WorldWideScience

Sample records for single mass casualty

  1. Triage in mass casualty situations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    universally accepted tool that allows health professionals to achieve this goal in a mass casualty situation. ... Head, Disaster Medicine, Western Cape Department of Health and Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Cape Town and .... This means that a new card has to be filled out with clinical data each time the ...

  2. Mass Casualties in Combat: Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beekley, Alex C

    2007-01-01

    .... Analysis of multiple and mass casualty events from current conflicts can provide critical lessons learned regarding triage and resource utilization that can potentially be applied to other conflicts...

  3. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A

    2005-01-01

    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  4. Experience in the management of the mass casualty from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-21

    Sep 21, 2015 ... Background: On the 17 of January 2010, a sectarian crisis broke out in Jos the capital of Plateau state, Nigeria. It created a mass casualty situation in the Jos University Teaching Hospital. We present the result of the hospital management of that mass casualty incident. Objective: To share our experience in ...

  5. Medical management of toxicological mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Gal; Krivoy, Amir; Rotman, Eran; Schein, Ophir; Shrot, Shai; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2008-11-01

    The relative accessibility to various chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds, places a toxicological mass casualty event, including chemical terrorism, among the major threats to homeland security. TMCE represents a medical and logistic challenge with potential hazardous exposure of first-response teams. In addition, TMCE poses substantial psychological and economic impact. We have created a simple response algorithm that provides practical guidelines for participating forces in TMCE. Emphasis is placed on the role of first responders, highlighting the importance of early recognition of the event as a TMCE, informing the command and control centers, and application of appropriate self-protection. The medical identification of the toxidrome is of utmost importance as it may dictate radically different approaches and life-saving modalities. Our proposed emergency management of TMCE values the "Scoop & Run" approach orchestrated by an organized evacuation plan rather than on-site decontamination. Finally, continuous preparedness of health systems - exemplified by periodic CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radio-Nuclear) medical training of both first responders and hospital staff, mandatory placement of antidotal auto-injectors in all ambulances and CBRN emergency kits in the emergency departments - would considerably improve the emergency medical response to TMCE.

  6. Development of sulfanegen for mass cyanide casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Steven E; Moeller, Bryant; Nagasawa, Herbert T; Vince, Robert; Crankshaw, Daune L; Briggs, Jacquie; Stutelberg, Michael W; Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Logue, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Cyanide is a metabolic poison that inhibits the utilization of oxygen to form ATP. The consequences of acute cyanide exposure are severe; exposure results in loss of consciousness, cardiac and respiratory failure, hypoxic brain injury, and dose-dependent death within minutes to hours. In a mass-casualty scenario, such as an industrial accident or terrorist attack, currently available cyanide antidotes would leave many victims untreated in the short time available for successful administration of a medical countermeasure. This restricted therapeutic window reflects the rate-limiting step of intravenous administration, which requires both time and trained medical personnel. Therefore, there is a need for rapidly acting antidotes that can be quickly administered to large numbers of people. To meet this need, our laboratory is developing sulfanegen, a potential antidote for cyanide poisoning with a novel mechanism based on 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) for the detoxification of cyanide. Additionally, sulfanegen can be rapidly administered by intramuscular injection and has shown efficacy in many species of animal models. This article summarizes the journey from concept to clinical leads for this promising cyanide antidote. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  8. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  9. Management of the mass casualty from the 2001 Jos crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-04

    Nov 4, 2012 ... Background: We report our experience in the hospital management of mass casualty following the Jos civil crisis of 2001. Materials and Methods:A retrospective analysis of the records of patients managed in the Jos civil crisis of September. 2001, in Plateau State, Nigeria. Information extracted included ...

  10. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Mass Casualty Management: Some Useful. Observations from the Israeli Trauma Model ... and websites of trauma organizations. Israel has a unique trauma system of organizing ... on continuous education, manpower training, motivation, team‑work and creation of public volunteers through advocacy is important for ...

  11. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  12. 2014 Fort Hood, Texas, mass casualty incident: reviews and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Strommen, Joshua J.; Waterman, Scott M.; Mitchell, Christopher A.; Grogan, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    On April 2, 2014, in Fort Hood, Texas, an active shooter incident occurred where four active duty soldiers were tragically killed. Active shooter incidents are becoming alarmingly more frequent over the last decade in the USA. The authors provide a detailed account of the events that occurred within the hospital and an evaluation of the triage decisions made on that day. A detailed review of mass casualty preparedness and the general approach to triage processes are also described.

  13. Scalable patients tracking framework for mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a system that tracks patients in a Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) using active RFID triage tags and mobile anchor points (DM-tracks) carried by the paramedics. The system does not involve any fixed deployment of the localization devices while maintaining a low cost triage tag. The localization accuracy is comparable to GPS systems without incurring the cost of providing a GPS based device to every patient in the disaster scene.

  14. Types of radiation mass casualties and their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Management of radiation mass casualty exposure that may occur as a result of nuclear or radiation accident will depend on the type of accident, and of the knowledge about the actual radiation exposure situation for those who might be involved. Management of the public after an accident in a nuclear or radiation installation will follow existing specific emergency plans, and will take advantage of existing radiation monitoring systems. In other radiation mass casualty exposures, whenever accidental or malevolent use of radiation, there will be a requirement to employ screening programs for indentifying and sorting out exposed people (radiological triage), who will need medical treatment and/or other assistance like decontamination and individual dose assessment. In the later stage after the accident the monitoring for dose assessment purposes for those who will need medical or public health assistance will be required. Demand for dose assessment for large groups of individuals may create the need for international assistance. Prompt and credible public information is vital in all radiation emergencies, and it would be even more important in situations when radiation mass casualties result from exposures to nuclear or radiological material out of regulatory control. In such situations unpredictability of the event creates increase in the risk perception and public communication activities of the authorities will be the key element to prevent unnecessary fear and panic, and the measure to reassure the populace.

  15. Emergency department staff preparedness for mass casualty events involving children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Michal; Avraham, Miri; Nasi-Bashari, Anat; Idelman, Sigalit; Peretz, Yaniv; Morag, Shani; Silner, Dina; Weiss, Gali

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the World Health Organization in general, and Israel in particular, have dealt with mass casualty events (MCEs) resulting from terrorism. Children are the casualties in many of these events-a reality that forces hospitals to prepare to deal with such a scenario. A literature review designed to identify unique recommendations regarding pediatric MCEs highlights both a lack of existing training programs and uncertainty on the part of health care staff when dealing with these events. The purpose of the study was to examine the preparedness level of emergency department staff to deal with MCEs involving pediatric casualties. The study included 104 physicians and nurses working in, or responding to, the emergency department at a hospital in Israel. The study included a 41-item questionnaire examining perception, approaches, and staff knowledge regarding dealing with pediatric MCEs versus those involving adults. The reliability of all sections of the questionnaire ranged between Chronbach's alpha coefficient 0.6 alpha-0.94. The preparedness levels for MCEs involving children were found to be low. Study participants ranked the likelihood of a pediatric MCE lower than one involving adults, while ranking significantly higher (P = .000) their ability to cope mentally and the knowledge and skills required when treating adults involved in MCEs. While nurses ranked higher than physicians regarding their knowledge and skills in dealing with pediatric MCE casualties, the level of knowledge for MCEs involving children was low in all subjects. Staff agreement for the parent of an MCE victim to be present during treatment was medium-low. On the basis of these findings, additional research involving a larger number of individuals and hospitals is indicated to determine if these results are consistent throughout the region.

  16. Performance of portable ventilators for mass-casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Thomas C; Rodriquez, Dario; Dorlac, Warren C; Hanseman, Dennis J; Hattery, Ellie; Branson, Richard D

    2011-10-01

    Disasters and mass-casualty scenarios may overwhelm medical resources regardless of the level of preparation. Disaster response requires medical equipment, such as ventilators, that can be operated under adverse circumstances and should be able to provide respiratory support for a variety of patient populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three portable ventilators designed to provide ventilatory support outside the hospital setting and in mass-casualty incidents, and their adherence to the Task Force for Mass Critical Care recommendations for mass-casualty care ventilators. Each device was evaluated at minimum and maximum respiratory rate and tidal volume settings to determine the accuracy of set versus delivered VT at lung compliance settings of 0.02, 0.08 and 0.1 L/cm H20 with corresponding resistance settings of 10, 25, and 5 cm H2O/L/sec, to simulate patients with ARDS, severe asthma, and normal lungs. Additionally, different FIO2 settings with each device (if applicable) were evaluated to determine accuracy of FIO2 delivery and evaluate the effect on delivered VT. Ventilators also were tested for duration of battery life. VT decreased with all three devices as compliance decreased. The decrease was more pronounced when the internal compressor was activated. At the 0.65 FIO2 setting on the MCV 200, the measured FIO2 varied widely depending on the set VT. Battery life range was 311-582 minutes with the 73X having the longest battery life. Delivered VT decreased toward the end of battery life with the SAVe having the largest decrease. The respiratory rate on the SAVe also decreased approaching the end of battery life. The 73X and MCV 200 were the closest to satisfying the Task Force for Mass Critical Care requirements for mass casualty ventilators, although neither had the capability to provide PEEP. The 73X provided the most consistent tidal volume delivery across all compliances, had the longest battery duration and the

  17. Mass-casualty events at schools: a national preparedness survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James; Shirm, Steve; Liggin, Rebecca; Aitken, Mary E; Dick, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Recent school shootings and terrorist events have demonstrated the need for well-coordinated planning for school-based mass-casualty events. The objective of this study was to document the preparedness of public schools in the United States for the prevention of and the response to a mass-casualty event. A survey was mailed to 3670 school superintendents of public school districts that were chosen at random from a list of school districts from the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education in January 2004. A second mailing was sent to nonresponders in May 2004. Descriptive statistics were used for survey variables, and the chi2 test was used to compare urban versus rural preparedness. The response rate was 58.2% (2137 usable surveys returned). Most (86.3%) school superintendents reported having a response plan, but fewer (57.2%) have a plan for prevention. Most (95.6%) have an evacuation plan, but almost one third (30%) had never conducted a drill. Almost one quarter (22.1%) have no disaster plan provisions for children with special health care needs, and one quarter reported having no plans for postdisaster counseling. Almost half (42.8%) had never met with local ambulance officials to discuss emergency planning. Urban school districts were better prepared than rural districts on almost all measures in the survey. There are important deficiencies in school emergency/disaster planning. Rural districts are less well prepared than urban districts. Disaster/mass-casualty preparedness of schools should be improved through coordination of school officials and local medical and emergency officials.

  18. Implementing RFID technology in a novel triage system during a simulated mass casualty situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Jorma; Simons, Tomi; Kuronen, Pentti; Tammela, Juha; Jalasvirta, Pertti; Nurmi, Jouni; Harkke, Ville; Castrén, Maaret

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the applicability of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and commercial cellular networks to provide an online triage system for handling mass casualty situations. This was tested by a using a pilot system for a simulated mass casualty situation during a military field exercise. The system proved to be usable. Compared to the currently used system, it also dramatically improves the general view of mass casualty situations and enhances medical emergency readiness in a military medical setting. The system can also be adapted without any difficulties by the civilian sector for the management of mass casualty disasters.

  19. Management of Mass Casualties Using Doctor Helicopters and Doctor Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaka, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Omori, Kazuhiko; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Yanagawa, Youichi

    At approximately 10 o'clock in September 2015, a minibus carrying 18 people accidentally slid backwards because of a malfunctioning brake system while climbing a steep incline on Togasayama Mountain, colliding with a van (Toyota HiAce wagon) carrying 11 people that was situated behind the minibus. Togasayama Mountain is located 1 hour by car and 10 minutes by helicopter from our hospital. The minibus slid off a roadside cliff at a height of 0.5 m and rolled over after colliding with the van. There were 7 victims with yellow tags and 22 with green tags. Two Doctor Helicopters and 1 Doctor Car cooperated with the fire departments by providing medical treatments, selection of medical facilities, and dispersion transportation. In this mass casualty event, there were no mortalities, and all of the victims recovered without sequelae. The coordinated and combined use of Doctor Helicopters and Doctor Cars in addition to the activities of the fire department in response to a mass casualty event resulted in appropriate triage, medical treatments, selection of medical facilities, and dispersion transportation. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Preclinical and intrahospital management of mass casualties and terrorist incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, A; Bieler, D; Friemert, B; Kollig, E; Flohe, S

    2017-10-01

    Due to the recent terrorist attacks in Paris, Brussels, Ansbach, Munich, Berlin and more recently Manchester and London, terrorism is realized as a present threat to our society and social life, as well as a challenge for the health care system. Without fueling anxiety, there is a need for sensitization to this subject and to familiarize all concerned with the special kind of terrorist attack-related injuries, the operational priorities and tactics and the individual basic principles of preclinical and hospital care. There is a need to adapt the known established medical structure for a conventional mass casualty situation to the special requirements that are raised by this new kind of terrorist threat to our social life. It is the aim of this article, from a surgical point of view, to depict the tactics and challenges of preclinical care of the special kind of terrorist attack-related injuries from the site of the incident, via the advanced medical post or casualty collecting point, to the triage point at the hospital. The special needs of medical care and organizational aspects of the primary treatment in the hospital are highlighted and possible decisional options and different approaches are discussed.

  1. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China. Data Sources: Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014). The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014). We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (http://www.gov.cn/), National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (http://www.nhfpc.gov.cn/), and China Earthquake Information (http://www.csi.ac.cn/). Study Selection: We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China, the PT applied in China, guidelines and standards, and application and development of the carding PT method in China. Results: From 3976 potentially relevant articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria, 20 Chinese, and 2 English. These articles included 13 case reports, 3 retrospective analyses of MCI, two methods introductions, three national or sectoral criteria, and one simulated field testing and validation. There were a total of 19 kinds of MCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014. In addition, there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application. Conclusions: The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief. Classification is not clear. Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical. There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations. There is no data and evidence supported triage method. We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real, practical, and efficient PT method. PMID:26415807

  2. Mechanical ventilation in mass casualty scenarios. Augmenting staff: project XTREME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Michael E; Bogdan, Gregory M

    2008-02-01

    Disaster preparedness typically includes plans that address the need for surge capacity to manage mass-casualty events. A major concern of disaster preparedness in respiratory therapy focuses on responding to a sudden increase in the volume of patients who require mechanical ventilation. Plans for such disasters must include contingencies to address surge capacity in ventilator inventories and the respiratory therapy staff who will manage the ventilators. Tactics to address these situations include efforts to lower demand by transferring patients to other institutions as well as efforts to augment staffing levels. Staff can be augmented by mobilization of deployable teams of volunteers from outside the region and through exploitation of local resources. The latter includes strategies to recruit local respiratory therapists who are currently in either non-clinical or non-hospital-based positions and policies that optimize existing respiratory therapy resources within an institution by canceling elective surgeries, altering shift structure, and postponing vacations. An alternative approach would employ non-respiratory-therapy staff to assist in the management of patients with respiratory failure. Project XTREME (Cross-Training Respiratory Extenders for Medical Emergencies) is a cross-training program developed to facilitate training of non-respiratory-therapy health professionals to assist in the management of patients who require mechanical ventilation. It includes an interactive digital video disc as well as a competency validation laboratory and is designed to be performed at the time of an emergency. Pilot testing of the program suggests it is effective.

  3. Drones at the service for training on mass casualty incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pacheco, Antonio Nieto; Rodriguez, Laura Juguera; Price, Mariana Ferrandini; Perez, Ana Belen Garcia; Alonso, Nuria Perez; Rios, Manuel Pardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mass casualty incidents (MCI) are characterized by a large number of victims with respect to the resources available. In this study, we aimed to analyze the changes produced in the self-perception of students who were able to visualize aerial views of a simulation of a MCI. A simulation study, mixed method, was performed to compare the results from an ad hoc questionnaire. The 35 students from the Emergency Nursing Master from the UCAM completed a questionnaire before and after watching an MCI video with 40 victims in which they had participated. The main variable measured was the change in self-perception (CSP). The CSP occurred in 80% (28/35) of the students (P = .001). Students improved their individual (P = .001) and group (P = .006) scores. They also described that their personal performance had better results than the group performance (P = .047). The main conclusion of this study is that drones could lead to CSP and appraisal of the MCI simulation participants. PMID:28658106

  4. Patient distribution in a mass casualty event of an airplane crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Ingri L E; Weel, Hanneke; Heetveld, Martin J; van der Zande, Ineke; Bijlsma, Taco S; Bloemers, Frank W; Goslings, J Carel

    2013-11-01

    Difficulties have been reported in the patient distribution during Mass Casualty Incidents. In this study we analysed the regional patient distribution protocol (PDP) and the actual patient distribution after the 2009 Turkish Airlines crash near Amsterdam. Analysis of the patient distribution of 126 surviving casualties of the crash by collecting data on medical treatment capacity, number of patients received per hospital, triage classification, Injury Severity Score (ISS), secondary transfers, distance from the crash site, and the critical mortality rate. The PDP holds ambiguous definitions of medical treatment capacity and was not followed. There were 14 receiving hospitals (distance from crash: 5.8-53.5 km); four hospitals received 133-213% of their treatment capacity, and 5 hospitals received 1 patient. Three hospitals within 20 km of the crash did not receive any casualties. Level I trauma centres received 89% of the 'critical' casualties and 92% of the casualties with ISS ≥ 16. Only 3 casualties were secondarily transferred, and no casualties died in, or on the way to hospital (critical mortality rate=0%). Patient distribution worked out well after the crash as secondary transfers were low and critical mortality rate was zero. However, the regional PDP was not followed in this MCI and casualties were unevenly distributed among hospitals. The PDP is indistinctive, and should be updated in cooperation between Emergency Services, surrounding hospitals, and Schiphol International Airport as a high risk area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Policies for managing emergency medical services in mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adini, B; Bodas, M; Nilsson, H; Peleg, K

    2017-09-01

    Diverse decision-making is needed in managing mass casualty incidents (MCIs), by emergency medical services (EMS). The aim of the study was to review consensus among international experts concerning policies of EMS management during MCIs. Applicability of 21 EMS policies was tested through a 2-cycle modified e-Delphi process, in which 38 multi-disciplinary experts from 10 countries participated. Threshold for approving proposed solutions was defined as consensus of >80%. Policies that did not achieve the targeted consensus were reviewed to detect variability according to respondents' origin country. 16 policies were endorsed in the first cycle including collaboration between ambulance service providers; implementing a unified mode of operation; preparing criteria for ground versus aerial evacuation; and, developing support systems for caregivers exposed to violence. An additional policy which proposed that senior EMS officers should not necessarily act as on-site MCI commanders was endorsed in the second cycle. Demographic breakdown of views concerning non-consensual policies revealed differences according to countries of origin. Assigning ambulances to off-duty team members was highly endorsed by experts from Israel and South Africa and strongly rejected by European respondents. Avoiding entry to risk areas until declared safe was endorsed by European, Asian and Oceanic experts, but rejected by Israeli, South African and North American experts. Despite uniqueness of countries and EMS agencies, solutions to most dilemmas were applicable to all organizations, regardless of location or affiliation. Cultural diversity was found concerning readiness to implement military-civilian collaboration in MCIs and a rigid separation between work-leisure responsibilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  7. Systematic review of strategies to manage and allocate scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Pillemer, Francesca; Waxman, Daniel A; Moore, Melinda; Hansen, Cynthia K; Knebel, Ann R; Ricciardi, Richard; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-06-01

    Efficient management and allocation of scarce medical resources can improve outcomes for victims of mass casualty events. However, the effectiveness of specific strategies has never been systematically reviewed. We analyze published evidence on strategies to optimize the management and allocation of scarce resources across a wide range of mass casualty event contexts and study designs. Our literature search included MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from 1990 through late 2011. We also searched the gray literature, using the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report and key Web sites. We included both English- and foreign-language articles. We included studies that evaluated strategies used in actual mass casualty events or tested through drills, exercises, or computer simulations. We excluded studies that lacked a comparison group or did not report quantitative outcomes. Data extraction, quality assessment, and strength of evidence ratings were conducted by a single researcher and reviewed by a second; discrepancies were reconciled by the 2 reviewers. Because of heterogeneity in outcome measures, we qualitatively synthesized findings within categories of strategies. From 5,716 potentially relevant citations, 74 studies met inclusion criteria. Strategies included reducing demand for health care services (18 studies), optimizing use of existing resources (50), augmenting existing resources (5), implementing crisis standards of care (5), and multiple categories (4). The evidence was sufficient to form conclusions on 2 strategies, although the strength of evidence was rated as low. First, as a strategy to reduce demand for health care services, points of dispensing can be used to efficiently distribute biological countermeasures after a bioterrorism attack or influenza pandemic, and their organization influences speed of

  8. Difference in First Aid Activity During Mass Casualty Training Based on Having Taken an Educational Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Omori, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Sato, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Osaka, Hiromichi

    2017-11-20

    The Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine developed a mass casualty life support (MCLS) course to improve cooperation among medical practitioners during a disaster, which is essential for reducing the rates of preventable disaster death. We investigated whether there was difference in first aid activity among members of the ambulance service during mass casualty training based on having taken the MCLS course. Mass casualty training was held at the fire department of Numazu City. Twenty-one ambulance service parties participated in this training. They first evaluated the mass casualty situation, performed the appropriate services at the scene during the initial period, and then provided START triage for mock wounded patients. Throughout the training, 5 examiners evaluated their performance. Regarding the difference in first aid activity based on MCLS course attendance among the ambulance service members, the cooperative management (scored on a scale of 1 to 5) among the members who had taken the MCLS course was significantly better than that among those who had not taken the course (median [interquartile range]: 5 [0.5] vs. 4 [1.75], P<0.05). Attending an MCLS course may help to improve outcomes in the face of an actual mass casualty incident. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 4).

  9. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R

    2015-06-01

    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  10. Allocation of scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Waxman, Daniel A; Pillemer, Francesca; Carey, Christine; Moore, Melinda; Karir, Veena; Johnson, Tiffani J; Iyer, Neema; Hu, Jianhui; Shanman, Roberta; Larkin, Jody Wozar; Timmer, Martha; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja R; Newberry, Sydne; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-06-01

    This systematic review sought to identify the best available evidence regarding strategies for allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events (MCEs). Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (1) What strategies are available to policymakers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (2) What strategies are available to providers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (3) What are the public's key perceptions and concerns regarding the implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? (4) What methods are available to engage providers in discussions regarding the development and implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? We searched Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Global Health, Web of Science®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 through 2011. To identify relevant non-peer-reviewed reports, we searched the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report. We also reviewed relevant State and Federal plans, peer-reviewed reports and papers by nongovernmental organizations, and consensus statements published by professional societies. We included both English- and foreign-language studies. Our review included studies that evaluated tested strategies in real-world MCEs as well as strategies tested in drills, exercises, or computer simulations, all of which included a comparison group. We reviewed separately studies that lacked a comparison group but nonetheless evaluated promising strategies. We also identified consensus recommendations developed by professional societies or government panels. We reviewed existing State plans to examine the current state of planning for scarce resource allocation during MCEs. Two investigators independently reviewed each article, abstracted data, and assessed study quality. We considered 5,716 reports for this comparative effectiveness

  11. Westgate Shootings: An Emergency Department Approach to a Mass-casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachira, Benjamin W; Abdalla, Ramadhani O; Wallis, Lee A

    2014-10-01

    At approximately 12:30 pm on Saturday September 21, 2013, armed assailants attacked the upscale Westgate shopping mall in the Westlands area of Nairobi, Kenya. Using the seven key Major Incident Medical Management and Support (MIMMS) principles, command, safety, communication, assessment, triage, treatment, and transport, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUH,N) emergency department (ED) successfully coordinated the reception and care of all the casualties brought to the hospital. This report describes the AKUH,N ED response to the first civilian mass-casualty shooting incident in Kenya, with the hope of informing the development and implementation of mass-casualty emergency preparedness plans by other EDs and hospitals in Kenya, appropriate for the local health care system.

  12. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the “ladder-pipe system” for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  13. Importance of banked tissues in the management of mass nuclear casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita; Bhatnagar, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear detonations are the most devastating of the weapons of mass destruction. There will be large number of casualties on detonation of nuclear weapon. Biological tissues like bone, skin, amniotic membrane and other soft tissues can be used for repair or reconstruction of the injured part of the body. Tissues from human donor can be processed and banked for orthopaedic, spinal, trauma and other surgical procedures. Radiation technology is used to sterilize the tissues to make them safe for clinical use. This paper highlights the importance of such banked tissues in the management of the casualties. (author)

  14. Management of the mass casualty from the 2001 Jos crisis | Ozoilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: We report our experience in the hospital management of mass casualty following the Jos civil crisis of 2001. Materials and Methods: Aretrospective analysis of the records of patients managed in the Jos civil crisis of September 2001, in Plateau State, Nigeria. Information extracted included demographic data of ...

  15. Patient distribution in a mass casualty event of an airplane crash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ingri L. E.; Weel, Hanneke; Heetveld, Martin J.; van der Zande, Ineke; Bijlsma, Taco S.; Bloemers, Frank W.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2013-01-01

    Difficulties have been reported in the patient distribution during Mass Casualty Incidents. In this study we analysed the regional patient distribution protocol (PDP) and the actual patient distribution after the 2009 Turkish Airlines crash near Amsterdam. Analysis of the patient distribution of 126

  16. Radiological work-up after mass casualty incidents: are ATLS guidelines applicable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ingri L. E.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Berger, F. H.; Heetveld, M. J.; Bloemers, F. W.; Goslings, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    In mass casualty incidents (MCI) a large number of patients need to be evaluated and treated fast. Well-designed radiological guidelines can save lives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) radiological guidelines in the MCI of an aeroplane crash. Medical

  17. [Triage protocols for mass casualty incidents : An overview 30 years after START].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckbein, S; Kohlmann, T; Luxen, J; Birkholz, T; Prückner, S

    2016-08-01

    Since the publication of the first mass casualty triage protocol approximately 30 years ago, numerous adaptions and alternatives have been introduced and are currently in use throughout the world. This variety may represent a challenge for the cooperation between emergency medical providers and the interoperability of emergency medical services often required during mass casualty incidents. To enhance cooperation and interoperability a standardization of triage protocols is required. This survey was carried out in order to identify and characterize published triage protocols on national and international levels. Furthermore, evidence for validation of the identified triage algorithms was discussed and recommendations for standardization of triage protocols are given. In a systematic literature search 59 relevant articles were identified and evaluated with respect to the given objectives. A total of 12 triage concepts were identified and characterized which are categorized according to the basic principle. The endpoints of the studies, the chosen observation units and the mode of data collection were discussed with respect to their impact on validation. Furthermore, the impact of the degree and dynamics of system capacity overload, which are pathognomonic for mass casualty incidents, were discussed. There is not sufficient evidence to declare one of the triage protocols superior in all aspects to the others and no triage protocol has been implemented on a comprehensive level in Germany. In order to initialize a national or regional convergence process towards an interoperability of emergency medical services, the model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage approach has been identified as being appropriate.

  18. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Conor D. A.; Lockey, David J.; Rehn, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Background Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future p...

  19. Acceptability and perceived utility of drone technology among emergency medical service responders and incident commanders for mass casualty incident management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Alexander; Chai, Peter R; Griswold, Matthew K; Lai, Jeffrey T; Boyer, Edward W; Broach, John

    2017-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management. Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15). A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. Front-line emergency medical service (EMS) providers and senior EMS personnel in Incident Commander roles. Data from this pilot study indicate that EMS responders are accepting to deploying and operating UAV technology in a disaster scenario. Additionally, they perceived UAV technology as easy to adopt yet impactful in improving MCI scene management.

  20. Case Report: Mass Casualty Lightning Strike at Ranger Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shannon N; Wilson, Zachary W; Cole, Christopher B; Kennedy, Andrew R; Aycock, Ryan D

    2017-05-01

    Although lightning strikes are a rare occurrence, their significance cannot be ignored given military operations in the field during all types of weather. With proper medical management, patients with lightning injuries can return to duty. Information for this case report comes from eyewitness account at the 6th Ranger Training Battalion and from review of physician documentation from the 96th Medical Group, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. A lightning strike injured 44 Ranger School participants during a training exercise on August 12, 2015, at Camp Rudder, Florida. These patients were triaged in the field and transported to emergency department of Eglin Air Force Base. Of the 44 casualties, 20 were admitted. All were returned to duty the following day. One patient had cardiac arrest. This patient, along with two others, was admitted to the intensive care unit. Seventeen other patients were admitted for observation for rhabdomyolysis and/or cardiac arrhythmias. One patient was admitted with suspected acute kidney injury indicated by an elevated creatinine. All patients, including those admitted to the intensive care unit, were released on the day following the lightning strike without restrictions and were allowed to return to duty with increased medical monitoring. This case report highlights the need for proper triage and recognition of lightning strike injury, coordination of care between field operations and emergency department personnel, and close follow-up for patients presenting with lightning injury. Symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory findings from rigorous training can be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from lightning injury. Secondary injuries resulting from blunt trauma from falls may have been prevented by the use of the lightning strike posture. Further analysis of procedures and standard operating protocols to mitigate risk during thunderstorms may be required to prevent lightning's effects on large groups of military personnel

  1. 7 Mass casualty incidents: a review of triage severity planning assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Recent events involving a significant number of casualties have emphasised the importance of appropriate preparation for receiving hospitals, especially Emergency Departments, during the initial response phase of a major incident. Development of a mass casualty resilience and response framework in the Northern Trauma Network included a review of existing planning assumptions in order to ensure effective resource allocation, both in local receiving hospitals and system-wide.Existing planning assumptions regarding categorisation by triage level are generally stated as a ratio for P1:P2:P3 of 25%:25%:50% of the total number of injured survivors. This may significantly over-, or underestimate, the number in each level of severity in the case of a large-scale incident. A pilot literature review was conducted of the available evidence from historical incidents in order to gather data regarding the confirmed number of overall casualties, 'critical' cases, admitted cases, and non-urgent or discharged cases. This data was collated and grouped by mechanism in order to calculate an appropriate severity ratio for each incident type. 12 articles regarding mass casualty incidents from the last two decades were identified covering three main incident types: (1) Mass transportation crash, (2) Building fire, and (3) Bomb and related terrorist attacks and involving a total of 3615 injured casualties. The overall mortality rate was calculated as 12.3%. Table 1 summarises the available patient casualty data from each of the specific incidents reported and calculated proportions of critical ('P1'), admitted ('P2'), and non-urgent or ambulatory cases ('P3'). Despite the heterogeneity of data and range of incident type there is sufficient evidence to suggest that current planning assumptions are incorrect and a more refined model is required. An important finding is the variation in proportion of critical cases depending upon the mechanism. For example, a greater than expected proportion

  2. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident. Volumes 1 and 2 (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    sharp/pungent, garlic /horseradish, bitter almond, and newly mown hay. Unusual numbers of mass casualties Health problems including nausea, disori...radiation syndrome is generally supportive with blood transfusions and antibiotics . 26 Volume II of II V1.1 2013 Classically acute radiation syndrome

  3. Red Tides: Mass casualty and whole blood at sea Red Tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin T; Lin, Andrew H; Clark, Susan C; Cap, Andrew P; Dubose, Joseph J

    2018-02-13

    The U.S. Navy's casualty-receiving ships provide remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR) platforms to treat injured combatants deployed afloat and ashore. We report a significant mass casualty incident aboard the USS Bataan, and the most warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) transfused at sea for traumatic hemorrhagic shock since the Vietnam War. Casualty-receiving ships have robust medical capabilities, including a frozen blood bank with packed red blood cells (pRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP). The blood supply can be augmented with WFWB collected from a "walking blood bank" (WBB). Following a helicopter crash, six patients were transported by MV-22 Osprey to the USS Bataan. Patient 1 had a pelvic fracture, was managed with a pelvic binder, and received 4 units of pRBC, 2 units of FFP, and 6 units of WFWB. Patient 2, with a comminuted tibia and fibula fracture, underwent lower extremity four-compartment fasciotomy, and received 4 units of WFWB. Patient 3 underwent several procedures, including left anterior thoracotomy, aortic cross-clamping, exploratory laparotomy, small bowel resection, and tracheostomy. He received 8 units of pRBC, 8 units of FFP, and 28 units of WFWB. Patients 4 and 5 had suspected spine injuries and were managed non-operatively. Patient 6, with open tibia and fibula fractures, underwent lower extremity four-compartment fasciotomy with tibia external fixation and received 1 unit of WFWB. All patients survived aeromedical evacuation to a Role 4 medical facility and subsequent transfer to local hospitals. Maritime military mass casualty incidents are challenging, but the U.S. Navy's casualty-receiving ships are ready to perform RDCR at sea. Activation of the ship's WBB to transfuse WFWB is essential for hemostatic resuscitations afloat. V STUDY TYPE: Case series.

  4. Experience in the management of the mass casualty from the January 2010 Jos Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoilo, K N; Amupitan, I; Peter, S D; Ojo, E O; Ismaila, B O; Ode, M; Adoga, A A; Adoga, A S

    2016-01-01

    On the 17 of January 2010, a sectarian crisis broke out in Jos the capital of Plateau state, Nigeria. It created a mass casualty situation in the Jos University Teaching Hospital. We present the result of the hospital management of that mass casualty incident. To share our experience in the management of the mass casualty situation arising from the sectarian crisis of Jos in January 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of patients who were treated in our hospital with injuries sustained in the Jos crisis of January 2010. A total of 168 patients presented over a four day period. There were 108 males (64.3%) and 60 females (35.7%). The mean age was 26 ± 16 years. Injury was caused by gunshots in 68 patients (40.5%), machete in 56 (33.3%), falls in 22 (13.1%) and burning in 21 (13.1%). The body parts injured were the upper limbs in 61(36.3%) patients, lower limbs 44 (26.2%) and scalp 43 (25.6%). Majority, 125 (74.4%) did not require formal operative care. Fourteen (8.3%) patients had complications out of which 10 (6.0%) were related to infections. There were 5 (3.1%) hospital mortalities and the mean duration of hospital stay was 4.2 days. The hospital operations returned to routine 24 hours after the last patient was brought in. As a result of changes made to our protocol, management proceeded smoothly and there was no stoppage of the hospital response at any point. This civil crisis involved mostly young males. Injuries were mainly lacerations from machete and gunshot injuries. Majority of the victims did not require formal surgical operations beyond initial care. Maintaining continuity in the positions of the Incident commander and the mass casualty commander ensure a smooth disaster response with fewer challenges.

  5. How will military/civilian coordination work for reception of mass casualties from overseas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Colin; Donohue, John; Wasylina, Philip; Cullum, Woodrow; Hu, Peter; Lam, David M

    2009-01-01

    In Maryland, there have been no military/civilian training exercises of the Medical Mutual Aid Agreement for >20 years. The aims of this paper are to describe the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS), to coordinate military and civilian medical mutual aid in response to arrival of overseas mass casualties, and to evaluate the mass-casualty reception and bed "surge" capacity of Maryland NDMS Hospitals. Three tabletop exercises and a functional exercise were performed using a simulated, overseas, military mass-casualty event. The first tabletop exercise was with military and civilian NMDS partners. The second tested the revised NDMS activation plan. The third exercised the Authorities of State Emergency Medical System and Walter Reed Army Medical Center Directors of Emergency Medicine over Maryland NDMS hospitals, and their Medical Mutual Aid Agreement. The functional exercise used Homeland Security Exercise Evaluation Program tools to evaluate reception, triage, staging, and transportation of 160 notional patients (including 20 live, moulaged "patients") and one canine. The first tabletop exercise identified deficiencies in operational protocols for military/civilian mass-casualty reception, triage, treatment, and problems with sharing a Unified Command. The second found improvements in the revised NDMS activation plan. The third informed expectations for NDMS hospitals. In the functional exercise, all notional patients were received, triaged, dispatched, and accounted in military and five civilian hospitals within two hours. The canine revealed deficiencies in companion/military animal reception, holding, treatment, and evacuation. Three working groups were suggested: (1) to ensure 100% compliance with triage tags, patient accountability, and return of equipment used in mass casualty events and exercises; (2) to investigate making information technology and imaging networks available for Emergency Operation Centers and Incident Command; and (3) to establish NDMS

  6. Teaching mass casualty triage skills using immersive three-dimensional virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Dale S; Sherstyuk, Andrei; Burgess, Lawrence; Connolly, Kathleen K

    2008-11-01

    Virtual reality (VR) environments offer potential advantages over traditional paper methods, manikin simulation, and live drills for mass casualty training and assessment. The authors measured the acquisition of triage skills by novice learners after exposing them to three sequential scenarios (A, B, and C) of five simulated patients each in a fully immersed three-dimensional VR environment. The hypothesis was that learners would improve in speed, accuracy, and self-efficacy. Twenty-four medical students were taught principles of mass casualty triage using three short podcasts, followed by an immersive VR exercise in which learners donned a head-mounted display (HMD) and three motion tracking sensors, one for their head and one for each hand. They used a gesture-based command system to interact with multiple VR casualties. For triage score, one point was awarded for each correctly identified main problem, required intervention, and triage category. For intervention score, one point was awarded for each correct VR intervention. Scores were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each student. Before and after surveys were used to measure self-efficacy and reaction to the training. Four students were excluded from analysis due to participation in a recent triage research program. Results from 20 students were analyzed. Triage scores and intervention scores improved significantly during Scenario B (p learning to be an effective first responder. Novice learners demonstrated improved triage and intervention scores, speed, and self-efficacy during an iterative, fully immersed VR triage experience.

  7. Review of On-Scene Management of Mass-Casualty Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Holgersson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The scene of a mass-casualty attack (MCA entails a crime scene, a hazardous space, and a great number of people needing medical assistance. Public transportation has been the target of such attacks and involves a high probability of generating mass casualties. The review aimed to investigate challenges for on-scene responses to MCAs and suggestions made to counter these challenges, with special attention given to attacks on public transportation and associated terminals. Methods: Articles were found through PubMed and Scopus, “relevant articles” as defined by the databases, and a manual search of references. Inclusion criteria were that the article referred to attack(s and/or a public transportation-related incident and issues concerning formal on-scene response. An appraisal of the articles’ scientific quality was conducted based on an evidence hierarchy model developed for the study. Results: One hundred and five articles were reviewed. Challenges for command and coordination on scene included establishing leadership, inter-agency collaboration, multiple incident sites, and logistics. Safety issues entailed knowledge and use of personal protective equipment, risk awareness and expectations, cordons, dynamic risk assessment, defensive versus offensive approaches, and joining forces. Communication concerns were equipment shortfalls, dialoguing, and providing information. Assessment problems were scene layout and interpreting environmental indicators as well as understanding setting-driven needs for specialist skills and resources. Triage and treatment difficulties included differing triage systems, directing casualties, uncommon injuries, field hospitals, level of care, providing psychological and pediatric care. Transportation hardships included scene access, distance to hospitals, and distribution of casualties. Conclusion: Commonly encountered challenges during unintentional incidents were added to during MCAs, implying

  8. Critical issues in preparing for a mass casualty event: highlights from a new community planning guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    To assist community planners in allocating scarce resources in a mass casualty event, the Department of Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response collaborated with leading experts on a series of issue papers on preparedness and response. These papers were presented at an expert meeting in Washington, DC, in June 2006. The papers, revised based on meeting discussions, have been published by AHRQ as Mass Medical Care with Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide.

  9. Mass casualties from acute inhalation of chlorine gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Yunsur; Onay, Meral; Akmaz, Ibrahim; Sezigen, Sermet

    2009-12-01

    Chlorine gas is a potent pulmonary irritant that affects the mucous membranes and induces severe disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange within minutes of inhalation. The present study evaluated an extraordinary type of mass inhalational exposure. Clinical reports of 25 soldiers who were admitted to the emergency department of Maresal Cakmak Military Hospital, Erzurum were retrospectively evaluated. All patients were exposed to chlorine gas as a result of mixing sodium hypochlorite with hydrochloric acid during cleaning activities. All patients were male and the mean age of patients was 22.04+/-2.98 years. The main symptoms were coughing and dyspnea in 18 patients (72%). Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced volume capacity (FVC) ratio were found to be normal in all patients but FVC and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were below the normal range (80%) in 9 patients (36%). All patients received warmed humidified oxygen combined with nebulized salbutamol. Inhaled budesonide and nebulized sodium bicarbonate were ordered additionally for 19 patients (76%). Thirteen patients (52%) were discharged from the emergency department and 12 patients (48%) were hospitalized. No mortality was observed. Chlorine gas is a potent pulmonary irritant that causes acute damage in both the upper and lower respiratory tract. We suggest that inhaled steroids combined with nebulized sodium bicarbonate could be a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of symptomatic patients. Education of the public about the dangers of mixing of hypochlorite bleach with acidic cleaning agents is also very important.

