counselling varied amongst mothers, and on-going patient support is needed particularly when addressing family and community members. Further research is needed to assess what information is valuable to individuals during genetic counselling and how to deliver this information in a contextually appropriate manner. Greater awareness of genetic conditions is also required amongst communities and healthcare professionals. Valuable insight was gained from this study which can be used to improve local training programmes and genetic counselling services in Johannesburg, and in South Africa.

  5. COCHLEAR IMPLANT AND AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: THE EXPERIENCE OF MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ruiz Longato-Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implant (CI, a device surgically implanted in the ear, may be indicated for people with severe or profound hearing loss (HI. A significant number of children are affected by HI and other comorbidities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. The objective of this study was to understand the experience of mothers of children with CI and diagnosis of ASD. The study had qualitative nature and the method used was phenomenological investigation, which consists in the apprehension of the phenomenon as it manifests itself to the person who experiences it. Six mothers of children with CI and diagnosis of ASD were interviewed. The statements were submitted to the process of phenomenological analysis and were unveiled in seven thematic categories: The impact of multiple disabilities; Exclusive dedication to the children; "Twenty-four hours running after it"; "The cochlear implant was a blessing in the life of both of us"; "It is as if he were speaking"; Need for psychosocial support; How they feel now. The mothers revealed how they are subjectively affected in their relationship with the child with CI and diagnosis of ASD, indicating negative impact on the quality of their life. The CI meant the possibility of the child to participate in the audible world and of they, as mother, to have more access to their world. Hope in the development of their child's speech becomes the inspiration to continue the trajectory. The need for supporting services aimed at parents, the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork and the encouragement of the support network are highlighted in the study.

  6. An Integrative Review of Mothers' Experiences of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Værland, Inger Emilie; Vevatne, Kari; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2016-01-01

    To describe and synthesize the extant research on women's experiences with preeclampsia into the postpartum period, when birth is necessary to save the mother's or infant's life. The PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles published between 2004 and 2014. Although a comprehensive search was performed, only eight studies were found that answered the research question and were included in the review. Data were extracted and analyzed from each article that addressed women's experiences of pre-eclampsia: authors, year, country, study purpose, design, sample size, setting, main focus, data collection method, study findings, and limitations. The following themes emerged from the synthesis of how women experience severe preeclampsia: (a) From Feeling Fear and Closeness to Death to Feeling Hope, (b) Relationship With the Infant, (c) Separation From Loved Ones, and (d) Communication With Health Professionals. Fear and feeling close to death characterized the experience of childbirth for many of these women, and the premature birth was a shock for many. Having a newborn in the NICU was experienced as a transition from fear to hope as the newborn's life was sustained outside the womb. Separation of the mother from the newborn when one or both need special care remains a problem. Health care professionals must ensure that women in this situation receive the information and support they need and that the information is understood. This review revealed that more research is necessary regarding this specific mother-infant dyad and their families in the context of Western countries and developing countries. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  8. Guia de Recursos para la Madre Sola. (Resource Guide for the Single Mother).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Major, Marilyn; Vrana, Margaret; Whitehouse, John; Bianchi, Mary Ann; Spath, Barry; Williams, Marian; Bones, David; Morar, Betty; Newbert, David

    Funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Assertiveness Training Program for Single Mothers was offered to mothers with children enrolled in the Omaha Head Start and Parent-Child Center Programs. The 16-week long program, providing a total of 40 hours of training, covered a wide range of topics in addition to the initial workshops on…

  9. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  10. Everyday life and occupational deprivation in single migrant mothers living in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard, Kamilla; Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne

    2018-01-01

    on Ricoeur’s theory of interpretation, data were analysed and the meaning structures, in the form of three themes, were identified. Results: The societal and individual conditions of women’s everyday lives interact in a complex interplay, where immigration, illness and divorce, in particular, deprive...... the women of participation in social and work-related occupations. The women handled these conditions by trying to create a well-functioning family life. Conclusions and significance: Experiences of occupational deprivation take place in interaction with cultural norms, social position and lack of social....../objectives: To explore how single migrant mothers experience their living conditions and the significance of those conditions on their exclusion from everyday life occupations. Material and methods: In-depth interviews were used to find how occupational deprivation manifests in the everyday lives of three women. Based...

  11. How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia during birth Ingrid Jepsen, Midwife, SD, MPH, Kurt Dauer Keller cand.psych, PhD Contact email irj@ucn.dk Aim: to investigate the experiences of epidural analgesia as to the choice of epidurals, the changes in pain, the period from....... The analyses are also judged to be reliable. The women in the study are not representative of all women who use epidurals, but it was possible to draw out several common experiences. The possibility of generalizing the results is depending on the context, including the contents of the medication and how...... midwives handle the epidurals. Conclusion: In particular, the use of an epidural does not diminish the need for an individual approach. The woman’s level of consciousness and the entire situation makes her very sensitive to the midwives care....

  12. Child Care Choices and Children's Cognitive Achievement: The Case of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Bernal; Michael P. Keane

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of child care versus maternal time inputs on child cognitive development using single mothers from the NLSY79. To deal with nonrandom selection of children into child care, we exploit the exogenous variation in welfare policy rules facing single mothers. In particular, the 1996 welfare reform and earlier state-level policy changes generated substantial increases in their work/child care use. We construct a comprehensive set of welfare policy variables and use them as in...

  13. The Impact of Daughters' Eating Disorders in Mothers' Sense of Self: Contextualizing Mothering Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Marie L.; Lam, Eugenie

    2001-01-01

    Examines how daughters' anorexia influence the mothers' understandings of mothering and self within the greater context of societal influences. Using constructivist theory and discursive psychology, four themes characterized participants' relationship to cultural myths and discourses associated with eating disorders and mothering. (Contains 48…

  14. Child health care utilisation in families with young or single mothers in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallby, Thomas; Modin, Bitte; Hjern, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Young age and lone parenthood are risk factors for impaired health among mothers and their children. Due to the higher risks of negative influences on physical and mental health, young and single mothers should be of special concern to the Child Health Services (CHS). In the present study, we investigated consumption patterns of child health care services among young and single mothers in Uppsala County, Sweden to study whether they are reached by the universal CHS program and if selective or indicative measures were administered in daily CHS practice. Register data on CHS contacts and socio-demographic indicators were collected for 10692 infants, born in 1998-2006. Results show small differences in contact pattern and immunization status, between children of young versus older, and single versus cohabiting mothers. However, both young (RR 0.64) and single (RR 0.80) mothers had significantly lower rates of participation in parental group. The CHS were consequently successful in implementing the universal preventive child health programme for all families, including families with young or single mothers. There was no indication, however, of an established selective preventive strategy aimed at these high risk families. Programs for strengthening the support provided to vulnerable families by the CHS are needed. © The Author(s) 2012.

  15. GROUP OF HEARING MOTHERS OF DEAF CHILDREN: INTERNSHIP EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Fava de Quevedo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This experience report describes a group phenomenon, based upon a case study of a group of hearing mothers of deaf children. The weekly group, in operation for over three years, provides support for families with deaf children. At first, observations were made in the group for a subsequent analysis of the data and act on interventions. Categories containing the main features that emerged in the group were created in order to discuss the content found. The categories addressed by mothers included: independence/autonomy of the child; adolescence and sexuality; discovery of deafness and reorganization of family dynamics; and matters beyond the group goal. As for the categories related to the group process there are: resistance; containing function of the coordinator; transfer; interventions in the group field. The results lead to understanding the group as a facilitator and as a necessary support for the participants. Before that, interventions were carried out to expand the space for reflection offered by the group, which provides adaptations to the different situations experienced by the participants.

  16. Work life and mental well-being: single and coupled employed mothers in Southern Europe and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill

    2009-09-01

    Many European mothers, single and coupled, combine work outside the home and family life. The effects of this on their mental well-being may vary depending on the level of support available from the State's welfare system, since welfare may buffer working mothers from some of the stress that can arise from trying to manage significant responsibilities on the job and at home. Welfare may be especially important for single working mothers, for whom the burden of multiple roles may be even heavier. The present study assessed levels and predictors of well-being of single and coupled employed mothers in Greece, Portugal and Spain, where welfare support is relatively limited. Results were compared to a parallel study with data from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, where welfare support is relatively comprehensive. Coupled mothers in Scandinavia had significantly lower financial hardship, longer education, higher life satisfaction, more enriching jobs, practical support, financial support and social participation than coupled mothers in the Southern European sample. On the other hand, the Scandinavian coupled mothers had higher levels of work family conflict than coupled mothers in Southern Europe. Single mothers in Scandinavia, compared to single mothers in Southern Europe, had significantly longer education, higher life satisfaction and positive affect, more enriching jobs, confidant support, practical support, financial support and social participation. Level of job stress was the same for all mother groups. All groups differed significantly from each other in level of financial hardship, with Scandinavian coupled mothers being best off, followed by Scandinavian single mothers, Southern European coupled mothers, and Southern European single mothers. The regional differences suggest that single motherhood per se need not be a risk factor for poorer well-being, and that welfare policies may have a protective effect for the mental well-being of single mothers.

  17. Individual Characteristics, Familial Experience, and Psychopathology in Children of Mothers with Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnow, Sven; Spitzer, Carsten; Grabe, Hans J.; Kessler, Christoph; Freyberger, Harald J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine individual characteristics, familial experience, and psychopathology of children of mothers with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Children of mothers with BPD were compared to children of mothers (1) with depressive disorders, (2) with cluster C personality disorders, and (3) without…

  18. Death of a Child at Home or in Hospital: Experiences of Greek Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou, Danai; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates experiences of Greek mothers who cared for a child dying of cancer. Highlighted some needs during the terminal period. Fifteen mothers were interviewed and both quantitative and qualitative procedures were used to analyze findings. Family networks played a significant role in supporting mother-child units, especially when death…

  19. Common Themes in the Experiences of Mother-Daughter Incest Survivors: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Beverly; Daniluk, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Studied mother-daughter incest. Common themes were extracted from in-depth interviews with survivors of mother-perpetrated sexual abuse, some of which parallel the experience of survivors of other forms of child sexual abuse, and some of which are more specific to mother-daughter incest. Discusses themes and counseling implications. (JBJ)

  20. Mothers' Experiences Raising Children Who Have Multiple Disabilities and Their Perceptions of the Chronic Sorrow Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Rosalie N.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study proposed to answer the following two questions: Do mothers of children who have multiple disabilities experience feelings that are consistent with chronic sorrow?, and What are mothers' perceptions of the chronic sorrow phenomenon? Seven biological mothers of children who have multiple disabilities were interviewed on two…

  1. Between stigma and mother-blame: blind mothers' experiences in USA hospital postnatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Angela

    2015-11-01

    This study examines instances of discrimination that blind mothers in the USA have experienced at the hands of doctors, nurses and social workers during hospital postnatal care. The author identifies postnatal care as the time when blind mothers are likely to face the most stigmatising interactions with medical staff, as it is when scepticism about their competence as mothers is at its height. The author argues these interactions must be understood within their institutional context in which ideologies of risk and mother-blame are embedded in hospital postnatal practices. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  2. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadva, V; Imrie, S

    2014-01-01

    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the surrogate uses her own egg. Participants were recruited as part of a study of the long-term effects of surrogacy for surrogates and their family members. Data were collected from 36 children of surrogates at a single time point. Participants whose mother had been a surrogate 5-15 years prior to interview and who were aged over 12 years were eligible to take part. Thirty-six participants (14 male and 22 female) aged 12-25 years were interviewed (response rate = 52%). Questionnaires assessing psychological health and family functioning were administered. Forty-four per cent (15) of participants' mothers had undergone gestational surrogacy, 39% (14) had used their own egg (genetic surrogacy) and 19% (7) had completed both types of surrogacy. Most surrogates' children (86%, 31) had a positive view of their mother's surrogacy. Forty-seven per cent (17) of children were in contact with the surrogacy child and all reported good relationships with him/her. Forty per cent (14) of children referred to the child as a sibling or half-sibling and this did not differ between genetic and gestational surrogacy. Most children (89%, 32), reported a positive view of family life, with all enjoying spending time with their mother. Mean scores on the questionnaire assessments of psychological health and self-esteem were within the normal range and did not differ by surrogacy type. The sample size for this study was relatively small and not all children chose to take part, therefore their views cannot be known. Nevertheless, this is the first study to assess the experiences of surrogacy from the perspective of the surrogates' own children. There may be some bias from the inclusion of siblings from the same family. Findings of this study show that family

  3. "Is the doctor God to punish me?!" An intersectional examination of disrespectful and abusive care during childbirth against single mothers in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amroussia, Nada; Hernandez, Alison; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Goicolea, Isabel

    2017-03-04

    Disrespectful and abusive treatment during childbirth is a violation of women's right to dignified, respectful healthcare throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Although reports point out that marginalized groups in society such as single mothers are particularly vulnerable to abusive and disrespectful care, there is a lack of in-depth research exploring single mothers' encounters at the maternal healthcare facilities, especially in Tunisia. In Tunisia, single mothers are particularly vulnerable due to their social stigmatization and socio-economic marginalization. This study examines the self-perceptions and childbirth experiences of single mothers at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. This study follows a qualitative design. Eleven single mothers were interviewed in regard to their experiences with maternal healthcare services and their perceptions of the attitudes of the health workers towards them. The interviews also addressed the barriers faced by the participants in accessing adequate maternal healthcare services, and their self-perceptions as single mothers. The data were analyzed using an inductive thematic approach guided by the feminist intersectional approach. Emergent codes were grouped into three final themes. Three themes emerged during the data analysis: 1) Experiencing disrespect and abuse, 2) Perceptions of regret and shame attributed to being a single mother, and 3) The triad of vulnerability: stigma, social challenges, and health system challenges. The study highlights that the childbirth experiences of single mothers are shaped by intersectional factors that go beyond the health system. Gender plays a major role in constructing these experiences while intersecting with other social structures. The participants had experienced disrespectful and discriminatory practices and even violence when they sought maternal healthcare services at the public healthcare facilities in Tunisia. Those experiences reflect not only the poor quality of

  4. Does Single Motherhood Hurt Infant Health among Young Mothers?

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Albert Young-Il; Lee, Jungmin

    2017-01-01

    Does single motherhood adversely affect infant health? This question is not easy to answer because of the endogeneity of coresidence during pregnancy. In this paper, we exploit quasi-natural variation in single motherhood from the moment of conception to that of birth arising from marriageable age restrictions and the reform of the laws in Korea. The Korean birth certificate dataset is unique in that it allows us to distinguish coresidence and legal marital status and further to identify the ...

  5. The quality of life of single mothers making the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay; Davis, Elise; Smyth, Paul; McKenzie, Hayley

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the quality of life of single mothers making the mandatory transition from welfare to work. The Australian government purported that the benefits of making this transition would include higher incomes, better social participation, and improved wellbeing. It is currently unknown, however, how single mothers currently engaged in welfare to work programs evaluate their quality of life. Quality of life scores for 334 single mothers engaged in welfare to work in Australia were compared with normative data. Participants reported significantly lower quality of life scores than the general population for all quality of life domains, highlighting the need to carefully examine welfare to work policies to ensure they promote participants' quality of life.

  6. Psychosocial differences related to parenting infants among single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Debra Beach; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the psychosocial factors, self-esteem, sense of mastery, life stress, and social support among first-time married and single mothers in early parenthood. A cross-sectional comparative design was used to study secondary data. A convenience sample of 80 first-time mothers completed self-report instruments on self-esteem, sense of mastery, social, and life stress at 6-8 weeks after birth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and ANOVA. A statistically significant difference was found between married and single mothers on self esteem (F = 9.314, df = 1, p = .003) and sense of mastery (F = 4.919, df = 1, p = .030). There were no statistical differences found between married and single mothers on social support and life stress. Findings support Belsky's (1984) theoretical assertion that personal psychological resources are most indicative of successful parenting. Further, interventions directed toward enhancing single mothers' sense of mastery and self-esteem may be needed to facilitate maternal role transition.

  7. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The experience of adult children of mothers with intellectual disability: A qualitative retrospective study from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołowicz-Ruszkowska, Agnieszka; McConnell, David

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the experience of growing up with a mother with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to explore this experience from the perspective of adult children. In-depth interviews with 23 adult children brought up by mothers with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The interview data were analysed using grounded theory methods. The childhood experiences of the interviewees and the role their mothers played in their upbringing varied, depending in part on the involvement of extended family. It was the stigma of maternal intellectual disability, rather than their mother's functional limitations, that posed the greatest challenge. Interviewees characterized their mothers and childhoods as different, yet ordinary. Understanding the social context, including but not limited to the availability of informal support, is critical to understanding the experience of children growing up with mothers with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Homelessness Pathways for Australian Single Mothers and Their Children: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne Warburton; Elizabeth Whittaker; Marina Papic

    2018-01-01

    There is increasing concern about family homelessness. Homeless mothers and their children are one of society’s most disadvantaged and at-risk populations. However, very little Australian research exploring mothers’ views on their homelessness experiences exists. Using semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers and four agency staff, this study explored homeless Australian mothers’ pathways into and out of homelessness, their specific needs and the services and supports that were (or would ha...

  10. Marital satisfaction and parenting experiences of mothers and fathers of adolescents and adults with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L; Barker, Erin T; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S; Floyd, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent?child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences were also evaluated. Multilevel modeling was used to control for the dependency in couple data. Marital satisfaction was an important predictor of parenting experiences, particularly for fathers. Mothers reported feeling closer to their son or daughter than did fathers. Fathers' parenting experiences were more strongly impacted by child characteristics than were mothers' parenting experiences. Results emphasized the connection between the marital relationship and parenting experiences and overlapping but unique experiences of mothers and fathers.

  11. 9592 THE EXPERIENCES OF HIV-POSITIVE MOTHERS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    In Swaziland, 41.1% of pregnant women live with HIV, while only 32% of Swazi mothers (including HIV negative mothers) currently practice exclusive breastfeeding among infants less than six months of age. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding decreases with an increase in the infant's age, as only 17% of infants aged four ...

  12. The experiences of HIV-positive mothers breastfeeding exclusively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Swaziland, 41.1% of pregnant women live with HIV, while only 32% of Swazi mothers (including HIV negative mothers) currently practice exclusive breastfeeding among infants less than six months of age. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding decreases with an increase in the infant's age, as only 17% of infants aged four ...

  13. Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language : Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nomura, Saeko; Ishida, Saeko; Jensen, Mika Yasuoka

    2002-01-01

    ”Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language: Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002,” 10th International Conference on Human – Computer Interaction (HCII2003), June 2003, Crete, Greece.......”Open Source Software Development with Your Mother Language: Intercultural Collaboration Experiment 2002,” 10th International Conference on Human – Computer Interaction (HCII2003), June 2003, Crete, Greece....

  14. Octopus Moms: The Lived Experiences of College Students Who Are Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito, Jill

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the lived experiences of college students who are mothers at a large, public Midwestern research university. Using a feminist theoretical perspective, the focus of the research was to better understand how students who are mothers experience college. I sought to understand how the gendered…

  15. The Experience of Adult Children of Mothers with Intellectual Disability: A Qualitative Retrospective Study from Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolowicz-Ruszkowska, Agnieszka; McConnell, David

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the experience of growing up with a mother with intellectual disability. The aim of this study was to explore this experience from the perspective of adult children. Method: In-depth interviews with 23 adult children brought up by mothers with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The interview data were…

  16. Inequalities in the psychological well-being of employed, single and partnered mothers: the role of psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhajarine Nazeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of international research reveals that single mothers experience poorer mental health than their partnered counterparts, with socioeconomic disadvantage identified as an important contributory factor in understanding this health disparity. Much less research, however, has focused specifically on the psychological well-being of single mothers who are employed, despite their growing presence in the labor force. Of the research which has considered employment, the focus has been on employment status per se rather than on other important work-related factors which may impact psychological health, such as psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict. The aim of this study was to: (1 compare employed single mothers and employed partnered mothers on measures of psychological distress, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict; and (2 explore the potential role of work-family conflict and psychosocial work quality as explanations for any observed differences in psychological distress based on partner status. Method Analysis of data obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey of employed parents in a mid-sized Western Canadian city. Analyses were based on 674 employed mothers (438 partnered and 236 single, who were 25-50 years old, with at least one child in the household. Results Compared to employed single mothers, employed partnered mothers were older, had more education and reported fewer hours of paid work. Single mothers reported higher levels of psychological distress, financial hardship, work-family conflict and poor psychosocial work quality. Statistical adjustment for income adequacy, psychosocial work quality and work-family conflict each independently resulted in single motherhood no longer being associated with psychological distress. Conclusions While single employed mothers did experience higher levels of psychological distress than their partnered counterparts, differences between these

  17. Embodied drawings as expressions of distress among impoverished single Bedouin mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Ephrat; Cwikel, Julie

    2008-06-01

    This paper demonstrates how marginalized, Bedouin, single mothers define pain through different depictions of their bodies and their embodied experience. Using visual data generated through an empowerment group with single Bedouin women living in the Negev, illustrative pictures were selected. The potential of drawing as an indirect, but deeply communicative symbolic vehicle with which to express the women's pain and struggle as marginalized and impoverished women is demonstrated through themes that emerged from a content analysis of the women's art and their verbal comments about what they had drawn. A central theme identified pain due to painful life circumstances, rather than due to inherent sickness or weakness. Other themes identified included the body as a site for cultural transition, power negations with men, intellectual development, and the struggles of motherhood. This shows how the visual depiction of pain on the page offers a socially critical, yet potentially mental health promoting medium that locates women's distress, not as the result of personal and physical weakness, but as the result of social oppression. The implications for the use of art with socially marginalized women are discussed.

  18. Addressing barriers to health: Experiences of breastfeeding mothers after returning to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hassankhani, Hadi; M Fooladi, Marjaneh; Schmied, Virginia

    2017-03-01

    Breastfeeding mothers returning to work often feel exhausted as they must feed on demand and attend to family and employment responsibilities, leading to concerns for their personal health. This study was prompted by a desire to understand and identify barriers to mothers' health. We describe the experiences of 12 Iranian breastfeeding and employed mothers through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Two main themes emerged: (i) working and mothering alone and (ii) facing concerns about health. The findings highlight the need for a support system for breastfeeding mothers within the family and in the workplace. Family-friendly policies targeting mothers' and employers' views are needed to support working mothers and promote breastfeeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. MOTHERS' DENTAL HEAL TH BEHAVIORS AND MOTHER-CHILD'S DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCES: STUDY OF A SUBURB AREA IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ayu Maharani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of conducting regular epidemiological surveys to monitor dental health in lower socio-economic citizens especially of preschool children, only few papers were published respectively. The aims of this study were to describe preschool children's and their mother's dental caries experiences and to describe mothers' knowledge and behaviors' towards dental health in a suburb area near the capital city of Indonesia. The samples were 152 mother-childpairs with children age less than 5 years old. Intra oral examination by decay-missing-filling-teeth index was performed. Moreover, interviews were conducted to gain information regarding mothers’ oral health behavior and knowledge. 70% children had caries with mean dmf-t= 3.7, consisting 100% of component decay. 90% mothers had caries with DMF-T=7.8, consisting 99% of component decay. More than 50% of mothers had low knowledge and behaviors towards dental health, which comprises of: (1 never checked their children’s dental health, (2 starting to clean their child's teeth after child's age is more than 1 years old, (3 don’t know that caries is an infectious disease, (4 frequently using same feeding and drinking equipments together with their children, (5 considering deciduous teeth are not importantbecause it will be replaced with permanent teeth anyway. It could beconcluded that the prevalence of dental caries in studied sample were high, these were relevant to the findings that the mother's knowledge and behaviors' towards dental health were low. The results of this study demonstrated that mothers might have a high contribution in their child’s caries risk. Prevention should be undertaken at an early age and actively including caregivers is essential in planningand conducting any dental health interventions.

  20. Financial Well-Being of Single, Working-Age Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Swaine, Jamie G.; Dababnah, Sarah; Mayra, Ellen Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the financial well-being of single mothers who care for children with developmental disabilities is important to ensure that public policies can be effectively targeted to support these vulnerable families. The authors analyze data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation to describe income poverty, asset poverty, income,…

  1. Low-Income, Single-Parent Francophone Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caissie, Julie; Gaudet, Jeanne d'Arc; Godin, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study focused on single-parent, low-income francophone mothers' relationships with the educational and cultural achievement of their children attending French-speaking schools in Anglo-dominant settings in New Brunswick (Canada). We conducted individual (N = 8) semi-structured interviews to solicit information about the…

  2. The Interplay of Autonomy and Relatedness in Hong Kong Chinese Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Winnie C. W.; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2002-01-01

    The mediating effects of autonomy and relatedness on the relationship between self-esteem and life satisfaction were investigated among 49 single mothers. Among all tested variables in the dimension of relatedness, only network orientation (propensity to utilize one's available social support) was a mediator of the positive relationship between…

  3. "No Cosby Show": Single Black Mother Homes and How Black Men Build Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Maia Niguel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lives of 11 Black men to better understand how Black men who were raised in single Black mother homes build romantic relationships with Black women. One focus group and a series of individual in-person interviews were conducted with the participants who ranged between 23 and 43 years of age. Participants were…

  4. [Mothers and food advertising directed at children: perceptions and experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronuovo, Luciana; Gutkowski, Patricia; Tiscornia, Victoria; Allemandi, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how food advertising is perceived by mothers from different socioeconomic sectors of the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Between May and November 2015, eight focus groups were conducted with the participation of 49 mothers of different education levels living in the study area. The results show how the purchasing decisions of mothers are influenced by the requests of their children, which are in turn prompted by food advertising and promotion. The study also shows how food advertising and promotion are combined with other environmental factors (greater supply of food products, "more demanding" children) that affect the decision-making process of mothers regarding their children's nutrition and foster the consumption of certain unhealthy products. This situation was observed in all the focus groups, without differences among education levels.

  5. The experiences of older mothers following the return of an adult child home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarts, Yehudit; Ayalon, Liat

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines the experience of co-residence of older mothers with their adult children who have returned home, as seen from the mothers' perspective. The population of the study consisted of 14 women between the ages of 58 and 74, whose sons and daughters aged 30 to 40 had come to live with them. The study is a qualitative one, conducted on the basis of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with the mothers. The data were analyzed using constant comparisons. The analysis of the interviews yielded four main themes: a) the mother's perception of the parental role; b) the mother's perception of the returning son or daughter; c) the mother's perception of living together with the adult child; and d) the emotional ramifications arising from co-residence. The differences among the mothers interviewed allowed for the distinction of three types: (1) the mother as rescuer (2) the ambivalent mother and (3) the involved mother. The study sheds light on this late stage of the mother-child relationship, points to the complexity of the phenomenon, and offers insights for professionals working with clients in such situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mothers' experiences of sharig breastfeeding or breastmilk co-feeding in Australia 1978-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Virginia

    2009-03-01

    While the concept of breastfeeding in contemporary Western culture is of a mother breastfeeding her own baby or babies, others have replaced the mother as provider of breastmilk, for a variety of reasons, through most periods of human existence. Existing policies for the sharing of this bodily fluid, milk, appear to have been written without the benefit of a detailed examination of the actual experiences of the mothers and babies involved. This study attempts to fill this information gap by investigating the sharing of breastfeeding or expressed breastmilk by Australian women in a recent thirty-year period, 1978-2008. The objective of this study was to explore the mothers' experiences of sharing breastfeeding or human milk including: the circumstances in which this bodily fluid was freely shared; what screening process, if any, was used before the milk of another mother was accepted; the mothers' feelings about the experience; the reported attitudes of others; and the children's behaviour when put to the breast of someone other than the mother. The underpinning reason for the sharing of breastfeeding or breastmilk was the desire of mothers to provide human milk to their babies, exclusively, including while they were absent or temporarily unable to breastfeed. Most mothers were selective about those with whom they would share breastfeeding or breastmilk.

  7. Policy and experiment in mother tongue literacy in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi

    1993-07-01

    The advocacy for initial mother tongue literacy in elementary schools and in adult education has been intensified within the past three decades, reflecting new attitudes to cultural diversity, especially to multilingual and multicultural education. This paper assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education. Although, like the Ife project, many experimental projects on mother tongue literacy in other countries are shown to have succeeded in realizing their objectives, the findings highlight the mediating effects of several non-linguistic variables. The findings indicate that its use as the medium of instruction in schools cannot compensate for the deficiencies in the educational system, particularly poor quality instructional facilities, or the social barriers in the wider society which prevent certain groups of minority children from learning well in school. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: Single centre experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, N J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is an attractive alternative to the traditional open approach in the surgical excision of an adrenal gland. It has replaced open adrenalectomy in our institution and we review our experience to date. METHODS: All cases of laparoscopic adrenalectomies in our hospital over eight years (from 2001 to May 2009) were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, diagnosis, length of hospital stay, histology and all operative and post-operative details were evaluated. RESULTS: Fifty-five laparoscopic adrenalectomies (LA) were performed on 51 patients over eight years. The mean age was 48 years (Range 16-86 years) with the male: female ratio 1:2. Twenty-three cases had a right adrenalectomy, 24 had a left adrenalectomy and the remaining four patients had bilateral adrenalectomies. 91% were successfully completed laparoscopically with five converted to an open approach. Adenomas (functional and non functional) were the leading indication for LA, followed by phaeochromocytomas. Other indications for LA included Cushing\\'s disease, adrenal malignancies and rarer pathologies. There was one mortality from necrotising pancreatitis following a left adrenalectomy for severe Cushing\\'s disease, with subsequent death 10 days later. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is effective for the treatment of adrenal tumours, fulfilling the criteria for the ideal minimally invasive procedure. It has replaced the traditional open approach in our centre and is a safe and effective alternative. However, in the case of severe Cushing\\'s disease, laparoscopic adrenalectomy has the potential for significant adverse outcomes and mortality.

  9. Preliminary study: Taiwanese mothers' experiences of children with sensory processing disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, En-Chi

    2013-09-01

    Different cultural backgrounds and parental experiences influence parenting styles and approaches to raising children with disabilities. Family-centered care should consider parental, especially main caregivers, experiences with their disabled children. In Taiwan, in most of homes, mothers are the main caregivers. The purpose of this study was to explore Taiwanese mothers' experiences with their children who have sensory processing disorder. This study used a qualitative ethnographic design and semistructured interview format. Transcripts were analyzed and synthesized into themes. Three mothers were interviewed. The following three themes emerged: (a) relationships within the shared worlds of disability and culture, (b) daily life challenges and expectations, and (c) opportunity to receive professional services. These Taiwanese mothers expressed that they experienced stress from being blamed for insufficient skills and from the shame of their children's disabilities that reflected lack of teacher, friend, and other family members' understanding of the cause of their children's inappropriate behaviors. Their children experienced difficulties performing daily activities, which resulted in stresses on both the mother and her child. The interviewed mothers needed to receive timely, long-term services from healthcare professionals. However, hospitals are inadequately staffed with occupational therapists, which delays care for children with special needs. Taiwanese mothers experience stresses from themselves, their child, and others. Healthcare professionals should apply a family-centered service approach to fulfill the needs of mothers and their disabled children. Moreover, healthcare professionals should promote greater awareness of sensory processing disorder symptoms and interventions to increase public awareness and acceptance of these children.

  10. Generation to generation: discrimination and harassment experiences of physician mothers and their physician daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Diane K; Zucker, Alyssa N; Mercurio, Andrea E; Landry, Laura J; Rich, Michael; Shrier, Lydia A

    2007-01-01

    To examine bias and sexual harassment experiences of physician mothers and their physician daughters; correlations of these experiences with career satisfaction, stress at work, stress at home, and percentage of women in specialty; and influences of the mother on her daughter's experiences. A convenience sample of 214 families with mother and daughter physicians was sent a 56-item survey that included questions on bias and sexual harassment experiences. Statistical comparisons were made within 136 dyads where both mother and daughter returned the questionnaire. Eighty-four percent of mothers and 87% of daughters responded. Mothers and daughters reported similarly high rates and severity of sexual harassment before medical school, while in residency/fellowship, while in practice/work setting, and by teachers and supervisors. Daughters reported higher rates of harassment during medical school and by patients, mothers by colleagues. Gender and racial/ethnic discrimination was lower for daughters compared with their mothers, but gender discrimination was still substantial. Compared with other daughters, daughters who experienced discrimination or sexual harassment reported lower career satisfaction and more stress at work and at home and worked in specialties with fewer women. Gender discrimination and sexual harassment remain entrenched in medical education and professional workplaces. Maternal role models and mentors were not as protective as anticipated. Leadership of medical institutions and professional associations must deal more effectively with persistent discrimination and harassment or risk the loss of future leaders.

  11. Children's Sleep Regulation Is Linked to Mothers' Sleep-Related Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Ora; Scher, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored how mothers' own childhood experiences are linked to their perceptions of their children's sleep regulation. It focused on collective sleeping; a practice used in the past in the Israeli kibbutz, and used a quasi-experimental research design to examine whether mothers who were raised in collective sleeping…

  12. Parenting Experiences of Mothers Who Are Blind in Iran: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Zahra Behboodi; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Shahbazzadegan, Samira; Shamshiri, Mahmood

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mothers, who often serve as primary caregivers for their offspring, play a crucial role in the development of children. Understanding the parenting experiences of mothers who are blind can be valuable and beneficial for professional educators and health care workers who wish to provide holistic and appropriate services to both…

  13. Experience of Social Support among Working Mothers: A Concept Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…

  14. Mothers' experiences of premature birth | James | African Journal for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Premature birth is an obstetrical emergency that is a global concern. Preventing complications and saving the baby's life before, during and after the premature birth has been noted to be the main goal of healthcare practitioners. It has been found through studies that the delivering mother who is at the centre of the ...

  15. When breastfeeding is unsuccessful--mothers' experiences after giving up breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jette Schilling; Kronborg, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Some mothers have to give up breastfeeding even though they want to breastfeed. To give up breastfeeding can be a sensitive issue in a time when breastfeeding is promoted as the healthiest for mother and child. The aim of this study was to describe mothers’ experiences after they gave up...... breastfeeding even though they intended to breastfeed. A qualitative social constructive approach was used to describe mothers’ experiences after giving up breastfeeding. Danish first-time mothers who had expected and wanted to breastfeed were interviewed four months after birth. The interviews were analysed...... by meaning condensation. The mothers experienced that giving up breastfeeding was a crucial but necessary decision for the child’s health and well-being. They tried to “be on the side of the angels” by caring for and bonding with the child. The mothers were divided between expressing milk or formula feeding...

  16. Maternity groups in the postpartum period at well child clinics - mothers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Kari; Tveiten, Sidsel; Økland, Toril; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2017-10-01

    To explore mothers' experiences as participants in maternity groups at well child clinics (WCCs). The level of psychological distress that new mothers have may be related to the quantity of social support they receive. Maternity groups to support new parents have a long tradition at WCCs in Norway, and most of the clinics have offered these groups. However, there is little knowledge about mothers' experiences of participating in these groups. Qualitative design. Focus group interviews with mothers who had participated in maternity groups facilitated by public health nurses (PHNs) at WCCs. Interpretive description was used to analyse the transcripts from the interviews. Eight focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 mothers who had participated in maternity groups at WCCs in two counties in eastern Norway. The analysis resulted in one main category, 'The maternity group's salutogenic importance' and three subcategories, 'Networks that can last for many years', 'Fellowship with others in the same situation' and 'Become confident in mothering'. Mothers wanted fellowship and found it important to share experiences with other mothers. Maternity groups offered to parents are essential to meet parents' need to discuss experiences and challenges related to parenting. Maternity groups can also create a basis for establishing a social network for those who want it. Well child clinics should offer all mothers the opportunity to participate in groups to strengthen their social relations and their confidence in parenting. PHNs play an important role in facilitating groups for first-time parents. Group leadership can influence how mothers in a group connect and whether the parental role is affected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff's lack of awareness of mothers' fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women's perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Three categories, including "involvement of the spouse in the labor process", "asking for a companion during labor", and "mother's self-care to cope with labor pain", emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of "trying to comply with the labor process". Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor.

  18. Infant sleep problems: a qualitative analysis of first-time mothers' coping experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Hu, Wen-Yu; Lee, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chia-Yi

    2014-06-01

    to describe the aspects of infant sleep perceived as problematic by first-time Taiwanese mothers and to discover how mothers cope in response to infant sleep concerns. a qualitative approach was used for data collection. in-depth interviews were conducted and audio-taped at mothers' homes. 12 first-time mothers within three months post partum. content analysis was performed to identify patterns, similarities, and differences in the individual and collective interview data. The major themes describing maternal coping experiences were 'self-help' and 'seek-help.' Self-help coping efforts included reception and acceptance of suggestions as well as changing behaviour to allow mothers to feel capable of adapting to infant sleep patterns or problems. Seek-help was a later stage of coping for mothers when they actively utilised formal and informal sources of help to identify and manage infant sleep problems. The majority of mothers sought informal help sources from family members, friends, or online information. Mothers who suspected their infant of suffering from sleep problems either delayed seeking medical advice or did not actively consult a health care provider. nurses and health care providers who work in antenatal, postnatal, and paediatric clinics should actively educate and provide information about infant sleep patterns and sleep management options to first-time mothers and discuss maternal coping strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience

    OpenAIRE

    A.M. Ntswane; L. van Rhyn

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative d...

  20. Having another child without intellectual disabilities: Comparing mothers of a single child with disability and mothers of multiple children with and without disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    To investigate how having a child without a disability is related to maternal mental health and its predictors, we compared mothers of a single child with intellectual disabilities (single-child group, n = 117) and mothers of children with and without intellectual disabilities (multiple-children group, n = 457), in Japan. Compared to the multiple-children group, the single-child group had lower hope and social capital and poorer mental health; furthermore, 42.5% of them had decided not to have another child, despite desiring one. Hope was the strongest predictor of mental health in both groups but was more positively related to mental health in the multiple-children group. The fear of the possibility of the next child having a disability and receiving inadequate support were the obstacles for mothers who had decided not to have another child. Thus, greater support and more opportunities for obtaining adequate information about the implications of having another child may be needed.

  1. The birds, the bees, and the Bible: single African American mothers' perceptions of a faith-based sexuality educaton program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith Bacchus

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined single mothers' ideas on the development of a faith-based sexuality program. Twenty African American single mothers with adolescent children (11 to 13 years of age) who were of the same faith and members of one church, participated in two focus groups about how a faith-based sexuality program could be designed and implemented. The findings call attention to the need for research on the design of faith-based sexuality education programs for ethnic minority families headed by single mothers.

  2. Informal Human Milk Sharing: A Qualitative Exploration of the Attitudes and Experiences of Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Elizabeth J; Geraghty, Sheela R; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about women's participation or likely participation in informal human milk (HM) sharing. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants shared HM acquired directly from individuals or through the Internet. This study explored the experiences of and attitudes toward HM sharing among mothers with experience of HM feeding and breast pump use, regardless of whether or not they had participated in HM sharing. We conducted qualitative, semistructured, in-depth interviews with 41 mothers from 4 counties in upstate New York, asking about their attitudes toward HM sharing. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed inductively. Most women were aware of informal HM sharing and some had personal experience with sharing. Many mothers reported a willingness to provide their own HM if they had extra and their own child had enough. Mothers were less trusting about receiving HM, voicing concerns about the dietary intake or disease status of potential providers. Mothers felt that whether or not they participated in HM sharing would depend on the situation; they were most amenable to sharing with a family member or close friend. A novel finding was the involvement of lactation consultants and midwives, who coordinated HM exchanges for mothers in this sample. Awareness of HM sharing was high in this sample. Depending on the situation, mothers may consider participating in informal HM sharing and they may be facilitated by health professionals. Future research is required to establish the benefits and risks associated with informal HM sharing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Beating the Odds: How Single Black Mothers Influence the Educational Success of Their Sons Enrolled in Failing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Quintin L.; Werblow, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The academy has given little attention to academically successful Black males and the factors that may lead to their successes. This multiple case study design, however, examined the ways in which single-Black mothers influence the educational success of their sons by focusing on the mothers of academically successful 11th grade Black males. Data…

  4. Experience of dealing with moral responsibility as a mother with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmberger, Eva; Bolund, Christina; Lützén, Kim

    2005-05-01

    This study explored how women with a diagnosis of cancer (lymphoma) deal with moral concerns related to their responsibility as parents. Ten women with cancer and who had children living at home were interviewed. The interviews were analysed according to the constant comparative method used in grounded theory. In order to provide a focus for the analysis, the ethics of care and the concept of mothering were used as sensitizing concepts. The core concept 'experience of dealing with moral responsibility of being a parent with cancer by redefining oneself as a mother was identified. The processes involved were: interrupted mothering; facing the life-threatening illness and children's reactions; striving to be a good mother; attempting to deal with moral responsibility; and coming to terms with being a mother.

  5. Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-04-02

    To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants mothers. Thematic analysis was conducted to assess patterns and generate emergent themes. Four major themes were identified-'mothers' employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

  6. The effect of social support around pregnancy on postpartum depression among Canadian teen mothers and adult mothers in the maternity experiences survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Theresa H M; Connolly, Jennifer A; Tamim, Hala

    2014-05-07

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder that affects 10-20 percent of women, and can begin any time during first year after delivery lasting for months. Social support may decrease risk of depression during pregnancy for women. However, literature shows that the amount of social support received during and after pregnancy is different for teen mothers and adult mothers. This study examined the effects of social support received during and after pregnancy on PPD among Canadian women and identified if the relationship was different for teen mothers compared to adult mothers. The study was based on secondary analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey. A total of 6,421 women with singleton live births, aged 15 years and older were analyzed. Teen mothers were identified as 15-19 years old and adult mothers were identified as 20 years and older. The main outcome of the study was PPD, which was evaluated using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The main independent variable was social support received during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was computed to assess the relationship between social support and PPD after adjusting for confounding variables and age as an interaction term. Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were reported. PPD was experienced by 14.0% among teen mothers and 7.2% among adult mothers (p teen mothers reported receiving more support during pregnancy and after birth than adult mothers (p teen compared to adult mothers. Both teen and adult mothers were approximately five times more likely to experience PPD if they received no support or minimal support after the birth of the baby (95% CI, 3.51-7.36). Receiving social support especially after birth is important for mothers of all ages to reduce the risk of PPD.

  7. Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D. D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.

  8. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaboipolelwe M. Masilo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch’s method of open coding was used to analyse data. Results: Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Conclusion: Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  9. Differences in the emotional and practical experiences of exclusively breastfeeding and combination feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komninou, Sophia; Fallon, Victoria; Halford, Jason Christian Grovenor; Harrold, Joanne Alison

    2017-07-01

    The majority of research examining the barriers to breastfeeding focuses on the physical challenges faced by mothers rather than the risks of encountering negative emotional and practical feeding experiences. We aimed to quantify the emotional and practical experiences of the overall sample of breastfeeding mothers and identify the differences in the emotional and practical experiences of exclusively breastfeeding mothers and combination feeding mothers, by feeding type and intention. Eight hundred forty-five mothers with infants up to 26 weeks of age and who had initiated breastfeeding were recruited through relevant social media via advertisements providing a link to an online survey. Predictors of emotional experiences included guilt, stigma, satisfaction with feeding method, and the need to defend themselves due to infant feeding choices. Practical predictors included perceived support from health professionals, main sources of infant feeding information, and respect from their everyday environment, workplace, and when breastfeeding in public. Current feeding type and prenatal feeding intention. In the overall sample, 15% of the mothers reported feeling guilty, 38% stigmatized, and 55% felt the need to defend their feeding choice. Binary logit models revealed that guilt and dissatisfaction were directly associated with feeding type, being higher when supplementing with formula. No associations with feeding intention were identified. This study demonstrates a link between current breastfeeding promotion strategies and the emotional state of breastfeeding mothers who supplement with formula to any extent. To minimize the negative impact on maternal well-being, it is important that future recommendations recognize the challenges that exclusive breastfeeding brings and provide a more balanced and realistic target for mothers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  11. Single Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy: Our First Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Barbaros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to reduce incisional morbidity and improve cosmetic outcomes by using less and smaller trocars. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy is a new laparoscopic procedure. Herein we would like to present our experiences.Material and Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2009, data of the 7 patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic splenectomy were evaluated retrospectively.Results: There were 7 patients (5 females and 2 males with a mean age of 29.9 years. The most common splenectomy indication was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy was performed successfully in 6 patients. In one patient the operation was converted to an open procedure.Conclusion: With surgeons experienced in minimally invasive surgery, single incision laparoscopic splenectomy could be performed successfully. However, in order to demonstrate the differneces between standard laparoscopic splenectomy and SILS splenetomy, prospective randomized comparative studies are required.

  12. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  13. The experience of women with abortion during adolescence as demanded by their mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca Domingos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the experience of women who induced an abortion during adolescence as demanded by their mothers. METHOD: qualitative study with a social phenomenology approach conducted in 2010 with three women through interviews with open questions. RESULTS: the participants tried to hide their pregnancies from their mothers and when the mothers found out about the pregnancies they decide to interrupt it, demanding that their daughters have an abortion, which was performed in an unsafe manner, regardless of the adolescents' desire. After the abortion, the adolescents experienced suffering, guilt, and regret for not having fought against their mothers' decisions. These women expect to be autonomous to make their own decisions, take care of their own health and become pregnant again. CONCLUSION: the study evidenced the decision for an abortion was centered on the adolescents' mothers, a result that deserves to be further explored in future research deepening the relationship established between daughter and mother in the situation of an induced abortion. We suggest the creation of opportunities for the triad of health professional/adolescent/family to dialogue, especially the mother, who in the context of family relations, can help the daughter to safely deal with an early pregnancy and prevent it instead of influencing the adolescent to induce an abortion.

  14. Social participation experiences of mothers of children with cerebral palsy in an Iranian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Leila; Dalvandi, Asghar; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Ali; Dalvand, Hamid; Baptiste, Sue

    2015-12-01

    Social participation is increasingly of interest in research that investigates the impact of caring for a child with a disability. Little has been investigated about the social participation experiences of mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study explored social participation among Iranian mothers of children with CP. The conventional qualitative content analysis method was utilised. Data were collected via in-depth semi-structured interviews with 14 mothers (aged 26-45 years) of children with CP with the gross motor function classification system expanded & revised levels III-V. Constant comparative analysis was deployed for data analysis. The results were identified and classified into three main themes: (i) polarisation of positive and negative feelings; (ii) challenges to mothers' social activity; and (iii) striving to engage in society. In the Iranian context, mothers of children with CP are facing many challenges to social participation and seem to have been neglected by the health-care system. One of the priorities of Iranian health policy makers may be developing, establishing and implementing social support to enable the mothers to participate in social activities. Furthermore, occupational therapists can contribute and guide mothers' social participation by creating programs to develop and utilise skills for them. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. The Experience of Decision Making in the Care of Children with Palliative Care Needs: The Experiences of Jordanian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atout, Maha; Hemingway, Pippa; Seymour, Jane

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of decision making in the care of children with palliative care needs in Jordan, from the perspective of their mothers. This study employed a collective qualitative case study approach. Data were collected in 3 pediatric wards in a Jordanian hospital. The study used 2 data collection methods: participant observation (197 observational hours) and 56 semi-structured interviews with 24 mothers, 12 physicians and 20 nurses. The findings show how Jordanian mothers seek to transfer the role of decision making to physicians, as they perceive themselves to be unable to make decisions about critical issues related to the treatment of their children. Mothers had a widespread apprehension of "future guilt," especially when they feared that any decisions they might make could have an adverse impact on their children. Contrary to the predominant pattern, some mothers took a proactive approach towards decision making about their children's treatment. These mothers requested detailed information from primary physicians and sought different sources of knowledge such as second opinions, reading online resources, or talking to other parents who had a child with similar circumstances. The study concludes that mothers prefer to involve physicians in decisions about their children's healthcare and treatment to eliminate their fear of probable future guilt; this modifies any tendency to autonomously decide for their children. These findings are underpinned by the Jordanian culture in which doctors' opinions are highly regarded.

  16. Mother's Schooling, Fertility, and Children's Education: Evidence from a Natural Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 16856

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavy, Victor; Zablotsky, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of mothers' education on their fertility and their children's schooling. We base our evidence on a natural experiment that sharply reduced the cost of attending school and, as a consequence, significantly increased the education of affected cohorts. This natural experiment was the result of the de facto revocation in…

  17. Single Molecule Biophysics Experiments and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yang, Haw; Silbey, Robert J; Rice, Stuart A; Dinner, Aaron R

    2011-01-01

    Discover the experimental and theoretical developments in optical single-molecule spectroscopy that are changing the ways we think about molecules and atoms The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. This latest volume explores the advent of optical single-molecule spectroscopy, and how atomic force microscopy has empowered novel experiments on individual biomolecules, opening up new frontiers in molecular and cell biology and leading to new theoretical approaches

  18. Caesarean section deliveries: Experiences of mothers of midwifery care at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobeka P. Jikijela

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Experiences of mothers following a caesarean section delivery with midwifery services at a public hospital in Nelson Mandela Bay were explored and described as diverse. A need for adequate pain management as well as assistance and breastfeeding support to mothers following caesarean delivery was identified as crucial to promote a good mother-to-child relationship.

  19. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Ntswane

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155 of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  20. Mothers' experiences of parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kathleen; Jackson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study to explore the perceptions and experiences of mothers parenting a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Previous quantitative studies have focussed on parenting styles and treatments, and highlight that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has a negative impact on family functioning. However, fewer researchers have explored maternal experiences of parenting a child with this disorder. A narrative-based feminist approach can provide greater insights into complex issues related to mothering a child with this disorder. Data were collected in 2007 with a volunteer sample of 11 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder via in-depth interviews. Analysis was completed by listening for self-evaluative statements, paying attention to meta-statements and by identifying both consistencies and incongruities within participant's narratives. Dominant issues identified were: It's been 10 years of being on edge: The caring responsibility as overwhelming; If I had my time over again, I wouldn't tell the truth: Stigmatized, scrutinized and criticized; What have I done? What did I do? How come I've got this child: Guilt and self-blame and He doesn't stand a chance: Mother as advocate. Mothering a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is stressful and demanding, and mothers felt marginalized. Media portrayal of this disorder contributes to confusion related to causes, diagnosis and treatment choices. More education for healthcare professionals is needed to enable them to give appropriate guidance and support to enhance outcomes for children and their parents.

  1. The life-world of mothers who care for mentally retarded children: the Katutura township experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntswane, A M; van Rhyn, L

    2007-03-01

    This article reports on a research study done in Katutura Township, near Windhoek. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was followed to answer the research question investigating experiences of mothers caring for mentally retarded children at home. Phenomenological interviews were conducted with a purposefully selected sample of twelve mothers. The meaning of their experiences was analysed by using Teschxs method (1990 in Creswell, 1994:155) of analysing qualitative data. The results indicated various emotions and challenges experienced by these mothers during the care of their children. Feelings of shock, despondency and sadness dominated the early stages when the retarded children were still young. During later years, as the children were growing up, the mothers felt shame, fear, frustration, anger, disappointment and worry. However, acceptance followed, as the children grew older. Stigma seemed to affect all the respondents. Support in any form or lack thereof seemed to be the decisive factor-positioning mothers along a continuum of two extremes, namely despairing isolation and integrated happiness. Recommendations were made regarding the improvement of heath care services and education of the mothers and their families.

  2. Malaysian Moslem mothers' experience of depression and service use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    Standard psychiatric criteria for depression developed in the United States and United Kingdom are increasingly used worldwide to establish the prevalence of clinical disorders and to help develop services. However, these approaches are rarely sensitive to local and cultural expressions of symptoms or beliefs about treatment. Mismatch between diagnostic criteria and local understanding may result in underreporting of depression and underutilization of services. Little such research has been conducted in Malaysia, despite the acknowledged high rate of depression and low access to services. This study examines depression in Moslem Malay women living in Johor Bahru, Southern Peninsular Malaysia, to explore depression symptoms using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The 61 women interviewed were selected on the basis of high General Health Questionnaire scores from a large questionnaire survey of 1,002 mothers. The illustrative analysis looks at descriptions of depressed mood, self-depreciation and suicidal ideation, as well as attitudes toward service use. The women gave full and open descriptions of their emotional symptoms, easily recognizable by standard symptom categories, although somatic symptoms were commonly included, and the spiritual context to understanding depression was also prevalent. However, few women had knowledge about treatment or sought medical services, although some sought help from local spiritual healers. Attending to such views of depression can help develop services in Malaysia.

  3. Spiritual Journey in Mothers' Lived Experiences of Caring for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary, Abbas; Hosseini Shahidi, Laleh; Mohammadpuor, Ali

    2015-03-30

    Helping mothers who have children with autism spectrum disorders requires understanding of their lived experiences. This study aims to uncover the spiritual journey as a main theme in Iranian mothers' experiences. This hermeneutic phenomenological study is a part of a larger study undertaken for partial fulfillment of the requirement for PhD dissertation in nursing. The main study was performed on 18 cases of Iranian mothers, with experience of caring for a child with an autism spectrum during 2011-2012. They were selected based on purposeful sampling method. Semi -structured interviews for data collection were used. Data analyses were done with the interpretative method. Spiritual journey is one of the main themes of the phenomenon under study in the original project. It consists of three sub -themes each of which supported by a number of common meaning. The sub-themes and their common meanings in parenthesis are (1) Descent: wondering between what is and what will be (having sorrowful tale, unanswered question, escaping from reality, losing hope) (2) Connecting to deity: reflection on the failure in her struggle (gratefulness, surrendering to god, having the divine test) (3) Ascent: helping her child is becoming all of the mother's life (to rescue, being hopeful, listening to her inner voice) This research concluded that caring for the autistic children led mothers' lives to raise spirituality and enabled them to help their children and themselves, to grow and be refined in this process.

  4. THERAPISTS' EXPERIENCES OF MOTHER-INFANT PSYCHOANALYTIC TREATMENT: A QUALITATIVE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg Salomonsson, Majlis; Barimani, Mia

    2018-01-01

    As part of a larger research project in Sweden, a qualitative study investigated psychotherapists' experiences of mother-infant psychoanalysis (MIP). A randomized controlled trial compared two groups of mother-infant dyads with psychological problems. One had received Child Health Center care, and the other received MIP. Previous articles on long-term effects have found that mothers who had received MIP were less depressed throughout a posttreatment period of 3½ years, and their children showed better global functioning and psychological well-being. The present study's objectives were to describe the therapist's experiences of MIP and deepen the understanding of the MIP process. Six months after treatment began, all therapists were interviewed. Transcribed interviews with therapists from 10 (of 33 total) MIP treatments were randomly selected and analyzed in detail by thematic analysis. Therapists worked successfully with mother and infant together and found different ways of cooperation during MIP sessions. Therapists reported overall positive experiences; however, in cases where mothers needed more personal attention, it would be important to adapt the method to them. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  5. From alienation to familiarity: experiences of mothers and fathers of preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karin; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Schollin, Jens

    2003-07-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has a long-term impact on both parents. Mothers report more stress and poor adjustment compared with fathers. Influencing factors, such as family situation and health status of the child, can support or weaken the coping ability of the parents. Studies on experiences of fathers are sparse. The aim of this research was to study how mothers and fathers of preterm infants describe their experiences of parenthood during the infant's first 18 months of life. Seven consecutively selected sets of parents of preterm infants born at alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. Within the syntheses, similarities in how mothers and fathers described their parental roles involved concern for the child, insecurity, adjustment and relationship with the child. Regarding differences, mothers experienced having more responsibility and control of the care and a need to be confirmed as a mother, while fathers described confidence in leaving the care to the staff and wanted to find a balance between work and family life. Important turning points in parenthood experiences often occurred when the infant could be removed from the incubator, discharged from the ward, and when the infant looked normal compared to full-term infants. The structure of the phenomenon of parenthood was formed by the integration of the syntheses of alienation, responsibility, confidence and familiarity. The structure seems to be based on the parents' expectations of the parental role, the infant's health condition and the health care environment. These interacting factors are influenced by cultural beliefs.

  6. Constructions and experiences of motherhood in the context of an early intervention for Aboriginal mothers and their children: mother and healthcare worker perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane M. Ussher

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The colonisation of Australia has been associated with traumatic consequences for Aboriginal health and wellbeing, including the breakdown of the traditional family unit and negative consequences for the mother/child relationship. Early-intervention programs have been developed to assist families to overcome disadvantage and strengthen mother/child attachment. However, there is no research examining Aboriginal women’s subjective experiences and constructions of motherhood in the context of such programs, and no research on the perceived impact of such programs, from the perspective of Aboriginal mothers and healthcare workers (HCWs, with previous research focusing on child outcomes. Method Researchers conducted participant observation of an early intervention program for Aboriginal mothers and young children over a 6 month period, one-to-one interviews and a focus group with 10 mothers, and interviews with nine HCWs, in order to examine their perspectives on motherhood and the intervention program. Results Thematic analysis identified 2 major themes under which subthemes were clustered. Constructions of motherhood: ‘The resilient mother: Coping with life trauma and social stress’ and ‘The good mother: Transformation of self through motherhood’; Perspectives on the intervention: ‘“Mothers come to life”: Transformation through therapy’; and ‘“I know I’m a good mum”: The need for connections, skills and time for self’. Conclusions The mothers constructed themselves as being resilient ‘good mothers’, whilst also acknowledging their own traumatic life experiences, predominantly valuing the peer support and time-out aspects of the program. HCWs positioned the mothers as ‘traumatised’, yet also strong, and expressed the view that in order to improve mother/child attachment a therapeutic transformation is required. These results suggest that early interventions for Aboriginal mothers should

  7. The best encouraging persons in labor: A content analysis of Iranian mothers' experiences of labor support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff’s lack of awareness of mothers’ fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women’s perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. Materials and methods This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Results Three categories, including “involvement of the spouse in the labor process”, “asking for a companion during labor”, and “mother’s self-care to cope with labor pain”, emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of “trying to comply with the labor process”. Conclusion Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. Implications for practice It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor. PMID:28683112

  8. Group of mothers of hospitalized premature newborns: experience of Occupational Therapy intervention in hospital context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Vitale Torkomian Joaquim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The hospitalization of newborns implies fragility for the infants and their families, because they are exposed to the stress and tensions of this delicate moment. The support offered to the family, especially to mothers of hospitalized infants, may reflect in the future care provided to these children, strengthening the bond and creating a favorable environment for their healthy evelopment. The objective of this study is to report the experience of occupational therapy in a group of mothers of hospitalized neonates. The aim of this activity was to provide information and guidance on the care and interaction of these mothers with their hospitalized babies. This practice was developed through an Extension Project in Occupational Therapy carried out in a hospital of a countryside city of the state of São Paulo. The Group of Mothers was joined weekly, and dynamics of artisanal, plastic and artistic activities were offered based on the demands observed or reported verbally by the mothers in meetings at the baby nursery before the group was joined. As a result of these group meetings, improvement of the emotional condition of the mothers was observed in the day they participated in the group. We believe that this project can not only facilitate the access to information and guidance to this population, but also minimize the stress experienced by families in the hospital context, which is strange and adverse to a natural birth condition.

  9. The lived experience of mothers of multiple children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Miyako; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we explored the lived experience of Japanese mothers who have delivered multiple children with intellectual disabilities (ID), using interpretative phenomenological analysis. We identified three superordinate themes and seven subordinate themes from the narrative data collected from 10 participants. The superordinate themes were: abandoned hope for having an ordinary family, accumulating physical and mental fatigue, and searching for positive experiences in parenting multiple children with disabilities. How they perceived the birth of children with disabilities for the second time differed depending on the disability types; specifically, whether they detected the disabilities early or not. Encountering the disability in another child overwhelmed mothers, especially when the disabilities were diagnosed after several years with or without suspicion; they struggled to accept the fact. Despite mothers facing extreme difficulties in parenting multiple children with disabilities, they tried to alter the negative perceptions and find an optimistic way of living.

  10. Mothers and Fathers Experience Stress of Congenital Heart Disease Differently: Recommendations for Pediatric Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Erica; Karpyn, Allison; Demianczyk, Abigail C; Ryan, Jennie; Delaplane, Emily A; Neely, Trent; Frazier, Aisha H; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-03-10

    To inform pediatric critical care practice by examining how mothers and fathers experience the stress of caring for a young child with congenital heart disease and use hospital and community supports. Qualitative study of mothers and fathers of young children with congenital heart disease. Tertiary care pediatric hospital in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Thirty-four parents (20 mothers, 14 fathers) from diverse backgrounds whose child previously underwent cardiac surgery during infancy. Subjects participated in semi-structured, individual interviews about their experiences and psychosocial needs at the time of congenital heart disease diagnosis, surgical admission, and discharge to home after surgery. Qualitative interview data were coded, and consistent themes related to emotional states, stressors, and supports were identified. Fathers experience and respond to the stressors and demands of congenital heart disease in unique ways. Fathers often described stress from not being able to protect their child from congenital heart disease and the associated surgeries/pain and from difficulties balancing employment with support for their partner and care of their congenital heart disease child in the hospital. Fathers were more likely than mothers to discuss support from the work environment (coworkers/managers, flexible scheduling, helpful distraction) and were less likely to describe the use of hospital-based resources or congenital heart disease peer-to-peer supports. This study highlights the importance of understanding the paternal experience and tailoring interventions to the unique needs of both mothers and fathers. Opportunities for critical care practice change to promote the mental health of mothers and fathers following a diagnosis of congenital heart disease are discussed.

  11. "But Is It a Normal Thing?" Teenage Mothers' Experiences of Breastfeeding Promotion and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, L.; Rhodes, C.; Warren, S.; Withall, J.; Tapp, A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To explore teenagers experiences of the breastfeeding promotion and support delivered by health professionals. Design: A qualitative study conducted in an English city. Methods: Pregnant teenagers and teenage mothers (n = 29) took part in semi-structured interviews and focus groups between March and July 2009. Results: Breastfeeding is…

  12. A Within-Industry Comparison of Employed Mothers' Experiences in Small and Large Workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, Shelley M.; Williams, Margaret L.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on links among mothers' (N=71) perceptions of their parenting practices, their parenting values, their children's behavior, and the work conditions they experience in small and large workplaces. Results found significant relationships between work conditions and parenting, and significant differences between small and large workplaces.…

  13. Knowledge, beliefs and experiences of a cross section of mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... experiences of a cross-section of mothers in Port Harcourt about teething. Methods: The study was conducted using a structured, anonymous open and close-ended questionnaire distributed among randomly selected female staff of University of Port Harcourt as instrument for data collection. The data was analyzed using ...

  14. Toddler Feeding: Expectations and Experiences of Low-Income African American Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A.; Brophy-Herb, Holly; Henry, Michelle; Smith, Katharine A.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain maternal expectations and experiences with mealtimes and feeding of toddlers among low-income African American mothers in two mid- to large-size cities in the United States. Design: Qualitative focus group study. Setting: Two Early Head Start programme sites in a Midwestern state which serve low income families. Method:…

  15. The effect of mothers past dental experience on the behaviour of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the mother's past dental experience on the behaviour of some Nigerian children during dental treatment. Two hundred and sixty children aged 3 – 15 years participated in this study. They were treated at the three government dental establishments in Ibadan, a city in ...

  16. Grief, Anger, Social Action: Experiences of the Windsor Chapter, Mothers against Drunk Driving (MADD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, B. J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The experiences of the Windsor, Ontario, Canada, chapter of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), in its development and progress through the grief-anger-social action continuum, are described. This article also portrays a model for problem resolution which emphasizes incorporating the respective strengths and efficiencies of self-help groups and…

  17. A qualitative study: Mothers of late preterm infants relate their experiences of community-based care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahirose S Premji

    Full Text Available In Alberta, the high occurrence of late preterm infants and early hospital discharge of mother-infant dyads has implications for postpartum care in the community. Shortened hospital stay and complexities surrounding the care of biologically and developmentally immature late preterm infants heighten anxiety and fears. Our descriptive phenomenological study explores mothers' experience of caring for their late preterm infants in the community.Eleven mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Interview transcripts were analysed using an interpretive thematic approach.The mothers' hospital experience informed their perspective that being a late preterm infant was not a "big deal," and they tended to treat their infant as normal. "Feeding was really problem," especially the variability in feeding effectiveness, which was not anticipated. Failing to recognize late preterm infants' feeding distress exemplified lack of knowledge of feeding cues and tendencies to either rationalize or minimize feeding concerns. Public health nurses represent a source of informational support for managing neonatal morbidities associated with being late preterm; however, maternal experiences with public health nurses varied. Some nurses used a directive style that overwhelmed certain mothers. Seeing multiple public health nurses and care providers was not always effective, given inconsistent and contradictory guidance to care. These new and changing situations increased maternal anxiety and stress and influenced maternal confidence in care. Fathers, family, and friends were important sources of emotional support.After discharge, mothers report their lack of preparation to meet the special needs of their late preterm infants. Current approaches to community-based care can threaten maternal confidence in care. New models and pathways of care for late preterm infants and their families need to be responsive to the spectrum of feeding issues encountered

  18. What is a family? Kinship, reproductive practices and single mothers by choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    The proliferation of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) has influenced and facilitated the rise of ‘new’ kinship practices and family formations. Furthermore, these technologies – in obscuring the relation between ‘biological facts of conception...... of single mothers by choice, the paper explores how the women conceive and enact the notions of family and kinship in terms of creating significant relations and networks. Furthermore, the paper shows and discusses how a complex interplay of biogenetic and social ties impacts on these family conceptions......, showing that the application of ARTs is also fashioned by more traditional notions of kinship (Levine 2008; Thompson 2005) and that the nuclear family ideal remains a strong notion within the realms of reproduction and parenting (Cutas & Chan 2012:5). By contributing to this continuing question of how...

  19. What is a family? Kinship, reproductive practices and single mothers by choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Tine

    The proliferation of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) has influenced and facilitated the rise of ‘new’ kinship practices and family formations. Furthermore, these technologies – in obscuring the relation between ‘biological facts of conception...... of single mothers by choice, the paper explores how the women conceive and enact the notions of family and kinship in terms of creating significant relations and networks. Furthermore, the paper shows and discusses how a complex interplay of biogenetic and social ties impacts on these family conceptions...... and the social categories of kinship’ – have challenged existing normative ideas about family constructions and kinship conceptualizations (Edwards & Salazar 2009:11; Levine 2008; Melhuus 2012). Meanwhile, others have questioned the degree to which our understandings of biogenetic relations have been revised...

  20. Mothers' experiences of their child's recovery in hospital and at home: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbyshire, Philip

    2003-12-01

    Decreasing hospital stays, increasing day surgery and the assumption that parents will manage their child at home necessitate research into children's recovery. Given the scarcity of studies seeking parents' perspectives, this exploratory and interpretive study is timely, presenting a detailed account of mothers' experiences of managing their child's recovery in hospital and at home. The study supports the view that recovery begins not with discharge, but with admission and before, as hospital experiences directly shape the recovery process. Mothers' experiences of hospital's recovery enablers and inhibitors suggest that good recovery practices and policies remain erratic. Following discharge, parents help the child 'back to normal' by 'reading the recovering child' and balancing the child's desire for activity with the need for caution and safety. Developing a deeper understanding of parents' recovery experiences and perceptions would help nurses to form an empathic 'grounding' upon which to base improvements in children's recovery care.

  1. Living in the shadow of shame and stigma: Lived experience of mothers with deaf children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ebrahimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital deafness is one of the most common childhood disorders and every year many children are born with permanent hearing loss. The present study was carried out to understand the experience of mothers with deaf children. This study was conducted with a qualitative approach. The participants were 35 mothers of children with congenital deafness who were selected by purposive sampling. The data was collected through semi structured indepth interviews and analyzed using thematic analysis introduced by Braun and Clarke. Data analysis revealed 3 themes and 9 sub-themes including social stigma (prying eyes, pity aversion, feeling of discrimination, taunt from people, internalized stigma (feeling of inferiority, feeling of shame and embarrassment, and reaction to stigma(turning to concealment, cautious disclosure, and marginalization. Shame and stigma were the major experiences of Iranian mothers of deaf children that shadowed their lives. These experiences lead mainly to ineffective coping mechanisms such as avoidance of using hearing aids and concealment of the child’s hearing loss. In addition, to cope with perceived stigma, mothers isolate and marginalize themselves and pursue secrecy strategies. Therefore, our findings are important for health professionals who are working with families having children with hearing loss. They need to aware of the problems faced by the families and should advocate necessary support.

  2. Mothers' Grief Experiences of Losing Their Only Child in the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Fang; Chen, Lin; Sha, Wei; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M; Lou, Vivian W Q

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore bereaved mothers' 2-year experiences of losing their only child in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. Taking an interpretative phenomenological approach, this study interviewed six bereaved mothers four times (6 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months) in Dujiangyan area in Sichuan Province. The findings suggest that these mothers' personal grief experiences evolved: initially, anger toward the cause of their children's deaths, following despair of meaningless life, guilt and regret, and finally yearning. Although their yearning and missing ebbed after 2 years, these mothers still had unresolved grief. These mothers also faced strained marital relationships and additional pressure from social interactions. This study illuminates that these mothers' personal grief experiences and their coping strategies corresponded to Chinese family and sociocultural context.

  3. Mothers of primary school children with Down's syndrome. How do they experience their situation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryde-Brandt, B

    1988-07-01

    The occurrence of anxiety or depression, experience of social support and feelings about the family situation were evaluated in 13 mothers of children of primary school age with Down's syndrome (DS). The results were compared with those obtained in a group of 13 females engaged in taking care of these children and assisting their families. Questionnaires were used to assess feelings of depression or anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), to evaluate social support (Interview Schedule for Social Interaction) and the family situation (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale). A semi-structured interview with the mothers was also conducted. The results indicated that negative feelings at the birth of a child with DS had almost invariably changed in a positive direction. Experience of depression or anxiety was uncommon. Social and emotional contacts were quantitatively normal, although more empathy was often desired. The families were relatively often described as enmeshed and controlled, but the experience of the family situation was generally positive.

  4. Increased health risks of children with single mothers: the impact of socio-economic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharte, Marion; Bolte, Gabriele

    2013-06-01

    Adverse effects of single parenthood on children's health have been reported before. Socio-economic difficulties are discussed as mediating factors. As child health also depends on environmental conditions, we investigated the impact of environmental exposures and socio-economic factors on differences in health outcomes of children with single mothers vs. couple families. Data on 17,218 pre-school children (47% female) from three cross-sectional surveys conducted during 2004-07 in Germany were analysed. Health and exposure assessment were primarily based on parental report. Effects of socio-economic indicators (maternal education, household income) and environmental factors (traffic load at the place of residence, perceived environmental quality) on associations of four health outcomes (parent-reported health status, asthma, overweight, psychological problems) with single parenthood were determined by logistic regression analyses. Children with single mothers showed an increased risk regarding parent-reported poor health status [boys: odds ratio (OR) 1.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.82), girls: 1.73 (1.28-2.33)], psychological problems [boys: 1.90 (1.38-2.61), girls: 1.58 (1.03-2.42)], overweight [only boys: OR 1.23 (1.01-1.50) and asthma [only girls: OR 1.90 (1.15-3.15)]. Adjusting for socio-economic factors attenuated the strength of the association of family type with child health. Although environmental factors were associated with most health outcomes investigated and children of single mothers were more often exposed, these environmental factors did not alter the differences between children with single mothers and couple families. The increased health risks of children from single-mother families vs. couple families are partly explained by socio-economic factors, but not by the environmental exposures studied.

  5. The experience of mothers caring for their teenage daughters' young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Modungwa

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was firstly to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who are looking after their teenage daughters’ young children. Secondly, to formulate guidelines (based on the results obtained for psychiatric nurses in assisting these mothers to mobilise resources in order to promote, maintain and restore their mental health as an integral part of health. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was used and Guba’s model for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research was applied. The phenomenological approach was used to collect and analyse data from a sample of seven respondents who were purposively selected. Three independent themes emerged from the analysis of results: Meaning of the parenting role, life-style changes and support systems. The results further show that for these mothers the problem of teenage pregnancy and parenthood ends up being their problem. Their experiences in looking after these babies, although sometimes fulfilling and meaningful, are most of the time stressful. This has implications on their mental health. Guidelines are recommended in order to facilitate these mothers to mobilise their resources for mental health.

  6. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-02-05

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  8. Single mothers and their sense of purpose and meaning in life [Poczucie sensu życia matek samotnie wychowujących dzieci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilianna KLIMEK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a research on single mothers and their sense of purpose and meaning in life. Questions about the meaning of one’s own existence recur, with varying intensity, in the consciousness of every human being. Moreover, people always fulfil their own, personal meaning, related to their specific situation. The questions ‘who am I?’, ‘why do I live?’, ‘what is the meaning of my life?’ seem particularly relevant when a person is in a difficult situation. Single parenthood can be perceived as such a situation. The literature of the subject suggests multiple negative consequences of the fact of raising a child by a single parent; these consequences are faced not only by children, but also by adults. It is not possible to state unequivocally that the lack of favourable conditions will deprive a person of their sense of life purpose and meaning entirely. Similarly, even when objectively favourable conditions exist, they are not a guarantee that a person will perceive her or his life as meaningful. In a woman’s life, a difficult situation such as being a single mother, combined with homelessness and a necessity to move to a residential home for single mothers, can become the stimulus to search for and experience the meaning of life or, on the contrary, it can be a source of an existential insecurity. The purpose of this research was to learn how single mothers perceive the meaning of their lives and to assess their life purposes and aspirations. The theoretical context of these reflections is based on K. Popielski’s concept of the noetic dimension of personality and existence. The research was conducted among women living in residential homes for single mothers. Their sense of purpose and meaning in life was assessed with the use of J.C. Crumbaugh and L.T. Maholick’s Purpose in Life Scale (PIL. The collected material was evaluated using quantitative analysis.

  9. Age-Related Parenting Education: Model Development and Application to an Emerging Family Constellation - Single-by-Choice Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holle, Kimberly Ann

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe an adaptation of the Schaefer Circumplex Model to age-related parenting theory and techniques, and (2) to illustrate its application in relation to the emerging numbers of single-by-choice mothers. The method described superimposes both a child's and a parent's cognitive and psychosocial…

  10. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home Space for a Black Woman Academic/Single Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    William-­White, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT), and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM) in the United States. This piece…

  11. Low-Income Urban Mothers' Experiences with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Sarah; Ettinger, Anna K; Keefe, Carolyn; Riley, Anne; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    Food insecurity remains a public health concern in the United States, particularly among low-income urban ethnically diverse families, even with the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Limited phenomenologic data exist to capture how programmatic changes to SNAP address the needs of users and why a gap in SNAP use may exist. The primary aim of this study was to examine the experiences of low-income, Baltimore, MD, mothers in applying for and maintaining access to SNAP. Secondary aims included understanding participants' perspectives on the influence of changes in SNAP over a 3-year period and how SNAP fits into the overall system of social services for families. In this qualitative, phenomenologic study, in-depth interviews were conducted with 13 mothers and three focus groups with 20 mothers, for a total sample of 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits. Ten mothers participated in the first round of data collection (January to May 2010), and 23 in the second round (February to May 2013). Participants were 33 mothers receiving SNAP benefits in Baltimore City, MD. Baltimore SNAP users' experiences with applying for and maintaining access to SNAP, as well as with program changes to the SNAP program. Data were analyzed using an iterative emergent design and phenomenologic approach. A constructivist perspective was implemented throughout the coding process. SNAP functioned as a valuable support system within the broader social safety net for mothers living in poverty, yet participants expressed frustration about the processes of applying for and maintaining benefits due to communication problems and poor integration of services. In applying for and accessing SNAP, positive interactions with caseworkers and previous knowledge of the SNAP program were important for maintaining benefits. Interviews and focus group discussions revealed the need for additional outreach and education about the implemented program changes to build trust and improve access to SNAP

  12. Mothers of Children with Special Health Care Needs: Documenting the Experience of Their Children's Care in the School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lori S.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have increased in schools. This study was conducted to document mothers' experiences of the care their CSHCN receive across health care and educational settings. Data were collected during standardized, open-ended, one-on-one interviews with 10 mothers of CSHCN in urban, suburban, and…

  13. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  14. Health insurance tax credits, the earned income tax credit, and health insurance coverage of single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebi, Merve; Woodbury, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 enacted a refundable tax credit for low-income working families who purchased health insurance coverage for their children. This health insurance tax credit (HITC) existed during tax years 1991, 1992, and 1993, and was then rescinded. A difference-in-differences estimator applied to Current Population Survey data suggests that adoption of the HITC, along with accompanying increases in the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), was associated with a relative increase of about 4.7 percentage points in the private health insurance coverage of working single mothers with high school or less education. Also, a difference-in-difference-in-differences estimator, which attempts to net out the possible influence of the EITC increases but which requires strong assumptions, suggests that the HITC was responsible for about three-quarters (3.6 percentage points) of the total increase. The latter estimate implies a price elasticity of health insurance take-up of -0.42. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Seeking Emancipation from Gender Regulation: Reflections on Home space for a Black Woman Academic/ Single Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa William-­White

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the work of Judith Butler on gender regulation, Black Feminist Thought (BFT, and autobiographic storytelling, this piece illustrates how essentialist notions of gender, and discourses related to gender create conflict in shaping identity construction for a Black woman academic and single mother (BWA/SM in the United States. This piece reveals complex gendered and racialized tropes related to notions of motherhood and womanhood, particularly within the author’s own family. Included here is how the author attempts to transcend these complexities in her quest for self­definition and self­actualization, unbridled by gender norms. Yet, race, gender and parental status are significant intersecting categories in identity construction, andinherent in the constructions are hegemonic discourses with which the author continues to grapple. Consequently, the struggle to transcend these forces is further complicated by the limited representation of Black women in the US academy, and by the types of academic work where they find themselves typically situated.

  16. Psychometric properties of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale in African American single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Hall, Lynne A

    2009-02-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale is a commonly used measure of global self-esteem, an important element of mental health. The purpose of this cross sectional secondary analysis was to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of 98 African American single mothers. The RSE Scale showed adequate internal consistency with an alpha coefficient of .83. Two factors that accounted for a total of 54.7% of the variance were extracted. Self-esteem showed a strong negative relationship with both depressive symptoms and negative thinking. This study provides support for the internal consistency of the RSE Scale and partial support for its construct validity in this population. The RSE appears to represent a bidimensional construct of self-esteem for African American women, with the cultural influences of racial esteem and the rejection of negative stereotypes forming a separate and distinct aspect of this concept. The RSE Scale should be used and interpreted with caution in this population given these findings.

  17. Experience with single-layer rectal anastomosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Khubchandani, M; Upson, J

    1981-01-01

    Anastomotic dehiscence following resection of the large intestine is a serious complication. Satisfactory results of single-layer anastomosis depend upon meticulous technique and a scrupulously clean colon. Out of 65 single-layer anastomoses involving the rectum, significant leakage occurred in 4 patients. The results are reported in order to draw attention to the safety and efficacy of one-layer anastomosis.

  18. Experiences of Primiparous Mothers Regarding Natural Childbirth Problems (A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Women experience several problems during the childbirth process which always remain with them throughout their lives. These problems affect the health of the mother and the child, the emotional relationship between them, the sexual activity and the desire to have her next child in the future. This qualitative study is designed to explore the experiences of primiparous women about natural childbirth problems. This qualitative study is conducted on primiparous women who referred to the health center of Imam Javad in Zahedan. The sample selection is based on objective; the data are collected using semi-structured interviews with 18 primiparous mothers who had healthy natural childbirth. The data are collected through an interview that is done in the first visit within 72 hours after the childbirth, and the data are analyzed through content analysis. After analysis of the data, four themes associated with the problem of the first natural childbirth are extracted. The first is the fear and stress of the labor pain that most participants expressed as the major problem of natural childbirth. The second theme is lack of awareness and lack of information about the process of labor and the delivery room environment; this means that participants of this study are mostly unfamiliar with the process of labor and the delivery room environment and this leads to their fear and pain. The other two themes are the need for protection and support of the mothers by the midwives, their family and their friends. Based on the results of this study, the problems of human resources are stated as being more serious than the problems regarding the environment and modern equipment. This leads to the increase of attention of the midwives and other medical staff on psychological and spiritual needs of mothers and supporting them during the labor in addition to the physical health of the mother and the fetus. In this regard, childbirth classes are recommended in outlining the

  19. Poverty, Public Assistance and Single Mothers : A Comparative Look at Norway, Russia and the U.S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A. Brown

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some of the perceptions and experiences of mothers on public assistance and their social workers in three countries—Norway, Russia and the US. Based on in-depth interviews in each country with social workers and the women, five themes emerged that will be presented here. The mothers spoke of the inadequacy of economic support to meet their needs, a life of poverty that sometimes involved discrimination of them as mothers, and a loss of hope that their lives could be different. Two themes that stood out in the interviews with social workers was the lack of resources needed to help their clients and the dilemma faced as an agent of social welfare institutions balanced with being an advocate for the mothers’ needs.

  20. My child has cancer: the costs of mothers' experiences of having a child with pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Paula C

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this exploratory research was to examine the lived experiences of female caregivers of children with cancer during diagnosis, treatment and the period thereafter. The specific purpose of this article was to examine the various costs associated with caring for a child with pediatric cancer. Interviews were completed with nine mothers of children who had been treated for pediatric cancer. From this process, a number of salient issues were identified; however, this article focuses solely on the costs of caring for a child with cancer. The subthemes derived from these findings include: (1) financial and work issues; (2) health of family; (3) upheaval of family life; and (4) a lost life. These findings exposed the realities of mothers faced with pediatric cancer, and reveal costs incurred by mothers caring for their ailing children, yielding information that can be used as a source of support for those faced with similar situations. Additionally, health care professionals are provided with insight into the costs associated with childhood cancer. This information can be used to help families cope more effectively with cancer and its negative effects.

  1. Access to health care for children with neural tube defects: Experiences of mothers in Zambia

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    Micah M. Simpamba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Zambia, all children born with neural tube defects requiring surgery need to be referred to a tertiary level hospital in Lusaka, the capital city, where the specialists are based. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers accessing health care who had recently given birth to a child with a neural tube defect. Methods and analysis: In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 20 mothers at the tertiary level hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was used to identify codes, which were later collapsed into categories and themes. Findings: Five themes emerged: access to health care, access to transport, access to information, concerns about family and support needs. Discussion: Barriers to access to health care included geographical barriers and barriers linked to availability. Geographical barriers were related to distance between home and the health centre, and referral between health facilities. Barriers to availability included the lack of specialist health workers at various levels, and insufficient hospital vehicles to transport mothers and children to the tertiary level hospital. The main barrier to affordability was the cost of transport, which was alleviated by either family or government support. Acceptability of the health services was affected by a lack of information, incorrect advice, the attitude of health workers and the beliefs of the family. Conclusion: Access to health care by mothers of children with neural tube defects in Zambia is affected by geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. The supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers require different interventions to address them. This suggests that health policy is needed which ensures access to surgery and follow-up care.

  2. Access to health care for children with neural tube defects: Experiences of mothers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpamba, Micah M; Struthers, Patricia M; Mweshi, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    In Zambia, all children born with neural tube defects requiring surgery need to be referred to a tertiary level hospital in Lusaka, the capital city, where the specialists are based. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of mothers accessing health care who had recently given birth to a child with a neural tube defect. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 20 mothers at the tertiary level hospital. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and translated. Content analysis was used to identify codes, which were later collapsed into categories and themes. Five themes emerged: access to health care, access to transport, access to information, concerns about family and support needs. Barriers to access to health care included geographical barriers and barriers linked to availability. Geographical barriers were related to distance between home and the health centre, and referral between health facilities. Barriers to availability included the lack of specialist health workers at various levels, and insufficient hospital vehicles to transport mothers and children to the tertiary level hospital. The main barrier to affordability was the cost of transport, which was alleviated by either family or government support. Acceptability of the health services was affected by a lack of information, incorrect advice, the attitude of health workers and the beliefs of the family. Access to health care by mothers of children with neural tube defects in Zambia is affected by geographical accessibility, availability, affordability and acceptability. The supply-side barriers and demand-side barriers require different interventions to address them. This suggests that health policy is needed which ensures access to surgery and follow-up care.

  3. The lived experience of Taiwanese mothers of a child diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsorng-Yeh; Li, Chia-Chi; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2014-02-01

    This research was conducted to describe Taiwanese mothers' lived experience of caring for their child diagnosed with adrenoleukodystrophy. Analysis of eight interviews by Colaizzi's method revealed six themes: (1) difficulty confirming the diagnosis; (2) powerlessness toward unsatisfactory treatment; (3) struggles with decisions around carrier testing; (4) guilt about being a carrier; (5) support from family, other parents, and religion; and (6) lack of integrated resources and support. The results suggest the need to raise public and physician awareness about adrenoleukodystrophy via the media and medical education. A central organization to provide parents with comprehensive information is needed.

  4. Socioeconomic Status, Parenting, and Externalizing Problems in African American Single-Mother Homes: A Person-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    African American youth, particularly those from single-mother homes, are overrepresented in statistics on externalizing problems. The family is a central context in which to understand externalizing problems; however, reliance on variable-oriented approaches to the study of parenting, which originate from work with intact, middle-income, European American families, may obscure important information regarding variability in parenting styles among African American single mothers, and in turn, variability in youth outcomes as well. The current study demonstrated that within African American single-mother families: (a) a person-, rather than variable-, oriented approach to measuring parenting style may further elucidate variability; (b) socioeconomic status may provide 1 context within which to understanding variability in parenting style; and (c) 1 marker of socioeconomic status, income, and parenting style may each explain variability in youth externalizing problems; however, the interaction between income and parenting style was not significant. Findings have potential implications for better understanding the specific contexts in which externalizing problems may be most likely to occur within this at-risk and underserved group. PMID:26053349

  5. Occupational experiences and subjective well-being of mothers of children with ASD in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Lin; Lo, Jin-Ling

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between mothers' daily occupational experiences of productivity, restoration and pleasure with their subjective well-being (SWB) and with their child's developmental skills. Forty caregivers parenting young children with autism spectrum disorders served as a convenience sample in this study. Participants rated their occupational experience in a time diary for a 1-week period and rated their SWB on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Their child's occupational performance and development were evaluated using the Pediatric Daily Occupation Scale and Chinese Child Development Inventory. Spearman rank correlations were used to examine the relationship of SWB to these maternal and child factors. Mothers' pleasure levels were associated with two SWB measures: the positive affect and Satisfaction With Life Scale. Restoration levels related to positive affect only. Productivity levels and child factors were not significantly correlated with any of the SWB measures. A larger heterogeneous sample and a longitudinal study design to explore the fluctuation and stability of occupational experiences across time are recommended to examine caregivers' adaptation and/or alterations in SWB while adapting to their child's diagnosis and special needs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Mothers' experiences of their children's detoxification in the home: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2012-07-01

    Detoxification from alcohol and/or drugs and the achievement of abstinence without formal treatment is often preferred using community-based supports from local GPs and family. Family members are often involved in the sourcing of information on detoxification and treatment options, user advocacy and provision of remedial supports while detoxifying within the family home. The aim of the research was to describe and explore family experiences of self-detoxification processes from the perspectives of mothers in the Mid West of Ireland. A convenience sample of adult mothers who had experienced their child detoxifying in the home (n=9) were interviewed. The findings illustrated varied personal definitions of detoxification. Addiction stigma and costly experiences of treatment and after care pathways facilitated home detoxification attempts. A lack of GP advice, support and information around safe home detoxification was observed to contribute to information and support seeking from friends, family and community members with home detoxification experience. Self-medication of both licit and illicit substances while detoxifying, and relapse cycles were common. The research highlights the need for inclusive health and social supports provided by GPs, community nurses, RGNs and district nurses for families and individuals detoxifying in the home setting.

  7. Single incision laparoscopic colorectal resection: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A prospective case series of single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal resections for malignancy using conventional laparoscopic trocars and instruments is described. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (seven men and four women with colonic or rectal pathology underwent single incision multiport laparoscopic colectomy/rectal resection from July till December 2010. Four trocars were placed in a single transumblical incision. The bowel was mobilized laparoscopically and vessels controlled intracorporeally with either intra or extracorporeal anastomosis. Results: Three patients had carcinoma in the caecum, one in the hepatic flexure, two in the rectosigmoid, one in the descending colon, two in the rectum and two had ulcerative pancolitis (one with high grade dysplasia and another with carcinoma rectum. There was no conversion to standard multiport laparoscopy or open surgery. The median age was 52 years (range 24-78 years. The average operating time was 130 min (range 90-210 min. The average incision length was 3.2 cm (2.5-4.0 cm. There were no postoperative complications. The average length of stay was 4.5 days (range 3-8 days. Histopathology showed adequate proximal and distal resection margins with an average lymph node yield of 25 nodes (range 16-30 nodes. Conclusion: Single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy is feasible without extra cost or specialized ports/instrumentation. It does not compromise the oncological radicality of resection. Short-term results are encouraging. Long-term results are awaited.

  8. Middle Eastern mothers in Sweden, their experiences of the maternal health service and their partner's involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Karlsson Elisabeth

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional patterns relating to how to handle pregnancy and birth are often challenged due to migration. The purpose of this study was to describe Middle Eastern mothers' experiences of the maternal health care services in Sweden and the involvement of their male partner. Methods Thirteen immigrant mothers from the Middle East who had used the maternal health services in Sweden were interviewed using focus group discussions and individual interviews. These were taped, transcribed and analysed according to Content analysis. Results The four main categories that developed were: • Access to the professional midwife • Useful counselling • Stable motherhood in transition • Being a family living in a different culture Conclusion According to the respondents in this study, understanding the woman's native language or her culture was not vital to develop a good relationship with the midwife. Instead the immigrant woman developed trust in the midwife based on the knowledge and the empathy the midwife imparted. Increasing the amount of first trimester antenatal visits could avoid spontaneous visits to the emergency clinic. There was a greater need for involvement and support by the father during the perinatal period, such as caring for older children and carrying out household chores since the mothers' earlier female network was often lost. Clinical implications There is a need to involve immigrant parents in the available parental education in order to prepare them for parenthood in their new country as well as to explore their altered family situation. Collecting immigrant women and their partner's, experiences of maternal health care services offers a possibility to improve the existing care, both in content, access and availability where the timing of visits and content require further evaluation.

  9. Lived experiences of Jordanian mothers caring for a child with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, Mohammad S; Al-Rawajfah, Omar M

    2017-07-18

    Caring for a child with a disability in the family is associated with a major increase in care-giving demands and burden. This qualitative study explores the perspectives, challenges and adaptations of Jordanian mothers living with a child with disability. Phenomenological qualitative tradition was utilized. Seven Jordanian mothers of children with disability were purposefully selected as having rich experiences for caring for a child with a disability. In-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured guide, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was used to extract main themes and subthemes. Mothers' experiences were reflected into four main themes: (1) increased perceived stigma, (2) fear for the future, (3) increased perceived care-giving burden and (4) adaptations to the child's disability. This study highlights key gaps in the provision of family-centered services for this population as well as multiple sociocultural issues impacting participation and quality of life. Healthcare professionals must deal with the child's disability from a family-centered and cultural perspective. Implications for rehabilitation When therapists meet the whole family's needs through a family-centered approach, the child with disability is less likely to be ignored, maltreated or abused. Family-centered practice adopts a sociocultural model which looks at the child from a wider point of view rather than just the disability itself. It requires therapists to review the context in which the child lives and address the specific needs of parents, siblings and other involved family members. Culture plays a huge role in shaping the family's perspective on disability and has a huge impact and implications for service delivery and development, quality of life and participation for children with disability and their families. Rehabilitation professionals must accommodate their time schedules to provide families with the communication, education

  10. Gaining confidence and perspective: a phenomenological study of mothers' lived experiences caring for infants at home after neonatal unit discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Marlies R; Franck, Linda S

    2012-09-01

    This paper is a report of a descriptive study of mothers' experiences in caring for preterm or term infants following discharge from a neonatal unit, including how they manage infant pain/discomfort. Few studies have focused on the transition that parents experience after infants are discharged home and little is known about parents' caregiving experiences when their infant has pain/discomfort. Greater knowledge about these issues will help healthcare professionals to better support parents. Nine mothers were interviewed in 2007-2008 about their caregiving experiences in the months following neonatal unit discharge. Interviews were conducted using a descriptive phenomenological approach and analysed using Giorgi's framework. Six themes formed mothers' experiences: apprehension, confidence, responsibility, awareness, normalcy and perspective. Mothers had apprehension about their infants' fragile health, losing support of the neonatal team, and performing medical procedures. They developed confidence as infant health improved. Responsibility for performing infant medical care often dominated mothers' experiences. Awareness of infant needs was described as a learning process utilizing external resources, trial-and-error, and an internal intuitive sense; particularly in identifying and dealing with infant pain/discomfort. During the transition to prior social environments, concerns about normalcy arose. Over time, mothers' gained a philosophical perspective and saw their experiences in a positive light. The apprehension-confidence continuum model provides a framework for nursing assessment of mothers' needs following their infants' discharge from a neonatal unit. Factors such as infant health, medical procedures, and family or health professional support may influence the degree of apprehension or confidence. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Healthcare professionals? and mothers? knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Sonya Lynne; Heath, Anne-Louise Mary; Taylor, Rachael Waring

    2012-01-01

    Objective Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach for introducing complementary foods to infants that emphasises infant self-feeding rather than adult spoon-feeding. Here we examined healthcare professionals? and mothers? knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Design, setting and participants Healthcare professionals (n=31) and mothers who had used BLW (n=20) completed a semistructured interview using one of two tailored interview schedules examining their knowledge o...

  12. The mothering experience of women with FGM/C raising 'uncut' daughters, in Ivory Coast and in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoui, Sophia; Hassan, Ghayda; Guzder, Jaswant

    2017-04-05

    While Female Genital Cutting (FGM/C) is a deeply entrenched cultural practice, there is now mounting evidence for a gradual decline in prevalence in a number of geographical areas in Africa and following migration to non-practicing countries. Consequently, there is now a growing number of women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters. This study used a qualitative methodology to investigate the experience of women with FGM/C raising daughters who have not been subjected to the ritual. The aim of this study was to shed light on mothers' perception of the meaning and cultural significance of the practice and to gain insight into their mothering experience of 'uncut' girls. To this end, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen mothers living in Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Montreal, Canada (8 and 7, respectively). Thirteen mothers intrinsically refused to perpetuate FGM/C onto their daughters and two diasporic mothers were in favour of FGM/C but forewent the practice for fear of legal repercussions. Whether the eschewing of FGM/C was deliberate or legally imposed, raising 'uncut' daughters had significant consequences in terms of women's mothering experiences. Mothers faced specific challenges pertaining to community and family pressure to have daughters undergo FGM/C, and expressed concerns regarding their daughters' sexuality. Conversely, women's narratives were also infused with pride and hope for their daughters, and revealed an accrued dialogue between the mother-daughter dyad about cultural norms and sexuality. Interestingly, women's mothering experience was also bolstered by the existence of informal networks of support between mothers with FGM/C whose daughters were 'uncut'. These communities of mothers engaged in open dialogue about the consequences of FGM/C and offered reciprocal solidarity and support in their decision to forego FGM/C for their children. Women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters in their homeland and in their country of

  13. The novice birthing: theorising first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah G; Barclay, Lesley M; Homer, Caroline S E

    2010-02-01

    to explore first-time mothers' experiences of birth at home and in hospital in Australia. a grounded theory methodology was used. Data were generated from in-depth interviews with women in their own homes. Sydney, Australia. 19 women were interviewed. Seven women who gave in a public hospital and seven women who gave birth for the first time at home were interviewed and their experiences were contrasted with two mothers who gave birth for the first time in a birth centre, one mother who gave birth for the first time in a private hospital and two women who had given birth more than once. three categories emerged from the analysis: preparing for birth, the novice birthing and processing the birth. These women shared a common core experience of seeing that they gave birth as 'novices'. The basic social process running through their experience of birth, regardless of birth setting, was that, as novices, they were all 'reacting to the unknown'. The mediating factors that influenced the birth experiences of these first-time mothers were preparation, choice and control, information and communication, and support. The quality of midwifery care both facilitated and hindered these needs, contributing to the women's perceptions of being 'honoured'. The women who gave birth at home seemed to have more positive birth experiences. identifying the novice status of first-time mothers and understanding the way in which they experience birth better explains previous research that reports unrealistic expectations and fear that may be associated with first-time birthing. It demonstrates how midwives can contribute to positive birth experiences by being aware that first-time mothers, irrespective of birth setting, are essentially reacting to the unknown as they negotiate the experience of birth. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Children who experience difficulties with learning: mother and child perceptions of social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Sarah N; Chapparo, Christine J

    2012-10-01

    There is an emphasis on the social competence of children who have difficulties with learning as a significant percentage also experience reduced social skills. Social competence in the classroom is becoming increasingly important as the school curriculum incorporates group work and socially directed activities for purposes of learning. A goal of occupational therapy for children with learning difficulties and their parents is that they 'fit' into their social group and form friendships. While teachers are able to identify social skills that are required for life at school, less is known about how children perceive their interactions. This study aimed to explore social interaction during occupational performance at school and at home from the perception of children with learning difficulties and their mothers. Participants included 10, 8- to 12-year-old children who had difficulties with learning and their 10 mothers. Children were interviewed using semi-structured focus groups. Mothers participated in semi-structured interviews. Four main themes emerged from this study, including the importance of social skills, effects of poor social skills, difficulties with planning and problem solving in social situations and impact of social competence on a child's occupational performance. The study revealed that social participation is perceived to be an integral part of the child's ability to participate in occupational performance, and that children have definite perspectives on the importance of social competence. Children in this study indicated that their social skills were adequate when in an one-to-one situation but not in a group. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  15. Revisiting an era in Germany from the perspective of adolescents in mother-headed single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepali; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2007-02-01

    Much of the documented work on families headed by single mothers is based on empirical evidence from North America and a few Anglo-Saxon countries. Many researchers consider single-mother families to be at a disadvantage because of nonsupportive family policies. This paper uses data from a social context that differed hugely in this respect-the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The GDR provided extensive state support to single-mother families and, thus, was vastly different from other countries. Based on a literature review and using Hill's family stress theory, this paper is based on the hypothesis that adolescents living in mother-headed single-parent families and those living with their biological parents would have near-similar social outcomes (display of psychosomatic symptoms, perception of stress, display of delinquent behaviour, life satisfaction, academic self-efficacy, and academic grades) and family-related outcomes (relationship with parents and perception of family environment). Further, it was hypothesized that adolescents from stepfather families would display more negative social and family-related outcomes when compared with respondents from the other two family types. The sample comprised 1302 adolescents (M  =  13.82 years, SD  =  1.88) who were recruited from the city of Leipzig in the year immediately following German unification, 1991. Respondents reported on measures of psychosomatic symptoms, stress, delinquency, life satisfaction, academic achievement, and family-related variables. ANCOVAs, with a control for income adjusted for household size, indicated adolescents from single-mother families to have very similar experiences to respondents living with their biological parents on all measures except for their assessment of family environment. Adolescents living in stepfather families reported the least favourable experiences. Results are indicative of a social context in Germany that, despite unification and the early hardships for

  16. Psychological Health and Life Experiences of Pregnant Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica

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    Karline Wilson-Mitchell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent Jamaican school-based survey revealed that 23.1% of 13–15 year-olds, had attempted suicide one or more times during the last 12 months. Research that links adolescent pregnancy and suicidal behaviour is lacking in Jamaica. Psychological distress and suicidal behaviours amongst pregnant adolescents elsewhere in the Americas has been documented at prevalence of between 13.3%–20%. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences and the impact of pregnancy on pregnant adolescent psychological health. Individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with adolescents in two Jamaican antenatal clinics. One clinic was designed as a ‘Teen Pregnancy Clinic’ and the other used the standard antenatal clinic design. The following themes were identified: decision-making, resilience, social support, community support system, distress, and perceptions of service. Participants reported positively on the specific interventions tailored to their needs at the Teen Clinic. Although motherhood is valued, none of the pregnancies in this study were planned by the mother. Of the 30 adolescents interviewed, seven cases were referred for counseling due to their need for emotional and psychological support. One of the adolescents reported recent sexual violence and another reported having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Historically, Jamaican adolescent mothers faced barriers to education, self determination, and family planning. Empowering, adolescent-centred healthcare and comprehensive reproductive health education may mitigate psychosocial distress.