  10. Can a pediatric trauma center improve the response to a mass casualty incident?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Erik R; Pierce, James R; Goodhue, Catherine J; Burke, Rita V; Ford, Henri R; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2012-10-01

    Recent events including the 2001 terrorist attacks on New York; Hurricane Katrina; the 2010 Haitian and Chilean earthquakes; and the 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster in Japan have reminded disaster planners and responders of the tremendous scale of mass casualty disasters and their resulting human devastation. Although adult disaster medicine is a well-developed field with roots in wartime medicine, we are increasingly recognizing that children may comprise up to 50% of disaster victims, and response mechanisms are often designed without adequate preparation for the number of pediatric victims that can result. In this short educational review, we explore the differences between the pediatric and adult disaster and trauma populations, the requirements for designation of a site as a pediatric trauma center (PTC), and the magnitude of the problem of pediatric disaster patients as described in the literature, specifically as it pertains to the availability and use of designated PTCs as opposed to trauma centers in general. We also review our own experience in planning and simulating pediatric mass casualty events and suggest strategies for preparedness when there is no PTC available. We aim to demonstrate from this brief survey that the availability of a designated PTC in the setting of a mass casualty disaster event is likely to significantly improve the outcome for the pediatric demographic of the affected population. We conclude that the relative scarcity of disaster data specific to children limits epidemiologic study of the pediatric disaster population and offer suggestions for strategies for future study of our hypothesis. Systematic review, level III.

  11. Intraosseous vascular access in disasters and mass casualty events: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, James M

    2016-01-01

    The intraosseous (IO) route of vascular access has been increasingly used to administer resuscitative fluids and drugs to patients in whom reliable intravenous (IV) access could not be rapidly or easily obtained. It is unknown that to what extent the IO route has been used to gain vascular access during disasters and mass casualty events. The purpose of this review was to examine the existing literature to answer the research question, "What is the utility of the IO route compared to other routes for establishing vascular access in patients resulting from disasters and mass casualty events?" Keyword-based online database search of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. University-based academic research cell. Included evidence were randomized and nonrandomized trials, systematic reviews with and without meta-analysis, case series, and case reports. Excluded evidence included narrative reviews and expert opinion. Not applicable. Of 297 evidence sources located, 22 met inclusion criteria. Located evidence was organized into four categories including chemical agent poisoning, IO placement, while wearing chemical protective clothing (PPE), military trauma, and infectious disease outbreak. Evidence indicates that the IO route of infusion is pharmacokinetically equal to the IV route and superior to the intramuscular (IM) and endotracheal routes for the administration of antidotal drugs in animal models of chemical agent poisoning while wearing full chemical PPE. The IO route is superior to the IM route for antidote administration during hypovolemic shock. Civilian casualties of explosive attacks and mass shootings would likely benefit from expanded use of the IO route and military resuscitation strategies. The IO route is useful for fluid resuscitation in the management of diarrheal and hemorrhagic infectious disease outbreaks.

  12. Comparison of Computerized Patients versus Live Moulaged Actors for a Mass-casualty Drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudius, Ilene; Kaji, Amy; Santillanes, Genevieve; Cicero, Mark; Donofrio, J Joelle; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Srinivasan, Saranya; Chang, Todd P

    2015-10-01

    Multiple modalities for simulating mass-casualty scenarios exist; however, the ideal modality for education and drilling of mass-casualty incident (MCI) triage is not established. Hypothesis/Problem Medical student triage accuracy and time to triage for computer-based simulated victims and live moulaged actors using the pediatric version of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (JumpSTART) mass-casualty triage tool were compared, anticipating that student performance and experience would be equivalent. The victim scenarios were created from actual trauma records from pediatric high-mechanism trauma presenting to a participating Level 1 trauma center. The student-reported fidelity of the two modalities was also measured. Comparisons were done using nonparametric statistics and regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Thirty-three students triaged four live patients and seven computerized patients representing a spectrum of minor, immediate, delayed, and expectant victims. Of the live simulated patients, 92.4% were given accurate triage designations versus 81.8% for the computerized scenarios (P=.005). The median time to triage of live actors was 57 seconds (IQR=45-66) versus 80 seconds (IQR=58-106) for the computerized patients (Pactors were felt to offer a more realistic encounter by 88% of the participants, with a higher associated stress level. While potentially easier and more convenient to accomplish, computerized scenarios offered less fidelity than live moulaged actors for the purposes of MCI drilling. Medical students triaged live actors more accurately and more quickly than victims shown in a computerized simulation.

  13. The Significance of Witness Sensors for Mass Casualty Incidents and Epidemic Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Long; Lin, Chih-Hao; Lin, Yan-Ren; Wen, Hsin-Yu; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2018-02-02

    Due to the increasing number of natural and man-made disasters, mass casualty incidents occur more often than ever before. As a result, health care providers need to adapt in order to cope with the overwhelming patient surge. To ensure quality and safety in health care, accurate information in pandemic disease control, death reduction, and health quality promotion should be highlighted. However, obtaining precise information in real time is an enormous challenge to all researchers of the field. In this paper, innovative strategies are presented to develop a sound information network using the concept of "witness sensors." To overcome the reliability and quality limitations of information obtained through social media, researchers must focus on developing solutions that secure the authenticity of social media messages, especially for matters related to health. To address this challenge, we introduce a novel concept based on the two elements of "witness" and "sensor." Witness sensors can be key players designated to minimize limitations to quality of information and to distinguish fact from fiction during critical events. In order to enhance health communication practices and deliver valid information to end users, the education and management of witness sensors should be further investigated, especially for implementation during mass casualty incidents and epidemic outbreaks. ©Chih-Long Pan, Chih-Hao Lin, Yan-Ren Lin, Hsin-Yu Wen, Jet-Chau Wen. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 02.02.2018.

  14. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius

    2016-11-08

    Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.

  15. Principles of Emergency Department facility design for optimal management of mass-casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Pinchas; Goldberg, Scott A; Keng, Jimmy G; Koenig, Kristi L

    2012-04-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the triage, stabilization and disposition unit of the hospital during a mass-casualty incident (MCI). With most EDs already functioning at or over capacity, efficient management of an MCI requires optimization of all ED components. While the operational aspects of MCI management have been well described, the architectural/structural principles have not. Further, there are limited reports of the testing of ED design components in actual MCI events. The objective of this study is to outline the important infrastructural design components for optimization of ED response to an MCI, as developed, implemented, and repeatedly tested in one urban medical center. In the authors' experience, the most important aspects of ED design for MCI have included external infrastructure and promoting rapid lockdown of the facility for security purposes; an ambulance bay permitting efficient vehicle flow and casualty discharge; strategic placement of the triage location; patient tracking techniques; planning adequate surge capacity for both patients and staff; sufficient command, control, communications, computers, and information; well-positioned and functional decontamination facilities; adequate, well-located and easily distributed medical supplies; and appropriately built and functioning essential services. Designing the ED to cope well with a large casualty surge during a disaster is not easy, and it may not be feasible for all EDs to implement all the necessary components. However, many of the components of an appropriate infrastructural design add minimal cost to the normal expenditures of building an ED. This study highlights the role of design and infrastructure in MCI preparedness in order to assist planners in improving their ED capabilities. Structural optimization calls for a paradigm shift in the concept of structural and operational ED design, but may be necessary in order to maximize surge capacity, department resilience, and patient and

  16. Impact of a predefined hospital mass casualty response plan in a limited resource setting with no pre-hospital care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil Aijaz; Rehman, Abdul; Sayyed, Raza Hasnain; Haider, Adil Hussain; Bawa, Amber; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Ali, Kamran; Zafar, Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital triage is an intricate part of any mass casualty response system. However, in settings where no such system exists, it is not known if hospital-based disaster response efforts are beneficial. This study describes in-hospital disaster response management and patient outcomes following a mass casualty event (MCE) involving 200 victims in a lower-middle income country in South Asia. We performed a single-center, retrospective review of bombing victims presenting to a trauma center in the spring of 2013, after a high energy car bomb leveled a residential building. Descriptive analysis was utilized to present demographic variables and physical injuries. A disaster plan was devised based on the canons of North-American trauma care; some adaptations to the local environment were incorporated. Relevant medical and surgical specialties were mobilized to the ED awaiting a massive influx of patients. ED waiting room served as the triage area. Operating rooms, ICU and blood bank were alerted. Seventy patients presented to the ED. Most victims (88%) were brought directly without prehospital triage or resuscitation. Four were pronounced dead on arrival. The mean age of victims was 27 (±14) years with a male preponderance (78%). Penetrating shrapnel injury was the most common mechanism of injury (71%). Most had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) >90 with a mean of 120.3 (±14.8). Mean pulse was 90.2 (±21.6) and most patients had full GCS. Extremities were the most common body region involved (64%) with orthopedics service being consulted most frequently. Surgery was performed on 36 patients, including 4 damage control surgeries. All patients survived. This overwhelming single mass-casualty incident was met with a swift multidisciplinary response. In countries with no prehospital triage system, implementing a pre-existing disaster plan with pre-defined interdisciplinary responsibilities can streamline in-hospital management of casualties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Mass Casualty Decontamination Guidance and Psychosocial Aspects of CBRN Incident Management: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents. The review focuses on five psychosocial aspects of incident management: likely public behaviour; responder management style; communication strategy; privacy/ modesty concerns; and vulnerable groups. Methods: Two structured literature reviews were carried out; one to identify decontamination guidance documents for first responders, and another to identify evidence which is relevant to the understanding of the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination.  The guidance documents and relevant research were reviewed to identify whether the guidance documents contain information relating to psychosocial issues and where it exists, that the guidance is consistent with the existing evidence-base. Results: Psychosocial aspects of incident management receive limited attention in current decontamination guidance.  In addition, our review has identified a number of gaps and inconsistencies between guidance and research evidence.  For each of the five areas we identify: what is currently presented in guidance documents, to what extent this is consistent with the existing research evidence and where it diverges.  We present a series of evidence-based recommendations for updating decontamination guidance to address the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination. Conclusions: Effective communication and respect for casualties’ needs are critical in ensuring

  18. Disasters and mass casualties: II. explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Christopher T; Briggs, Susan M; Ciraulo, David L; Frykberg, Eric R; Hammond, Jeffrey S; Hirshberg, Asher; Lhowe, David W; O'Neill, Patricia A; Mead, Joann

    2007-08-01

    Terrorists' use of explosive, biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents constitutes the potential for catastrophic events. Understanding the unique aspects of these agents can help in preparing for such disasters with the intent of mitigating injury and loss of life. Explosive agents continue to be the most common weapons of terrorists and the most prevalent cause of injuries and fatalities. Knowledge of blast pathomechanics and patterns of injury allows for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. A practical understanding of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear agents, their attendant clinical symptoms, and recommended management strategies is an important prerequisite for optimal preparation and response to these less frequently used agents of mass casualty. Orthopaedic surgeons should be aware of the principles of management of catastrophic events. Stress is less an issue when one is adequately prepared. Decontamination is essential both to manage victims and prevent further spread of toxic agents to first responders and medical personnel. It is important to assess the risk of potential threats, thereby allowing disaster planning and preparation to be proportional and aligned with the actual casualty event.

  19. Mass casualty incident surveillance and monitoring using identity aware video analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an identity aware video analytic system that can assist securing the perimeter of a mass casualty incident scene and generate identity annotated video records for forensics and training purposes. Establishing a secure incident scene perimeter and enforcing access control to different zones is a demanding task for current video surveillance systems which lack the ability to provide the identity of the target and its security clearance. Our system which combines active RFID sensors with video analytic tools recovers the identity of the target enabling the activation of suitable alert policies. The system also enables annotation of incident scene video with identity metadata, facilitating the incident response process reconstruction for forensics analysis and emergency response training.

  20. An Interprofessional Approach to Continuing Education With Mass Casualty Simulation: Planning and Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Deborah A; Strout, Kelley; Caruso, Lisa Swanson; Ingwell-Spolan, Charlene; Koplovsky, Aiden

    2017-10-01

    Many natural and man-made disasters require the assistance from teams of health care professionals. Knowing that continuing education about disaster simulation training is essential to nursing students, nurses, and emergency first responders (e.g., emergency medical technicians, firefighters, police officers), a university in the northeastern United States planned and implemented an interprofessional mass casualty incident (MCI) disaster simulation using the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) management framework. The school of nursing and University Volunteer Ambulance Corps (UVAC) worked together to simulate a bus crash with disaster victim actors to provide continued education for community first responders and train nursing students on the MCI process. This article explains the simulation activity, planning process, and achieved outcomes. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(10):447-453. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. A better START for low-acuity victims: data-driven refinement of mass casualty triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Keith P; Petry, Michael J; Cicero, Mark X

    2015-01-01

    Methods currently used to triage patients from mass casualty events have a sparse evidence basis. The objective of this project was to assess gaps of the widely used Simple Triage and Rapid Transport (START) algorithm using a large database when it is used to triage low-acuity patients. Subsequently, we developed and tested evidenced-based improvements to START. Using the National Trauma Database (NTDB), a large set of trauma victims were assigned START triage levels, which were then compared to recorded patient mortality outcomes using area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC). Subjects assigned to the "Minor/Green" level who nevertheless died prior to hospital discharge were considered mistriaged. Recursive partitioning identified factors associated with of these mistriaged patients. These factors were then used to develop candidate START models of improved triage, whose overall performance was then re-evaluated using data from the NTDB. This process of evaluating performance, identifying errors, and further adjusting candidate models was repeated iteratively. The study included 322,162 subjects assigned to "Minor/Green" of which 2,046 died before hospital discharge. Age was the primary predictor of under-triage by START. Candidate models which re-assigned patients from the "Minor/Green" triage level to the "Delayed/Yellow" triage level based on age (either for patients >60 or >75), reduced mortality in the "Minor/Green" group from 0.6% to 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. These candidate START models also showed net improvement in the AUC for predicting mortality overall and in select subgroups. In this research model using trauma registry data, most START under-triage errors occurred in elderly patients. Overall START accuracy was improved by placing elderly but otherwise minimally injured-mass casualty victims into a higher risk triage level. Alternatively, such patients would be candidates for closer monitoring at the scene or expedited transport ahead of other

  2. Integrating Urban Infrastructure and Health System Impact Modeling for Disasters and Mass-Casualty Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, J. M.; Kirsch, T.; Mitrani-Reiser, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over recent decades, natural disasters and mass-casualty events in United States have repeatedly revealed the serious consequences of health care facility vulnerability and the subsequent ability to deliver care for the affected people. Advances in predictive modeling and vulnerability assessment for health care facility failure, integrated infrastructure, and extreme weather events have now enabled a more rigorous scientific approach to evaluating health care system vulnerability and assessing impacts of natural and human disasters as well as the value of specific interventions. Concurrent advances in computing capacity also allow, for the first time, full integration of these multiple individual models, along with the modeling of population behaviors and mass casualty responses during a disaster. A team of federal and academic investigators led by the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is develoing a platform for integrating extreme event forecasts, health risk/impact assessment and population simulations, critical infrastructure (electrical, water, transportation, communication) impact and response models, health care facility-specific vulnerability and failure assessments, and health system/patient flow responses. The integration of these models is intended to develop much greater understanding of critical tipping points in the vulnerability of health systems during natural and human disasters and build an evidence base for specific interventions. Development of such a modeling platform will greatly facilitate the assessment of potential concurrent or sequential catastrophic events, such as a terrorism act following a severe heat wave or hurricane. This presentation will highlight the development of this modeling platform as well as applications not just for the US health system, but also for international science-based disaster risk reduction efforts, such as the Sendai Framework and the WHO SMART hospital project.

  3. A review of the literature on the validity of mass casualty triage systems with a focus on chemical exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Joan M; Svendsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents (MCIs) include natural (eg, earthquake) or human (eg, terrorism or technical) events. They produce an imbalance between medical needs and resources necessitating the use of triage strategies. Triage of casualties must be performed accurately and efficiently if providers are to do the greatest good for the greatest number. There is limited research on the validation of triage system efficacy in determining the priority of care for victims of MCI, particularly those involving chemicals. To review the literature on the validation of current triage systems to assign on-site treatment status codes to victims of mass casualties, particularly those involving chemicals, using actual patient outcomes. The focus of this article is a systematic review of the literature to describe the influences of MCIs, particularly those involving chemicals, on current triage systems related to the on-site assignment of treatment status codes to a victim and the validation of the assigned code using actual patient outcomes. There is extensive literature published on triage systems used for MCI but only four articles used actual outcome data to validate mass casualty triage outcomes including three for chemical events. Currently, the amount and type of data collected are not consistent or standardized and definitions are not universal. Current literature does not provide needed evidence on the validity of triage systems for MCI in particular those involving chemicals. Well designed studies are needed to validate the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of triage systems used for MCI including those involving chemicals.

  4. Mass casualty events: blood transfusion emergency preparedness across the continuum of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Heidi; Glasgow, Simon; Kristoffersen, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Transfusion support is a key enabler to the response to mass casualty events (MCEs). Transfusion demand and capability planning should be an integrated part of the medical planning process for emergency system preparedness. Historical reviews have recently supported demand planning for MCEs and mass gatherings; however, computer modeling offers greater insights for resource management. The challenge remains balancing demand and supply especially the demand for universal components such as group O red blood cells. The current prehospital and hospital capability has benefited from investment in the management of massive hemorrhage. The management of massive hemorrhage should address both hemorrhage control and hemostatic support. Labile blood components cannot be stockpiled and a large surge in demand is a challenge for transfusion providers. The use of blood components may need to be triaged and demand managed. Two contrasting models of transfusion planning for MCEs are described. Both illustrate an integrated approach to preparedness where blood transfusion services work closely with health care providers and the donor community. Preparedness includes appropriate stock management and resupply from other centers. However, the introduction of alternative transfusion products, transfusion triage, and the greater use of an emergency donor panel to provide whole blood may permit greater resilience. © 2016 AABB.

  5. MiRTE: Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game for Mass Casualty information systems design, testing and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a Mixed Reality Triage and Evacuation game, MiRTE, that is used in the development, testing and training of Mass Casualty Incident (MCI) information systems for first responders. Using the Source game engine from Valve software, MiRTE creates immersive virtual environments to simulate various incident scenarios, and enables interactions between multiple players/first responders. What distinguishes it from a pure computer simulation game is that it can interface with external mass casualty incident management systems, such as DIORAMA. The game will enable system developers to specify technical requirements of underlying technology, and test different alternatives of design. After the information system hardware and software are completed, the game can simulate various algorithms such as localization technologies, and interface with an actual user interface on PCs and Smartphones. We implemented and tested the game with the DIORAMA system.

  6. Training healthcare personnel for mass-casualty incidents in a virtual emergency department: VED II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Wm Leroy; Youngblood, Patricia; Harter, Phillip; Kusumoto, Laura; Dev, Parvati

    2010-01-01

    Training emergency personnel on the clinical management of a mass-casualty incident (MCI) with prior chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear, or explosives (CBRNE) -exposed patients is a component of hospital preparedness procedures. The objective of this research was to determine whether a Virtual Emergency Department (VED), designed after the Stanford University Medical Center's Emergency Department (ED) and populated with 10 virtual patient victims who suffered from a dirty bomb blast (radiological) and 10 who suffered from exposure to a nerve toxin (chemical), is an effective clinical environment for training ED physicians and nurses for such MCIs. Ten physicians with an average of four years of post-training experience, and 12 nurses with an average of 9.5 years of post-graduate experience at Stanford University Medical Center and San Mateo County Medical Center participated in this IRB-approved study. All individuals were provided electronic information about the clinical features of patients exposed to a nerve toxin or radioactive blast before the study date and an orientation to the "game" interface, including an opportunity to practice using it immediately prior to the study. An exit questionnaire was conducted using a Likert Scale test instrument. Among these 22 trainees, two-thirds of whom had prior Code Triage (multiple casualty incident) training, and one-half had prior CBRNE training, about two-thirds felt immersed in the virtual world much or all of the time. Prior to the training, only four trainees (18%) were confident about managing CBRNE MCIs. After the training, 19 (86%) felt either "confident" or "very confident", with 13 (59%) attributing this change to practicing in the virtual ED. Twenty-one (95%) of the trainees reported that the scenarios were useful for improving healthcare team skills training, the primary objective for creating them. Eighteen trainees (82%) believed that the cases also were instructive in learning about clinical

  7. Using immersive simulation for training first responders for mass casualty incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, William; Avstreih, Dan; Gruppen, Larry; Beier, Klaus-Peter; Woolliscroft, James

    2008-11-01

    A descriptive study was performed to better understand the possible utility of immersive virtual reality simulation for training first responders in a mass casualty event. Utilizing a virtual reality cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) and high-fidelity human patient simulator (HPS), a group of experts modeled a football stadium that experienced a terrorist explosion during a football game. Avatars (virtual patients) were developed by expert consensus that demonstrated a spectrum of injuries ranging from death to minor lacerations. A group of paramedics was assessed by observation for decisions made and action taken. A critical action checklist was created and used for direct observation and viewing videotaped recordings. Of the 12 participants, only 35.7% identified the type of incident they encountered. None identified a secondary device that was easily visible. All participants were enthusiastic about the simulation and provided valuable comments and insights. Learner feedback and expert performance review suggests that immersive training in a virtual environment has the potential to be a powerful tool to train first responders for high-acuity, low-frequency events, such as a terrorist attack.

  8. Drones at the service for training on mass casualty incident: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pacheco, Antonio Nieto; Rodriguez, Laura Juguera; Price, Mariana Ferrandini; Perez, Ana Belen Garcia; Alonso, Nuria Perez; Rios, Manuel Pardo

    2017-06-01

    Mass casualty incidents (MCI) are characterized by a large number of victims with respect to the resources available. In this study, we aimed to analyze the changes produced in the self-perception of students who were able to visualize aerial views of a simulation of a MCI. A simulation study, mixed method, was performed to compare the results from an ad hoc questionnaire. The 35 students from the Emergency Nursing Master from the UCAM completed a questionnaire before and after watching an MCI video with 40 victims in which they had participated. The main variable measured was the change in self-perception (CSP). The CSP occurred in 80% (28/35) of the students (P = .001). Students improved their individual (P = .001) and group (P = .006) scores. They also described that their personal performance had better results than the group performance (P = .047). The main conclusion of this study is that drones could lead to CSP and appraisal of the MCI simulation participants.

  9. Analysis of performance and stress caused by a simulation of a mass casualty incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Fernández-Pacheco, Antonio; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro; Navarro Fernández, José Luis; Cerón Madrigal, José Joaquín; Juguera Rodriguez, Laura; Perez Alonso, Nuria; Armero-Barranco, David; Lidon López Iborra, María; Damian, Escribano Tortosa; Pardo Rios, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    To determine the stress that is potentially produced in professional health workers due to a mass casualty incident (MCI) simulated exercise, and its relation to prior academic training and the role played in the simulation. Observational study of stress in a MCI. For this work, two MCI drills comprised of 40 victims each were conducted. Two randomized groups of 36 students each were created: Master's Students Group (MSG) and Undergraduate Student Group (USG). The role performed by each student (triage or sectorization) was assessed. The stress level was determined by prior and subsequent measurements of alpha-amylase (αA), HR, SBP and DBP. The percentage of victims that were correctly triaged was 88.6%, 91.84% for MSG and 83.76% for the USG (p=0.004). The basal αA was 97,107.50±72,182.67IU/L and the subsequent αA was 136,195.55±90,176.46±IU/L (pperformed the triage and those who performed sectorization but there were no differences between undergraduate and Masters' students. Conducting a simulated exercise caused stress in personnel involved in the MCI, with a greater impact on participants who performed triage, although it was not influenced by their prior academic level. The stress level in our case did not affect or determine the performance of acquired skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short Text Messages (SMS) as an Additional Tool for Notifying Medical Staff in Case of a Hospital Mass Casualty Incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Dariusz; Bogusiak, Katarzyna; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Gałązkowski, Robert; Szarpak, Łukasz

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of short text messages (short message service, or SMS) as an additional notification tool in case of fire or a mass casualty incident in a hospital. A total of 2242 SMS text messages were sent to 59 hospital workers divided into 3 groups (n=21, n=19, n=19). Messages were sent from a Samsung GT-S8500 Wave cell phone and Orange Poland was chosen as the telecommunication provider. During a 3-month trial period, messages were sent between 3:35 PM and midnight with no regular pattern. Employees were asked to respond by telling how much time it would take them to reach the hospital in case of a mass casualty incident. The mean reaction time (SMS reply) was 36.41 minutes. The mean declared time of arrival to the hospital was 100.5 minutes. After excluding 10% of extreme values for declared arrival time, the mean arrival time was estimated as 38.35 minutes. Short text messages (SMS) can be considered an additional tool for notifying medical staff in case of a mass casualty incident.

  11. The contribution of on-call, volunteer first responders to mass-casualty terrorist attacks in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Evan Avraham; Lipsky, Ari M; Elie, Navid Daniel; Jaffe, Eli

    2015-01-01

    To describe the contributions of on-call, volunteer first responders to mass-casualty terrorist attacks in Israel during the Second Intifada. Descriptive study evaluating data obtained from postevent debriefings after 15 terrorist attacks in Israel between 2001 and 2004. An average of 7.9 deaths (median 7.0, interquartile range [IQR] 2.5-12.5) and 53.8 injuries (median 50.0, IQR 34.0-62.0) occurred in each of these attacks. The average number of volunteers responding to each event was 50.3 (median 43.0, IQR 27.5-55.5). The volunteers were involved in extricating victims from imminent danger, and performing emergent tasks such as bag-valve ventilation, tourniquet application, and intravenous line insertion. They were also integral to the rapid evacuation of casualties from the scene. On-call, volunteer first responders are an integral part of Israel's emergency medical response to mass-casualty terrorist attacks. This system may be used as a model for the development of similar services worldwide.

  12. Role of cytogenetic biodosimetry in meeting the needs of a mass casualty radiological/nuclear event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, A.S.; Dainiak, N.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological/nuclear (R/N) terrorism constitutes a potential threat to all nations that can result in significant morbidity and mortality among hundreds of thousands individuals. In addition to the timing and severity of clinical signs and symptoms, individual radiation dose informs risk assessment and mitigation of radiation-associated injuries. The 'gold standard' for individual whole-body radiation dosimetry is the dicentric chromosome assay. The Cytogenetics Biodosimetry Laboratory at REAC/TS is a WHO Collaborating Centre and member of IAEA's RANET that employs DCA, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization, premature chromosome condensation, and micronuclei assays to assess radiation dose. The quality of dose estimates and standard operating procedures for DCA at REAC/TS have been validated in multiple inter-comparison studies involving CBLs in Asia, Europe, North America and South America. DCA is scalable to meet the needs of a mass casualty R/N incident. The CBL at REAC/TS has made seminal contributions to augment surge capacity for DCA and develop CBLs worldwide through initiatives such as modification of 'Share Point' in 2010 to transmit images of metaphases for simultaneous telescoring; (2) development of an on-line training program for metaphase scoring; (3) proactive participation as a WCC to create ISO standards; and (4) guidance of regulatory agencies to monitor quality of results and SOPs. The precision of dose estimates by DCA can be vastly improved by using a universal calibration curve. With this view, REAC/TS has organized a collaboration with CBLs at Health Canada and Yale University to construct and validate a common calibration curve for gamma rays

  13. PATTERN OF INJURIES SEEN IN MASS CASUALTIES IN TERRORIST ATTACKS IN BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN--A THREE YEARS EXPERIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Rasikh; Rasikh, Alia; Abbasi, Tariq; Shukr, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    As a front line state in war against terror, Pakistan has been a victim of terrorism, for the last many years & Baluchistan has been the hub of all such terror activities. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and type of injuries in mass casualties in terrorist activities in Baluchistan. The study was done by the review of the record of all patients of terrorist attacks who were admitted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Quetta from 27th Aug 2012 to 31st Jul 2015. The final injuries sustained by the victims were documented in the patient charts after repeated examination. The data was collected from these patient charts. Data was analysed using SPSS-21. Frequency & percentages of different injuries was calculated to determine the injury pattern. A total of 3034 patients reported to the hospital (n-3034), 2228 were admitted (73.4%). Out of the injured, 1720 (56.69%) were patients of multi system trauma, whereas 1314 (43.3%) had a single site injury. Out of these 537 patients had fractures of long bones (17.6%), those with head & spinal injuries with neurological deficit were 455 (14.9%), 266 had abdominal injuries requiring surgical intervention (8.7%), 75 (2.47%) had thoracic injuries were whereas 25 (0.82%) were vascular injuries, requiring emergent limb saving surgeries. Sex ratio was M/F=5.7: 1 Mean hospital stay was 6.31 days. Majority of the injured had multisystem injuries; therefore the hospital should have a well-trained multi-disciplinary team of surgeons. In addition to general surgery, the subspecialties' should include orthopaedics, vascular, thoracic and neurosurgery.

  14. [Pediatric injuries from mass casualty events in Israel: a ten-year summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Yehezkel; Goldman, Sharon; Poznanski, Oded; Mor, Meirav; Peleg, Kobi

    2010-07-01

    Children are the most vulnerable sub-population in mass casualty events (MCEs), however, characteristics of MCE related injuries among children have not been well described. The aim of our study was to characterize childhood injuries resulting from MCEs in Israel including parameters such as magnitude, injury mechanism and severity and use of hospital resources. We conducted a descriptive study of MCE related injuries among hospitalized children (0-17 years) between the years 1998-2007 and recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry (ITR). The main outcome measures included: body region, injury severity (ISS) and mortality rates. A total of 267 children (mean age 11.3 years, 52% girls) were hospitalized for injuries caused by 75 (47%) of the 158 MCEs recorded during the study period. The mechanisms of MCE related injury were as follows: terror-related (63%); motor vehicle collision (buses or train) (32%); a collapsed building (3%); and other mechanisms (2%). Injuries among teenagers (ages 10-17 years) were twice as high as those of younger children [ages 0-9 years), (67% and 33%, respectively (p Head and neck (67%) were the most common body regions to be injured, followed by upper and Lower extremities (62%). Most children sustained mild injuries (55% ISS 1-8), however, a significant percentage had severe to fatal injuries (29% ISS > or =16). Severe injuries were significantly more frequent among children injured in MCEs compared to non-MCE injuries: ISS 16 (29% vs. 8%, respectively p < 0.0001), in-hospital mortaLity (3.4% vs. 0.4%, respectively, p < 0.0001), underwent surgical procedures (50% vs. 20%, respectively, p < 0.05), ICU admission rate (31% vs. 6%, p < 0.0001), and longer hospital stay (median LOS 8.9 vs. 3.5 days, respectively p < 0.0001). Morbidity and mortality are significantly higher among children who are injured in MCEs than by other mechanisms. Improved pediatric pre-hospital care and hospital resources as well may enhance future pediatric MCE

  15. Development of a staff recall system for mass casualty incidents using cell phone text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Ekbatani, Ali; Kaplan, Javier; Shechter, Ronen; Grunwald, Zvi

    2010-03-01

    After a mass casualty incident (MCI), rapid mobilization of hospital personnel is required because of an expected surge of victims. Risk assessment of our department's manual phone tree recall system revealed multiple weaknesses that would limit an effective response. Because cell phone use is widespread within the department, we developed and tested a staff recall system, based in our anesthesia information management system (AIMS), using Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. We sent test text messages to anesthesia staff members' cell phone numbers, determined the distance from their home to the hospital, and stored this information in our AIMS. Latency testing for the time from transmission of SMS test messages from the server to return of an e-mail reply was determined at 2 different times on 2 different dates, 1 of which was a busy holiday weekend, using volunteers within the department. Two unannounced simulated disaster recall drills were conducted, with text messages sent asking for the anticipated time to return to the hospital. A timeline of available staff on site was determined. Reasons for failure to respond to the disaster notification message were tabulated. Latency data were fit by a log-normal distribution with an average of 82 seconds from message transmission to e-mail reply. Replies to the simulated disaster alert were received from approximately 50% of staff, with 16 projecting that they would have been able to be back at the hospital within 30 minutes on both dates. There would have been 21 and 23 staff in-house at 30 minutes, and 32 and 37 staff in-house at 60 minutes on the first and second test date, respectively, including in-house staff. Of the nonresponders to the alert, 48% indicated that their cell phone was not with them or was turned off, whereas 22% missed the message. Our SMS staff recall system is likely to be able to rapidly mobilize sufficient numbers of anesthesia personnel in response to an MCI, but actual performance

  16. Does amyl nitrite have a role in the management of pre-hospital mass casualty cyanide poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2010-07-01

    Amyl nitrite has been recommended as a cyanide antidote for several decades. Its antidotal properties were initially attributed to induction of methemoglobin and later to a nitric oxide mediated hemodynamic effect. The ease of administration and alleged rapid clinical effect would recommend its wide use in the pre-hospital management of mass casualty cyanide poisoning; yet there are concerns regarding the use of amyl nitrite for this indication. Review the data on amyl nitrite in cyanide poisoning and evaluate its efficacy and safety in mass casualty cyanide poisoning. A literature search utilizing PubMed, Toxnet, textbooks in toxicology and pharmacology, and the bibliographies of the articles retrieved identified 17 experimental studies and human reports on the use of amyl nitrite in cyanide poisoning, and 40 additional articles on amyl nitrite's properties and adverse effects. One paper was excluded as it was a conference abstract with limited data. The antidotal properties of amyl nitrite were attributed initially to induction of methemoglobinemia and later to nitric oxide mediated vasodilation. Animal studies on the use of amyl nitrite in cyanide poisoning are limited, and their results are inconsistent, which makes their extrapolation to humans questionable. Clinical reports are limited in number and the part played by amyl nitrite relative to the other treatments administered (e.g. life support, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate) is unclear. Amyl nitrite can be associated with potentially serious adverse reactions such as hypotension, syncope, excessive methemoglobinemia, and hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. These effects are more pronounced in young children, in the elderly, and in patients with cardiac and pulmonary disorders. Dose regimen. The method of administration of amyl nitrite (breaking pearls into gauze or a handkerchief and applying it intermittently to the victim's nose and mouth for a few minutes) is not easily controlled, might result

  17. Simulation training for a mass casualty incident: two-year experience at the Army Trauma Training Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David R; Patel, Mayur B; Feinstein, Ara J; Earle, Steven A; Topp, Raymond F; Proctor, Kenneth G

    2006-10-01

    Civilian and military mass casualty incidents (MCI) are an unfortunate reality in the 21st century, but there are few situational training exercises (STX) to prepare for them. To fill this gap, we developed a MCI STX for U.S. Army Forward Surgical Teams (FST) in conjunction with the U.S. Army Trauma Training Center. After a standardized briefing, each FST has 60 minutes to unpack, setup, and organize a standard equipment cache into an emergency room, operating room, and intensive care unit. In an adjacent room, five anesthetized swine are prepared with standardized, combat-relevant injuries. The number and acuity of the total casualties are unknown to the FST and arrive in waves and without warning. A realistic combat environment is simulated by creating resource limitations, power outages, security breaches, and other stressors. The STX concludes when all casualties have died or are successfully treated. FSTs complete a teamwork self-assessment card, while staff and FST surgeons evaluate organization, resource allocation, communication, treatment, and overall performance. Feedback from each FST can be incorporated into an updated design for the next STX. From 2003-2005, 16 FSTs have completed the STX. All FSTs have had collapses in situational triage, primary/ secondary surveys, and/or ATLS principles (basic ABCs), resulting in approximately 20% preventable deaths. We concluded (1) a MCI can overwhelm even combat- experienced FSTs; (2) adherence to basic principles of emergency trauma care by all FST members is essential to effectively and efficiently respond to this MCI; (3) by prospectively identifying deficiencies, future military or civilian performance during an actual MCI may be improved; and (4) this MCI STX could provide a template for similar programs to develop, train, and evaluate civilian surgical disaster response teams.

  18. 34 A systematic literature review of the pre-hospital lessons identified following mass casualty deliberate bombing incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Thomas; Chesters, Adam; Grier, Gareth

    2017-12-01

    Since the end of World War II, there has been an emergence of explosives used amongst civilian populations resulting in mass-casualty incidents. The development of pre-hospital medical systems, worldwide, has resulted in an increased response at these incidents. However, information about the pre-hospital medical response is sparse and not collated. This review aimed to collect and appraise the literature on the pre-hospital management of mass-casualty bombing incidents. The primary objective was to identify and discuss the common themes highlighted as problems in the pre-hospital medical response. The secondary objectives reviewed the injury patterns in victims and psychological impacts on pre-hospital responders. A systematic literature search on the PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases took place. It included literature published from the 1 st of January 2000 to April 3rd 2017, with the last search performed on April 3rd 2017. Literature was included if it offered description, analysis, reflection or review of the bombing incidents.emermed;34/12/A884-a/F1F1F1Figure 1The minimum number of recorded deaths and injuries from 11 deliberate mass casualty bombing incidents (note: two simultaneous marauding terrorist firearm attack and bombing incidents excluded)emermed;34/12/A884-a/F2F2F2Figure 2Percentage of included literature identifying the following themes as problems in the pre-hospitals medical response RESULTS: 1345 articles were found, with 54 included in analysis. 13 mass-casualty bombing incidents were described. Two of these included marauding terrorist firearm attacks (MTFA). In the 11 bombing-only incidents the death of 592-642 people and injury of 3,842-5229 more is described, with a further 301 deaths and 604 injuries from bombings with MTFA attacks. Quality appraisal showed a variation in reporting among incidents and a lack of uniform reporting. Functioning and reliable communication, alongside regular training exercises with other emergency

  19. Book review of "The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine" by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sonal

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Public health ethics is neither taught widely in medical schools or schools of public health in the US or around the world. It is not surprising that health care professionals are particularly challenged when faced with ethical questions which extend beyond safeguarding the interests of their individual patients to matters that affect overall public good. The perceived threat of terror after September 11 2007, the anthrax attacks and the Katrina debacle are recent circumstances which may result in coercion. These have piqued the interest of medical professionals and the general public on public health ethics. The Ethics of Coercion in Mass Casualty Medicine written by Griffin Trotter MD, PhD attempts to fill a timely void in this area by examining the ethics of coercion in times of public health disasters.

  20. Indoor fire in a nursing home : evaluation of the medical response to a mass casualty incident based on a standardized protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, S. W.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Leenen, L. P. H.

    This retrospective study reports the outcome of a mass casualty incident (MCI) caused by a fire in a nursing home. Data from the medical charts and registration system of the Major Incident Hospital (MIH) and ambulance service were analyzed. The evaluation reports from the MIH and an independent

  1. Emergency imaging after a mass casualty incident: role of the radiology department during training for and activation of a disaster management plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, Ferco H.; Körner, Markus; Bernstein, Mark P.; Sodickson, Aaron D.; Beenen, Ludo F.; McLaughlin, Patrick D.; Kool, Digna R.; Bilow, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    In the setting of mass casualty incidents (MCIs), hospitals need to divert from normal routine to delivering the best possible care to the largest number of victims. This should be accomplished by activating an established hospital disaster management plan (DMP) known to all staff through prior

  2. Research of an emergency medical system for mass casualty incidents in Shanghai, China: a system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenya; Lv, Yipeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Liu, Xu; Chen, Haiping; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2018-01-01

    Emergency medical system for mass casualty incidents (EMS-MCIs) is a global issue. However, China lacks such studies extremely, which cannot meet the requirement of rapid decision-support system. This study aims to realize modeling EMS-MCIs in Shanghai, to improve mass casualty incident (MCI) rescue efficiency in China, and to provide a possible method of making rapid rescue decisions during MCIs. This study established a system dynamics (SD) model of EMS-MCIs using the Vensim DSS program. Intervention scenarios were designed as adjusting scales of MCIs, allocation of ambulances, allocation of emergency medical staff, and efficiency of organization and command. Mortality increased with the increasing scale of MCIs, medical rescue capability of hospitals was relatively good, but the efficiency of organization and command was poor, and the prehospital time was too long. Mortality declined significantly when increasing ambulances and improving the efficiency of organization and command; triage and on-site first-aid time were shortened if increasing the availability of emergency medical staff. The effect was the most evident when 2,000 people were involved in MCIs; however, the influence was very small under the scale of 5,000 people. The keys to decrease the mortality of MCIs were shortening the prehospital time and improving the efficiency of organization and command. For small-scale MCIs, improving the utilization rate of health resources was important in decreasing the mortality. For large-scale MCIs, increasing the number of ambulances and emergency medical professionals was the core to decrease prehospital time and mortality. For super-large-scale MCIs, increasing health resources was the premise.