  17. Megaprepuce Reconstruction: A Single Center Experience

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    Miguel Luis Podestá

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSurgical treatment of congenital megaprepuce is challenging and controversial. We report our 10-year experience treating patients with this deformity using a standardized procedure that has similarities to a technique reported by Smeulders et al. (1. Our postoperative complications and mid-term follow-up cosmetic appearance of the genitalia after reconstruction are reviewed.Material and methodsFifteen patients operated on between 2005 and 2015 were evaluated. Age at surgical repair ranged from 3 to 20 months (mean 9. Treatment included unfolding the preputial sac via a ventral approach, excision of redundant inner preputial skin, and ventral skin coverage with the outer preputial layer. Twelve patients presented associated partial scrotal engulfment, which was simultaneously treated. Mean follow-up was 4.6 years (range 2–7 years.ResultsShort-term complications occurred in three patients: scrotal hematoma in one patient and small skin dehiscence at the penoscrotal junction in two patients. Skin disruption healed by secondary epithelial ingrowth. All cases resulted in a satisfactory genital cosmetic outcome. There were no late complications. All patients preserved normal external genitalia appearance.ConclusionOur experience is in agreement with reports of other authors; suggesting that excision of the inner preputial layer and using the external one for penile coverage provide good and durable mid-term esthetic results in megaprepuce reconstruction.

  18. Before and after: expectations and experiences of mothers concerning labour / O antes e o depois: expectativas e experiências de mães sobre o parto

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    Rita de Cássia Sobreira Lopes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Labour represents an important event in a woman's life, having a deep impact on the physical, emotional and social domains. It is anticipated during pregnancy, in the woman's fantasies and will be relived in the mother's memories. The present longitudinal study investigated the expectations and the later report of the labour experience of 28 primiparous women, aged 20 to 37. Individual interviews were carried out during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy and 3 months after labour. Qualitative content analysis indicated that mothers reported, during pregnancy, both positive and negative expectations regarding herself and the baby during labour. As far as labour experience is concerned, there was a trend towards polarization, with some mothers reporting only positive feelings whereas others reported only negative ones. Supporting the initial expectation of the study, the results show that labour is an event which encompasses the whole process of pregnancy and postpartum having a deep impact on the mother's history.

  19. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  20. Healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, Baby-Led Weaning: a content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya Lynne; Heath, Anne-Louise Mary; Taylor, Rachael Waring

    2012-01-01

    Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach for introducing complementary foods to infants that emphasises infant self-feeding rather than adult spoon-feeding. Here we examined healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Healthcare professionals (n=31) and mothers who had used BLW (n=20) completed a semistructured interview using one of two tailored interview schedules examining their knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences with, BLW. Interview notes and transcripts were analysed using content analysis to identify subcategories and extract illustrative quotes. Healthcare professionals had limited direct experience with BLW and the main concerns raised were the potential for increased risk of choking, iron deficiency and inadequate energy intake. Although they suggested a number of potential benefits of BLW (greater opportunity for shared family meal times, fewer mealtime battles, healthier eating behaviours, greater convenience and possible developmental advantages) most felt reluctant to recommend BLW because of their concern about the potential increased risk of choking. In contrast, mothers who had used this style of feeding reported no major concerns with BLW. They considered BLW to be a healthier, more convenient and less stressful way to introduce complementary foods to their infant and recommended this feeding approach to other mothers. Although mothers did not report being concerned about choking, 30% reported at least one choking episode-most commonly with raw apple. Given the lack of research on BLW, further work is needed to determine whether the concerns expressed by healthcare professionals and potential benefits outlined by mothers are valid. The current study suggests that there is a mismatch between healthcare professionals' and mothers' knowledge of, attitudes to and experiences, with BLW.

  1. Ambiguous loss and post-traumatic growth: Experiences of mothers whose school-aged children were born extremely prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Caroline; Cook, Catherine

    2018-03-01

    To develop insight into the experiences of mothers whose school-aged children were born extremely prematurely. Extreme prematurity, where infants are born at 28 weeks or earlier, has significant initial maternal impact in terms of distress, uncertainty and disruption to maternal identity. However, little is known about the experiences of these mothers beyond their child's infancy. A qualitative study was undertaken using thematic analysis, drawing on a cluster of social constructionist theories that have been applied to studies investigating mothers' early pre-term or childhood disability experiences. The study involved face-to-face interviews with nine mothers whose children were born prior to 28 weeks and were now aged between four-to-six years old. Participants described a prolonged period of anxiety, and relative isolation due to infection fears and complex care regimes. Although they grieved their different mothering trajectory, they celebrated their children's successes and noted their own resilience. The following themes were identified: Traumatic beginnings; dialectics and the horror-miracle contradiction; labour-intensive parenting and managing the multi-disciplinary team; stigma and storying the meaning of premature birth; and impact on relationships. Women's vulnerability and resilience are evident long after the birth of an extremely prematurely born infant. Women value connection with similar mothers, and yet finding community is often daunting due to their children's early complex needs. Generalist healthcare providers may be unaware of the experiences these mothers have endured, and need to enquire about their wellbeing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of Open Abdomen: Single Center Experience

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    Hakan Yanar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The authors reviewed their experience in the management of open abdomen using the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC, in order to assess its morbidity, and the outcome of abdominal wall integrity. Methods. A retrospective review was performed using the trauma registry to identify patients undergoing temporary abdominal closure (TAC either using Bogota Bag (BB or VAC, from January 2006 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were TAC and survival to definitive abdominal closure. Data collected included age, indication for TAC, number of operating room procedures, primary fascial closure rate, and complications. Results. During the study period, 156 patients required one type of TAC. Mean number of operations required in BB group was 3.04 as compared to 1.96 in VAC group (. Survival was significantly increased in the VAC group (. The difference in primary closure rates did not reach statistical significance (25% vs. 55%; . Complications were observed less frequently in the VAC group (. The mean time for fascial closure was 21 (±12 days in the BB group, as opposed to 6 (±3 days in the VAC group (. Conclusion. The vacuum assisted closure (VAC has a significantly faster rate of closure, requires less number of operations, and is associated with a lower complication rate.

  3. Mothers' experiences of coping with adolescent substance abuse: a phenomenological inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Candice; Bhana, Arvin

    2017-08-01

    Adolescent substance abuse significantly impacts on the lives of mothers. This paper explores the coping responses of mothers whose adolescents have been admitted to treatment for substance abuse. A multiple case study design was adopted and the data were collected through one-on-one interviews facilitated by the Lifegrid. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to interrogate the data. Coping emerged as a complex construct in our analysis. The mothers' used problem-focused and emotion-focused coping in different combinations of withdrawing, tolerating and engaged coping responses. The mothers' coping responses were also influenced by individual and relational factors like subjective distress and the mother-adolescent relationship. We argue that research and practice initiatives should consider using a multidimensional perspective of parental coping that recognises the heterogeneity of mothers' coping responses. Impact statement: The current paper offers new insights into the complexities of mothers' coping responses to adolescent substance abuse.

  4. Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Kim, Sunny; De La Rosa, Mario; Dillon, Frank R; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2010-08-09

    Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers' and daughters' early sexual activity and adult substance abuse. A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother-daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data. Daughters' current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0) and mothers' current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0). Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16-19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16-19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers' childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3) was a strong predictor for daughters' childhood sexual experience. Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies should consider maternal childhood sexual experience as a potential indication of risk for Latina daughters.

  5. The experience of childbrith in first-time mothers who received narcotic analgesics during the first stage of labour

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    L. Jantjes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has focused on the birthing experience of first-time mothers who received the narcotic analgesic combination of Pethidine and Hydroxyzine during the first stage of labour. A qualitative research methodology was used to collect data. Unstructured interviews were held with first-time mothers to obtain accounts of their experience of childbirth. These narrations were audio-taped while the participants were still being cared for in the postnatal ward of the hospital where delivery took place. Nine interviews were conducted with first-time mothers who gave birth normally vaginally after a normal pregnancy and who received a narcotic analgesic in the first stage of labour. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using Tesch’s method of descriptive analysis (in Creswell, 1994:115.

  6. A case study of a mother's intertwining experiences with incest and postpartum depression

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    Idun Røseth

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA and major depression disorder (MDD gives reason to suspect that many mothers with postpartum depression (PPD have a history of CSA. However, few studies have investigated how CSA and PPD are related. In this case study we explore how the experience of incest intertwines with the experience of postpartum depression. We focus on participant subject “Nina,” who has experienced both. We interviewed her three times and we analysed the interviews with Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method to arrive at a contextualised meaning structure. Nina's intruding fantasies of men who abuse her children merge with her recollections of her own incest experiences. She may succeed in forcing these fantasies out of her consciousness, but they still alter her perceptions, thoughts, and emotions. She feels overwhelmed and succumbs to sadness, while she also is drawn towards information about CSA, which in turn feeds her fantasies. The psychodynamic concepts of repetition compulsion, transference, and projection may provide some explanation of Nina's actions, thoughts, and emotions through her past experiences. With our phenomenological stance, we aim to acknowledge Nina's descriptions of her everyday life here and now. With reference to Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Minkowski, we show that Nina's past is not a dated memory; rather it determines the structure of her consciousness that constitutes her past as her true present and future. Incest dominates Nina's world, and her possibilities for action are restricted by this perceived world. Any suspension of action implies anguish, and she resolves this by incest-structured action that in turn feeds and colours her expectations. Thus anxiety and depression are intertwined in the structure of this experience.

  7. A case study of a mother's intertwining experiences with incest and postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røseth, Idun; Bongaardt, Rob; Binder, Per-Einar

    2011-01-01

    The association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression disorder (MDD) gives reason to suspect that many mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) have a history of CSA. However, few studies have investigated how CSA and PPD are related. In this case study we explore how the experience of incest intertwines with the experience of postpartum depression. We focus on participant subject "Nina," who has experienced both. We interviewed her three times and we analysed the interviews with Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method to arrive at a contextualised meaning structure. Nina's intruding fantasies of men who abuse her children merge with her recollections of her own incest experiences. She may succeed in forcing these fantasies out of her consciousness, but they still alter her perceptions, thoughts, and emotions. She feels overwhelmed and succumbs to sadness, while she also is drawn towards information about CSA, which in turn feeds her fantasies. The psychodynamic concepts of repetition compulsion, transference, and projection may provide some explanation of Nina's actions, thoughts, and emotions through her past experiences. With our phenomenological stance, we aim to acknowledge Nina's descriptions of her everyday life here and now. With reference to Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Minkowski, we show that Nina's past is not a dated memory; rather it determines the structure of her consciousness that constitutes her past as her true present and future. Incest dominates Nina's world, and her possibilities for action are restricted by this perceived world. Any suspension of action implies anguish, and she resolves this by incest-structured action that in turn feeds and colours her expectations. Thus anxiety and depression are intertwined in the structure of this experience.

  8. A qualitative study of volunteer doulas working alongside midwives at births in England: Mothers' and doulas' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2018-01-01

    to explore trained volunteer doulas' and mothers' experiences of doula support at birth and their perceptions of how this related to the midwife's role. a qualitative descriptive study, informed by phenomenological social psychology. semi-structured interviews were carried out between June 2015 and March 2016. Interview transcripts were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. three community volunteer doula projects run by third sector organisations in England. 19 volunteer doulas and 16 mothers who had received doula support during labour. three overarching themes emerged: (1) 'the doula as complementary to midwives', containing subthemes 'skilled physical and emotional support', 'continuous presence', 'woman-centred support', 'ensuring mothers understand and are understood' and 'creating a team for the mother'; (2)'the doula as a colleague to midwives', containing subthemes 'welcomed as a partner', 'co-opted to help the midwives', and 'doulas identify with the midwives'; and (3) 'the doula as challenge to midwives', containing subthemes 'confusion about the doula's role', 'defending informed choice', and 'counterbalancing disempowering treatment'. KEY CONCLUSIONS&IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: volunteer doulas can play an important role in improving women's birth experiences by offering continuous, empowering, woman-focused support that complements the role of midwives, particularly where the mothers are disadvantaged. Greater clarity is needed about the scope of legitimate volunteer doula advocacy on behalf of their clients, to maximise effective working relationships between midwives and doulas. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Age at placement, adoption experience and adult adopted people's contact with their adoptive and birth mothers: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D

    2001-09-01

    Adoption holds particular interest for attachment researchers. Although children adopted as babies experience almost continuous care by their adoptive parents, older placed children experience at least one major change of caregiver when they join their adoptive family. Moreover, in the majority of cases, older placed children have generally suffered a pre-adoption history of abuse, neglect and/or rejection. It is now being recognized that older placed children's attachment histories and internal working models (IWMs) established in relationship with their initial carers remain active in relationship with their new carers. Transactional models have helped both researchers and practitioners to understand the dynamics of parent-child relationships in cases where insecure children with histories of neglect, abuse and rejection find themselves in new caregiving environments. The present study examines the childhood experiences of adult adopted people and their current levels of contact with their adoptive mothers, and in cases where people had searched for and found a birth relative, current levels of contact with their birth mother. Although no information was collected on the adopted adult's pre-placement history, age at placement was used as a proxy measure to examine whether older placed children reported different adoption experiences and what their current levels of contact were with their adoptive and birth mothers. The findings show that age at placement was associated with adopted people's reported experiences of being adopted and current rates of contact with their adoptive and birth mothers, with those placed at older ages most likely to report that they (1) did not feel they belonged in their adoptive families while growing up, (2) did not feel loved by their adoptive mother, (3) were least likely to remain in high-frequency contact with their adoptive mother, and (4) were least likely to remain in high-frequency contact with their birth mother. An

  10. The cross-cultural validity of the Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ) among Danish mothers with preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røhder, Katrine; George, Carol; Brennan, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The present study explored the Danish cross-cultural validity of the Caregiving Experiences Questionnaire (CEQ), a new measure of caregiving representations in parent-child relationships. Low-risk Danish mothers (N = 159) with children aged 1.5–5 years completed the CEQ and predictive validity...

  11. Mothers' Adverse Childhood Experiences and Negative Parenting Behaviors: Connecting Mothers' Difficult Pasts to Present Parenting Behavior via Reflective Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeyer, Ellen; Renk, Kimberly; Cunningham, Annelise; Lowell, Amanda; Khan, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have supported a connection between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative outcomes in adulthood. Fewer studies have examined the connection between ACEs and parenting behaviors, however. The study described in this article examined the relationships among ACEs, reflective functioning, and negative parenting behaviors…

  12. Marital Satisfaction and Parenting Experiences of Mothers and Fathers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    The association of marital satisfaction with parenting burden and quality of the parent-child relationship was examined in 91 married mothers and fathers of co-residing adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders. Within-couple differences between mothers and fathers in how child characteristics related to these parenting experiences…

  13. Female adoptees' experiences balancing relationships with biological and adoptive mothers post-reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Angelle; Davey, Maureen P; Swint, Phyllis A

    2013-07-01

    Using a feminist postmodern perspective and the sensitizing concept of split loyalties from Contextual Theory, the primary purpose of this qualitative study was to develop a better understanding of how adult female adoptees from closed adoptions negotiate relationships with their adoptive and biological mothers post-reunion. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with nine adult female adoptees, ages 28-52, who were adopted prior to the age of two. Six were Caucasian, three were African American, and the average age at reunion was 29. Grounded theory techniques were used to code the qualitative data, in particular the constant comparative method of analysis. Four main categories emerged: (a) Negotiating Mother-Daughter Relationships, (b) Relating to Mothers Equitably, (c) Loyalty, and (d) Adoptees' Emotional Needs. Our findings suggest the adoptive mother-daughter relationship has a salient effect on adoptees' relationships with biological mothers post-reunion. Loyalty to the adoptive mother seems to influence the evolving relationship and closeness displayed toward the birth mother. Adult female adoptees from closed adoptions described struggling with managing their two mother-daughter relationships and need clinical help addressing their own emotional needs. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  14. "Mommy That's the Exit.": Empowering Homeless Mothers to Support Their Children's Daily Literacy Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Santo, Aurelia; Timmons, Kristy; Pelletier, Janette

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined how a six-week family literacy programme contributed to supporting the efforts 12 mothers living in a residential shelter were making to foster their preschool children's literacy development. We compared pre- and post-programme interviews to explore whether the mothers applied the literacy strategies discussed in the…

  15. Mother Tongue Tuition in Sweden--Curriculum Analysis and Classroom Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reath Warren, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The model of Mother Tongue Tuition (MTT) which has developed in Sweden since the 1970's offers speakers of languages other than Swedish the opportunity to request tuition in their mother tongue, from kindergarten through to year 12. It is unique among the major immigrant-receiving countries of the world yet little is known about MTT and its…

  16. Negotiating Work/Life Balance : The Experience of Fathers and Mothers in Ireland

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    Eileen Drew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and takes up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mothers and explores the impact of such arrangements on their careers and their attitudes towards work/life balance. Parents were asked about their actual and preferred childcare arrangements. The majority of fathers were able to rely upon the provision of care by the mother in their own home (an option that was available to only a small proportion of mothers. The paper concludes by discussing the kinds of work/life balance interventions/measures sought by fathers and mothers.

  17. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics

  18. Exploring young mothers' experiences with postpartum contraception in Ottawa: results from a multimethods qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Elyse; Foster, Angel M

    2018-01-08

    Postpartum contraception plays a significant role in reducing subsequent pregnancy. However, young mothers in Ottawa, the capital of Canada, face various barriers when trying to access contraception after delivery. Through this project, we aimed to explore these barriers and understand the decision-making processes of young mothers surrounding postpartum contraception. We conducted 10 semistructured in-depth interviews with young mothers living in Ottawa who had experienced a subsequent pregnancy within 24months of their first childbirth. In addition, we interviewed 10 key informants who work with teenage mothers. We audio-recorded and transcribed all interviews and analyzed them using inductive and deductive techniques. We used ATLAS.ti software to manage our data. Both young mothers and key informants report that teen mothers in Ottawa often do not use postpartum contraception or inconsistently use their chosen contraceptive method. Many factors, including cost, personal beliefs, personal priorities and knowledge, influence young mothers' decision making surrounding contraception. Our study suggests that when young mothers do not use postpartum contraception, the reasons are complex; for some, this is a choice, and for others, this is the result of systems-level, service delivery and information barriers. Supporting policies to ensure that a full range of contraceptive methods are available and affordable and developing educational programs in Ottawa that are sex-positive and nonjudgmental appear warranted. Ensuring that a full method mix, including contraceptive implants, is available to and affordable for young mothers in Ottawa could meet significant needs. Addressing existing systems-level, service delivery and information barriers through supporting evidence-based policies and sex-positive and nonjudgmental educational programs appears warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanata Régia Luzia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38 and experimental (43 groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2, however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque and maternal factors.

  20. Early motherhood: a qualitative study exploring the experiences of African Australian teenage mothers in greater Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngum Chi Watts, Mimmie Claudine; Liamputtong, Pranee; Mcmichael, Celia

    2015-09-10

    Motherhood is a significant and important aspect of life for many women around the globe. For women in communities where motherhood is highly desired, motherhood is considered crucial to the woman's identity. Teenage motherhood, occurring at a critical developmental stage of teenagers' lives, has been identified as having adverse social and health consequences. This research aimed to solicit the lived experiences of African Australian young refugee women who have experienced early motherhood in Australia. This qualitative research used in-depth interviews. The research methods and analysis were informed by intersectionality theory, phenomenology and a cultural competency framework. Sixteen African born refugee young women who had experienced teenage pregnancy and early motherhood in Greater Melbourne, Australia took part in this research. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed and data analysed using thematic content analysis. Ethics approval for this research was granted by Victoria University Human Research Ethics committee. Motherhood brings increased responsibilities, social recognition, and a sense of purpose for young mothers. Despite the positive aspects of motherhood, participants faced challenges that affected their lives. Most often, the challenges included coping with increased responsibilities following the birth of the baby, managing the competing demands of schooling, work and taking care of a baby in a site of settlement. The young mothers indicated they received good support from their mothers, siblings and close friends, but rarely from the father of their baby and the wider community. Participants felt that teenage mothers are frowned upon by their wider ethnic communities, which left them with feelings of shame and embarrassment, despite the personal perceived benefits of achieving motherhood. We propose that service providers and policy makers support the role of the young mothers' own mother, sisters, their grandmothers and aunts following

  1. The impact of drugs, infants, single mothers, and relatives on reunification: A Decision-Making Ecology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenstrom, Kim; Baumann, Donald J; Fluke, John; Graham, J Christopher; James, Joyce

    2015-11-01

    Using a Decision-Making Ecology (DME) approach and proportional hazards models, the study isolated four case factor profiles that interacted strongly with race and resulted in disparate reunification outcomes for African American children compared with Anglos. The four interrelated factors were drug involvement, a solo infant case, single mothers, and relative placements. A cohort of 21,763 children from the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services who were placed for the first time in care, who were under 13 and either Anglo or African American were followed for 20 months or more post entry into care. Starting with an initial model consisting of main effects only and consistent with other studies, African American children had a 12% lower hazard rate of reunification compared to Anglo children. However, when a set of case profiles involving combinations of single parents, single infants, drug involvements and kinship placements were crossed with race, the magnitude of the effect of race on hazard rates fanned out from no difference to as much as 68% that of Anglo children. The results show that racial disparities in outcomes resulting from complex, contextual decision making cannot be modeled well with simple main effects models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyesaw, Nana Yaa Konadu; Ankomah, Augustine

    2013-01-01

    The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various responsible departments to address ignorance on sexual matters, and the challenges and risks associated with pregnancy and parenting by adolescents. Parenting techniques should be taught in sex education programs.

  3. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELS. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded Harmonic Generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 meter tong NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities

  4. Negotiating Work/Life Balance : The Experience of Fathers and Mothers in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Eileen; Daverth, Gwen

    2011-01-01

    Working arrangements are still not sufficiently flexible to enable parents to manage their roles as workers and as carers and there remains a dearth of flexible working arrangements and work-life balance policies especially for fathers. This paper examines the degree of work/life balance among fathers, and mothers, employed in 5 major Irish organisations surveyed in 2002. It concentrates on the access to, and takes up of, flexible working time and leave arrangements by fathers and mothers and...

  5. 'The divorce program': gendered experiences of HIV positive mothers enrolled in PMTCT programs - the case of rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njunga, John; Blystad, Astrid

    2010-10-26

    For HIV infected mothers in developing countries, choosing to enroll in a prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program is supposed to represent the first step towards protecting their child from possible transmission of HIV from mother to child. Counseling and testing enable HIV infected mothers to learn about their status and to obtain the benefits of a PMTCT package. The study on which this article is based explored experiences of HIV positive women and their partners linked to Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in Chiradzulu district, Southern Malawi. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews (IDIs), focus group discussion (FGDs) and case studies was carried at two PMTCT sites. IDIs and FGDs were recorded and transcribed. The case studies involved a deeper inquiry into the past, present and situational factors of selected participants. In a context of customary matrilineal kinship, matrilocal residence patterns and complete male absence from the PMTCT program, the demand by the PMTCT program for partner disclosure played up fears of rejection among men given accusations of infidelity by the wives' relatives. This situation led many men to abandon their families. Mothers enrolled in PMTCT programs hence faced not only the fear of transmitting the virus to their infants, but also the loss of income and support associated with a departed husband and the social disgrace of a ruined family. Community members referred to the PMTCT program as 'the divorce program' PMTCT programs may vary in effectiveness in different contexts unless they fundamentally respond to socio-cultural factors as lived out in communities they intend to serve. The PMTCT program in rural southern Malawi is a case in point.

  6. 'The divorce program': gendered experiences of HIV positive mothers enrolled in PMTCT programs - the case of rural Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blystad Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For HIV infected mothers in developing countries, choosing to enroll in a prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT of HIV program is supposed to represent the first step towards protecting their child from possible transmission of HIV from mother to child. Counseling and testing enable HIV infected mothers to learn about their status and to obtain the benefits of a PMTCT package. The study on which this article is based explored experiences of HIV positive women and their partners linked to Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT programs in Chiradzulu district, Southern Malawi. Methods A qualitative study using in-depth interviews (IDIs, focus group discussion (FGDs and case studies was carried at two PMTCT sites. IDIs and FGDs were recorded and transcribed. The case studies involved a deeper inquiry into the past, present and situational factors of selected participants. Results In a context of customary matrilineal kinship, matrilocal residence patterns and complete male absence from the PMTCT program, the demand by the PMTCT program for partner disclosure played up fears of rejection among men given accusations of infidelity by the wives' relatives. This situation led many men to abandon their families. Mothers enrolled in PMTCT programs hence faced not only the fear of transmitting the virus to their infants, but also the loss of income and support associated with a departed husband and the social disgrace of a ruined family. Community members referred to the PMTCT program as 'the divorce program' Conclusions PMTCT programs may vary in effectiveness in different contexts unless they fundamentally respond to socio-cultural factors as lived out in communities they intend to serve. The PMTCT program in rural southern Malawi is a case in point.

  7. Mothers' experiences of skin-to-skin care of healthy full-term newborns--a phenomenology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbye, Rebecka; Calais, Elisabet; Berg, Marie

    2011-08-01

    Previous reports have shown that skin-to-skin contact immediately after birth is the optimal form of care for a full-term, healthy infant and its mother. As this is rarely researched the aim of this study was to explore experiences of skin-to-skin care in healthy mothers of healthy, full-term infants in the first days after birth. Using a lifeworld phenomenological approach, 20 women who had childbirth in hospital and were practising skin-to-skin care were interviewed 1-2 weeks after birth. Analysis of all interview texts was directed towards discovering qualitative meanings through a process of identifying meaning units. These were then clustered and analysed with the aim of describing themes of meaning and the essence of the phenomenon. The mothers wanted to give their newborn child the best possible care and the skin-to-skin care started a positive spiral. A mutual interaction developed which acted as a generator releasing energy to the mother who wanted to continue the practice which in terms increased mother-infant affinity. Happiness, peace and satisfaction were expressed by the newborns; also a child who was crying or troublesome exhibited a positive response to skin-to-skin care. The study provides insight and knowledge which should guide attitudes and promote practices of this simple healthcare intervention; skin-to-skin contact care to healthy infants born at term. Healthcare professionals should support affinity between a mother and her newborn through facilitation and the provision of information about its benefits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-molecule experiments in biophysics: Exploring the thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cules contributes to our understanding of the nonequilibrium thermal behavior of small systems. Keywords. Biophysics; single-molecule experiments; fluctuation theorems. PACS Nos 05.70.Ln; 82.37.Rs; 87.10.+e; 87.15.Ya. 1. Biomolecules, molecular demons and statistical physics. Biophysics is a relatively young discipline ...

  9. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems ... Jain International Residential School, Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Road, Ramanagara Dist., Karnataka 562 112, India. Room No 425, SH-3 Ashoka University, Near Rai Police ...

  10. A Computational Experiment on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott; Lonie, David C.; Chen, Jiechen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) has been developed and employed in an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Computations were carried out to determine the electronic structure, radial breathing modes, and the influence of the nanotube's diameter on the…

  11. PICTORIAL INTERLUDE Experiences of using a single post-contrast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. While experimenting with single post-contrast computed tomographic. (CT) scans of the urinary tract after a triphasic contrast injection,1 I considered whether a similar technique could be used to cut down on unnecessary scan series in our patients referred for chest CT scans. A precontrast scan and then a ...

  12. In situ temperature monitoring in single-molecule FRET experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Berndt, Frederic; Ollmann, Simon; Krainer, Georg; Schlierf, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Thermodynamic properties of single molecules including enthalpic and entropic contributions are often determined from experiments by a direct control and precise measurement of the local temperature. However, common temperature monitoring techniques using, for example, ultrafine temperature probes can lead to uncertainties as the probe cannot be placed in the vicinity of the molecule of interest. Here, we devised an approach to measure the local temperature in freely diffusing confocal single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET) experiments in situ by directly adding the temperature-sensitive fluorescent dye Rhodamine B, whose fluorescence lifetime serves as a probe of the local temperature in the confocal volume. We demonstrate that the temperature and FRET efficiencies of static and dynamic molecules can be extracted within one measurement simultaneously, without the need of a reference chamber. We anticipate this technique to be particularly useful in the physicochemical analyses of temperature-dependent biomolecular processes from single-molecule measurements.

  13. A WEB-BASED SURVEY OF MOTHER-INFANT BOND, ATTACHMENT EXPERIENCES, AND METACOGNITION IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS FOLLOWING CHILDBIRTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlotte; Patricia Taylor, Emily; Schwannauer, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Postnatal depression is linked to adverse outcomes for parent and child, with metacognition and parenting experiences key variables in the development and maintenance of depression. The attachment between mother and infant is especially vulnerable to the effects of untreated postnatal depression. Despite high levels of reported postnatal stress symptoms, less attention has been given the relationship between attachment, metacognition, and postnatal traumatic symptoms in the context of birth trauma. This study tested several hypotheses regarding the relationships between recalled parenting experiences, metacognition, postnatal symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression and perceptions of the mother-infant bond, confirming and extending upon metacognitive and mentalization theories. A Web-based, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire design was employed in an analog sample of new mothers. Participants were 502 women recruited via open-access Web sites associated with birth organizations. Structural equation modeling was employed for the principal analysis. Metacognition fully mediated the relationship between recalled parenting experiences and postnatal psychological outcomes. Posttraumatic stress was indirectly associated with maternal perceptions of the bond, with this relationship mediated by depression. Metacognition may have a key role in postnatal psychological distress. Where postnatal depression or traumatic birth experiences are identified, screening for posttraumatic stress is strongly indicated. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  14. A Voice and a Vote: The Advisory Board Experiences of Spanish-Speaking Latina Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Gregory, Emily; Polk, Sarah; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Giusti, Flor; Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Latino children experience disparities in health care access and quality. Family advisory groups for clinics and hospitals may be one way to address disparities. We implemented and sustained an advisory board whose parent participants were exclusively limited-English proficient Latina mothers. As part of the board evaluation, we conducted semistructured individual interviews with parent participants during initial participation and after the final board meeting of the year. Members were satisfied with their board participation in both initial and follow-up interviews. They reported that board membership was an important way to improve clinic services and a unique opportunity for Latinos in the community. Experiences of discrimination and marginalization in health care settings were a theme across interviews. Members reported board membership countered these negative experiences. An advisory board including Spanish-speaking parents is an opportunity to engage vulnerable populations, which may result in broader impact on health care disparities. Los niños latinos experimentan disparidad en el acceso y calidad del cuidado de salud. Grupos de familias asesoras para clínicas y hospitales pueden ser una forma de hacer frente a las disparidades. Nosotros implementamos y sostuvimos un consejo asesor cuyos participantes fueron exclusivamente madres latinas con dominio limitado del inglés. Como parte de la evaluación del consejo, condujimos entrevistas semi-estructuradas individuales con las madres participantes durante la participación inicial y después de la última reunión del año del consejo. Los miembros estaban satisfechas con su participación en el consejo en ambas entrevistas, la inicial y la de seguimiento. Ellas reportaron que ser miembros del consejo era una forma importante para mejorar los servicios de la clínica y una oportunidad única para los latinos en la comunidad. Las experiencias de discriminación y marginalización en las instalaciones de

  15. Normative cultural values and the experiences of Mexican-American mothers in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Lisa M; Horner, Sharon D

    2012-04-01

    To explore the experiences of Mexican-American mothers who have had infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A convenience sample of 15 English-speaking, Mexican-American women was interviewed. The study used an exploratory qualitative approach. Data collection was conducted through audiotaped, transcribed, semistructured, individual interviews and field notes. The 5 normative cultural values for Latino families-(1) simpatia, (2) personalismo, (3) respeto, (4) familismo, and (5) fatalismo-were used as a sensitizing framework to guide data interpretation. The women's discussions of their NICU experiences clearly reflect the 5 normative Latino cultural values. Positive and negative exemplars of these values are provided as evidence. These findings can be used to inform nursing care provided for Mexican-American mothers and their infants by assisting nurses to customize care to meet the cultural needs of this population.

  16. Raising Bilingual Children : Russian Mothers' experience in motivating Russian language and bilingualism in their Russian-Norwegian children

    OpenAIRE

    Vaynam, Margaret Judith

    2013-01-01

    The following thesis investigates Russian mothers’ experience of motivating Russian language learning and bilingualism in their Russian-Norwegian children in Norway. The purpose of this study is to look at the motivating factors that influence parents to teach their children their own language, as well as support the bilingual situation. Although the study focuses on the minority language, as it is the language spoken by the mothers, the bilingual situation is used to further analysis on moti...

  17. Single-photon interference experiment for high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondani, Maria

    2014-07-01

    We follow the reductio ad absurdum reasoning described in the book "Sneaking a Look at God's Cards" by Giancarlo Ghirardi to demonstrate the wave-particle duality of light in a Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup analog to the conventional Young double-slit experiment. We aim at showing the double nature of light by measuring the existence of interference fringes down to the single-photon level. The setup includes a strongly attenuated laser, polarizing beam splitters, half-waveplates, polarizers and single-photon detectors.

  18. The death of a young son in violent circumstance: understanding the experience of the mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcão, Ana Carolina Jacinto; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the life of a mother who lost their child in violent circumstances. The methodological proceedings were supported on phenomenology. The study population was constituted by five mothers who had lost its young children for homicide. These homicides occurred different times ranging from 50 days to 10 years. I used as instrument of collection of data open interview the phenomenological method guided by a orienting question. The analysis phenomenology in their discourses showed the comprehension of essential meanings which were systematized in categories: the child's mummification in the memory; the two ways followed by the publicity concerning the death; fondness to spirituality to endure the pain from the child's death; maternal complicity and impunity. The results of this study can contribute to elaboration of intervention proposals close to the mothers in the sense of helping them in the reorganization of their lives after son's death.

  19. Mother's early experience of taking care of a child later diagnosed with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemcke, Sanne; Thorlund Parner, Erik; Bjerrum, Merete

    Introduction and objectives: The aim is to study whether prospectively collected information from mothers regarding deviations in their child’s development and behaviour during the first two years of life can predict the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) later in life. Methods: In the Danish...... National Birth Cohort (DNBC) mothers were interviewed about their child’s development and behaviour when the child was 6 and 18 months of age, respectively. Children diagnosed with ASD in Danish paediatric and child psychiatric departments are registered in the Danish National Patient Register. Thus...... with ASD. Deviations reported by mothers when the child was 6 months, showed a statistically significant different pattern for breastfeeding and crying in children later diagnosed with ASD compared to the whole cohort. At 18 months only deviations in sleeping showed statistically significant increased risk...

  20. Single Mothers and the Effects of Intensive Aid on the Quality of their Lives : the Examples of the Netherlands and Cyprus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anne van den Berg; Maria Michailidis

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to illuminate the effects of intensive aid on the self-reliance and independence of single mothers, and to show what is and what can be done to improve the empowerment of this group. Firstly the paper focuses on the effects of intensive social aid on the self-reliance

  1. Mothers' Experiences with Pastoral Care in Cases of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgun, Jane F; Anderson, Gwendolyn

    2016-04-01

    This article reports on case study research with four mothers who asked for help from their pastors when they learned, or had reason to believe, that their husbands had sexually abused children in their families. In their own words, mothers gave accounts of how the pastors responded. Some were helpful and knowledgeable, some appeared bewildered, and others were hostile and blaming toward the women. This article will sensitize pastors and other pastoral counselors to issues that child sexual abuse raises. In addition, the research responds to Mahoney's (J Marriage Fam 72:805-827, 2010) observations about the scarcity of knowledge on whether religion helps or harms families during times of stress.

  2. Insecure attachment style as a vulnerability factor for depression: recent findings in a community-based study of Malay single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Kadir, Nor Ba'yah; Bifulco, Antonia

    2013-12-30

    The role of marital breakdown in women's mental health is of key concern in Malaysia and internationally. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of married and separated/divorced and widowed women examined insecure attachment style as an associated risk factor for depression among 1002 mothers in an urban community in Malaysia. A previous report replicated a UK-based vulnerability-provoking agent model of depression involving negative evaluation of self (NES) and negative elements in close relationships (NECRs) interacting with severe life events to model depression. This article reports on the additional contribution of insecure attachment style to the model using the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ). The results showed that VASQ scores were highly correlated with NES, NECR and depression. A multiple regression analysis of depression with backward elimination found that VASQ scores had a significant additional effect. Group comparisons showed different risk patterns for single and married mothers. NES was the strongest risk factor for both groups, with the 'anxious style' subset of the VASQ being the best additional predictor for married mothers and the total VASQ score (general attachment insecurity) for single mothers. The findings indicate that attachment insecurity adds to a psychosocial vulnerability model of depression among mothers cross-culturally and is important in understanding and identifying risk. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stigma and Discrimination: Perspectives from Mexican and Puerto Rican Mothers of Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHatton, Patricia Alvarez; Correa, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of stigma-related discrimination in 50 Puerto Rican and Mexican single mothers of young children with disabilities. Mothers were interviewed on issues related to raising a child with disabilities. This was a preliminary exploration of the stories mothers told specifically related to…

  4. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  5. The single-beam funnel demonstration: Experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Bolme, G.O.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Guy, F.W.; Marquardt, J.H.; Sandoval, D.; Yuan, V.; Saadatmand, K.

    1991-01-01

    Accelerator concepts for heavy-ion fusion and for the transmutation of nuclear waste require small-emittance, high-current beams. Such applications include funnels in which high-current, like-charged particle beams are interlaced to double the beam current. The first experimental demonstration confirming the beam dynamics of the funnel principle (with contained emittance growth) was recently completed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. A single leg of a prototype 5-MeV, H - funnel was successfully tested. This single-beam demonstration explored physics issues of a two-beam funnel. The experiment contained elements for emittance control, position control, and rf-deflection. Diagnostics allowed measurement of beam intensity, position and angle centroids, energy and phase centroids, transverse and longitudinal phase-space distributions. Results of the experiment will be presented along with comparisons to simulations

  6. Quantum delayed-choice experiment with a single neutral atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Tiancai

    2017-10-01

    We present a proposal to implement a quantum delayed-choice (QDC) experiment with a single neutral atom, such as a rubidium or cesium atom. In our proposal, a Ramsey interferometer is adopted to observe the wave-like or particle-like behaviors of a single atom depending on the existence or absence of the second π/2-rotation. A quantum-controlled π/2-rotation on target atom is realized through a Rydberg-Rydberg interaction by another ancilla atom. It shows that a heavy neutral atom can also have a morphing behavior between the particle and the wave. The realization of the QDC experiment with such heavy neutral atoms not only is significant to understand the Bohr's complementarity principle in matter-wave and matter-particle domains but also has great potential on the quantum information process with neutral atoms.

  7. On the scalar electron mass limit from single photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivaz, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    We discuss how the 90% C.L. lower limit on the mass of the scalar electron, as extracted from the single photon experiments, is affected by the way the background from radiative neutrino pair production is handled. We argue that some of the results presented at the Berkeley conference are overoptimistic, and that the mass lower limit is 65 GeV rather than the advertized value of 84 GeV, for the case of degenerate scalar electrons with massless photinos

  8. Sexuality and Sex Education of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Mothers' Attitudes, Experiences, and Support Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pownall, Jaycee Dawn; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have considered families' views about adolescents' sexual development. The authors compared attitudes and behaviors of mothers of young people with (n = 30) and without intellectual disability (n = 30). Both groups placed similar importance on dealing with their children's developing sexuality and were similarly confident in doing so.…

  9. Lone mothers and welfare policies in Albania : Conditions, experiences, expectations, 1944-2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruda, A.

    2015-01-01

    This is an action research that endeavors to construct the category of ‘lone mothers’ in Albania, through their own voice, for the purpose of creating the socio-political discourse on their real needs they and their children have. It talks about lone mothers not as needy or vulnerable, but as women

  10. HIV/AIDS Infected Mothers' Experience of a Group Intervention to Enhance Their Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Forsyth, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A secondary study was conducted within a broader National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded longitudinal study on resilience in South African mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week support group intervention…

  11. Experience of non-breastfeeding mothers: Norms and ethically responsible risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlquist, Jessica Nihlén

    2016-03-01

    Breastfeeding is currently strongly recommended by midwives and paediatricians, and the recommendations are based on documents provided by the World Health Organization and public health authorities worldwide. The underlying question is, how are non-breastfeeding mothers affected emotionally when informed that breastfeeding is the safest and healthiest option? The method used is an anonymous web-based qualitative survey exploring the narratives of non-breastfeeding mothers, published on Thesistools.com. The aim is to achieve qualitative knowledge about the emotions of non-breastfeeding mothers. Participants were based in Sweden, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands and were selected through a purposeful sample. The online survey anonymizes responses automatically, and all respondents had to tick a box agreeing to be quoted anonymously in scientific articles. The study conforms to research ethics guidelines. Respondents describe how they were affected, and the following themes emerged in studying their descriptions: depression, anxiety and pain, feeling failed as a mother and woman, loss of freedom/feeling trapped, relief and guilt. The themes are discussed against the background of the ethics of care and a theory of ethically responsible risk communication. Three conclusions are made. First, the message should become more empathetic. Second, information should be given in an attentive dialogue. Third, information providers should evaluate effects in a more inclusive way. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. HIV/AIDS infected mothers' experience of a group intervention to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week support group intervention programme, which was designed to enhance adaptive behaviour of latent-phase children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS as reported by the mother participants. The study was embedded in a concurrent nested mixed-method design, ...

  13. Assessing Grade 4 Mathematics in the Learner's Mother Tongue: A South African Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeyar, Saloshna

    2010-01-01

    Official policy in post-apartheid education is aimed at redressing linguistic inequity in schooling by promoting the 11 official languages of South Africa through mother tongue instruction. However, since the life chances of children are inextricably linked to the language of power, many parents believe that their children would benefit from…

  14. Using Social Justice Group Work with Young Mothers Who Experience Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Meyer, Dixie; Smith, Rachelle; Price, Amber

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates (e.g., Bassuk et al., 1997) that women and children make up a large percentage of the total number of individuals living without permanent shelter. This article represents a reflective analysis of our work as group facilitators who conducted a series of personal growth groups for young mothers living in a residential facility…

  15. Diapers, Dissertations, and Other Holy Things: The Experiences of Mothers Working in Christian Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. Elizabeth Lewis; Anderson, Tamara L.; Willingham, Michele M.

    2004-01-01

    Academic institutions present specific challenges to women attempting to balance work and family responsibilities. This type of involvement within the subculture of evangelical Christianity presents its own variations. Interviews with 30 mothers working in Christian academia were analyzed using a post hoc content analysis informed by principles of…

  16. Reconstructing an icosahedral virus from single-particle diffraction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, D. K.; Poon, H.-C.; Schwander, P.; Uddin, M.; Schmidt, M.

    2011-08-01

    The first experimental data from single-particle scattering experiments from free electron lasers (FELs) are now becoming available. The first such experiments are being performed on relatively large objects such as viruses, which produce relatively low-resolution, low-noise diffraction patterns in so-called ``diffract-and-destroy'' experiments. We describe a very simple test on the angular correlations of measured diffraction data to determine if the scattering is from an icosahedral particle. If this is confirmed, the efficient algorithm proposed can then combine diffraction data from multiple shots of particles in random unknown orientations to generate a full 3D image of the icosahedral particle. We demonstrate this with a simulation for the satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV), the atomic coordinates of whose asymmetric unit is given in Protein Data Bank entry 2BUK.

  17. Force feedback effects on single molecule hopping and pulling experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Pasto, M.; Pastor, I.; Ritort, F.

    2018-03-01

    Single-molecule experiments with optical tweezers have become an important tool to study the properties and mechanisms of biological systems, such as cells and nucleic acids. In particular, force unzipping experiments have been used to extract the thermodynamics and kinetics of folding and unfolding reactions. In hopping experiments, a molecule executes transitions between the unfolded and folded states at a preset value of the force [constant force mode (CFM) under force feedback] or trap position [passive mode (PM) without feedback] and the force-dependent kinetic rates extracted from the lifetime of each state (CFM) and the rupture force distributions (PM) using the Bell-Evans model. However, hopping experiments in the CFM are known to overestimate molecular distances and folding free energies for fast transitions compared to the response time of the feedback. In contrast, kinetic rate measurements from pulling experiments have been mostly done in the PM while the CFM is seldom implemented in pulling protocols. Here, we carry out hopping and pulling experiments in a short DNA hairpin in the PM and CFM at three different temperatures (6 °C, 25 °C, and 45 °C) exhibiting largely varying kinetic rates. As expected, we find that equilibrium hopping experiments in the CFM and PM perform well at 6 °C (where kinetics are slow), whereas the CFM overestimates molecular parameters at 45 °C (where kinetics are fast). In contrast, nonequilibrium pulling experiments perform well in both modes at all temperatures. This demonstrates that the same kind of feedback algorithm in the CFM leads to more reliable determination of the folding reaction parameters in irreversible pulling experiments.

  18. Milestone experiments for single pass UV/X-ray FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    1995-04-01

    In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical UV and X-ray FELs and has prompted proposals to the DOE for the construction of such facilities. There are several important experiments to be performed before committing to the construction of dedicated user facilities. Two experiments are under construction in the IR, the UCLA self-amplified spontaneous emission experiment and the BNL laser seeded harmonic generation experiment. A multi-institution collaboration is being organized about a 210 MeV electron linac available at BNL and the 10 m long NISUS wiggler. This experiment will be done in the UV and will test various experimental aspects of electron beam dynamics, FEL exponential regime with gain guiding, start-up from noise, seeding and harmonic generation. These experiments will advance the state of FEL research and lead towards future dedicated users' facilities.