  3. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) Training Improves First Responder Confidence to Face Mass-Casualty Incidents in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls, Deborah A; Chestovich, Paul J; Coule, Phillip; Carrison, Dale M; Chua, Charleston M; Wora-Urai, Nopadol; Kanchanarin, Tavatchai

    2017-10-01

    Medical response to mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) requires specialized training and preparation. Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) is a course designed to prepare health care workers for a MCI. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the confidence of health care professionals in Thailand to face a MCI after participating in a BDLS course. Basic Disaster Life Support was taught to health care professionals in Thailand in July 2008. Demographics and medical experience were recorded, and participants rated their confidence before and after the course using a five-point Likert scale in 11 pertinent MCI categories. Survey results were compiled and compared with Pconfidence increased among all participants (2.1 to 3.8; +1.7; Pconfidence increases in each measured area (Pconfidence but greater confidence increase, while physicians had higher pre-course confidence but lower confidence increase. Active duty military also had lower pre-course confidence with significantly greater confidence increases, while previous disaster courses or experience increased pre-course confidence but lower increase in confidence. Age and work experience did not influence confidence. Basic Disaster Life Support significantly improves confidence to respond to MCI situations, but nurses and active duty military benefit the most from the course. Future courses should focus on these groups to prepare for MCIs. Kuhls DA , Chestovich PJ , Coule P , Carrison DM , Chua CM , Wora-Urai N , Kanchanarin T . Basic Disaster Life Support (BDLS) training improves first responder confidence to face mass-casualty incidents in Thailand. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):492-500 .

  4. Mass-casualty terrorist bombings in Istanbul, Turkey, November 2003: report of the events and the prehospital emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkümen; Arnold, Jeffrey L; Tokyay, Rifat; Ersoy, Gurkan; Cetiner, Serkan; Yücel, Tayfun

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the two mass-casualty, terrorist attacks that occurred in Istanbul, Turkey in November 2003, and the resulting pre-hospital emergency response. A complex, retrospective, descriptive study was performed, using open source reports, interviews, direct measurements of street distances, and hospital records from the American Hospital (AH) and Taksim Education and Research State Hospital (TERSH) in Istanbul. On 15 November, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in trucks were detonated outside the Neve Shalom and Beth Israel Synagogues, killing 30 persons and injuring an estimated additional 300. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, AH, a private hospital located six km from both synagogues, received 69 injured survivors, of which 86% had secondary blast injuries and 13% were admitted to the hospital. The TERSH, a government hospital located 1 km from both synagogues, received 48 injured survivors. On 20 November, IEDs in trucks were detonated outside the Hong Kong Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) headquarters and the British Consulate (BC), killing 33 and injuring an estimated additional 450. Victims were maldistributed to 16 medical facilities. For example, TERSH, located 18 km from the HSBC site and 2 km from the the BC received 184 injured survivors, of which 93% had secondary blast injuries and 15% were hospitalized. The AH, located 9 km from the HSBC site and 6 km from the BC, received 16 victims. The twin suicide truck bombings on 15 and 20 November 2003 were the two largest terrorist attacks in modern Turkish history, collectively killing 63 persons and injuring an estimated 750 others. The vast majority of victims had secondary blast injuries, which did not require hospitalization. Factors associated with the maldistribution of casualties to medical facilities appeared to include the distance from each bombing site, the type of medical facility, and the personal preference of injured survivors.

  5. Evaluation of disaster preparedness for mass casualty incidents in private hospitals in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Bin Shalhoub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3% hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2% while 4 (30.8% did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year. Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.

  6. Data collection in a live mass casualty incident simulation: automated RFID technology versus manually recorded system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Carenzo, Luca; Barra, Federico Lorenzo; Colombo, Davide; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Prato, Federico; Geddo, Alessandro; Della Corte, Francesco

    2012-02-01

    To demonstrate the applicability and the reliability of a radio frequency identification (RFID) system to collect data during a live exercise. A rooftop collapse of a crowded building was simulated. Fifty-three volunteers were trained to perform as smart victims, simulating clinical conditions, using dynamic data cards, and capturing delay times and triage codes. Every victim was also equipped with a RFID tag. RFID antenna was placed at the entrance of the advanced medical post (AMP) and emergency department (ED) and recorded casualties entering the hospital. A total of 12 victims entered AMP and 31 victims were directly transferred to the ED. 100% (12 of 12 and 31 of 31) of the time cards reported a manually written hospital admission time. No failures occurred in tag reading or data transfers. A correlation analysis was performed between the two methods plotting the paired RFID and manual times and resulted in a r=0.977 for the AMP and r=0.986 for the ED with a P value of less than 0.001. We confirmed the applicability of RFID system to the collection of time delays. Its use should be investigated in every aspect of data collection (triage, treatments) during a disaster exercise.

  7. Consensus on items and quantities of clinical equipment required to deal with a mass casualties big bang incident: a national Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Edward A S; Colver, Keith; Dougall, Nadine; Swingler, Kevin; Stephenson, John; Abhyankar, Purva

    2014-02-22

    Major short-notice or sudden impact incidents, which result in a large number of casualties, are rare events. However health services must be prepared to respond to such events appropriately. In the United Kingdom (UK), a mass casualties incident is when the normal response of several National Health Service organizations to a major incident, has to be supported with extraordinary measures. Having the right type and quantity of clinical equipment is essential, but planning for such emergencies is challenging. To date, the equipment stored for such events has been selected on the basis of local clinical judgment and has evolved without an explicit evidence-base. This has resulted in considerable variations in the types and quantities of clinical equipment being stored in different locations. This study aimed to develop an expert consensus opinion of the essential items and minimum quantities of clinical equipment that is required to treat 100 people at the scene of a big bang mass casualties event. A three round modified Delphi study was conducted with 32 experts using a specifically developed web-based platform. Individuals were invited to participate if they had personal clinical experience of providing a pre-hospital emergency medical response to a mass casualties incident, or had responsibility in health emergency planning for mass casualties incidents and were in a position of authority within the sphere of emergency health planning. Each item's importance was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The quantity of items required was measured numerically. Data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics. Experts achieved consensus on a total of 134 items (54%) on completion of the study. Experts did not reach consensus on 114 (46%) items. Median quantities and interquartile ranges of the items, and their recommended quantities were identified and are presented. This study is the first to produce an expert consensus on the items and quantities of clinical equipment

  8. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The potential for nuclear and radiological emergencies involving mass casualties from accidental or malicious acts or terrorism requires generic procedures for emergency dose assessment to help the development of medical response capabilities. A mass-casualties incident is defined here as an event that exceeds the local medical resources. Biological dosimetry, based on cytogenetic analysis using the dicentric assay, typically applied for accidental dose assessment, has been defined in ISO 19238. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate and assess approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the clinical categorization of casualties. This International Standard focuses on the use of the dicentric assay for rapid cytogenetic triage involving mass-casualty incidents. The primary purpose of this International Standard is to provide a guideline to all laboratories in order to perform the dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage for dose assessment using documented and validated procedures. Secondly, it can facilitate the application of cytogenetic biodosimetry networks to permit comparison of results obtained in different laboratories. Finally, it is expected that laboratories newly commissioned to carry out the cytogenetic triage conform to this International Standard in order to perform the triage reproducibly and accurately. This International Standard is written in the form of procedures to adopt for dicentric-bioassay - cytogenetic triage biological dosimetry for overexposures involving mass radiological casualties. The criteria required for such measurements usually depend on the application of the results: medical management when appropriate, radiation-protection management, record keeping and medical/legal requirements. For example, selected cases can be analysed to produce a more accurate evaluation of high partial-body exposure; secondly, doses can be estimated for persons exposed below the

  9. Hospital management of mass radiological casualties: reassessing exposures from contaminated victims of an exploded radiological dispersal device (RDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Armin; Harper, Frederick Taylor; Smith, James M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the key issues in the aftermath of an exploded radiological dispersal device from a terrorist event is that of the contaminated victim and the concern among healthcare providers for the harmful exposures they may receive in treating patients, especially if the patient has not been thoroughly decontaminated. This is critically important in the event of mass casualties from a nuclear or radiological incident because of the essential rapidity of acute medical decisions and that those who have life- or limb-threatening injuries may have treatment unduly delayed by a decontamination process that may be unnecessary for protecting the health and safety of the patient or the healthcare provider. To estimate potential contamination of those exposed in a radiological dispersal device event, results were used from explosive aerosolization tests of surrogate radionuclides detonated with high explosives at the Sandia National Laboratories. Computer modeling was also used to assess radiation dose rates to surgical personnel treating patients with blast injuries who are contaminated with any of a variety of common radionuclides. It is demonstrated that exceptional but plausible cases may require special precautions by the healthcare provider, even while managing life-threatening injuries of a contaminated victim from a radiological dispersal device event.

  10. Design and characterisation of a novel in vitro skin diffusion cell system for assessing mass casualty decontamination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, H; Larner, J; Kansagra, S; Atkinson, K L; Skamarauskas, J T; Amlot, R; Chilcott, R P

    2014-06-01

    The efficient removal of contaminants from the outer surfaces of the body can provide an effective means of reducing adverse health effects associated with incidents involving the accidental or deliberate release of hazardous materials. Showering with water is frequently used by first responders as a rapid method of mass casualty decontamination (MCD). However, there is a paucity of data on the generic effectiveness and safety of aqueous decontamination systems. To address these issues, we have developed a new in vitro skin diffusion cell system to model the conditions of a common MCD procedure ("ladder pipe system"). The new diffusion cell design incorporates a showering nozzle, an air sampling port for measurement of vapour loss and/aerosolisation, adjustable (horizontal to vertical) skin orientation and a circulating manifold system (to maintain a specified flow rate, temperature and pressure of shower water). The dermal absorption characteristics of several simulants (Invisible Red S, curcumin and methyl salicylate) measured with the new in vitro model were in good agreement with previous in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, these initial studies have indicated that whilst flow rate and water temperature are important factors for MCD, the presence of clothing during showering may (under certain circumstances) cause transfer and spreading of contaminants to the skin surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass Casualty Incidents in the Underground Mining Industry: Applying the Haddon Matrix on an Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Karl Gunnar; Angrén, John; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2018-02-01

    Underground mining is associated with obvious risks that can lead to mass casualty incidents. Information about such incidents was analyzed in an integrated literature review. A literature search (1980-2015) identified 564 modern-era underground mining reports from countries sharing similar occupational health legislation. These reports were condensed to 31 reports after consideration of quality grading and appropriateness to the aim. The Haddon matrix was used for structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details, and timing. Most of the reports were descriptive regarding injury-creating technical and environmental factors. The influence of rock characteristics was an important pre-event environmental factor. The organic nature of coal adds risks not shared in hard-rock mines. A sequence of mechanisms is commonly described, often initiated by a human factor in interaction with technology and step-wise escalation to involve environmental circumstances. Socioeconomic factors introduce heterogeneity. In the Haddon matrix, emergency medical services are mainly a post-event environmental issue, which were not well described in the available literature. The US Quecreek Coal Mine incident of 2002 stands out as a well-planned rescue mission. Evaluation of the preparedness to handle underground mining incidents deserves further scientific attention. Preparedness must include the medical aspects of rescue operations. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:138-146).

  12. [Treatment strategies for mass casualty incidents and terrorist attacks in trauma and vascular surgery : Presentation of a treatment concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friemert, B; Franke, A; Bieler, D; Achatz, A; Hinck, D; Engelhardt, M

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of patients in the context of mass casualty incidents (MCI) represents a great challenge for the participating rescue workers and clinics. Due to the increase in terrorist activities it is necessary to become familiar with this new kind of threat to civilization with respect to the medical treatment of victims of terrorist attacks. There are substantial differences between a "normal" MCI and a terrorist MCI with respect to injury patterns (blunt trauma vs. penetrating/perforating trauma), the type and form of the incident (MCI=static situation vs. terrorist attack MCI= dynamic situation) and the different security positions (rescue services vs. police services). This article is concerned with question of which changes in the surgical treatment of patients are made necessary by these new challenges. In this case it is necessary that physicians are familiar with the different injury patterns, whereby priority must be given to gunshot and explosion (blast) injuries. Furthermore, altered strategic and tactical approaches (damage control surgery vs. tactical abbreviated surgical care) are necessary to ensure survival for as many victims of terrorist attacks as possible and also to achieve the best possible functional results. It is only possible to successfully counter these new challenges by changing the mindset in the treatment of terrorist MCI compared to MCI incidents. An essential component of this mindset is the acquisition of a maximum of flexibility. This article would like to make a contribution to this problem.

  13. An Alternative Health Care Facility: Concept of Operations for the Off-site Triage, Treatment, and Transportation Center (OST3C). Mass Casualty Care Strategy for a Chemical Terrorism Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    TRANSPORTATION CENTER (OST3C) Mass Casualty Care Strategy for a Chemical Terrorism Incident Prepared by: Health & Safety...the Off-site Triage, Treatment, and Transportation Center (OST3C),Mass Casualty Care Strategy for a Chemical Terrorism Incident, Revision 1, Dec 2003...1.4.1 The citizens of the United States are subject to an act of chemical terrorism . 1.4.2 A well-planned chemical agent release is likely to produce a

  14. Evidence-Based Pediatric Outcome Predictors to Guide the Allocation of Critical Care Resources in a Mass Casualty Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toltzis, Philip; Soto-Campos, Gerardo; Shelton, Christian R; Kuhn, Evelyn M; Hahn, Ryan; Kanter, Robert K; Wetzel, Randall C

    2015-09-01

    ICU resources may be overwhelmed by a mass casualty event, triggering a conversion to Crisis Standards of Care in which critical care support is diverted away from patients least likely to benefit, with the goal of improving population survival. We aimed to devise a Crisis Standards of Care triage allocation scheme specifically for children. A triage scheme is proposed in which patients would be divided into those requiring mechanical ventilation at PICU presentation and those not, and then each group would be evaluated for probability of death and for predicted duration of resource consumption, specifically, duration of PICU length of stay and mechanical ventilation. Children will be excluded from PICU admission if their mortality or resource utilization is predicted to exceed predetermined levels ("high risk"), or if they have a low likelihood of requiring ICU support ("low risk"). Children entered into the Virtual PICU Performance Systems database were employed to develop prediction equations to assign children to the exclusion categories using logistic and linear regression. Machine Learning provided an alternative strategy to develop a triage scheme independent from this process. One hundred ten American PICUs : One hundred fifty thousand records from the Virtual PICU database. None. The prediction equations for probability of death had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve more than 0.87. The prediction equation for belonging to the low-risk category had lower discrimination. R for the prediction equations for PICU length of stay and days of mechanical ventilation ranged from 0.10 to 0.18. Machine learning recommended initially dividing children into those mechanically ventilated versus those not and had strong predictive power for mortality, thus independently verifying the triage sequence and broadly verifying the algorithm. An evidence-based predictive tool for children is presented to guide resource allocation during Crisis Standards

  15. Duration and predictors of emergency surgical operations - basis for medical management of mass casualty incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber-Wagner S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitals have a critically important role in the management of mass causality incidents (MCI, yet there is little information to assist emergency planners. A significantly limiting factor of a hospital's capability to treat those affected is its surgical capacity. We therefore intended to provide data about the duration and predictors of life saving operations. Methods The data of 20,815 predominantly blunt trauma patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German-Trauma-Society was retrospectively analyzed to calculate the duration of life-saving operations as well as their predictors. Inclusion criteria were an ISS ≥ 16 and the performance of relevant ICPM-coded procedures within 6 h of admission. Results From 1,228 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria 1,793 operations could be identified as life-saving operations. Acute injuries to the abdomen accounted for 54.1% followed by head injuries (26.3%, pelvic injuries (11.5%, thoracic injuries (5.0% and major amputations (3.1%. The mean cut to suture time was 130 min (IQR 65-165 min. Logistic regression revealed 8 variables associated with an emergency operation: AIS of abdomen ≥ 3 (OR 4,00, ISS ≥ 35 (OR 2,94, hemoglobin level ≤ 8 mg/dL (OR 1,40, pulse rate on hospital admission 120/min (OR 1,39, blood pressure on hospital admission Conclusions The mean operation time of 130 min calculated for emergency life-saving surgical operations provides a realistic guideline for the prospective treatment capacity which can be estimated and projected into an actual incident admission capacity. Knowledge of predictive factors for life-saving emergency operations helps to identify those patients that need most urgent operative treatment in case of blunt MCI.

  16. Electronic Mass Casualty Assessment and Planning Scenarios (EMCAPS): development and application of computer modeling to selected National Planning Scenarios for high-consequence events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheulen, James J; Thanner, Meridith H; Hsu, Edbert B; Latimer, Christian K; Brown, Jeffrey; Kelen, Gabor D

    2009-02-01

    Few tools exist that are sufficiently robust to allow manipulation of key input variables to produce casualty estimates resulting from high-consequence events reflecting local or specific regions of concern. This article describes the design and utility of a computerized modeling simulation tool, Electronic Mass Casualty Assessment and Planning Scenarios (EMCAPS), developed to have broad application across emergency management and public health fields as part of a catastrophic events preparedness planning process. As a scalable, flexible tool, EMCAPS is intended to support emergency preparedness planning efforts at multiple levels ranging from local health systems to regional and state public health departments to Metropolitan Medical Response System jurisdictions. Designed around the subset of the National Planning Scenarios with health effects, advanced by the US Department of Homeland Security, the tool's platform is supported by the detailed descriptions and readily retrievable evidence-based assumptions of each scenario. The EMCAPS program allows the user to manipulate key scenario-based input variables that would best reflect the region or locale of interest. Inputs include population density, vulnerabilities, event size, and potency, as applicable. Using these inputs, EMCAPS generates the anticipated population-based health surge influence of the hazard scenario. Casualty estimates are stratified by injury severity/types where appropriate. Outputs are graph and table tabulations of surge estimates. The data can then be used to assess and tailor response capabilities for specific jurisdictions, organizations, and health care systems. EMCAPS may be downloaded without cost from http://www.hopkins-cepar.org/EMCAPS/EMCAPS.html as shareware.

  17. Leadership as a component of crowd control in a hospital dealing with a mass-casualty incident: lessons learned from the October 2000 riots in Nazareth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, Moshe; Bloch, Yuval; Schwartz, Dagan; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Nakhleh, Bishara; Massad, Barhoum; Peres, Michal; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

    2007-01-01

    Crowd control is essential to the handling of mass-casualty incidents (MCIs). This is the task of the police at the site of the incident. For a hospital, responsibility falls on its security forces, with the police assuming an auxiliary role. Crowd control is difficult, especially when the casualties are due to riots involving clashes between rioters and police. This study uses data regarding the October 2000 riots in Nazareth to draw lessons about the determinants of crowd control on the scene and in hospitals. Data collected from formal debriefings were processed to identify the specifics of a MCI due to massive riots. The transport of patients to the hospital and the behavior of their families were considered. The actions taken by the Hospital Manager to control crowds on the hospital premises also were analyzed. During 10 days of riots (01-10 October 2000), 160 casualties, including 10 severely wounded, were evacuated to the Nazareth Italian Hospital. The Nazareth English Hospital received 132 injured patients, including one critically wounded, nine severely wounded, 26 moderately injured, and 96 mildly injured. All victims were evacuated from the scene by private vehicles and were accompanied by numerous family members. This obstructed access to hospitals and hampered the care of the casualties in the emergency department. The hospital staff was unable to perform triage at the emergency department's entrance and to assign the wounded to immediate treatment areas or waiting areas. All of the wounded were taken by their families directly into the "immediate care"location where a great effort was made to prioritize the severely injured. In order to control the events, the hospital's managers enlisted prominent individuals within the crowds to aid with control. At one point, the mayor was enlisted to successfully achieve crowd control. During riots, city, community, and even makeshift leaders within a crowd can play a pivotal role in helping hospital management

  18. NF ISO 21243, September 2009. Radiation protection - Performance criteria for laboratories performing cytogenetic triage for assessment of mass casualties in radiological or nuclear emergencies - General principles and application to dicentric assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This international standard is to give an overview of the minimum requirements of process and quality-control components of the cytogenetic response for triage of mass casualties. Cytogenetic triage is the use of chromosome damage to evaluate approximately and rapidly radiation doses received by individuals in order to supplement the early clinical categorization of casualties. This standard concentrates on organizational aspects of applying the dicentric assay for operation in a triage mode. The technical aspects of the dicentric assay can be found in the ISO 19238. This international standard is applicable either to an experienced biological dosimetry laboratory working alone or to a network of collaborating laboratories

  19. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesbø, Heidi B; Gaarder, Christine; Næss, Pål Aksel; Enden, Tone

    2017-07-01

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. • Minimum acceptable care (MAC) should replace normal routines in mass casualty incidents. • MAC implied reduced use of imaging in the emergency department (ED). • CT in ED was restricted to suspected severe head injuries during MAC. • The radiologist should cancel all non-head CTs in the ED during MAC.

  20. Population and energy elasticity of tornado casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Tyler; Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.

    2017-04-01

    Tornadoes are capable of catastrophic destruction and mass casualties, but there are yet no estimates of how sensitive the number of casualties are to changes in the number of people in harm's way or to changes in tornado energy. Here the relationship between tornado casualties (deaths and injuries), population, and energy dissipation is quantified using the economic concept of "elasticity." Records of casualties from individual tornadoes over the period 2007-2015 are fit to a regression model. The coefficient on the population term (population elasticity) indicates that a doubling in population increases the casualty rate by 21% [(17, 24)%, 95% credible interval]. The coefficient on the energy term (energy elasticity) indicates that a doubling in energy dissipation leads to a 33% [(30, 35)%, 95% credible interval] increase in the casualty rate. The difference in elasticity values show that on average, changes in energy dissipation have been relatively more important in explaining tornado casualties than changes in population. Assuming no changes in warning effectiveness or mitigation efforts, these elasticity estimates can be used to project changes in casualties given the known population trends and possible trends in tornado activity.

  1. Microorganism characterization by single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Scott C

    2009-01-01

    In recent years a major effort by several groups has been undertaken to identify bacteria by mass spectrometry at the single cell level. The intent of this review is to highlight the recent progress made in the application of single particle mass spectrometry to the analysis of microorganisms. A large portion of the review highlights improvements in the ionization and mass analysis of bio-aerosols, or particles that contain biologically relevant molecules such as peptides or proteins. While these are not direct applications to bacteria, the results have been central to a progression toward single cell mass spectrometry. Developments in single particle matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) are summarized. Recent applications of aerosol laser desorption/ionization (LDI) to the analysis of single microorganisms are highlighted. Successful applications of off-line and on-the-fly aerosol MALDI to microorganism detection are discussed. Limitations to current approaches and necessary future achievements are also addressed. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of a unique decentralized rapid-response capability and contingency mass-casualty field hospital for the 1996 Democratic National Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, L S; Willoughby, P J; Matkaitis, L

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the planning, development, and execution of a unique, decentralized, and flexible medical response capability that was developed for the 1996 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Concerns for coordinated acts of violence, terrorism, toxicologic exposures, and logistic problems posed by the United Center prompted the development of a decentralized and flexible rapid-response plan. Contingency planning for the remote possibility of a full-scale disaster led to the additional development of a contingency mass-casualty field hospital on site. The plans for this mass-gathering response are described in considerable detail. Forty-four patient encounters across the four days of the convention were recorded, with a combination of minor injuries and potentially serious medical presentations. The 1.46 EMS encounters per 1,000 attendees at the Democratic National Convention is comparable to other utilization rates for mass gatherings in the literature. Proactive attention to comprehensive contingency planning for equipment, supplies, personnel, and organizational needs, especially when multiagency response and cooperation are required, is essential.

  3. Mass-casualty triage training for international healthcare workers in the Asia-Pacific region using manikin-based simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Dale S; Berg, Benjamin W; Ikegami, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    More than half of the world's disasters occur in the Asia-Pacific region. A simulation-based exercise to teach healthcare workers prehospital triage, tagging, and treatment methods was used to link disaster management theory to practice with a student-centered, hands-on educational activity. Various strategies for teaching disaster health education have been advocated, and best-practice disaster education models continue to be sought. A manikin-based, primary triage and treatment course was adapted for international healthcare providers in the Asia-Pacific region using symbolic representations of triage categories and physical findings. The pedagogical construct that was used was an interactive, formative assessment in which faculty members mediated learner information gathering and interpretation during four simulation scenarios. After establishing a multi-casualty disaster context, a wireless, audience response system anonymously collected learner responses to four clinical situations: (1) leg wound (hemorrhagic shock/immediate); (2) chest wound (tension pneumothorax/immediate); (3) head wound (traumatic brain injury/expectant); and (4) limb trauma (leg fracture/delayed). There were 182 healthcare providers from eight Asia-Pacific countries (including the US) that participated in four simulation seminars. The simulation sessions were successfully tailored to groups of learners that varied in size and professional composition. Expectant and delayed triage categories posed the greatest challenge to learners. In one of two groups that were queried, learner self-confidence in applying principles of triage and treatment improved significantly. At the conclusion of the simulation sessions, learners strongly agreed that manikin-based simulation improved their understanding of triage, and should be used to teach principles of primary triage and treatment. Simulation training represents an opportunity to engage learners regardless of language and cultural barriers

  4. Armored vehicle crew casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, P J

    1990-09-01

    The use of armored vehicles since the First World War has created a subset of casualties with a different epidemiology than infantry soldier casualties. The preponderance of armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) in the world's armies make their use in a future war likely. The purpose of this paper is to review the nature of possible injuries to crewmembers of these vehicles by historical and experimental data. Injuries to armored vehicle crewmembers are characterized by a large number of burn casualties, a larger percentage of fractures and traumatic amputations with extremity wounds, and a higher mortality when compared with infantry footsoldier combat casualty statistics.

  5. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesboe, Heidi B.; Enden, Tone [Oslo University Hospital, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo (Norway); Gaarder, Christine [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Naess, Paal Aksel [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Traumatology, Oslo (Norway); Oslo University Hospital, Department of Paediatric Surgery, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-07-15

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. (orig.)

  6. Radiology response in the emergency department during a mass casualty incident: a retrospective study of the two terrorist attacks on 22 July 2011 in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Victoria Solveig; Eggesboe, Heidi B.; Enden, Tone; Gaarder, Christine; Naess, Paal Aksel

    2017-01-01

    To describe the use of radiology in the emergency department (ED) in a trauma centre during a mass casualty incident, using a minimum acceptable care (MAC) strategy in which CT was restricted to potentially severe head injuries. We retrospectively studied the initial use of imaging on patients triaged to the trauma centre following the twin terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011. Nine patients from the explosion and 15 from the shooting were included. Fourteen patients had an Injury Severity Score >15. During the first 15 h, 22/24 patients underwent imaging in the ED. All 15 gunshot patients had plain films taken in the ED, compared to three from the explosion. A CT was performed in 18/24 patients; ten of these were completed in the ED and included five non-head CTs, the latter representing deviations from the MAC strategy. No CT referrals were delayed or declined. Mobilisation of radiology personnel resulted in a tripling of the staff. Plain film and CT capacity was never exceeded despite deviations from the MAC strategy. An updated disaster management plan will require the radiologist to cancel non-head CTs performed in the ED until no additional MCI patients are expected. (orig.)

  7. Primary Triage in a Mass-casualty Event Possesses a Risk of Increasing Informational Confusion: A Simulation Study Using Shannon's Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajimi, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Masaru; Uchida, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Ichiro; Nakahara, Shinya; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Primary triage in a mass-casualty event setting using low-visibility tags may lead to informational confusion and difficulty in judging triage attribution of patients. In this simulation study, informational confusion during primary triage was investigated using a method described in a prior study that applied Shannon's Information Theory to triage. Hypothesis Primary triage using a low-visibility tag leads to a risk of informational confusion in prioritizing care, owing to the intermingling of pre- and post-triage patients. It is possible that Shannon's entropy evaluates the degree of informational confusion quantitatively and improves primary triage. The Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) triage method was employed. In Setting 1, entropy of a triage area with 32 patients was calculated for the following situations: Case 1 - all 32 patients in the triage area at commencement of triage; Case 2 - 16 randomly imported patients to join 16 post-triage patients; Case 3 - eight patients imported randomly and another eight grouped separately; Case 4 - 16 patients grouped separately; Case 5 - random placement of all 32 post-triage patients; Case 6 - isolation of eight patients of minor priority level; Case 7 - division of all patients into two groups of 16; and Case 8 - separation of all patients into four categories of eight each. In Setting 2, entropies in the triage area with 32 patients were calculated continuously with each increase of four post-triage patients in Systems A and B (System A - triage conducted in random manner; and System B - triage arranged into four categories). In Setting 1, entropies in Cases 1-8 were 2.00, 3.00, 2.69, 2.00, 2.00, 1.19, 1.00, and 0.00 bits/symbol, respectively. Entropy increased with random triage. In Setting 2, entropies of System A maintained values the same as, or higher than, those before initiation of triage: 2.00 bits/symbol throughout the triage. The graphic waveform showed a concave shape and took 3

  8. Testing the START Triage Protocol: Can It Improve the Ability of Nonmedical Personnel to Better Triage Patients During Disasters and Mass Casualties Incidents ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiali, Stefano; Giugni, Aimone; Marcis, Lucia

    2017-06-01

    START (Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment) triage is a tool that is available even to nonmedical rescue personnel in case of a disaster or mass casualty incident (MCI). In Italy, no data are available on whether application of the START protocol could improve patient outcomes during a disaster or MCI. We aimed to address whether "last-minute" START training of nonmedical personnel during a disaster or MCI would result in more effective triage of patients. In this case-control study, 400 nonmedical ambulance crew members were randomly assigned to a non-START or a START group (200 per group). The START group received last-minute START training. Each group examined 6000 patients, obtained from the Emergo Train System (ETS Italy, Bologna, Italy) victims database, and assigned patients a triage code (black-red-yellow-green) along with a reason for the assignment. Each rescuer triaged 30 patients within a 30-minute time frame. Results were analyzed according to Fisher's exact test for a P valueSTART group completed the evaluations in 15 minutes, whereas the non-START group took 30 minutes. The START group correctly triaged 94.2% of their patients, as opposed to 59.83% of the non-START group (PSTART group versus 13.67% and 26.5% for the non-START group. The non-START group had 458 "preventable deaths" on 6000 cases because of incorrect triage, whereas the START group had 91. Even a "last-minute" training on the START triage protocol allows nonmedical personnel to better identify and triage the victims of a disaster or MCI, resulting in more effective and efficient medical intervention. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:305-309).

  9. Indoor fire in a nursing home: evaluation of the medical response to a mass casualty incident based on a standardized protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, S W; Ellerbroek, P M; Leenen, L P H

    2015-04-01

    This retrospective study reports the outcome of a mass casualty incident (MCI) caused by a fire in a nursing home. Data from the medical charts and registration system of the Major Incident Hospital (MIH) and ambulance service were analyzed. The evaluation reports from the MIH and an independent research institute were used. The protocol for reports from major accidents and disaster was used to standardize the reporting [Lennquist, in Int J Disaster Med 1(1):79-86, 2003]. The emergency services were quickly at the scene. The different levels of pre-hospital management performed a tight coordination. However, miscommunication led to confusion in the registration and tracking of patients. In total, 49 persons needed medical treatment, 46 were treated in the MIH. Because of (possible) inhalation injury nine patients needed mechanical ventilation and nine patients were hospitalized to exclude delayed onset of pulmonary symptoms. No incident related deaths occurred. The intensive care unit of the MIH was initially understaffed despite the efforts of the automated calling system and switchboard operators. The handwritten registration of incoming staff was incomplete and should be performed digitally. Some staff members were unfamiliar with the MIH procedures. The medical chart appeared too extensive. Miscommunication between chain partners resulted in the delayed sharing of (semi) medical information. The different levels of incident managers performed a tight coordination. The MIH demonstrated its potency to provide emergency care for 46 patients and 9 intubated patients. No deaths or persistent disabilities occurred. Areas of improvement were recognized both in the pre-hospital as the hospital phase.

  10. The Haiti earthquake: the provision of wound care for mass casualties utilizing negative-pressure wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Allen; Gialich, Shelby; Kirk, Julie; Edwards, Sheriden; Beck, Brooke; Sorocéanu, Alexandra; Nelson, Scott; Gabriel, Cassie; Gupta, Subhas

    2011-10-01

    Many months after the devastating earthquake in January 2010, wounds remain a major disease burden in Haiti. Since January 2010, through the efforts of corporations, nonprofit charitable organizations, and medical professionals, advanced wound care techniques, including negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT), have been introduced into the wound care regimens of various hospitals in Haiti. In June 2010, the authors completed their second volunteer trip at a Haitian hospital specializing in orthopedic wounds. The medical team was composed of a plastic surgeon, orthopedic surgeon, anesthesiologist, medical assistant, scrub technician, and registered nurse (specializing in plastic surgery and orthopedics). The authors' team supplied NPWT devices, reticulated open-cell foam dressings, and canisters donated by Kinetic Concepts, Inc, San Antonio, Texas, for use at the hospital. This report describes the medical challenges in postearthquake Haiti (including limb salvage and infection), benefits of adjunctive use of NPWT/reticulated open-cell foam, and current wound care status in a Haitian orthopedic hospital. The future role of NPWT in Haiti and during mass catastrophe in a least-developed country is also discussed.

  11. Iraq: U.S. Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chesser, Susan G

    2009-01-01

    ...." A detailed casualty summary that includes data on deaths by cause, as well as statistics on soldiers wounded in action, is available at DoD's web site at http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm.

  12. Iraq: U.S. Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chesser, Susan G

    2008-01-01

    ...." A detailed casualty summary that includes data on deaths by cause, as well as statistics on soldiers wounded in action, is available at the following DoD website: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm].

  13. Tsunami Casualty Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H.

    2007-12-01

    More than 4500 deaths by tsunamis were recorded in the decade of 1990. For example, the 1992 Flores Tsunami in Indonesia took away at least 1712 lives, and more than 2182 people were victimized by the 1998 Papua New Guinea Tsunami. Such staggering death toll has been totally overshadowed by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami that claimed more than 220,000 lives. Unlike hurricanes that are often evaluated by economic losses, death count is the primary measure for tsunami hazard. It is partly because tsunamis kill more people owing to its short lead- time for warning. Although exact death tallies are not available for most of the tsunami events, there exist gender and age discriminations in tsunami casualties. Significant gender difference in the victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami was attributed to women's social norms and role behavior, as well as cultural bias toward women's inability to swim. Here we develop a rational casualty model based on humans' limit to withstand the tsunami flows. The application to simple tsunami runup cases demonstrates that biological and physiological disadvantages also make a significant difference in casualty rate. It further demonstrates that the gender and age discriminations in casualties become most pronounced when tsunami is marginally strong and the difference tends to diminish as tsunami strength increases.

  14. The influence of the pre-hospital application of non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin in the practice of emergency medical services in multiple and mass casualty incidents (MCI – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 a fire broke out in the Nursing Home (NH in the Henryszew village 5 km away from the district hospital in Żyrardów. At the time of the incident 52 residents and 16 staff members were present in the building. Due to a large number of casualties, the occurrence was classified as a potentially mass casualty incident (MCI. Troops of the State Fire Brigade, Paramedic Rescue Squads, choppers of the Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, the Police, and the NH staff took part in the rescue operation. The priority was given to the evacuation of the NH residents carried out by the NH staff and firefighters, extinguishing the fire, as well as to primary and secondary survey triage. Due to the pre-accident health state of the victims, the latter posed a considerable difficulty. A decisive role was played by the need to conduct non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin in all the casualties, which then made it possible to adequately diagnose the patients and implement proper procedures. The rescue operation was correctly followed although it proved to be a serious logistical and technical undertaking for the participating emergency services. The residents were not found to be suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning, therefore 46 of the residents safely returned to the building. The fact that all the Paramedic Rescue Squads were equipped with medical triage sets and were able to conduct non-invasive measurements of carboxyhemoglobin made it possible to introduce effective procedures in the cases of suspected carbon monoxide poisoning and abandon costly and complicated organisational procedures when they proved to be unnecessary. Med Pr 2014;65(2:289–295

  15. Volunteer trials of a novel improvised dry decontamination protocol for use during mass casualty incidents as part of the UK'S Initial Operational Response (IOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that rapid evacuation, disrobing and emergency decontamination can enhance the ability of emergency services and acute hospitals to effectively manage chemically-contaminated casualties. The purpose of this human volunteer study was to further optimise such an "Initial Operational Response" by (1 identifying an appropriate method for performing improvised skin decontamination and (2 providing guidance for use by first responders and casualties. The study was performed using two readily available, absorbent materials (paper towels and incontinence pads. The decontamination effectiveness of the test materials was measured by quantifying the amount of a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate removed from each volunteer's forearm skin. Results from the first study demonstrated that simulant recovery was lower in all of the dry decontamination conditions when compared to matched controls, suggesting that dry decontamination serves to reduce chemical exposure. Blotting in combination with rubbing was the most effective form of decontamination. There was no difference in effectiveness between the two absorbent materials. In the following study, volunteers performed improvised dry decontamination, either with or without draft guidelines. Volunteers who received the guidance were able to carry out improvised dry decontamination more effectively, using more of the absorbent product (blue roll to ensure that all areas of the body were decontaminated and avoiding cross-contamination of other body areas by working systematically from the head downwards. Collectively, these two studies suggest that absorbent products that are available on ambulances and in acute healthcare settings may have generic applicability for improvised dry decontamination. Wherever possible, emergency responders and healthcare workers should guide casualties through decontamination steps; in the absence of explicit guidance and

  16. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  17. On the scalar electron mass limit from single photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grivaz, J.F.

    1987-03-01

    We discuss how the 90% C.L. lower limit on the mass of the scalar electron, as extracted from the single photon experiments, is affected by the way the background from radiative neutrino pair production is handled. We argue that some of the results presented at the Berkeley conference are overoptimistic, and that the mass lower limit is 65 GeV rather than the advertized value of 84 GeV, for the case of degenerate scalar electrons with massless photinos

  18. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics of single yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alfredo J; Fagerer, Stephan R; Schmidt, Anna Mareike; Urban, Pawel L; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Geiger, Philipp; Dechant, Reinhard; Heinemann, Matthias; Zenobi, Renato

    2013-05-28

    Single-cell level measurements are necessary to characterize the intrinsic biological variability in a population of cells. In this study, we demonstrate that, with the microarrays for mass spectrometry platform, we are able to observe this variability. We monitor environmentally (2-deoxy-D-glucose) and genetically (ΔPFK2) perturbed Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at the single-cell, few-cell, and population levels. Correlation plots between metabolites from the glycolytic pathway, as well as with the observed ATP/ADP ratio as a measure of cellular energy charge, give biological insight that is not accessible from population-level metabolomic data.