  19. Self-Esteem in Hispanic Adolescent Females and Its Relation to Dual Parent Households and Single Mother Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Linda Marie Pettis

    2002-01-01

    The development of a sense of self in adolescence has been shown to be influenced by the perceived level of warmth of the mother. Additionally, the nature of the home environment has been found to relate to an adolescent's level of self-esteem (Buri, 1990; Field, Lang, Yando, and Bendell, 1993). Hispanic adolescent females and their mothers in…

  20. Influence of group cohesion on maternal well-being among participants in a support/education group program for single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ellen L; Waymouth, Marjorie; Gammon, Tara; Carter, Patricia; Secord, Margaret; Leung, Olivia; Mills, Brenda; Hicks, Frances

    2007-10-01

    Single mothers are at increased risk of psychosocial disadvantage, social isolation and physical and mental health difficulties. The authors present (1) the results of group cohesion assessments completed by mothers participating in a trial of community-based support/education groups, and (2) assessments of the association between group cohesion ratings and intervention outcomes of maternal self-evaluations of well-being (mood, self-esteem, and social support) and parenting. Mothers participating in groups completed the Group Atmosphere Scale, a measure of group cohesion, post-group. Overall, most participants provided strong ratings of group cohesion. Significant associations were found between group cohesion and specific positive outcomes. This suggests a positive association between group cohesion and mood, self-esteem, social support, and parenting, in this trial.

  1. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyesaw NYK

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nana Yaa Konadu Gyesaw,1 Augustine Ankomah2 1Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Koforidua, Eastern Region, 2Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana Background: The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very little is known about what happens after pregnancy, ie, the experience of teenage motherhood. Several studies in Ghana have identified the determinants of early sexual activity, contraception, and unsafe abortion, with teenage motherhood only mentioned in passing. Few studies have explored the experiences of adolescent mothers in detail with regard to their pregnancy and childbirth. This qualitative study explores the experiences of adolescent mothers during pregnancy, childbirth, and care of their newborns. Methods: This qualitative study was based on data from focus group discussions and indepth interviews with teenage mothers in a suburb in Accra. Participants were recruited from health facilities as well as by snowball sampling. Results: Some of the participants became pregnant as a result of transactional sex in order to meet their basic needs, while others became pregnant as a result of sexual violence and exploitation. A few others wanted to become pregnant to command respect from people in society. In nearly all cases, parents and guardians of the adolescent mothers were upset in the initial stages when they heard the news of the pregnancy. One key finding, quite different from in other societies, was how often teenage pregnancies are eventually accepted, by both the young women and their families. Also observed was a rarity of willingness to resort to induced abortion. Conclusion: Special programs should be initiated by the government and the various

  2. Differences and similarities between mothers and fathers of premature children: a qualitative study of parents' coping experiences in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, I H; Iversen, V C; Svindseth, M F

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe the coping experiences of parents to children admitted to a neonatal unit. A qualitative research approach was chosen, using in-depth interviews with eight fathers and eight mothers. The main findings were that parents with previous complicated births had more difficulties in coping compared to those parents with no experience with complications. Coping seemed easier where parents' opinions were heard regarding their baby's care and when both parents were present in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The main similarities between mothers and fathers were the reluctance to speak their opinions on childcare, and both experienced a sense of alienation and problems in bonding with the baby. They also needed a limitation on the number of visitors in the NICU. Differences between mothers and fathers were that fathers tried hard to be the strong partner in the relationship, and were more concerned with the mother if she was seriously ill postpartum, while mothers were more concerned for their baby. Mothers' postpartum period was felt as more stressful if the father was not present, but mothers were also better at welcoming support from the health personnel. This study highlights the parent's coping experiences in NICUs. Coping seemed easier where parents' opinions were heard. Nurses in the NICU should take the former experiences of the parents into consideration when nursing in the NICU and planning for discharge.

  3. Postpartum Health Information Seeking Using Mobile Phones: Experiences of Low-Income Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Christie, Vanessa M; Prabhakar, Annu; Harris, Asia L; Siek, Katie A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers. 10 low-income mothers were recruited from survey participants to complete in-depth interviews regarding postpartum information needs, information seeking, and technology use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by three researchers independently. Narratives were analyzed along predetermined (etic) and emergent (emic) categories. Results Establishing breastfeeding and solving breastfeeding problems were central postpartum concerns leading to information seeking. Interviewees reported almost exclusive use of mobile phones to access the Internet. Mobile applications were widely used during pregnancy, but were not valuable postpartum. Face-to-face information from medical professionals was found to be repetitive. Online information seeking was mediated by default mobile phone search engines, and occurred over short, fragmented time periods. College graduates reported searching for authoritative knowledge sources; non-graduates preferred forums. Conclusions for Practice Low-income postpartum women rely on their smartphones to find online infant care and self-care health information. Websites replace pregnancy-related mobile applications and complement face-to-face information. Changes in searching behavior and multitasking mean information must be easily accessible and readily understood. Knowledge of page-rank systems and use of current and emergent social media will allow health-related organizations to better engage with low-income mothers online and

  4. Probing surfaces with single-polymer atomic force microscope experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedsam, C; Gaub, H E; Netz, R R

    2006-03-01

    In the past 15 years atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy has become a versatile tool to study inter- and intramolecular interactions of single polymer molecules. Irreversible coupling of polymer molecules between the tip of an AFM cantilever and the substrate allows one to study the stretching response up to the high force regime of several nN. For polymers that glide or slip laterally over the surface with negligible friction, on the other hand, the measured force profiles exhibit plateaus which allow one to extract the polymer adsorption energies. Long-term stable polymer coatings of the AFM tips allow for the possibility of repeating desorption experiments from solid supports with individual molecules many times, yielding good sampling statistics and thus reliable estimates for adsorption energies. In combination with recent advances in theoretical modeling, a detailed picture of the conformational statistics, backbone elasticity, and the adsorption characteristics of single polymer molecules is obtained.

  5. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  6. Midwives' experiences with mother-infant skin-to-skin contact after a caesarean section: 'fighting an uphill battle'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwedberg, Sofia; Blomquist, Josefin; Sigerstad, Emelie

    2015-01-01

    to explore midwives' experiences and perceptions of skin-to-skin contact between mothers and their healthy full-term infants immediately and during the first day after caesarean section. qualitative interviews with semi-structured questions. eight midwives at three different hospitals in Stockholm participated in the study. All participants provided care for mothers and their newborn infants after caesarean birth. transcribed material was analysed and interpreted using qualitative content analysis. The analysis yielded the theme 'fighting an uphill battle'. skin-to-skin contact was considered to be important, and something that midwives strove to implement as a natural element of postnatal care. However, in daily practice, midwives experienced many obstacles to such care, such as lack of knowledge among parents and other professionals about the benefits of skin-to-skin contact, the mother's condition after the caesarean section, and other organisational difficulties (e.g. collaboration with other professionals, lack of time). Introducing more skin-to-skin care was a challenge for the midwives, who sometimes felt both dismissed and disappointed when they tried to communicate the benefits of this type of care. skin-to-skin contact is not prioritised because many health care practitioners are unaware of its positive effects, and their care reflects this lack of knowledge. There is a need for education among all health care practitioners involved in caesarean procedures. Another difficulty is that many parents are unaware of the benefits of skin-to-skin contact. Maternity outpatient clinics need to inform parents about the benefits of such care, so mothers will understand the importance of skin-to-skin contact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Politics, doctors, assisted reproductive technologies & religion: Transgenerational understandings and experiences of single motherhood in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Moreno, Ana

    2017-10-01

    The aim is to achieve a transgenerational view of single motherhood in Spain, to look at which contexts it arises in, how it changes with the introduction of assisted reproduction, and how the role of religion in Spanish society permeates medical practice and affects the lives of women patients. I examine single motherhood and investigate two interconnected themes: (a) being a mother and being mothered are both permeated with sociocultural, political, religious, economic and psychological significance; (b) Spain led Europe in multiple births due to assisted reproduction, thus ethical conflicts and patient rights are analyzed.

  8. Theory of factorial design single- and multi-stratum experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ching-Shui

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together both new and old results, Theory of Factorial Design: Single- and Multi-Stratum Experiments provides a rigorous, systematic, and up-to-date treatment of the theoretical aspects of factorial design. To prepare readers for a general theory, the author first presents a unified treatment of several simple designs, including completely randomized designs, block designs, and row-column designs. As such, the book is accessible to readers with minimal exposure to experimental design. With exercises and numerous examples, it is suitable as a reference for researchers and as a textbook

  9. Stigma experiences in youth with facial differences: a multi-site study of adolescents and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Ronald P; Ramsey, Barry L; Edwards, Todd C; Topolski, Tari D; Kapp-Simon, Kathy A; Thomas, Christopher R; Fenson, Carla; Patrick, Donald L

    2007-05-01

    To describe stigma experiences of adolescents with congenital and acquired facial differences. Used baseline cross-sectional stigma-related responses from a four site (Seattle WA, Galveston TX, Chicago IL and Chapel Hill NC) US study enrolling 185 English speaking, US participants ages 1118 years old with facial differences (60% male; 80% congenital conditions). Closed-ended, self-administered questions drawn from the Youth Quality of Life Instrument Facial Differences Module (YQOL-FD) determined perceptions of stigmatization. Mothers (n=153) were independently asked seven matching questions. Frequencies report combined responses of 'sometimes,' 'fairly often,' and 'very often.' Mother's responses are in parentheses. *35% (47%) noticed people staring at their face in the past week. * 28% (43%) talked with others about how their face looks in the past month. * 29% (31%) heard others say something about their face in the past month. * 32% (32%) told peers about their facial difference in the past month. * 12% (12%) felt left out of doing things with peers because of how their face looks in the past month. * 11% (8%) got into a fight because of how their face looks in the past month. * 20% (18%) were teased about how their face looks in the past month. Stigma experiences were frequently reported by youth with facial differences and were correlated with independent parental report. This level of stigma suggests that media and public health interventions may be warranted to reduce discrimination, prejudice and negative adolescent social experiences related to facial difference.

  10. Good Enough Support? Exploring the Attitudes, Knowledge and Experiences of Practitioners in Social Services and Child Welfare Working with Mothers with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Bernoldová, Jana; Adamčíková, Zdeňka; Klusáček, Jan

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the attitudes, knowledge and experiences of practitioners in social services and child welfare working with mothers with intellectual disability. The authors used a national survey, which was completed by 329 participants. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were generated, and the associations between variables and differences between various subgroups of the sample were made. The open questions were analysed using the processes involved in content analysis. The findings indicated that the participants had limited knowledge of available supports and services for mothers with intellectual disability. Furthermore, many participants believed that mothers with intellectual disability should have an abortion should they become pregnant. The findings show practitioners' stereotyped attitudes towards mothers with intellectual disability. Workers in the area of social services and child welfare need access to training and professional development in the area of supporting mothers with intellectual disability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Obstetric outcomes of teenagers and older mothers: ‎experience from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Sabry Hammad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Extremes of maternal age adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Teenage ‎pregnancy is a public health problem and is known to be associated with adverse pregnancy ‎outcomes. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for pregnancy outcome. Saudi Arabia suffers ‎the dual burden of teenage pregnancy and older pregnancy.‎Objectives: To explore the effects of maternal age on pregnancy and its outcome among mothers ‎adequately covered with maternity care. ‎Methods: A retrospective record-bas...

  12. Single atoms on demand for cavity QED experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, I.

    2007-09-06

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) describes electromagnetic fields in a confined space and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. The simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with one mode of a high-finesse resonator. Besides observation and exploration of fundamental quantum mechanical effects, this system bears a high potential for applications quantum information science such as, e.g., quantum logic gates, quantum communication and quantum teleportation. In this thesis I present an experiment on the deterministic coupling of a single neutral atom to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator. In Chapter 1 I describe our basic techniques for trapping and observing single cesium atoms. As a source of single atoms we use a high-gradient magneto-optical trap, which captures the atoms from background gas in a vacuum chamber and cools them down to millikelvin temperatures. The atoms are then transferred without loss into a standing-wave dipole trap, which provides a conservative potential required for experiments on atomic coherence such as quantum information processing and metrology on trapped atoms. Moreover, shifting the standing-wave pattern allows us to deterministically transport the atoms (Chapter 2). In combination with nondestructive fluorescence imaging of individual trapped atoms, this enables us to control their position with submicrometer precision over several millimeters along the dipole trap. The cavity QED system can distinctly display quantum behaviour in the so-called strong coupling regime, i.e., when the coherent atom-cavity coupling rate dominates dissipation in the system. This sets the main requirements on the resonator's properties: small mode volume and high finesse. Chapter 3 is devoted to the manufacturing, assembling, and testing of an ultra-high finesse optical Fabry-Perot resonator, stabilized to the atomic transition. In Chapter 4 I present the transportation of single atoms into the

  13. Single atoms on demand for cavity QED experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotsenko, I.

    2007-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics (cavity QED) describes electromagnetic fields in a confined space and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. The simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with one mode of a high-finesse resonator. Besides observation and exploration of fundamental quantum mechanical effects, this system bears a high potential for applications quantum information science such as, e.g., quantum logic gates, quantum communication and quantum teleportation. In this thesis I present an experiment on the deterministic coupling of a single neutral atom to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator. In Chapter 1 I describe our basic techniques for trapping and observing single cesium atoms. As a source of single atoms we use a high-gradient magneto-optical trap, which captures the atoms from background gas in a vacuum chamber and cools them down to millikelvin temperatures. The atoms are then transferred without loss into a standing-wave dipole trap, which provides a conservative potential required for experiments on atomic coherence such as quantum information processing and metrology on trapped atoms. Moreover, shifting the standing-wave pattern allows us to deterministically transport the atoms (Chapter 2). In combination with nondestructive fluorescence imaging of individual trapped atoms, this enables us to control their position with submicrometer precision over several millimeters along the dipole trap. The cavity QED system can distinctly display quantum behaviour in the so-called strong coupling regime, i.e., when the coherent atom-cavity coupling rate dominates dissipation in the system. This sets the main requirements on the resonator's properties: small mode volume and high finesse. Chapter 3 is devoted to the manufacturing, assembling, and testing of an ultra-high finesse optical Fabry-Perot resonator, stabilized to the atomic transition. In Chapter 4 I present the transportation of single atoms into the cavity

  14. ‘We have beaten HIV a bit’: a qualitative study of experiences of peer support during pregnancy with an HIV Mentor Mother project in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Jenny; Redshaw, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of women living with HIV in England who received or gave Mentor Mother (trained mother-to-mother) volunteer peer support during pregnancy and early motherhood. Design Qualitative descriptive study, using semistructured, in-depth interviews and inductive thematic analysis, theoretically informed by phenomenological social psychology. Setting A London-based third sector peer support organisation for people living with HIV. Participants 12 women living with HIV who had given or received Mentor Mother volunteer peer support (6 had given support and 6 had received support). 11 were black African. Results The key themes in participants' descriptions of their lives as pregnant women and mothers living with HIV were ‘fear and distress’, ‘stigma and isolation’ and ‘the gap in maternity care’. The key themes related to Mentor Mother peer support during and after pregnancy were ‘support to avoid mother-to-child transmission’ (with subthemes ‘reinforcing medical advice’, ‘reframing faith issues’, ‘prioritisation and problem-solving’ and ‘practical strategies for managing HIV and motherhood’), and ‘emotional support’ (with subthemes ‘role modelling and inspiring hope’, ‘openness and non-judgemental acceptance’, ‘a caring relationship’, ‘recreating the lost family network’, ‘being understood from the inside’ and ‘self-confidence’). The Mentor Mothers' support appeared to be a successful hybrid between the peer education Mentor Mothers programmes in southern Africa and the more general pregnancy volunteer peer support models operating in England. Conclusions A Mentor Mother peer support programme is acceptable to, and valued by, black African mothers with HIV in England. Peer support from trained volunteers during and after pregnancy can complement and reinforce medical advice on avoiding mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and can have a multidimensional positive impact on

  15. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored.

  16. Effectiveness of ACT-Based Parenting Training to Mothers on the Depression of Children with Cleft Lip and Palate: A Single Subject Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد صالح فقیهی

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Parenting Training based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT to mothers on the depression of children with cleft lip and palate. The research method was based on a single case and individual intervention study. The sample was constituted of 65 Isfahanian children with cleft lip and palate. Parenting skills based on ACT were taught to five mothers of children with cleft lip and palate who achieved the minimum score in screening. After three baseline sessions for each child, ACT parenting skills were taught to their mothers in 8 individual sessions companied with testing the child’s depression in every session. Three follow-up sessions after 15 days, 1 month and 3 months were set to evaluate children’s depression. The Kovacs Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI was used to test the children’s depression. The results were analyzed with visual analysis and descriptive statistics. This particular intervention was effective on depression. Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that ACT parenting training to mothers of children with cleft lips and palates was effective on reducing depression and that an on-time intervention can improve these children's depression.

  17. Understanding the experiences of mothers who are breastfeeding an infant with tongue-tie: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Janet Elizabeth; Fulbrook, Paul; Miles, Sandra

    2013-05-01

    Tongue-tie or ankyloglossia is a congenital condition that negatively affects breastfeeding. The thickened, tightened, or shortened frenulum affects the infant's ability to suck and frequently results in sore and painful nipples. Although several studies have investigated outcomes associated with treatment of tongue-tie, none have investigated mothers' experiences of breastfeeding an infant with tongue-tie. This study aimed to understand the breastfeeding experiences of women whose infants have tongue-tie. A hermeneutic phenomenological design was employed. Data were collected using focused interviews and, following transcription, were analyzed in the phenomenological tradition. Ten women who presented at a breastfeeding clinic with feeding problems, and were diagnosed with tongue-tie, were interviewed on 2 occasions. The analysis revealed a common story of tension between the mothers' expectations and the breastfeeding challenges they faced. Their journey was characterized by 6 distinct phases described in the following themes: Expectations; Something is wrong; Questioning, seeking advice, no real answers; Symptoms and perseverance; Approaching the wall-it's all too much; and finally, Relief. The women in this study described a somewhat harrowing journey, which was at odds with the natural experience they had anticipated. They encountered health professionals who were found to have limited knowledge of tongue-tie and its potential effect on breastfeeding and were unable to provide appropriate advice concerning their breastfeeding difficulties. However, following treatment with frenotomy, their breastfeeding experience improved dramatically. The reported incidence of tongue-tie is significant, and early identification and prompt and effective management would contribute to improved breastfeeding.

  18. Acceptability and feasibility of infant-feeding options: experiences of HIV-infected mothers in the World Health Organization Kesho Bora mother-to-child transmission prevention (PMTCT) trial in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cames, Cécile; Saher, Aisha; Ayassou, Kossiwavi A; Cournil, Amandine; Meda, Nicolas; Simondon, Kirsten Bork

    2010-07-01

    In Burkina Faso, prolonged breastfeeding with introduction of ritual fluids from birth is a deep-seated norm. We explored HIV-infected mothers' views and experiences of the acceptability and feasibility of the World Health Organization's recommended infant-feeding options within a mother-to-child-transmission prevention trial. A qualitative study was conducted on 17 formula-feeding and 19 breastfeeding mothers, from a larger cohort of 51 eligible HIV-infected women, consenting to participate in separate focus group discussions in early post-partum. Mothers opted for breastfeeding essentially out of fear of family rejection. Most of them were afraid of denigration for disrespecting tradition if they formula-fed or being suspected of HIV infection. Achieving exclusive breastfeeding remained a difficult challenge as they engaged in a continuous struggle with close elders to avoid fluid feeding. Additional stress and fatigue were fed by their perception of a high transmission risk through breast milk. Exclusive formula-feeding seemed easier to implement, especially as formula was provided free of charge. Formula-feeding mothers more frequently had a supportive partner, a strong personality and lived in better socio-economic conditions than breastfeeding mothers (76% had education and electricity supply vs. 42%, respectively). Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months remains the most appropriate option for many HIV-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. Its acceptability and feasibility urgently need to be improved by promoting it as the best feeding option for all infants. Other crucial interventions are the promotion of voluntary counselling and testing for couples, and greater partner involvement in infant-feeding counselling.

  19. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride single crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Lemke, Raymond W.

    2014-10-01

    S hock compression exper iments in the few hundred GPa (multi - Mabr) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals . This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17 - 32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between %7E200 - 600 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot - the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves - as well as pressure and density of re - shock states up to %7E900 GPa . The experimental measurements are compared with recent density functional theory calculations as well as a new tabular equation of state developed at Los Alamos National Labs.

  20. Student experiences across multiple flipped courses in a single curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanova, Julia; Roth, Mary T; Rodgers, Jo Ellen; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E

    2015-10-01

    The flipped classroom approach has garnered significant attention in health professions education, which has resulted in calls for curriculum-wide implementations of the model. However, research to support the development of evidence-based guidelines for large-scale flipped classroom implementations is lacking. This study was designed to examine how students experience the flipped classroom model of learning in multiple courses within a single curriculum, as well as to identify specific elements of flipped learning that students perceive as beneficial or challenging. A qualitative analysis of students' comments (n = 6010) from mid-course and end-of-course evaluations of 10 flipped courses (in 2012-2014) was conducted. Common and recurring themes were identified through systematic iterative coding and sorting using the constant comparison method. Multiple coders, agreement through consensus and member checking were utilised to ensure the trustworthiness of findings. Several themes emerged from the analysis: (i) the perceived advantages of flipped learning coupled with concerns about implementation; (ii) the benefits of pre-class learning and factors that negatively affect these benefits, such as quality and quantity of learning materials, as well as overall increase in workload, especially in the context of multiple concurrent flipped courses; (iii) the role of the instructor in the flipped learning environment, particularly in engaging students in active learning and ensuring instructional alignment, and (iv) the need for assessments that emphasise the application of knowledge and critical thinking skills. Analysis of data from 10 flipped courses provided insight into common patterns of student learning experiences specific to the flipped learning model within a single curriculum. The study points to the challenges associated with scaling the implementation of the flipped classroom across multiple courses. Several core elements critical to the effective design

  1. Laparoendoscopic single-site adnexal surgery: Preliminary Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Balusamy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS is an emerging technique in gynaecology. The proposed advantages of the LESS include better cosmesis and reduction in pain. We report our preliminary experience with LESS in the treatment of adnexal pathology. Materials and Methods: After a preoperative workup, LESS was offered to 37 patients between July 2009 and April 2015. All the procedures were carried out through a 2–2.5 cm transumbilical incision using conventional laparoscopic instruments. A single-incision, multiport (SIMP approach (utilising one 7 mm and two 5 mm ports was used in 27 patients and a homemade glove port (HMGP was utilised in ten patients. All the specimens were extracted after placement in a plastic bag or inside the glove port avoiding contact with the wound. Umbilical fascial incisions were meticulously closed with non-absorbable sutures. Results: Two patients with a history of previous abdominal surgery required omental adhesiolysis. Seventeen patients with breast cancer underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, ten had ovarian cystectomy (6 had cystadenoma, 2 had endometriotic cysts and 2 had dermoid cyst, six had excision of paraovarian cysts (one along with partial salpingectomy and four with ruptured ectopic pregnancy underwent salpingectomy. LESS was completed in all but one patient, who required insertion of an additional 5 mm port. There were no intra- or post-operative complications. Conclusions: Our experience confirms the feasibility and safety of LESS in a variety of benign adnexal pathology. Both the SIMP and HMGP approaches seem comparable. Performing LESS without the use of specialised access ports or instruments makes it cost effective and suitable for wider application.

  2. [Preliminary clinical experience of single incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S D; Han, J Y

    2016-06-01

    Objective: To discuss the preliminary experience of single incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Methods: The clinical data and surgical outcomes of 104 selected patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the 2 nd Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University from January 2010 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 62 male and 42 female patients, aging from 21 to 87 years with a mean of (61±12) years. Eighty-five patients were diagnosed with malignancy while the rest 19 cases were benign diseases. All the procedures were performed by the same surgeon using the rigid laparoscopic instruments. Surgical and oncological outcomes were analyzed in 4 kinds of procedures which are over 5 cases respectively, including low anterior resection, abdominoperineal resection, radical right colon resection and radical sigmoidectomy. Results: Single incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery was performed in 104 selected patients and was successfully managed in 99 cases with a total conversion rate of 4.8%. Radical procedures for malignancy in cases with the number of patients more than 5 were performed for 74 cases. For low anterior resection, 35 cases with an average surgical time of (191±57) minutes, average estimated blood loss of (117±72) ml and average number of harvested lymph nodes of 14.6±1.1. For abdominoperineal resection, 9 cases with an average surgical time of (226±54) minutes, average estimated blood loss of (194±95) ml and average number of harvested lymph nodes of 14.1±1.5. For radical right colon resection, 16 cases with an average surgical time of (222±62) minutes, average estimated blood loss of (142±68) ml and average number of harvested lymph nodes of 15.4±2.4. For radical sigmoidectomy, 14 cases with an average surgical time of (159±32) minutes, average estimated blood loss of (94±33) ml and average number of harvested lymph nodes of 13.9±1.5. The overall

  3. Analysis of experiment testing technology for single event effects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui

    2001-01-01

    The merit and demerit of simulation source were analyzed for Single Event Effects (SEE) experiment testing in China. Laboratory experiment systems for SEE were brief introduced and requests for SEE test system were emphasize analyzed. Test systems were presented for Single Event Upset, Single Event Latch-up, Single Event Burnout and Single Event Gate-Rupture. The attention should be in mind in SEE experiments were discussed

  4. Associations between Mothers' Experience with the Troubles in Northern Ireland and Mothers' and Children's Psychological Functioning: The Moderating Role of Social Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little research has examined the relations between growing up in a community with a history of protracted violent political conflict and subsequent generations' well-being. The current article examines relations between mothers' self-report of the impact that the historical political violence in Northern Ireland (known as the Troubles)…

  5. [Maternal breastfeeding, alone or as a couple? A study on the experiences of reconfiguration of bodies, roles, and daily routines in Mexican mothers and fathers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Plascencia, Ulises; Rangel-Flores, Yesica Yolanda; Rodríguez-Martinez, Ma Estela

    2017-09-28

    : Early interruption of maternal breastfeeding is a public health problem in developed and developing societies, and social gender constructions and social inequalities between men and women contribute to the phenomenon's complexity. The article reflects on the experiences of fathers and mothers with the reconfiguration of bodies, roles, and daily routines involved in breastfeeding. This was a qualitative study with an interpretative phenomenological focus and gender perspective in couples whose children were less than six months old, who were breastfeeding or had breastfed and agreed to participate voluntarily. A phenomenological analysis was performed on "units of meaning" in the four dimensions explored by phenomenology: corporality, time, space, and relations. Among the mothers, the analysis identified the existence of conflict and guilt associated with breastfeeding; the mothers' need for sleep and rest made them experience breastfeeding as a role that overburdened them in their daily lives. Their spouses showed limitations resulting from social constructs of masculinity, in becoming involved with the infant and supporting the mother to continue breastfeeding. It is thus urgent for health professionals to discuss the processes of motherhood and fatherhood in relation to infants and breastfeeding, from an inclusive gender perspective that assigns importance to the mother-infant dyad, with special emphasis on the mother-infant-father triad.

  6. The lifelong socioeconomic disadvantage of single-mother background - the Helsinki Birth Cohort study 1934–1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Maiju Mikkonen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing up with one parent is associated with economic hardship and health disadvantages, but there is limited evidence of its lifetime consequences. We examined whether being born to an unmarried mother is associated with socioeconomic position and marital history over the lifespan. Methods We analysed data from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study including birth, child welfare clinic and school healthcare records from people born in Helsinki, Finland, between 1934 and 1944. Using a unique personal identification number, we linked these data to information on adult socioeconomic position from census data at 5-year intervals between 1970 and 2000, obtained from Statistics Finland. Results Compared to children of married mothers, children of unmarried mothers were more likely to have lower educational attainment and occupational status (odds ratio for basic vs. tertiary education 3.40; 95 % confidence interval 2.17 to 5.20; for lowest vs. highest occupational category 2.75; 1.92 to 3.95. They were also less likely to reach the highest income third in adulthood and more likely to stay unmarried themselves. The associations were also present when adjusted for childhood socioeconomic position. Conclusion Being born to an unmarried mother, in a society where marriage is the norm, is associated with socioeconomic disadvantage throughout life, over and above the disadvantage associated with childhood family occupational status. This disadvantage may in part mediate the association between low childhood socioeconomic position and health in later life.

  7. Antenatal depressive symptoms and subjective birth experience in association with postpartum depressive symptoms and acute stress reaction in mothers and fathers: A longitudinal path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürber, Susanne; Baumeler, Luzia; Grob, Alexander; Surbek, Daniel; Stadlmayr, Werner

    2017-08-01

    Postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and acute stress reactions (ASR) after childbirth are frequently documented in mothers, but research is scarce in fathers. In a longitudinal path analysis, the interplay of depressive symptoms in pregnancy and the subjective childbirth experience of mothers and fathers are examined with regard to the development of PDS and ASR postpartum. One hundred eighty nine expectant couples were recruited between August 2006 and September 2009. They completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the last trimester of pregnancy. In the first week postpartum, they answered the Salmon's Item List (subjective birth experience), and four weeks after birth the EPDS and the Impact of Event Scale - revised (IES-r). The data were evaluated in a longitudinal path analysis. Compared with fathers, mothers reported more depressive symptoms (pregnancy: pexperience' (p0.10), but moderately correlated four weeks after birth (r=0.387, pexperience were independently predictive of PDS and ASR after childbirth in mothers and fathers controlling for age, mode of delivery, parity, epidural anaesthesia, infant gender and birth weight. Antenatal depressive symptoms were related to subjective childbirth experience only in fathers. Parental prenatal depressive symptoms and subjective birth experience are important predictors of postnatal psychological adjustment in mothers and fathers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Talking about Ourselves, Talking about Our Mothers: Latina Prospective Teachers Narrate Their Life Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Through a Bakhtinian conceptual framework, this text explores Latina prospective teachers' life histories--their experiences at home, in their K-12 schooling, on campus in a Midwestern university, and in their teacher education program. Further, it shows how often, when asked about their own experiences, Latinas responded with stories of their…

  9. Experiences associated with intervening with homeless, substance-abusing mothers: the importance of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substance abuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists, experiences related to managing the chaotic nature of the client's lives, wanting to manage the client's lives, and frustration with client's life trajectories are reviewed. Observations related to the therapeutic process include the client's relationship to the therapist, balancing the client's independence and need for assistance, and unrealistic expectations among the clients. Recommendations for successfully approaching these clinical situations and experiences are offered. The purpose of this article is to document these therapy experiences to facilitate the work of future teams seeking to intervene in the lives of homeless families through homeless shelters or other settings.

  10. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: A single center experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2011-05-01

    Raheem OA, Kamel MH, Daly PJ, Mohan P, Little DM, Awan A, Hickey DP. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: A single center experience. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15:240-244. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A\\/S. Abstract:  We assessed our long-term experience with regards to the safety and efficacy of MMF in our pediatric renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to our previous non-MMF immunosuppressive regimen. Forty-seven pediatric renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol in the period from January 1997 till October 2006 (MMF group). A previously reported non-MMF group of 59 pediatric renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (non-MMF group). The MMF group comprised 29 boys and 18 girls, whereas the non-MMF group comprised 34 boys and 25 girls. Mean age was 11.7 and 12 yr in the MMF and non-MMF groups, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was 11 (23.4%) and 14 (24%) in the MMF and non-MMF group, respectively. Two (3.3%) grafts were lost in the non-MMF group compared with one (2.1%) in the MMF group. Twenty-one (44.68%) patients in the MMF group developed post-transplant infections compared with 12 (20.33%) in the non-MMF group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of MMF in pediatric renal transplantation was not associated with a lower rejection rate or immunological graft loss. It did, however, result in a significantly higher rate of viral infections.

  11. Mesh Plug Repair of Inguinal Hernia; Single Surgeon Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Serdar Karaca

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mesh repair of inguinal hernia repairs are shown to be an effective and reliable method. In this study, a single surgeon%u2019s experience with plug-mesh method performs inguinal hernia repair have been reported. Material and Method: 587 patients with plug-mesh repair of inguinal hernia, preoperative age, body / mass index, comorbid disease were recorded in terms of form. All of the patients during the preoperative and postoperative hernia classification of information, duration of operation, antibiotics, perioperative complications, and later, the early and late postoperative complications, infection, recurrence rates and return to normal daily activity, verbal pain scales in terms of time and postoperative pain were evaluated. Added to this form of long-term pain ones. The presence of wound infection was assessed by the presence of purulent discharge from the incision. Visual analog scale pain status of the patients was measured. Results: 587 patients underwent repair of primary inguinal hernia mesh plug. One of the patients, 439 (74% of them have adapted follow-ups. Patients%u2019 ages ranged from 18-86. Was calculated as the mean of 47±18:07. Follow-up period of the patients was found to be a minimum of 3 months, maximum 55 months. Found an average of 28.2±13.4 months. Mean duration of surgery was 35.07±4.00 min (min:22mn-max:52mn, respectively. When complication rates of patients with recurrence in 2 patients (0.5%, hematoma development (1.4% in 6 patients, the development of infection in 11 patients (2.5% and long-term groin pain in 4 patients (0.9% appeared. Discussion: In our experience, the plug-mesh repair of primary inguinal hernia repair safe, effective low recurrence and complication rates can be used.

  12. Locomotor inhibition in adults horses faced to stressors: a single postpartum experience may be enough!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie eDurier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of postpartum handling that a newborn experiences, few studies focus on their long-term consequences. In rats, regular long separations from the mother, during the early life, led to modifications of the locomotor activity when the animal is confronted to a stressor. In horses, one component of the behavioural response to stressful situation is active locomotion. We wondered if the routine postpartum handling undergone by foals, would affect their level of reactivity or the way they express their stress, when older. One single prolonged bout of handling just after birth clearly affected later adult expression of stress reactivity. In social separation associated with novelty, handled and unhandled horses produced an equal amount of whinnies, showing a similar vocal response to stress. However, both groups differed in their locomotor response to the situations. Early-handled foals expressed less of the active forms of locomotion than the control group. Our findings highlight the need of further reflections on long-term effects of routine handlings procedures close to birth.

  13. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION. A SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE OF 100 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Granov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A single center experience of first 100 liver transplantations (LTs is summarized. Analysis of trends in cadaver donor population and waiting list status changes, and also of early and late postoperative complications are presented. 100 LTs were performed for 95 patients (pts, retransplantation – 4 pts; one patient received 3 liver transplants (female – 55 pts, male – 40 pts, mean age – 39.9 ± 12.1 years. Cumulative 1-year survival rate of pts by Kaplan–Meyer was 91%, 3-year – 83%. Biliary complications were revealed in 9% of pts during 2–9 months after LT. 77 pts have been regularly observed in outpatient clinic, mean age – 44 ± 9.2 years, male – 35, fema- le – 42, follow-up period – 1 months up to 13 years after LT. 3.9% remained invalid with limitation of ability to work, 61.8% have been working, 22.3% were capable to work, retirees were 10.5%. Development of preoperati- ve planning, adequate organ selection will allow to improve the results of LT. Study of hematopoietic stem cells role will expand tools of prognosis of posttransplant complications. 

  14. Bariatric single incision laparoscopic surgery – review of initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Frask

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to assess the results of published experience with bariatric SILS surgery, with a particular focus on treatment feasibility and safety. An EMBASE and MEDLINE database search was performed identifying 13 articles totalling 87 patients in the laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB group, 10 patients in the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG group, and 1 patient in the Roux-en-Y SILS group. In most series the learning curve was steep and operating times halved with time, reaching 53 min for LAGB and 90 min for LSG. In single case reports using strict selection criteria patients were discharged up to 24 hours following surgery. Treatment safety was satisfactory. Only two studies reported some minor complications with rates of up to 9.8%, including port malposition, port site infection, and seroma or haematoma formation. There were no complications in other studies. LAGB, LSG and Roux-en-Y surgeries were feasible although technically demanding and difficult.

  15. Improving the Patron Experience: Sterling Memorial Library's Single Service Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sider, Laura Galas

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the planning process and implementation of a single service point at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library. While much recent scholarship on single service points (SSPs) has focused on the virtues or hazards of eliminating reference desks in libraries nationwide, this essay explores the ways in which single service…

  16. Effects of mother-son incest and positive perceptions of sexual abuse experiences on the psychosocial adjustment of clinic-referred men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Robert J; Wood, Jeffrey J; Gonzalez, Lauren S; MacDonald, Virginia; Waterman, Jill

    2002-04-01

    The primary objective was to examine the long-term impact of mother-son incest and positive initial perceptions of sexual abuse experiences on adult male psychosocial functioning. Sixty-seven clinic-referred men with a history of sexual abuse participated. The participants completed self-report measures regarding their current psychosocial functioning and described the nature of their sexual and physical abuse experiences during childhood. Seventeen men reported mother-son incest, and these men endorsed more trauma symptoms than did other sexually abused men, even after controlling for a history of multiple perpetrators and physical abuse. Mother-son incest was likely to be subtle, involving behaviors that may be difficult to distinguish from normal caregiving (e.g., genital touching), despite the potentially serious long-term consequences. Twenty-seven men recalled positive or mixed initial perceptions of the abuse, including about half of the men who had been abused by their mothers. These men reported more adjustment problems than did men who recalled purely negative initial perceptions. Mother-son incest and positive initial perceptions of sexual abuse experiences both appear to be risk factors for more severe psychosocial adjustment problems among clinic-referred men.

  17. The lived experience of feeling loved: a study of mothers in a parolee program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, S L

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the meaning of the lived experience of feeling loved. The site of this study was a shelter-based parolee program. The framework that guided the study was Parse's human becoming theory, and the method was Parse's research methodology. The finding of this study is the lived experience of feeling loved is an unshakable presence arising with moments of uplifting delight amid bewildering trepidation. The findings integrated into the human becoming theory show the paradoxical and dialectic nature of feeling loved. Feeling loved is linked to living freedom, trust, and hope.

  18. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants mothers. Thematic analysis was conducted to assess patterns and generate emergent themes. Results Four major themes were identified—‘mothers' employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  19. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, Youssef H., E-mail: youssefzaidan@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Shiue, Kevin; Weed, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Johnstone, Peter A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Terry, Colin [Methodist Research Institute, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Freeman, Stephen; Krowiak, Edward; Borrowdale, Robert; Huntley, Tod [CENTA Otolaryngology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Yeh, Alex [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3-88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4-6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  20. Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon: a single centre experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Clodagh

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) can lead to life-threatening bleeding, and its optimum treatment has not been established. We review the experience of managing KMP in a single institution. METHODS: A retrospective chart review on all children with KMP treated at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, over an 18 yr period was carried out. RESULTS: All 15 patients had profound thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia at presentation, half had bleeding symptoms, and three had cardiac failure. All patients received corticosteroids. Five responded to steroids alone, given for an average of 13 wk, increasing platelets to >20 x 10(9)\\/L at a mean of 6.2 d and fibrinogen >1 g\\/dL at 25.6 d. Ten patients received at least one other therapeutic modality in addition to steroids, including vincristine, interferon, anti-platelet agents and pentoxifylline. Five patients received vincristine, for a mean of 6 wk, with two patients responding. Eight patients received interferon, for a mean of 4 months, with two patients responding. Overall, the mean time to increasing platelets >20 x 10(9)\\/L was 56 d, to >150 x 10(9)\\/L was 88 d and fibrinogen >1 g\\/dL 49 d. Ten patients showed a partial response to embolisation, with a mean of 2.8 procedures performed. Thrombotic complications occurred in 7%. Twelve patients remain alive, with relapse in six patients, all treated successfully. One patient died, and two patients have been lost to follow-up. CONCLUSION: KMP is a rare condition, with significant morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic approach should include a multidisciplinary team and consensus on guidelines.

  1. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Parotid Cancer: A Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidan, Youssef H.; Shiue, Kevin; Weed, Daniel; Johnstone, Peter A.; Terry, Colin; Freeman, Stephen; Krowiak, Edward; Borrowdale, Robert; Huntley, Tod; Yeh, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our practice policy has been to provide intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) at resection to patients with head-and-neck malignancies considered to be at high risk of recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to review our experience with the use of IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 2007, 96 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland. The median age was 62.9 years (range, 14.3–88.1). Of the 96 patients, 33 had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy as a component of definitive therapy. Also, 34 patients had positive margins after surgery, and 40 had perineural invasion. IORT was administered as a single fraction of 15 or 20 Gy with 4–6-MeV electrons. The median follow-up period was 5.6 years. Results: Only 1 patient experienced local recurrence, 19 developed regional recurrence, and 12 distant recurrence. The recurrence-free survival rate at 1, 3, and 5 years was 82.0%, 68.5%, and 65.2%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rate after surgery and IORT was 88.4%, 66.1%, and 56.2%, respectively. No perioperative fatalities occurred. Complications developed in 26 patients and included vascular complications in 7, trismus in 6, fistulas in 4, radiation osteonecrosis in 4, flap necrosis in 2, wound dehiscence in 2, and neuropathy in 1. Of these 26 patients, 12 had recurrent disease, and 8 had undergone external beam radiotherapy before IORT. Conclusions: IORT results in effective local disease control at acceptable levels of toxicity and should be considered for patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the parotid gland.

  2. Intergenerational associations between a consensual childhood sexual experience and adult substance abuse among Latina mothers and daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patria Rojas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Patria Rojas2,3, Sunny Kim4, Mario De La Rosa2,3, Frank R Dillon2,3, Theophile Niyonsenga1,31Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, 2School of Social Work, 3Center for Research on US Latinos HIV/AIDs and Drug Abuse, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Davis, CA, USAPurpose: Early onset of sexual activity has been linked to later substance abuse. Our study aimed to further describe the associations between Latina mothers’ and daughters’ early sexual activity and adult substance abuse.Methods: A survey was conducted with 92 Latina mother–daughter dyads whose members never experienced sexual abuse. Childhood sexual experience was defined as the occurrence of a consensual sexual encounter at the age of 15 years or younger. Substance abusers were identified by the extent of substance use during the 12 months prior to the interview. Path analysis was used to fit our conceptual models to the data.Main findings: Daughters’ current, adult substance abuse was associated independently with: their own childhood sexual experience (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0 and mothers’ current, adult substance abuse (OR = 2.0. Compared with daughters who first experienced sex after the age of 19, the odds of using substances were 17.7 times higher among daughters who had childhood sexual experience and 3.8 times higher among daughters who first experienced sex between the age of 16–19 years. Explicitly, sexual experiences between the ages of 16–19 years were also risk factors for later adult substance abuse. Mothers’ childhood sexual experience (OR = 7.3 was a strong predictor for daughters’ childhood sexual experience.Conclusions: Our study supported a link between mother and daughter childhood sexual experience among Latinas, and indicated it is a correlate of adult substance abuse. Family based substance abuse prevention efforts and future longitudinal studies

  3. Design and Analysis of Single-Cell Sequencing Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Dominic; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in single-cell sequencing hold great potential for exploring biological systems with unprecedented resolution. Sequencing the genome of individual cells can reveal somatic mutations and allows the investigation of clonal dynamics. Single-cell transcriptome sequencing can elucidate

  4. Good Enough Support? Exploring the Attitudes, Knowledge and Experiences of Practitioners in Social Services and Child Welfare Working with Mothers with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Bernoldová, Jana; Adamcíková, Zdenka; Klusácek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the attitudes, knowledge and experiences of practitioners in social services and child welfare working with mothers with intellectual disability. Method: The authors used a national survey, which was completed by 329 participants. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were generated, and the associations…

  5. "She would sit with me": mothers' experiences of individual peer support for exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nankabirwa Victoria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different strategies have been used to improve the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Peer counsellors are reported to improve exclusive breastfeeding levels, but few studies have assessed the satisfaction of women with the support given, especially in Africa. In this paper we describe women's experiences of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding in an East African setting. Methods In the Ugandan site of PROMISE-EBF, a multi-centre community randomised trial to evaluate the effect of peer counselling for exclusive breastfeeding on infant health, 370 women in the intervention arm participated in a study exit interview. Individual peer counselling was offered to women in 12 of the 24 study clusters, scheduled as five visits: before childbirth and during weeks 1, 4, 7 and 10 after childbirth. During the visits, the women were given information and skills to help them breastfeed exclusively. After the 10-week visit, they were interviewed about their feelings and experiences related to the peer counselling. Results Overall, more than 95% of the women expressed satisfaction with the various aspects of peer counselling offered. Those who had received five or more visits were more likely to give positive responses about their experience with peer counselling than those who had received fewer visits. They explained their satisfaction with time spent with the peer counsellor in terms of how much she discussed with them. Most women felt their knowledge needs about breastfeeding were covered by the peer counsellors, while others expressed a desire to learn about complementary feeding and family planning. Attributes of the peer counsellors included their friendliness, being women and giving support in a familiar and relaxed way. Women were positive about the acquisition of knowledge and the benefit to their babies from the peer counselling. They preferred a peer counsellor to a health worker for support of exclusive

  6. Breastfeeding mothers returning to work: experiences of women at one university in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Carole; Monk, Hilary; Hall, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Working women need to juggle work, child care and family to continue to breastfeed. This qualitative study's aim was to explore women's experiences of returning to work following the birth of their baby. Focus groups were held with women within one multi-campus university, who had commenced breastfeeding at birth and had returned to work or study within 12 months. In addition, educators working with babies in childcare centres on two of the campuses were interviewed. Thematic analysis was employed used Rogoff's (2003) three planes of analysis, the individual, the interpersonal and the cultural-institutional. Three themes, proximity, flexibility, and communication, were identified relating to the factors impacting on women and their choices to breastfeed or wean on returning to work. From a socio-cultural perspective these themes can be understood as situated within the interrelated contexts of workplace, child care and family. Limitations of the study include the small number of participants and recruitment from one university.

  7. Experiences and perspectives of mothers of the pertussis vaccination programme in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslade, C G; Heffernan, C M; Atchison, C J

    2017-05-01

    In 2012, a pertussis outbreak prompted a national vaccination programme for pregnant women, which provides passive protection for infants. Vaccine uptake in London is consistently lower than elsewhere in the UK. There are few studies looking at the reasons why pregnant women accept or refuse pertussis vaccination. Therefore, this study aimed to gain a better understanding of London women's views and experiences, to identify how services might be improved. Cross-sectional qualitative semi-structured interviews study. Purposive sampling of four London boroughs was made, taking boroughs in different geographical locations, with varying levels of deprivation and pertussis vaccine uptake. Participants were recruited through baby clinics and interviews conducted covering knowledge about pertussis, the vaccine, information given during pregnancy, factors influencing decision-making, experience of vaccination, future intentions in another pregnancy and recommendations for improving uptake. A thematic analysis approach was used. A total of 42 interviews were conducted. Five main themes were identified: (1) lack of discussion about pertussis; (2) desire to protect the baby; (3) trust in health professionals; (4) convenience of vaccination; and (5) help navigating 'busyness of pregnancy'. This study found that, if offered, most women would accept vaccination. Although vaccination through the general practitioner was convenient, more options for vaccination, such as through antenatal clinics, might increase uptake. Despite usage of the internet to look up medical information, women wanted to discuss vaccination with their midwives or general practitioners. Women wanted a simple pregnancy 'checklist' to help ensure that they had received all recommended aspects of antenatal care including vaccination. Poor uptake of vaccine is not always due to lack of demand or active refusals. Service providers have an important role to play in actively promoting vaccination services

  8. THE NATURE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CHILD’S ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER AND THE EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY WELL-BEING IN ADULTHOOD

    OpenAIRE

    L. M. Samoshkina; G. S. Alexeeva

    2015-01-01

    Background. Attachment to mother is viewed as the primary sample of bonding with a close person, thus its quality has an impact on the relationships with a partner. Objectives. A research of the nature of connection between child’s attachment to mother and the experience of the family well-being in adulthood is presented. Method. The empirical research was carried out by internet survey with the help of the following methods: “Satisfaction with marriage” by Stolin V., Butenko G., Roma...

  9. Bereavement Experiences of Mothers and Fathers over Time after the Death of a Child due to Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rifat; Barrera, Maru; D'Agostino, Norma; Nicholas, David B.; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated longitudinally bereavement in mothers and fathers whose children died of cancer. Thirty-one parents were interviewed 6 and 18 months post-death. Analyses revealed parental differences and changes over time: (a) employment--fathers were more work-focused; (b) grief reactions--mothers expressed more intense grief reactions…

  10. Experience of Parenthood, Couple Relationship, Social Support, and Child-Rearing Goals in Planned Lesbian Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Van Den Boom, Dymphna C.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The phenomenon of planned lesbian families (i.e., two-mother families in which the child was born to the lesbian relationship) is relatively new and very little research has been conducted among those families. The overall aim of this research was to examine whether planned lesbian mother families differ from heterosexual families on…

  11. Initial experience with single-port robotic hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mariano Tamura Vieira; Machado, Andréa Maria Novaes; Podgaec, Sérgio; Barison, Gustavo Anderman Silva

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the first series of robotic single-port hysterectomy cases performed at a hospital in Brazil. From November 2014 to October 2016, 11 patients were indicated to undergo, and nine of them were submitted to single-port hysterectomy using da Vinci Single-Site® platform. However, in two patients, due to multiple previous abdominal surgeries, large uterine volume, and/or a uterus with no mobility, a pneumoperitoneum was performed with a Verres needle, and the pelvic cavity was assessed using a 5mm optics endoscope. In these cases, single-port surgery was not recommended; therefore, multiportal robotic access was chosen, and no intercurrent events were reported. Nine single-port cases were operated on by the same surgeon at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Patient data analyzed included age, body mass index, previous surgeries, and clinical diagnosis. Surgical data included operative time, skin incision, report of intraoperative complications, need for conversion to laparotomy, need for transfer to intensive care unit, need for blood transfusion, inadvertent injury to other organs, length of hospital stay, and death. All cases were completed with da Vinci Single-Site® system, with no intercurrent events. Four patients presented with adenomyosis as the surgical indication, two had uterine myoma, one endometrial cancer, one endometrial polyp, and one desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. The mean age of patients was 44 years (range, 40 to 54 years), and body mass index varied between 23.4 and 33.2kg/m2 (mean 26.4). No complications occurred in any of the cases, such as intestinal or bladder injury, bleeding, or the need for a second surgery. All nine procedures were completed with the robotic single-port access, and no patient required a blood transfusion. Although this study merely presented an initial series of patients submitted to robotic single-port surgery, it demonstrated that the method is feasible and safe, suggesting the possible use of

  12. How seasonality and weather affect perinatal health: Comparing the experiences of indigenous and non-indigenous mothers in Kanungu District, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Sarah; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Harper, Sherilee; Steele, Vivienne; Lwasa, Shuaib; Bambaiha, Didacus Namanya; Twesigomwe, Sabastien; Asaasira, Grace; Ross, Nancy

    2017-08-01

    Maternal and newborn health disparities and the health impacts of climate change present grand challenges for global health equity, and there remain knowledge gaps in our understanding of how these challenges intersect. This study examines the pathways through which mothers are affected by seasonal and meteorological factors in sub-Saharan Africa in general, and Kanungu District (Uganda), in particular. We conducted a community-based study consisting of focus group discussions with mothers and interviews with health care workers in Kanungu District. Using a priori and a posteriori coding, we found a diversity of perspectives on the impacts of seasonal and weather exposures, with reporting of more food available in the rainy season. The rainy season was also identified as the period in which women performed physical labour for longer time periods, while work conditions in the dry season were reported to be more difficult due to heat. The causal pathways through which weather and seasonality may be affecting size at birth as reported by Kanungu mothers were consistent with those most frequently reported in the literature elsewhere, including maternal energy balance (nutritional intake and physical exertion output) and seasonal illness. While both Indigenous and non-Indigenous mothers described similar pathways, however, the severity of these experiences differed. Non-Indigenous mothers frequently relied on livestock assets or opportunities for less taxing physical work than Indigenous women, who had fewer options when facing food shortages or transport costs. Findings point to specific entry points for intervention including increased nutritional support in dry season periods of food scarcity, increased diversification of wage labour opportunities, and increased access to contraception. Interventions should be particularly targeted towards Indigenous mothers as they face greater food insecurity, may have fewer sources of income, and face greater overall deprivation

  13. "That was intense!" Spirituality during childbirth: a mixed-method comparative study of mothers' and fathers' experiences in a public hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger-Lévesque, Marie-Noëlle; Dumas, Marc; Blouin, Simon; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2016-09-30

    While spirituality is well described in end-of-life care literature, research on its place in the delivery room remains largely limited to mother-oriented qualitative studies focusing on life-threatening situations (e.g., high-risk pregnancies). Our aim was to compare mothers' and fathers' spirituality during childbirth. A mixed methods questionnaire was developed from our childbirth-related spirituality categorization and distributed to all parents of newborns, 12-24 h postpartum, over 45 consecutive days. Paired-sample t-tests and qualitative thematic analysis were used to compare mothers and fathers. Multiple linear regressions identified factors associated with their respective global scores (vaginal and cesarean deliveries separately). The global scores for mothers (38.6/50) and fathers (37.2/50) were similarly high (N = 197; p = 0.001). Highest-ranked ("respect", "moral responsibility", "beauty of life", "gratitude") and lowest-ranked spiritual themes ("prayer", "greater than self") were in agreement. Fathers scored higher on "fragility of life" (p = 0.006) and mothers on "self-accomplishment" (p‹0.001), "letting go" (p‹0.001), and "meaningfulness" (p = 0.003). "Admission of baby in neonatal unit" was associated with higher global score for both mothers and fathers. Other factors also increased fathers' (witnessing a severe tear) and mothers' scores (birthplace outside Canada; for vaginal deliveries, religious belonging and longer pushing stage). These first quantitative data on the prevalence of spirituality during childbirth highlight a high score for both parents, among a non-selected public hospital population. Spirituality emerges not only from unordinary situations but from any childbirth as an "intensification of the human experience". Significant differences for some spiritual themes indicate the need to consider the spirituality of both parents.

  14. Day-care hypospadias surgery: Single surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekharam V.V.S.S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report the results of the early discharge of children after hypospadias repair with an indwelling catheter. Materials and Methods: To facilitate early the discharge of children after hypospadias repair, the author adopted the technique of draining the indwelling urinary catheter into diapers in children undergoing this operation. Home catheter care was taught to the mother; the dressings and catheters were subsequently managed in the outpatient clinic. Results: Over a 2-year period, 43 children were managed by this technique and were sent home within 24-48 h after the operation with an indwelling catheter. Minor problems requiring outpatient visits to the surgeon occurred in nine (20% children after discharge from the hospital. All the nine children were successfully managed as outpatients and no child required rehospitalisation. The catheter remained in position for 5 days in all the children. The overall results were satisfactory with an acceptable (7% fistula rate. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the duration of the hospital stay of children after hypospadias repair without compromising on the final results.

  15. Pancreatic pseudocyst in children: a single-institute experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives Pancreatic pseudocysts are rare in children, with most series describing not more than. 24 patients. At Zagazig University Hospital we have managed a range of cases of this disorder and feel this experience should add to the existing experience with children. This study aimed to analyze the ...

  16. Pancreatic pseudocyst in children: a single-institute experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives: Pancreatic pseudocysts are rare in children, with most series describing not more than 24 patients. At Zagazig University Hospital we have managed a range of cases of this disorder and feel this experience should add to the existing experience with children. This study aimed to analyze the ...

  17. Chicago Mothers on Finding and Using Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Marcia; Alexander, David; Nicpon, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Few issues confound child care policy more than the fact that very large numbers of mothers work evenings, overnight, or weekend hours when fewer child care programs operate. The authors interviewed 50 single Chicago mothers with nontraditional work hours about their experiences finding and using child care. Participants' responses addressed…

  18. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis will be placed on the crystal growth of various oxides (superconductors and magnetic materials), borides and carbides using the image furnaces at Warwick. The floating zone method of crystal ...

  19. Single-layer closure of typhoid enteric perforation: Our experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied the effects of single versus double layer intestinal closure after typhoid enteric perforation with peritonitis in 902 pediatric patients from September 2007 to April 2012. All the patients underwent laparotomy after resuscitation and antibiotic cover. The patients were divided ...

  20. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis will be placed on the crystal growth of various oxides (superconductors and magnetic materials), borides and carbides using the image furnaces at Warwick. The floating zone method of crystal growth used in ...

  1. The Mother's Autonomy in Decision Making (MADM) scale: Patient-led development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to evaluate experience of maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedam, Saraswathi; Stoll, Kathrin; Martin, Kelsey; Rubashkin, Nicholas; Partridge, Sarah; Thordarson, Dana; Jolicoeur, Ganga

    2017-01-01

    To develop and validate a new instrument that assesses women's autonomy and role in decision making during maternity care. Through a community-based participatory research process, service users designed, content validated, and administered a cross-sectional quantitative survey, including 31 items on the experience of decision-making. Pregnancy experiences (n = 2514) were reported by 1672 women who saw a single type of primary maternity care provider in British Columbia. They described care by a midwife, family physician or obstetrician during 1, 2 or 3 maternity care cycles. We conducted psychometric testing in three separate samples. We assessed reliability, item-to-total correlations, and the factor structure of the The Mothers' Autonomy in Decision Making (MADM) scale. We report MADM scores by care provider type, length of prenatal appointments, preferences for role in decision-making, and satisfaction with experience of decision-making. The MADM scale measures a single construct: autonomy in decision-making during maternity care. Cronbach alphas for the scale exceeded 0.90 for all samples and all provider groups. All item-to-total correlations were replicable across three samples and exceeded 0.7. Eigenvalue and scree plots exhibited a clear 90-degree angle, and factor analysis generated a one factor scale. MADM median scores were highest among women who were cared for by midwives, and 10 or more points lower for those who saw physicians. Increased time for prenatal appointments was associated with higher scale scores, and there were significant differences between providers with respect to average time spent in prenatal appointments. Midwifery care was associated with higher MADM scores, even during short prenatal appointments (maternity care. This new scale was developed and content validated by community members representing various populations of childbearing women in BC including women from vulnerable populations. MADM measures women's ability to lead

  2. Action spectroscopy for single-molecule reactions - Experiments and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Motobayashi, K.; Frederiksen, T.; Ueba, H.; Kawai, M.

    2015-05-01

    We review several representative experimental results of action spectroscopy (AS) of single molecules on metal surfaces using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by M. Kawai's group over last decade. The experimental procedures to observe STM-AS are described. A brief description of a low-temperature STM and experimental setup are followed by key experimental techniques of how to determine an onset bias voltage of a reaction and how to measure a current change associated with reactions and finally how to observe AS for single molecule reactions. The experimental results are presented for vibrationally mediated chemical transformation of trans-2-butene to 1.3-butadiene molecule and rotational motion of a single cis-2-butene molecule among four equivalent orientations on Pd(1 1 0). The AS obtained from the motion clearly detects more vibrational modes than inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy with an STM. AS is demonstrated as a useful and novel single molecule vibrational spectroscopy. The AS for a lateral hopping of water dimer on Pt(1 1 1) is presented as an example of novelty. Several distinct vibrational modes are detected as the thresholds in the AS. The assignment of the vibrational modes determined from the analysis of the AS is made from a view of the adsorption geometry of hydrogen-bond donor or acceptor molecules in water dimer. A generic theory of STM-AS, i.e., a reaction rate or yield as a function of bias voltage, is presented using a single adsorbate resonance model for single molecule reactions induced by the inelastic tunneling current. Formulas for the reaction rate R (V) and Y (V) , i.e., reaction yield per electron Y (V) = eR (V) / I are derived. It provides a versatile framework to analyze any vibrationally mediated reactions of single adsorbates on metal surfaces. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate generic features of the vibrational generation rate and Y (V) at different levels of approximations and to show how the effective

  3. Solar axion experiments using coherent Primakoff conversion in single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avignone, F.T.; Abriola, D.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Collar, J.I.; Creswick, R.J.; DiGregorio, D.E.; Farach, H.A.; Gattone, A.O.; Guerard, C.K.; Hasenbalg, F.; Huck, H.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nussinov, S.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Reeves, J.H.; Villar, J.A.; Zioutas, K.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a 1.94 kg · y pilot search for solar axions with an ultralow background Ge detector are reviewed. The detection method is based on Bragg-coherent Primakoff conversion of axions into photons when the momentum vectors of the axion and photon satisfy the Bragg condition. The theory of the experiment are presented for Ge and Te0 2 crystals. Future prospects of large volume experiments are discussed

  4. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: A cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinkala Moses

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. Methods We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed and those that had not (unexposed and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Results Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0. Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19% at both the first (unexposed and second (exposed delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. Conclusion These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  5. Reuse of single-dose nevirapine in subsequent pregnancies for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Lusaka, Zambia: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jan; Kuhn, Louise; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2008-12-30

    Single-dose nevirapine (SDNVP) for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) results in the selection of resistance mutants among HIV-infected mothers. The effects of these mutations on the efficacy of SDNVP use in a subsequent pregnancy are not well understood. We compared risks of perinatal HIV transmission between multiparous women who had previously received a dose of SDNVP (exposed) and those that had not (unexposed) and who were given SDNVP for the index pregnancy within a PMTCT clinical study. We also compared transmission risks among exposed and unexposed women who had two consecutive pregnancies within the trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to adjust for possible confounders. Transmission risks did not differ between 59 SDNVP-exposed and 782 unexposed women in unadjusted analysis or after adjustment for viral load and disease stage (adjusted odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 2.0). Among 43 women who had two consecutive pregnancies during the study, transmission risks were 7% (95% CI 1% to 19%) at both the first (unexposed) and second (exposed) delivery. The results were unchanged, if infant death was included as an outcome. These data suggest that the efficacy of SDNVP may not be diminished when reused in subsequent pregnancies.

  6. Using Social Network of TELEGRAM for Education on Continued Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding of Children among Mothers: a Successful Experience from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham Ghaffari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distanceeducation for mothers with suckling babies can have a high effect and more proponents due to short time of such mothers as well as other problems like bringing infant with themselves. Authors of this research have shared an experience on application of social network of Telegram for educational intervention in field of continued breast feeding and complementary feeding of children among Iranian women. Materials and Methods: In this research, social network of Telegram was employed to provide teachings associated with continued breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children to mothers based on the model of Center for Diseases Control of USA (CDC. 90 members, out of 125 mothers who were informed, became member of Telegram group voluntary with informed consent,namely that the participation rate was 72%. The Telegram group called "Mother’s love - Mother’s milk" was designed on August 2016 and has been active for 6 months until this date. The group has been active under the management of an experienced physician and consultation with a pharmacist. Results: Participants of this research reported cell phone, internet, physician, books, and journals as the most-used sources, respectively, to access to information about breast feeding and health of their children. Only five mother of group-member mothers were uneducated or had elementary education level. Also, it was determined that the higher percentage of women who joined Telegram group were housewives compared with the group who had no tendency to join group. 100% of members evaluated membership in Telegram group and subjects related to complementary feeding beneficial and 39 of 41 (95% participants in an E-survey, were satisfied with learning, and 35 members (85.4% were satisfied with teaching. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of social networks as potential educational field. Usage of this media, particularly among women groups under specific circumstance

  7. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  8. Corpuscular Model of Two-Beam Interference and Double-Slit Experiments with Single Photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Fengping; Yuan, Shengjun; De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Miyashita, Seiji

    We introduce an event-based corpuscular simulation model that reproduces the wave mechanical results of single-photon double-slit and two-beam interference experiments and (of a one-to-one copy of an experimental realization) of a single-photon interference experiment with a Fresnel biprism. The

  9. Parenting African American Children With Autism: The Influence of Respect and Faith in Mother, Father, Single-, and Two-Parent Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna; Manning-Courtney, Patricia

    2016-08-10

    Parents are the most significant contributor to care of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and as such research on African American parenting in ASD is conspicuously absent. Findings relevant to parenting are discussed from a study with urban African American families caring for children with ASD. An ethnonursing study was conducted with 24 African American family members of children with ASD and 28 professionals. Data were analyzed and reported as themes. Two universal themes of were found of respect and faith in God and family that influenced parental care. Two diverse themes of mother's watchful care and father's protective care, along with differences in feelings of isolation and dependence on supports were found among single- and two-parent families. When health care professionals increase their knowledge and understanding of cultural practices in the parental care of children with ASD, they provide health care that is culturally congruent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. ASP: a new PEP experiment to measure single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebeek, R.

    1984-05-01

    The design and construction of a new experiment for PEP designed to measure the flux of low energy photons unaccompanied by any additional photons, or charged tracks is described. The device consists of arrays of extruded lead glass bars and PWC's in the central region with lead-scintillator shower counters, drift chambers and PWC's in the forward regions. 9 references

  11. Identification of Nevirapine-Resistant HIV-1 in the Latent Reservoir after Single-Dose Nevirapine to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind-Rotolo, Megan; Durand, Christine; Cranmer, Lisa; Reid, Alison; Martinson, Neil; Doherty, Meg; Jilek, Benjamin L.; Kagaayi, Joseph; Kizza, Allan; Pillay, Visva; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Reynolds, Steven J.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Lau, Bryan; Ray, Stuart C.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Intrapartum single-dose nevirapine decreases mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) but promotes nevirapine resistance. Although resistant viruses fade to undetectable levels in plasma, they may persist as stably integrated proviruses within the latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells, potentially complicating future treatment. Methods Blood samples were collected from 60 women from South Africa and Uganda >6 months after they had received single-dose nevirapine. To selectively analyze the stable latent form of HIV-1, resting CD4+ T cells were isolated and activated in the presence of reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and integrase inhibitors, which allows for the specific isolation of viruses produced by cells with stably integrated proviral DNA. These viruses were then analyzed for nevirapine resistance. Results Although only a small number of latently infected cells were present in each blood sample (mean, 162 cells), nevirapine resistance mutations (K103N and G190A) were detected in the latent reservoir of 4 (8%) of 50 evaluable women. Conclusions A single dose of nevirapine can establish antiretroviral resistance within the latent reservoir. This results in a potentially lifelong risk of reemergence of nevirapine-resistant virus and highlights the need for strategies to prevent transmission that do not compromise successful future treatment. PMID:19338474

  12. Obstacles to preventing obesity in children aged 2 to 5 years: Latino mothers' and fathers' experiences and perceptions of their urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penilla, Carlos; Tschann, Jeanne M; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Flores, Elena; Ozer, Emily J

    2017-11-02

    The prevalence of obesity among Latino children is alarmingly high, when compared to non-Latino White children. Low-income Latino parents living in urban areas, even if they are well-educated, face obstacles that shape familial health behaviors. This study used qualitative methods to explore parents' experiences in providing meals and opportunities to play to their children aged 2 to 5 years. In contrast to most prior studies, this study examined perceptions of familial behaviors among both mothers and fathers. An ecological framework for exploring the associations of parental feeding behaviors and children's weight informed this study. An interview guide was developed to explore parents' experiences and perceptions about children's eating and physical activity and administered to six focus groups in a community-based organization in the Mission District of San Francisco. Transcripts were coded and analyzed. Twenty seven mothers and 22 fathers of Latino children ages 2 to 5 participated. Mothers, fathers, and couples reported that employment, day care, neighborhood environments and community relationships were experienced, and perceived as obstacles to promoting health behavior among their children, including drinking water instead of soda and participating in organized playtime with other preschool-age children. Results from this study suggest that the parents' demographic, social and community characteristics influence what and how they feed their children, as well as how often and the types of opportunities they provide for physical activity, providing further evidence that an ecological framework is useful for guiding research with both mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers identified numerous community and society-level constraints in their urban environments. The results point to the importance of standardized work hours, resources for day care providers, clean and safe streets and parks, strong community relationships, and reduced access to sugar

  13. Open-Access Single Balloon Enteroscopy: A Tertiary Care Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Nathan; Wallace, Kristin; Moore, J Matthew; Brock, Andrew S

    2015-12-01

    To compare single balloon enteroscopy (SBE) between patients seen in consultation by a member of our gastroenterology team with those performed as open-access cases. Retrospective study of all patients who underwent SBE at a single tertiary care center from April 2008 to January 2012. Open- and closed-access procedures were compared in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic yield, adverse events, and procedural success. A total of 125 SBEs were performed on 125 patients. The mean age was 63.1 (53% men) years. In all, 43 procedures were performed open access and 82 after face-to-face consultation. Indications included anemia/gastrointestinal bleeding (110), abdominal pain (8), and other (7). Diagnostic yield for open- and closed-access procedures was 53% and 60%, respectively (P = 0.501) and therapeutic yield was 37% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.11). Overall technical success was 91% with no difference between the groups (P = 0.27). There were no major adverse events in either group. SBE can be performed as an open-access procedure without compromise to safety or diagnostic yield.

  14. Working with complexity: experiences of caring for mothers seeking residential parenting services in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Dickinson, Marie; Dahlen, Hannah Grace

    2017-02-01

    To investigate staff perception of the changing complexity of mothers and infants admitted to two residential parenting services in New South Wales in the decade from 2005-2015. For many mothers with a young child, parenting is difficult and stressful. If parenting occurs within the context of anxiety, mental illness or abuse it often becomes a high-risk situation for the primary caregiver. Residential parenting services provide early nursing intervention before parenting problems escalate and require physical or mental health focused care. A qualitative descriptive design using semi-structured interview questions was used as phase three of a larger study. Data were gathered from 35 child and family health nurses and ten physicians during eight focus groups. Three main themes emerged: (1) dealing with complexity; (2) changing practice; and (3) appropriate knowledge and skills to handle greater complexity. There was a mix of participant opinions about the increasing complexity of the mothers presenting at residential parenting services during the past decade. Some of the nurses and physicians confirmed an increase in complexity of the mothers while several participants proposed that it was linked to their increased psychosocial assessment knowledge and skill. All participants recognised their work had grown in complexity regardless of their perception about the increased complexity of the mothers. Australian residential parenting services have a significant role in supporting mothers and their families who are experiencing parenting difficulties. It frequently provides early intervention that helps minimise later emotional and physical problems. Nurses are well placed to work with and support mothers with complex histories. Acknowledgement is required that this work is stressful and nurses need to be adequately supported and educated to manage the complex presentations of many families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajas...

  16. Mothers of Children with Special Health Care Needs: Documenting the Experience of Their Children’s Care in the School Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Lori S.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have increased in schools. This study was conducted to document mothers’ experiences of the care their CSHCN receive across health care and educational settings. Data were collected during standardized, open-ended, one-on-one interviews with 10 mothers of CSHCN in urban, suburban, and rural areas in a Midwestern state. Interviews were transcribed and content analysis revealed five themes: (a) communication, (b) educational system ...

  17. Single molecule experiments challenge the strict wave-particle dualism of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, Karl Otto

    2010-01-21

    Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the "single photon limit" of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. "Single photon detectors" do not meet their promise-only "photon number resolving single photon detectors" do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  18. Single Molecule Experiments Challenge the Strict Wave-Particle Dualism of Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Greulich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Single molecule techniques improve our understanding of the photon and light. If the single photon double slit experiment is performed at the “single photon limit” of a multi-atom light source, faint light pulses with more than one photon hamper the interpretation. Single molecules, quantum dots or defect centres in crystals should be used as light source. “Single photon detectors” do not meet their promise―only “photon number resolving single photon detectors” do so. Particularly, the accumulation time argument, the only safe basis for the postulate of a strictly particle like photon, has so far not yet been verified.

  19. Theory of single-molecule controlled rotation experiments, predictions, tests, and comparison with stalling experiments in F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkán-Kacsó, Sándor; Marcus, Rudolph A

    2016-10-25

    A recently proposed chemomechanical group transfer theory of rotary biomolecular motors is applied to treat single-molecule controlled rotation experiments. In these experiments, single-molecule fluorescence is used to measure the binding and release rate constants of nucleotides by monitoring the occupancy of binding sites. It is shown how missed events of nucleotide binding and release in these experiments can be corrected using theory, with F 1 -ATP synthase as an example. The missed events are significant when the reverse rate is very fast. Using the theory the actual rate constants in the controlled rotation experiments and the corrections are predicted from independent data, including other single-molecule rotation and ensemble biochemical experiments. The effective torsional elastic constant is found to depend on the binding/releasing nucleotide, and it is smaller for ADP than for ATP. There is a good agreement, with no adjustable parameters, between the theoretical and experimental results of controlled rotation experiments and stalling experiments, for the range of angles where the data overlap. This agreement is perhaps all the more surprising because it occurs even though the binding and release of fluorescent nucleotides is monitored at single-site occupancy concentrations, whereas the stalling and free rotation experiments have multiple-site occupancy.

  20. A experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem Maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Henrich Crestani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a experiência da maternidade e dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. PROCEDIMENTOS: o objetivo de investigar as possíveis relações entre a constituição da experiência da maternidade e a dialogia mãe-filho com distúrbio de linguagem. A amostra desta pesquisa foi constituída por 4 crianças, entre 2 e 4 anos, com distúrbio de linguagem, e suas mães. As mães foram submetidas a uma entrevista semi-estruturada acerca da experiência materna e a possibilidade de a mesma ter passado por alterações emocionais tais como a depressão e/ou ansiedade. Coletou-se uma interação mãe-filho, e em um caso avó-neta, através da filmagem da díade em atividade lúdica para analisar o modo como a dialogia e a interação aconteciam na díade. RESULTADOS: demonstraram que as quatro crianças estiveram sujeitas a interações com mães e avó com índices de ansiedade (dois casos e depressão (dois casos. Apenas uma mãe não possuía tais índices e esta possuía dialogia adequada com a filha. CONCLUSÃO: os dados demonstraram relações entre a dialogia mãe-filho e a experiência materna. Houve distinções na dialogia e no brincar relacionados aos estados emocionais das mães e, em um caso, da avó.BACKGROUND: the maternal experience and language impairment mother-child dialogics. PROCEDURES: the aim was to research the possible relations between maternal experience and mother-child dialogics, in language impairment children cases. The sample was made up with four children, between two and four year old with language impairment and their mothers.The mothers answered a semi-structured interview about the maternal experience and possible mothers' emotional signs like anxiety and depression. The pairs engaged in interaction were videotaped in order to interpret the mother's speech, in one case grand-mother, and the interaction process. RESULTS: the results showed that the children were in interactions with mothers and a grandmother

  1. SINGLE-CENTER EXPERIENCE OF ABO-INCOMPATIBLE LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 up to 2010 eight ABO-incompatible liver transplantations have been performed in our center: one of them was urgent liver transplantation to adult patient from deceased donor, other seven were transplantations of left lateral segment to children from living relative donors. Own experience, as well as world one, proves, that barrier of ABO-incompatibility can be overcome more successfully in liver transplantation, particularly in pediatric population, that in other solid organs transplantation. Good results can be achieved even with less ag- gressive immunosuppressive therapy. Recipient conditioning before operation can significantly improve results of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, but as own experience has shown, often there’s no need to hold some special preparation of children, because their anti-ABO antibodies are very low or absent before transplantation and do not increase after it. Thereby ABO-incompatible liver transplantation is reasonable in urgent cases and in pediatric population because of the limited pull of living relative donors for children. 

  2. Single-port laparoscopy in gynecologic oncology: seven years of experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Laura; Jernigan, Amelia M; Carr, Caitlin; Freeman, Lindsey; Escobar, Pedro F; Michener, Chad M

    2017-11-01

    Single-port laparoscopy has gained popularity within minimally invasive gynecologic surgery for its feasibility, cosmetic outcomes, and safety. However, within gynecologic oncology, there are limited data regarding short-term adverse outcomes and long-term hernia risk in patients undergoing single-port laparoscopic surgery. The objective of the study was to describe short-term outcomes and hernia rates in patients after single-port laparoscopy in a gynecologic oncology practice. A retrospective, single-institution study was performed for patients who underwent single-port laparoscopy from 2009 to 2015. A univariate analysis was performed with χ 2 tests and Student t tests; Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards determined time to hernia development. A total of 898 patients underwent 908 surgeries with a median follow-up of 37.2 months. The mean age and body mass index were 55.7 years and 29.6 kg/m 2 , respectively. The majority were white (87.9%) and American Society of Anesthesiologists class II/III (95.5%). The majority of patients underwent surgery for adnexal masses (36.9%) and endometrial hyperplasia/cancer (37.3%). Most women underwent hysterectomy (62.7%) and removal of 1 or both fallopian tubes and/or ovaries (86%). Rate of adverse outcomes within 30 days, including reoperation (0.1%), intraoperative injury (1.4%), intensive care unit admission (0.4%), venous thromboembolism (0.3%), and blood transfusion, were low (0.8%). The rate of urinary tract infection was 2.8%; higher body mass index (P = .02), longer operative time (P = .02), smoking (P = .01), hysterectomy (P = .01), and cystoscopy (P = .02) increased the risk. The rate of incisional cellulitis was 3.5%. Increased estimated blood loss (P = .03) and endometrial cancer (P = .02) were independent predictors of incisional cellulitis. The rate for surgical readmissions was 3.4%; higher estimated blood loss (P = .03), longer operative time (P = .02), chemotherapy alone (P = .03), and

  3. Postpercutaneous Nephrolithotomy Nephrostogram: Is It Mandatory? A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rouf Khawaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective. “Postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram” (PPNN is routinely performed in most of the centers. No published series could be found in the literature without post percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram. Hence, the aim of our study is to highlight that post percutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram is not mandatory and it only adds to cost and morbidity without adding any information in the management of such patients. Methods. It was a prospective study from 2005 to 2012, conducted in our institute. It included 119 patients of renal stones who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy performed under the guidance of a single surgeon. Postoperative nephrostogram was not done in any of the patients. Results. Complete stone clearance was achieved in 97.5% of patients and 2.5% of patients needed two to three sessions of ESWL later on. None of the patients needed second look percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrostogram. Conclusion. Postpercutaneous nephrolithotomy nephrostogram increases chances of infection, inconvenience, contrast related complications, and cost, with no added advantage over plain X-ray KUB, and it should not be done as a routine investigation prior to the removal of PCN tube in patients with complete stone clearance.

  4. Tachyarrhythmia following Norwood operation: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Katja M; Schuchardt, Eleanor L; Moroze, Meghan K; Kaufman, Jonathan; Cruz, Eduardo da; Campbell, David N; Mitchell, Max B; Jaggers, James; Collins, Kathryn K; McCanta, Anthony C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize tachyarrhythmias in children following the Norwood procedure. This is a single-center retrospective study including all children who underwent stage I Norwood procedure (n = 98; January 2003-September 2011). The primary outcome measure is the development of tachyarrhythmia during hospitalization after the Norwood procedure. Secondary aims include quantification of mortality in patients with tachyarrhythmias and evaluation of potential risk factors for the development of tachyarrhythmia. Tachyarrhythmia occurred in 33 (34%) of 98 patients. The median time to onset of tachyarrhythmia was ten days (0-47 days). Tachyarrhythmia conferred no increase in overall mortality (P = .45), including operative mortality (P = .37) or interstage mortality (P = 1.00). There was no significant difference in the incidence of arrhythmia based on demographic, anatomic, or surgical variables, including shunt type (P = .23) except that patients with tachyarrhythmias were slightly larger (median weight 3.2 kg) at the time of stage I than those without tachyarrhythmia (median weight 2.93 kg; P = .02]. The odds of arrhythmia in males were 8.7 times higher than that in females (95% confidence interval 2.9-31.3; P patients after the Norwood operation. Onset of tachyarrhythmia occurred later after the Norwood operation than reported previously, and male gender is a risk factor. Further studies to elucidate the etiology and the timing of tachyarrhythmias after the Norwood procedure are necessary.

  5. Recipient ineligibility after liver transplantation assessment: a single centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Aman; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto; Marotta, Paul; Uhanova, Julia; Chandok, Natasha

    2013-06-01

    Candidacy for liver transplantation is determined through standardized evaluation. There are limited data on the frequency and reasons for denial of transplantation after assessment; analysis may shed light on the short-term utility of the assessment. We sought to describe the frequency and reasons for ineligibility for liver transplantation among referred adults. We studied all prospectively followed recipient candidates at a single centre who were deemed unsuitable for liver transplantation after assessment. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years and older and completion of a standard liver transplantation evaluation over a 3-year period. Patients were excluded if they had a history of prior assessment or liver transplantation within the study period. Demographic and baseline clinical data and reasons for recipient ineligibility were recorded. In all, 337 patients underwent their first liver transplantation evaluation during the study period; 166 (49.3%) fulfilled inclusion criteria. The mean age was 55.4 years, and 106 (63.9%) were men. The 3 most common reasons for denial of listing were patient too well (n = 82, 49.4%), medical comorbidities and/or need for medical optimization (n = 43, 25.9%) and need for addiction rehabilitation (n = 28, 16.9%). Ineligibility for transplantation after assessment was common, occurring in nearly half of the cohort. Most denied candidates could be identified with more discriminate screening before the resource-intensive assessment; however, the assessment likely provides unforeseen positive impacts on patient care.

  6. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: A single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Francesco; Nardella, Michele; Balzano, Silverio; Caturelli, Eugenio; Siena, Domenico; Cammisa, Mario

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. The comparative efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was investigated. Methods. Two hundred and sixty consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed: 156 had received between one and six chemoembolization sessions at 3-month intervals, 33 had had PEI, and the remaining 71 patients refused any treatment. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 36 months. Survival rates were statistically analyzed by life-table analysis. Results. Patients' survival was affected by the number of nodules and by the Child's and Okuda's classes; no relationship was found between survival rates and the histologic grade or vascular supply of the tumor. In the case of a single lesion of Okuda's class I, TACE was more effective than PEI. In multifocal HCC, TACE was better than no treatment in Okuda's class I and Child's class A. Conclusion. We suggest TACE as the treatment of choice in Child A or Okuda I patients with multifocal HCCs; it seems of little help in Child B-C or Okuda II-III patients

  7. Risk factors for radiotherapy incidents: a single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Shuto, Nobuaki; Terazaki, Tsuyoshi; Noda, Shigetoshi; Ishigami, Minoru; Yogo, Katsunori; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2018-01-30

    We aimed to analyze risk factors for incidents occurring during the practice of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single Japanese center. Treatment data for EBRT from June 2014 to March 2017 were collected. Data from incident reports submitted during this period were reviewed. Near-miss cases were not included. Risk factors for incidents, including patient characteristics and treatment-related factors, were explored using uni- and multivariate analyses. Factors contributing to each incident were also retrospectively categorized according to the recommendations of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). A total of 2887 patients were treated during the study period, and 26 incidents occurred (0.90% per patient). Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were identified as risk factors for incidents by univariate analysis. Only previous history of radiotherapy was detected as a risk factor in multivariate analysis. Identified categories of contributing factors were human behavior (50.0%), communication (40.6%), and technical (9.4%). The incident rate of EBRT was 0.90% per patient in our institution. Previous history of radiotherapy and large fraction size were detected as risk factors for incidents. Human behavior and communication errors were identified as contributing factors for most incidents. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.

  9. Ameloblastoma: 25 Year Experience at a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, Tatyana; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Pan, Wei; LiVolsi, Virginia

    2016-12-01

    Ameloblastoma is a rare, locally aggressive odontogenic neoplasm, accounting for fewer than 1 % of head and neck tumors. Recent literature suggests that the initial surgical approach and histologic growth patterns are the most important prognostic determinants in ameloblastoma. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical presentation, management, and outcomes of patients with ameloblastoma with data reported in the literature; the study spanned 2 decades at a single institution. The institution's database was searched for all patients with pathologically confirmed ameloblastoma, diagnosed between 1990 and 2015. The data collected included sex, age, clinical and imaging findings, management, histologic pattern, clearance of surgical margins, length of follow-up, time to recurrence, and disease-related mortality. The potential risk factors of recurrence were evaluated using log-rank test, proportional hazard model, and Fisher exact test. Review of the database yielded 54 patients with pathologically confirmed ameloblastoma and follow-up. Recurrence was noted in 13 (24 %) patients. Surgical approach was associated with the risk of recurrence (6.1 % following radical resection vs. 52 % following limited surgery, p = 0.002). There were trends toward higher recurrence rate in the group with pathologically documented positive margins (p = 0.054) and in follicular ameloblastoma (p = 0.35). Transformation into ameloblastic carcinoma was identified in two patients. There was no disease-related mortality. Our study confirms the recent data regarding the importance of radical surgical resection in management of ameloblastoma. Surgical approach appears to be the strongest predictor of tumor clearance.

  10. Incremental peritoneal dialysis: a 10 year single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrini, Massimo; Vizzardi, Valerio; Valerio, Francesca; Ravera, Sara; Manili, Luigi; Zubani, Roberto; Lucca, Bernardo J A; Cancarini, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Incremental dialysis consists in prescribing a dialysis dose aimed towards maintaining total solute clearance (renal + dialysis) near the targets set by guidelines. Incremental peritoneal dialysis (incrPD) is defined as one or two dwell-times per day on CAPD, whereas standard peritoneal dialysis (stPD) consists in three-four dwell-times per day. Single-centre cohort study. Enrollement period: January 2002-December 2007; end of follow up (FU): December 2012. incident patients with FU ≥6 months, initial residual renal function (RRF) 3-10 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA, renal indication for PD. Median incrPD duration was 17 months (I-III Q: 10; 30). There were no statistically significant differences between 29 patients on incrPD and 76 on stPD regarding: clinical, demographic and anthropometric characteristics at the beginning of treatment, adequacy indices, peritonitis-free survival (peritonitis incidence: 1/135 months-patients in incrPD vs. 1/52 months-patients in stPD) and patient survival. During the first 6 months, RRF remained stable in incrPD (6.20 ± 2.02 vs. 6.08 ± 1.47 ml/min/1.73 sqm BSA; p = 0.792) whereas it decreased in stPD (4.48 ± 2.12 vs. 5.61 ± 1.49; p peritonitis incidence and slower reduction of renal function.

  11. Single center experience in Japanese patients with syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Tatsuya; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ochi, Akinori; Chiba, Yuta; Kawasaki, Shiro; Onishi, Yoshimi; Munetsugu, Yumi; Kikuchi, Miwa; Minoura, Yoshino; Watanabe, Norikazu; Adachi, Taro; Asano, Taku; Tanno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2015-11-01

    The present diagnostic method and features of syncope in Japan are unclear. Implantable loop recorder (ILR) and head-up tilt tests have recently become available for diagnosing syncope. The examination method and rates of diagnosing syncope may vary. This study aimed to clarify the present diagnostic method and features of syncope in a single Japanese medical center. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients who were seen at our hospital from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2012. A total of 547 patients (328 men, 60.4±21.5 years) with syncope were seen at our hospital. Reflex syncope was diagnosed in 29.1% of the cases, orthostatic hypotension in 11.7%, cardiac syncope in 34.0%, and unexplained syncope in 23.9% by initial and early evaluations. The number of patients with situational syncope and orthostatic hypotension that could be diagnosed in the initial evaluation of the first examination was significantly greater than that in subsequent evaluations. Forty-three percent of the unexplained syncope patients received an ILR. The consent rate for ILR implantations in the unexplained syncope patients with a suspected arrhythmia nature was 53.1%. The cumulative ILR diagnostic rates were 47% and 65% at 1 and 2 years after the ILR implantation, respectively. The estimated ILR diagnostic rates were significantly greater than that for conventional test without using an ILR. When patients with unexplained syncope could be diagnosed, the recurrent symptoms were greatly reduced. Syncope is induced by various causes in Japan. It is important that we understand the characteristics of each syncope cause. The consent rate for implanting an ILR in appropriate unexplained syncope patients is low. We need to educate these patients about the importance of making a diagnosis of syncope. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrospective analysis of paediatric achalasia in India: Single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Developing countries at tertiary referral centre. The aim of this study was to share our experience of paediatric achalasia in Indian scenario. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of children <16 years, operated for achalasia at our centre, from December 1998 to December 2011. Results: Total 40 patients (mean age 39 ± 4.29 months, including 1 patient of megaesophagus were operated over 13 years of period; 17 patients (associated congenital H-type tracheoesophageal fistula in one patient, non- responders/ lost follow-up for minimum of 3 years in 16 patients were excluded from the study. The response rate of parents in follow-up was 60.0%. Mean symptoms duration was 27.88 ± 2 months. Most common symptoms were regurgitation and failure to thrive (78.2%. Mean symptom scoring in follow-up after 3 year was 1 ± 0.7 compared to 5 ± 0.51 at the time of admission (P < 0.012. One infant expired (mediastenitis, one developed adhesive intestinal obstruction and one needed posterior re-myotomy (for megaesophagus. There were no treatment failures in mean follow-up of 40.2 ± 5.07 months. Conclusions: Cardiomyotomy with partial fundoplication is the best modality of treatment for paediatric achalasia cardia, even from parents′ perspective.

  13. The management of mesenteric vein thrombosis: a single institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanar, Fatih; Ağcaoğlu, Orhan; Gök, Ali Fuat Kaan; Sarıcı, Inanç Samil; Ozçınar, Beyza; Aksakal, Nihat; Aksoy, Murat; Ozkurt, Enver; Kurtoğlu, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis occurs rarely and is responsible for approximately 5-15% of all cases of acute mesenteric ischemia. The aim of this report was to discuss the management of mesenteric vein thrombosis based on our experience with 34 patients. In the present study, 34 patients who were admitted to our emergency surgery department between January 2007 and January 2010 with a diagnosis of acute mesenteric vein thrombosis were assessed retrospectively. Patients with peritoneal signs first underwent diagnostic laparoscopy to rule out perforation or bowel gangrene. We performed a second-look laparoscopy within 72 hours of the first operation. All patients were administered 100 mg/kg of the anticoagulant enoxaparin twice daily. In the 6th and 12th months of follow up, CT angiography was performed to evaluate recanalization of the veins. CT angiography revealed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis in 25 (73%) patients, portal vein thrombosis in 24 (70%) patients, and splenic vein thrombosis in 12 (35%) patients. Eleven patients with peritoneal signs underwent diagnostic laparoscopy; eight of the patients underwent small bowel resection, anastomosis, and trocar insertion. During second-look laparoscopy, small bowel ischemia was found in two patients and re-resection was performed. Early diagnosis with CT angiography, surgical and non-surgical blood flow restoration, proper anticoagulation, and supportive intensive care are the cornerstones of successful treatment of mesenteric vein thrombosis.

  14. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: a single center experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2012-02-01

    We assessed our long-term experience with regards to the safety and efficacy of MMF in our pediatric renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to our previous non-MMF immunosuppressive regimen. Forty-seven pediatric renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol in the period from January 1997 till October 2006 (MMF group). A previously reported non-MMF group of 59 pediatric renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (non-MMF group). The MMF group comprised 29 boys and 18 girls, whereas the non-MMF group comprised 34 boys and 25 girls. Mean age was 11.7 and 12 yr in the MMF and non-MMF groups, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was 11 (23.4%) and 14 (24%) in the MMF and non-MMF group, respectively. Two (3.3%) grafts were lost in the non-MMF group compared with one (2.1%) in the MMF group. Twenty-one (44.68%) patients in the MMF group developed post-transplant infections compared with 12 (20.33%) in the non-MMF group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of MMF in pediatric renal transplantation was not associated with a lower rejection rate or immunological graft loss. It did, however, result in a significantly higher rate of viral infections.

  15. Management of early Fontan failure: a single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael O; Glatz, Andrew C; Goldberg, David J; Rogers, Lindsay S; Ravishankar, Chitra; Nicolson, Susan C; Steven, James M; Fuller, Stephanie; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William

    2014-09-01

    To analyse the incidence and outcomes of early Fontan failure (EFF) in a large contemporary cohort of palliated patients. A retrospective, single-centre study of all patients undergoing primary Fontan from 1 July 1995 to 31 December 2009 was performed. EFF was defined as death, need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), Fontan takedown to superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) or transplantation within 30 days of the Fontan procedure. The incidence and outcomes were summarized with descriptive statistics, and risk factors for EFF were identified. A total of 592 patients underwent primary Fontan procedure during the study period; 67% had a dominant right ventricle. An extracardiac conduit (ECC) was used for Fontan completion in 60.5%, with the remainder having a lateral tunnel. EFF occurred in 11 patients (1.9%), all of whom had ECC. ECMO was used in 5 patients, 5 had Fontan takedown and 2 had heart transplantation. Five of eleven, or 46%, study subjects died as opposed to an overall mortality for primary Fontan of 0.8%. Among patients who had Fontan takedown to SCPC, long-term survival was 80%. By univariate analysis, elevated ventricular end-diastolic pressure (9.5 ± 3.3 vs 7.4 ± 2.7 mmHg, P = 0.019) and total circulatory support time (99 ± 33 vs 71 ± 23 min, P = 0.001) were risk factors for EFF. The mean follow-up for the 6 hospital survivors was 5.9 years. There was one late transplant-related death. Of the 4 surviving patients who had Fontan takedown to a SCPC, 3 underwent subsequent Fontan completion and 1 underwent biventricular repair. EFF is rare in the current era, but is associated with significant mortality. High filling pressures and a prolonged intraoperative course are risk factors for EFF. Of the management strategies available, Fontan takedown to an intermediate pathway appears to be associated with the best outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  16. Familial Mediterranean fever in childhood: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Kenan; Sahin, Sezgin; Adrovic, Amra; Sinoplu, Ada Bulut; Yucel, Gozde; Pamuk, Gizem; Aydın, Aslı Kirectepe; Dasdemir, Selcuk; Turanlı, Eda Tahir; Buyru, Nur; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present demographic and clinical features, MEFV mutation variations, and treatment response of a large number of pediatric familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients from a single tertiary centre. Moreover, we aimed to investigate the current outcome of FMF, namely frequency of amyloidosis in children with FMF. We evaluated 708 FMF patients who were followed up in our clinic and who were under colchicine treatment for at least 6 months. The data were recorded from patient records and also verified by negotiations with patients and parents. The male/female proportion of the cohort was 1.05/1 (n = 362/346). Abdominal pain (89.5%, n = 634) was the most common manifestation of FMF episodes, followed by fever (88.8%, n = 629) and arthritis (40.7%, n = 288). However, arthritis in 23 (8%) of the 288 cases was not self-limited; and they subsequently diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis in addition to FMF. Homozygote or heterozygote M694V mutation was more frequent in patients with arthritis (63.2%) and chronic arthritis (69.6%) than the whole cohort (53.8%). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and CRP level were in high levels even during attack-free period in 13.9% (n = 97/697) and 11% (n = 78/670) of the patients, respectively. Proteinuria was found in ten patients (1.4%). Amyloidosis was confirmed by renal biopsy in only two of these cases who were homozygous for M694V and compound heterozygous for M694V/M680I. 47 (6.6%) subjects were considered as colchicine resistant. Homozygote M694V mutation was the most frequent mutation in those resistant cases (63.8%, n = 30), followed by compound heterozygote mutation of M694V/M680I (6.3%, n = 3). Homozygous M694V mutation are still the most frequent mutation and associated with the most severe clinical picture and the worst outcome in Turkish children. M694V genotype seems to be more frequently associated with arthritis as well as with chronic arthritis than other genotypes

  17. Balancing Expectations for Employability and Family Responsibilities while on Social Assistance: Low-Income Mothers' Experiences in Three Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazso, Amber

    2007-01-01

    Drawing upon a discourse analysis of public-use policy documents and qualitative interview data, this paper explores how mothers on social assistance in three Canadian provinces balance actual or expected policy expectations of their employability (e.g., participation in welfare-to-work programming) with their caregiving responsibilities. The…

  18. Pediatric Renal Transplantation in Oman: A Single-center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Al Riyami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study sought to report 22 years experience in pediatric kidney transplantation in Oman. Methods: Electronic charts of all Omani children below 13 years of age who received a kidney transplant from January 1994 to December 2015 were reviewed. Data collected included patient demographics, etiology of end-stage kidney disease, modality and duration of dialysis, donor type, complication of kidney transplantation (including surgical complications, infections, graft rejection graft and patient survival, and duration of follow-up. Results: During the study period transplantation from 27 living related donors (LRDs, 42 living unrelated donors (LURDs, also referred to as commercial transplant, and one deceased donor were performed. The median age at transplantation was nine years for both groups. The most common primary diagnosis was congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract in 32.8% of patients followed by familial nephrotic syndrome in 20.0% and polycystic kidney disease in 18.5%. Almost half the patients were on hemodialysis before transplantation, 35.7% were on peritoneal dialysis, and 14.2% received preemptive renal transplantation. Children who received LURD kidneys had high surgical complications (42.8% compared to the LRDs group (17.8%. Five patients from LURDs group had early graft nephrectomy and four patients developed non-graft function or delayed graft function. In addition, patients in the LURDs group had a higher incidence of hypertension and acute rejection. Graft and patient survival were both better in the LRDs than the LURDs group. Conclusions: Although our pediatric kidney transplant program is a young program it has had successful patient outcomes comparable to international programs. Our study provides evidence that in addition to legal and ethical issues with commercial transplant, it also carries significantly higher morbidity and reduced graft and patient survival.