  19. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2003-2010 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Office funds research on development of technologies to improve the fuel economy of both light- and heavy-duty vehicles, including advanced combustion systems, improved batteries and electric drive systems, and new lightweight materials. Of these approaches to increase fuel economy and reduce fuel consumption, reducing vehicle mass through more extensive use of strong lightweight materials is perhaps the easiest and least expensive method; however, there is a concern that reducing vehicle mass may lead to more fatalities. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has conducted several analyses to better understand the relationship between vehicle mass, size and safety, in order to ameliorate concerns that down-weighting vehicles will inherently lead to more fatalities. These analyses include recreating the regression analyses conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) that estimate the relationship between mass reduction and U.S. societal fatality risk per vehicle mile of travel (VMT), while holding vehicle size (i.e. footprint, wheelbase times track width) constant; these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 1 analysis. In addition, LBNL has conducted additional analysis of the relationship between mass and the two components of risk per VMT, crash frequency (crashes per VMT) and risk once a crash has occurred (risk per crash); these analyses are referred to as LBNL Phase 2 analysis.

  20. Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Bryant, JoAnne

    2007-01-01

    ...." A detailed casualty summary that includes data on deaths by cause, as well as statistics on soldiers wounded in action, is available at the following DoD website: [http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/CASUALTY/castop.htm].

  1. Iraq: Summary of U.S. Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, Hannah

    2005-01-01

    .../]; click on "OIF/OEF Casualty Update." A detailed casualty summary that includes data on deaths by cause, as well as statistics on soldiers wounded in action, is available at the following DoD website: [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/casualty/OIF-Total.pdf].

  2. Ion Source Multiplexing on a Single Mass Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-06

    We present the simple approach for the combination of different ion sources on a single mass spectrometer without any interference between them. Each ion source can be positioned as far as 1 m from the mass spectrometer; ions are transported by the means of flexible copper tubes, which are connected, to the separate inlet capillaries. Special valves enable switching channels on and off. Using this approach, we successfully combined native electrospray ionization (ESI), regular ESI, β-electrons ionization, and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) of thermally desorbed vapors of petroleum on a single mass spectrometer. In addition, separate channels allow infusing internal calibration mixture or performing ion molecular reactions in one channel and using the other as a reference. Using this idea, we have developed an original sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra (SWATH MS) approach in which peptide ions are transported in different channels, one of which is heated to high temperature so that ions are thermally fragmented, and the other channel ensures the presence of nonfragmented ions in the spectrum. Also, we demonstrated the possibility to perform gas phase H/D exchange reaction in one channel and using another as reference. Use of valves makes it possible to exclude any interference between them. Thus, we have demonstrated the possibility to create a multichannel system in which ions would be transported through several inlet tubes in which different ion molecular reactions such as Paternò-Büchi, ozonation, or H/D exchange will occur. Comparison of mass spectra recorded when different channels are open will provide structural and chemical information about unknown species.

  3. An Analysis of the Relationship between Casualty Risk Per Crash and Vehicle Mass and Footprint for Model Year 2000-2007 Light-Duty Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division. Building Technology and Urban Systems Dept.

    2012-08-01

    NHTSA recently completed a logistic regression analysis (Kahane 2012) updating its 2003 and 2010 studies of the relationship between vehicle mass and US fatality risk per vehicle mile traveled (VMT). The new study updates the previous analyses in several ways: updated FARS data for 2002 to 2008 involving MY00 to MY07 vehicles are used; induced exposure data from police reported crashes in several additional states are added; a new vehicle category for car-based crossover utility vehicles (CUVs) and minivans is created; crashes with other light-duty vehicles are divided into two groups based on the crash partner vehicle’s weight, and a category for all other fatal crashes is added; and new control variables for new safety technologies and designs, such as electronic stability controls (ESC), side airbags, and methods to meet voluntary agreement to improve light truck compatibility with cars, are included.

  4. Fluid and mass transport in a single lymphatic blood vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestman, A.R.

    1987-08-01

    The problem considers the single blood vessel model in pulmonary circulation in the presence of gravitation and mass transfer. The tissue surrounding the blood vessel is modelled as a permeable medium distinct from the blood vessel which is a normal free space. On the assumption that the mass concentration varies slowly at the interface between the blood vessel and the tissue, the problem is tackled by asymptotic approximation. A crucial point of the analysis is the dependence of the flow variables on the permeability K of the tissue in a completely arbitrary manner. A primary conjecture of the study is the intimacy of the pathological pulmonary edema and the parameter K. (author). 4 refs

  5. On the single-mass model of the vocal folds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, M S; McGowan, R S

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is made of the fluid-structure interactions necessary to support self-sustained oscillations of a single-mass mechanical model of the vocal folds subject to a nominally steady subglottal overpressure. The single-mass model of Fant and Flanagan is re-examined and an analytical representation of vortex shedding during 'voiced speech' is proposed that promotes cooperative, periodic excitation of the folds by the glottal flow. Positive feedback that sustains glottal oscillations is shown to occur during glottal contraction, when the flow separates from the 'trailing edge' of the glottis producing a low-pressure 'suction' force that tends to pull the folds together. Details are worked out for flow that can be regarded as locally two-dimensional in the glottal region. Predictions of free-streamline theory are used to model the effects of quasi-static variations in the separation point on the glottal wall. Numerical predictions are presented to illustrate the waveform of the sound radiated towards the mouth from the glottis. The theory is easily modified to include feedback on the glottal flow of standing acoustic waves, both in the vocal tract beyond the glottis and in the subglottal region. (invited paper)

  6. Eye casualty services in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S

    2013-01-01

    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  7. Preparation of Single Cells for Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E S; Fortson, S L; Kulp, K S; Checchi, K D; Wu, L; Felton, J S; Wu, K J

    2007-10-24

    Characterizing chemical changes within single cells is important for determining fundamental mechanisms of biological processes that will lead to new biological insights and improved disease understanding. Imaging biological systems with mass spectrometry (MS) has gained popularity in recent years as a method for creating precise chemical maps of biological samples. In order to obtain high-quality mass spectral images that provide relevant molecular information about individual cells, samples must be prepared so that salts and other cell-culture components are removed from the cell surface and the cell contents are rendered accessible to the desorption beam. We have designed a cellular preparation protocol for imaging MS that preserves the cellular contents for investigation and removes the majority of the interfering species from the extracellular matrix. Using this method, we obtain excellent imaging results and reproducibility in three diverse cell types: MCF7 human breast cancer cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. This preparation technique allows routine imaging MS analysis of cultured cells, allowing for any number of experiments aimed at furthering scientific understanding of molecular processes within individual cells.

  8. Mass casualty management: Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classification recognises a category called “regional disaster” and attempts to enunciate a principle of initiation, mobilisation and co-ordination of management of such disasters among hospitals and human and material resources within the region. It is envisaged that coalescence of “regional disaster preparedness” ...

  9. Mass Casualty Triage Performance Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Jonathan J. Bryson Heidi Keller-Glaze ICF International Christopher L. Vowels U.S. Army Research Institute February 2015 United...Christopher L. Vowels 5c. PROJECT NUMBER A790 5d. TASK NUMBER 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Contracting Officer’s Representative and Subject Matter POC: Dr. Christopher L. Vowels 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words): This report

  10. Nuclear terrorism: triage and medical management of radiation and combined-injury casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Daniel F; Goans, Ronald E

    2006-06-01

    This article addresses the medical effects of nuclear explosions and other forms of radiation exposure, assessment of radiation dose, triage of victims, definitive treatment of radiation and combined-injury casualties, and planning for emergency services after a terrorist attack involving a nuclear device. It reviews historical events of mass radiation-induced casualties and fatalities at Hiroshima, Chernobyl, and Goiania, and discusses various scenarios for nuclear terrorism.

  11. Single-stage mass spectrometric analyses of resin bead samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. H.; Walker, R. L.; Bertram, L. K.; Carter, J. A.

    1978-10-01

    Plutonium and uranium from dissolver solutions loaded on resin beads can be analyzed on single-stage mass spectrometers with little or no degradation of results provided proper care is exercised with regard to sample handling techniques. Additionally, storage of samples on resin beads is feasible for periods at least as long as six months provided the beads are not exposed to residual HNO/sub 3/ and air; it is probable that beads will retain their integrity much longer than six months when stored under collodion, but as yet no data to support this contention have been collected. Conventional or commercial mass spectrometers can readily be adapted to the resin bead technique by installing a pulse-counting detection system. The cost of such conversion will vary depending on whether or not a data acquisition system will be needed. A reasonable estimate is that the cost will be in the neighborhood of $15,000; this figure includes the price of a multi-channel analyzer to serve as a temporary data storage device, but does not include the cost of a computer. It does not appear that it will be practicable to switch easily back and forth between pulse-counting and current integration modes unless the instrument is provided with a movable Faraday cup. Using the same multiplier in both modes would undoubtedly degrade its performance in each. The requirements of low background counting rates and high gain for pulse counting, and of relatively high signal handling capacity in current integration are mutually incompatible if demanded of the same multiplier.

  12. Modeling Casualty Sustainment During Peacekeeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-09

    Medicine, 1999, 164(8), Supplement. 23. Blood CG, Anderson ME. The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates during Urban Warfare, Military Medicine...NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MODELING CASUALTY SUSTAINMENT DURING PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS G. J. Walker C. G. Bloodl...Report No. 03-21 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH

  13. The Casualty Network System Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    External Defibrillator AF – Assault Force ARS – Acute Radiation Sickness CBRN – Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear CNS – Casualty...relates to the networking of information flow in combat casualty care. This description will lie out the fundamental concepts of network theory and relate

  14. Human casualties in earthquakes: Modelling and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.J.S.; So, E.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake risk modelling is needed for the planning of post-event emergency operations, for the development of insurance schemes, for the planning of mitigation measures in the existing building stock, and for the development of appropriate building regulations; in all of these applications estimates of casualty numbers are essential. But there are many questions about casualty estimation which are still poorly understood. These questions relate to the causes and nature of the injuries and deaths, and the extent to which they can be quantified. This paper looks at the evidence on these questions from recent studies. It then reviews casualty estimation models available, and finally compares the performance of some casualty models in making rapid post-event casualty estimates in recent earthquakes.

  15. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  16. Predicting casualties implied by TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendafiloski, G.; Wyss, M.; Wyss, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    When an earthquake is predicted, forecast, or expected with a higher than normal probability, losses are implied. We estimated the casualties (fatalities plus injured) that should be expected if earthquakes in TIPs (locations of Temporarily Increased Probability of earthquakes) defined by Kossobokov et al. (2009) should occur. We classified the predictions of losses into the categories red (more than 400 fatalities or more than 1,000 injured), yellow (between 100 and 400 fatalities), green (fewer than 100 fatalities), and gray (undetermined). TIPs in Central Chile, the Philippines, Papua, and Taiwan are in the red class, TIPs in Southern Sumatra, Nicaragua, Vanatu, and Honshu in the yellow class, and TIPs in Tonga, Loyalty Islands, Vanatu, S. Sandwich Islands, Banda Sea, and the Kuriles, are classified as green. TIPs where the losses depend moderately on the assumed point of major energy release were classified as yellow; TIPs such as in the Talaud Islands and in Tonga, where the losses depend very strongly on the location of the epicenter, were classified as gray. The accuracy of loss estimates after earthquakes with known hypocenter and magnitude are affected by uncertainties in transmission and soil properties, the composition of the building stock, the population present, and the method by which the numbers of casualties are calculated. In the case of TIPs, uncertainties in magnitude and location are added, thus we calculate losses for a range of these two parameters. Therefore, our calculations can only be considered order of magnitude estimates. Nevertheless, our predictions can come to within a factor of two of the observed numbers, as in the case of the M7.6 earthquake of October 2005 in Pakistan that resulted in 85,000 fatalities (Wyss, 2005). In subduction zones, the geometrical relationship between the earthquake source capable of a great earthquake and the population is clear because there is only one major fault plane available, thus the epicentral

  17. Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Beginnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank K

    2017-06-01

    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a set of evidence-based, best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield. The origins of TCCC were nontraditional. The TCCC program began as a Naval Special Warfare biomedical research effort launched after the realization that extremity hemorrhage, a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, was not being treated with a readily available and highly effective intervention: the tourniquet. This insight prompted a systematic reevaluation of all aspects of battlefield trauma care that was conducted from 1993 to 1996 as a joint effort by special operations medical personnel and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. The product of that 3-year research project was TCCC, the first-ever set of battlefield trauma care guidelines designed to combine good medicine with good small-unit tactics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Single-chip mass flow controller with integrated Coriolis flow sensor and proportional control valve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Alveringh, Dennis; Groen, Maarten; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2016-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated and tested the, to our knowledge, first ever single-chip mass flow controller with an integrated Coriolis mass flow sensor and a proportional control valve. A minimum internal volume is obtained, because the complete fluid path is integrated in a single chip. We

  19. Transfusion-Associated Microchimerism in Combat Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, James R; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Burns, Christopher; Cardo, Lisa J; Curry, Kathleen; Busch, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    ...) in civilian trauma patients receiving allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We explored the incidence of TA-MC in combat casualties receiving FrWB compared with patients receiving standard stored RBC transfusions. Methods...

  20. A redundant resource: a pre-planned casualty clearing station for a FIFA 2010 Stadium in Durban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Timothy C; Samlal, Sanjay; Naidoo, Rajen; Hendrikse, Steven; Gloster, Alex; Ramlal, Melvin; Ngema, Sibongiseni; Rowe, Michael

    2012-10-01

    This report details the background, planning, and establishment of a mass-casualty management area for the Durban Moses Mabhida Stadium at the Natal Mounted Rifles base, by the Department of Health and the eThekwini Fire and Rescue Service, for the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 2010 Soccer World Cup. The report discusses the use of the site during the seven matches played at that stadium, and details the aspects of mass-gathering major incident site planning for football (soccer). The area also was used as a treatment area for other single patient incidents outside of the stadium, but within the exclusion perimeter, and the 22 patients treated by the Casualty Clearing Station (CCS) team are described and briefly discussed. A site-specific patient presentation rate of 0.48 per 10,000 and transport-to-hospital rate (TTHR) of 0.09/10,000 are reported. Lessons learned and implications for future event planning are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  1. Association between muscle mass and a single measurement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between muscle mass and a diagnosis of hypertension in a sample of Korean adults (N=225)was investigated. The participants included adults aged >20 years who visited the S-gu Public Health Centre, Seoul, Korea for a medical check-up in 2011. The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, ...

  2. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBCRITICAL MASS LIMIT FOR PLUTONIUM METAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MITCHELL, MARK VON [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    According to ANS-8.1, operations with fissile materials can be performed safely by complying with any of the listed single-parameter subcritical limits. For metallic units, when interspersed moderators are present, the mass limits apply to a single piece having no concave surfaces. On a practical level, when has any operation with fissile metal involved a single piece and absolutely no moderating material, e.g., water, oil, plastic, etc.? This would be rare. This paper explores the application of the single-parameter plutonium metal mass limit for realistic operational environments.

  3. Single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles and the source apportionment of on-line PM2.5by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ma, Shexia; Gao, Bo; Li, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yanjun; Cai, Jing; Li, Mei; Yao, Ling'ai; Huang, Bo; Zheng, Mei

    2017-09-01

    In order to accurately apportion the many distinct types of individual particles observed, it is necessary to characterize fingerprints of individual particles emitted directly from known sources. In this study, single particle mass spectral signatures from vehicle exhaust particles in a tunnel were performed. These data were used to evaluate particle signatures in a real-world PM 2.5 apportionment study. The dominant chemical type originating from average positive and negative mass spectra for vehicle exhaust particles are EC species. Four distinct particle types describe the majority of particles emitted by vehicle exhaust particles in this tunnel. Each particle class is labeled according to the most significant chemical features in both average positive and negative mass spectral signatures, including ECOC, NaK, Metal and PAHs species. A single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was also employed during the winter of 2013 in Guangzhou to determine both the size and chemical composition of individual atmospheric particles, with vacuum aerodynamic diameter (d va ) in the size range of 0.2-2μm. A total of 487,570 particles were chemically analyzed with positive and negative ion mass spectra and a large set of single particle mass spectra was collected and analyzed in order to identify the speciation. According to the typical tracer ions from different source types and classification by the ART-2a algorithm which uses source fingerprints for apportioning ambient particles, the major sources of single particles were simulated. Coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and secondary ion were the most abundant particle sources, contributing 28.5%, 17.8%, and 18.2%, respectively. The fraction with vehicle exhaust species particles decreased slightly with particle size in the condensation mode particles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mass spectra features of biomass burning boiler and coal burning boiler emitted particles by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Li, Mei; Shi, Guoliang; Wang, Haiting; Ma, Xian; Wu, Jianhui; Shi, Xurong; Feng, Yinchang

    2017-11-15

    In this study, single particle mass spectra signatures of both coal burning boiler and biomass burning boiler emitted particles were studied. Particle samples were suspended in clean Resuspension Chamber, and analyzed by ELPI and SPAMS simultaneously. The size distribution of BBB (biomass burning boiler sample) and CBB (coal burning boiler sample) are different, as BBB peaks at smaller size, and CBB peaks at larger size. Mass spectra signatures of two samples were studied by analyzing the average mass spectrum of each particle cluster extracted by ART-2a in different size ranges. In conclusion, BBB sample mostly consists of OC and EC containing particles, and a small fraction of K-rich particles in the size range of 0.2-0.5μm. In 0.5-1.0μm, BBB sample consists of EC, OC, K-rich and Al_Silicate containing particles; CBB sample consists of EC, ECOC containing particles, while Al_Silicate (including Al_Ca_Ti_Silicate, Al_Ti_Silicate, Al_Silicate) containing particles got higher fractions as size increase. The similarity of single particle mass spectrum signatures between two samples were studied by analyzing the dot product, results indicated that part of the single particle mass spectra of two samples in the same size range are similar, which bring challenge to the future source apportionment activity by using single particle aerosol mass spectrometer. Results of this study will provide physicochemical information of important sources which contribute to particle pollution, and will support source apportionment activities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A 3-axis force balanced accelerometer using a single proof-mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemkin, M.A.; Boser, B.E.; Auslander, D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for wideband force balancing a proof-mass in multiple axes simultaneously. Capacitive position sense and force feedback are accomplished using the same air-gap capacitors through time multiplexing. Proof of concept is experimentally demonstrated with a single-mass monolithic surface micromachined 3-axis accelerometer.

  6. Ship Engine Room Casualty Analysis by Using Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Yaşar SAATÇİOĞLU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ships may encounter undesirable conditions during operations. In consequence of a casualty, fire, explosion, flooding, grounding, injury even death may occur. Besides, these results can be avoidable with precautions and preventive operating processes. In maritime transportation, casualties depend on various factors. These were listed as misuse of the engine equipment and tools, defective machinery or equipment, inadequacy of operational procedure and measure of safety and force majeure effects. Casualty reports which were published in Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Canada and United States until 2015 were examined and the probable causes and consequences of casualties were determined with their occurrence percentages. In this study, 89 marine investigation reports regarding engine room casualties were analyzed. Casualty factors were analyzed with their frequency percentages and also their main causes were constructed. This study aims to investigate engine room based casualties, frequency of each casualty type and main causes by using decision tree method.

  7. Mass Spectrometric Method for Analyzing Metabolites in Yeast with Single Cell Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amantonico, Andrea; Oh, Joo Yeon; Sobek, Jens; Heinemann, Matthias; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Getting a look-in: An optimized MALDI-MS procedure has been developed to detect endogenous primary metabolites directly in the cell extract. A detection limit corresponding to metabolites from less than a single cell has been attained, opening the door to single-cell metabolomics by mass

  8. Casualty Estimation for Nuclear and Radiological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Casualty Estimation for Nuclear and Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling INSTITUTE FOR...S E S IDA Paper P-5220 Casualty Estimation for Nuclear and Radiological Weapons Carl A. Curling This page is intentionally blank. iii Executive... nuclear devices (IND), as well as conventional nuclear weapons .”1 This analysis describes exemplar nuclear and radiological weapon threats; the

  9. 46 CFR 197.486 - Written report of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Written report of casualty. 197.486 Section 197.486... STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.486 Written report of casualty. The person-in-charge of a vessel or facility for which a notice of casualty was made under § 197.484 shall...

  10. Comparison of mineral dust and droplet residuals measured with two single particle aerosol mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonaschütz, Anna; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Zawadowicz, Maria; Hiranuma, Naruki; Hitzenberger, Regina; Cziczo, Daniel; DeMott, Paul; Möhler, Ottmar

    2017-04-01

    Single Particle mass spectrometers are used to gain information on the chemical composition of individual aerosol particles, aerosol mixing state, and other valuable aerosol characteristics. During the Mass Spectrometry Intercomparison at the Fifth Ice Nucleation (FIN-01) Workshop, the new LAAPTOF single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (AeroMegt GmbH) was conducting simultaneous measurements together with the PALMS (Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry) instrument. The aerosol particles were sampled from the AIDA chamber during ice cloud expansion experiments. Samples of mineral dust and ice droplet residuals were measured simultaneously. In this work, three expansion experiments are chosen for a comparison between the two mass spectrometers. A fuzzy clustering routine is used to group the spectra. Cluster centers describing the ensemble of particles are compared. First results show that while differences in the peak heights are likely due to the use of an amplifier in PALMS, cluster centers are comparable.

  11. Directional Sensitivity in Light-Mass Dark Matter Searches with Single-Electron-Resolution Ionization Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadribasic, Fedja; Mirabolfathi, Nader; Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Holmström, Eero; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2018-03-01

    We propose a method using solid state detectors with directional sensitivity to dark matter interactions to detect low-mass weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) originating from galactic sources. In spite of a large body of literature for high-mass WIMP detectors with directional sensitivity, no available technique exists to cover WIMPs in the mass range <1 GeV /c2 . We argue that single-electron-resolution semiconductor detectors allow for directional sensitivity once properly calibrated. We examine the commonly used semiconductor material response to these low-mass WIMP interactions.

  12. Using the Shipboard Casualty Projection System (SHIPCAS) to Forecast Ship Hits and Casualty Sustainment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blood, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    .... Because the logistics of shipboard casualty evacuation can be problematic, reliable estimates of the medical resources needed aboard ships are critical to the timely treatment of any battle wounds sustained...

  13. Measurement of the top quark mass from single-top production events

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We measure the mass of the top quark from events where a single top quark is produced. The analysis is performed on data from $\\mathrm{pp}$ collisions collected by the CMS detector at a center of mass energy of 8 TeV. The top quark is reconstructed from its decay $\\mathrm{t} \\rightarrow \\mathrm{W}^+ \\mathrm{b}$, with the $\\mathrm{W}$ boson decaying leptonically in the muon channel. Specific event topology and kinematic properties are used in order to enrich the sample in single-top-quark events in the t-channel, at the expense of top-quark pair production events. For the single-top quark component, a fit to the reconstructed top invariant mass distribution yields $m_{\\mathrm{t}}=172.60 \\pm 0.77~\\mathrm{(stat)}~^{+0.97}_{-0.93}~\\mathrm{(syst)}$ GeV.

  14. Detection of single macromolecules using a cryogenic particle detector coupled to a biopolymer mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerenbold, Damian; Vuilleumier, Jean-Luc; Gerber, Daniel; Tadsen, Almut; van den Brandt, Ben; Gillevet, Patrick M.

    1996-06-01

    Macromolecules with masses up to 50 kDa have been detected with a cryogenic particle detector in a MALDI time-of-flight biopolymer mass spectrometer. The cryogenic particle detector was a Sn/Sn-ox/Sn tunnel junction operated at a temperature of 0.4 K. A calibration with 6 keV single photons inferred that the delayed detector pulses corresponded to the absorption of the kinetic energy of a single macromolecule. Time-of-flight spectra of lysozyme proteins are presented. The mass resolution is 100 Da at 14 300 Da. The energy sensitive detection mechanism suggests that cryogenic particle detectors have a high and mass independent detection efficiency for macromolecules.

  15. Characterizing uranium oxide reference particles for isotopic abundances and uranium mass by single particle isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraiem, M.; Richter, S.; Erdmann, N.; Kühn, H.; Hedberg, M.; Aregbe, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A method to quantify the U mass in single micron particles by ID-TIMS was developed. ► Well-characterized monodisperse U-oxide particles produced by an aerosol generator were used. ► A linear correlation between the mass of U and the volume of particle(s) was found. ► The method developed is suitable for determining the amount of U in a particulate reference material. - Abstract: Uranium and plutonium particulate test materials are becoming increasingly important as the reliability of measurement results has to be demonstrated to regulatory bodies responsible for maintaining effective nuclear safeguards. In order to address this issue, the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) in collaboration with the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has initiated a study to investigate the feasibility of preparing and characterizing a uranium particle reference material for nuclear safeguards, which is finally certified for isotopic abundances and for the uranium mass per particle. Such control particles are specifically required to evaluate responses of instruments based on mass spectrometric detection (e.g. SIMS, TIMS, LA-ICPMS) and to help ensuring the reliability and comparability of measurement results worldwide. In this paper, a methodology is described which allows quantifying the uranium mass in single micron particles by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). This methodology is characterized by substantial improvements recently achieved at IRMM in terms of sensitivity and measurement accuracy in the field of uranium particle analysis by TIMS. The use of monodisperse uranium oxide particles prepared using an aerosol generation technique developed at ITU, which is capable of producing particles of well-characterized size and isotopic composition was exploited. The evidence of a straightforward correlation between the particle volume and the mass of uranium was demonstrated in this study

  16. Quantitative determination of carbonaceous particle mixing state in Paris using single-particle mass spectrometer and aerosol mass spectrometer measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Single-particle mixing state information can be a powerful tool for assessing the relative impact of local and regional sources of ambient particulate matter in urban environments. However, quantitative mixing state data are challenging to obtain using single-particle mass spectrometers. In this study, the quantitative chemical composition of carbonaceous single particles has been determined using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS as part of the MEGAPOLI 2010 winter campaign in Paris, France. Relative peak areas of marker ions for elemental carbon (EC, organic aerosol (OA, ammonium, nitrate, sulfate and potassium were compared with concurrent measurements from an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS, a thermal–optical OCEC analyser and a particle into liquid sampler coupled with ion chromatography (PILS-IC. ATOFMS-derived estimated mass concentrations reproduced the variability of these species well (R2 = 0.67–0.78, and 10 discrete mixing states for carbonaceous particles were identified and quantified. The chemical mixing state of HR-ToF-AMS organic aerosol factors, resolved using positive matrix factorisation, was also investigated through comparison with the ATOFMS dataset. The results indicate that hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA detected in Paris is associated with two EC-rich mixing states which differ in their relative sulfate content, while fresh biomass burning OA (BBOA is associated with two mixing states which differ significantly in their OA / EC ratios. Aged biomass burning OA (OOA2-BBOA was found to be significantly internally mixed with nitrate, while secondary, oxidised OA (OOA was associated with five particle mixing states, each exhibiting different relative secondary inorganic ion content. Externally mixed secondary organic aerosol was not observed. These findings demonstrate the range of primary and secondary organic aerosol mixing states in Paris. Examination of the

  17. Hospital preparedness for possible nonconventional casualties: an Israeli experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Shaul; Yoeli, Naomi; Paz, Gedalia; Barbash, Gabriel I; Varssano, David; Fertel, Nurit; Hassner, Avi; Drory, Margalit; Halpern, Pinchas

    2004-01-01

    Since 9/11, hospitals and health authorities have been preparing medical response in case of various mass terror attacks. The experience of Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center in treating suicide-bombing mass casualties served, in the time leading up to the war in Iraq, as a platform for launching a preparedness program for possible attacks with biological and chemical agents of mass destruction. Adapting Quarantelli's criteria on disaster mitigation to the "microinfrastructure" of the hospital, and including human behavior experts, we attempted to foster an interactive emergency management process that would deal with contingencies stemming from the potential hazards of chemical and biological (CB) weapons. The main objective of our work was to encourage an organization-wide communication network that could effectively address the contingent hazards unique to this unprecedented situation. A stratified assessment of needs, identification of unique dangers to first responders, and assignment of team-training sessions paved the way for program development. Empowerment through leadership and resilience training was introduced to emergency team leaders of all disciplines. Focal subject matters included proactive planning, problem-solving, informal horizontal and vertical communication, and coping through stress-management techniques. The outcome of this process was manifested in an "operation and people" orientation supporting a more effective and compatible emergency management. The aim of article is to describe this process and to point toward the need for a broad-spectrum view in such circumstances. Unlike military units, the civilian hospital staff at risk, expected to deal with CB casualties, requires adequate personal consideration to enable effective functioning. Issues remain to be addressed in the future. We believe that collaboration and sharing of knowledge, information, and expertise beyond the medical realm is imperative in assisting hospitals to expedite

  18. Mass sensors with mechanical traps for weighing single cells in different fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yaochung; Delgado, Francisco Feijó; Son, Sungmin; Burg, Thomas P; Wasserman, Steven C; Manalis, Scott R

    2011-12-21

    We present two methods by which single cells can be mechanically trapped and continuously monitored within the suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) mass sensor. Since the fluid surrounding the trapped cell can be quickly and completely replaced on demand, our methods are well suited for measuring changes in cell size and growth in response to drugs or other chemical stimuli. We validate our methods by measuring the density of single polystyrene beads and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with a precision of approximately 10(-3) g cm(-3), and by monitoring the growth of single mouse lymphoblast cells before and after drug treatment.

  19. Analysis of U and Pu resin bead samples with a single stage mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.; Bertram, L.K.; Carter, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Resin bead sampling enables the shipment of nanogram U and Pu quantities for analysis. Application of this sampling technique to safeguards was investigated with a single-stage mass spectrometer. Standards gave results in good agreement with NBS certified values. External precisions of +-0.5% were obtained on isotopic ratios of approx. 0.01; precisions on quantitative measurements are +-1.0%

  20. Systematic Uncertainties in Black Hole Masses Determined from Single Epoch Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Dietrich, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurement of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due...

  1. Westinghouse GOCO conduct of casualty drills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ames, C.P.

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to provide Westinghouse Government Owned Contractor Operated (GOCO) Facilities with information that can be used to implement or improve drill programs. Elements of this guide are highly recommended for use when implementing a new drill program or when assessing an existing program. Casualty drills focus on response to abnormal conditions presenting a hazard to personnel, environment, or equipment; they are distinct from Emergency Response Exercises in which the training emphasis is on site, field office, and emergency management team interaction. The DOE documents which require team training and conducting drills in nuclear facilities and should be used as guidance in non-nuclear facilities are: DOE 5480.19 (Chapter 1 of Attachment I) and DOE 5480.20 (Chapter 1, paragraphs 7 a. and d. of continuing training). Casualty drills should be an integral part of the qualification and training program at every DOE facility

  2. Low missing mass, single- and double diffraction dissociation at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkovszky, Laszlo; Orava, Risto; Salii, Andrii

    2014-01-01

    Low missing mass, single- and double diffraction dissociation is calculated for the LHC energies from a dual-Regge model, dominated by a Pomeron Regge pole exchange. The model reproduces the rich resonance structure in the low missing mass Mx region. The diffractionly excited states lie on the nucleon trajectory, appended by the isolated Roper resonance. Detailed predictions for the squared momentum transfer and missing mass dependence of the differential and integrated single- and double diffraction dissociation in the kinematical range of present and future LHC measurements are given. The model predicts a possible turn-down of the cross section towards, t -> 0 in a region probably accessible in future experiments in the nearly forward direction. The present work is a continuation and extension (e.g. with double diffraction) of a previous work using the dual Regge approach.

  3. Orifice Mass Flow Calculation in NASA's W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Updates to the orifice mass flow calculation for the W-8 Single Stage Axial Compressor Facility at NASA Glenn Research Center are provided to include the effect of humidity and incorporate ISO 5167. A methodology for including the effect of humidity into the inlet orifice mass flow calculation is provided. Orifice mass flow calculations provided by ASME PTC-19.5-2004, ASME MFC-3M-2004, ASME Fluid Meters, and ISO 5167 are compared for W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate. Differences in expansion factor and discharge coefficient given by these standards give a variation of about +/- 75% mass flow except for a few cases. A comparison of the calculations with an inlet static pressure mass flow correlation and a fan exit mass flow integration using test data from a 2017 turbofan rotor test in W-8 show good agreement between the inlet static pressure mass flow correlation, ISO 5167, and ASME Fluid Meters. While W-8's atmospheric inlet orifice plate violates the pipe diameter limit defined by each of the standards, the ISO 5167 is chosen to be the primary orifice mass flow calculation to use in the W-8 facility.

  4. Manual estimation of fallout casualties. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Haaland, C.M.

    1978-08-01

    A method is described for enabling Emergency Operating Centers (EOCs) to estimate nuclear fallout casualties (fatalities and injuries) during and after nuclear attack without the aid of computers. This method is compatible with the current manual method for estimating initial weapons effects. The new technique requires that the EOCs have information on nuclear detonations and upper wind conditions and that they have maps, a protractor, map overlay material, grease pencils, worksheets, and pencils. In addition, they will need two tables of data and a fallout casualty (FC) template, all supplied in this report. Five steps are involved in the estimation of fallout casualties for an area: sketching fallout wind streamlines on a map overlay; plotting locations of nuclear detonations and their fallout streamlines; measuring crosswind and upwind distances to detonation points from the point of interest; reading radiation exposure tables and summing the contributions from different weapons to obtain the exposure at that point; and using the FC template with the protection factor profile for the area to estimate fatalities and injuries. The tables of radiation exposure are based on a modified Weapons Systems Evaluation Group-10 (WSEG-10) fallout model. The table of county protection factor profiles (PFPs) assumes a Community Shelter Plan (CSP) posture

  5. Single-Particle Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Utilizing a Femtosecond Desorption and Ionization Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadowicz, Maria A; Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Mohr, Claudia; Saathoff, Harald; Froyd, Karl D; Murphy, Daniel M; Leisner, Thomas; Cziczo, Daniel J

    2015-12-15

    Single-particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry has now been used since the 1990s to determine particle-to-particle variability and internal mixing state. Instruments commonly use 193 nm excimer or 266 nm frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG lasers to ablate and ionize particles in a single step. We describe the use of a femtosecond laser system (800 nm wavelength, 100 fs pulse duration) in combination with an existing single-particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The goal of this project was to determine the suitability of a femtosecond laser for single-particle studies via direct comparison to the excimer laser (193 nm wavelength, ∼10 ns pulse duration) usually used with the instrument. Laser power, frequency, and polarization were varied to determine the effect on mass spectra. Atmospherically relevant materials that are often used in laboratory studies, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride, were used for the aerosol. Detection of trace amounts of a heavy metal, lead, in an ammonium nitrate matrix was also investigated. The femtosecond ionization had a large air background not present with the 193 nm excimer and produced more multiply charged ions. Overall, we find that femtosecond laser ablation and ionization of aerosol particles is not radically different than that provided by a 193 nm excimer.

  6. Direct measurements of mass-specific optical cross sections of single-component aerosol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radney, James G; Ma, Xiaofei; Gillis, Keith A; Zachariah, Michael R; Hodges, Joseph T; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2013-09-03

    The optical properties of atmospheric aerosols vary widely, being dependent upon particle composition, morphology, and mixing state. This diversity and complexity of aerosols motivates measurement techniques that can discriminate and quantify a variety of single- and multicomponent aerosols that are both internally and externally mixed. Here, we present a new combination of techniques to directly measure the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections of laboratory-generated aerosols that are relevant to atmospheric studies. Our approach employs a tandem differential mobility analyzer, an aerosol particle mass analyzer, cavity ring-down and photoacoustic spectrometers, and a condensation particle counter. This suite of instruments enables measurement of aerosol particle size, mass, extinction and absorption coefficients, and aerosol number density, respectively. Taken together, these observables yield the mass-specific extinction and absorption cross sections without the need to model particle morphology or account for sample collection artifacts. Here we demonstrate the technique in a set of case studies which involve complete separation of aerosol by charge, separation of an external mixture by mass, and discrimination between particle types by effective density and single-scattering albedo.

  7. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric detection of multiplex single base extended primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Børsting, Claus

    2004-01-01

    of multiple SNPs in a single reaction. Biotin-labeled ddNTPs were used in the SBE reaction and solid phase-bound monomeric avidin was used as capturing/purification scheme allowing the exclusive release of the SBE products under gentle conditions using 5% triethylamine. We dubbed this method monomeric avidin...... triethylamine purification. The biotin-labeled ddNTPs contained linkers with different masses ensuring a clear separation of the alleles even for SBE primers with a mass of 10 300 Da. Furthermore, only 25-350 fmol of SBE primers were necessary in order to obtain reproducible MALDI-TOF spectra. Similar signal...

  8. Firefly Optimization and Mathematical Modeling of a Vehicle Crash Test Based on Single-Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klausen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper mathematical modeling of a vehicle crash test based on a single-mass is studied. The model under consideration consists of a single-mass coupled with a spring and/or a damper. The parameters for the spring and damper are obtained by analyzing the measured acceleration in the center of gravity of the vehicle during a crash. A model with a nonlinear spring and damper is also proposed and the parameters will be optimized with different damper and spring characteristics and optimization algorithms. The optimization algorithms used are interior-point and firefly algorithm. The objective of this paper is to compare different methods used to establish a simple model of a car crash and validate the results against real crash data.

  9. The on-line analysis of aerosol-delivered pharmaceuticals via single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrical, Bradley D; Balaxi, Maria; Fergenson, David

    2015-07-15

    The use of single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was evaluated for the analysis of inhaled pharmaceuticals to determine the mass distribution of the individual active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in both single ingredient and combination drug products. SPAMS is an analytical technique where the individual aerodynamic diameters and chemical compositions of many aerosol particles are determined in real-time. The analysis was performed using a Livermore Instruments SPAMS 3.0, which allowed the efficient analysis of aerosol particles with broad size distributions and can acquire data even under a very large particle load. Data similar to what would normally require roughly three days of experimentation and analysis was collected in a five minute period and analyzed automatically. The results were computed to be comparable to those returned by a typical Next Generation Impactor (NGI) particle size distribution experiment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Single Habitat Module Concept for Exploration - Mission Planning and Mass Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe; Studak, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Single Habitat Module (SHM) concept approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions combines many new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that use a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to/from an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper provides an overview of the SHM concept and the advantages it provides. The paper also provides a summary of calculations of the mass of the Habitat Propulsion System (HPS) needed to get the habitat from low-Mars orbit (LMO) to the surface and back to LMO, and an overview of trajectory and mission mass assessments related to use of a high specific impulse space-based propulsion system. Those calculations led to the conclusion that the SHM concept results in low total mass required and streamlines mission operations to explore Mars (or other exploration destinations).

  11. Single stage to orbit mass budgets derived from propellant density and specific impulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1996-06-06

    The trade between specific impulse (Isp) and density is examined in view of Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) requirements. Mass allocations for vehicle hardware are derived from these two properties, for several propellant combinations and a dual-fuel case. This comparative analysis, based on flight-proven hardware, indicates that the higher density of several alternative propellants compensates for reduced Isp, when compared with cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen. Approximately half the orbiting mass of a rocket- propelled SSTO vehicle must be allocated to propulsion hardware and residuals. Using hydrogen as the only fuel requires a slightly greater fraction of orbiting mass for propulsion, because hydrogen engines and tanks are heavier than those for denser fuels. The advantage of burning both a dense fuel and hydrogen in succession depends strongly on tripropellant engine weight. The implications of the calculations for SSTO vehicle design are discussed, especially with regard to the necessity to minimize non-tankage structure.

  12. DNA sequencing with capillary electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, N.

    1998-03-27

    Since the first demonstration of the laser in the 1960`s, lasers have found numerous applications in analytical chemistry. In this work, two different applications are described, namely, DNA sequencing with capillary gel electrophoresis and single cell analysis with mass spectrometry. Two projects are described in which high-speed DNA separations with capillary gel electrophoresis were demonstrated. In the third project, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled via a laser vaporization/ionization interface and individual mammalian cells were analyzed. First, DNA Sanger fragments were separated by capillary gel electrophoresis. A separation speed of 20 basepairs per minute was demonstrated with a mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) sieving solution. In addition, a new capillary wall treatment protocol was developed in which bare (or uncoated) capillaries can be used in DNA sequencing. Second, a temperature programming scheme was used to separate DNA Sanger fragments. Third, flow cytometry and mass spectrometry were coupled with a laser vaporization/ionization interface.