  19. Glioblastoma in Children: A Single-Institution Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Stephanie M.; Rubin, Joshua B.; Leonard, Jeffrey R.; Smyth, Matthew D.; El Naqa, Issam; Michalski, Jeff M.; Simpson, Joseph R.; Limbrick, David L.; Park, Tae S.; Mansur, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Current treatment recommendations for pediatric glioblastoma include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. However, even with this multispecialty approach, overall survival remains poor. To assess outcome and evaluate treatment-related prognostic factors, we retrospectively reviewed the experience at our institution. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four glioblastoma patients under the age of 21 were treated with radiation therapy with curative intent at Washington University, St. Louis, from 1970 to 2008. Patients underwent gross total resection, subtotal resection or biopsy alone. Fourteen (58%) of the patients received chemotherapy. All patients received radiation therapy. Radiation consisted of whole-brain radiation therapy in 7 (29%) patients with a median dose of 50.4 Gy. Seventeen (71%) patients received three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy with a median dose of 54 Gy. Results: Median follow-up was 12.5 months from diagnosis. One and 2-year overall survival rates were 57% and 32%, respectively. Median overall survival was 13.5 months. There were no differences in overall survival based on patients' age, race, gender, tumor location, radiation volume, radiation dose, or the use of chemotherapy. There was a significant improvement in overall survival for patients in whom gross total resection was achieved (p = 0.023). Three patients were alive 5 years after gross total resection, and 2 patients were alive at 10 and 24 years after diagnosis. Conclusions: Survival for children with glioblastoma remains poor. Data from this and other studies demonstrate the importance of achieving a gross total resection. Continued investigation into new treatment options is needed in an attempt to improve outcome for these patients.

  20. A theoretical study of pump–probe experiment in single-layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. A theoretical study of pump–probe experiment in single-layer, bilayer and multilayer graphene ... Here we use it as a tool to study the phenomenon of anomalous Rabi oscillations in graphene that was predicted recently in single-layer graphene.

  1. THE NATURE OF CONNECTION BETWEEN CHILD’S ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER AND THE EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY WELL-BEING IN ADULTHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Samoshkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Attachment to mother is viewed as the primary sample of bonding with a close person, thus its quality has an impact on the relationships with a partner. Objectives. A research of the nature of connection between child’s attachment to mother and the experience of the family well-being in adulthood is presented. Method. The empirical research was carried out by internet survey with the help of the following methods: “Satisfaction with marriage” by Stolin V., Butenko G., Romanova T.; “Experience of close relationship” by Brennan K. and Freiley P. adapted by Kazantseva T.; “Role expectations and claims in marriage” by Volkova A.; “Communication in the family” by Alyoshina Yu., Gozman L., Dubovski M.; and the author’s survey revealing the type of child’s attachment to mother in adulthood. Fisher criterion F was used for the comparison of different samples; Pearson’s correlation coef?cient was used for the determination of correlation between the type of attachment to mother and components of psychological well-being. Sample. In the course of the research 39 couples living in registered marriage were surveyed, which constitutes 78 respondents aged 23-42. Results. The type of attachment to mother in person’s childhood determines the possibility of displaying avoidance of closeness to the partner, anxiety caused by the loss of closeness as well as peculiarities of communication, role expectations and claims in a couple. Conclusions. People with an indifferent type of attachment often avoid intimacy with a partner, perform well in the sphere of emotional and psychological support of a partner and even exhibit a higher degree of mutual understanding with the partner. People with neurotic type of attachment may experience anxiety about the loss of intimacy with a partner, but this anxiety can make them constantly work on themselves, both in physical terms – with an external attachment or on a psychological level

  2. Feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for appendicitis in abnormal anatomical locations: A single surgeon′s initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoop K Zachariah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is considered as a more technically demanding procedure than the standard laparoscopic surgery. Based on an initial and early experience, single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (LA was found to be technically advantageous for dealing with appendicitis in unusual anatomical locations. This study aims to highlight the technical advantages of single-incision laparoscopic surgery in dealing with the abnormally located appendixes and furthermore report a case of acute appendicitis occurring in a sub-gastric position, which is probably the first such case to be reported in English literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the first 10 cases of single-incision LA which were performed by a single surgeon is presented here. Results: There were seven females and three males. The mean age of the patients was 30.6 (range 18-52 years, mean BMI was 22.7 (range 17-28 kg/m 2 and the mean operative time was 85.5 (range 45-150 min. The mean postoperative stay was 3.6 (range 1-7 days. The commonest position of the appendix was retro-caecal (50% followed by pelvic (30%. In three cases the appendix was found to be in abnormal locations namely sub-hepatic, sub-gastric and deep pelvic or para-vesical or para-rectal. All these cases could be managed with this technique without any conversions Conclusion: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery appears to be a feasible and safe technique for dealing with appendicitis in rare anatomical locations. Appendectomy may be a suitable procedure for the initial training in single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

  3. Teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jennifer L; Lewis, Lucy N; Bateson, Deborah; Hickey, Martha; Skinner, S Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Outcomes on a range of peripartum measures are worse for teenage mothers and their babies. Longer term risks for the mother include depression and rapid repeat pregnancy; for the child, intergenerational teenage parenthood; and for both, socioeconomic disadvantage. Teenage motherhood occurs more often within communities where poverty, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and rural/remote location intersect. General practitioners play a critical role in identification of at-risk teens, preventing unintended teenage pregnancy, clinical care of pregnant teens, and promoting the health and wellbeing of teenage mothers and their children.

  4. Medida de energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, gêmeos e filhos únicos Total energy supplied by the human milk from mothers of triplet, twin and single neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Nadólskis Severine

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, gêmeos e filhos únicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e controlado feito com mães usuárias do banco de leite do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. Foram analisadas seis amostras de leite materno de mães de trigêmeos, 13 de gêmeos e 17 de filhos únicos, coletadas sob paramentação, conforme normas técnicas da Rede Brasileira de Bancos de Leite Humano. A análise foi realizada por meio do teste de crematócrito e os resultados submetidos à análise de variância de Kuskal-Wallis. RESULTADOS: A energia total do leite materno de mães de trigêmeos apresentou mediana de calorias maior (651kcal/L, quando comparada à do leite de mães de filhos únicos (560kcal/L (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the total energy of the human milk of mothers of triplets, twins and single-children. METHODS: A cross-sectional and controlled study with mothers from the Human Milk Bank of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein was performed. Six samples of triplet, 13 of twin and 17 of only-child mother's milk were analyzed. The milk samples were collected according to the Brazilian Human Milk Banks Network techniques and procedures and were analyzed by creamatocrit method. The results were compared by Kruskal-Wallis variance test. RESULTS: The total milk energy from triplets mothers was statistically higher (median - 651kcal/L than single-child mothers (560kcal/L (p<0.05. The milk of twin mothers and of single child mothers, regarding energy content, were similar. The triplet neonates presented lower birth weight (median-1344g when compared to single neonates (1975g (p<0.01. There was no significant difference among the studied groups regarding maternal age and gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The present study, the first addressing this subject in literature, indicates a higher value of total energy in milk from triplets' mothers. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of

  5. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ankomah, Augustine; Konadu Gyesaw,Nana Yaa

    2013-01-01

    Nana Yaa Konadu Gyesaw,1 Augustine Ankomah2 1Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Koforidua, Eastern Region, 2Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana Background: The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very l...

  6. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Борисович Зуев

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical studies of single-parent families.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-6

  7. Determination of Kinetic Parameters within a Single Nonisothermal On-Flow Experiment by Nanoliter NMR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, M.V.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Hoz, de la A.; Jimenez-Marquez, F.; Fratila, R.M.; Barneveld, P.A.; Velders, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Conventional methods to determine the kinetic parameters for a certain reaction require multiple, separate isothermal experiments, resulting in time- and material-consuming processes. Here, an approach to determine the kinetic information within a single nonisothermal on-flow experiment is

  8. Living With Cancer Alone? The Experiences of Singles Diagnosed With Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei Yi; Tien Tau, Loi Carol; Lai Meng, Ow Yong

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand the experiences of single colorectal cancer patients. This study consisted of 12 semi-structured interviews that were digitally voice-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Six main themes emerged: (a) gradual shift in view of cancer diagnosis from fatalistic to normalized, (b) perception of cancer as a nadir experience, (c) concerns of singlehood, (d) factors influencing cancer experiences, (e) factors influencing coping with cancer, and (f) range of responses towards cancer diagnosis. Singles with colorectal cancer require short- to long-term individualized care plans, and psycho-emotional support. This may help enhance their individual coping and adjustment to the diagnosis.

  9. Working mothers of the World Health Organization Western Pacific offices: lessons and experiences to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iellamo, Alessandro; Sobel, Howard; Engelhardt, Katrin

    2015-02-01

    Optimal breastfeeding saves lives. However, suboptimal breastfeeding is prevalent, primarily resulting from inappropriate promotion of infant formula and challenges of working mothers to continue breastfeeding. The article aims to determine the extent to which World Health Organization (WHO) policies protect, promote, and support breastfeeding women working at the WHO, Western Pacific Region. An online survey targeted all female WHO and contractual staff in all country and regional offices, who delivered a baby between July 24, 2008 and July 24, 2013. Respondents advised on how the worksite could better support breastfeeding. Thirty-two female staff from 11 of the 12 WHO offices within the Western Pacific Region responded. "Returning to work" (44%) and "not having enough milk" (17%) were the most commonly reported reasons for not breastfeeding. Eighteen (56%) reported using infant formula and 8 (44%) reported that the product was prescribed. Among the suggestions given to better support breastfeeding, 10 (32%) recommended having a private room with a chair, table, electric outlet, and refrigerator. The findings show that women working at the WHO face similar challenges to mothers outside the WHO. Based on the findings, we recommend the following: (1) provide prenatal/postpartum breastfeeding counseling services for employees; (2) establish breastfeeding rooms in country offices and regularly orient staff on agency policies to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; (3) annually celebrate World Breastfeeding Week with employees; (4) encourage other public and private institutions to conduct online surveys and elicit recommendations from mothers on how their workplace can support breastfeeding; and (5) conduct a larger survey among UN agencies on how to better protect, promote, and support breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. 'Trying to make it all come together': structuration and employed mothers' experience of family food provisioning in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Joyce; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Edginton, Barry; O'neil, John

    2012-09-01

    This research examined the aetiology of employed mothers' food choice and food provisioning decisions using a qualitative, grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews using the Food Choice Map were conducted with eleven middle-income employed mothers of elementary school-age children. Results demonstrated that the women exhibited conflicting identities with respect to food choice and provisioning. As 'good mothers' they were the primary food and nutrition caregivers for the family, desiring to provide healthy, homemade foods their families preferred at shared family meals. They also sought to be independent selves, working outside the home, within the context of a busy modern family. Increased food autonomy of children, and lack of time due to working outside the home and children's involvement in extracurricular activities, were significant influences on their food choice and provisioning. This resulted in frequently being unable to live up to their expectations of consistently providing healthy homemade foods and having shared family meals. To cope, the women frequently relied on processed convenience and fast foods despite their acknowledged inferior nutritional status. Using Giddens' structuration theory, the dynamic relationships between the women's food choice and provisioning actions, their identities and larger structures including socio-cultural norms, conditions of work and the industrial food system were explored. The ensuing dietary pattern of the women and their families increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including obesity. These results have implications for public health responses to improve population health by shifting the focus from individual-level maternal influences to structural influences on diet.

  11. Promoting Teen Mothers' Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.

  12. Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children are harmed when their mothers work. A child’s development is influenced more by the emotional health of ... children for school, both socially and intellectually. The Importance of Quality Child Care Parents all wish for the best start ...

  13. "On our own, we can't manage": experiences with infant feeding recommendations among Malawian mothers living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellen Daniel W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant feeding in communities with a high prevalence of HIV and AIDS is a potential challenge for mothers who must ultimately decide how to feed their infants within contexts that constrain their choices. Methods We investigated how infant feeding policy recommendations translate into maternal infant feeding decisions and practices using ethnographic research conducted between August 2004 and June 2005 among women participating in a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT program in Lilongwe, Malawi. Results Qualitative findings are that maternal ability to adhere to recommendations to breastfeed exclusively for the first six months of infant life was constrained by expectations and psycho-social support. The most salient were women's pre-existing views on breastfeeding, their understanding of the medico-scientific information, and the quality of counselling received. In contrast, maternal decisions to wean were largely influenced by household economic factors and food insecurity. Conclusions We conclude that PMTCT programs delivered in ways which "download" the responsibility of adhering to recommendations to women in the absence of adequate psycho-social and livelihood supports contribute to substantial maternal psychosocial distress in this and, likely, similar settings.

  14. Single particle measurements and two particle interferometry results from CERN experiment NA44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon-Gillo, J.

    1994-01-01

    CERN experiment NA44 is optimized for the study of identified single and multiple particle distributions to p T = 0 near mid-rapidity. We measure π +- , K +- , p, bar p, d and bar d, in p + A and A + A collisions at 450 and 20OGeV/u, respectively. Two-particle intensity interferometry results from π + π + , K + K + , and K - K - measurements and single particle distributions are presented

  15. Children and young mothers' agency in the context of conflict: a review of the experiences of formerly abducted young people in Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochen, Eric Awich

    2015-04-01

    This paper critically examines the experiences of formerly abducted young women during their captivity with the Lord Resistance Army rebels and in the resettlement and reintegration period. Special attention is given to their exercise of agency and choices. Using a qualitative design, narrative interviews were conducted with child mothers (N=21), local and civic actors (N=17), and the general community through focus groups (N=10). Data transcripts were analyzed using template analysis methods to derive meanings and increase understanding of the situation. Abducted children faced significant difficulties during their captivity and also during their resettlement and reintegration process, yet they continued to exhibit strong agency to cope with the new realities. Despite these difficulties, opportunities existed which were utilized by the young people, albeit to different degrees depending on each young person's ability and initiative (agency). Situational factors limiting the child mothers' agency were identified as embedded within the latter's environment. This study raises the importance of appreciation of the young women's agency in both the bush-captivity experience and resettlement and reintegration processes within the community, post-conflict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding in newborns-mothers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Arieh; Mansovsky, Michal; Coler-Botzer, Tzviya; Kugelman, Amir; Shaoul, Ron; Hemo, Miri; Wolff, Leslie; Harpaz, Sarit; Olchov, Zhana; Bader, David

    2014-11-01

    This study explored clinical implications of tongue-tie (TT) on breastfeeding from the mothers' perspective and evaluated the assistance provided. This was a single-center observational study using a structured survey. All newborns with TT born in 2005-2010 were identified; two controls without TT were assigned for each. Mothers were interviewed using a uniform structured questionnaire regarding breastfeeding experience, challenges, lactation consultation, and frenotomy, if performed. One hundred eighty-three TT mothers and 314 controls were interviewed. Although the overall rates of breastfeeding problems in the first month were similar (59% vs. 52%, respectively), TT mothers reported significantly more problems with latching, prolonged breastfeeding, and infant's exhaustion during feedings, but not pain or sore nipples. Breastfeeding rates at 6 months were similar. TT mothers more frequently used pumped breastmilk to supplement breastfeeding. Significantly more TT mothers sought consultation after discharge, and a significantly greater proportion of them felt that lactation consultation helped. Eighty-seven percent of the mothers were aware of their children's TT, yet only 50% associated it with breastfeeding problems. Of the TT infants at 2 years of age or older, 11.9% were reported to have speech problems. The possibility of frenotomy was mentioned to 69% of mothers, and it was performed in 35% of cases. Procedure satisfaction was generally poor, except for when done to solve breastfeeding problems. TT infants had significantly more breastfeeding problems in the first month, but similar rates and durations of breastfeeding. Early diagnosis and lactation consultation may assist mother-infant dyads substantially. Mothers whose infants underwent frenotomies for breastfeeding more frequently found the procedure alleviated breastfeeding problems.

  17. Single column and two-column H-D-T distillation experiments at TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, T.; Yoshida, H.; Hirata, S.; Naito, T.; Naruse, Y.; Sherman, R.H.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic distillation experiments were peformed at TSTA with H-D-T system by using a single column and a two-column cascade. In the single column experiment, fundamental engineering data such as the liquid holdup and the HETP were measured under a variety of operational condtions. The liquid holdup in the packed section was about 10 /approximately/ 15% of its superficial volume. The HETP values were from 4 to 6 cm, and increased slightly with the vapor velocity. The reflux ratio had no effect on the HETP. For the wo-colunn experiemnt, dynamic behavior of the cascade was observed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Modified single-port minilaparoscopic extraperitoneal repair for pediatric hydrocele: a single-center experience with 279 surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifeng; Xu, Le; Chen, Zhi; Yao, Cong; Su, Zexuan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to introduce our experience of a modified single-port minilaparoscopic technique for the treatment of pediatric hydrocele. Between June 2008 and May 2012, 279 boys (115 communicating hydrocele and 164 "non-communicating" hydrocele, diagnosis based on preoperative physical examination and scrotal ultrasound) underwent the modified single-port minilaparoscopic repair in our institution. During surgery, a 3-mm laparoscope was inserted into the abdomen through a mini-umbilical incision. The hydrocele sac orifice was closed by an extraperitoneal purse-string suture placed around the internal ring with an ordinary taper needle and an endoclose needle. Of all the 279 patients, 16 (5.7 %) were found to have a potential patent processus vaginalis (PPV) on the contralateral side. Of the 164 boys diagnosed with "non-communicating" hydrocele preoperatively, 5 (3.0 %) had no PPV identified in laparoscope and the other 159 (97.0 %) had PPV actually. A total of 274 single-port minilaparoscopic procedures were performed, and all cases were successful without serious complications. The mean operative time was 19.5 and 24.8 min for unilateral and bilateral operations, respectively. Postoperative complications were noted in 4 cases, 2 (0.7 %) patients with scrotal edema, 1 (0.4 %) patient experienced an umbilical hernia, and 1 (0.4 %) patient with suture site abscess. During a median follow-up period of 9 months (range 6-24 months), postoperative hydrocele recurrence was seen in 2 patients (0.7 %). This modified single-port minilaparoscopic technique is a safe, effective, and reliable procedure for pediatric hydroceles.

  19. Effect of peer counselling by mother support groups on infant and young child feeding practices: the Lalitpur experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Komal P; Sankar, Jhuma; Sankar, M Jeeva; Gupta, Arun; Dadhich, J P; Gupta, Y P; Bhatt, Girish C; Ansari, Dilshad A; Sharma, B

    2014-01-01

    Our primary objective was to evaluate the effect of peer counselling by mother support groups (MSG's) in improving the infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in the community. We conducted this repeated-measure before and after study in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh, India between 2006 and 2011. We assessed the IYCF practices before and after creating MSG's within the community. The feeding practices were reassessed at two time points-2 (T1) and 5 years (T2) after the intervention and compared with that of the pre-intervention phase (T0). The total population covered by the project from the time of its initiation was 105000. A total of 425 (T0), 480 (T1) and 521 (T2) mother infant pairs were selected from this population. There was significant improvement in the following IYCF practices in the community (represented as %; adjOR (95% CI, p) such as initiation of breast feeding within 1 hour at both T1 (71% vs. 11%); 19.6 (13.6, 28.2, p =  feeds at both T1 (67% vs. 15%); 12.6 (CI: 9.0, 17.6, pfeeding for 6 months at both T1 (50% vs. 7%); 13.6 (7.6, 25.0, p =  feeding at T1 (85% vs. 54%); 5.6 (3.6, 8.7, p =  feeding along with continued breast feeding at both T1 (36% vs. 4.5%); 6 (1.15, 31.4, p = 0.033) and T2 (42% vs. 4.5%); 8.06 (1.96, 49.1, p = 0.005) as compared to pre-intervention period (T0) after adjusting for important social and demographic variables. Peer counseling by MSG's improved the IYCF practices in the district and could be sustained.

  20. Experiences and Motives of Australian Single Mothers by Choice who make Early Contact with their Child?s Donor Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Fiona J; Dempsey, Deborah J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract An increasing number of Australian parents of donor-conceived children are making contact with their child?s donor relatives prior to their child reaching the age of majority. This process, often referred to as ?donor linking?, can be achieved in Australia through either formal or informal mechanisms. Formal mechanisms exist in three states, each of which has legislation enabling donor linking in certain circumstances. Donor linking may also be achieved through informal mechanisms, s...

  1. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006)] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  2. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian; Rosenlund Ahl, Sonja; Lautrup, Benny; Ellegaard, Clive; Levinsen, Mogens T.; Bohr, Tomas

    2015-07-01

    In a thought-provoking paper, Couder and Fort [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 154101 (2006), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.154101] describe a version of the famous double-slit experiment performed with droplets bouncing on a vertically vibrated fluid surface. In the experiment, an interference pattern in the single-particle statistics is found even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes place between different classical paths with precise amplitude and phase relations. In the double-slit experiment with walking droplets, these relations are lost since one of the paths is singled out by the droplet. To support our conclusions, we have carried out our own double-slit experiment, and our results, in particular the long and variable slit passage times of the droplets, cast strong doubt on the feasibility of the interference claimed by Couder and Fort. To understand theoretically the limitations of wave-driven particle systems as analogs to quantum mechanics, we introduce a Schrödinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics.

  3. Ignition and growth modeling of detonation reaction zone experiments on single crystals of PETN and HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradley W.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that detonating single crystals of solid explosives have much larger failure diameters than those of heterogeneous charges of the same explosive pressed or cast to 98 - 99% theoretical maximum density (TMD). In 1957, Holland et al. demonstrated that PETN single crystals have failure diameters of about 8 mm, whereas heterogeneous PETN charges have failure diameters of less than 0.5 mm. Recently, Fedorov et al. quantitatively determined nanosecond time resolved detonation reaction zone profiles of single crystals of PETN and HMX by measuring the interface particle velocity histories of the detonating crystals and LiF windows using a PDV system. The measured reaction zone time durations for PETN and HMX single crystal detonations were approximately 100 and 260 nanoseconds, respectively. These experiments provided the necessary data to develop Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model parameters for the single crystal detonation reaction zones. Using these parameters, the calculated unconfined failure diameter of a PETN single crystal was 7.5 +/- 0.5 mm, close to the 8 mm experimental value. The calculated failure diameter of an unconfined HMX single crystal was 15 +/- 1 mm. The unconfined failure diameter of an HMX single crystal has not yet been determined precisely, but Fedorov et al. detonated 14 mm diameter crystals confined by detonating a HMX-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX) without initially overdriving the HMX crystals.

  4. Implementation of the GFS physical package in the GRAPES regional model: single column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baode; Huang, Wei; Bao, Jian-wen

    2015-04-01

    There is a growing concern about coupling among physical components in NWP models. The Physics package of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) has been considerably turned and connection among various components is well considered. Thus, the full GFS physical package was implemented into the GRAPES-MESO and its single column version as well. Using the data collected at ARM Southern Great Plain site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period, several experiments of single-column model (SCM) were conducted to test performance of a set of original physical processes of GRAPES(CTL experiment) and the GFS physics package implemented(GFS experiment). Temperature, moisture, radiation, surface heat flux, surface air temperature and precipitation are evaluated. It is found that potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment is more accurate than that of CTL experiment. Errors of surface downward solar and long-wave radiation simulated by GFS experiment are less than that of CTL experiment and upward latent and sensible heat flux are also better agreeing with observation. The maximum and minimum 2-m air temperatures of the GFS experiment are close to observation compared with that of CTL experiment. Analysis of precipitation simulated shows that both sets of physical processes well reproduce heavy rainfall events. Failure and delay of moderate rainfall events and over predictions of drizzle events are commonly found for two sets of experiments. For the case of three rainfall events, the errors of potential temperature and vapor mixing ratio simulated by GFS experiment were smaller than that of CTL experiment. It is shown that the late occurrences of rainfall are resulted from a more stable temperature profile and lower moisture simulated in boundary layer than those from the observation prior to rainfall. When the simulated rainfall occurs, the simulated temperature and moisture become more favorable to the precipitation than observation.

  5. Ameloblastoma of the jaws: a critical reappraisal based on a 40-years single institution experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, D.; van der Waal, I.

    2010-01-01

    The 40-years of experience in a single institution with the treatment of previously untreated ameloblastoma have been reported, followed by a management protocol. Retrospectively, 25 consecutive patients treated between 1969 and 2009 have been analyzed. In 11 patients, a preoperative diagnosis of

  6. The Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC) Experiment: Vectors versus Product Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega-Herna´ndez, Karen; Antuch, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A vectorial representation of the full sequence of events occurring during the 2D-NMR heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) experiment is presented. The proposed vectorial representation conveys an understanding of the magnetization evolution during the HSQC pulse sequence for those who have little or no quantum mechanical background.…

  7. Observation and applications of single-electron charge signals in the XENON100 experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aprile, E.; et al., [Unknown; Alfonsi, M.; Colijn, A.P.; Decowski, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The XENON100 dark matter experiment uses liquid xenon in a time projection chamber (TPC) to measure xenon nuclear recoils resulting from the scattering of dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). In this paper, we report the observation of single-electron charge signals which are

  8. Temporal aspects of user experience : Models and methods beyond a single use situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kujala, S.; Minge, M.; Pohlmeyer, A.E.; Vogel, M.

    2012-01-01

    User Experience (UX) is an ongoing process and should not be limited to a single use situation. However, this is unfortunately often the case in HCI research. The goal of this workshop is to deepen and expand available knowledge with respect to temporal dynamics of UX. Relevant aspects will be the

  9. The experience of being an old never-married single: a life course perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band-Winterstein, Tova; Manchik-Rimon, Carmit

    2014-01-01

    To explore the aging experience of the "over 60" group of singles who have never been married and have no children. How they experience their aging process in terms of their singlehood and vice versa. A qualitative-phenomenological approach was adopted. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants aged 60 to 87. Four major themes emerged: (a) "How come I stayed single?" (b) Between loneliness, aloneness and solitude. (c) "I have to take care of myself in old age." (d) The self behind prejudices and stereotypes. As the normative expectation is to live with partners, children, and grandchildren, they need to account for their alternative choice and give meaning to being a never married single. This meaning is expressed by constructing their self-dentity and accepting their way of life.

  10. Double-slit experiment with single wave-driven particles and its relation to quantum mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Madsen, Jacob; Reichelt, Christian Günther

    2015-01-01

    even though it is possible to determine unambiguously which slit the walking droplet passes. Here we argue, however, that the single-particle statistics in such an experiment will be fundamentally different from the single-particle statistics of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanical interference takes......¨dinger equation with a source term originating from a localized particle that generates a wave while being simultaneously guided by it. We show that the ensuing particle-wave dynamics can capture some characteristics of quantum mechanics such as orbital quantization. However, the particle-wave dynamics can...... not reproduce quantum mechanics in general, and we show that the single-particle statistics for our model in a double-slit experiment with an additional splitter plate differs qualitatively from that of quantum mechanics....

  11. [Unwed mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofayat, M

    1978-01-01

    The problem of unwed mothers is becoming a crucial one in most African countries. The great majority of unmarried adolescents are forced to quit school, and they very often become prostitutes. The problem has several causes; exodus from rural areas, rapid change of attitudes toward sexuality, lack of sex education, sudden disappearance of certain cultural traditions. It would be necessary to create centers where unwed mothers can stay, learn a job, or continue their studies, and, especially, it would be advisable to promote the insertion of young people in traditional jobs in their own villages.

  12. Single-site robotic cholecystectomy (SSRC) versus single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC): comparison of learning curves. First European experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinoglio, Giuseppe; Lenti, Luca Matteo; Maglione, Valeria; Lucido, Francesco Saverio; Priora, Fabio; Bianchi, Paolo Pietro; Grosso, Federica; Quarati, Raul

    2012-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an emerging procedure developed to decrease parietal trauma and improve cosmetic results. However, many technical constraints, such as lack of triangulation, instrument collisions, and cross-handing, hamper this approach. Using a robotic platform may overcome these problems and enable more precise surgical actions by increasing freedom of movement and by restoring intuitive instrument control. We retrospectively collected, under institutional review board approval, data on the first 25 patients who underwent single-site robotic cholecystectomies (SSRC) at our center. Patients enrolled in this study underwent SSRC for symptomatic biliary gallstones or polyposis. Exclusion criteria were: BMI > 33; acute cholecystitis; previous upper abdominal surgery; ASA > II; and age >80 and <18 years. All procedures were performed with the da Vinci Si Surgical System and a dedicated SSRC kit (Intuitive). After discharge, patients were followed for 2 months. These SSRC cases were compared to our first 25 single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomies (SILC) and with the literature. There were no differences in patient characteristics between groups (gender, P = 0.4404; age, P = 0.7423; BMI, P = 0.5699), and there were no conversions or major complications in either cohort. Operative time was significantly longer for the SILC group compared with SSRC (83.2 vs. 62.7 min, P = 0.0006), and SSRC operative times did not change significantly along the series. The majority of patients in each group were discharged within 24 h, with an average length of hospital stay of 1.2 days for the SILC group and 1.1 days for the SSRC group (P = 0.2854). No wound complications (infection, incisional hernia) were observed in the SSRC group and in the SILC. Our preliminary experience shows that SSRC is safe, can easily be learned, and performed in a reproducible manner and is faster than SILC.

  13. A mãe, seu filho hospitalizado e o brincar: um relato de experiência Mother, hospitalized child and playing: an experience report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Pinheiro da Silva Junqueira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente relato baseia-se em um trabalho realizado nas enfermarias pediátricas do Instituto Fernandes Figueira/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, que teve o objetivo de observar e fortalecer o vínculo entre a mãe e seu filho hospitalizado através do brincar. O trabalho prático é descrito a partir de seu embasamento teórico. Para finalizar, algumas reflexões são apresentadas acerca do papel do brincar na relação mãe-filho no âmbito hospitalar.The present report is based on a work accomplished in the pediatric wards of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, aiming to observe and to fortify the attachment between mother and her hospitalized child, through the act of playing. The practical work is described established on its theoretical basis. Some considerations on the role of playing in the mother-child relationship under a hospital context are presented.

  14. The influence of family-work role experience and mastery on psychological health of Chinese employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-11-01

    Four-hundred-and-thirty-five Chinese married nurses with children were surveyed on their family-work role experience, sense of mastery, and psychological distress. Hierarchical regression analyses showed spillover effects of role experience on psychological health as well as asymmetrical permeability of family and work boundaries. The hypothesis that mastery acted as a moderator between role experience and psychological health was supported. In general, a higher level of mastery augmented positive but mitigated negative influence of role experience on psychological functioning. Findings provide useful information to practitioners and policy makers on issues related to family-work stress and women's health in contemporary Chinese society.

  15. Serological follow-up of infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology - real-world experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Harriet E; Broomhall, Harriet M; Isitt, Catherine E; Miall, Lawrence S; Wilson, Janet D

    2016-11-01

    The 2008 UK syphilis guideline recommends infants born to women with any positive syphilis serology be followed up until both treponemal and nontreponemal tests are negative to exclude congenital syphilis, whereas Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend using only nontreponemal tests. Historically, we had low infant follow-up rates with no coherent pathways. We initiated a change in multidisciplinary team practice of infant testing for syphilis in 2011 and evaluated the results before and after by retrospective review of testing of infants born to women with positive syphilis serology between 2005 and 2012. A total of 28 infants' mothers were treated in pregnancy (termed 'high risk'); 26 had adequate treatment prior to pregnancy (termed 'low risk'). There was a significant increase in serological testing after 2011 compared with before (83% versus 48%; OR 5.07 [95% CI 1.22-22.77] p = 0.01) but mainly in low risk infants with no significant improvement in high risk infants who are the priority group. Using nontreponemal tests only in the infants would have reduced the tests required by at least 50%, allowing health resources to be concentrated on achieving adequate follow-up for those infants most at risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission, Mode of Delivery, and Duration of Rupture of Membranes: Experience in the Current Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Mark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate whether the length of time of rupture of membranes (ROM in optimally managed HIV-positive women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART with low viral loads (VL is predictive of the risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Study Methods. A retrospective case series of all HIV-positive women who delivered at two academic tertiary centers in Toronto, Canada from January 2000 to November 2010 was completed. Results. Two hundred and ten HIV-positive women with viral loads <1,000 copies/ml delivered during the study period. VL was undetectable (<50 copies/mL for the majority of the women (167, 80%, and <1,000 copies/mL for all women. Mode of delivery was vaginal in 107 (51% and cesarean in 103 (49%. The median length of time of ROM was 0.63 hours (range 0 to 77.87 hours for the entire group and 2.56 hours (range 0 to 53.90 hours for those who had a vaginal birth. Among women with undetectable VL, 90 (54% had a vaginal birth and 77 (46% had a cesarean birth. Among the women in this cohort there were no cases of MTCT of HIV. Conclusions. There was no association between duration of ROM or mode of delivery and MTCT in this cohort of 210 virally suppressed HIV-positive pregnant women.

  17. "He Could Scare Me Without Laying a Hand on Me": Mothers' Experiences of Nonviolent Coercive Control During Marriage and After Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Kimberly A; Hardesty, Jennifer L; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-03-01

    Studies demonstrate the negative effects of violent coercive control but few examine coercive control without violence. This study describes the characteristics of nonviolent coercive control among 8 divorcing mothers and compares them with 47 mothers who experienced violent coercive control or no violence/no control. Mothers with nonviolent coercive control reported more coping strategies, risk, harassment, and perceived threat than mothers with no violence/no control; similar levels of fear and control during marriage as mothers with violent coercive control; and more postseparation fear than both groups. Findings highlight the need to include nonviolent coercive control in screening methods and research measures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries in Proton-Proton Collisions at the AFTER@LHC Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kanazawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results for transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions at kinematics relevant for AFTER, a proposed fixed-target experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. These include predictions for pion, jet, and direct photon production from analytical formulas already available in the literature. We also discuss specific measurements that will benefit from the higher luminosity of AFTER, which could help resolve an almost 40-year puzzle of what causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions.

  19. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  20. Single-port laparoscopic approach of the left liver: initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps Lasa, Judith; Cugat Andorrà, Esteban; Herrero Fonollosa, Eric; García Domingo, María Isabel; Sánchez Martínez, Raquel; Vargas Pierola, Harold; Rodríguez Campos, Aurora

    2014-11-01

    New technological advances have enabled the development of single-port laparoscopic surgery. This approach began with cholecystectomy and subsequently with other abdominal surgeries. However, few publications on laparoscopic liver surgery have described the use of complete single-port access. We present our initial experience of a single-port laparoscopic hepatectomy. Between May 2012 and December 2013, 5 single-port laparoscopic hepatectomies were performed: one for benign disease and four for colorectal liver metastases. The lesions were approached through a 3-5 cm right supraumbilical incision using a single-port access device. All the lesions were located in hepatic segments II or III. Four left lateral sectorectomies and one left hepatectomy were performed. Median operative time was 135 min. No cases were converted to conventional laparoscopic or open surgery. The oral intake began at 18 h. There were no postoperative complications and no patients required blood transfusion. The median hospital stay was 3 days. The degree of satisfaction was very good in 4 cases and good in one. Patients resumed their normal daily activities at 8 days. Single-port laparoscopic hepatectomy is safe and feasible in selected cases and may reduce surgical aggression and offer better cosmetic results. Comparative studies are needed to determine the real advantages of this approach. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. How Much Can We Learn from a Single Chromatographic Experiment? A Bayesian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiczling, Paweł; Kaliszan, Roman

    2016-01-05

    In this work, we proposed and investigated a Bayesian inference procedure to find the desired chromatographic conditions based on known analyte properties (lipophilicity, pKa, and polar surface area) using one preliminary experiment. A previously developed nonlinear mixed effect model was used to specify the prior information about a new analyte with known physicochemical properties. Further, the prior (no preliminary data) and posterior predictive distribution (prior + one experiment) were determined sequentially to search towards the desired separation. The following isocratic high-performance reversed-phase liquid chromatographic conditions were sought: (1) retention time of a single analyte within the range of 4-6 min and (2) baseline separation of two analytes with retention times within the range of 4-10 min. The empirical posterior Bayesian distribution of parameters was estimated using the "slice sampling" Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm implemented in Matlab. The simulations with artificial analytes and experimental data of ketoprofen and papaverine were used to test the proposed methodology. The simulation experiment showed that for a single and two randomly selected analytes, there is 97% and 74% probability of obtaining a successful chromatogram using none or one preliminary experiment. The desired separation for ketoprofen and papaverine was established based on a single experiment. It was confirmed that the search for a desired separation rarely requires a large number of chromatographic analyses at least for a simple optimization problem. The proposed Bayesian-based optimization scheme is a powerful method of finding a desired chromatographic separation based on a small number of preliminary experiments.

  2. Preparation and characterization of single crystal samples for high-pressure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, D; Antonangeli, D; Aracne, C; Benterou, J

    2005-10-26

    To date, most research utilizing the diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been conducted with polycrystalline samples, thus the results are limited to addressing average bulk properties. However, experiments on single crystals can yield data on a range of orientation dependent properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, elasticity and plasticity. Here we report new procedures to produce extremely high-quality metallic single crystal samples of size compatible with DAC experiments in the Mbar range. So far, we have produced samples of zinc, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, cobalt, molybdenum and cerium, and have evaluated the quality of the finished samples with white-light interferometry, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and inelastic x-ray scattering.

  3. The first preliminary experiments on an 84 GHz gyrotron with a single-stage depressed collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimozuma, T.; Sato, M.; Takita, Y.

    1997-10-01

    We fabricated and tested an 84GHz gyrotron with a single-stage depressed collector. The gyrotron has a high-voltage insulating section made of a low loss silicon nitride composite. In this preliminary experiment in the depressed collector configuration, we obtained 591kW, 41% operation with a depression voltage of 22.5kV. Access to the higher efficiency region was inhibited by an increase in anode current. (author)

  4. Nonlocality of a single photon: Paths to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    A single-photon incident on a beam splitter produces an entangled field state, and in principle could be used to violate a Bell inequality, but such an experiment (without postselection) is beyond the reach of current experiments. Here we consider the somewhat simpler task of demonstrating Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering with a single photon (also without postselection). We demonstrate that Alice's choice of measurement on her portion of the entangled state can affect Bob's portion of the entangled state in his laboratory, in a sense rigorously defined by us and Doherty [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)]. Previous work by Lvovsky and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 047903 (2004)] has addressed this phenomenon (which they called remote preparation) experimentally using homodyne measurements on a single photon. Here we show that, unfortunately, their experimental parameters do not meet the bounds necessary for a rigorous demonstration of EPR steering with a single photon. However, we also show that modest improvements in the experimental parameters, and the addition of photon counting to the arsenal of Alice's measurements, would be sufficient to allow such a demonstration.

  5. Growing up in a lesbian family: the life experiences of the adult daughters and sons of lesbian mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leddy, A.; Gartrell, N.; Bos, H.M.W.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the experience of being raised in a lesbian home from the perspective of the daughters and sons of lesbian families. Adult offspring of lesbian families participated in an online questionnaire that examined five themes: (1) positive aspects of being raised in a

  6. Being a Mother in a Strange Land : Motherhood Practices Experiences of Chinese Migrant Women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S-Y.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese migrants have been emigrating to the Netherlands since 1911. Particularly after World War Two, female migrants outnumbered male migrants, yet their daily-life practices and transnational motherhood experiences have remained largely unknown. For this reason, my study pays attention to

  7. Mothers' Experiences of Children in the Autistic Spectrum in Greece: Narratives of Development, Education and Disability across Their Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukisas, Theodoros D.; Papoudi, Despina

    2016-01-01

    Autism occupies a prominent place in scientific research both as a medical and as a socio-cultural phenomenon. Autism is studied as a disorder and a diagnostic label, as an experience of people with autism, their parents and their supporters, and finally as a disability related to stigma and rejection. The purpose of this article is to describe…

  8. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy among Chinese mothers: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiemin; Chan, Wai Chi Sally; Zhou, Xiuzhu; Ye, Benlan; He, Hong-Gu

    2014-06-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among expectant Chinese mothers in the antenatal period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in the antenatal clinics of three university hospitals in China between September and December 2011. expectant mothers planning to breast feed, and who were at least 18 years of age, expecting a single, healthy, full-term baby, and competent in Mandarin (n=201). a socio-demographic data sheet, the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Perceived Social Support Scale. the expectant Chinese mothers reported moderate levels of breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers who had had previous experience in breast feeding, who had watched other mothers breast feed their infants, or who had made the decision to breast feed earlier reported higher breast feeding self-efficacy. Expectant mothers' perceived social support, perceived attitude of significant others, including husband, mothers, and friends, towards breast feeding are correlated with breast feeding self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed five variables that explained 34% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the antenatal period: perceived social support, previous experience of breast feeding, previous experience of watching others breast feed, timing of maternal decision to breast feed, and perceived husband's attitude towards breast feeding. this study highlighted the importance of improving Chinese mothers' breast feeding self-efficacy by considering the main predictors found in this study. health care professionals could develop strategies to promote breast feeding self-efficacy, such as providing opportunities for expectant mothers to learn from others' successful experience, adopt a family-centred approach in the provision of breast feeding education, provide breast feeding education at the beginning of pregnancy or even earlier, and rally comprehensive social

  9. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  10. Effects of an antenatal mindfulness-based childbirth and parenting programme on the postpartum experiences of mothers: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Malis, Françoise; Meyer, Thorsten; Gross, Mechthild M

    2017-02-07

    Applications of mindfulness during the perinatal period have recently been explored and appear to offer a decrease in stress, anxiety and depression during this period. However, it still remains unclear what practical use women make of mindfulness during the postpartum period and the mechanisms through which it works. The subjective experience of mindfulness practice by mothers is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to explore how women enrolled in a "Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting programme" experienced mindfulness practice during the postpartum period. Ten pregnant women over 18 years of age with singleton pregnancies, no diagnoses of mental illness and participation in a "Mindfulness-Based Childbirth and Parenting programme" were recruited to take part in a postpartum interview. Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically based on a phenomenological approach. The transcripts of nine interviews were submitted to a coding process consisting of the identification of words, sentences or paragraphs expressing common ideas. These ideas were classified in codes, each code representing a specific description, function or action (e.g. self-perception, personal organization, formal/informal meditation practice). Progressively, a framework of thematic ideas was extracted from the transcripts, allowing the interviews to be systematically organized and their content analysed in depth. Five themes emerged from the descriptions of practices of mindfulness during the postpartum period: perception of the present moment, breathing, acceptance, self-compassion and the perception of mindfulness as a shelter. Mindfulness practices during the postpartum period may contribute to a mother's psychological wellbeing. The perception of mindfulness as a shelter had not previously been reported. Future research could address whether this role is specific to the postpartum period.

  11. How to design a single-cell RNA-sequencing experiment: pitfalls, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Molin, Alessandra; Di Camillo, Barbara

    2018-01-31

    The sequencing of the transcriptome of single cells, or single-cell RNA-sequencing, has now become the dominant technology for the identification of novel cell types in heterogeneous cell populations or for the study of stochastic gene expression. In recent years, various experimental methods and computational tools for analysing single-cell RNA-sequencing data have been proposed. However, most of them are tailored to different experimental designs or biological questions, and in many cases, their performance has not been benchmarked yet, thus increasing the difficulty for a researcher to choose the optimal single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) experiment and analysis workflow. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the current available experimental and computational methods developed to handle single-cell RNA-sequencing data and, based on their peculiarities, we suggest possible analysis frameworks depending on specific experimental designs. Together, we propose an evaluation of challenges and open questions and future perspectives in the field. In particular, we go through the different steps of scRNA-seq experimental protocols such as cell isolation, messenger RNA capture, reverse transcription, amplification and use of quantitative standards such as spike-ins and Unique Molecular Identifiers (UMIs). We then analyse the current methodological challenges related to preprocessing, alignment, quantification, normalization, batch effect correction and methods to control for confounding effects. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. DNA origami as biocompatible surface to match single-molecule and ensemble experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Andreas; Holzmeister, Phil; Grohmann, Dina; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule experiments on immobilized molecules allow unique insights into the dynamics of molecular machines and enzymes as well as their interactions. The immobilization, however, can invoke perturbation to the activity of biomolecules causing incongruities between single molecule and ensemble measurements. Here we introduce the recently developed DNA origami as a platform to transfer ensemble assays to the immobilized single molecule level without changing the nano-environment of the biomolecules. The idea is a stepwise transfer of common functional assays first to the surface of a DNA origami, which can be checked at the ensemble level, and then to the microscope glass slide for single-molecule inquiry using the DNA origami as a transfer platform. We studied the structural flexibility of a DNA Holliday junction and the TATA-binding protein (TBP)-induced bending of DNA both on freely diffusing molecules and attached to the origami structure by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. This resulted in highly congruent data sets demonstrating that the DNA origami does not influence the functionality of the biomolecule. Single-molecule data collected from surface-immobilized biomolecule-loaded DNA origami are in very good agreement with data from solution measurements supporting the fact that the DNA origami can be used as biocompatible surface in many fluorescence-based measurements. PMID:22523083

  13. Use of incidentally encoded memory from a single experience in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Saho; Tsuzuki, Mana; Chijiiwa, Hitomi; Arahori, Minori; Watanabe, Arii; Saito, Atsuko; Fujita, Kazuo

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether cats could retrieve and utilize incidentally encoded information from a single past event in a simple food-exploration task previously used for dogs (Fujita et al., 2012). In Experiment 1, cats were led to four open, baited containers and allowed to eat from two of them (Exposure phase). After a 15-min delay during which the cats were absent and all containers were replaced with empty ones, the cats were unexpectedly returned to the room and allowed to explore the containers (Test phase). Although the cats' first choice of container to visit was random, they explored containers from which they had not previously eaten for longer than those from which they did previously eat. In the Exposure phase of Experiment 2, two containers held food, one held a nonedible object, and the fourth was empty. Cats were allowed to eat from one of them. In the post-delay Test phase, the cats first visited the remaining baited-uneaten container significantly more often than chance and they spent more time exploring this container. Because the cats' behavior in the Test phase cannot be explained by association of the container with a pleasant experience (eating), the results suggest that cats retrieved and utilized "what" and "where" information from an incidentally encoded memory from a single experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mothers with mental health problems: Contrasting experiences of support within maternity services in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Agnes; Tuohy, Teresa; Murphy, Rebecca; Begley, Cecily

    2016-05-01

    to explore the views and experiences of women with mental health difficulties, in the Republic of Ireland, accessing and receiving care from publicly-funded maternity care services during pregnancy, childbirth and immediate postnatal period in hospital. in total 20 women with a range of mental health problems were recruited. The women had given birth within maternity services with and without specialist perinatal mental health services. a qualitative descriptive design using in-depth face to face interviews was used to explore women׳s experience. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic process. the study offers valuable insights into the maternity care experiences of women with mental health problems, and highlights the deficits and fragmentation of care in maternity units that do not have a specialist mental health service. Even when the women voluntarily disclosed their difficulties, midwives appeared to lack the knowledge and skills to respond sensitively and responsively. there is a need to expand perinatal mental health services in the Republic of Ireland, so that quality service provision is not dependent on geography. In addition, there is a need for education to address the lack of knowledge and understanding of perinatal mental health problems amongst maternity care practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.; Lemke, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    Shock compression experiments in the few hundred GPa (multi-Mbar) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride single crystals. This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17-32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between ˜190 and 570 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot—the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves—as well as pressure and density of reshock states up to ˜920 GPa. The experimental measurements are compared with density functional theory calculations, tabular equation of state models, and legacy nuclear driven results that have been reanalyzed using modern equations of state for the shock wave standards used in the experiments.

  16. Experiences of Racism and Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration Among First-Time Mothers of the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Michele K; Crawford, Sybil L; Perry, Donna J; Person, Sharina D; Rosenberg, Lynn; Cozier, Yvette C; Palmer, Julie R

    2018-02-12

    Breastfeeding rates are lower for black women in the USA compared with other groups. Breastfeeding and lactation are sensitive time points in the life course, centering breastfeeding as a health equity issue. In the USA, experiences of racism have been linked to poor health outcomes but racism relative to breastfeeding has not been extensively investigated. This study aims to investigate the association between experiences of racism, neighborhood segregation, and nativity with breastfeeding initiation and duration. This is a prospective secondary analysis of the Black Women's Health Study, based on data collected from 1995 through 2005. Daily and institutional (job, housing, police) racism, nativity, and neighborhood segregation in relation to breastfeeding were examined. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using binomial logistic regression for the initiation outcomes (N = 2705) and multinomial logistic regression for the duration outcomes (N = 2172). Racism in the job setting was associated with lower odds of breastfeeding duration at 3-5 months. Racism with the police was associated with higher odds of breastfeeding initiation and duration at 3-5 and 6 months. Being born in the USA or having a parent born in the USA predicted lower odds of breastfeeding initiation and duration. Living in a segregated neighborhood (primarily black residents) as a child was associated with decreased breastfeeding initiation and duration relative to growing up in a predominantly white neighborhood. Experiences of institutionalized racism influenced breastfeeding initiation and duration. Structural-level interventions are critical to close the gap of racial inequity in breastfeeding rates in the USA.