  13. Atomic scale mass delivery driven by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan Biao; Ding Jianning; Ling Zhiyong; Yuan Ningyi; Cheng Guanggui

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of atomic scale mass delivery by bend kink in single walled carbon nanotube was investigated with the aid of molecular dynamics simulation. By keeping the bending angle while moving the tube end, the encapsulated atomic scale mass such as atom, molecule and atom group were successfully delivered through the nanotube. The van der Waals interaction between the encapsulated mass and the tube wall provided the driving force for the delivery. There were no dramatic changes in the van der Waals interaction, and a smooth and steady delivery was achieved when constant loading rate was applied. The influence of temperature on the atom group delivery was also analyzed. It is found raising temperature is harmful to the smooth movement of the atom group. However, the delivery rate can be promoted under higher temperature when the atom group is situated before the kink during the delivery.

  14. Development and characterization of a single particle laser ablation mass spectrometer (SPLAM for organic aerosol studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gaie-Levrel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A single particle instrument was developed for real-time analysis of organic aerosol. This instrument, named Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry (SPLAM, samples particles using an aerodynamic lens system for which the theoretical performances were calculated. At the outlet of this system, particle detection and sizing are realized by using two continuous diode lasers operating at λ = 403 nm. Polystyrene Latex (PSL, sodium chloride (NaCl and dioctylphtalate (DOP particles were used to characterize and calibrate optical detection of SPLAM. The optical detection limit (DL and detection efficiency (DE were determined using size-selected DOP particles. The DE ranges from 0.1 to 90% for 100 and 350 nm DOP particles respectively and the SPLAM instrument is able to detect and size-resolve particles as small as 110–120 nm. During optical detection, particle scattered light from the two diode lasers, is detected by two photomultipliers and the detected signals are used to trigger UV excimer laser (λ = 248 nm used for one-step laser desorption ionization (LDI of individual aerosol particles. The formed ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles. The TOF-MS detection limit for gaseous aromatic compounds was determined to be 0.85 × 10−15 kg (∼4 × 103 molecules. DOP particles were also used to test the overall operation of the instrument. The analysis of a secondary organic aerosol, formed in a smog chamber by the ozonolysis of indene, is presented as a first application of the instrument. Single particle mass spectra were obtained with an effective hit rate of 8%. Some of these mass spectra were found to be very different from one particle to another possibly reflecting chemical differences within the investigated indene SOA particles. Our study shows that an exhaustive statistical analysis, over hundreds of particles

  15. The Casualty Actuarial Society: Helping Universities Train Future Actuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boa, J. Michael; Gorvett, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The Casualty Actuarial Society (CAS) believes that the most effective way to advance the actuarial profession is to work in partnership with universities. The CAS stands ready to assist universities in creating or enhancing courses and curricula associated with property/casualty actuarial science. CAS resources for university actuarial science…

  16. the bulhoek massacre: origins, casualties, reactions and historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their illegal squatting at Bulhoek and the events of 24 May 1921. The second article is entitled: Theprice of fanaticism: the casualties of the Bulhoek massacre. It focuses on the casualties of the massacre on the side of the Israelites and shows that the high number of. Israelites who lost their lives during the incident was due ...

  17. 46 CFR 197.484 - Notice of casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of casualty. 197.484 Section 197.484 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.484 Notice of casualty. (a) In addition to... by this section is not required if the written report required by § 197.486 is submitted within 5...

  18. 46 CFR 197.488 - Retention of records after casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of records after casualty. 197.488 Section 197... HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Records § 197.488 Retention of records... casualty is made under § 197.484 shall retain all records onboard that are maintained on the vessel or...

  19. Research Techniques Made Simple: Experimental Methodology for Single-Cell Mass Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Tiago R; Liu, Hongye; Ritz, Jerome

    2017-04-01

    Growing recognition of the complexity of interactions within cellular systems has fueled the development of mass cytometry. The precision of time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with the labeling of specific ligands with mass tags enables detection and quantification of more than 40 markers at a single-cell resolution. The 135 available detection channels allow simultaneous study of additional characteristics of complex biological systems across millions of cells. Cutting-edge mass cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF) can profoundly affect our knowledge of cell population heterogeneity and hierarchy, cellular state, multiplexed signaling pathways, proteolysis products, and mRNA transcripts. Although CyTOF is currently scarcely used within the field of investigative dermatology, we aim to highlight CyTOF's utility and demystify the technique. CyTOF may, for example, uncover the immunological heterogeneity and differentiation of Langerhans cells, delineate the signaling pathways responsible for each phase of the hair cycle, or elucidate which proteolysis products from keratinocytes promote skin inflammation. However, the success of mass cytometry experiments depends on fully understanding the methods and how to control for variations when making comparisons between samples. Here, we review key experimental methods for CyTOF that enable accurate data acquisition by optimizing signal detection and minimizing background noise and sample-to-sample variation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyquant CT: direct electron and mass density reconstruction from a single polyenergetic source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jonathan H.; Perelli, Alessandro; Nailon, William H.; Davies, Mike E.

    2017-11-01

    Quantifying material mass and electron density from computed tomography (CT) reconstructions can be highly valuable in certain medical practices, such as radiation therapy planning. However, uniquely parameterising the x-ray attenuation in terms of mass or electron density is an ill-posed problem when a single polyenergetic source is used with a spectrally indiscriminate detector. Existing approaches to single source polyenergetic modelling often impose consistency with a physical model, such as water-bone or photoelectric-Compton decompositions, which will either require detailed prior segmentation or restrictive energy dependencies, and may require further calibration to the quantity of interest. In this work, we introduce a data centric approach to fitting the attenuation with piecewise-linear functions directly to mass or electron density, and present a segmentation-free statistical reconstruction algorithm for exploiting it, with the same order of complexity as other iterative methods. We show how this allows both higher accuracy in attenuation modelling, and demonstrate its superior quantitative imaging, with numerical chest and metal implant data, and validate it with real cone-beam CT measurements.

  1. Polyquant CT: direct electron and mass density reconstruction from a single polyenergetic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jonathan H; Perelli, Alessandro; Nailon, William H; Davies, Mike E

    2017-11-02

    Quantifying material mass and electron density from computed tomography (CT) reconstructions can be highly valuable in certain medical practices, such as radiation therapy planning. However, uniquely parameterising the x-ray attenuation in terms of mass or electron density is an ill-posed problem when a single polyenergetic source is used with a spectrally indiscriminate detector. Existing approaches to single source polyenergetic modelling often impose consistency with a physical model, such as water-bone or photoelectric-Compton decompositions, which will either require detailed prior segmentation or restrictive energy dependencies, and may require further calibration to the quantity of interest. In this work, we introduce a data centric approach to fitting the attenuation with piecewise-linear functions directly to mass or electron density, and present a segmentation-free statistical reconstruction algorithm for exploiting it, with the same order of complexity as other iterative methods. We show how this allows both higher accuracy in attenuation modelling, and demonstrate its superior quantitative imaging, with numerical chest and metal implant data, and validate it with real cone-beam CT measurements.

  2. Tailoring Thermal Conductivity of Single-stranded Carbon-chain Polymers through Atomic Mass Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Quanwen; Zeng, Lingping; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2016-10-07

    Tailoring the thermal conductivity of polymers is central to enlarge their applications in the thermal management of flexible integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by fabricating materials with various nanostructures, but a clear relationship between various functional groups and thermal properties of polymers remains to be established. Here, we numerically study the thermal conductivity of single-stranded carbon-chain polymers with multiple substituents of hydrogen atoms through atomic mass modification. We find that their thermal conductivity can be tuned by atomic mass modifications as revealed through molecular dynamics simulations. The simulation results suggest that heavy homogeneous substituents do not assist heat transport and trace amounts of heavy substituents can in fact hinder heat transport substantially. Our analysis indicates that carbon chain has the biggest contribution (over 80%) to the thermal conduction in single-stranded carbon-chain polymers. We further demonstrate that atomic mass modifications influence the phonon bands of bonding carbon atoms, and the discrepancies of phonon bands between carbon atoms are responsible for the remarkable drops in thermal conductivity and large thermal resistances in carbon chains. Our study provides fundamental insight into how to tailor the thermal conductivity of polymers through variable substituents.

  3. Performance analysis of a single stage four bed metal hydride cooling system, part A: Influence of mass recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Kevin; Prakash Maiya, M.; Srinivasa Murthy, S. [Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, 600036, Chennai (India)

    2003-01-01

    The concept of mass recovery in metal hydride systems is studied with a single stage multi-bed cooling system as example. Mass recovery results in variation of bed temperatures due to removal or addition of heat of desorption or absorption respectively. Coefficient of performance and cold output increase while required heat input decreases for the mass recovery cycle. Thus mass recovery between hydride reactors is found to improve system performance compared to that of a basic system. (authors)

  4. Analysis and differentiation of mineral dust by single particle laser mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Lohmann, U.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential of single particle laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of atmospherically relevant mineral dusts. Samples of hematite, goethite, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, silica, quartz, montmorrillonite, kaolinite, illite, hectorite, wollastonite and nephelinsyenit were investigated in positive and negative ion mode with a monopolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer where the desorption/ionization step was performed with a 193 nm excimer laser (∼10 9 W/cm 2 ). Particle size ranged from 500 nm to 3 (micro)m. Positive mass spectra mainly provide elemental composition whereas negative ion spectra provide information on element speciation and of a structural nature. The iron oxide, calcium-rich and aluminosilicate nature of particles is established in positive ion mode. The differentiation of calcium materials strongly relies on the calcium counter-ions in negative mass spectra. Aluminosilicates can be differentiated in both positive and negative ion mode using the relative abundance of various aluminum and silicon ions

  5. Refined source apportionment of coal combustion sources by using single particle mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; Wang, Haiting; Li, Xiujian; Li, Yue; Wen, Jie; Zhang, Jinsheng; Shi, Xurong; Li, Mei; Wang, Wei; Shi, Guoliang; Feng, Yinchang

    2018-06-15

    In this study, samples of three typical coal combustion source types, including Domestic bulk coal combustion (DBCC), Heat supply station (HSS), and Power plant (PP) were sampled and large sets of their mass spectra were obtained and analyzed by SPAMS during winter in a megacity in China. A primary goal of this study involves determining representative size-resolved single particle mass spectral signatures of three source types that can be used in source apportionment activities. Chemical types describe the majority of the particles of each source type were extracted by ART-2a algorithm with distinct size characteristics, and the corresponding tracer signals were identified. Mass spectral signatures from three source types were different from each other, and the tracer signals were effective in distinguishing different source types. A high size-resolution source apportionment method were proposed in this study through matching sources' mass spectral signatures to particle spectra in a twelve days ambient sampling to source apportion the particles. Contributions of three source types got different size characteristics, as HSS source got higher contribution in smaller sizes, But PP source got higher contributions as size increased. Source contributions were also quantified during two typical haze episodes, and results indicated that HSS source (for central-heating) and DBCC source (for domestic heating and cooking) may contribute evidently to pollution formation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Ion mass dependence for low energy channeling in single-wall nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program has been used to study ion mass dependence for the low energy channeling of natural- and pseudo-Ar ions in single-wall nanotubes. The MC simulations show that the channeling critical angle Ψ C obeys the (E) -1/2 and the (M 1 ) -1/2 rules, where E is the incident energy and M 1 is the ion mass. The reason for this may be that the motion of the channeled (or de-channeled) ions should be correlated with both the incident energy E and the incident momentum (2M 1 E) 1/2 , in order to obey the conservation of energy and momentum

  7. Effect of surfactant on single drop mass transfer for extraction of aromatics from lubricating oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izza, H.; Ben Abdessalam, S.; Korichi, M.

    2018-03-01

    Solvent extraction is an effective method for the reduction of the content of aromatic of lubricating oil. Frequently, with phenol, furfural, the NMP (out of N-methyl pyrrolidone). The power solvent and the selectivity can be still to increase while using surfactant as additive which facilitates the separation of phase and increases the yeild in raffinat. Liquid-liquid mass transfer coefficients for single freely rising drops in the presence of surfactant in an extraction column have been investigated. The surfactant used in this study was sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES). The experiments were performed by bubbling a solvent as a series of individual drops from the top of the column containing furfural-SLES solution. The column used in this experiment was made from glass with 17 mm inner diameter and a capacity of 125ml. The effects of the concentration of surfactant on the overall coefficient of mass transfer was investigated.

  8. Empirical Accurate Masses and Radii of Single Stars with TESS and Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Corsaro, Enrico; Pepper, Joshua A.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2018-01-01

    We present a methodology for the determination of empirical masses of single stars through the combination of three direct observables with Gaia and Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS): (i) the surface gravity via granulation-driven variations in the TESS light curve, (ii) the bolometric flux at Earth via the broadband spectral energy distribution, and (iii) the distance via the Gaia parallax. We demonstrate the method using 525 Kepler stars for which these measures are available in the literature, and show that the stellar masses can be measured with this method to a precision of ∼25%, limited by the surface-gravity precision of the granulation “flicker” method (∼0.1 dex) and by the parallax uncertainties (∼10% for the Kepler sample). We explore the impact of expected improvements in the surface gravity determinations—through the application of granulation background fitting and the use of recently published granulation-metallicity relations—and improvements in the parallaxes with the arrival of the Gaia second data release. We show that the application of this methodology to stars that will be observed by TESS should yield radii good to a few percent and masses good to ≈10%. Importantly, the method does not require the presence of an orbiting, eclipsing, or transiting body, nor does it require spatial resolution of the stellar surface. Thus, we can anticipate the determination of fundamental, accurate stellar radii and masses for hundreds of thousands of bright single stars—across the entire sky and spanning the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram—including those that will ultimately be found to host planets.

  9. Performance of the rebuilt SUERC single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Richard P.; Ascough, Philippa L.; Dougans, Andrew; Gallacher, Paul; Gulliver, Pauline; Rood, Dylan H.; Xu, Sheng; Freeman, Stewart P. H. T.

    2015-10-01

    The SUERC bipolar single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) has been dismantled and rebuilt to accommodate an additional rotatable pre-accelerator electrostatic spherical analyser (ESA) and a second ion source injector. This is for the attachment of an experimental positive-ion electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source in addition to a Cs-sputter source. The ESA significantly suppresses oxygen interference to radiocarbon detection, and remaining measurement interference is now thought to be from 13C injected as 13CH molecule scattering off the plates of a second original pre-detector ESA.

  10. High-sensitivity Mass Spectrometry for Probing Gene Translation in Single Embryonic Cells in the Early Frog (Xenopus Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Lombard-Banek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of protein expression with single-cell resolution promises to deepen the understanding of basic molecular processes during normal and impaired development. High-resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed coverage of the proteomic composition of large numbers of cells. Here we discuss recent mass spectrometry developments based on single-cell capillary electrophoresis that extend discovery proteomics to sufficient sensitivity to enable the measurement of proteins in single cells. The single-cell mass spectrometry system is used to detect a large number of proteins in single embryonic cells in blastomeres in the 16-cell embryo of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis that give rise to distinct tissue types. Single-cell measurements of protein expression provide complementary information on gene transcription during early development of the vertebrate embryo, raising a potential to understand how differential gene expression coordinates normal cell heterogeneity during development.

  11. Mass Cytometry for Detection of Silver at the Bacterial Single Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Guo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mass cytometry (Cytometry by Time of Flight, CyTOF allows single-cell characterization on the basis of specific metal-based cell markers. In addition, other metals in the mass range such as silver can be detected per cell. Bacteria are known to be sensible to silver and a protocol was developed to measure both the number of affected cells per population and the quantities of silver per cell.Methods: For mass cytometry ruthenium red was used as a marker for all cells of a population while parallel application of cisplatin discriminated live from dead cells. Silver quantities per cell and frequencies of silver containing cells in a population were measured by mass cytometry. In addition, live/dead subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry and distinguished by cell sorting based on ruthenium red and propidium iodide double staining. Verification of the cells’ silver load was performed on the bulk level by using ICP-MS in combination with cell sorting. The protocol was developed by conveying both, fast and non-growing Pseudomonas putida cells as test organisms.Results: A workflow for labeling bacteria in order to be analyzed by mass cytometry was developed. Three different parameters were tested: ruthenium red provided counts for all bacterial cells in a population while consecutively applied cisplatin marked the frequency of dead cells. Apparent population heterogeneity was detected by different frequencies of silver containing cells. Silver quantities per cell were also well measurable. Generally, AgNP-10 treatment caused higher frequencies of dead cells, higher frequencies of silver containing cells and higher per-cell silver quantities. Due to an assumed chemical equilibrium of free and bound silver ions live and dead cells were associated with silver in equal quantities and this preferably during exponential growth. With ICP-MS up to 1.5 fg silver per bacterial cell were detected.Conclusion: An effective mass cytometry

  12. 33 CFR 174.106 - State casualty reporting system optional sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State casualty reporting system... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS Casualty Reporting System Requirements § 174.106 State casualty reporting system optional sections. In addition to...

  13. Protective measures while treating CWA casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medema, J.

    2009-01-01

    When Chemical Warfare agent casualties are brought into a medical facility they are usually decontaminated before receiving treatment. The decontamination can range from simply undressing to complex entry/exit procedures for a collective protection medical shelter. It is expected that the decontamination has reduced the contamination to such a degree that there is no more hazard for the medical personnel from emanating CWA vapors. However there is quite some evidence that this is usually not the case and additional protective measures are required in order to have the medical staff operating unhindered and not endangered by albeit low but still hazardous CWA vapor concentrations that at the end of the day would have adverse effects on the capabilities of the medical staff. In the paper some simple but effective means will be described that will reduce the exposure of the medical staff to.(author)

  14. Single-Cell Mass Cytometry Analysis of Human Tonsil T Cell Remodeling by Varicella Zoster Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Sen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although pathogens must infect differentiated host cells that exhibit substantial diversity, documenting the consequences of infection against this heterogeneity is challenging. Single-cell mass cytometry permits deep profiling based on combinatorial expression of surface and intracellular proteins. We used this method to investigate varicella-zoster virus (VZV infection of tonsil T cells, which mediate viral transport to skin. Our results indicate that VZV induces a continuum of changes regardless of basal phenotypic and functional T cell characteristics. Contrary to the premise that VZV selectively infects T cells with skin trafficking profiles, VZV infection altered T cell surface proteins to enhance or induce these properties. Zap70 and Akt signaling pathways that trigger such surface changes were activated in VZV-infected naive and memory cells by a T cell receptor (TCR-independent process. Single-cell mass cytometry is likely to be broadly relevant for demonstrating how intracellular pathogens modulate differentiated cells to support pathogenesis in the natural host.

  15. The utility of focused assessment with sonography for trauma as a triage tool in multiple-casualty incidents during the second Lebanon war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Razi, Nira; Fischer, Doron; Michaelson, Moshe; Engel, Ahuva; Gaitini, Diana

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) as a triage tool in multiple-casualty incidents (MCIs) for a single international conflict. The charts of 849 casualties that arrived at our level 1 trauma referral center were reviewed. Casualties were initially triaged according to the Injury Severity Score at the emergency department gate. Two-hundred eighty-one physically injured patients, 215 soldiers (76.5%) and 66 civilians (23.5%), were admitted. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma was performed in 102 casualties suspected to have an abdominal injury. Sixty-eight underwent computed tomography (CT); 12 underwent laparotomy; and 28 were kept under clinical observation alone. We compared FAST results against CT, laparotomy, and clinical observation records. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma results were positive in 17 casualties and negative in 85. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of FAST were 75%, 97.6%, 88.2%, 94.1%, and 93.1%, respectively. A strong correlation between FAST and CT results, laparotomy, and clinical observation was obtained (P war conflict-related MCI, FAST enabled immediate triage of casualties to laparotomy, CT, or clinical observation. Because of its moderate sensitivity, a negative FAST result with strong clinical suspicion demands further evaluation, especially in an MCI.

  16. Mass Spectrometry of Single Particles Levitated in an Electrodynamic Balance: Applications to Laboratory Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic changes to atmospheric aerosol particle composition (e.g., originating from evaporation/condensation, oxidative aging, or aqueous-phase chemical reactions) impact particle properties with importance for understanding particle effects on climate and human health. These changes can take place over the entire lifetime of an atmospheric particle, which can extend over multiple days. Previous laboratory studies of such processes have included analyzing single particles suspended in a levitation device, such as an electrodynamic balance (EDB), an optical levitator, or an acoustic trap, using optical detection techniques. However, studying chemically complex systems can require an analytical method, such as mass spectrometry, that provides more molecular specificity. Existing work coupling particle levitation with mass spectrometry is more limited and largely has consisted of acoustic levitation of millimeter-sized droplets.In this work an EDB has been coupled with a custom-built ionization source and commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) as a platform for laboratory atmospheric chemistry research. Single charged particles (radius 10 μm) have been injected into an EDB, levitated for an arbitrarily long period of time, and then transferred to a vaporization-corona discharge ionization region for MS analysis. By analyzing a series of particles of identical composition, residing in the controlled environment of the EDB for varying times, we can trace the chemical evolution of a particle over hours or days, appropriate timescales for understanding transformations of atmospheric particles.To prove the concept of our EDB-MS system, we have studied the evaporation of particles consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules of mixed chain lengths, used as a benchmark system. Our system can quantify the composition of single particles (see Figure for sample spectrum of a single PEG-200 particle: PEG parent ions labeled with m/z, known PEG fragment ions

  17. Characteristics of tyre dust in polluted air: Studies by single particle mass spectrometry (ATOFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; Gietl, Johanna K.; Olatunbosun, Oluremi A.; Yang, Xiaoguang; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-09-01

    There is a paucity of quantitative knowledge on the contributions of non-exhaust (abrasion and re-suspension) sources to traffic emissions. Abrasive emissions can be broadly categorised as tyre wear, brake wear and road dust/road surface wear. Current research often considers road dust and tyre dust as externally mixed particles, the former mainly composed of mineral matter and the latter solely composed of mainly organic matter and some trace elements. The aim of this work was to characterise tyre wear from both laboratory and field studies by using Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (ATOFMS). Real-time single particle chemical composition was obtained from a set of rubber tyres rotating on a metal surface. Bimodal particle number size distributions peaking at 35 nm and 85 nm were obtained from SMPS/APS measurements over the range 6-20,000 nm. ATOFMS mass spectra of tyre wear in the particle size range 200-3000 nm diameter show peaks due to exo-sulphur compounds, nitrate, Zn and ions of high molecular weight (m/z > 100) attributed to organic polymers. Two large ATOFMS datasets collected from a number of outdoor studies were examined. The former was constituted of 48 road dust samples collected on the roads of London. The latter consisted of ATOFMS ambient air field studies from Europe, overall composed of more than 2,000,000 single particle mass spectra. The majority (95%) of tyre wear particles present in the road dust samples and atmospheric samples are internally mixed with metals (Li, Na, Ca, Fe, Ti), as well as phosphate. It is concluded that the interaction of tyres with the road surface creates particles internally mixed from two sources: tyre rubber and road surface materials. Measurements of the tyre rubber component alone may underestimate the contribution of tyre wear to concentrations of airborne particulate matter. The results presented are especially relevant for urban aerosol source apportionment and PM2.5 exposure assessment.

  18. Management of mass burns casualty: the Jesse Fire Disaster | Giwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Mass casualty from electrical injury at Makurdi, Nigeria | Akaa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contact of the gate with the power lines caused production of sparks and electrocution of the patients. Results: There were 2 instant mortalities, varying levels of electrical shock in 7 and burns in 3 patients. The hall mark of treatment was resuscitation, and management of the burn wounds. No obvious gross internal organ ...

  20. Disaster and mass casualty events in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rita V; Iverson, Ellen; Goodhue, Catherine J; Neches, Robert; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2010-11-01

    Recent disasters involving pediatric victims have highlighted the need for pediatric hospital disaster preparedness. Although children represent 25% of the U.S. population, there are significant gaps in pediatric disaster preparedness across the country. Disaster planners and others tend to overlook pediatric needs, and therefore plans are often inadequate. To establish an effective hospital and community-based pediatric disaster management system, administrative and hospital leadership are key. Disaster planners and hospital leadership should establish and improve their management of pediatric victims in the event of a disaster through staff training, family reunification planning, and use of available pediatric disaster management tools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mass casualty acute pepper spray inhalation – Respiratory severity effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Sweeting*

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: While the respiratory complaint was perceived as being the most detrimental of all presenting complaints, there was an overall non-threatening outcome in all patients. The presenting respiratory complaints were mostly subjective with benign outcome. Although various risk factors associated with severity increase of respiratory status, were present in a few of the index cases patients, their affect was negligible with a resultant benign outcome.

  2. Development of a Mass Casualty Triage Performance Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    cells ultimately leading to cellular death. If untreated, this can progress toward organ failure, and eventually death of the patient ( Guyton & Hall...eds.), Handbook of Workplace Assessment (pp. 165-196). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Guyton , A., & Hall, J. (2006). Chapter 24: Circulatory Shock

  3. Management of the mass casualty from the 2001 Jos crisis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-04

    Nov 4, 2012 ... exhaustion of supplies, poor communication and security threats both within the hospital and outside. Conclusion: Most patients reaching the hospital alive had injuries that did not require lifesaving interventions. Institutional preparedness plan would enable the hospital to have an organized approach to ...

  4. Developing and Organizing a Trauma System and Mass Casualty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After participating in a course on developing a trauma system organized by a top Israeli trauma center, a literature search on the topic on the Internet was done using relevant key words like trauma system and disaster management in Israel using the Google search engine in the pubmed, open access journals and websites ...

  5. Mass casualty response in the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Nobhojit; Kapil, Vikas; Subbarao, Italo; Ashkenazi, Isaac

    2011-12-01

    The November 26-29, 2008, terrorist attacks on Mumbai were unique in its international media attention, multiple strategies of attack, and the disproportionate national fear they triggered. Everyone was a target: random members of the general population, iconic targets, and foreigners alike were under attack by the terrorists. A retrospective, descriptive study of the distribution of terror victims to various city hospitals, critical radius, surge capacity, and the nature of specialized medical interventions was gathered through police, legal reports, and interviews with key informants. Among the 172 killed and 304 injured people, about four-fifths were men (average age, 33 years) and 12% were foreign nationals. The case-fatality ratio for this event was 2.75:1, and the mortality rate among those who were critically injured was 12%. A total of 38.5% of patients arriving at the hospitals required major surgical intervention. Emergency surgical operations were mainly orthopedic (external fixation for compound fractures) and general surgical interventions (abdominal explorations for penetrating bullet/shrapnel injuries). The use of heavy-duty automatic weapons, explosives, hostages, and arson in these terrorist attacks alerts us to new challenges to medical counterterrorism response. The need for building central medical control for a coordinated response and for strengthening public hospital capacity are lessons learned for future attacks. These particular terrorist attacks had global consequences, in terms of increased security checks and alerts for and fears of further similar "Mumbai-style" attacks. The resilience of the citizens of Mumbai is a critical measure of the long-term effects of terror attacks.

  6. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin, Marc; Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2018-02-01

    To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign - 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose - included the relatively low cost of local delivery - US$ 0.41 per dose. We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered.

  7. High-sensitivity Mass Spectrometry for Probing Gene Translation in Single Embryonic Cells in the Early Frog (Xenopus) Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Camille Lombard-Banek; Sally Ann Moody; Peter Nemes

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurement of protein expression with single-cell resolution promises to deepen the understanding of basic molecular processes during normal and impaired development. High-resolution mass spectrometry provides detailed coverage of the proteomic composition of large numbers of cells. Here we discuss recent mass spectrometry developments based on single-cell capillary electrophoresis that extend discovery proteomics to sufficient sensitivity to enable the measurement of proteins in sing...

  8. Analysis of ergosterol in single kernel and ground grain by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanhong; Steffenson, Brian J; Mirocha, Chester J

    2006-06-14

    A method for analyzing ergosterol in a single kernel and ground barley and wheat was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples were saponified in methanolic KOH. Ergosterol was extracted by "one step" hexane extraction and subsequently silylated by N-trimethylsilylimidazole/trimethylchlorosilane (TMSI/TMCS) reagent at room temperature. The recoveries of ergosterol from ground barley were 96.6, 97.1, 97.1, 88.5, and 90.3% at the levels of 0.2, 1, 5, 10, and 20 microg/g (ppm), respectively. The recoveries from a single kernel were between 93.0 and 95.9%. The precision (coefficient of variance) of the method was in the range 0.8-12.3%. The method detection limit (MDL) and the method quantification limit (MQL) were 18.5 and 55.6 ng/g (ppb), respectively. The ergosterol analysis method developed can be used to handle 80 samples daily by one person, making it suitable for screening cereal cultivars for resistance to fungal infection. The ability for detecting low levels of ergosterol in a single kernel provides a tool to investigate early fungal invasion and to study mechanisms of resistance to fungal diseases.

  9. Net-bottom Cage Inserts for Water Bird Casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Belle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available My Bright Idea is a net-bottomed cage insert, which is used to support pelagic avian casualties. The idea was designed and modified by the International Bird Rescue in California (Bird Rescue.

  10. 76 FR 8788 - Riverside Casualty, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... participant. Applicant submits that the joint arrangement between THC and RCI, which was designed to create...] Riverside Casualty, Inc.; Notice of Application February 8, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). [[Page 8789

  11. Single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon-interference identification and positive-ionisation characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcken, K.M., E-mail: klaus.wilcken@ansto.gov.au [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom); Freeman, S.P.H.T.; Xu, S.; Dougans, A. [Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) is a good alternative to conventional spectrometers based on tandem electrostatic acceleration for radiocarbon measurement and permits experimentation with both negative and positive carbon ions. However, such {sup 14}C AMS of either polarity ions is limited by an interference. In the case of anion acceleration we have newly determined this to be summed {sup 13}C and {sup 16}O by improvising an additional Wien filter on our SSAMS deck. Also, {sup 14}C AMS might be improved by removing its dependency on negative-ionisation in a sputter ion source. This requires negative-ionisation of sample atoms elsewhere to suppress the {sup 14}N interference, which we accomplish by transmitting initially positive ions through a thin membrane. The ionisation dependence on ion-energy is found to be consistent with previous experimentation with vapours and thicker foils.

  12. Fermion Masses and Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking from a Single U(1)

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, D.Elazzar; Masiero, Antonio; Nelson, Ann E.; Riotto, Antonio; Lepeintre, Francois; Masiero, Antonio; Nelson, Ann E.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric model of flavor. A single U(1) gauge group is responsible for both generating the flavor spectrum and communicating supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector. The problem of Flavor Changing Neutral Currents is overcome, in part using an `Effective Supersymmetry' spectrum among the squarks, with the first two generations very heavy. All masses are generated dynamically and the theory is completely renormalizable. The model contains a simple Froggatt-Nielsen sector and communicates supersymmetry breaking via gauge mediation without requiring a separate messenger sector. By forcing the theory to be consistent with SU(5) Grand Unification, the model predicts a large tan beta and a massless up quark. While respecting the experimental bounds on CP violation in the K-system, the model leads to a large enhancement of CP violation in B-(B bar) mixing as well as in B decay amplitudes.

  13. Light-induced heat and mass transfer in a single-component gas in a capillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chermyaninov, I. V.; Chernyak, V. G.; Vilisova, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented of light-induced heat and mass transfer in a single-component gas in a capillary tube at arbitrary Knudsen numbers. Surface and collisional mechanisms of transfer are analyzed, due to differences in accommodation coefficient and collision cross section between excited-and ground-state particles, respectively. Analytical expressions for kinetic coefficients characterizing the gas drift and heat transfer in a capillary tube are obtained in the limits of low and high Knudsen numbers. Numerical computations are performed for intermediate Knudsen numbers. Both drift and heat fluxes are determined as functions of the light beam frequency. In the case of an inhomogeneously broadened absorption line, the light-induced fluxes are found to depend not only on the sign, but also on the amount, of light beam detuning from the absorption line center frequency

  14. Real-time analysis of insoluble particles in glacial ice using single-particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Matthew; Zawadowicz, Maria A.; Das, Sarah B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.

    2017-11-01

    Insoluble aerosol particles trapped in glacial ice provide insight into past climates, but analysis requires information on climatically relevant particle properties, such as size, abundance, and internal mixing. We present a new analytical method using a time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS) to determine the composition and size of insoluble particles in glacial ice over an aerodynamic size range of ˜ 0.2-3.0 µm diameter. Using samples from two Greenland ice cores, we developed a procedure to nebulize insoluble particles suspended in melted ice, evaporate condensed liquid from those particles, and transport them to the SPMS for analysis. We further determined size-dependent extraction and instrument transmission efficiencies to investigate the feasibility of determining particle-class-specific mass concentrations. We find SPMS can be used to provide constraints on the aerodynamic size, composition, and relative abundance of most insoluble particulate classes in ice core samples. We describe the importance of post-aqueous processing to particles, a process which occurs due to nebulization of aerosols from an aqueous suspension of originally soluble and insoluble aerosol components. This study represents an initial attempt to use SPMS as an emerging technique for the study of insoluble particulates in ice cores.

  15. Particle interactions of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate detected with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetzer, Martin W; Morrical, Bradley D; Fergenson, David P; Imanidis, Georgios

    2017-10-30

    Particle co-associations between the active pharmaceutical ingredients fluticasone propionate and salmeterol xinafoate were examined in dry powder inhaled (DPI) and metered dose inhaled (MDI) combination products. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry was used to investigate the particle interactions in Advair Diskus ® (500/50 mcg) and Seretide ® (125/25 mcg). A simple rules tree was used to identify each compound, either alone or co-associated at the level of the individual particle, using unique marker peaks in the mass spectra for the identification of each drug. High levels of drug particle co-association (fluticasone-salmeterol) were observed in the aerosols emitted from Advair Diskus ® and Seretide ® . The majority of the detected salmeterol particles were found to be in co-association with fluticasone in both tested devices. Another significant finding was that rather coarse fluticasone particles (in DPI) and fine salmeterol particles (both MDI and DPI) were forming the particle co-associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI- photoelectron ionization (PEI portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX, SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1 with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear.

  17. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunguang; Li, Jinxu; Tang, Bin; Zhu, Liping; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI-) photoelectron ionization (PEI) portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE) below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1) with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear. PMID:26587023

  18. Mass transfer ranking of polylysine, poly-ornithine and poly-methylene-co-guanidine microcapsule membranes using a single low molecular mass marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosinski Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the long way to clinical transplantable hybrid systems, comprising of cells, acting as immuno-protected bioreactors microencapsulated in a polymeric matrix and delivering desired factors (proteins, hormones, enzymes etc to the patient's body, an important step is the optimization of the microcapsule. This topic includes the selection of a proper coating membrane which could fulfil, first of all, the mass transfer as well as biocompatibility, stability and durability requirements. Three different membranes from polymerised aminoacids, formed around exactly identical alginate gel cores, were considered, concerning their mass transport properties, as potential candidates in this task. The results of the evaluation of the mass ingress and mass transfer coefficient h for the selected low molecular mass marker, vitamin B12, in poly-L-lysine (HPLL poly-L-ornithine (HPLO and poly-methylene-co-guanidine hydrochloride (HPMCG membrane alginate microcapsules demonstrate the advantage of using the mass transfer approach to a preliminary screening of various microcapsule formulations. Applying a single marker and evaluating mass transfer coefficients can help to quickly rank the investigated membranes and microcapsules according to their permeability. It has been demonstrated that HPLL, HPLO and HPMCG microcapsules differ from each other by a factor of two concerning the rate of low molecular mass marker transport. Interesting differences in mass transfer through the membrane in both directions in-out was also found, which could possibly be related to the membrane asymmetry.

  19. Systematic survey of the effects of wind mass loss algorithms on the evolution of single massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzo, M.; Ott, C. D.; Shore, S. N.; de Mink, S. E.

    2017-07-01

    Mass loss processes are a key uncertainty in the evolution of massive stars. They determine the amount of mass and angular momentum retained by the star, thus influencing its evolution and presupernova structure. Because of the high complexity of the physical processes driving mass loss, stellar evolution calculations must employ parametric algorithms, and usually only include wind mass loss. We carried out an extensive parameter study of wind mass loss and its effects on massive star evolution using the open-source stellar evolution code MESA. We provide a systematic comparison of wind mass loss algorithms for solar-metallicity, nonrotating, single stars in the initial mass range of 15 M⊙ to 35 M⊙. We consider combinations drawn from two hot phase (I.e., roughly the main sequence) algorithms, three cool phase (I.e., post-main-sequence) algorithms, and two Wolf-Rayet mass loss algorithms. We discuss separately the effects of mass loss in each of these phases. In addition, we consider linear wind efficiency scale factors of 1, 0.33, and 0.1 to account for suggested reductions in mass loss rates due to wind inhomogeneities. We find that the initial to final mass mapping for each zero-age main-sequence (ZAMS) mass has a 50% uncertainty if all algorithm combinations and wind efficiencies are considered. The ad-hoc efficiency scale factor dominates this uncertainty. While the final total mass and internal structure of our models vary tremendously with mass loss treatment, final luminosity and effective temperature are much less sensitive for stars with ZAMS mass ≲ 30 M⊙. This indicates that uncertainty in wind mass loss does not negatively affect estimates of the ZAMS mass of most single-star supernova progenitors from pre-explosion observations. Our results furthermore show that the internal structure of presupernova stars is sensitive to variations in both main sequence and post main-sequence mass loss. The compactness parameter ξ ∝ ℳ /R(ℳ) has been

  20. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  1. A laser desorption-electron impact ionization ion trap mass spectrometer for real-time analysis of single atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hanna, S. J.; Robb, D. B.; Hepburn, J. H.; Blades, M. W.; Bertram, A. K.

    2009-04-01

    A novel aerosol ion trap mass spectrometer combining pulsed IR laser desorption with electron impact (EI) ionization for single particle studies is described. The strengths of this instrument include a two-step desorption and ionization process to minimize matrix effects; electron impact ionization, a universal and well-characterized ionization technique; vaporization and ionization inside the ion trap to improve sensitivity; and an ion trap mass spectrometer for MSn experiments. The instrument has been used for mass spectral identification of laboratory generated pure aerosols in the 600 nm-1.1 [mu]m geometric diameter range of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic compounds, as well as for tandem mass spectrometry studies (up to MS3) of single caffeine particles. We investigate the effect of various operational parameters on the mass spectrum and fragmentation patterns. The single particle detection limit of the instrument was found to be a 325 nm geometric diameter particle (8.7 × 107 molecules or 22 fg) for 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Lower single particle detection limits are predicted to be attainable by modifying the EI pulse. The use of laser desorption-electron impact (LD-EI) in an ion trap is a promising technique for determining the size and chemical composition of single aerosol particles in real time.

  2. Fast detection of narcotics by single photon ionization mass spectrometry and laser ion mobility spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Robert; Schultze, Rainer; Wieser, Jochen

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution two analytical devices for the fast detection of security-relevant substances like narcotics and explosives are presented. One system is based on an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) with single photon ionization (SPI). This soft ionization technique, unlike electron impact ionization (EI), reduces unwanted fragment ions in the mass spectra allowing the clear determination of characteristic (usually molecular) ions. Their enrichment in the ion trap and identification by tandem MS investigations (MS/MS) enables the detection of the target substances in complex matrices at low concentrations without time-consuming sample preparation. For SPI an electron beam pumped excimer light source of own fabrication (E-Lux) is used. The SPI-ITMS system was characterized by the analytical study of different drugs like cannabis, heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, and some precursors. Additionally, it was successfully tested on-site in a closed illegal drug laboratory, where low quantities of MDMA could be directly detected in samples from floors, walls and lab equipments. The second analytical system is based on an ion mobility (IM) spectrometer with resonant multiphoton ionization (REMPI). With the frequency quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm), used for ionization, a selective and sensitive detection of aromatic compounds is possible. By application of suited aromatic dopants, in addition, also non-aromatic polar compounds are accessible by ion molecule reactions like proton transfer or complex formation. Selected drug precursors could be successfully detected with this device as well, qualifying it to a lower-priced alternative or useful supplement of the SPI-ITMS system for security analysis.

  3. Single?Cell Mass Spectrometry for Discovery Proteomics: Quantifying Translational Cell Heterogeneity in the 16?Cell Frog (Xenopus) Embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard?Banek, Camille; Moody, Sally A.; Nemes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We advance mass spectrometry from a cell population?averaging tool to one capable of quantifying the expression of diverse proteins in single embryonic cells. Our instrument combines capillary electrophoresis (CE), electrospray ionization, and a tribrid ultrahigh?resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) to enable untargeted (discovery) proteomics with ca. 25?amol lower limit of detection. CE??ESI?HRMS enabled the identification of 500?800 nonredundant protein groups by measuring 20?ng, or

  4. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer....