  17. Mother-Tongue Diversity in the Foreign Language Classroom: Perspectives on the Experiences of Non-Native Speakers of English Studying Foreign Languages in an English-Medium University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Jennifer; Kelly, Niamh

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the position of university language students whose mother tongue is other than the medium of instruction. Specifically, it investigates the attitudes and experiences of non-native English speakers studying either German or Japanese as foreign languages at an English-medium university. The findings indicate that the non-native…

  18. Single-experiment displacement assay for quantifying high-affinity binding by isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainer, Georg; Keller, Sandro

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the gold standard for dissecting the thermodynamics of a biomolecular binding process within a single experiment. However, reliable determination of the dissociation constant (KD) from a single titration is typically limited to the range 100 μM>KD>1 nM. Interactions characterized by a lower KD can be assessed indirectly by so-called competition or displacement assays, provided that a suitable competitive ligand is available whose KD falls within the directly accessible window. However, this protocol is limited by the fact that it necessitates at least two titrations to characterize one high-affinity inhibitor, resulting in considerable consumption of both sample material and time. Here, we introduce a fast and efficient ITC displacement assay that allows for the simultaneous characterization of both a high-affinity ligand and a moderate-affinity ligand competing for the same binding site on a receptor within a single experiment. The protocol is based on a titration of the high-affinity ligand into a solution containing the moderate-affinity ligand bound to the receptor present in excess. The resulting biphasic binding isotherm enables accurate and precise determination of KD values and binding enthalpies (ΔH) of both ligands. We discuss the theoretical background underlying the approach, demonstrate its practical application to metal ion chelation, explore its potential and limitations with the aid of simulations and statistical analyses, and elaborate on potential applications to protein-inhibitor interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Excited-state annihilation reduces power dependence of single-molecule FRET experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettels, Daniel; Haenni, Dominik; Maillot, Sacha; Gueye, Moussa; Barth, Anders; Hirschfeld, Verena; Hübner, Christian G; Léonard, Jérémie; Schuler, Benjamin

    2015-12-28

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments are an important method for probing biomolecular structure and dynamics. The results from such experiments appear to be surprisingly independent of the excitation power used, in contradiction to the simple photophysical mechanism usually invoked for FRET. Here we show that excited-state annihilation processes are an essential cause of this behavior. Singlet-singlet annihilation (SSA) is a mechanism of fluorescence quenching induced by Förster-type energy transfer between two fluorophores while they are both in their first excited singlet states (S1S1), which is usually neglected in the interpretation of FRET experiments. However, this approximation is only justified in the limit of low excitation rates. We demonstrate that SSA is evident in fluorescence correlation measurements for the commonly used FRET pair Alexa 488/Alexa 594, with a rate comparable to the rate of energy transfer between the donor excited state and the acceptor ground state (S1S0) that is exploited in FRET experiments. Transient absorption spectroscopy shows that SSA occurs exclusively via energy transfer from Alexa 488 to Alexa 594. Excitation-power dependent microsecond correlation experiments support the conclusion based on previously reported absorption spectra of triplet states that singlet-triplet annihilation (STA) analogously mediates energy transfer if the acceptor is in the triplet state. The results indicate that both SSA and STA have a pronounced effect on the overall FRET process and reduce the power dependence of the observed FRET efficiencies. The existence of annihilation processes thus seems to be essential for using FRET as a reliable spectroscopic ruler at the high excitation rates commonly employed in single-molecule spectroscopy.

  20. Immunoadsorption with regenerating systems in neurological disorders --A single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Bernd; Passauer, Jens; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Julius, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, immunoadsorption is increasingly recognized as an alternative treatment approach replacing therapeutic plasma exchange in a variety of neurological disorders. While most experience is based on the application of single-use tryptophan adsorbers, less data exists on the application of more efficient regenerating adsorber columns. We here report the systematic use of a regenerating adsorber system in various neurological indications such as multiple sclerosis, encephalitis, myasthenia gravis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, providing the expected treatment success in regard to reduction of immunoglobulins and antibody clearance, together with a low rate of adverse events. As it has been shown for single-use columns before, immunoadsorption with regenerating adsorbers can be successfully applied in disorders without known specific antibodies such as multiple sclerosis. Regenerating systems offer the perspective to provide a more efficacious long term treatment perspective for such patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behaviour change opportunities at mother and baby checks in primary care: a qualitative investigation of the experiences of GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Hannah; Strong, Emily; Peters, Sarah; Smith, Debbie M

    2018-04-01

    Pregnancy is widely recognised as a 'teachable moment' for healthy behaviour change and the postnatal period has been identified as the opportune time to initiate this change. In the UK, all women are offered a routine health check at 6-8 weeks postpartum with their GP. This provides a potential opportunity to facilitate long-term behaviour change discussions. To explore GPs' views and experiences of using the postnatal check as a health-related behaviour change opportunity. A qualitative, inductive study in general practice. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 18 GPs. Audiorecorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. One theme emerged from the data: the postnatal check is an unrealised opportunity to facilitate health-related behaviour change. This theme was organised into three subthemes: opportunity for health-related behaviour change; role responsibility; and patient-led versus GP-led behaviour change. Although GPs recognise the postnatal check as a potential opportunity for health-related behaviour change, it is underutilised as they do not perceive this to be the purpose of the check and are uncertain as to their role in facilitating lifestyle changes. To enable this long-term lifestyle behaviour change opportunity to be utilised more fully, further research is needed to understand women's expectations of the postnatal checks and the scope for further recommendations, guidance, and communication training around behaviour change. © British Journal of General Practice 2018.

  2. Search for Extra dimensions in a single-jet and missing energy channel at CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Benucci, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    A possible solution to the hierarchy problem is the presence of extra spatial dimensions beyond the three ones which are known from our everyday experience. The phenomenological ADD model of large extra-dimensions predicts a missing transverse energy plus a single-jet signature. This contribution addresses the sensitivity of the CMS detector at the LHC pp collider to parameters of this model, focusing on the conditions expected for second half of 2010 running (sqrt(s) = 10 TeV, O(100) pb-1). It is shown that a significant improvement of the existing limits can be obtained in such an early stage.

  3. DNA-cisplatin binding mechanism peculiarities studied with single molecule stretching experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafuli, F. A. P.; Cesconetto, E. C.; Ramos, E. B.; Rocha, M. S.

    2012-02-01

    We propose a method to determine the DNA-cisplatin binding mechanism peculiarities by monitoring the mechanical properties of these complexes. To accomplish this task, we have performed single molecule stretching experiments by using optical tweezers, from which the persistence and contour lengths of the complexes can be promptly measured. The persistence length of the complexes as a function of the drug total concentration in the sample was used to deduce the binding data, from which we show that cisplatin binds cooperatively to the DNA molecule, a point which so far has not been stressed in binding equilibrium studies of this ligand.

  4. Laparoscopic single port surgery in children using Triport: our early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Ismael A Salas; Garcia, Isabella; Pimpalwar, Ashwin

    2011-09-01

    Laparoscopy has become the gold standard technique for appendectomy and cholecystectomy. With the emergence of newer laparoscopic instruments which are roticulating and provide 7 degrees of freedom it is now possible to perform these operations through a single umbilical incision rather than the standard 3-4 incisions and thus lead to more desirable cosmetic results and less postoperative pain. The newer reticulating telescopes provide excellent exposure of the operating field and allow the operations to proceed routinely. Recently, ports [Triports (Olympus surgery)/SILS ports] especially designed for single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) have been developed. We herein describe our experience with laparoscopic single port appendectomies and cholecystectomies in children using the Triport. This is a retrospective cohort study of children who underwent single incision laparoscopic surgery between May 2009 and August 2010 at Texas Children's Hospital and Ben Taub General Hospital in Houston Texas by a single surgeon. Charts were reviewed for demographics, type of procedure, operative time, early or late complications, outcome and cosmetic results. Fifty-four patients underwent SILS. A total of 50 appendectomies (early or perforated) and 4 cholecystectomies were performed using this new minimally invasive approach. The average operative time for SILS/LESS appendectomy was 54 min with a range between 25 and 205 min, while operative time for SILS cholecystectomy was 156 min with a range of 75-196 min. Only small percentage (4%) of appendectomies (mostly complicated) were converted to standard laparoscopy, but none were converted to open procedure. All patients were followed up in the clinic after 3-4 weeks. No complications were noted and all patients had excellent cosmetic results. Parents were extremely satisfied with the cosmetic results. SILS/LESS is a safe, minimally invasive approach for appendectomy and cholecystectomy in children. This new approach is

  5. Assaying the binding strength of G-quadruplex ligands using single-molecule TPM experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Wei; Chu, Jen-Fei; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Fang, Hung-Chih; Chang, Ta-Chau; Li, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-15

    G-quadruplexes are stable secondary structures formed by Hoogsteen base pairing of guanine-rich single-stranded DNA sequences in the presence of monovalent cations (Na(+) or K(+)). Folded G-quadruplex (G4) structures in human telomeres have been proposed as a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, we used single-molecule tethered particle motion (TPM) experiments to assay the binding strength of possible G4 ligands. We found that individual single-stranded DNA molecules containing the human telomeric sequence d[AGGG(TTAGGG)3] fluctuated between the folded and the unfolded states in a 10 mM Na(+) solution at 37 °C. The durations of folded and unfolded states were single-exponentially distributed, and in return the folding and unfolding rate constants were 1.68 ± 0.01 and 1.63 ± 0.03 (s(-1)), respectively. In the presence of G4 ligands, such as TMPyP4, DODCI, BMVC, and BMVPA, the unfolding rate constant decreased appreciably. In addition, combining the Cu(2+)-induced G4 unfolding and TPM assay, we showed that BMVC and TMPyP4 are better G4 stabilizers than DODCI. The capability of monitoring the fluctuation between the folded and the unfolded state of G4 DNA in real time allows the determination of both kinetic and thermodynamic parameters in a single measurement and offers a simple way to assay binding strength under various conditions. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Retrocausation acting in the single-electron double-slit interference experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkyo, Noboru

    The single electron double-slit interference experiment is given a time-symmetric interpretation and visualization in terms of the intermediate amplitude of transition between the particle source and the detection point. It is seen that the retarded (causal) amplitude of the electron wave expanding from the source shows an advanced (retrocausal) bifurcation and merging in passing through the double-slit and converges towards the detection point as if guided by the advanced (retrocausal) wave from the detected electron. An experiment is proposed to confirm the causation-retrocausation symmetry of the electron behavior by observing the insensitivity of the interference pattern to non-magnetic obstacles placed in the shadows of the retarded and advanced waves appearing on the rear and front sides of the double-slit.

  7. A post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to- child HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Reshmi; Paredes, Roger; Parboosing, Raveen; Moodley, Pravi; Singh, Lavanya; Naidoo, Anneta; Gordon, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Although the rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the developing world have improved to around 3% in countries like South Africa, resistance to antiretrovirals (ARV) used in Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (pMTCT) strategies may thwart such outcomes and affect the efficacy of future ARV regimens in mothers and children. This study conducted in Durban, South Africa, between 2010 and 2013 found a high rate of nevirapine (NVP) resistance among women receiving Zidovudine (AZT) from 14 weeks gestation, single dose nevirapine (sd NVP) at the onset of labor and a single dose of coformulated Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) postpartum. Using Sanger sequencing, high and intermediate levels of nevirapine (NVP) resistance were detected in 15/44 (34%) and in 1/44 (2%) of women tested, respectively. Most subjects selected the K103N mutation (22% (10/45) of all patients and 66% (10/15) of those with high-level NVP resistance). Such rate of NVP resistance is comparable to studies where only sd NVP was used. In conclusion, a post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum sd NVP to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The impact of maternal experience of violence and common mental disorders on neonatal outcomes: a survey of adolescent mothers in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both violence and depression during pregnancy have been linked to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly low birth weight. The aim of this study was to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these maternal exposures upon neonatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents in a disadvantaged population from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods 930 consecutive pregnant teenagers, admitted for delivery were recruited. Violence was assessed using the Californian Perinatal Assessment. Mental illness was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Apgar scores of newborns were estimated and their weight measured. Results 21.9% of mothers reported lifetime violence (2% during pregnancy and 24.3% had a common mental disorder in the past 12 months. The exposures were correlated and each was associated with low education. Lifetime violence was strongly associated with Common Mental Disorders. Violence during pregnancy (PR = 2.59(1.05–6.40 and threat of physical violence (PR = 1.86(1.03–3.35 and any common mental disorders (PR = 2.09 (1.21–3.63 (as well as depression, anxiety and PTSD separately were independently associated with low birth weight. Conclusion Efforts to improve neonatal outcomes in low income countries may be neglecting two important independent, but correlated risk factors: maternal experience of violence and common mental disorder.

  9. Mothers Reporting I: For Whom and Why is the Mother-Child Education Program Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Bekman, Prof. Dr. Sevda; Atmaca Koçak, Aylin

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of the qualitative research conducted with 100 mothers, all participants of Mother-Child Education Program, (from five different countries). The aim was to investigate the characteristics of the participant mothers, their reasons for participation, and why and how the program was effective. Data, collected through in-depth interviews, revealed that participant mothers were determined and open to change. Mothers’ experiences with the group process, the Cogniti...

  10. Human Milk Provision Experiences, Goals, and Outcomes for Teen Mothers with Low-Birth-Weight Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Beverly; Meier, Paula P; Janes, Judy E; Lawrence, Christie; Patel, Aloka L

    Breastfeeding rates are virtually unknown for teen mothers whose low-birth-weight (LBW; goals, and outcomes of teen mothers of LBW infants. We conducted a multimethod study using a qualitative research design, survey, and infant medical records. The primary data source was individual interviews conducted with teen mothers of LBW infants hospitalized in a tertiary NICU. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. All 15 teen mothers (12 black, 3 Hispanic) wanted what was best for their infants and initiated lactation by breast pump. However, maintaining lactation was challenging and the following barriers were identified: fear of being judged; body image issues; influence of the maternal grandmother; and disorganized thought processes about combining pumping with returning to school or work. Despite these barriers, 50% of the teen mothers met their goals for human milk provision at NICU discharge. Most of the teen mothers' lactation barriers reflected their adolescent developmental stage. Potential interventions are identified and include focus groups with teen mothers and maternal grandmothers and lactation support by NICU-based teen breastfeeding peer counselors.

  11. ESR Experiments on a Single Donor Electron in Isotopically Enriched Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Lisa; Luhman, Dwight; Carr, Stephen; Borchardt, John; Bishop, Nathaniel; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Pluym, Tammy; Wendt, Joel; Witzel, Wayne; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Nielsen, Erik; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    In this talk we will discuss electron spin resonance experiments in single donor silicon qubit devices fabricated at Sandia National Labs. A self-aligned device structure consisting of a polysilicon gate SET located adjacent to the donor is used for donor electron spin readout. Using a cryogenic HEMT amplifier next to the silicon device, we demonstrate spin readout at 100 kHz bandwidth and Rabi oscillations with 0.96 visibility. Electron spin resonance measurements on these devices show a linewidth of 30 kHz and coherence times T2* = 10 us and T2 = 0.3 ms. We also discuss estimates of the fidelity of our donor electron spin qubit measurements using gate set tomography. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. ESR Experiments on a Single Donor Electron in Isotopically Enriched Silicon.

  12. Disentangling subpopulations in single-molecule FRET and ALEX experiments with photon distribution analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomov, Toma E; Tsukanov, Roman; Masoud, Rula; Liber, Miran; Plavner, Noa; Nir, Eyal

    2012-03-07

    Among the advantages of the single-molecule approach when used to study biomolecular structural dynamics and interaction is its ability to distinguish between and independently observe minor subpopulations. In a single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and alternating laser excitation diffusion experiment, the various populations are apparent in the resultant histograms. However, because histograms are calculated based on the per-burst mean FRET and stoichiometry ratio and not on the internal photon distribution, much of the acquired information is lost, thereby reducing the capabilities of the method. Here we suggest what to our knowledge is a novel statistical analysis tool that significantly enhances these capabilities, and we use it to identify and isolate static and dynamic subpopulations. Based on a kernel density estimator and a proper photon distribution analysis, for each individual burst, we calculate scores that reflect properties of interest. Specifically, we determine the FRET efficiency and brightness ratio distributions and use them to reveal 1), the underlying structure of a two-state DNA-hairpin and a DNA hairpin that is bound to DNA origami; 2), a minor doubly labeled dsDNA subpopulation concealed in a larger singly labeled dsDNA; and 3), functioning DNA origami motors concealed within a larger subpopulation of defective motors. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach. The method was developed and tested using simulations, its rationality is described, and a computer algorithm is provided. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. LEARNING CURVE IN SINGLE-LEVEL MINIMALLY INVASIVE TLIF: EXPERIENCE OF A NEUROSURGEON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Romano-Feinholz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the learning curve that shows the progress of a single neurosurgeon when performing single-level MI-TLIF. Methods: We included 99 consecutive patients who underwent single-level MI-TLIF by the same neurosurgeon (JASS. Patient’s demographic characteristics were analyzed. In addition, surgical time, intraoperative blood loss and hospital stay were evaluated. The learning curves were calculated with a piecewise regression model. Results: The mean age was 54.6 years. The learning curves showed an inverse relationship between the surgical experience and the variable analyzed, reaching an inflection point for surgical time in case 43 and for blood loss in case 48. The mean surgical time was 203.3 minutes (interquartile range [IQR] 150-240 minutes, intraoperative bleeding was 97.4ml (IQR 40-100ml and hospital stay of four days (IQR 3-5 days. Conclusions: MI-TLIF is a very frequent surgical procedure due to its effectiveness and safety, which has shown similar results to open procedure. According to this study, the required learning curve is slightly higher than for open procedures, and is reached after about 45 cases.

  14. Single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure for Hirschsprung′s disease : Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras R Kothari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary single-stage pull-through for Hirschsprung′s disease (HD has been reported to give comparable surgical outcomes to staged operations with less morbidity. Herein, we present our experience with single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure for management of HD. Patients and Methods: This was a review of 48 cases of HD who underwent single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure without a protective colostomy. Results: The age at surgery ranged from 6 months to 10 years (median - 9 months, mean - 2.3 years. The average weight of the child was 7.2 kg (range, 4.9-22 kg. 38 (79.2% patients had classical rectosigmoid HD, the rest being long segment HD (the proximal most level being the splenic flexure. The average duration of surgery was 175 minutes (range, 130-245 minutes. The average blood loss was 45 ml. The average hospital stay was 7.2 days (range: 6-10 days. The major postoperative complications (n=3 included postoperative adhesive intestinal obstruction, anastomotic leak and persistent constipation due to residual aganglionosis. Each required a re-exploration. Minor complications included surgical site infection (n=3 and post-operative enterocolitis (n=3, which were managed conservatively. Six patients had constipation for a limited period post-operatively. All patients have a satisfactory functional outcome and normal development and growth. Conclusions: For HD, we recommend that single-stage Modified Duhamel procedure should be the preferred approach in view of its low morbidity, satisfactory functional outcome and avoidance of stoma, multiple surgeries and economic benefit in view of decreased hospital stay.

  15. Interpretation of injection-withdrawal tracer experiments conducted between two wells in a large single fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakowski, K S; Bickerton, G; Lapcevic, P

    2004-09-01

    Tracer experiments conducted using a flow field established by injecting water into one borehole and withdrawing water from another are often used to establish connections and investigate dispersion in fractured rock. As a result of uncertainty in the uniqueness of existing models used for interpretation, this method has not been widely used to investigate more general transport processes including matrix diffusion or advective solute exchange between mobile and immobile zones of fluid. To explore the utility of the injection-withdrawal method as a general investigative tool and with the intent to resolve the transport processes in a discrete fracture, two tracer experiments were conducted using the injection-withdrawal configuration. The experiments were conducted in a fracture which has a large aperture (>500 microm) and horizontally pervades a dolostone formation. One experiment was conducted in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and the other in the direction opposite to the natural gradient. Two tracers having significantly different values of the free-water diffusion coefficient were used. To interpret the experiments, a hybrid numerical-analytical model was developed which accounts for the arcuate shape of the flow field, advection-dispersion in the fracture, diffusion into the matrix adjacent to the fracture, and the presence of natural flow in the fracture. The model was verified by comparison to a fully analytical solution and to a well-known finite-element model. Interpretation of the tracer experiments showed that when only one tracer, advection-dispersion, and matrix diffusion are considered, non-unique results were obtained. However, by using multiple tracers and by accounting for the presence of natural flow in the fracture, unique interpretations were obtained in which a single value of matrix porosity was estimated from the results of both experiments. The estimate of porosity agrees well with independent measurements of porosity obtained from

  16. 'Silk Road', the virtual drug marketplace: a single case study of user experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2013-09-01

    The online promotion of 'drug shopping' and user information networks is of increasing public health and law enforcement concern. An online drug marketplace called 'Silk Road' has been operating on the 'Deep Web' since February 2011 and was designed to revolutionise contemporary drug consumerism. A single case study approach explored a 'Silk Road' user's motives for online drug purchasing, experiences of accessing and using the website, drug information sourcing, decision making and purchasing, outcomes and settings for use, and perspectives around security. The participant was recruited following a lengthy relationship building phase on the 'Silk Road' chat forum. The male participant described his motives, experiences of purchasing processes and drugs used from 'Silk Road'. Consumer experiences on 'Silk Road' were described as 'euphoric' due to the wide choice of drugs available, relatively easy once navigating the Tor Browser (encryption software) and using 'Bitcoins' for transactions, and perceived as safer than negotiating illicit drug markets. Online researching of drug outcomes, particularly for new psychoactive substances was reported. Relationships between vendors and consumers were described as based on cyber levels of trust and professionalism, and supported by 'stealth modes', user feedback and resolution modes. The reality of his drug use was described as covert and solitary with psychonautic characteristics, which contrasted with his membership, participation and feelings of safety within the 'Silk Road' community. 'Silk Road' as online drug marketplace presents an interesting displacement away from 'traditional' online and street sources of drug supply. Member support and harm reduction ethos within this virtual community maximises consumer decision-making and positive drug experiences, and minimises potential harms and consumer perceived risks. Future research is necessary to explore experiences and backgrounds of other users. Copyright © 2013

  17. Mother Trouble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Pollock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1980s a practising painter who is also a practising psychoanalyst reflected upon the significance of events occurring in her painting and being reflected upon in her notebooks to evolve a major theoretical intervention in psychoanalytical thinking at the intersections of British Object Relations (Bion, Laing, Winnicott in which she was trained at the Tavistock and Parisian Lacanian and post Lacanian thinking (Laplanche, Guattari, Aulagnier, Dolto.  Supplementing the  then dominant understanding of Lacan's phallic Symbolic,  defined by the sovereignty of the phallus as the sole signifier, Bracha Ettinger proposed a further symbol, the Matrix and its non-phallic, non-Oedipal process, metramorphosis.  The matrixial enables us to catch up into theoretical knowledge another, shifting but not excluding dimension of  subjectivity that is the effect , on all subjects, irrespective of later, Oedipalised gender or sexuality, of the  feminine sexual specificity of human generation in the non-prohibited intimacy of the feminine-becoming-maternal-in co-emergence-with an-unknown-becoming-partial-other.  Moving beyond the theoretical engagements of object relations with early mother-child, hence post-natal relations between subjects, hence beyond intersubjectivity, Ettinger has been exploring, for almost two decades, the implications for theories of subjectivity and hence for ethics and even the politics of our multiple moments of transsubjective co-affections and co-effects, of the proposition that the feminine, understood as this sexual specificity of the severality of mutual co-effecting becoming of life, has something profound to offer our understanding of the human, its ethics, aesthetics and even politics.  Daring to theorize the gift to later subjectivities of the prolonged encounter-event between pre-natality and pre-maternity, Ettinger has contributed to debates about the maternal, the feminine and human subjectivity in general. In

  18. Characterization of Necking Phenomena in High-Speed Experiments by Using a Single Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hild François

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment described herein is the study of material deformation (here a cylinder induced by explosives. During its expansion, the cylinder (initially 3 mm thick is thinning until fracture appears. Some tens of microseconds before destruction, strain localizations occur and induce mechanical necking. To characterize the time of first localizations, 25 stereoscopic acquisitions at about 500,000 frames per second are used by resorting to a single ultra-high speed camera. The 3D reconstruction from stereoscopic movies is described. A special calibration procedure is followed, namely, the calibration target is imaged during the experiment itself. To characterize the performance of the present procedure, resolution and optical distortions are estimated. The principle of stereoscopic reconstruction of an object subjected to a high-speed experiment is then developed. This reconstruction is achieved by using a global image correlation code that exploits random markings on the object outer surface. The spatial resolution of the estimated surface is evaluated thanks to a realistic image pair synthesis. Last, the time evolution of surface roughness is estimated. It gives access to the onset of necking.

  19. Hydrodynamic dispersion in a single fracture: final report on CRNL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.; Evans, G.V.; Novakowski, K.S.; Raven, K.G.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options under consideration for the safe long-term disposal of radioactive waste is deep burial in stable fractured rock formations. The most probable way by which radionuclides from the waste could return to the biosphere is by leaching and dissolution of the waste-form, and then water-borne transport by the ground water. In-situ tracer experiments are an important element in developing an understanding of the physical processes that determine the migration of radionuclides through the rock. Unfortunately, there are few field studies presented in the literature to date, which corroborate existing laboratory studies and provide data for theoretical models of transport through fractured rock. The objective of this study was to design and conduct a tracer experiment in which a single fracture was isolated and tested under advective flow conditions with a conservative tracer. During the summer of 1983 a joint AECL-CEC field test was carried out at the Chalk River test site in Canada. Two experiments were conducted, using 82 Br as the conservative tracer, on a discrete fracture identified by hydraulic interference tests at approximately 100 m depth in moderately-fractured monzonitic gneiss. The selected fracture intersects two boreholes in a relatively horizontal attitude over a distance of about 10 m

  20. A Single-Center Retrospective Cohort Analysis of Maternal and Infant Outcomes in HIV-Infected Mothers Treated with Integrase Inhibitors During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounce, Monique L; Pontiggia, Laura; Adams, Jessica L

    2017-12-01

    Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) are currently being investigated for the treatment of HIV in pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences in maternal and infant outcomes in HIV-positive mothers treated with INSTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy compared to protease inhibitor (PI)-containing ART. A retrospective, cohort study of INSTI- and PI-based ART used in pregnancy between 2007 and 2015 was performed. The primary objective was to evaluate the differences in viral load (VL) suppression prior to delivery. Secondary endpoints included time to and duration of VL suppression and safety parameters in both mothers and infants. For the primary analysis, the two arms were matched 1:2 INSTI to PI based on the presence or absence of viremia at the time of pregnancy determination. Additional analysis was performed on the entire matched and unmatched dataset. Twenty-one patients were matched (7 INSTI and 14 PI). There were no significant differences between groups with respect to the proportion of patients with VL suppression prior to delivery (71.4% INSTI vs. 92.9% PI, p = 0.247), and there were no significant differences in any of the secondary endpoints. Patients with documented adherence issues were statistically more likely to not be virologically suppressed prior to delivery (p = 0.002). No differences in efficacy or safety were found between patients treated with INSTIs compared to PIs. This study supports the further investigation of the use of INSTIs during pregnancy to reduce HIV transmission.

  1. Ventricular assist device support in patients with single ventricles: the Melbourne experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chin L; Chiletti, Roberto; Zannino, Diana; Brizard, Christian; Konstantinov, Igor E; Horton, Stephen; Millar, Johnny; d'Udekem, Yves

    2017-08-01

    The capacity and limitations of ventricular assist device (VAD) support in single-ventricle physiology remains poorly understood. We aimed to review our experience in the use of VAD support in the single-ventricle circulation to determine its feasibility in this population. We reviewed our experience with VAD support in patients with single ventricles over the past 25 years. Fifty-seven patients received 64 runs of VAD support between 1990 and 2015 at a median age of 13 days [interquartile range (IQR) 4.1-99.4 days], of which 55 were supported for post-cardiotomy failure. The majority of patients received short-term VAD support, while 4 patients were either directly supported (1) or transitioned onto the Berlin Heart EXCOR (3). The median duration of support was 3.5 days (IQR 2.8-5.2 days). Twelve patients suffered significant neurological complications, and thromboembolic events occurred in 8 patients. Twenty-nine of the 55 patients were successfully weaned off support (53%). There were 37 inpatient deaths, with a survival-to-hospital discharge rate of 33% (18 of 55). Of the 4 patients supported after early Fontan failure, 3 died. Having a higher mean arterial blood pressure on initiation of VAD support was the only significant predictor of death (hazards ratio 1.08; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.14; P = 0.002). Patients who required a second run of support had higher hospital mortality (83% vs 63%; P = 0.84). Of the hospital survivors, 12 patients (63%) remain alive without heart transplantation at median 7.2 years (IQR 3.5-14.0) post VAD support. VAD support in patients with a single ventricle has a high hospital mortality, with 1 of 3 patients surviving to discharge. Systemic VAD support is likely futile in the setting of early Fontan failure or when re-initiation of support is required. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  2. Produção de sentidos sobre a maternidade: uma experiência no Programa Mãe Canguru Senses production upon motherhood: an experience at the Kangaroo Mother Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa, sob a perspectiva da relação entre a família e instituições de saúde, os sentidos produzidos sobre a maternidade em um programa de saúde neonatal desenvolvido na rede pública - o Programa Mãe Canguru. A partir de entrevistas e observações feitas com usuárias durante sua participação no programa, buscamos apreender como as práticas discursivas e não discursivas sobre maternidade e maternagem, difundidas nesse processo, se articulam com as experiências concretas dessas mulheres para produzir novas configurações subjetivas. Na interpretação dos dados, realizada através de análise do discurso, os aspectos mais significativos das falas das entrevistadas foram agrupados em quatro núcleos de sentido: família e religião; o impacto do nascimento prematuro; desconfiança e resistência nas relações com instituições e profissionais de saúde; e a experiência com o Programa Mãe Canguru. Ao final, procurou-se identificar as principais estratégias e formas de singularização utilizadas por essas mulheres ao atribuírem sentidos ao papel materno.This article analises, under the perspective of the relationship between the family and health institutions, the senses produced upon motherhood on a neonatal health program developed at the public system - The Kangaroo Mother Program. As from interviews and observations made with users during their involvement on the program, we tried to perceive how discursive and non discursive practices about motherhood and maternal care, spreaded on this process, become linked with the factual experiences of this women in order to produce new subjective configurations. On data interpretation, realized through speech analysis, the most significant aspects of interviewees talks were gathered in four senses nucleus: family and religion; the impact of a premature birth; distrust and resistance on relations with institutions and health professionals; and the experience with the

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence sensitivity changes in quartz due to repeated use in single aliquot readout: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKeever, S.W.S.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a study to examine sensitivity changes in single aliquot techniques using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) a series of experiments has been conducted with single aliquots of natural quartz, and the data compared with the results of computer simulations of the type of processes...

  4. Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, Jan [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (Germany)

    2009-07-24

    The standard model of elementary particle physics (SM) predicts, besides the top-quark pair production via the strong interaction, also the electroweak production of single top-quarks [19]. Up to now, the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton-collider is the only place to produce and study top quarks emerging from hadron-hadron-collisions. Top quarks were directly observed in 1995 during the Tevatron Run I at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.8 TeV simultaneously by the CDF and D0 Collaborations via the strong production of top-quark pairs. Run II of the Tevatron data taking period started 2001 at √s = 1.96 TeV after a five year upgrade of the Tevatron accelerator complex and of both experiments. One main component of its physics program is the determination of the properties of the top quark including its electroweak production. Even though Run II is still ongoing, the study of the top quark is already a successful endeavor, confirmed by dozens of publications from both Tevatron experiments. A comprehensive review of top-quark physics can be found in reference. The reasons for searching for single top-quark production are compelling. As the electroweak top-quark production proceeds via a Wtb vertex, it provides the unique opportunity of the direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vtb|, which is expected to be |Vtb| ~ 1 in the SM. Significant deviations from unity could be an indication of a fourth quark generation, a production mode via flavor-changing neutral currents, and other new phenomena, respectively. There are two dominating electroweak top-quark production modes at the Fermilab Tevatron: the t-channel exchange of a virtual W boson striking a b quark and the s-channel production of a timelike W boson via the fusion of two quarks. In proton-antiproton-collisions the third electroweak production mode, the associated Wt production of an on-shell W boson in conjunction with a top quark has a comparatively negligible small

  5. Single port laparoscopic repair of paediatric inguinal hernias: Our experience at a secondary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital inguinal hernias are a common paediatric surgical problem and herniotomy through a groin incision is the gold standard. Over the last 2 decades minimally invasive surgery (MIS has challenged this conventional surgery. Over a period, MIS techniques have evolved to making it more minimally invasive - from 3 to 2 and now single port technique. All studies using single port technique are from tertiary care centres. We used a modification of the technique described by Ozgediz et al. and reviewed the clinical outcome of this novel procedure and put forth our experience at a secondary level hospital. Materials and Methods: Prospective review of 37 hernias in 31 children (29 male and 2 female (8 months - 13 years performed laparoscopically by a single surgeon at a single centre between September 2007 and June 2010. Under laparoscopic guidance, the internal ring was encircled extraperitoneally using a 2-0 non-absorbable suture and knotted extraperitoneally. Data analyzed included operating time, ease of procedure, occult patent processus vaginalis (PPV, complications, and cosmesis. Results: Sixteen right (52%, 14 left (45% and 1 bilateral hernia (3% were repaired. Five unilateral hernias (16.66%, all left, had a contralateral PPV that was repaired (P = 0.033. Mean operative time for a unilateral and bilateral repair were 13.20 (8-25 and 20.66 min (17 -27 min respectively. Only one of the repairs (2.7% recurred and another had a post operative hydrocoele (2.7%. One case (2.7% needed an additional port placement due to inability to reduce the contents of hernia completely. There were no stitch abscess/granulomas, obvious spermatic cord injuries, testicular atrophy, or nerve injuries. Conclusion: Single port laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair can be safely done in the paediatric population. It permits extension of benefits of minimal access surgery to patients being managed at secondary level hospitals with limited resources. The

  6. Vivenciando com o filho uma passagem difícil e reveladora: a experiência da mãe acompanhante Experiencing a difficult and revealing passage with her child: the live-in mother experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma de Oliveira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com mães acompanhantes em um hospital escola. Os objetivos foram: compreender as interações vivenciadas, identificar os significados que o familiar acompanhante atribui à experiência de vivenciar a hospitalização da criança, identificar o que essa vivência provoca na vida do familiar e construir um modelo teórico representativo da experiência. Utilizou-se como Referencial Teórico o Interacionismo Simbólico e Referencial Metodológico a "Grounded Theory". Identificou-se os fenômenos Indo em busca de solução e Atravessando uma situação difícil. A partir desses fenômenos emergiu a categoria central Vivenciando com o filho uma passagem difícil e reveladora.This study was conducted with live-in mother in university hospital. The objectives were as follows: to understand the experienced interactions, to identify the meanings that a family attribute to the experience of going through the child's hospitalization, to identify what the experience of hospitalization provokes in the family life and construct a model theory representative of the experience. Reference Theory the Symbolic Interactionism and Reference Methodology Grounded Theory had been utilized. From results appeared the phenomenon Going in search of solution, and Going through a difficult situation. Through these phenomena, the main category Experiencing a difficult and revealing passage with her child was identified.

  7. The stepping behavior analysis of pedestrians from different age groups via a single-file experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuchao; Zhang, Jun; Song, Weiguo; Shi, Chang'an; Zhang, Ruifang

    2018-03-01

    The stepping behavior of pedestrians with different age compositions in single-file experiment is investigated in this paper. The relation between step length, step width and stepping time are analyzed by using the step measurement method based on the calculation of curvature of the trajectory. The relations of velocity-step width, velocity-step length and velocity-stepping time for different age groups are discussed and compared with previous studies. Finally effects of pedestrian gender and height on stepping laws and fundamental diagrams are analyzed. The study is helpful for understanding pedestrian dynamics of movement. Meanwhile, it offers experimental data to develop a microscopic model of pedestrian movement by considering stepping behavior.

  8. Weaving dreamcatchers: mothering among American Indian women who were teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Early experience with single incision laparoscopic surgery: eliminating the scar from abdominal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sanjeev

    2009-09-01

    Single incision laproscopic surgery (SILS) involves performing abdominal operations with laparoscopic instruments placed through a single, small umbilical incision. The primary goal is to avoid visible scarring. This is the first report of SILS cholecystectomy in children and the first report in the literature of SILS splenectomy. A retrospective chart review was performed in 20 consecutive inpatient SILS procedures (13 males, 7 females; ages 2-17 years) from May to December 2008. Outcome measures included need for conversion, operative time, time to oral analgesia, length of hospitalization, cosmetic outcome, and complications. There were 4 total splenectomies, 3 cholecystectomies, 2 combined splenectomy/cholecystectomies, and 11 appendectomies performed. All procedures were completed successfully without need for conversion to standard laparoscopy or open surgery. Mean operative time was 90 minutes for splenectomy, 68 minutes for cholecystectomy, 165 minutes for combined splenectomy/cholecystectomy, and 33 minutes for appendectomy. Mean hospital stay was 1 day for appendectomy, 1 day for cholecystectomy, and 2.5 days for splenectomy. One splenectomy patient received 1 U packed red blood cell transfusion. All appendectomy patients were converted to oral analgesia within 24 hours and splenectomy patients within 48 hours. All families were very pleased with the cosmetic outcome. Single incision laparoscopic surgery is feasible for a variety of pediatric general surgical conditions, allowing for scarless abdominal operations. This early experience suggests that outcomes are comparable to standard laparoscopic surgery but with improved cosmesis, however, a larger series is necessary to confirm these findings and to determine if there are any benefits in pain or recovery. Surgeons performing SILS should have a firm foundation of advanced minimal access surgical skills and a cautious, gradated approach to attempting the various procedures. Technological refinements will

  10. The single lineup paradigm: A new way to manipulate target presence in eyewitness identification experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriet, Chris; Fitzgerald, Ryan J

    2018-02-01

    The suspect in eyewitness lineups may be guilty or innocent. These possibilities are traditionally simulated in eyewitness identification studies using a dual-lineup paradigm: All witnesses observe the same perpetrator and then receive one of two lineups. In this paradigm, the suspect's guilt is manipulated by including the perpetrator in one lineup and an innocent suspect in the other. The lineup is then filled with people matched to either the suspect (resulting in different fillers in perpetrator-present and perpetrator-absent lineups) or to the perpetrator (resulting in the same fillers in each lineup). An inescapable feature of the dual-lineup paradigm is that the perpetrator-present and perpetrator-absent lineups differ not only in the suspect's guilt, but also in their composition. Here, we describe a single-lineup paradigm: Subjects observe one of two perpetrators and then all subjects receive the same lineup containing one of the perpetrators. This alternative paradigm allows manipulation of the suspect's guilt without changing the lineup's composition. In three experiments, we applied the single-lineup paradigm to explore suspect-filler similarity and consistently found that increasing similarity reduced perpetrator identifications but did little to prevent innocent suspect misidentifications. Conversely, when fillers were matched to the perpetrator using a dual-lineup paradigm, increasing similarity reduced identification of perpetrators and innocent suspects. This finding suggests that the effect of filler similarity may depend on the person to whom the fillers are matched. We suggest that the single-lineup paradigm is a more ecologically valid and better controlled approach to creating suspect-matched lineups in laboratory investigations of eyewitness memory than existing procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Electron Spin Resonance Experiments on a Single Electron in Silicon Implanted with Phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhman, Dwight R.; Nguyen, K.; Tracy, L. A.; Carr, S.; Borchardt, J.; Bishop, N.; Ten Eyck, G.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk we will discuss the results of our ongoing experiments involving electron spin resonance (ESR) on a single electron in a natural silicon sample. The sample consists of an SET, defined by lithographic polysilicon gates, coupled to nearby phosphorous donors. The SET is used to detect charge transitions and readout the spin of the electron being investigated with ESR. The measurements were done with the sample at dilution refrigerator temperatures in the presence of a 1.3 T magnetic field. We will present data demonstrating Rabi oscillations of a single electron in this system as well as measurements of the coherence time, T2. We will also discuss our results using these and various other pulsing schemes in the context of a donor-SET system. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Robotic liver resection: initial experience with three-arm robotic and single-port robotic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Emad; Noureldine, Salem I; Saggi, Bob; Buell, Joseph F

    2013-01-01

    Robotic-assisted surgery offers a solution to fundamental limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery, and its use is gaining wide popularity. However, the application of this technology has yet to be established in hepatic surgery. A retrospective analysis of our prospectively collected liver surgery database was performed. Over a 6-month period, all consecutive patients who underwent robotic-assisted hepatic resection for a liver neoplasm were included. Demographics, operative time, and morbidity encountered were evaluated. A total of 7 robotic-assisted liver resections were performed, including 2 robotic-assisted single-port access liver resections with the da Vinci-Si Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Sunnyvalle, Calif.) USA. The mean age was 44.6 years (range, 21-68 years); there were 5 male and 2 female patients. The mean operative time (± SD) was 61.4 ± 26.7 minutes; the mean operative console time (± SD) was 38.2 ± 23 minutes. No conversions were required. The mean blood loss was 100.7 mL (range, 10-200 mL). The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 2 ± 0.4 days. No postoperative morbidity related to the procedure or death was encountered. Our initial experience with robotic liver resection confirms that this technique is both feasible and safe. Robotic-assisted technology appears to improve the precision and ergonomics of single-access surgery while preserving the known benefits of laparoscopic surgery, including cosmesis, minimal morbidity, and faster recovery.

  13. Precut cornea for Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty: experience at a single eye bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ashik; Chaurasia, Sunita; Chandragiri, Venkataswamy; Kandhibanda, Srinivas; Gunnam, Srinivas; Garg, Prashant

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the experience with precut facility for endothelial keratoplasty at a single eye bank affiliated to a tertiary eye care center in India. Data on precut tissues from Nov 2012 to Dec 2014 were retrospectively reviewed from the electronic database of the eye bank of a tertiary eye care center in South India. Donor characteristic data including donor age, precut and postcut endothelial cell density (ECD), recipient age, and thickness of graft were collected. The number of precuts increased from 42 in 2012 (Nov and Dec) and 422 in 2013 to 584 in 2014. Of the total of 1048 precuts, seven (0.67 %) were miscut and could not be utilized for transplants. The donor age ranged from 2 to 89 years. A mean change of 43.6 ± 325.2 cells/mm 2 in ECD was noted after cut, proportional increase in mean being 1.9 %. The change in ECD after cut was negatively correlated with ECD before cut. The recipient age ranged from 1 to 89 years. The median thickness of donor lenticule after cut was 148 µm (interquartile range 131-166 µm). Analysis of precut donor corneas from a single eye bank shows that the ECD of the processed tissues was excellent for transplantation. The tissue wastage in the hands of eye bank personal was minimal.

  14. Simultaneous Measurement of Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat in a Single TDTR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangyuan; Wang, Xinwei; Yang, Ming; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Hang; Tang, Dawei

    2018-01-01

    Time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) technique is a powerful thermal property measurement method, especially for nano-structures and material interfaces. Thermal properties can be obtained by fitting TDTR experimental data with a proper thermal transport model. In a single TDTR experiment, thermal properties with different sensitivity trends can be extracted simultaneously. However, thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity usually have similar trends in sensitivity for most materials; it is difficult to measure them simultaneously. In this work, we present a two-step data fitting method to measure the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity simultaneously from a set of TDTR experimental data at single modulation frequency. This method takes full advantage of the information carried by both amplitude and phase signals; it is a more convenient and effective solution compared with the frequency-domain thermoreflectance method. The relative error is lower than 5 % for most cases. A silicon wafer sample was measured by TDTR method to verify the two-step fitting method.

  15. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia as classified using 2008 WHO criteria: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kara L; Marina, Neyssa; Arber, Daniel A; Ma, Lisa; Cherry, Athena; Dahl, Gary V; Heerema-McKenney, Amy

    2013-06-01

    The classification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has evolved to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) schema, which integrates genetic, morphologic, and prognostic data into a single system. However, this system was devised using adult data and how this system applies to a pediatric cohort is unknown. Performing a retrospective chart review, we examined our single-center experience with AML in 115 children and classified their leukemia using the WHO 2008 schema. We examined patient samples for mutations of FLT3, NPM1, and CEBPA. Overall survival was calculated within categories. In our pediatric population, most cases of AML had recurrent genetic abnormalities of favorable prognosis. More than 10% of patients in our series were categorized as AML, with myelodysplasia-related changes, an entity not well-described in pediatric patients. In addition, a large proportion of patients were categorized with secondary, therapy-related AML. To our knowledge, this is the first application of the WHO 2008 classification to a pediatric cohort. In comparison to adult studies, AML in the pediatric population shows a distinct distribution within the WHO 2008 classification.

  16. Hydroxyapatite ceramic implants for cranioplasty in children: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Laura; Tharakan, Sasha Job; Altermatt, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The use of hydroxyapatite ceramic (HAC) implants for the treatment of skull defects in pediatric patients started 2010 at our institution. Ceramic implants facilitate osteoblast migration and therefore optimize osteointegration with the host bone. The purpose of this study is to report a single-center experience with this treatment modality. A retrospective review of all patients from July 2010 through June 2014 undergoing a cranioplasty using hydroxyapatite ceramic implant and managed at a single institution was performed. Indication for cranioplasty, the hospital course, and follow-up were reviewed. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and osteointegration was calculated using Mimics Software® (Mimics Innovation Suite v17.0 Medical, Materialize, Leuven, Belgium). Over the 4-year period, six patients met criteria for the study. Five patients had an osteointegration of nearly 100%. One patient had an incomplete osteointegration with a total bone-implant contact area of 69%. The mean bone density was 2800 HU (2300-3000 HU). Bone density alone is estimated to have a Hounsfield value between 400 and 2000 HU depending on the body region and bone quality. There were no major complications, and the patients were highly satisfied with the esthetical result. Hydroxyapatite ceramic implants for cranioplasty in pediatric patients are a good choice for different indications. The implants show excellent osteointegration and esthetical results.

  17. A Single Column Model Ensemble Approach Applied to the TWP-ICE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Laura; Jakob, Christian; Cheung, K.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Hill, Adrian; Hume, Timothy; Keane, R. J.; Komori, T.; Larson, Vincent E.; Lin, Yanluan; Liu, Xiaohong; Nielsen, Brandon J.; Petch, Jon C.; Plant, R. S.; Singh, M. S.; Shi, Xiangjun; Song, X.; Wang, Weiguo; Whitall, M. A.; Wolf, A.; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Guang J.

    2013-06-27

    Single column models (SCM) are useful testbeds for investigating the parameterisation schemes of numerical weather prediction and climate models. The usefulness of SCM simulations are limited, however, by the accuracy of the best-estimate large-scale data prescribed. One method to address this uncertainty is to perform ensemble simulations of the SCM. This study first derives an ensemble of large-scale data for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) based on an estimate of a possible source of error in the best-estimate product. This data is then used to carry out simulations with 11 SCM and 2 cloud-resolving models (CRM). Best-estimate simulations are also performed. All models show that moisture related variables are close to observations and there are limited differences between the best-estimate and ensemble mean values. The models, however, show different sensitivities to changes in the forcing particularly when weakly forced. The ensemble simulations highlight important differences in the moisture budget between the SCM and CRM. Systematic differences are also apparent in the ensemble mean vertical structure of cloud variables. The ensemble is further used to investigate relations between cloud variables and precipitation identifying large differences between CRM and SCM. This study highlights that additional information can be gained by performing ensemble simulations enhancing the information derived from models using the more traditional single best-estimate simulation.

  18. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or 'interstitial' aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation

  19. Intraoperative Boost Radiotherapy during Targeted Oncoplastic Breast Surgery: Overview and Single Center Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Malter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast-conserving surgery followed by whole-breast irradiation is the standard local therapy for early breast cancer. The international discussion of reduced importance of wider tumor-free resection margins than “tumor not touching ink” leads to the development of five principles in targeted oncoplastic breast surgery. IORT improves local recurrence risk and diminishes toxicity since there is less irradiation of healthy tissue. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT can be delivered in two settings: an IORT boost followed by a conventional regimen of external beam radiotherapy or a single IORT dose. The data from TARGIT-A and ELIOT reinforce the conviction that intraoperative radiotherapy during breast-conserving surgery is a reliable alternative to conventional postoperative fractionated irradiation, but only in a carefully selected population at low risk of local recurrence. We describe our experiences with IORT boost (50 kV energy X-rays; 20 Gy in combination with targeted oncoplastic breast surgery in a routine clinical setting. Our experiences demonstrate the applicability and reliability of combining IORT boost with targeted oncoplastic breast surgery in breast-conserving therapy of early breast cancer.