  5. Implications for modeling casualty sustainment during peacekeeping operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Christopher G; Zhang, Jinjin; Walker, G Jay

    2002-10-01

    Projections of the casualties expected during peacekeeping operations allow medical planners to assess in advance the medical resources needed to support such operations. Data detailing fatalities incurred in previous peacekeeping operations were extracted from several U.N. sources. From these data, rates of killed-in-action were computed for the deployed forces. One hundred eighty-eight peacekeeping incidents in which casualties were sustained were also examined to derive wounded-in-action rates. The estimated mean wounded-in-action rate for these operations was 3.16 per 1,000 strength per year; the estimated wounded-in-action rate for individual operations ranged from 0.49 to 12.50. There were an average of 3.8 wounded and 0.86 killed in the 188 casualty incidents examined. Thirty-eight percent of the wounds were described as serious. The casualty incidence derived in this study can provide a basis for estimating the casualties likely in future peacekeeping operations.

  6. Traffic accidents involving fatigue driving and their extent of casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangnan; Yau, Kelvin K W; Zhang, Xun; Li, Yanyan

    2016-02-01

    The rapid progress of motorization has increased the number of traffic-related casualties. Although fatigue driving is a major cause of traffic accidents, the public remains not rather aware of its potential harmfulness. Fatigue driving has been termed as a "silent killer." Thus, a thorough study of traffic accidents and the risk factors associated with fatigue-related casualties is of utmost importance. In this study, we analyze traffic accident data for the period 2006-2010 in Guangdong Province, China. The study data were extracted from the traffic accident database of China's Public Security Department. A logistic regression model is used to assess the effect of driver characteristics, type of vehicles, road conditions, and environmental factors on fatigue-related traffic accident occurrence and severity. On the one hand, male drivers, trucks, driving during midnight to dawn, and morning rush hours are identified as risk factors of fatigue-related crashes but do not necessarily result in severe casualties. Driving at night without street-lights contributes to fatigue-related crashes and severe casualties. On the other hand, while factors such as less experienced drivers, unsafe vehicle status, slippery roads, driving at night with street-lights, and weekends do not have significant effect on fatigue-related crashes, yet accidents associated with these factors are likely to have severe casualties. The empirical results of the present study have important policy implications on the reduction of fatigue-related crashes as well as their severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrodynamic balance-mass spectrometry of single particles as a new platform for atmospheric chemistry research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, Adam W.; Krieger, Ulrich K.; Keutsch, Frank N.

    2018-01-01

    New analytical techniques are needed to improve our understanding of the intertwined physical and chemical processes that affect the composition of aerosol particles in the Earth's atmosphere, such as gas-particle partitioning and homogenous or heterogeneous chemistry, and their ultimate relation to air quality and climate. We describe a new laboratory setup that couples an electrodynamic balance (EDB) to a mass spectrometer (MS). The EDB stores a single laboratory-generated particle in an electric field under atmospheric conditions for an arbitrarily long length of time. The particle is then transferred via gas flow to an ionization region that vaporizes and ionizes the analyte molecules before MS measurement. We demonstrate the feasibility of the technique by tracking evaporation of polyethylene glycol molecules and finding agreement with a kinetic model. Fitting data to the kinetic model also allows determination of vapor pressures to within a factor of 2. This EDB-MS system can be used to study fundamental chemical and physical processes involving particles that are difficult to isolate and study with other techniques. The results of such measurements can be used to improve our understanding of atmospheric particles.

  8. Single Particle Laser Mass Spectrometry Applied to Differential Ice Nucleation Experiments at the AIDA Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallavardin, S. J.; Froyd, Karl D.; Lohmann, U.; Moehler, Ottmar; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Experiments conducted at the Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere (AIDA) chamber located in Karlsruhe, Germany permit investigation of particle properties that affect the nucleation of ice at temperature and water vapor conditions relevant to cloud microphysics and climate issues. Ice clouds were generated by heterogeneous nucleation of Arizona test dust (ATD), illite, and hematite and homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid. Ice crystals formed in the chamber were inertially separated from unactivated, or 'interstitial' aerosol particles with a pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), then evaporated. The ice residue (i.e., the aerosol which initiated ice nucleation plus any material which was scavenged from the gas- and/or particle-phase), was chemically characterized at the single particle level using a laser ionization mass spectrometer. In this manner the species that first nucleated ice could be identified out of a mixed aerosol population in the chamber. Bare mineral dust particles were more effective ice nuclei (IN) than similar particles with a coating. Metallic particles from contamination in the chamber initiated ice nucleation before other species but there were few enough that they did not compromise the experiments. Nitrate, sulfate, and organics were often detected on particles and ice residue, evidently from scavenging of trace gas-phase species in the chamber. Hematite was a more effective ice nucleus than illite. Ice residue was frequently larger than unactivated test aerosol due to the formation of aggregates due to scavenging, condensation of contaminant gases, and the predominance of larger aerosol in nucleation

  9. Portable Prehospital Methods to Treat Near-Hypothermic Shivering Cold Casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Samuel J; Brierley, Jennifer L; Raymond-Barker, Philippa C; Dolci, Alberto; Walsh, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a single-layered polyethylene survival bag (P), a single-layered polyethylene survival bag with a hot drink (P+HD), a multi-layered metalized plastic sheeting survival bag (MPS: Blizzard Survival), and a multi-layered MPS survival bag with 4 large chemical heat pads (MPS+HP: Blizzard Heat) to treat cold casualties. Portable cold casualty treatment methods were compared by examining core and skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and thermal comfort during a 3-hour, 0°C cold air exposure in 7 shivering, near-hypothermic men (35.4°C). The hot drink (70°C, ~400 ml, ~28 kJ) was consumed at 0, 1, and 2 hours during the cold air exposure. During the cold air exposure, core rewarming and thermal comfort were similar on all trials (P = .45 and P = .36, respectively). However, skin temperature was higher (10%-13%; P 2.7) and metabolic heat production lower (15%-39%; P .9) on MPS and MPS+HP than P and P+HD. The addition of heat pads further lowered metabolic heat production by 15% (MPS+HP vs MPS; P = .05; large effect size d = .9). The addition of the hot drink to polyethylene survival bag did not increase skin temperature or lower metabolic heat production. Near-hypothermic cold casualties are rewarmed with less peripheral cold stress and shivering thermogenesis using a multi-layered MPS survival bag compared with a polyethylene survival bag. Prehospital rewarming is further aided by large chemical heat pads but not by hot drinks. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of ambient aerosols in northern Mexico City by single particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Moffet

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous ambient measurements with aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS were made in an industrial/residential section in the northern part of Mexico City as part of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area-2006 campaign (MCMA-2006. Results are presented for the period of 15–27 March 2006. The submicron size mode contained both fresh and aged biomass burning, aged organic carbon (OC mixed with nitrate and sulfate, elemental carbon (EC, nitrogen-organic carbon, industrial metal, and inorganic NaK inorganic particles. Overall, biomass burning and aged OC particle types comprised 40% and 31%, respectively, of the submicron mode. In contrast, the supermicron mode was dominated by inorganic NaK particle types (42% which represented a mixture of dry lake bed dust and industrial NaK emissions mixed with soot. Additionally, aluminosilicate dust, transition metals, OC, and biomass burning contributed to the supermicron particles. Early morning periods (2–6 a.m. showed high fractions of inorganic particles from industrial sources in the northeast, composed of internal mixtures of Pb, Zn, EC and Cl, representing up to 73% of the particles in the 0.2–3μm size range. A unique nitrogen-containing organic carbon (NOC particle type, peaking in the early morning hours, was hypothesized to be amines from local industrial emissions based on the time series profile and back trajectory analysis. A strong dependence on wind speed and direction was observed in the single particle types that were present during different times of the day. The early morning (3:30–10 a.m. showed the greatest contributions from industrial emissions. During mid to late mornings (7–11 a.m., weak northerly winds were observed along with the most highly aged particles. Stronger winds from the south picked up in the late morning (after 11 a.m., resulting in a decrease in the concentrations of the major aged particle types and an increase in the number fraction of fresh

  11. The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates during Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER AD-A271 748 THE BATTLE FOR HUE: CASUALTY AND DISEASE RATES DURING URBAN WARFARE C. G. Blood M. E. Anderson DTIC...prior to the first casualties being sustained. 2 The Battle for Flue: Casualty and Disease Rates During Urban Warfare Renewed nationalism with the ending...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS The Battle for Hue: Casualty and Disease Rates Program Element: 63706N During Urban Warfare Work Unit Number: 6

  12. Casualty Crash Types for which Teens are at Excess Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, C. R.; Shope, J. T.

    2007-01-01

    This study identified casualty crash types for which teen drivers experience excess risk relative to adults. Michigan State Police crash records were used to examine casualty crashes in two statewide populations of drivers who experienced at least one crash from 1989–1996 (pre-graduated driver licensing in Michigan): teens (ages 16–19) and adults (ages 45–65). Rates and rate ratios (RR) based on crash occurrence per 100,000 person miles driven (PMD) compared teens and adults from the two stat...

  13. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., casualty, or act of God. 25.282 Section 25.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by... by fire, casualty, or act of God. The tax liability on excessive losses of beer from transfer between...

  14. 33 CFR 174.101 - Applicability of State casualty reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reporting system. 174.101 Section 174.101 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY STATE NUMBERING AND CASUALTY REPORTING SYSTEMS Casualty Reporting System Requirements § 174.101 Applicability of State casualty reporting system. (a) A State...

  15. The use of advanced simulation in the training of anesthesiologists to treat chemical warfare casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkenstadt, Haim; Ziv, Amitai; Barsuk, Daphna; Levine, Inbal; Cohen, Amir; Vardi, Amir

    2003-06-01

    Training anesthesiologists to treat nerve gas intoxication in a mass casualty scenario is a complicated task. The scenario is an unfamiliar medical situation involving the need to decontaminate patients before providing definitive medical treatment, and the need for physical protection to the medical team before decontamination. We describe the development of a simulation-based training program. In one site of a virtual hospital, anesthesiologists were trained in initial airway and breathing resuscitation before decontamination while wearing full protective gear. In another site, they were trained in the treatment of critically-ill patients with combined conventional and chemical injuries or severe intoxication. Intubation simulators of newborn, pediatric, and adult patients, advanced full-scale simulators, and actors simulating patients were used. Initial airway, breathing, and antidotal treatment were performed successfully, with or without full protective gear. The gas mask did not interfere with orotracheal intubation, but limited effective communication within the medical team. Chemical protective gloves were the limiting factor in the performance of medical tasks such as fixing the orotracheal tube. Twenty-two participants (88%) pointed out that the simulated cases represented realistic problems in this scenario, and all 25 participants found the simulated-based training superior to previous traditional training they had in this field. Using advanced simulation, we were able to train anesthesiologists to treat nerve gas intoxication casualties and to learn about the limitations of providing medical care in this setting. Advanced medical simulation can be used to train anesthesiologists to treat nonconventional warfare casualties. The limitations of medical performance in full protective gear can be learned from this training.

  16. Viscous slip coefficients for binary gas mixtures measured from mass flow rates through a single microtube

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, H.; Takamori, K.; Perrier, P.; Graur, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Niimi, T.

    2016-01-01

    The viscous slip coefficient for helium-argon binary gas mixture is extracted from the experimental values of the mass flow rate through a microtube. The mass flow rate is measured by the constant-volume method. The viscous slip coefficient was obtained by identifying the measured mass flow rate through a microtube with the corresponding analytical expression, which is a function of the Knudsen number. The measurements were carried out in the slip flow regime where the first-order slip bounda...

  17. Effect of Structural Heterogeneity in Chemical Composition on Online Single-Particle Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Sea Spray Aerosol Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Camille M; Collins, Douglas B; Prather, Kimberly A

    2017-04-04

    Knowledge of the surface composition of sea spray aerosols (SSA) is critical for understanding and predicting climate-relevant impacts. Offline microscopy and spectroscopy studies have shown that dry supermicron SSA tend to be spatially heterogeneous particles with sodium- and chloride-rich cores surrounded by organic enriched surface layers containing minor inorganic seawater components such as magnesium and calcium. At the same time, single-particle mass spectrometry reveals several different mass spectral ion patterns, suggesting that there may be a number of chemically distinct particle types. This study investigates factors controlling single particle mass spectra of nascent supermicron SSA. Depth profiling experiments conducted on SSA generated by a fritted bubbler and total ion intensity analysis of SSA generated by a marine aerosol reference tank were compared with observations of ambient SSA observed at two coastal locations. Analysis of SSA produced by utilizing controlled laboratory methods reveals that single-particle mass spectra with weak sodium ion signals can be produced by the desorption of the surface of typical dry SSA particles composed of salt cores and organic-rich coatings. Thus, this lab-based study for the first time unifies findings from offline and online measurements as well as lab and field studies of the SSA particle-mixing state.

  18. Updates to Blast Injury Criteria Models for Nuclear Casualty Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    based Casualty Assessment (ORCA) software package contains models which track penetrating fragments and determine the likelihood of injury caused by the...pedestrian and bicycle accidents,” The Institute of Traffic Accident Investigators. Proceedings of the 5th Interantional Conference: 17th and 18th

  19. Iraqi Civilian: Police, and Security Forces Casualty Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-14

    2006.1 These figures combine two counts: one from the Iraq Ministry of Health, which records deaths reported by hospitals; and one from the Medico ...casualties as well using an IBC-like method of posting media reports of deaths. ICCC, like IBC, is prone to the kind of errors likely when using media

  20. 26 CFR 1.165-7 - Casualty losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... repairs do not care for more than the damage suffered, and (d) the value of the property after the repairs... where damage by casualty has occurred to a building and ornamental or fruit trees used in a trade or business, the decrease in value shall be measured by taking the building and trees into account separately...

  1. The interaction between liquid motion and mass transfer induced by single rising bubble via PIV/LIE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Kenjo; Yamamoto, Manabu; Sone, Daiji; Saito, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Deep understanding of gas-liquid two phase flows is essential for safe operation and high efficiency of nuclear reactors, chemical reactors and so on. In this study, we focus on the process of mass transfer induced by a single rising bubble. The mass transfer process of a zigzag ascending single bubble is investigated via LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry). From these results, we discuss the relationship between the mass transfer and the surrounding liquid motion of the single bubble. We examined single CO 2 -bubbles of 2-3 mm in equivalent diameter, which shows zigzagging motion in rest water. To directly visualize the dynamic mass transfer of CO 2 from the bubble surface to the surrounding liquid, HPTS (8-hydroxypyrene-1, 3, 6-trisulfonic acid) was used as a fluorescent substance for LIF. From LIF results, it was observed that the CO 2 -rich regions were spread by advective flow in the rest water as horseshoe-like vortices. From LIF results combined with the PIV results, it was observed that the horseshoe-like vortices were transported by the fast upward flow (buoyancy driven flow). Especially, in the case of a larger-diameter bubble with large shape oscillations, the high turbulence intensity (in a strict sense, fluctuation intensity of the liquid-phase velocity) was observed. The CO 2 -rich regions spread over a wide range by the strong flow. As a result, it is considered that the high turbulence intensity which was caused by the shape oscillations enhances the mass transportation from the bubble to the surrounding liquid. (author)

  2. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions—I. Single reversible chemical reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, G.F.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Beckum, F.P.H. van; Swaaij, W.P.M. van

    1989-01-01

    An improved numerical technique was used in order to develop an absorption model with which it is possible to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon of mass transfer accompanied by a complex reversible chemical reaction. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass

  3. Mass transfer with complex reversible chemical reactions I. Single reversible chemical reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Geert; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Beckum, F.P.H.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1989-01-01

    An improved numerical technique was used in order to develop an absorption model with which it is possible to calculate rapidly absorption rates for the phenomenon of mass transfer accompanied by a complex reversible chemical reaction. This model can be applied for the calculation of the mass

  4. Development of Visible-Wavelength MALDI Cell Mass Spectrometry for High-Efficiency Single-Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; He, Qing; Huang, Xi; Wang, Jiyun; Peng, Wen-Ping; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-12-06

    Mass is a fundamental physical property of an individual cell, from which is revealed the cell growth, cycle, and activity. Taking advantage of cell mass spectrometry (CMS), accurate mass measurement of a charged single cell has been achieved. However, with the increasing demand for high-efficiency single-cell analysis in biology, the limited throughput and inefficient cell desorption/ionization of the CMS inevitably become important issues. To address the challenge, a state of the art visible-wavelength matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) CMS was developed. The employed transmission mode laser ablation and fast evaporation sample preparation enabled the visible-wavelength MALDI to be soft enough and to generate intact charged cells for mass measurement. By using resorufin as matrix, ten sorts of cells, viz., red blood cells (RBCs), Jurkat (JK), CCRF-CEM, SNU-5, BGC-803, MCF-7, L-O2, 293T, Hep G2, and A549 cells, have been successfully analyzed. It was found that the desorption/ionization efficiency of visible-wavelength MALDI was at least 3-fold higher than that of conventional laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) and relevant to the suspension/adherent property of analyzed cells. Based on the measured mass, different cell types in either the individual or mixed state can be differentiated successfully.

  5. Computer simulations of close encounters between binary and single stars: the effect of the impact velocity and the stellar masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton, L.W.; Hills, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 45 760 simulated encounters between binary and single stars were run to study the effect of impact velocity and the masses of the three stars on the outcome of the collisions. Letting α be the kinetic energy of impact in units of the minimum kinetic energy required to break up the binary, we find that the crossover point between hard binaries (tightly bound binaries which increase their binding energies in the collisions) and soft binaries (more loosely bound binaries which decrease their binding energies in collisions) occurs at αapprox. =0.5 if the impacting single star is equal to or less massive than the binary components and occurs at αapprox. =10 if its mass is three or more times that of the binary components. This bimodal behavior of the crossover point is even more clearly defined when we find its location in terms of the impact velocity V/sub f/ , expressed in units of the original mean orbital speed V/sub o/ of the binary. We find that the crossover point occurs at V/sub f//V/sub o/ approx. =0.6 when the mass of the impacting star is equal to or less than that of the more massive binary component, and it occurs at V/sub f//V/sub o/ approx. =1.9 when its mass is three or more times greater than that of this binary component. The probability that the binary will be broken up in the encounter depends greatly on the mass of the impacting single star relative to that of the binary components, as well as on the impact velocity. If the single-star mass equals or exceeds that of the individual binary components, there is an interval of impact velocity over which all the binaries are broken up in encounters at the zero-impact parameter. This interval grows as the mass of the impacting single star increases. If the impacting star is less massive than the binary components, then the maximum probability of dissociation drops dramatically

  6. Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, A. Ravi; Lahiri, S. K.; Das, S.

    2009-02-01

    Performance enhancement of a silicon MEMS piezoresistive single axis accelerometer with electroplated gold on a proof mass is presented in this paper. The fabricated accelerometer device consists of a heavy proof mass supported by four thin flexures. Boron-diffused piezoresistors located near the fixed ends of the flexures are used for sensing the developed stress and hence acceleration. Performance enhancement is achieved by electroplating a gold mass of 20 µm thickness on top of the proof mass. A commercially available sulfite-based solution TSG-250™ was used for the electroplating process. Aluminum metal lines were used to form a Wheatstone bridge for signal pick-up. To avoid galvanic corrosion between two dissimilar metals having contact in an electrolyte, a shadow mask technique was used to selectively deposit a Cr/Au seed layer on an insulator atop the proof mass for subsequent electrodeposition. Bulk micromachining was performed using a 5% dual-doped TMAH solution. Fabricated devices with different electroplated gold areas were tested up to ±13 g acceleration. For electroplated gold dimensions of 2500 µm × 2500 µm × 20 µm on a proof mass, sensitivity along the Z-axis is increased by 21.8% as compared to the structure without gold. Off-axis sensitivities along the X- and Y-axes are reduced by 7.6% and 6.9%, respectively.

  7. A Continuous Molecular Roadmap to iPSC Reprogramming through Progression Analysis of Single-Cell Mass Cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Zunder, Eli R.; Lujan, Ernesto; Goltsev, Yury; Wernig, Marius; Nolan, Garry P.

    2015-01-01

    To analyze cellular reprogramming at the single-cell level, mass cytometry was used to simultaneously measure markers of pluripotency, differentiation, cell-cycle status, and cellular signaling throughout the reprogramming process. Time-resolved progression analysis of the resulting data sets was used to construct a continuous molecular roadmap for three independent reprogramming systems. Although these systems varied substantially in Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc stoichiometry, they presented ...

  8. Implementing and preserving the advances in combat casualty care from Iraq and Afghanistan throughout the US Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank K; Smith, David J; Carmona, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    Thirteen years of continuous combat operations have enabled the US Military and its coalition partners to make a number of major advances in casualty care. The coalition nations have developed a superb combat trauma system and achieved unprecedented casualty survival rates. There remains, however, a need to accelerate the translation of new battlefield trauma care information, training, and equipment to units and individuals deploying in support of combat operations. In addition, the US Military needs to ensure that these advances are sustained during peace intervals and that we continue to build upon our successes as we prepare for future conflicts. This article contains recommendations designed to accomplish those goals. For the proposed actions to benefit all branches of our armed services, the direction will need to come from the Office of the Secretary of Defense in partnership with the Joint Staff. Effective translation of military advances in prehospital trauma care may also increase survival for law enforcement officers wounded in the line of duty and for civilian victims of Active Shooter or terrorist-related mass-casualty incidents.

  9. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer. This was accomplished by employing a combination of soft ionization and desolvation conditions coupled with the radical-driven fragmentation technique electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here, a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap XL is systematically evaluated for its utility in providing single-amide deuterium incorporation for differential HDX analysis of a nuclear receptor upon binding small molecule ligands. We are able to show that instrumental parameters can be optimized to minimize scrambling and can be incorporated into an established and fully automated HDX platform making differential single-amide HDX possible for bottom-up analysis of complex systems. We have applied this system to determine differential single amide resolution HDX data for the peroxizome proliferator activated receptor bound with two ligands of interest.

  10. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogrinc, Nina [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); LOTRIČ Metrology, Selca 163, SI-4227 Selca (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primož, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tomić, Sergej [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Čolić, Miodrag [Medical Faculty of the Military Medical Academy, University of Defense, Crnotravska 17, Belgrade (Serbia); Medical Faculty, University of Niš, Boulevard of Dr. Zoran Djindjić 81, 18000 Niš (Serbia); Beran, Alfred [Dipartimento di Oceanografia Biologica, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale, Via Auguste Piccard 54, 34151 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10{sup −12} g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created.

  11. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, Nina; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka; Tomić, Sergej; Čolić, Miodrag; Beran, Alfred

    2013-07-01

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10-12 g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created.

  12. Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer to Single Bubbles: Effect of Surface Contamination.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vasconcelos, J.M.T.; Orvalho, Sandra; Alves, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 48, 6 (2002) , s. 1145-1154 ISSN 0001-1541 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : bubble * mass tranfer * stagnant-cap model Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.626, year: 2002

  13. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.

    2005-01-01

    Prognostic estimations of the expected number of killed or injured people and about the approximate cost associated with the damages caused by earthquakes are made following a suitable methodology of wide-ranging application. For the preliminary assessment of human life losses due to the occurrence...... of a relatively strong earthquake we use a quantitative model consisting of a correlation between the number of casualties and the earthquake magnitude as a function of population density. The macroseismic intensity field is determined in accordance with an updated anelastic attenuation law, and the number...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...

  14. Characterization of silver nanoparticle aggregates using single particle-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Byung-Tae; Na, So-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ranville, James F; Kim, Soon-Oh; Jo, Eunhye; Eom, Ig-Chun

    2017-03-01

    The single particle-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was applied to characterize the aggregates of AgNPs. was applied to characterize the aggregates of AgNPs. Two sizes of citrate-AgNPs and PVP-AgNPs were used at relatively high and predicted environmental concentrations under various ionic strengths. Citrate-AgNP aggregated with increases in the ionic strength, whereas PVP-AgNPs were sterically stable. The critical coagulation concentrations were 85 mM and 100 mM NaNO 3 for 60 nm and 100 nm citrate-AgNPs at 2 mg L -1 as total Ag obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS). At 2 mg L -1 as total Ag, the mass of an aggregate gradually increased with increasing ionic strength for both citrate-AgNP during spICP-MS analyses. The average number of single particles derived from the mass in an aggregate was calculated to be 8.68 and 5.95 for 60 nm and 100 nm citrate-AgNPs at 85 mM and 100 mM NaNO 3 , respectively after 2 h. The mass fractal dimensions were determined to be 2.97 and 2.83, further implying that the aggregate structures were very rigid and compact. Only marginal increases in the average mass and number of single particles in the aggregate units were found during 24 h under environmentally relevant AgNP concentrations. The average number of single particles constituting an aggregate unit for 60 nm and 100 nm citrate-AgNPs was 1.24 and 1.37 after 24 h at a high ionic strength. These results indicate that under environmentally relevant conditions, the collision frequency is predominant in the aggregation and that NPs are likely to encounter natural colloids such as clay and organic matter to form hetero-aggregates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Tactical Combat Casualty Care 2007: Evolving Concepts and Battlefield Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    torso trauma and respiratory distress Sucking chest wounds should be treated by applying a petroleum gauze during expiration, covering it with tape...be treated with a petroleum gauze applied during expiration, covering it with tape or a field dressing, placing the casualty In the sitting...nonsteroidals primarily because it did not inter- fere with platelet function, as aspirin and cyclooxygenase 1 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  16. Retrospection. Uranium mining Wismut und the legal casualty insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Although the Wismut uranium mining company in the former DDR had 600.000 employees, the company was not mentioned in the contract on the German reunification. The expenses for the health consequences imposed manifold challenges to the legal casualty insurance. The question of responsibility, the conservation, digitalization and evaluation of data concerning the personnel and health information, partially handwritten is a tremendous amount of work.

  17. Single particle electron microscopy in combination with mass spectrometry to investigate novel complexes of membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arteni, Ana A.; Nowaczyk, Marc; Lax, Julia; Rögner, Matthias; Boekema, Egbert J.; Kouril, R.; Rogner, M.

    2005-01-01

    Large data sets of molecular projections of the membrane proteins Photosystem I and Photosystem II from cyanobacteria were analyzed by single particle electron microscopy (EM). Analysis resulted in the averaging of 2D projections from the purified complexes but also in the simultaneous detection and

  18. The online chemical analysis of single particles using aerosol beams and time of flight mass spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kievit, O.; Weiss, M.; Verheijen, P.J.T.; Marijnissen, J.C.M.; Scarlett, B.

    This paper describes an on-line instrument, capable of measuring the size and chemical composition of single aerosol particles. Possible applications include monitoring aerosol reactors and studying atmospheric chemistry. The main conclusion is that a working prototype has been built and tested. It

  19. Measurement uncertainty in single, double and triple isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Jochen

    2012-02-15

    Triple IDMS has been applied for the first time to the quantification of element concentrations. It has been compared with single and double IDMS obtained on the same sample set in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of triple IDMS over single and double IDMS as an analytical reference procedure. The measurement results of single, double and triple IDMS are indistinguishable, considering rounding due to the individual measurement uncertainties. As expected, the relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2) achieved with double IDMS (0.08%) are dramatically smaller than those obtained with single IDMS (1.4%). Triple IDMS yields the smallest relative expanded uncertainties (k = 2, 0.077%) unfortunately at the expense of a much higher workload. Nevertheless triple IDMS has the huge advantage that the isotope ratio of the spike does not need to be determined. Elements with high memory effects, highly enriched spikes or highest metrological requirements may be typical applications for triple IDMS. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Supersymmetric contributions to rare kaon decays: beyond the single mass-insertion approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, G.; Isidori, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1998-08-01

    The paper analyzes the contributions to rare kaon decays mediated by flavor-changing Z-penguin diagrams in a generic low-energy supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. In order to perform a model-independent analysis it was expanded the squark mass matrices around the diagonal, following the so called mass-insertion approximation. It`s argued that in the present case it is necessary to go up to the second order in this expansion to take into account all possible large effects. The current bounds on such second-order term, which was neglected in previous analyses, are discussed in detail and the corresponding upper bounds for the rare kaon decay rates are derived. As a result, it`s shown that supersymmetric effects could lead to large enhancements of K{yields}{pi}{nu}{nu} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}e{sup +}e{sup -} branching ratios.

  1. Single Thai women's interpersonal communication and mass media reception on AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Y; Schunck, M

    1997-04-01

    This research examines young unmarried women's ways of talking about AIDS, AIDS prevention, and its relationship to mass media AIDS messages in Thailand. Data were derived from a survey conducted in four districts of Kanchanaburi province. Three hundred ninety-seven unmarried women were extracted from the approximately 1,800 original subjects for this analysis. Respondents were asked about the subjects and extent of their conversations about AIDS, the choice of discussion partners, considerations of social appropriateness in talking about the disease, as well as their risk perception. Important findings were that (a) women tend to talk about AIDS primarily with friends and siblings, (b) their reception level of mass media messages is related to the number of topics discussed and frequency of talks by the subjects, and (c) socioeconomic status and age are related to the variety and frequency of talking about AIDS. Implications for AIDS education are discussed.

  2. Investigation of work zone crash casualty patterns using association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Zhu, Jia-Zheng; Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Zhiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of the casualty crash characteristics and contributory factors is one of the high-priority issues in traffic safety analysis. In this paper, we propose a method based on association rules to analyze the characteristics and contributory factors of work zone crash casualties. A case study is conducted using the Michigan M-94/I-94/I-94BL/I-94BR work zone crash data from 2004 to 2008. The obtained association rules are divided into two parts including rules with high-lift, and rules with high-support for the further analysis. The results show that almost all the high-lift rules contain either environmental or occupant characteristics. The majority of association rules are centered on specific characteristics, such as drinking driving, the highway with more than 4 lanes, speed-limit over 40mph and not use of traffic control devices. It should be pointed out that some stronger associated rules were found in the high-support part. With the network visualization, the association rule method can provide more understandable results for investigating the patterns of work zone crash casualties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative analysis of cytokinins in plants by liquid chromatography single-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Tarkowski, Petr; Tarkowská, Danuše; Doležal, Karel; Lenobel, René; Strnad, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 480, č. 2 (2003), s. 207ů218 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/01/0275 Grant - others: Volkswagen Stiftung(DE) I/76 865 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910; CEZ:MSM 153100008 Keywords : Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry * Cytokinins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.210, year: 2003

  4. Screening helical CT for mass screening of lung cancer. Application of low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shigeki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Isomura, Takayuki; Endo, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kouji; Itoh, Kengo; Naganawa, Shinji; Maruyama, Kunihiro; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning was investigated for lung cancer screening. Twenty-four helical CT scans of the lung were performed using various parameters in 10 healthy volunteers. The effects of tube current and pitch were evaluated by assessment of image quality and detection of simulated nodules. Screening helical CT was performed at 120 kVp, 50 mA, 1 sec/rotation, 10 mm collimation, and a pitch of 2.0 in 110 patients. The ability of this method to detect nodules and masses, focal parenchymal opacities, and diffuse fibrotic changes was evaluated using conventional CT as the gold standard. A reduction in tube current to 50 mA did not significantly change the assessment of image quality or detection of simulated nodules. Although these factors were degraded by increasing the pitch, there was no significant difference between 1.5 and 2.0. Screening helical CT permitted the entire lung to be scanned with ease during a single-breath-hold in all patients. This method detected 177 of 196 nodules and masses (87 for 91 lesions greater than 5 mm in diameter), 54 of 57 focal parenchymal opacitied, and 15 of 15 cases with fibrotic changes. Screening helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning shows promise for lung cancer screening. (author)

  5. Tailoring Thermal Conductivity of Single-stranded Carbon-chain Polymers through Atomic Mass Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Quanwen; Zeng, Lingping; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Tailoring the thermal conductivity of polymers is central to enlarge their applications in the thermal management of flexible integrated circuits. Progress has been made over the past decade by fabricating materials with various nanostructures, but a clear relationship between various functional groups and thermal properties of polymers remains to be established. Here, we numerically study the thermal conductivity of single-stranded carbon-chain polymers with multiple substituents of hydrogen...

  6. Single-Cell Mass Spectrometry for Discovery Proteomics: Quantifying Translational Cell Heterogeneity in the 16-Cell Frog (Xenopus) Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard-Banek, Camille; Moody, Sally A; Nemes, Peter

    2016-02-12

    We advance mass spectrometry from a cell population-averaging tool to one capable of quantifying the expression of diverse proteins in single embryonic cells. Our instrument combines capillary electrophoresis (CE), electrospray ionization, and a tribrid ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) to enable untargeted (discovery) proteomics with ca. 25 amol lower limit of detection. CE-μESI-HRMS enabled the identification of 500-800 nonredundant protein groups by measuring 20 ng, or embryo, amounting to a total of 1709 protein groups identified between n=3 biological replicates. By quantifying ≈150 nonredundant protein groups between all blastomeres and replicate measurements, we found significant translational cell heterogeneity along multiple axes of the embryo at this very early stage of development when the transcriptional program of the embryo has yet to begin. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  7. Detection and mapping of Cannabinoids in single hair samples through rapid derivatization- Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Beasley, Emma; Francese, Simona; Bassindale, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The sample preparation method reported in this work has permitted for the first time the application of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Profiling and Imaging (MALDI-MSP and MALDI-MSI) for the detection and mapping of cannabinoids in a single hair sample. MALDI-MSI analysis of hair samples has recently been suggested as an alternative technique to traditional methods of GC-MS and LC-MS due to simpler sample preparation, the ability to detect a narrower time frame ...

  8. 'Mass allergy': acute scombroid poisoning in a deployed Australian Defence Force health facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David Ian

    2011-02-01

    On the last night of disaster relief operations in Sumatra, Indonesia, a mass casualty event occurred that involved deployed Australian Defence Force personnel. Symptoms of acute urticaria, angioedema, wheeze and gastrointestinal upset were experienced to varying degrees by 16% of the deployed element. The present report describes a presumed scombroid poisoning cluster and demonstrates the difficulties of operating in a deployed environment, the confusion that might be associated with evolving non-kinetic mass casualties, and provides a learning opportunity for an unusual mass casualty incident. © 2011 The Author. EMA © 2011 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  9. Single-Ion Deconvolution of Mass Peak Overlaps for Atom Probe Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Andrew J; Haley, Daniel; Moody, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    Due to the intrinsic evaporation properties of the material studied, insufficient mass-resolving power and lack of knowledge of the kinetic energy of incident ions, peaks in the atom probe mass-to-charge spectrum can overlap and result in incorrect composition measurements. Contributions to these peak overlaps can be deconvoluted globally, by simply examining adjacent peaks combined with knowledge of natural isotopic abundances. However, this strategy does not account for the fact that the relative contributions to this convoluted signal can often vary significantly in different regions of the analysis volume; e.g., across interfaces and within clusters. Some progress has been made with spatially localized deconvolution in cases where the discrete microstructural regions can be easily identified within the reconstruction, but this means no further point cloud analyses are possible. Hence, we present an ion-by-ion methodology where the identity of each ion, normally obscured by peak overlap, is resolved by examining the isotopic abundance of their immediate surroundings. The resulting peak-deconvoluted data are a point cloud and can be analyzed with any existing tools. We present two detailed case studies and discussion of the limitations of this new technique.

  10. VIRIAL BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES FOR 280,000 AGNs FROM THE SDSS BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY AND SINGLE-EPOCH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Szymon, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie, 4 00-478 Warszawa (Poland)

    2017-01-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Data Release 12 (DR12Q), containing nearly 300,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), to calculate the monochromatic luminosities at 5100, 3000, and 1350 Å, derived from the broadband extinction-corrected SDSS magnitudes. After matching these sources to their counterparts from the SDSS Quasar Data Release 7 (DR7Q), we find very high correlations between our luminosities and DR7Q spectra-based luminosities with minute mean offsets (∼0.01 dex) and dispersions of differences of 0.11, 0.10, and 0.12 dex, respectively, across a luminosity range of 2.5 dex. We then estimate the black hole (BH) masses of the AGNs using the broad line region radius–disk luminosity relations and the FWHM of the Mg ii and C iv emission lines, to provide a catalog of 283,033 virial BH mass estimates (132,451 for Mg ii, 213,071 for C iv, and 62,489 for both) along with the estimates of the bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio for 0.1 <  z  < 5.5 and for roughly a quarter of the sky covered by SDSS. The BH mass estimates from Mg ii turned out to be closely matched to the ones from DR7Q with a dispersion of differences of 0.34 dex across a BH mass range of ∼2 dex. We uncovered a bias in the derived C iv FWHMs from DR12Q as compared to DR7Q, which we correct empirically. The C iv BH mass estimates should be used with caution because the C iv line is known to cause problems in the estimation of BH mass from single-epoch spectra. Finally, after the FWHM correction, the AGN BH mass estimates from C iv closely match the DR7Q ones (with a dispersion of 0.28 dex), and more importantly the Mg ii and C iv BH masses agree internally with a mean offset of 0.07 dex and a dispersion of 0.39 dex.

  11. Changes in ion channel geometry resolved to sub-angstroem precision via single molecule mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Joseph W F; Kasianowicz, John J; Reiner, Joseph E [Semiconductor Electronics Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2010-11-17

    The ion channel formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin switches between multiple open conducting states. We describe a method for precisely estimating the changes in the ion channel geometry that correspond to these different states. Experimentally, we observed that the permeability of a single channel to differently sized poly(ethylene glycol) molecules depends on the magnitude of the open state conductance. A simple theory is proposed for determining changes in channel length of 4.2% and in cross-sectional area of - 0.4%.

  12. Considerations of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion in single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Koon-Sing; Lui, Kwok-On; Lee, Kin-Ho; Chan, Wing-Tat, E-mail: wtchan@hku.hk

    2013-11-01

    The intensity of individual gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters of 80, 100, 150, and 200 nm was measured using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Since the particles are not perfectly monodisperse, a distribution of ICP-MS intensity was obtained for each nominal diameter. The distribution of particle mass was determined from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image of the particles. The distribution of ICP-MS intensity and the distribution of particle mass for each nominal diameter were correlated to give a calibration curve. The calibration curves are linear, but the slope decreases as the nominal diameter increases. The reduced slope is probably due to a smaller degree of vaporization of the large particles. In addition to the degree of particle vaporization, the rate of analyte diffusion in the ICP is an important factor that determines the measured ICP-MS intensity. Simulated ICP-MS intensity versus particle size was calculated using a simple computer program that accounts for the vaporization rate of the gold nanoparticles and the diffusion rate and degree of ionization of the gold atoms. The curvature of the simulated calibration curves changes with sampling depth because the effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion on the ICP-MS intensity are dependent on the residence time of the particle in the ICP. Calibration curves of four hypothetical particles representing the four combinations of high and low boiling points (2000 and 4000 K) and high and low analyte diffusion rates (atomic masses of 10 and 200 Da) were calculated to further illustrate the relative effects of particle vaporization and analyte diffusion. The simulated calibration curves show that the sensitivity of single-particle ICP-MS is smaller than that of the ICP-MS measurement of continuous flow of standard solutions by a factor of 2 or more. Calibration using continuous flow of standard solution is semi-quantitative at best. An

  13. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Improves Survival in Severely Burned Military Casualties With Acute Kidney Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kevin K; Juncos, , Luis A; Wolf, Steven E; Mann, Elizabeth E; Renz, Evan M; White, Christopher E; Barillo, David J; Clark, Richard A; Jones, John A; Edgecombe, Harcourt P

    2007-01-01

    .... We wondered whether early use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) changes outcomes in severely burned military casualties with predetermined criteria for acute kidney injury. Methods...

  14. Energetic Efficiency of Mixing and Mass Transfer in Single Phase and Two-Phase Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałdyga Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a concept of energetic efficiency of mixing is presented and discussed; a classical definition of mixing efficiency is modified to include effects of the Schmidt number and the Reynolds number. Generalization to turbulent flows is presented as well. It is shown how the energetic efficiency of mixing as well as efficiencies of drop breakage and mass transfer in twophase liquid-liquid systems can be identified using mathematical models and test chemical reactions. New expressions for analyzing efficiency problem are applied to identify the energetic efficiency of mixing in a stirred tank, a rotor stator mixer and a microreactor. Published experimental data and new results obtained using new systems of test reactions are applied. It has been shown that the efficiency of mixing is small in popular types of reactors and mixers and thus there is some space for improvement.

  15. Protein hydrogen exchange measured at single-residue resolution by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2009-01-01

    Because of unparalleled sensitivity and tolerance to protein size, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a popular method for measuring the solution hydrogen (1H/2H) exchange (HX) of biologically relevant protein states. While incorporated deuterium can be localized to different regions by pepsin...... proteolysis of the labeled protein, the assignment of deuteriums to individual residues is typically not obtained, thereby limiting a detailed understanding of HX and the dynamics of protein structure. Here we use gas-phase fragmentation of peptic peptides by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to measure...... the HX of individual amide linkages in the amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin. A comparison of the deuterium levels of 60 individual backbone amides of beta2-microglobulin measured by HX-ETD-MS analysis to the corresponding values measured by NMR spectroscopy shows an excellent correlation...

  16. Principle research on a single mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Min; Qin, Lan; Liu, Jingcheng

    2013-08-16

    A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF) accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model) of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  17. Principle Research on a Single Mass Piezoelectric Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  18. Heat and mass transfer in semiconductor melts during single-crystal growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Koichi

    1995-03-01

    The quality of large semiconductor crystals grown from melts is significantly affected by the heat and mass transfer in the melts. The current understanding of the phenomena, especially melt convection, is reviewed starting from the results of visualization using model fluids or silicon melt, and continuing to the detailed numerical calculations needed for quantitative modeling of processing with solidification. The characteristics of silicon flows are also reviewed by focusing on the Coriolis force in the rotating melt. Descriptions of flow instabilities are included that show the level of understanding of melt convection with a low Prandtl number. Based on hydrodynamics, the origin of the silicon flow structure is reviewed, and it is discussed whether silicon flow is completely turbulent or has an ordered structure. The phase transition from axisymmetric to nonaxisymmetric flow is discussed using different geometries. Additionally, surface-tension-driven flow is reviewed for Czochralski crystal growth systems.

  19. Intermediate-mass single stars and accreting white dwarfs as sources of neutron-rich isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    During the most luminous portion of the asymptotic giant-branch phase, models of intermediate-mass stars first become carbon stars and then produce s-process isotopes in the solar-system distribution. Recent observations of the optically most luminous carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds introduce the possibility that real intermediate-mass stars lose their hydrogen-rich envelopes during the asymptotic giant-branch phase before they have made s-process isotopes both in large quantities and in the solar system distribution. This encourages a search for alternate sources of these isotopes. A promising site for the production of some neutron-rich isotopes isthe convective helium-carbon region that appears in accreting white dwarfs during helium shell flashes. For appropriate accretion rates, overlap of matter in successive convective zones may lead to an exponential distribution of exposures. Further, because of a small entropy barrier between the convective shell and the hydrogen-rich envelope, protons enter the shell and provide a source of neutrons that, for appropriate accretion rates, is repetitive in strength and either dominates or is complementary to the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg source. This permits an estimate of the distribution of neutron-rich isotopes that is formed after many flashes. The distribution, in most instances, tends to be weighted more toward heavier elements than is the case when 22 Ne(α, n) 25 Mg is the sole source of neutrons. Hence, accreting white dwarfs cannot be major contributors to the enrichment of the interstellar medium in most s-process isotopes. Considerable effort should be devoted toward demonstrating whether or not the bolometrically most lumious asymptotic giant branch stars in local systems obey M/sub BOL/ /sup min/ -6.5, then either the source of most Galactic s-process isotopes is as yet unknown, or the rate of the 22 Ne(α, n) 25 Mg reaction has been underestimated

  20. Experimental characterization of mass, work and heat flows in an air cooled, single cylinder engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Blanco, H.

    2004-01-01

    Small air cooled engines, although large in numbers, receive scant attention in the literature. Experimental data for a four stroke, air cooled, single cylinder engine are presented in this report. Air to fuel ratios, indicated and output power, exhaust composition and heat loss are determined to result in suitable thermal and mechanical efficiencies. The data obtained are discussed with the perspective obtained from other literature references. Exhaust composition figures appear reasonable, but the measurement of the transient exhaust flows is still a concern. Based on the measurements, a graph illustrating the different energy transformations in the engine is produced. Undergraduate students in the curriculum routinely use the engine and the present work allows one to conclude that the measurement approach produces reasonable results. These results could be used by engine modelers and others interested in this wide field of technology

  1. Conduction band mass determinations for n-type InGaAs/InAlAs single quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E.D.; Reno, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kotera, Nobuo [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Iizuka, Fukuoka (Japan); Wang, Y. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab.

    1998-05-01

    The authors report the measurement of the conduction band mass in n-type single 27-ML-wide InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well lattice matched to InP using two methods: (1) Magnetoluminescence spectroscopy and (2) far-infrared cyclotron resonance. The magnetoluminescence method utilizes Landau level transitions between 0 and 14 T at 1.4 K. The far infrared cyclotron resonance measurements were made at 4.2 K and to fields as large up to 18 T. The 2D-carrier density N{sub 2D} = 3 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}2} at low temperatures. The magnetoluminescence technique yielded an effective conduction-band mass of m{sub c} = 0.062m{sub 0} while the far infrared cyclotron resonance measurements gave m{sub c} = 0.056m{sub 0}, where m{sub 0} is the free electron mass. Both measurements show no evidence for any significant conduction-band nonparabolicity.

  2. Standard test method for isotopic analysis of uranium hexafluoride by double standard single-collector gas mass spectrometer method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This is a quantitative test method applicable to determining the mass percent of uranium isotopes in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) samples with 235U concentrations between 0.1 and 5.0 mass %. 1.2 This test method may be applicable for the entire range of 235U concentrations for which adequate standards are available. 1.3 This test method is for analysis by a gas magnetic sector mass spectrometer with a single collector using interpolation to determine the isotopic concentration of an unknown sample between two characterized UF6 standards. 1.4 This test method is to replace the existing test method currently published in Test Methods C761 and is used in the nuclear fuel cycle for UF6 isotopic analyses. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro...

  3. Comparative study of multiport laparoscopy and umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site surgery with reusable platform for treating renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantada, C; García-Tello, A; Esquinas, C; Moraga, A; Redondo, C; Angulo, J C

    Umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery is an increasingly used modality for treating renal masses. We present a prospective comparison between LESS renal surgery and conventional laparoscopy. A comparative paired study was conducted that evaluated the surgical results and complications of patients with renal neoplasia treated with LESS surgery (n=49) or multiport laparoscopy (n=53). The LESS approach was performed with reusable material placed in the navel and double-rotation curved instruments. An additional 3.5-mm port was employed in 69.4% of the cases. We assessed demographic data, the type of technique (nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and nephroureterectomy), surgical time, blood loss, haemoglobin, need for transfusion, number and severity of complications (Clavien-Dindo), hospital stay, histological data and prognosis. There were no differences in follow-up, age, sex, body mass index, preoperative haemoglobin levels or type of surgery. Conversion occurred in 2 cases (1 in each group). The surgical time was equivalent (P=.6). Intraoperative transfusion (P=.03) and blood loss (Plaparoscopy (P=.0013). Umbilical LESS surgery with reusable platform enables various surgical techniques to be performed when treating renal masses, with time consumption and safety comparable to conventional laparoscopy. The LESS approach is advantageous in terms of blood loss and hospital stay. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Negative Ion MALDI Mass Spectrometry of Polyoxometalates (POMs): Mechanism of Singly Charged Anion Formation and Chemical Properties Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulicault, Jean E.; Alves, Sandra; Cole, Richard B.

    2016-08-01

    MALDI-MS has been developed for the negative ion mode analysis of polyoxometalates (POMs). Matrix optimization was performed using a variety of matrix compounds. A first group of matrixes offers MALDI mass spectra containing abundant intact singly charged anionic adduct ions, as well as abundant in-source fragmentations at elevated laser powers. A relative ranking of the ability to induce POM fragmentation is found to be: DAN > CHCA > CNA > DIT> HABA > DCTB > IAA. Matrixes of a second group provide poorer quality MALDI mass spectra without observable fragments. Sample preparation, including the testing of salt additives, was performed to optimize signals for a model POM, POMc12, the core structure of which bears four negative charges. The matrix 9-cyanoanthracene (CNA) provided the best signals corresponding to singly charged intact POMc12 anions. Decompositions of these intact anionic species were examined in detail, and it was concluded that hydrogen radical-induced mechanisms were not prevalent, but rather that the observed prompt fragments originate from transferred energy derived from initial electronic excitation of the CNA matrix. Moreover, in obtained MALDI mass spectra, clear evidence of electron transfer to analyte POM species was found: a manifestation of the POMs ability to readily capture electrons. The affinity of polyanionic POMc12 toward a variety of cations was evaluated and the following affinity ranking was established: Fe3+ > Al3+ > Li+ > Ga3+ > Co2+ > Cr3+ > Cu2+ > [Mn2+, Mg2+] > [Na+, K+]. Thus, from the available cationic species, specific adducts are preferentially formed, and evidence is given that these higher affinity POM complexes are formed in the gas phase during the early stages of plume expansion.

  5. Online Characterisation of Mineral Dust Aerosol by Single Particle Mass Spectrometry: Mineralogical Signatures of Potential Source Areas in North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, N. A.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Ullrich, R.; Moehler, O.; Coe, H.

    2017-12-01

    The mineralogy of individual dust particles is important for atmospheric processes because mineralogy influences optical properties, their potential to act as ice nucleating particles (INP) and geochemical cycling of elements to the ocean. Bulk mineralogy of transported mineral dust has been shown to be a reflection of the source area and size fractionation during transport. Online characterisation of single particle mineralogy is highly desirable as the composition of individual particles can be reported at a temporal resolution that is relevant to atmospheric processes. Single particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) has indentified and characterised the composition of ambient dust particles but is hampered by matrix effects that result in a non-quantatative measurement of composition. The work presented describes a comparison of mass spectral characteristics of sub 2.5μm particle fractions generated from; i) nominally pure samples from the clay mineral society (CMS), ii) soil samples collected from potential source areas in North Africa and iii) ambient measurement of transported African dust made at the Cape Verde Islands. Using a novel approach to analyse the mass spectra, the distinct characteristics of the various dust samples are obtained from the online measurements. Using this technique it was observed that dust generated from sources on the North West Margin of the Sahara Desert have distinct characteristics of illite in contrast to the kaolinitic characteristics of dust generated from sources in the Sahel. These methods offer great potential for describing the hourly variation in the source and mineralogy of transported mineral dust and the online differentiation of mineral phase in multi-mineralic dust samples.

  6. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry of coal combustion particles associated with high lung cancer rates in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Senlin; Tan, Zhengying; Liu, Pinwei; Zhao, Hui; Liu, Dingyu; Yu, Shang; Cheng, Ping; Win, Myat Sandar; Hu, Jiwen; Tian, Linwei; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2017-11-01

    Coal combustion particles (CCPs) are linked to the high incidence of lung cancer in Xuanwei and in Fuyuan, China, but studies on the chemical composition of the CCPs are still limited. Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was recently developed to measure the chemical composition and size of single particles in real-time. In this study, SPAMS was used to measure individual combustion particles emitted from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal samples and the results were compared with those by ICP-MS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The total of 38,372 particles mass-analyzed by SPAMS can be divided into 9 groups based on their chemical composition and their number percentages: carbonaceous, Na-rich, K-rich, Al-rich, Fe-rich, Si-rich, Ca-rich, heavy metal-bearing, and PAH-bearing particles. The carbonaceous and PAH-bearing particles are enriched in the size range below 0.56 μm, Fe-bearing particles range from 0.56 to 1.0 μm in size, and heavy metals such as Ti, V, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb have diameters below 1 μm. The TEM results show that the particles from Xuanwei and Fuyuan coal combustion can be classified into soot aggregates, Fe-rich particles, heavy metal containing particles, and mineral particles. Non-volatile particles detected by SPAMS could also be observed with TEM. The number percentages by SPAMS also correlate with the mass concentrations measured by ICP-MS. Our results could provide valuable insight for understanding high lung cancer incidence in the area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known.

  8. Genotyping of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in DNA Isolated from Serum Using Sequenom MassARRAY Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess V Clendenen

    Full Text Available Large epidemiologic studies have the potential to make valuable contributions to the assessment of gene-environment interactions because they prospectively collected detailed exposure data. Some of these studies, however, have only serum or plasma samples as a low quantity source of DNA.We examined whether DNA isolated from serum can be used to reliably and accurately genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using Sequenom multiplex SNP genotyping technology. We genotyped 81 SNPs using samples from 158 participants in the NYU Women's Health Study. Each participant had DNA from serum and at least one paired DNA sample isolated from a high quality source of DNA, i.e. clots and/or cell precipitates, for comparison.We observed that 60 of the 81 SNPs (74% had high call frequencies (≥95% using DNA from serum, only slightly lower than the 85% of SNPs with high call frequencies in DNA from clots or cell precipitates. Of the 57 SNPs with high call frequencies for serum, clot, and cell precipitate DNA, 54 (95% had highly concordant (>98% genotype calls across all three sample types. High purity was not a critical factor to successful genotyping.Our results suggest that this multiplex SNP genotyping method can be used reliably on DNA from serum in large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  9. Overcoming challenges in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyu; Murphy, Karen E; Winchester, Michael R; Hackley, Vincent A

    2017-10-01

    Single particle ICP-MS has evolved rapidly as a quantitative method for determining nanoparticle size and number concentration at environmentally relevant exposure levels. Central to the application of spICP-MS is a commonly used, but not rigorously validated, calibration approach based on the measured transport efficiency and the response of ionic standards. In this work, we present a comprehensive and systematic study of the accuracy, precision and robustness of spICP-MS using the rigorously characterized reference material (RM) 8017 (Polyvinylpyrrolidone Coated Nominal 75 nm Silver Nanoparticles), recently issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). We report for the first time, statistically significant differences in frequency-based and size-based measures of transport efficiency with NIST RM 8013 Gold Nanoparticles and demonstrate that the size-based measure of transport efficiency is more robust and yields accurate results for the silver nanoparticle RM relative to TEM-based reference values. This finding is significant, because the frequency-based method is more widely applied. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the use of acidified ionic standards improves measurement of ICP-MS Ag response, but does not degrade the accuracy of the results for AgNP suspensions in water or various other diluents. Approaches for controlling AgNP dissolution were investigated and are shown to effectively improve particle stability in dilute suspensions required for spICP-MS analysis, while minimally affecting the measured intensity and allowing for more robust analysis. This study is an important and necessary advancement toward full validation and adoption of spICP-MS by the broader research community. Graphical abstract Measurement challenges in spICP-MS analysis.

  10. [Travel time and distances to Norwegian out-of-hours casualty clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raknes, Guttorm; Morken, Tone; Hunskår, Steinar

    2014-11-01

    Geographical factors have an impact on the utilisation of out-of-hours services. In this study we have investigated the travel distance to out-of-hours casualty clinics in Norwegian municipalities in 2011 and the number of municipalities covered by the proposed recommendations for secondary on-call arrangements due to long distances. We estimated the average maximum travel times and distances in Norwegian municipalities using a postcode-based method. Separate analyses were performed for municipalities with a single, permanently located casualty clinic. Altogether 417 out of 430 municipalities were included. We present the median value of the maximum travel times and distances for the included municipalities. The median maximum average travel distance for the municipalities was 19 km. The median maximum average travel time was 22 minutes. In 40 of the municipalities (10 %) the median maximum average travel time exceeded 60 minutes, and in 97 municipalities (23 %) the median maximum average travel time exceeded 40 minutes. The population of these groups comprised 2 % and 5 % of the country's total population respectively. For municipalities with permanent emergency facilities(N = 316), the median average flight time 16 minutes and median average distance 13 km.. In many municipalities, the inhabitants have a long average journey to out-of-hours emergency health services, but seen as a whole, the inhabitants of these municipalities account for a very small proportion of the Norwegian population. The results indicate that the proposed recommendations for secondary on-call duty based on long distances apply to only a small number of inhabitants. The recommendations should therefore be adjusted and reformulated to become more relevant.

  11. Casualty Risk From Tornadoes in the United States is Highest in Urbanized Areas Across the Mid South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, T.; Elsner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Risk factors for tornado casualties are well known. Less understood is how and to what degree these determinants, after controlling for strength and urban density, vary spatially and temporally. Here we fit models to casualty counts from all casualty-producing tornadoes since 1995 in order to quantify the interactions between urbanization and energy on casualty rates. Results from the models show that the more urbanized areas of the Mid South are substantively and significantly more vulnerable to casualties from tornadoes than elsewhere in the country. Casualty rates are significantly higher on the weekend for tornadoes in this region. Night and day casualty rates are similar regardless of where they occur. Higher vulnerability to casualties from tornadoes occurring in more urbanized areas correspond significantly with greater percentages of elderly people. Many of the micro cities in the Mid South are threatened by tornadoes annually and this threat might potentially be exacerbated by climate change.

  12. Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) Casualty and Pollution Incidents, Guam, 2015, US Coast Guard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  13. Casualty data analysis of the world merchant fleet for reported fire and explosion incidents resulting in marine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem. The source of information is the Lloyd's Casualty Information System Data Base. The major findings of ...

  14. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine employer...

  15. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master, or...

  16. Casualties from guided missile impact in warships from another point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, C F

    1991-06-01

    From Kamikaze to Exocet, by learning from history a tool for casualty calculation in modern naval warfare is available, indicating absolute casualty figures per SS guided missile hit. The figures 35 wounded and 30 killed per hit ought to be used.

  17. Determination of strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains using high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer with single collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozaki, Miyuki; Ariyama, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Akira; Hirata, Takafumi

    2010-01-01

    A method for determining strontium and lead isotope ratios of grains was developed. The samples investigated in this study were rice, barley and wheat. The samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and heated in a heating block. Strontium and lead were separated from the matrix by adding an acid digested solution into a column packed with Sr resin, which has selectivity for the absorption of strontium and lead. Strontium and lead isotope ratios were determined using a high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS) with a single collector. The intraday relative standard deviations of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and lead isotope ratios ( 204 Pb/ 206 Pb, 207 Pb/ 206 Pb, 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) by HR-ICP-MS measurements were < 0.06% and around 0.1%, respectively. This method enabled us to determine strontium and lead isotope ratios in two days. (author)

  18. Single dose of bisphosphonate preserves gains in bone mass following cessation of sclerostin antibody in Brtl/+ osteogenesis imperfecta model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perosky, Joseph E; Khoury, Basma M; Jenks, Terese N; Ward, Ferrous S; Cortright, Kai; Meyer, Bethany; Barton, David K; Sinder, Benjamin P; Marini, Joan C; Caird, Michelle S; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2016-12-01

    Sclerostin antibody has demonstrated a bone-forming effect in pre-clinical models of osteogenesis imperfecta, where mutations in collagen or collagen-associated proteins often result in high bone fragility in pediatric patients. Cessation studies in osteoporotic patients have demonstrated that sclerostin antibody, like intermittent PTH treatment, requires sequential anti-resorptive therapy to preserve the anabolic effects in adult populations. However, the persistence of anabolic gains from either drug has not been explored clinically in OI, or in any animal model. To determine whether cessation of sclerostin antibody therapy in a growing OI skeleton requires sequential anti-resorptive treatment to preserve anabolic gains in bone mass, we treated 3week old Brtl/+ and wild type mice for 5weeks with SclAb, and then withdrew treatment for an additional 6weeks. Trabecular bone loss was evident following cessation, but was preserved in a dose-dependent manner with single administration of pamidronate at the time of cessation. In vivo longitudinal near-infrared optical imaging of cathepsin K activation in the proximal tibia suggests an anti-resorptive effect of both SclAb and pamidronate which is reversed after three weeks of cessation. Cortical bone was considerably less susceptible to cessation effects, and showed no structural or functional deficits in the absence of pamidronate during this cessation period. In conclusion, while SclAb induces a considerable anabolic gain in the rapidly growing Brtl/+ murine model of OI, a single sequential dose of antiresorptive drug is required to maintain bone mass at trabecular sites for 6weeks following cessation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single Nanoparticle Mass Spectrometry as a High Temperature Kinetics Tool: Sublimation, Oxidation, and Emission Spectra of Hot Carbon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howder, Collin R; Long, Bryan A; Gerlich, Dieter; Alley, Rex N; Anderson, Scott L

    2015-12-17

    In single nanoparticle mass spectrometry, individual charged nanoparticles (NPs) are trapped in a quadrupole ion trap and detected optically, allowing their mass, charge, and optical properties to be monitored continuously. Previous experiments of this type probed NPs that were either fluorescent or large enough to detect by light scattering. Alternatively, small NPs can be heated to temperatures where thermally excited emission is strong enough to allow detection, and this approach should provide a new tool for measurements of sublimation and surface reaction kinetics of materials at high temperatures. As an initial test, we report a study of carbon NPs in the 20-50 nm range, heated by 10.6 μm, 532 nm, or 445 nm lasers. The kinetics for sublimation and oxidation of individual carbon NPs were studied, and a model is presented for the factors that control the NP temperature, including laser heating, and cooling by sublimation, buffer gas collisions, and radiation. The estimated NP temperatures were in the 1700-2000 K range, and the NP absorption cross sections ranged from ∼0.8 to 0.2% of the geometric cross sections for 532 nm and 10.6 μm excitation, respectively. Emission spectra of single NPs and small NP ensembles show a feature in the IR that appears to be the high energy tail of the thermal (blackbody-like) emission expected from hot particles but also a discrete feature peaking around 750 nm. Both the IR tail and 750 nm peak are observed for all particles and for both IR and visible laser excitation. No significant difference was observed between graphite and amorphous carbon NPs.

  20. Reactive bonding mediated high mass loading of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes in an elastomeric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Li, Yongjin; Qiu, Jishan; You, Jichun; Dong, Wenyong; Cao, Xiaojun

    2012-09-01

    A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance.A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Conductivity test of the SEBS-SWCNTs film, transmission spectra and sheet resistance for the spin-coated SEBS-SWCNTs thin films on PET slides. See DOI: 10

  1. Identity and Diversity of Human Peripheral Th and T Regulatory Cells Defined by Single-Cell Mass Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunicki, Matthew A; Amaya Hernandez, Laura C; Davis, Kara L; Bacchetta, Rosa; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia

    2018-01-01

    Human CD3 + CD4 + Th cells, FOXP3 + T regulatory (Treg) cells, and T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells are essential for ensuring peripheral immune response and tolerance, but the diversity of Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell subsets has not been fully characterized. Independent functional characterization of human Th1, Th2, Th17, T follicular helper (Tfh), Treg, and Tr1 cells has helped to define unique surface molecules, transcription factors, and signaling profiles for each subset. However, the adequacy of these markers to recapitulate the whole CD3 + CD4 + T cell compartment remains questionable. In this study, we examined CD3 + CD4 + T cell populations by single-cell mass cytometry. We characterize the CD3 + CD4 + Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell populations simultaneously across 23 memory T cell-associated surface and intracellular molecules. High-dimensional analysis identified several new subsets, in addition to the already defined CD3 + CD4 + Th, Treg, and Tr1 cell populations, for a total of 11 Th cell, 4 Treg, and 1 Tr1 cell subsets. Some of these subsets share markers previously thought to be selective for Treg, Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tfh cells, including CD194 (CCR4) + FOXP3 + Treg and CD183 (CXCR3) + T-bet + Th17 cell subsets. Unsupervised clustering displayed a phenotypic organization of CD3 + CD4 + T cells that confirmed their diversity but showed interrelation between the different subsets, including similarity between Th1-Th2-Tfh cell populations and Th17 cells, as well as similarity of Th2 cells with Treg cells. In conclusion, the use of single-cell mass cytometry provides a systems-level characterization of CD3 + CD4 + T cells in healthy human blood, which represents an important baseline reference to investigate abnormalities of different subsets in immune-mediated pathologies. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Absolute Quantification of Rifampicin by MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry Using Multiple TOF/TOF Events in a Single Laser Shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Boone M; Chumbley, Chad W; Caprioli, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI IMS) allows for the visualization of molecular distributions within tissue sections. While providing excellent molecular specificity and spatial information, absolute quantification by MALDI IMS remains challenging. Especially in the low molecular weight region of the spectrum, analysis is complicated by matrix interferences and ionization suppression. Though tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) can be used to ensure chemical specificity and improve sensitivity by eliminating chemical noise, typical MALDI MS/MS modalities only scan for a single MS/MS event per laser shot. Herein, we describe TOF/TOF instrumentation that enables multiple fragmentation events to be performed in a single laser shot, allowing the intensity of the analyte to be referenced to the intensity of the internal standard in each laser shot while maintaining the benefits of MS/MS. This approach is illustrated by the quantitative analyses of rifampicin (RIF), an antibiotic used to treat tuberculosis, in pooled human plasma using rifapentine (RPT) as an internal standard. The results show greater than 4-fold improvements in relative standard deviation as well as improved coefficients of determination (R 2 ) and accuracy (>93% quality controls, errors). This technology is used as an imaging modality to measure absolute RIF concentrations in liver tissue from an animal dosed in vivo. Each microspot in the quantitative image measures the local RIF concentration in the tissue section, providing absolute pixel-to-pixel quantification from different tissue microenvironments. The average concentration determined by IMS is in agreement with the concentration determined by HPLC-MS/MS, showing a percent difference of 10.6%. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. The casualties from electric bike and motorized scooter road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Peleg, Kobi

    2017-04-03

    The objective of this study was to describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in e-bike and motorized scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided by different road user groups: riders and pedestrians. This was a retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an e-bike or motorized scooter were included. The type of hospitalized road user was further categorized and described by different variables. During the study period, the Israel Trauma Registry identified 795 hospitalized patients due to an e-bike or motorized scooter accident, with a dramatic 6-fold increase from 2013 to 2015. Although the majority of the injured patients were riders, 8% were pedestrians. Among the total casualties, 33% were children aged 0-14 years and among pedestrians 42% were children and 33% were seniors (ages 60+). Five persons died in hospital, 3 riders and 2 pedestrians. E-bike and motorized scooter riders represent the majority of patients hospitalized due to related traffic incident. This finding questions the social and economic advantages of electric-powered 2-wheeled vehicles.

  4. Electrostatic micromanipulation of a conductive particle by a single probe with consideration of an error in the evaluated mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Kenji; Saito, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Recently, micromanipulation techniques for handling a conductive microparticle have been in demand. Electrostatic micromanipulation with a single probe is a promising technique for such manipulation. While the feasibility of the technique has been proved experimentally, the success rate of manipulation was 25%, and further improvements are required. To enhance the success rate and realize highly reliable electrostatic micromanipulation, this paper proposes an improved design of a voltage sequence which is applied to deposit a microparticle onto a substrate plate. It was found through investigation that the error in the evaluated mass of a microparticle must be considered in order to improve the success rate of the manipulation. Behavior of a microparticle during the electrostatic micromanipulation is calculated by a boundary element method, and the influence of error is discussed. An improved design of the applied voltage sequence that can tolerate an error in the evaluated mass is described. Moreover, the effectiveness of the newly designed voltage sequence in the electrostatic micromanipulation is experimentally shown.

  5. Source characterization of urban particles from meat smoking activities in Chongqing, China using single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Wenger, John C; Yang, Fumo; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Shi, Guangming; Zhang, Shumin; Tian, Mi; Wang, Huanbo

    2017-09-01

    A Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed in the urban area of Chongqing to characterize the particles present during a severe particulate pollution event that occurred in winter 2014-2015. The measurements were made at a time when residents engaged in traditional outdoor meat smoking activities to preserve meat before the Chinese Spring Festival. The measurement period was predominantly characterized by stagnant weather conditions, highly elevated levels of PM 2.5 , and low visibility. Eleven major single particle types were identified, with over 92.5% of the particles attributed to biomass burning emissions. Most of the particle types showed appreciable signs of aging in the stagnant air conditions. To simulate the meat smoking activities, a series of controlled smoldering experiments was conducted using freshly cut pine and cypress branches, both with and without wood logs. SPAMS data obtained from these experiments revealed a number of biomass burning particle types, including an elemental and organic carbon (ECOC) type that proved to be the most suitable marker for meat smoking activities. The traditional activity of making preserved meat in southwestern China is shown here to be a major source of particulate pollution. Improved measures to reduce emissions from the smoking of meat should be introduced to improve air quality in regions where smoking meat activity prevails. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of four toxic metals in a single rice seed by matrix solid phase dispersion -inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiufen; Chen, Lixia; Chen, Xin; Yu, Huamei; Peng, Lixu; Han, Bingjun

    2016-12-01

    Toxic metals in rice pose great risks to human health. Metal bioaccumulation in rice grains is a criterion of breeding. Rice breeding requires a sensitive method to determine metal content in single rice grains to assist the variety selection. In the present study, four toxic metals of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a single rice grain were determined by a simple and rapid method. The developed method is based on matrix solid phase dispersion using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as dispersing agent and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) were 5.0, 0.6, 10 and 2.1 ng g-1 for As, Cd, Cr, and Pb, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of rice samples analyzed by this method agreed well with those obtained by the standard microwave digestion. The amount of sample required was reduced approximately 100 fold in comparison with the microwave digestion. The method has a high application potential for other sample matrices and elements with high sensitivity and sample throughput.

  7. Detection of singly- and doubly-charged quaternary ammonium drugs in equine urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emmie N M; Kwok, W H; Wong, April S Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-01-13

    Quaternary ammonium drugs (QADs) are anticholinergic agents some of which are known to have been abused or misused in equine sports. A recent review of literature shows that the screening methods reported thus far for QADs mainly cover singly-charged QADs. Doubly-charged QADs are extremely polar substances which are difficult to be extracted and poorly retained on reversed-phase columns. It would be ideal if a comprehensive method can be developed which can detect both singly- and doubly-charged QADs. This paper describes an efficient liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and confirmation of 38 singly- and doubly-charged QADs at sub-parts-per-billion (ppb) to low-ppb levels in equine urine after solid-phase extraction. Quaternary ammonium drugs were extracted from equine urine by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an ISOLUTE(®) CBA SPE column and analysed by LC/MS/MS in the positive electrospray ionisation mode. Separation of the 38 QADs was achieved on a polar group embedded C18 LC column with a mixture of aqueous ammonium formate (pH 3.0, 10 mM) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection and confirmation of the 38 QADs at sub-ppb to low-ppb levels in equine urine could be achieved within 16 min using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Matrix interference of the target transitions at the expected retention times was not observed. Other method validation data, including precision and recovery, were acceptable. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of drug-administration samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New approaches for the chemical and physical characterization of aerosols using a single particle mass spectrometry based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Matthew Todd

    burning and appeared to be internally mixed with sulfate which suggests it was cloud processed during transport. Lastly, noble metal nanoparticles are explored as potential matrices for visible wavelength single particle matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (VIS-MALDI). This work demonstrates that noble metal nanoparticle matrices can be used for VIS-MALDI analysis.

  9. [Analysis of Single Particle Aging and Mixing State at an Agriculture Site (Quzhou) in the North China Plain in Summer Using a Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-long; Zeng, Li-mm; Dong, I-Iua-Bin; Li, Mei; Zhu, Tong

    2016-04-15

    To characterize the size distribution and chemical ompsitins f abiet prtices t a agicuturesit intheNorh o Chinese Plain, a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was deployed from June 30 to July 8, 2013. A total of 230,152 particles in the size range of 0.2-2.0 pm were chemically analyzed with both positive and negative ion spectra. The results revealed that aerosol could he classified into eight dominant groups, including elemental carbon (EC, 55.5%), organic carbon (OC, 10.7%), alkalis (Na-K, 17.4%), other metals (1.7%), Fe-rich (6.3%), Pb-rich (3.1%), dust (4.8%), and other (0.8%). The observed eight types of particles contained secondary components such as 46NO2-, 62NO3-, 96SO3-, 96SO4-, 97HSO4-, showing that they probably went through different aging processes. The analysis of particle size distribution showed that 700-800 nm was the peak value of all particles, and that dust and Fe particles were mainly in the coarse size range. EC particles subtype group research revealed EC particles tended to be aging with the above mentioned secondary ions and eventually led to a particle type conversion from EC to the less aging ECN and the more serious aging ECS, the diurnal variation of which was obviously negatively correlated, and there was a possibility of forming OC/EC mixture with the adsorption of secondary organic matter on EC surface.

  10. Single-particle measurements of bouncing particles and in situ collection efficiency from an airborne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with light-scattering detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jin; Brock, Charles A.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Sueper, Donna T.; Welti, André; Middlebrook, Ann M.

    2017-10-01

    A light-scattering module was coupled to an airborne, compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (LS-AMS) to investigate collection efficiency (CE) while obtaining nonrefractory aerosol chemical composition measurements during the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) campaign. In this instrument, particles scatter light from an internal laser beam and trigger saving individual particle mass spectra. Nearly all of the single-particle data with mass spectra that were triggered by scattered light signals were from particles larger than ˜ 280 nm in vacuum aerodynamic diameter. Over 33 000 particles are characterized as either prompt (27 %), delayed (15 %), or null (58 %), according to the time and intensity of their total mass spectral signals. The particle mass from single-particle spectra is proportional to that derived from the light-scattering diameter (dva-LS) but not to that from the particle time-of-flight (PToF) diameter (dva-MS) from the time of the maximum mass spectral signal. The total mass spectral signal from delayed particles was about 80 % of that from prompt ones for the same dva-LS. Both field and laboratory data indicate that the relative intensities of various ions in the prompt spectra show more fragmentation compared to the delayed spectra. The particles with a delayed mass spectral signal likely bounced off the vaporizer and vaporized later on another surface within the confines of the ionization source. Because delayed particles are detected by the mass spectrometer later than expected from their dva-LS size, they can affect the interpretation of particle size (PToF) mass distributions, especially at larger sizes. The CE, measured by the average number or mass fractions of particles optically detected that had measurable mass spectra, varied significantly (0.2-0.9) in different air masses. The measured CE agreed well with a previous parameterization when CE > 0.5 for acidic particles but was sometimes lower than the minimum parameterized CE of 0.5.

  11. A numerical simulation strategy on occupant evacuation behaviors and casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zhai, Changhai

    2018-01-01

    Casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes benefits to implement the economic loss estimation in the performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. Although after-earthquake observations reveal that the evacuation has effects on the quantity of occupant casualties during earthquakes, few current studies consider occupant movements in the building in casualty prediction procedures. To bridge this knowledge gap, a numerical simulation method using refined cellular automata model is presented, which can describe various occupant dynamic behaviors and building dimensions. The simulation on the occupant evacuation is verified by a recorded evacuation process from a school classroom in real-life 2013 Ya'an earthquake in China. The occupant casualties in the building under earthquakes are evaluated by coupling the building collapse process simulation by finite element method, the occupant evacuation simulation, and the casualty occurrence criteria with time and space synchronization. A case study of casualty prediction in a building during an earthquake is provided to demonstrate the effect of occupant movements on casualty prediction.

  12. Isotope label-aided mass spectrometry reveals the influence of environmental factors on metabolism in single eggs of fruit fly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Wei Tseng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of light/dark cycle on the biosynthesis of metabolites during oogenesis, here we demonstrate a simple experimental protocol which combines in-vivo isotopic labeling of primary metabolites with mass spectrometric analysis of single eggs of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. First, fruit flies were adapted to light/dark cycle using artificial white light. Second, female flies were incubated with an isotopically labeled sugar ((13C(6-glucose for 12 h--either during the circadian day or the circadian night, at light or at dark. Third, eggs were obtained from the incubated female flies, and analyzed individually by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry (MS: this yielded information about the extent of labeling with carbon-13. Since the incorporation of carbon-13 to uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose in fruit fly eggs is very fast, the labeling of this metabolite was used as an indicator of the biosynthesis of metabolites flies/eggs during 12-h periods, which correspond to circadian day or circadian night. The results reveal that once the flies adapted to the 12-h-light/12-h-dark cycle, the incorporation of carbon-13 to UDP-glucose present in fruit fly eggs was not markedly altered by an acute perturbation to this cycle. This effect may be due to a relationship between biosynthesis of primary metabolites in developing eggs and an alteration to the intake of the labeled substrate - possibly related to the change of the feeding habit. Overall, the study shows the possibility of using MALDI-MS in conjunction with isotopic labeling of small metazoans to unravel the influence of environmental cues on primary metabolism.

  13. Isotope label-aided mass spectrometry reveals the influence of environmental factors on metabolism in single eggs of fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Te-Wei; Wu, June-Tai; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of light/dark cycle on the biosynthesis of metabolites during oogenesis, here we demonstrate a simple experimental protocol which combines in-vivo isotopic labeling of primary metabolites with mass spectrometric analysis of single eggs of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). First, fruit flies were adapted to light/dark cycle using artificial white light. Second, female flies were incubated with an isotopically labeled sugar ((13)C(6)-glucose) for 12 h--either during the circadian day or the circadian night, at light or at dark. Third, eggs were obtained from the incubated female flies, and analyzed individually by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS): this yielded information about the extent of labeling with carbon-13. Since the incorporation of carbon-13 to uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) in fruit fly eggs is very fast, the labeling of this metabolite was used as an indicator of the biosynthesis of metabolites flies/eggs during 12-h periods, which correspond to circadian day or circadian night. The results reveal that once the flies adapted to the 12-h-light/12-h-dark cycle, the incorporation of carbon-13 to UDP-glucose present in fruit fly eggs was not markedly altered by an acute perturbation to this cycle. This effect may be due to a relationship between biosynthesis of primary metabolites in developing eggs and an alteration to the intake of the labeled substrate - possibly related to the change of the feeding habit. Overall, the study shows the possibility of using MALDI-MS in conjunction with isotopic labeling of small metazoans to unravel the influence of environmental cues on primary metabolism.

  14. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  15. Single Particle-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy Analysis of Metallic Nanoparticles in Environmental Samples with Large Dissolved Analyte Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertfeger, D M; Velicogna, Jessica R; Jesmer, Alexander H; Scroggins, Richard P; Princz, Juliska I

    2016-10-18

    There is an increasing interest to use single particle-inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (SP-ICPMS) to help quantify exposure to engineered nanoparticles, and their transformation products, released into the environment. Hindering the use of this analytical technique for environmental samples is the presence of high levels of dissolved analyte which impedes resolution of the particle signal from the dissolved. While sample dilution is often necessary to achieve the low analyte concentrations necessary for SP-ICPMS analysis, and to reduce the occurrence of matrix effects on the analyte signal, it is used here to also reduce the dissolved signal relative to the particulate, while maintaining a matrix chemistry that promotes particle stability. We propose a simple, systematic dilution series approach where by the first dilution is used to quantify the dissolved analyte, the second is used to optimize the particle signal, and the third is used as an analytical quality control. Using simple suspensions of well characterized Au and Ag nanoparticles spiked with the dissolved analyte form, as well as suspensions of complex environmental media (i.e., extracts from soils previously contaminated with engineered silver nanoparticles), we show how this dilution series technique improves resolution of the particle signal which in turn improves the accuracy of particle counts, quantification of particulate mass and determination of particle size. The technique proposed here is meant to offer a systematic and reproducible approach to the SP-ICPMS analysis of environmental samples and improve the quality and consistency of data generated from this relatively new analytical tool.