  20. Early myotomy and fundoplication in achalasia in childhood: a single-centre experience for 22 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erginel, Basak; Gun Soysal, Feryal; Keskin, Erbug; Celik, Alaaddin; Salman, Tansu

    2016-02-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to review a single institution's experience with surgical interventions in children with achalasia and to determine treatment strategies for this rare disorder. Patients and methods This study is a retrospective analysis of 22 cases of childhood achalasia from 1991 to 2013. The patients were evaluated in terms of age, symptoms, interventions, intraoperative complications, and recurrent dysphagia. Results There were 13 boys and nine girls (7 months to 17 years old). The clinical symptoms were vomiting (68%), dysphagia (36%), wheezing (18%), coughing (13%), and weight-loss (13%). The mean duration of symptoms was 2.4 years (1 month to 6 years). A barium contrast X-ray study was performed in all of the patients. Oesophageal manometry was performed in eight patients. Six patients underwent multiple oesophageal dilatations (ED) as a first intervention. A Heller myotomy (HM) and fundoplication were performed in all the patients except two patients who recovered with dilatation. In the long term, one patient had a stricture due to the operation and had to undergo a reoperation. Of the Heller myotomy patients, one had a recurrent stricture that responded to dilatation. No other complications were present. All the patients are now asymptomatic. Conclusion Early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment is important to prevent growth impairment in childhood achalasia cases. A Heller myotomy followed by a partial anti-reflux procedure is an effective treatment for achalasia in children. Based on our experience, it is superior to oesophageal dilatation therapy.

  1. Uranium Release from Acidic Weathered Hanford Sediments: Single-Pass Flow-Through and Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reinoso-Maset, Estela [Sierra; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Perdrial, Nicolas [Department; Department; O’Day, Peggy A. [Sierra; Chorover, Jon [Department

    2017-09-21

    The reaction of acidic radioactive waste with sediments can induce mineral transformation reactions that, in turn, control contaminant fate. Here, sediment weathering by synthetic uranium-containing acid solutions was investigated using bench-scale experiments to simulate waste disposal conditions at Hanford’s cribs, USA. During acid weathering, the presence of phosphate exerted a strong influence over uranium mineralogy and a rapidly precipitated, crystalline uranium phosphate phase (meta-ankoleite [K(UO2)(PO4)·3H2O]) was identified using spectroscopic and diffraction-based techniques. In phosphate-free system, uranium oxyhydroxide minerals such as K-compreignacite [K2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·7H2O] were formed. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) and column leaching experiments using synthetic Hanford pore water showed that uranium precipitated as meta-ankoleite during acid weathering was strongly retained in the sediments, with an average release rate of 2.67E-12 mol g-1 s-1. In the absence of phosphate, uranium release was controlled by dissolution of uranium oxyhydroxide (compreignacite-type) mineral with a release rate of 1.05-2.42E-10 mol g-1 s-1. The uranium mineralogy and release rates determined for both systems in this study support the development of accurate U-release models for prediction of contaminant transport. These results suggest that phosphate minerals may be a good candidate for uranium remediation approaches at contaminated sites.

  2. What determines drivers’ speed? : A replication of three behavioural adaptation experiments in a single driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melman, T.; Abbink, D.A.; van Paassen, M.M.; Boer, E.R.; de Winter, J.C.F.

    We conceptually replicated three highly cited experiments on speed adaptation, by measuring drivers’ experienced risk (galvanic skin response; GSR), experienced task difficulty (self-reported task effort; SRTE), and safety margins (time-to-line-crossing; TLC) in a single experiment. The three

  3. Source of single photons and interferometry with one photon. From the Young's slit experiment to the delayed choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, V.

    2007-11-01

    This manuscript is divided in two independent parts. In the first part, we study the wave-particle duality for a single photon emitted by the triggered photoluminescence of a single NV color center in a diamond nano-crystal. We first present the realization of a single-photon interference experiment using a Fresnel's bi-prism, in a scheme equivalent to the standard Young's double-slit textbook experiment. We then discuss the complementarity between interference and which-path information in this two-path interferometer. We finally describe the experimental realization of Wheeler's delayed-choice Gedanken experiment, which is a fascinating and subtle illustration of wave-particle duality. The second part of the manuscript is devoted to the efficiency improvement of single-photon sources. We first describe the implementation of a new single-photon source based on the photoluminescence of a single nickel-related defect center in diamond. The photophysical properties of such defect make this single-photon source well adapted to open-air quantum cryptography. We finally demonstrate an original method that leads to an improvement of single-molecule photo stability at room temperature. (author)

  4. EDUCATIONAL TACTICS OF MOTHERS AND THEIR RELATION TO THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS IN TWO-PARENT AND SINGLE-PARENT FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuev Konstantin Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of the psychological characteristics of boys and girls from complete and incomplete families. In addition to the type of family, the authors consider the educational tactics of mothers. The combined effects of the type of family and educational tactics on psychological characteristics of the adolescent were investigated. Adolescence was chosen as a period, when on the one hand, a relatively stable personality structure is developed, and on the other hand, the importance of the immediate social environment is extremely high. For our study we selected the psychological characteristics, to the utmost revealing the reaction of children to their parents' divorce: the level of subjective control (degree of responsibility for their own lives, and the sovereignty of the psychological space (clearnesse of psychological boundaries. It is shown that the largest influence on the psychological characteristics of adolescents, regardless of the type of family, is rendered by hostility in maternal education. The dependence of psychological characteristics of maternal directiveness occurs only at high values ​​of such educational tactics that highlights the consistency of the obtained results with the classical

  5. The Chinese Tiger Mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Hołówka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 a book by Amy Chua: Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother was published and it sparked a broad discussion among pedagogues and the open society about the factors determining educational success. Chua forms a simple and provocative thesis – the Chinese mothers are the best in the world because they don’t spoil their children, quickly introduce them into the adult culture, have high expectations of them, they are brusque and cold but they teach their children how to survive and be competitive. Chua shows this educational model as a contrast to the Western model, where the children have their own, naive and sentimental culture, their own shops and catwalks in shopping malls. The results of systematic research on education seem to prove something quite different. The educational success has to be measured using different scales, because it depends on different factors. The data published by OECD show that the level of education depends on the educational tradition of the society, level of GDP, intergenerational contacts, level of education of teachers and their social status. A strong determiner is the family, but not necessarily the mother. Even more, there is a strong correlation between the results in learning and a supporting stance of the parents, but also with their habit of spending free time with their children. The parents who take their children to the cinema, an a trip, gossip with them or take them to McDonalds, can be sure that their children will have statistically higher than the average grades. Detailed results from other sources show that success correlates the most with grades from previous class, parents’ habit of talking about things at school, higher education of the parents, being a child of a single mother, signing the child up for extracurricular classes from music and the mother working part-time. Failure correlates with being an Afro-American or Latino, checking homework by parents, free time after school without

  6. Lone mothers in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burström, B; Diderichsen, Finn; Shouls, S

    1999-01-01

    To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period.......To study trends in the health and socioeconomic circumstances of lone mothers in Sweden over the years 1979-1995, and to make comparisons with couple mothers over the same period....

  7. Single-charge craters excavated during subsurface high-explosive experiments at Big Black Test Site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.; Bryan, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Single-charge and row-charge subsurface cratering experiments were performed to learn how close-spacing enhances single-crater dimensions. Our first experimental phase established cratering curves for 60-lb charges of the chemical explosive. For the second phase, to be described in a subsequent report, the Row-cratering experiments were designed and executed. This data report contains excavated dimensions and auxiliary data for the single-charge cratering experiments. The dimensions for the row-charge experiments will be in the other report. Significant changes in the soil's water content appeared to cause a variability in the excavated dimensions. This variability clouded the interpretation and application of the cratering curves obtained

  8. [Impacts of ABO incompatibility on early outcome after single unit unrelated cord blood transplantation: a retrospective single center experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jiawei; Sun, Guangyu; Zhang, Lei; Yao, Wen; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tang, Baolin; Zheng, Changcheng; Liu, Huilan; Sun, Zimin

    2015-12-01

    To retrospectively study the impacts of ABO incompatibility on early outcome after single unit unrelated cord blood transplantation(UCBT), such as cumulative incidence of engraftment, incidence of acute graft- versus- host disease (aGVHD) and 180- day transplant- related mortality(TRM). 208 patients underwent single unit UCBT from April 2008 to October 2014 were analyzed, included 99 ABO- identical, 60 minor, 38 major and 11 bidirectional ABO- incompatible recipients. All the patients received intensified myeloablative conditioning, and a combination of cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil was given for GVHD prophylaxis. Cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, platelet recovery, erythroid lineage reconstitution, Ⅱ-Ⅳ aGVHD, Ⅲ-Ⅳ aGVHD and 180- day TRM showed no significant difference among the patients receiving ABOidentical, minor, major, and bidirectional UCBT(all P>0.05, respectively). What's more, none of the patients developed pure red- cell aplasia(PRCA)after UCBT. Group A donor and a group O recipient patients didn't appeared to influence the clinical results when compared with others(all P>0.05, respectively). Patients receive ABO- incompatible UCBT may not develop PRCA. The presence of ABO- incompatibility did not influence the hematopoietic reconstitution, the incidence of aGVHD and 180-day TRM in this cohort. There is not support for the need to regard ABO-compatibility as an UCB-graft selection criterion.

  9. Entdeckung elektroschwacher Produktion einzelner Top-Quarks mit dem CDF II Experiment; Discovery electroweak production of single top quarks with the CDF II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Jan [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a neural network search for combined as well as separate s- and t-channel single top-quark production with the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron using 3.2 fb-1 of collision data. It is the twelfth thesis dealing with single top-quark production performed within the CDF Collaboration, whereas three have been done in Run I [53–55] and eight in Run II [23, 25, 28, 39, 56–59].

  10. [Mother-newborn relational risk - Study of prevalence and associated variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Maribel; Poo, Ana María; Baeza, Bernardita; Bustos, M Luis

    2015-01-01

    Clinical evidence reveals the importance of mother-newborn bonding experience for health promoting and maintenance of human life. If the newborn lacks care and affection, she/he may develop an attachment disorder. A predictive scale regarding the risk of mothernewborn relationships is available, which makes possible an early intervention to prevent the development of relational disorders. The aim of this study is to apply the Kimelman measurement scale to determine the relational risk in mother-newborn pairs, as well as the prevalence and the associated biopsychosocial variables. A cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 333 mother-infant pairs in postpartum maternity at Temuco hospital. The Kimelman mother-newborn attachment assessment guide was used. Biopsychosocial variables were obtained from the mothers studied. The association of biopsychosocial variables with relational risk was analyzed using OR and confidence intervals of 95%. The prevalence of high relational risk was 43.8%. The associated biopsychosocial variables included, women with no steady partner, single parent, teenage mothers, unwanted and unplanned pregnancy. Almost half of the mothers were in the high risk group. Early identification of relational risk and its related variables could help in the intervention in this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Management of single-ventricle patients with Berlin Heart EXCOR Ventricular Assist Device: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackling, Tracey; Shah, Tejas; Dimas, Vivian; Guleserian, Kristine; Sharma, Mahesh; Forbess, Joseph; Ardura, Monica; Gross-Toalson, Jami; Lee, Ying; Journeycake, Janna; Barnes, Aliessa

    2012-06-01

    There are minimal data regarding chronic management of single-ventricle ventricular assist device (VAD) patients. This study aims to describe our center's multidisciplinary team management of single-ventricle patients supported long term with the Berlin Heart EXCOR Pediatric VAD. Patient #1 was a 4-year-old with double-outlet right ventricle with aortic atresia, L-looped ventricles, and heart block who developed heart failure 1 year after Fontan. She initially required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support and was transitioned to Berlin Heart systemic VAD. She was supported for 363 days (cardiac intensive care unit [CICU] 335 days, floor 28 days). The postoperative course was complicated by intermittent infection including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, intermittent hepatic and renal insufficiencies, and transient antithrombin, protein C, and protein S deficiencies resulting in multiple thrombi. She had a total of five pump changes over 10 months. Long-term medical management included anticoagulation with enoxaparin, platelet inhibition with aspirin and dipyridamole, and antibiotic prophylaxis using trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. She developed sepsis of unknown etiology and subsequently died from multiorgan failure. Patient #2 was a 4-year-old with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who developed heart failure 2 years after bidirectional Glenn shunt. At systemic VAD implantation, he was intubated with renal insufficiency. Post-VAD implantation, his renal insufficiency resolved, and he was successfully extubated to daytime nasal cannula and biphasic positive airway pressure at night. He was supported for 270 days (CICU 143 days, floor 127 days). The pump was upsized to a 50-mL pump in May 2011 for increased central venous pressures (29 mm Hg). Long-term medical management included anticoagulation with warfarin and single-agent platelet inhibition using dipyridamole due to aspirin resistance. He developed increased work of breathing requiring

  12. Prognostic Factors and Treatment Outcomes of Parotid Gland Cancer: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Won; Hong, Hyun Jun; Ban, Myung Jin; Shin, Yoo Seob; Kim, Won Shik; Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the treatment outcomes of parotid gland cancer at a single center over a 10-year period and to evaluate the prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value. Retrospective case series with chart review. Academic care center. Ninety-eight patients with primary parotid gland cancer who were surgically treated at Yonsei University Head & Neck Cancer Clinic between January 1999 and December 2008 were analyzed. Patient data were collected retrospectively from medical charts. The investigators analyzed the association of clinicopathological factors and maximum standardized uptake value on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan with disease-specific survival. Mean patient age was 49.7 years. Mean follow-up was 48.8 months. Thirty-three, 40, 30, and 23 patients had stage I, II, III, and IVA disease, respectively. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common histologic type (34.7%), followed by acinic cell carcinoma (27.6%). Eighteen patients (18.4%) experienced recurrences (mean recurrence gap, 20.6 months; range, 2-87 months). Five- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 93.6% and 81.8%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, pathologic T stage, pathologic lymph node status, resection margin, external parenchymal extension, and maximum standardized uptake value were significantly associated with disease-specific survival. Pathologic lymph node status and maximum standardized uptake value were independent prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis. Our single-center experience with parotid gland cancer treatment is consistent with the literature. Cervical lymph node metastasis and high maximum standardized uptake value are associated with poor survival in parotid gland cancer. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Outcome of deceased donor renal transplantation - A single-center experience from developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu V Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation (RTx is considered as the best therapeutic modality for patient suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Dearth of donor kidneys is a major problem everywhere, and deceased donor renal transplantation (DDRTx is seen as at least a partial solution. Even so, DDRTx accounts for only less than 4% of RTx in India. We report our 6-year single-center experience on DDRTx vis-à-vis patient/graft survival, graft function in terms of serum creatinine (SCr, rejection episodes, and delayed graft function (DGF. Between January 2005 and March 2011, 236 DDRTx were performed. Majority of the donors were those with brain death due to road traffic/cerebrovascular accidents. The commonest recipient diseases leading to ESRD were chronic glomerulonephritis (42.8%, diabetes (12.7%, and hypertension (10.6%. Mean recipient age was 36.2 ± 14.2 years; 162 were males and 74 were females. Mean donor age was 45.3 ± 17.13 years; 144 were males and 92 were females. Mean dialysis duration pre-transplantation was 18.5 ± 2.5 months. All recipients received single-dose rabbit-anti-thymocyte globulin induction and steroids, calcinueurin inhibitor, and mycophenolate mofetil/azathioprine for maintenance immunosuppression. Delayed graft function was observed in 29.6% patients and 22% had biopsy-proven acute rejection. Over the mean follow-up of 2.18 ± 1.75 years, patient and graft survival rates were 74.57% and 86.8%, respectively, with mean SCr of 1.42 ± 0.66 mg%. DDRTx achieves acceptable graft function with patient/graft survival, encouraging the use of this approach in view of organ shortage.

  14. Male gender is not a risk factor for the outcome of laparoscopiccholecystectomy: A single surgeon experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mulhim, Abdulmohsen A.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies regarding the outcome of laparoscopic cholecystectomy(LC) in men have reported inconsistent findings. We conducted thisprospective study to test the hypothesis that the outcome of LC is worse inmen than women. Between 1997 and 2002, a total of 391 consecutive LCs wereperformed by a single surgeon at King Fahd Hospital of the University. Wecollected and analyzed data including age, gender, body mass index (kg/m2),the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, mode of admission(elective or emergency), indication for LC (chronic or acute) cholecystitis[AC]), comorbid disease, previous abdominal surgery, conversion to opencholecystectomy, complications, operation time and length of postoperativehospital stay. Bivariate analysis showed that both genders were matched forage, ASA class and mode of admission. The incidence of AC (P=0.003) andcomobrid disease (P=0.031) were significantly higher in men. Women weresignificantly more obese than men (P<0.001) and had a higher incidence ofprevious abdominal surgery (P=0.017). There were no statistical differencesbetween genders with regards to rate of conversion (P=0.372) andcomplications (P=0.647) and operation time (P=0.063). The postoperative staywas significantly longer in men than women (P=0.001). Logistic regressionanalysis showed that male gender was not an independent predictor ofconversion (Odds ratio [or] = 0.37 and P=0.43) or complications (OR=0.42,P=0.42). Linear regression analysis showed that male gender was not anindependent predictor of the operation time, but was associated with a longerpostoperative stay (P=0.02). Male gender is not an independent risk factorfor satisfactory outcome of LC in the experience of a single surgeon. (author)

  15. A Single-column Model Ensemble Approach Applied to the TWP-ICE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L.; Jakob, C.; Cheung, K.; DelGenio, A.; Hill, A.; Hume, T.; Keane, R. J.; Komori, T.; Larson, V. E.; Lin, Y.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Single-column models (SCM) are useful test beds for investigating the parameterization schemes of numerical weather prediction and climate models. The usefulness of SCM simulations are limited, however, by the accuracy of the best estimate large-scale observations prescribed. Errors estimating the observations will result in uncertainty in modeled simulations. One method to address the modeled uncertainty is to simulate an ensemble where the ensemble members span observational uncertainty. This study first derives an ensemble of large-scale data for the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) based on an estimate of a possible source of error in the best estimate product. These data are then used to carry out simulations with 11 SCM and two cloud-resolving models (CRM). Best estimate simulations are also performed. All models show that moisture-related variables are close to observations and there are limited differences between the best estimate and ensemble mean values. The models, however, show different sensitivities to changes in the forcing particularly when weakly forced. The ensemble simulations highlight important differences in the surface evaporation term of the moisture budget between the SCM and CRM. Differences are also apparent between the models in the ensemble mean vertical structure of cloud variables, while for each model, cloud properties are relatively insensitive to forcing. The ensemble is further used to investigate cloud variables and precipitation and identifies differences between CRM and SCM particularly for relationships involving ice. This study highlights the additional analysis that can be performed using ensemble simulations and hence enables a more complete model investigation compared to using the more traditional single best estimate simulation only.

  16. Introducing an enhanced recovery after surgery program in colorectal surgery: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Stefano; Molteni, Mattia; Rosati, Riccardo; Elmore, Ugo; Bagnoli, Pietro; Monzani, Roberta; Caravaca, Monica; Montorsi, Marco

    2014-12-14

    To study the implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program at a large University Hospital from "pilot study" to "standard of care". The study was designed as a prospective single centre cohort study. A prospective evaluation of compliance to a protocol based on full application of all ERAS principles, through the progressive steps of its implementation, was performed. Results achieved in the initial pilot study conducted by a dedicated team (n = 47) were compared to those achieved in the shared protocol phase (n = 143) three years later. Outcomes were length of postoperative hospital stay, readmission rate, compliance to the protocol and morbidity. Primary endpoint was the description of the results and the identification of critical issues of large scale implementation of an ERAS program in colorectal surgery emerged in the experience of a single center. Secondary endpoint was the identification of interventions that have been proven to be effective for facilitating the transition from traditional care pathways to a multimodal management protocol according to ERAS principles in colorectal surgery at a single center. During the initial pilot study (March 2009 to December 2010; 47 patients) conducted by a dedicated multidisciplinary team, compliance to the items of ERAS protocol was 93%, with a median length of hospital stay (LOS) of 3 d. Early anastomotic fistulas were observed in 2 cases (4.2%), which required reoperation (Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb). None of the patients had been discharged before the onset of the complication, which could therefore receive prompt treatment. There were also four (8.5%) minor complications (Clavien-Dindo grade II). Thirty days readmission rate was 4%. Perioperative mortality was nil. After implementation of the protocol throughout the Hospital in unselected patients (May 2012 to December 2012; 147 patients) compliance was 74%, with a median LOS of 6 d. Early anastomotic fistulas were observed in 11 cases (7

  17. Single-institution, multidisciplinary experience with surgical resection of primary chest wall sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachroo, Puja; Pak, Peter S; Sandha, Harpavan S; Lee, Catherine; Elashoff, David; Nelson, Scott D; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Selch, Michael T; Cameron, Robert B; Holmes, E Carmack; Eilber, Fritz C; Lee, Jay M

    2012-03-01

    Primary chest wall sarcomas are rare mesenchymal tumors and their mainstay of therapy is wide surgical resection. We report our single-institution, multidisciplinary experience with full-thickness resection for primary chest wall sarcomas. A retrospective review of our prospectively maintained databases revealed that 51 patients were referred for primary chest wall sarcomas from 1990 to 2009. All patients required resections that included rib and/or sternum. Twenty-nine patients (57%) had extended resections beyond the chest wall. Forty-two patients (82%) required prosthetic reconstruction and 17 patients (33%) had muscle flap coverage. Overall, 51% (26/51) of patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Seventy-three percent (11/15) of high-grade soft tissue sarcomas, 77% (10/13) of high-risk bony sarcomas, and 67% (4/6) of desmoid tumors were treated with induction therapy. Negative margins were obtained in 46 patients (90%). There were no perioperative mortalities. Eight patients (16%) experienced complications. Local recurrence and metastasis was detected in 14 and 23%. Five-year overall and disease-free survivals were 66% and 47%, respectively. Favorable prognostic variables for survival included age ≤50 years, tumor volume ≤200 cm, desmoid tumor, bony tumor, chondrosarcoma, and low-grade soft tissue sarcoma. We report our multidisciplinary experience with primary chest wall sarcomas that included induction therapy in the majority of high-risk soft tissue and bony sarcomas and desmoid tumors. Despite aggressive preoperative treatments, acceptable surgical results with low morbidity and mortality can be achieved. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy may reduce local and distant recurrence and improve overall survival.

  18. El cuidado del niño: Representaciones y experiencias de la madre adolescente de bajos recursos The care of the child: Representations and experiences of low income adolescent mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Turiani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: describir las representaciones y experiencias de la madre adolescente relacionadas al cuidado del niño. Método: fue desarrollada una investigación cualitativa y entrevistadas ocho madres adolescentes. Sus narrativas fueron analizadas según la sistemática del Discurso del Sujeto Colectivo. Resultados: surgieron tres temas centrales, las experiencias iniciales, el cuidado cotidiano, y las prácticas de cuidado. Conclusión: incorporar el papel materno representó conquistar un sueño desempeñado con dificultades, pero enfrentadas con ayuda familiar y redes de apoyo. Para reforzar este soporte son necesarias acciones a fin de mejorar las condiciones de cuidado de los niños y disminuir los índices de morbi-mortalidad de los hijos de madres adolescentes.Objective: To describe the representations and experiences of the adolescent mother related to the child care. Method: A qualitative method was carried out and eight adolescent mothers were interviewed. Their narratives were analyzed according to the Collective Subject Discourse systematic. Three central themes emerged from narratives: 1- The initial experiences; 2- The daily care; 3- The care practices. The incorporation of the maternal role represented the conquest of a dream, carried out with difficulties, but overcome with family and other social networks support. Actions directed to reinforce this sustentation are necessary, in order to promote the child care conditions and to diminish the adolescent mother's child morbidity and mortality rates.

  19. 'Eventually you just get used to it': an interpretative phenomenological analysis of 10-16 year-old girls' experiences of the transition into temporary accommodation after exposure to domestic violence perpetrated by men against their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Laura; Swanston, Jennifer; Vetere, Arlene

    2015-04-01

    Moving suddenly into temporary accommodation with their mothers is a reality for many children who live with domestic violence. The experience of this transition is under-researched despite being considered a unique event for children alongside that of being exposed to domestic violence involving their mothers. This piece of qualitative research aimed to address the following question: 'How do girls aged 10-16 years old experience the transition into temporary accommodation following exposure to domestic violence'? Five girls aged 10-16 years who had moved into either refuge or 'bed and breakfast' accommodation with their mothers were interviewed. Interviews were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three master themes emerged: (1) 'Out of their hands: The transition into a whole new world with loss and change', (2) 'The relentlessness of feeling unsafe and uncertain', (3) 'Coping with the transition: At the mercy of their environment and the actions of others'. All themes show how a lack of agency was experienced by the girls throughout the transition. Findings suggest that the environment of temporary accommodation may inhibit the child's capacity to emotionally process the transition. The role of others was central to either facilitating or constraining coping for the girls throughout this transition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Mothers in the NICU: outsider to partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermann, Judith A; Wilson, Margaret E; Wilhelm, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    The emerging care delivery model for Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) is family-focused, developmentally supportive care. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe mothers' experience of becoming a mother while their infants were receiving care in the NICU. A qualitative research design was used. Interviews with 15 mothers whose infants were in a Level III NICU were analyzed using Spradley's domain analysis approach. Mothers developed from outsider to engaged parent along four continua: (1) focus: from NICU to baby; (2) ownership: from their baby to my baby; (3) caregiving: from passive to active; and (4) voice: from silence to advocacy. Mothers entered the continua at different points and moved at different rates toward "engaged parenting." The final stage, partnering, required active participation of nurses. Mothers' development evolved in predictable patterns. The results of this study can be considered in implementation and evaluation plans for NICUs moving to family-focused developmental care.

  1. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-01-01

    Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES) of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, singl...

  2. HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist Device Pump Exchange: A Single-Institution Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Asad F; Joseph, Susan M; Lima, Brian; Hall, Shelley A; Malyala, Rajasekhar; Rafael, Aldo E; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V; Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles

    2017-08-01

    Background  Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have revolutionized the treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. These devices are replaced when pump complications arise if heart transplant is not possible. We present our experience with HeartMate II (HMII (Thoratec, Plesanton, California, United States)) LVAD pump exchange. Materials and Methods  We retrospectively reviewed all cases that required pump exchange due to LVAD complication from November 2011 until June 2016 at a single high-volume institution. The indications, demographics, and outcome were extracted and analyzed. Results  Of 250 total patients with implanted HMII LVADs, 16 (6%) required pump exchange during the study period. The initial indications for LVAD placement in these patients were bridge to transplantation ( n  = 6 [37.5%]) or destination therapy ( n  = 10 [62.5%]). Fifteen patients (93.8%) required pump exchange due to pump thrombosis and 1 (6.2%) due to refractory driveline infection. Nine patients (56.2%) underwent repeat median sternotomy while a left subcostal approach was used in the remaining seven patients. Fifteen patients (93.7%) survived until hospital discharge. During the follow-up period (median, 155 days), 11 patients remained alive and 4 of these underwent successful cardiac transplantation. Conclusion  HMII LVAD pump exchange can be safely performed for driveline infection or pump thrombosis when heart transplantation is not an option. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A single-centre experience of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage for pancreas transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Irum; Butler, Andrew J; Defries, Gail; Russell, Neil K; Harper, Simon J F; Jah, Asif; Saeb-Parsy, Kourosh; Pettigrew, Gavin J; Watson, Christopher J E

    2017-04-01

    Exocrine drainage following pancreas transplantation can be achieved by drainage into the bladder or bowel, the latter typically by direct duodeno-jejunostomy; the use of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage is uncommon. We report a retrospective analysis of a single-centre experience of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage following pancreas transplantation. Over a 14-year period (2001-2015), 204 consecutive adult pancreas transplants were performed (96.6% simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplants), of which 26.0% were from donors after circulatory death (DCD). During a median follow-up of 67 months (range 13-183 months), 14 (6.9%) recipients experienced complications related to their enteric drainage. Complications during follow-up included early enteric anastomotic haemorrhage (five patients), non-anastomotic enteric bleeding (one patient), small bowel obstruction (four patients) and graft duodenal perforation (two within 6 weeks, five beyond 12 months). No recipient lost their graft as a direct result of complications related to enteric drainage. Patient and pancreas graft survival at 1 year was 99.0% and 94.0% and at 5 years 91.3% and 84.9%, respectively. We conclude that Roux-en-Y enteric drainage following pancreas transplantation is a safe and effective procedure and facilitates graft salvage in the event of graft duodenal perforation. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  4. A novel single step percutaneous access sheath: the initial human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D Duane; Maynes, Lincoln J; Desai, Premal J; Jellison, Forrest C; Tsai, Christopher K; Barker, Gary R

    2006-01-01

    A novel 1-step percutaneous access sheath NS has been developed that allows the insertion of a dilating balloon and renal access sheath in a single step. We present the initial human experience with this sheath. We performed a retrospective chart and database review of the initial 30 consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous nephrostolithotomy using the NS. Data collected included patient demographics, operative and recovery parameters, and complications. Mean patient age was 50.4 years (range 11 to 81), mean body mass index was 31.63 kg/m(2) (range 17.1 to 65) and mean preoperative stone area was 6.23 cm(2) (range 1 to 14.6). Six and 3 patients had full and partial staghorn calculi, respectively. Access was achieved via the upper pole in 16 patients, middle pole in 7 and lower pole in 7. Mean operative time was 114.8 minutes (range 61 to 237). Mean estimated blood loss was 145.5 cc (range 10 to 500) and mean postoperative hospital stay was 4.89 days (range 2 to 14). A total of 23 patients (76.7%) had no residual calculi on postoperative computerized tomography, 5 (16.7%) had residual fragments 4 mm or less and 2 (6.7%) had residual stone fragments greater than 4 mm. There were no complications related to the NS. The NS is safe, easy to use and has potential advantages compared to currently available renal access sheaths.

  5. Recurrent Pneumonia in Children: A Reasoned Diagnostic Approach and a Single Centre Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montella, Silvia; Corcione, Adele; Santamaria, Francesca

    2017-01-29

    Recurrent pneumonia (RP), i.e., at least two episodes of pneumonia in one year or three episodes ever with intercritical radiographic clearing of densities, occurs in 7.7%-9% of children with community-acquired pneumonia. In RP, the challenge is to discriminate between children with self-limiting or minor problems, that do not require a diagnostic work-up, and those with an underlying disease. The aim of the current review is to discuss a reasoned diagnostic approach to RP in childhood. Particular emphasis has been placed on which children should undergo a diagnostic work-up and which tests should be performed. A pediatric case series is also presented, in order to document a single centre experience of RP. A management algorithm for the approach to children with RP, based on the evidence from a literature review, is proposed. Like all algorithms, it is not meant to replace clinical judgment, but it should drive physicians to adopt a systematic approach to pediatric RP and provide a useful guide to the clinician.

  6. Evolution in management of adolescent blunt aortic injuries--a single institution 22-y experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Adam S; Rogers, Andrew P; Acher, Charles W; Wynn, Martha M; Nichol, Peter F; Ostlie, Daniel J; Gosain, Ankush

    2015-02-01

    In children, severe, life-threatening traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta can be seen after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) resulting in a sudden deceleration. Concurrent injuries in the thorax and abdomen can make treatment prioritization difficult and require early recognition and prompt intervention. With the increased utilization of minimally invasive endovascular approaches to traumatic aortic (TA) injuries, patients are often spared the increased surgical morbidity (spinal cord ischemia and renal insults) that can be seen with an open technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate a single American College of Surgeons level 1 pediatric trauma center's 22-y experience with TA injuries in children. After the Institutional Review Board approval, a 22-y (January 1990-April 2013) retrospective review of all pediatric trauma patients admitted with TA injuries was performed. Patient demographics including age, injury detail, treatment, and outcomes were recorded for analysis. 17 children (mild mental deficits as a result of head trauma. TA injuries are an uncommon injury in children and can result from MVCs or other sudden deceleration mechanisms. Surgical intervention is required in most of the cases and can be performed safely and effectively with low morbidity using an endovascular approach, which is the evolving approach of choice for thoracic aortic injuries. Lengthy follow-up care is recommended in children treated with an endovascular device to monitor for endoleaks and device complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Real world experience with lacosamide monotherapy- a single center 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Eimer; McGinty, Ronan N; Costello, Daniel J

    2018-03-08

    Reporting of 'real-world' data on efficacy and tolerability of antiepileptic medications helps to inform physicians on how newer medications perform in the clinical setting, outside of the strict regimens of clinical trials. We report our experience of prescribing lacosamide monotherapy to a diverse range of patients at our epilepsy centre. We performed a single-centre, retrospective review of all patients who had been prescribed lacosamide monotherapy over the last 8 years. Efficacy is pragmatically reported based on reduction of seizure frequency and lacosamide retention rates. We identified 45 patients who were commenced on lacosamide monotherapy. Intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated a 51% (n = 23) 12 month retention rate. Forty percent (n = 18) achieved a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and 35.5% (n = 16) became seizure free. We report real-world data showing a significant reduction in seizure frequency, a moderate rate of retention and an excellent side effect profile in our cohort of patients prescribed lacosamide monotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavior of Windblown Sand on Mars: Results from Single-Particle Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. R.; Borucki, J.; Sagan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments are investigating the behavior of individual sand grains in the high-energy martian aeolian regime. Energy partitioning during impact of a saltating grain determines grain longevity, but it also influences the way in which the bed becomes mobilized by reptation. When single grains of sand are fired into loose beds, the bed can absorb up to 90% of the impact energy by momentum transfer to other grains; it has been discovered that the impacting grains cause circular craters even at low impact angles. Hundreds of grains can be splashed by a single high-velocity (100 m/s) impact causing more bed disturbance through reptation than previously thought. The research is supported by NASA's PG&G Program. Because the martian aeolian environment in both high energy and of long duration, the most mobile fractions of windblown sand should have eradicated themselves by attrition, unless sand supply has kept pace with destruction. It is therefore important to understand the rate of grain attrition in order to make sense of the existence of vast dune fields on Mars. Attrition, has been addressed in other studies, but precise data for a single saltating grain striking a loose bed of sand have not been acquired -- the quintessential case to be understood for dunes on Mars. To acquire these data, we are employing a compound crossbow which has the bolt-firing mechanism replaced with a pneumatically-automated sabot system. The sabot can launch individual grains of sand of any size between several millimeters and about 50 microns, at velocities up to 100m/s. This is around the maximum velocity expected for saltating grains on Mars. The sabot sled is equipped with photoelectric sensors for measuring shot velocity. Baffling of the grain's exit orifice has enabled projection of single grains without significant aerodynamic effects from the sabot. Grains are fired into loose beds of sand at about 15 degrees from the horizontal (typical saltation trajectory at impact) while being

  9. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-06-01

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Experiencing and the realization of motherhood by teenage mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Rzechowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Early motherhood constitutes a difficult challenge for girls, and the level of their performance in that role is varied. In this article, teenage motherhood as a process is considered. The objective of the research was to determine the paths by which teenage girls enter the mother role. Particular attention was paid to the nature of individual differences in the ways of experiencing and the realization of the successive steps of teenage motherhood: how the girls reacted to the fact of being a mother, what they experienced and how they behaved during pregnancy and performed child care. Participants and procedure In the research, 166 mothers who had given birth to their children between the 15th and 19th year of life were included (at the moment of giving birth to the child, the age of the mother was M = 17.22. A follower interview was used. It was directed towards recreating the course of their lives from the period preceding becoming pregnant to the period of pregnancy and looking after the child, taking into consideration the complex situations connected with life and development of the female teenagers. Results In the research, we applied the Reconstruction Strategy of the Process Transformation, setting the direction of qualitative analyses: (1 the level of single cases (case study, and (2 the level of the collection of cases (extracting groups of girls with common characteristics using the artificial intelligence algorithm C4.5. The analysis revealed the diversity and the internal structure of paths of the experience and realization of early motherhood: from negating oneself as a responsible mother to accepting the role of mother. Conclusions The final result is constituted by the model revealing the transformation of teenage motherhood and mechanisms underlying it.

  11. [Obese teenager in the eyes of their mother].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoszewska, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The child representation in mother is understand as a experience manner of themselves. There are specific relation properties of mother to obese child. The aim of the study is an attempt of an answer what is a mental representation of child experienced by mothers of obese girls and boys in adolescence. There were 37 mothers investigated: 17 mothers of obese people (8 girls and 9 boys) and 20 mothers of people of normal body mass (13 girls and 7 boys). The mean age of the obese children of investigated mothers was 14.57, and for children with normal body mass was 13.42. All mothers were investigated by clinical interview with 10 questions concerning mental child representation. The obtain results were analyzed in relation to mental mother representation contents: cognitive, emotional, social, sexual, certificate, behavioral and somatic. 1. Mothers of obese people more often than the mothers of adolescents of the normal body mass identify in mental child representation emotional-social, cognitive, somatic, sexual, certificate and behavioral properties. 2. Mothers of obese teenagers more often than the mothers of kids with the normal body mass identify in mental child representation external contents. 3. There are differences in mental child representation in mothers of obese girls and mothers of obese boys. 1. Mental representation of obese, adolescent child in mother often contains external, not mental properties. 2. Mental representation of the obese, adolescent boy in mother contains some deficits of cognitive properties. It could be a reason of seeing son as dependent and expecting support. 3. Mothers of the obese, adolescent girls identify in their daughters mental representation contents, which give them possibility of identical experience. This perception manner, protects mother from notice of maturity and independence of her daughter.

  12. 56. Endoscopic vein graft harvest for coronary artery bypass surgery: Single center experience in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Algadheeb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Open saphenous vein technique is the standard of care in patients undergoing coronary artery surgery (CABG worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Endoscopic vein harvest (EVH is an innovative technique that have been recommended by the international society of minimally invasive surgery. Our aim in the current study is to review our preliminary data about endoscopic vein harvest. Would endoscopic vein harvest decrease the incidence of leg wound infections? This is a retrospective study of a single tertiary care center of 94 consecutive patients who underwent CABG with EVH. Preoperative associated risk factors were assessed. Postoperative follow up includes leg wound infection and patient satisfaction with EVH by using a telephone and/or a paper questionnaire. We had 94 consecutive patients who underwent CABG with EVH between October 2014 and October 2015, mean age was 56.7 (33–77 years, 91.5% were male, mean euro score II was 2.47%. The most common presentation was NSTEMI (39.4% followed by STEMI (26.6%, unstable angina (11.7% and stable angina (5.3%. Our cohort had the following characteristics: 85.1% were diabetic, 84% were hypertensive, 46.8% had dyslipidemia, 2.1% had CVA, 7.4% had Carotid artery disease, 2.1% had Congestive heart failure, 4.3% had any renal disease and 4.3% had previous PCI. Most of our patients received 3 grafts (44.7% followed by 4 grafts (42.6% of which only one leg was used for EVH (94.1%. Leg wound infection occurred in one patient only and in this case EVH was converted to open technique. A written and/or telephone questionnaire resulted in a high patient-satisfaction with the cosmetic outcome of EVH as well as very low grade of leg wound pain. EVH is a very promising innovative technique in patient undergoing CABG. Our patients were highly satisfied with their leg wound cosmetic outcome. In this single center experience, in Saudi Arabia, EVH is a promising innovative technique for saphenous vein harvest. It is highly

  13. Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeilstra DJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dick J Zeilstra,1 Larry E Miller,2,3 Jon E Block3 1Bergman Clinics, Naarden and NedSpine, Ede, The Netherlands; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Arden, NC, USA; 3The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Introduction: The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF. Methods: A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months. Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results: No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001. Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ≥30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001. Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0% patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10, total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3, facet screw fixation (n = 3, facet screw removal (n = 1, and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1. Eight (6.1% reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion: Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. Keywords: Axia

  14. Fat injection to correct contour deformities of the reconstructed breast: a single surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Tahiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Autologous fat grafting has gained acceptance as a technique to improve aesthetic outcomes in breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to share our clinical experience using autologous fat injection to correct contour deformities during breast reconstruction. Methods: A single surgeon, prospectively maintained database of patients who underwent autologous fat injection during breast reconstruction from January 2008 to November 2013 at McGill University Health Center was reviewed. Patient characteristics, breast history, type of breast reconstruction, volume of fat injected, and complications were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-four patients benefited from autologous fat injection from January 2008 to November 2013, for a total of 187 treated breasts. The patients were on average 49.3 years old (΁ 8.9 years. Fat was harvested from the medial thighs (20.5%, flanks (39.1%, medial thighs and flanks (2.9%, trochanters (13.3%, medial knees (2.7%, and abdomen (21.9%. An average of 49.25 mL of fat was injected into each reconstructed breast. A total of 187 breasts in 124 patients were lipo-infiltrated during the second stage of breast reconstruction. Thirteen breasts (in 12 separate patients were injected several years after having undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Of the 187 treated breasts, 118 were reconstructed with expanders to implants, 45 with deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps, 9 with latissimus dorsi flaps with implants, 4 with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, and 13 had previously undergone lumpectomy and radiotherapy. Six complications were noted in the entire series, for a rate of 3.2%. All were in previously radiated breasts. Average follow-up time was 12 months (range: 2-36 months. Conclusion: Fat injection continues to grow in popularity as an adjunct to breast reconstruction. Our experience demonstrates a low complication rate as compared to most surgical interventions of the breast

  15. An advanced chronic heart failure day care service: a 5 year single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimark, Dov; Arad, Michael; Matetzky, Shlomi; DeNeen, Isabell; Gershovitz, Liron; Morag, Nira Koren; Hochberg, Naomi; Makmal, Yafit; Shechter, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Chronic heart failure is associated with excessive hospitalizations and poor prognosis. To summarize the 5 year experience of a single-center CHF day care service, detect the cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, and evaluate the safety of the treatments provided. We retrospectively studied all patients admitted to the CHF day care service of the Sheba Medical Center between September 2000 and September 2005. Advanced (New York Heart Association class III-IV) CHF patients (n = 190), mean age 65 +/- 12 years and left ventricular ejection fraction 25 +/- 11%, were treated for 6 hourly biweekly visits; 77% had ischemic and 23% had nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Treatment included: intravenous diuretic combinations (91%), intermittent low dose (< or = 5 microg/kg/min) dobutamine (87%), low dose (< or = 3 microg/kg/min) dopamine (38%), intravenous iron preparation and/or blood (47%), and intravenous nitropruside (36%). Follow-up of at least 1 year from initiation of therapy was completed in 158 of 190 patients (83%). Forty-six (29.3%) died: 23% due to CHF exacerbation, 5.7% from infection, 4.4% from sudden cardiac death, 3.8% from malignancy, 2.5% from malignant arrhythmias, 1.9% from renal failure, 1.3% from stroke, and 0.6% from myocardial infarction. There were only 0.68 rehospitalizations/patient/year; the most frequent cause being CHF exacerbation (16.5%). Our study demonstrates the safety and potential benefits of a supportive day care service for advanced CHF patients. Multidrug intravenous treatment, accompanied by monitoring of electrolytes, hemoglobin and cardiac rhythm, along with education and psychological support, appear to reduce morbidity in advanced CHF patients and may have contributed to the lower than expected mortality/ hospitalization rate.

  16. Cumulative recruitment experience in two large single-center randomized, controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Autumn Dawn; Smith, Brad; Wood, Pamela; Forkner, Emma; Peters, Jay I

    2008-05-01

    Trial recruitment is challenging for researchers, who frequently overestimate the pool of qualified, willing participants. Little has been written about recruitment and the comparative success of recruitment strategies. We describe one center's experience with recruitment in two regional single-center clinical trials with a combined total of 1971 participants. The heart failure trial was conducted between 1999 and 2003. The asthma trial was performed between 2003 and 2006. Trial databases were queried for referral source of each individual. Data were analyzed for effectiveness of referral source using three measures: percentage of enrollment due to that source, subject commitment to the trial (retention rate), and economics (cost per enrollee). 47.8% of CHF enrollees came from computer-generated lists or from healthcare provider referrals. Average marketing cost for enrollees and completers was $29.20 and $41.96 respectively. The most economical marketing strategy was self-referral in response to flyers. Most asthma participants (53.5%) were referred from healthcare providers, mailings to lists from local healthcare institutions, or self-referred in response to flyers. Average marketing cost for enrollees and completers was $20.44 and $38.10 respectively. The most economical marketing strategy was patient mailings. Retention rates were not markedly different among referral sources in either trial. In order to be considered effective, a recruitment strategy must demonstrate a balance between response to recruitment, retention rates, and economics. Despite the differences between these two clinical trials, the most effective recruitment strategies in both trials were mailings to locally-generated, targeted lists, and referrals from healthcare providers.

  17. Living Related Donor Kidney Transplantation in Libya: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elusta Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to report the experience from a single center in Libya, on the prevailing live-related kidney transplantation program. The results of three years work on kidney transplantation at the Tripoli Central Hospital (National Organ Transplant Program in Libya were evaluated. The transplant program was launched on 17 th August, 2004 and 135 patients have been transplanted since then till 17 th August, 2007. All donors and recipients were screened thoroughly prior to transplant and monitored closely in the post-transplant period. Our immuno-suppressive protocol was cyclosporine-based. Among the 135 accepted pairs, donors and reci-pients were genetically-related in 133 cases (98.5% and emotionally-related in two others. The mean donor age was 37 ± 9.5 years (range 18-56 years and recipient age 37 ± 13.6 years (range 7-67 years. There were 95 males (70.4% and 40 females (29.6% among the recipients while among the donors, there were 102 males (75.6% and 33 females (24.4%. Delayed graft function was seen in three patients (2.2%, acute rejection in six (4.4%, post-transplant urinary tract infection in six (4.4%, pneumonia in three (2.2%, ureteric kink in two (1.5% and urine leak in four (3.0%. Graft survival at 36 months was 93.3% while patient survival at the same period was 96.3%. This report indicates that the results of our transplant program are good and comparable with other international programs.

  18. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly {sup 2139}Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase {sup 239}Pu containing 5.9 wt-% {sup 240}Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal.

  19. Critical experiments on single-unit spherical plutonium geometries reflected and moderated by oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Experimental critical configurations are reported for several dozen spherical and hemispherical single-unit assemblies of plutonium metal. Most were solid but many were hollow-centered, thick, shell-like geometries. All were constructed of nested plutonium (mostly 2139 Pu) metal hemispherical shells. Three kinds of critical configurations are reported. Two required interpolation and/or extrapolation of data to obtain the critical mass because reflector conditions were essentially infinite. The first finds the plutonium essentially fully reflected by a hydrogen-rich oil; the second is essentially unreflected. The third kind reports the critical oil reflector height above a large plutonium metal assembly of accurately known mass (no interpolation required) when that mass was too great to permit full oil reflection. Some configurations had thicknesses of mild steel just outside the plutonium metal, separating it from the oil. These experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory in the late 1960s. They have not been published in a form suitable for benchmark-quality comparisons against state-of-the-art computational techniques until this paper. The age of the data and other factors lead to some difficulty in reconstructing aspects of the program and may, in turn, decrease confidence in certain details. Whenever this is true, the point is acknowledged. The plutonium metal was alpha-phase 239 Pu containing 5.9 wt-% 240 Pu. All assemblies were formed by nesting 1.667-mm-thick (nominal) bare plutonium metal hemispherical shells, also called hemishells, until the desired configuration was achieved. Very small tolerance gaps machined into radial dimensions reduced the effective density a small amount in all cases. Steel components were also nested hemispherical shells; but these were nominally 3.333-mm thick. Oil was used as the reflector because of its chemical compatibility with plutonium metal

  20. The experience of artificial urinary sphincter implantation by a single surgeon in 15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chi Shen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial urinary sphincter (AUS is the gold standard treatment for urinary incontinence owing to sphincter incompetence. We reviewed our experience in AUS implantation. From 1995 to 2009, 19 patients underwent 25 AUS implantations performed by a single surgeon. The cause of incontinence was sphincter incompetence, which was secondary to prostate surgery, neurogenic bladder, radiation, and post-traumatic urethral lesion. Twenty-three prostheses were placed in the bulbar urethra for male patients: 11 AUS cuffs were placed through the perineal approach and 12 through the penoscrotal approach. Two procedures were applied over the bladder neck for the female patients. Through a retrospective review of charts, continence and complications were analyzed. The mean follow-up time was 50.0 ± 42.9 months (range: 2–146 months. There were 16 successful surgeries (64%, and these patients were free from the need for a pad. In eight surgeries (32%, the devices were removed due to infection, while one implantation (4% was unsuccessful due to perforation into the bulbar urethra. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.024 in failure rates between patients who received radiotherapy (100% and other patients (22.7%. There was no statistically significant difference in dry and revision rates (p > 0.05 between the perineal and penoscrotal approach. Accordingly, over half of the patients with total incontinence benefitted from AUS implantation. In consideration of the high failure rate for patients receiving radiotherapy, caution should be exercised in the use of implantation. Secondary implantation has a satisfactory success rate in selected patients. The same success rate was noted for both perineal and penoscrotal approaches.