  16. Real time analysis of lead-containing atmospheric particles in Beijing during springtime by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Li, Mei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Lei; Gao, Wei; Nian, Huiqing; Zou, Lilin; Fu, Zhong; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), the chemical composition and size distributions of lead (Pb)-containing particles with diameter from 0.1 μm to 2.0 μm in Beijing were analyzed in the spring of 2011 during clear, hazy, and dusty days. Based on mass spectral features of particles, cluster analysis was applied to Pb-containing particles, and six major classes were acquired consisting of K-rich, carboneous, Fe-rich, dust, Pb-rich, and Cl-rich particles. Pb-containing particles accounted for 4.2-5.3%, 21.8-22.7%, and 3.2% of total particle number during clear, hazy and dusty days, respectively. K-rich particles are a major contribution to Pb-containing particles, varying from 30.8% to 82.1% of total number of Pb-containing particles, lowest during dusty days and highest during hazy days. The results reflect that the chemical composition and amount of Pb-containing particles has been affected by meteorological conditions as well as the emissions of natural and anthropogenic sources. K-rich particles and carbonaceous particles could be mainly assigned to the emissions of coal combustion. Other classes of Pb-containing particles may be associated with metallurgical processes, coal combustion, dust, and waste incineration etc. In addition, Pb-containing particles during dusty days were first time studied by SPAMS. This method could provide a powerful tool for monitoring and controlling of Pb pollution in real time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G

    2012-02-01

    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare.

  18. Fluid Resuscitation in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Yesterday and Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Frank K

    2017-06-01

    The prevailing wisdom for the prehospital fluid resuscitation of trauma victims in hemorrhagic shock in 1992 was to administer 2 L of crystalloid solution as rapidly as possible. A review of the fluid resuscitation literature found that this recommendation was not well supported by the evidence at the time. Prehospital fluid resuscitation strategies were reevaluated in the 1993-1996 Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) research program. This article reviews the advances in prehospital fluid resuscitation as recommended by the original TCCC Guidelines and modified over the following 2 decades. These advances include hypotensive resuscitation, use of prehospital whole blood or blood components when feasible, and use of Hextend or selected crystalloids when logistical considerations make blood or blood component use not feasible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Care of the Burn Casualty in the Prolonged Field Care Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Nicholas M; Driscoll, Ian R; Daly, Ivonne M; Graybill, John C

    2015-01-01

    Burns are frequently encountered on the modern battlefield, with 5% - 20% of combat casualties expected to sustain some burn injury. Addressing immediate life-threatening conditions in accordance with the MARCH protocol (massive hemorrhage, airway, respirations, circulation, hypothermia/head injury) remains the top priority for burn casualties. Stopping the burning process, total burn surface area (TBSA) calculation, fluid resuscitation, covering the wounds, and hypothermia management are the next steps. If transport to definitive care is delayed and the prolonged field care stage is entered, the provider must be prepared to provide for the complex resuscitation and wound care needs of a critically ill burn casualty. 2015.

  20. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a single liver mass; Linfoma nao-Hodgkin apresentando-se como massa hepatica unica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Mila Correia Gois; Peixoto Filho, Anibal Araujo Alves; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Hospital Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de US/TC/RM]. E-mail: scoposl@uol.com.br; Ribeiro, Alessandra Caivano Rodrigues [Hospital Sao Luiz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2009-01-15

    Objective: to describe the main imaging findings of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a single liver mass. Materials and methods: a retrospective study was developed with analysis of cases where a single liver mass was observed at ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and histologically diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The studies were reviewed by two observers in consensus. Results: three male patients in the fifth decade of life, with non-specific clinical manifestations and single liver mass diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were identified. A hepatic lesion with target sign was observed at ultrasonography in all of the cases. At computed tomography, all the patients presented a heterogeneous, hypodense mass with a ring enhancement. At magnetic resonance imaging, the lesions were heterogeneous and hypointense on T1-weighted and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Additionally, a ring enhancement was observed in all of the cases after contrast injection. At the moment of the diagnosis, none of the patients presented lymphadenomegaly or involvement of other solid viscera. Conclusion: the diagnosis of hepatic lymphoma should be considered in the presence of a ring-enhanced single liver mass. (author)

  1. Dissipative Evolution of Unequal-mass Binary–single Interactions and Its Relevance to Gravitational-wave Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of binary–single interactions with energy-loss terms such as tidal dissipation and gravitational-wave (GW) emission added to the equation of motion. The inclusion of such terms leads to the formation of compact binaries that form during the three-body interaction through two-body captures. These binaries predominantly merge relatively promptly at high eccentricity, with several observable and dynamical consequences to follow. Despite their possibility for being observed in both present and upcoming transient surveys, their outcomes are not firmly constrained. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that allows to estimate the cross section of such two-body captures, which permits us to study how the corresponding rates depend on the initial orbital parameters, the mass hierarchy, the type of interacting object, and the energy dissipation mechanism. This formalism is applied here to study the formation of two-body GW captures, for which we estimate absolute and relative rates relevant to Advanced LIGO detections. It is shown that two-body GW captures should have compelling observational implications if a sizable fraction of detected compact binaries are formed via dynamical interactions.

  2. Enhanced Peptide Detection Toward Single-Neuron Proteomics by Reversed-Phase Fractionation Capillary Electrophoresis Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam B.; Lombard-Banek, Camille; Muñoz-LLancao, Pablo; Manzini, M. Chiara; Nemes, Peter

    2017-11-01

    The ability to detect peptides and proteins in single cells is vital for understanding cell heterogeneity in the nervous system. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) provides high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with trace-level sensitivity, but compressed separation during CE challenges protein identification by tandem HRMS with limited MS/MS duty cycle. Here, we supplemented ultrasensitive CE-nanoESI-HRMS with reversed-phase (RP) fractionation to enhance identifications from protein digest amounts that approximate to a few mammalian neurons. An 1 to 20 μg neuronal protein digest was fractionated on a RP column (ZipTip), and 1 ng to 500 pg of peptides were analyzed by a custom-built CE-HRMS system. Compared with the control (no fractionation), RP fractionation improved CE separation (theoretical plates 274,000 versus 412,000 maximum, resp.), which enhanced detection sensitivity (2.5-fold higher signal-to-noise ratio), minimized co-isolation spectral interferences during MS/MS, and increased the temporal rate of peptide identification by up to 57%. From 1 ng of protein digest (development of the brain, including those involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity and cytoskeletal organization. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Mass photokeratitis following ultraviolet light exposure at a nightclub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Michelle A J; Saha, Kamran; Robbie, Scott

    2016-08-01

    To report a mass presentation of photokeratitis arising from exposure to an unprotected ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light source. A cluster of 22 patients presented within a 24-h period to a single eye casualty with symptoms of photokeratitis following recent intense UV-B exposure at a local nightclub. Patients were treated with a short course of chloramphenicol, steroid or lubricant eye drops. No patients re-attended. This report highlights the hazards of ultraviolet lamps used in public places and the need for strict guidance and enforcement of UV radiation safety protocols to avoid the potential public health risk. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. submitter Preparatory studies on the determination of the top-quark mass in single top-quark events with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Wahdan, Shayma'; Wagner, Wolfgang

    In this thesis, a measurement of the single top quark mass produced in the t -channel is presented, using the data sample recorded recently in 2015 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC, at a centre of mass energy of √ s = 13 TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 f b−1 . The selected events contain one charged lepton (electron or muon), missing transverse energy, and two jets with high transverse momentum with one of them being b-tagged. The template method is used to extract the top quark mass from the distribution of the invariant mass of the lepton and the b-jet (m(`b)) in the selected events. The result of the measured top quark mass is: mtop = [174.56 ± 3.11(syst.) ± 1.02(stat.)] GeV.

  5. Search for single-photon production in e+e- annihilation at 29 GeV center-of-mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a search using the Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) detector for events in which only a single photon is observed in the final state. This search, which is at this time the most sensitive single-photon analysis, was made in the total data set of 115 pb -1 recorded by ASP at the SLAC e + e - storage ring PEP (center-of-mass energy = 29 GeV). The detector was designed specifically for this search, and combined good calorimeter segmentation with complete calorimeter coverage above a polar angle of 21 mrad. The Standard Model predicts that 2.7 events should be observed from the radiative production of three generations of neutrinos; 1.6 events are actually observed. The number of generations of neutrinos is restricted to be less than 7.5 at the 90% confidence level. The results of this search are also interpreted as limits on the masses of particles predicted by theories of Supersymmetry. The 90% confidence level lower limit on the mass of the selectron is 58 GeV/c 2 , assuming massless photino and degenerate selection mass eigenstates, while the lower limit on the wino mass is 61 GeV/c 2 , assuming three generations of massless sneutrinos. These limits are combined with the results of other e + e - single-photon searches to give 90% confidence level limits of 5.4 on the number of generations, 66 GeV/c 2 on the selectron mass, and 68 GeV/c 2 on the wino mass

  6. United States Army Rangers in Somalia: An Analysis of Combat Casualties on an Urban Battlefield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mabry, Robert L; Holcomb, John B; Baker, Andrew M; Cloonan, Clifford C; Uhorchak, John M; Perkins, Denver E; Canfield, Anthony J; Hagmann, John H

    2000-01-01

    .... From July 1998 to March 1999 data were collected for a retrospective analysis of all combat casualties sustained by United States military forces in Mogadishu, Somalia, on October 3 and 4, 1993...

  7. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  8. Mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of regorafenib in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerisch, Michael; Hafner, Frank-Thorsten; Lang, Dieter; Radtke, Martin; Diefenbach, Konstanze; Cleton, Adriaan; Lettieri, John

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the mass balance, metabolic disposition, and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of regorafenib in healthy volunteers. In addition, in vitro metabolism of regorafenib in human hepatocytes was investigated. Four healthy male subjects received one 120 mg oral dose of regorafenib containing approximately 100 µCi (3.7 MBq) [ 14 C]regorafenib. Plasma concentrations of parent drug were derived from HPLC-MS/MS analysis and total radioactivity from liquid scintillation counting (LSC). Radiocarbon analyses used HPLC with fraction collection followed by LSC for all urine samples, plasma, and fecal homogenate extracts. For the in vitro study, [ 14 C]regorafenib was incubated with human hepatocytes and analyzed using HPLC-LSC and HPLC-HRMS/MS. Regorafenib was the major component in plasma, while metabolite M-2 (pyridine N-oxide) was the most prominent metabolite. Metabolites M-5 (demethylated pyridine N-oxide) and M-7 (N-glucuronide) were identified as minor plasma components. The mean concentration of total radioactivity in plasma/whole blood appeared to plateau at 1-4 h and again at 6-24 h post-dose. In total, 90.5% of administered radioactivity was recovered in the excreta within a collection interval of 12 days, most of which (71.2%) was eliminated in feces, while excretion via urine accounted for 19.3%. Regorafenib (47.2%) was the most prominent component in feces and was not excreted into urine. Excreted metabolites resulted from oxidative metabolism and glucuronidation. Regorafenib was eliminated predominantly in feces as well as by hepatic biotransformation. The multiple biotransformation pathways of regorafenib decrease the risk of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions.

  9. Association of body mass index-related single nucleotide polymorphisms with psychiatric disease and memory performance in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Matsuo, Junko; Sasayama, Daimei; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Noda, Takamasa; Ishida, Ikki; Shibata, Shigenobu; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for psychiatric diseases. Recently, a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be related to body mass index (BMI). In this study, we investigated the association of BMI-related SNPs with psychiatric diseases and one of their endophenotypes, memory performance, in a Japanese population. The subjects were 1624 patients with one of three psychiatric diseases (799 patients with major depressive disorder, 594 with schizophrenia, and 231 with bipolar disorder) and 1189 healthy controls. Memory performance was assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (WMS-R). Genomic DNA was prepared from venous blood and used to genotype 23 BMI-related SNPs using the TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. We then analysed the relationships between the SNPs and psychiatric disease and various subscales of the WMS-R. Three SNPs (rs11142387, rs12597579, and rs6548238) showed significant differences in the genotype or allele frequency between patients with any psychiatric diseases and controls. Furthermore, six SNPs (rs11142387, rs12597579, rs2815752, rs2074356, rs4776970, and rs2287019) showed significant differences in at least one subscale of the WMS-R depending on the genotypes of the healthy controls. Interestingly, rs11142387 near the Kruppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) was significantly associated with psychiatric disease and poor memory function. We identified three and six BMI-related SNPs associated with psychiatric disease and memory performance, respectively. In particular, carrying the A allele of rs11142387 near KLF9 was found to be associated with psychiatric disease and poor memory performance, which warrants further investigations.

  10. Optimization of plasma sampling depth and aerosol gas flow rates for single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálomista, Ildikó; Kéri, Albert; Galbács, Gábor

    2017-09-01

    We performed experiments to assess the separate and also the combined effect of the sampling depth and the aerosol gas flow rates on the signal formation in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) measurements by using dispersions containing Ag and Au NPs. It was found that the NP signal can significantly be improved by the optimization of the sampling depth. With respect to the "robust" setting, a signal improvement of nearly 100% could be achieved, which translates into a 25-30% improvement in size detection limits. It was also found that the shape of the spICP-MS signal histograms also change with the change of the plasma sampling depth. It was demonstrated that nanoparticle peak separation can also be significantly enhanced by using sampling depth optimization. The effect of the aerosol dilution gas flow, now standard in most ICP-MS instruments, on the spICP-MS signal formation was also studied for the first time in the literature, as this flow was hoped to make spICP-MS measurements more practical and faster via the on-line dilution of the aerosol generated from nano-dispersions. Our experimental results revealed that the dilution gas flow can only be used for a moderate aerosol dilution in spICP-MS measurements, if the gas flow going to the pneumatic nebulizer is proportionally lowered at the same time. This however was found to cause a significant worsening in the operation of the sample introduction system, which gives rise to a strong NP signal loss. Thus it was concluded that the use of the aerosol dilution gas flow, in its present form, can not be suggested for spICP-MS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Insight into the in-cloud formation of oxalate based on in situ measurement by single particle mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Lin, Qinhao; Peng, Long; Yang, Yuxiang; Fu, Yuzhen; Bi, Xinhui; Li, Mei; Chen, Duohong; Chen, Jianxin; Cai, Zhang; Wang, Xinming; Peng, Ping'an; Sheng, Guoying; Zhou, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    While ground-based works suggest the significance of in-cloud production (or aqueous formation) to oxalate, direct evidence is rare. With the in situ measurements performed at a remote mountain site (1690 m above sea level) in southern China, we first reported the size-resolved mixing state of oxalate in the cloud droplet residual (cloud RES), the cloud interstitial (cloud INT), and ambient (cloud-free) particles by single particle mass spectrometry. The results support the growing evidence that in-cloud aqueous reactions promote the formation of oxalate, with ˜ 15 % of the cloud RES and cloud INT particles containing oxalate in contrast to only ˜ 5 % of the cloud-free particles. Furthermore, individual particle analysis provides unique insight into the formation of oxalate during in-cloud processing. Oxalate was predominantly (> 70 % in number) internally mixed with the aged biomass-burning particles, highlighting the impact of biomass burning on the formation of oxalate. In contrast, oxalate was underrepresented in aged elemental carbon particles, although they represented the largest fraction of the detected particles. It can be interpreted by the individual particle mixing state that the aged biomass-burning particles contained an abundance of organic components serving as precursors for oxalate. Through the analysis of the relationship between oxalate and organic acids (-45[HCO2]-, -59[CH3CO2]-, -71[C2H3CO2]-, -73[C2HO3]-), the results show that in-cloud aqueous reactions dramatically improved the conversion of organic acids to oxalate. The abundance of glyoxylate associated with the aged biomass-burning particles is a controlling factor for the in-cloud production of oxalate. Since only limited information on oxalate is available in the free troposphere, the results also provide an important reference for future understanding of the abundance, evolution, and climate impacts of oxalate.

  12. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  13. Electron effective mass in Sn-doped monoclinic single crystal β-gallium oxide determined by mid-infrared optical Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Sean; Mock, Alyssa; Korlacki, Rafał; Darakchieva, Vanya; Monemar, Bo; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Goto, Ken; Higashiwaki, Masataka; Schubert, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    The isotropic average conduction band minimum electron effective mass in Sn-doped monoclinic single crystal β-Ga2O3 is experimentally determined by the mid-infrared optical Hall effect to be (0.284 ± 0.013)m0 combining investigations on (010) and ( 2 ¯01 ) surface cuts. This result falls within the broad range of values predicted by theoretical calculations for undoped β-Ga2O3. The result is also comparable to recent density functional calculations using the Gaussian-attenuation-Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof hybrid density functional, which predict an average effective mass of 0.267m0. Within our uncertainty limits, we detect no anisotropy for the electron effective mass, which is consistent with most previous theoretical calculations. We discuss upper limits for possible anisotropy of the electron effective mass parameter from our experimental uncertainty limits, and we compare our findings with recent theoretical results.

  14. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.

    1997-08-01

    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  15. A variable parameter single degree-of-freedom model for predicting the effects of sitting posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toward, Martin G R; Griffin, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Models of the vertical apparent mass of the human body are mostly restricted to a sitting posture unsupported by a backrest and ignore the variations in apparent mass associated with changes in posture and changes in the magnitude of vibration. Using findings from experimental research, this study fitted a single degree-of-freedom lumped parameter model to the measured vertical apparent mass of the body measured with a range of sitting postures and vibration magnitudes. The resulting model reflects the effects of reclining a rigid backrest or reclining a foam backrest (from 0 to 30 degrees), the effects of moving the hands from the lap to a steering wheel, the effects of moving the horizontal position of the feet, and the effects of vibration magnitude (from 0.125 to 1.6 ms(-2) r.m.s.). The error between the modelled and the measured apparent mass was minimised, for both the apparent masses of individual subjects and the median apparent masses of groups of 12 subjects, for each sitting posture and each vibration magnitude. Trends in model parameters, the damping ratios, and the damped natural frequencies were identified as a function of the model variables and show the effects of posture and vibration magnitude on body dynamics. For example, contact with a rigid backrest increased the derived damped natural frequency of the principal resonance as a result of reduced moving mass and increased stiffness. When the rigid backrest was reclined from 0 to 30º, the damping decreased and the resonance frequency increased as a result of reduced moving mass. It is concluded that, by appropriate variations in model parameters, a single degree-of-freedom model can provide a useful fit to the vertical apparent mass of the human body over a wide range of postures and vibration magnitudes. When measuring or modelling seat transmissibility, it may be difficult to justify an apparent mass model with more than a single degree-of-freedom if it does not reflect the large influences of

  16. Insight into the in-cloud formation of oxalate based on in situ measurement by single particle mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While ground-based works suggest the significance of in-cloud production (or aqueous formation to oxalate, direct evidence is rare. With the in situ measurements performed at a remote mountain site (1690 m above sea level in southern China, we first reported the size-resolved mixing state of oxalate in the cloud droplet residual (cloud RES, the cloud interstitial (cloud INT, and ambient (cloud-free particles by single particle mass spectrometry. The results support the growing evidence that in-cloud aqueous reactions promote the formation of oxalate, with  ∼  15 % of the cloud RES and cloud INT particles containing oxalate in contrast to only  ∼  5 % of the cloud-free particles. Furthermore, individual particle analysis provides unique insight into the formation of oxalate during in-cloud processing. Oxalate was predominantly (> 70 % in number internally mixed with the aged biomass-burning particles, highlighting the impact of biomass burning on the formation of oxalate. In contrast, oxalate was underrepresented in aged elemental carbon particles, although they represented the largest fraction of the detected particles. It can be interpreted by the individual particle mixing state that the aged biomass-burning particles contained an abundance of organic components serving as precursors for oxalate. Through the analysis of the relationship between oxalate and organic acids (−45[HCO2]−, −59[CH3CO2]−, −71[C2H3CO2]−, −73[C2HO3]−, the results show that in-cloud aqueous reactions dramatically improved the conversion of organic acids to oxalate. The abundance of glyoxylate associated with the aged biomass-burning particles is a controlling factor for the in-cloud production of oxalate. Since only limited information on oxalate is available in the free troposphere, the results also provide an important reference for future understanding of the abundance, evolution, and climate impacts of oxalate.

  17. Measurement of the top quark mass using single top quark events in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rad, N; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Strauss, J; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Dvornikov, O; Makarenko, V; Mossolov, V; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Zykunov, V; Shumeiko, N; Alderweireldt, S; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Lowette, S; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Randle-Conde, A; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Cimmino, A; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Salva, S; Schöfbeck, R; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Jafari, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Marono, M Vidal; Wertz, S; Beliy, N; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Cheng, T; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Ruan, M; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Susa, T; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Tsiakkouri, D; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; El-Khateeb, E; Elgammal, S; Mohamed, A; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Davignon, O; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Miné, P; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Stahl Leiton, A G; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; Mamouni, H El; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sabes, D; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Khvedelidze, A; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Verlage, T; Albert, A; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass is reported in events containing a single top quark produced via the electroweak t channel. The analysis is performed using data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb[Formula: see text]. Top quark candidates are reconstructed from their decay to a [Formula: see text] boson and a b quark, with the [Formula: see text] boson decaying leptonically to a muon and a neutrino. The final state signature and kinematic properties of single top quark events in the t channel are used to enhance the purity of the sample, suppressing the contribution from top quark pair production. A fit to the invariant mass distribution of reconstructed top quark candidates yields a value of the top quark mass of [Formula: see text]. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and represents the first measurement of the top quark mass in event topologies not dominated by top quark pair production, therefore contributing to future averages with partially uncorrelated systematic uncertainties and a largely uncorrelated statistical uncertainty.

  18. Measurement of the top quark mass using single top quark events in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= $ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Tsiakkouri, Demetra; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Ghosh, Saranya; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Kucher, Inna; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Verlage, Tobias; Albert, Andreas; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hamer, Matthias; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Flügge, Günter; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baur, Sebastian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Freund, Benedikt; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Filipovic, Nicolas; Pasztor, Gabriella; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Bahinipati, Seema; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Dugad, Shashikant; Kole, Gouranga; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; De Nardo, Guglielmo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Carlin, Roberto; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Fallavollita, Francesco; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Traczyk, Piotr; Belforte, Stefano; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Lee, Ari; Kim, Hyunchul; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Lee, Haneol; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Carpinteyro, Severiano; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Calpas, Betty; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Chtchipounov, Leonid; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Sulimov, Valentin; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Bylinkin, Alexander; Danilov, Mikhail; Popova, Elena; Rusinov, Vladimir; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korneeva, Natalia; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Savrin, Viktor; Volkov, Petr; Blinov, Vladimir; Skovpen, Yuri; Shtol, Dmitry; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Barrio Luna, Mar; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Suárez Andrés, Ignacio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Curras, Esteban; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chen, Yi; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fartoukh, Stephane; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Gulhan, Doga; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kieseler, Jan; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Triossi, Andrea; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Verweij, Marta; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zagoździńska, Agnieszka; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Casal, Bruno; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Kasieczka, Gregor; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marionneau, Matthieu; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Meister, Daniel; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Quittnat, Milena; Rossini, Marco; Schönenberger, Myriam; Starodumov, Andrei; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Caminada, Lea; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Galloni, Camilla; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Seitz, Claudia; Yang, Yong; Zucchetta, Alberto; Candelise, Vieri; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Kumar, Arun; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Fiori, Francesco; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Tsai, Jui-fa; Asavapibhop, Burin; Singh, Gurpreet; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dozen, Candan; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Tali, Bayram; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Yetkin, Taylan; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Aggleton, Robin; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Sakuma, Tai; Seif El Nasr-storey, Sarah; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Calligaris, Luigi; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Burton, Darren; Casasso, Stefano; Citron, Matthew; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; De Wit, Adinda; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Dunne, Patrick; Elwood, Adam; Futyan, David; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Lane, Rebecca; Laner, Christian; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Penning, Bjoern; Pesaresi, Mark; Raymond, David Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Borzou, Ahmad; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Cutts, David; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Jesus, Orduna; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Spencer, Eric; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Si, Weinan; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Welke, Charles; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Gran, Jason; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bendavid, Joshua; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Duarte, Javier; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Sun, Menglei; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cremonesi, Matteo; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Magini, Nicolo; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Wu, Yujun; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Low, Jia Fu; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Shchutska, Lesya; Sperka, David; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Prosper, Harrison; Santra, Arka; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Castle, James; Forthomme, Laurent; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Maravin, Yurii; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Toda, Sachiko; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Anelli, Christopher; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferraioli, Charles; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Apyan, Aram; Azzolini, Virginia; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Malta Rodrigues, Alan; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kumar, Ajay; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Rupprecht, Nathaniel; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Ji, Weifeng; Liu, Bingxuan; Luo, Wuming; Puigh, Darren; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Hebda, Philip; Lange, David; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Stickland, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Folgueras, Santiago; Gutay, Laszlo; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Shi, Xin; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Guilbaud, Maxime; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Northup, Michael; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Juska, Evaldas; Kamon, Teruki; Mueller, Ryan; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Gurpinar, Emine; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-05-29

    A measurement of the top quark mass is reported in events containing a single top quark produced via the electroweak $t$ channel. The analysis is performed using data from proton-proton collisions collected with the CMS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb$^{-1}$. The top quark is reconstructed from its decay to a W boson and a b quark, with the W boson decaying leptonically to a muon and a neutrino. The specific topology and kinematic properties of single top quark events in the $t$ channel are used to enhance the purity of the sample, suppressing the contribution from top quark pair production. A fit to the invariant mass distribution of reconstructed top quark candidates yields a value of the top quark mass of 172.95 $\\pm$ 0.77 (stat) $^{+0.97}_{-0.93}$ (syst) GeV. This result is in agreement with the current world average, and represents the first measurement of the top quark mass in event topologies not dominated by top quark pair p...

  19. Submicron mass spectrometry imaging of single cells by combined use of mega electron volt time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning transmission ion microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siketić, Zdravko; Bogdanović Radović, Ivančica; Jakšić, Milko; Popović Hadžija, Marijana; Hadžija, Mirko [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-08-31

    In order to better understand biochemical processes inside an individual cell, it is important to measure the molecular composition at the submicron level. One of the promising mass spectrometry imaging techniques that may be used to accomplish this is Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), using MeV energy heavy ions for excitation. MeV ions have the ability to desorb large intact molecules with a yield that is several orders of magnitude higher than conventional SIMS using keV ions. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the MeV TOF-SIMS system, we propose an independent TOF trigger using a STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) detector that is placed just behind the thin transmission target. This arrangement is suitable for biological samples in which the STIM detector simultaneously measures the mass distribution in scanned samples. The capability of the MeV TOF-SIMS setup was demonstrated by imaging the chemical composition of CaCo-2 cells.

  20. Vertical dynamics of a single-span beam subjected to moving mass-suspended payload system with variable speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the vertical dynamics of a simply supported Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to a moving mass-suspended payload system of variable velocities. A planar theoretical model of the moving mass-suspended payload system of variable speeds is developed based on several assumptions: the rope is massless and rigid, and its length keeps constant; the stiffness of the gantry beam is much greater than the supporting beam, and the gantry beam can be treated as a mass particle traveling along the supporting beam; the supporting beam is assumed as a simply supported Bernoulli-Euler beam. The model can be degenerated to consider two classical cases-the moving mass case and the moving payload case. The proposed model is verified using both numerical and experimental methods. To further investigate the effect of possible influential factors, numerical examples are conducted covering a range of parameters, such as variable speeds (acceleration or deceleration), mass ratios of the payload to the total moving load, and the pendulum lengths. The effect of beam flexibility on swing response of the payload is also investigated. It is shown that the effect of a variable speed is significant for the deflections of the beam. The accelerating movement tends to induce larger beam deflections, while the decelerating movement smaller ones. For accelerating or decelerating movements, the moving mass model may underestimate the deflections of the beam compared with the presented model; while for uniform motion, both the moving mass model and the moving mass-payload model lead to same beam responses. Furthermore, it is observed that the swing response of the payload is not sensitive to the stiffness of the beam for operational cases of a moving crane, thus a simple moving payload model can be employed in the swing control of the payload.

  1. Evaluation of Aerosol Mixing State Classes in the GISS Modele-matrix Climate Model Using Single-particle Mass Spectrometry Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne E.; Ault, Andrew; Prather, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are composed of multiple chemical species. The aerosol mixing state, which describes how chemical species are mixed at the single-particle level, provides critical information on microphysical characteristics that determine the interaction of aerosols with the climate system. The evaluation of mixing state has become the next challenge. This study uses aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) data and compares the results to those of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies modelE-MATRIX (Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state) model, a global climate model that includes a detailed aerosol microphysical scheme. We use data from field campaigns that examine a variety of air mass regimens (urban, rural, and maritime). At all locations, polluted areas in California (Riverside, La Jolla, and Long Beach), a remote location in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Sugar Pine) and observations from Jeju (South Korea), the majority of aerosol species are internally mixed. Coarse aerosol particles, those above 1 micron, are typically aged, such as coated dust or reacted sea-salt particles. Particles below 1 micron contain large fractions of organic material, internally-mixed with sulfate and black carbon, and few external mixtures. We conclude that observations taken over multiple weeks characterize typical air mass types at a given location well; however, due to the instrumentation, we could not evaluate mass budgets. These results represent the first detailed comparison of single-particle mixing states in a global climate model with real-time single-particle mass spectrometry data, an important step in improving the representation of mixing state in global climate models.

  2. Feasibility study of the single particle analysis of uranium by laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Yeong Keong; Han, Sun Ho; Pyo, Hyung Yeol; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok

    2004-01-01

    The control of activities in nuclear facilities worldwide is one of the most important tasks of nuclear safeguard. To meet the needs for nuclear safeguard, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) strengthened the control of nuclear activities to detect these activities earlier. Thus, it is very important to develop analytical techniques to determine the isotopic composition of hot particles from swipe samples. The precise measurement of the 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U and 236 U/ 238 U ratios is important because it provides information about the initial enrichment of reactor uranium, core history, and post accident story. Because conventional α-spectrometry is not sufficiently sensitive for the determination of long-lived radionuclides in environmental samples, several analytical techniques, such as SNMS (Sputtered Neutral Mass Spectrometry), RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry), AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) etc., have been proposed for uranium isotope measurements. In case of microparticles, analytical techniques such as SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) have been applied for the isotopic characterization. The aim of this work was the development of a sensitive analytical technique for determination of isotopic ratio of uranium in swipe samples. In this work, feasibility of LIMS (Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry) for the determination of such particles has been evaluated using a reference material of natural uranium

  3. War casualties: recent trends in evacuation, triage and the golden hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safdar, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt medical treatment and early evacuation is the goal of military medicine in the battlefield. 'Triage' is a process of sorting the casualties according to the severity of injury and the prioritization of treatment. In trauma management 'Golden Hour' is the first sixty minutes or so after injury; this emphasizes that the chances of the victim's survival are the greatest if definitive care is given as early as possible. Our evacuation protocols follow the triage but the time to treatment is beyond sixty minutes. Many Armies have developed evacuation systems which allow the casualty to be seen within this specified time. This has been achieved by streamlining the evacuation chain, extensive incorporation of air transport and training of paramedics in advanced life support measures. In line with the modern trends we need to modernize our own system of casualty evacuation and treatment. (author)

  4. Occupational safety data and casualty rates for the uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.; Hoy, H.C.

    1981-10-01

    Occupational casualty (injuries, illnesses, fatalities, and lost workdays) and production data are presented and used to calculate occupational casualty incidence rates for technologies that make up the uranium fuel cycle, including: mining, milling, conversion, and enrichment of uranium; fabrication of reactor fuel; transportation of uranium and fuel elements; generation of electric power; and transmission of electric power. Each technology is treated in a separate chapter. All data sources are referenced. All steps used to calculate normalized occupational casualty incidence rates from the data are presented. Rates given include fatalities, serious cases, and lost workdays per 100 man-years worked, per 10 12 Btu of energy output, and per other appropriate units of output

  5. Experience with Proctectomy to Manage Combat Casualties Sustaining Catastrophic Perineal Blast Injury Complicated by Invasive Mucor Soft-Tissue Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    resuscitation and surgery . Inherent in the survival of casualties with such devastating injuries is both the risk for invasive infections and the need for...injured combat casualties receiving far-forward resuscitation, damage control surgery , and rapid evacuation in recent overseas contingency opera- tions...included resuscitative thoracotomy, pelvic external fixation, laparotomy for proximal vascular control and fecal diversion, and debridement of traumatic

  6. Recent advances in the combination of capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry: From element to single-cell analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klepárník, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), s. 70-85 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/2377 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * mass spectrometry * microfluidics devices * electrospray Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  7. Online differentiation of mineral phase in aerosol particles by ion formation mechanism using a LAAP-TOF single-particle mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Marsden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogy of silicate mineral dust has a strong influence on climate and ecosystems due to variation in physiochemical properties that result from differences in composition and crystal structure (mineral phase. Traditional offline methods of analysing mineral phase are labour intensive and the temporal resolution of the data is much longer than many atmospheric processes. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS is an established technique for the online size-resolved measurement of particle composition by laser desorption ionisation (LDI followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS. Although non-quantitative, the technique is able to identify the presence of silicate minerals in airborne dust particles from markers of alkali metals and silicate molecular ions in the mass spectra. However, the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate particles by traditional mass spectral peak area measurements is not possible. This is because instrument function and matrix effects in the ionisation process result in variations in instrument response that are greater than the differences in composition between common mineral phases.In this study, we introduce a novel technique that enables the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate mineral particles by ion formation mechanism measured from subtle changes in ion arrival times at the TOF-MS detector. Using a combination of peak area and peak centroid measurements, we show that the arrangement of the interstitial alkali metals in the crystal structure, an important property in silicate mineralogy, influences the ion arrival times of elemental and molecular ion species in the negative ion mass spectra. A classification scheme is presented that allowed for the differentiation of illite–smectite, kaolinite and feldspar minerals on a single-particle basis. Online analysis of mineral dust aerosol generated from clay mineral standards produced mineral fractions that are in agreement with bulk

  8. Online differentiation of mineral phase in aerosol particles by ion formation mechanism using a LAAP-TOF single-particle mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Nicholas A.; Flynn, Michael J.; Allan, James D.; Coe, Hugh

    2018-01-01

    Mineralogy of silicate mineral dust has a strong influence on climate and ecosystems due to variation in physiochemical properties that result from differences in composition and crystal structure (mineral phase). Traditional offline methods of analysing mineral phase are labour intensive and the temporal resolution of the data is much longer than many atmospheric processes. Single-particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) is an established technique for the online size-resolved measurement of particle composition by laser desorption ionisation (LDI) followed by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Although non-quantitative, the technique is able to identify the presence of silicate minerals in airborne dust particles from markers of alkali metals and silicate molecular ions in the mass spectra. However, the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate particles by traditional mass spectral peak area measurements is not possible. This is because instrument function and matrix effects in the ionisation process result in variations in instrument response that are greater than the differences in composition between common mineral phases.In this study, we introduce a novel technique that enables the differentiation of mineral phase in silicate mineral particles by ion formation mechanism measured from subtle changes in ion arrival times at the TOF-MS detector. Using a combination of peak area and peak centroid measurements, we show that the arrangement of the interstitial alkali metals in the crystal structure, an important property in silicate mineralogy, influences the ion arrival times of elemental and molecular ion species in the negative ion mass spectra. A classification scheme is presented that allowed for the differentiation of illite-smectite, kaolinite and feldspar minerals on a single-particle basis. Online analysis of mineral dust aerosol generated from clay mineral standards produced mineral fractions that are in agreement with bulk measurements reported by

  9. Translating Tactical Combat Casualty Care Lessons Learned to the High-Threat Civilian Setting: Tactical Emergency Casualty Care and the Hartford Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, David W

    2017-06-01

    Combat operations necessitate bold thought and afford the opportunity to rapidly evolve and improve trauma care. The development and maturation of Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is an important example of a critical process improvement strategy that reduced mortality in high-threat combat-related trauma. The Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (C-TECC) adapted the lessons of TCCC to the civilian high-threat environment and provided important all-hazards response principles for austere, dynamic, and resource-limited environments. The Hartford Consensus mobilized the resources of the American College of Surgeons to drive public policy regarding a more singular focus: hemorrhage control. The combined efforts of C-TECC and Hartford Consensus have helped redefine the practice of trauma care in high-threat scenarios across the United States. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Forensic Sampling and Analysis from a Single Substrate: Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Followed by Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedick, Patrick W; Bills, Brandon J; Manicke, Nicholas E; Cooks, R Graham

    2017-10-17

    Sample preparation is the most common bottleneck in the analysis and processing of forensic evidence. Time-consuming steps in many forensic tests involve complex separations, such as liquid and gas chromatography or various types of extraction techniques, typically coupled with mass spectrometry (e.g., LC-MS). Ambient ionization ameliorates these slow steps by reducing or even eliminating sample preparation. While some ambient ionization techniques have been adopted by the forensic community, there is significant resistance to discarding chromatography as most forensic analyses require both an identification and a confirmation technique. Here, we describe the use of a paper substrate, the surface of which has been inkjet printed with silver nanoparticles, for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The same substrate can also act as the paper substrate for paper spray mass spectrometry. The coupling of SERS and paper spray ionization creates a quick, forensically feasible combination.

  11. Casualties of peace: an analysis of casualties admitted to the intensive care unit during the negotiation of the comprehensive Colombian process of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Carlos A; Manzano-Nunez, Ramiro; Naranjo, Maria Paula; Foianini, Esteban; Cevallos, Cecibel; Londoño, Maria Alejandra; Sanchez Ortiz, Alvaro I; García, Alberto F; Moore, Ernest E

    2018-01-01

    After 52 years of war in 2012, the Colombian government began the negotiation of a process of peace, and by November 2012, a truce was agreed. We sought to analyze casualties who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) before and during the period of the negotiation of the comprehensive Colombian process of peace. Retrospective study of hostile casualties admitted to the ICU at a Level I trauma center from January 2011 to December 2016. Patients were subsequently divided into two groups: those seen before the declaration of the process of peace truce (November 2012) and those after (November 2012-December 2016). Patients were compared with respect to time periods. Four hundred forty-eight male patients were admitted to the emergency room. Of these, 94 required ICU care. Sixty-five casualties presented before the truce and 29 during the negotiation period. Median injury severity score was significantly higher before the truce. Furthermore, the odds of presenting with severe trauma (ISS > 15) were significantly higher before the truce (OR, 5.4; (95% CI, 2.0-14.2); p  < 0.01). There was a gradual decrease in the admissions to the ICU, and the performance of medical and operative procedures during the period observed. We describe a series of war casualties that required ICU care in a period of peace negotiation. Despite our limitations, our study presents a decline in the occurrence, severity, and consequences of war injuries probably as a result in part of the negotiation of the process of peace. The hysteresis of these results should only be interpreted for their implications in the understanding of the peace-health relationship and must not be overinterpreted and used for any political end.

  12. Single-Cell Mass Spectrometry Reveals Changes in Lipid and Metabolite Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells upon Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Patterson, Nathan Heath; Tsui, Tina; Caprioli, Richard M.; Norris, Jeremy L.

    2018-03-01

    It has been widely recognized that individual cells that exist within a large population of cells, even if they are genetically identical, can have divergent molecular makeups resulting from a variety of factors, including local environmental factors and stochastic processes within each cell. Presently, numerous approaches have been described that permit the resolution of these single-cell expression differences for RNA and protein; however, relatively few techniques exist for the study of lipids and metabolites in this manner. This study presents a methodology for the analysis of metabolite and lipid expression at the level of a single cell through the use of imaging mass spectrometry on a high-performance Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. This report provides a detailed description of the overall experimental approach, including sample preparation as well as the data acquisition and analysis strategy for single cells. Applying this approach to the study of cultured RAW264.7 cells, we demonstrate that this method can be used to study the variation in molecular expression with cell populations and is sensitive to alterations in that expression that occurs upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mass casualty drill in a local hospital | Ardill | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drill enabled the hospital administration to evaluate and make improvements in the adequacy of hospital, equipment and supplies such as stretchers and wheelchairs. The attitudes of the staff toward the actor patients and real patients who were observing provided valuable feedback. The roles of the support services ...

  15. Decontamination Efficacy Testing of COTS SteriFx Prodcuts for Mass Personnel and Casualty Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    contact. Wear protective eyeglasses or chemical safety goggles, per OSHA eye- and face- protection regulations (29 CFR 1910.133). Contact lenses are...Hydrochloric Acid and Phosphoric Acid CERCLA Reportable Quantity (RQ): 5000 lb Section 8 - Exposure Controls / Personal Protection Engineering...Administrative Controls: None Respiratory Protection : Not required under normal conditions. If necessary, follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR

  16. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Current antidotes for cyanide poisoning must be administered by intravenous... Cyanide Poisoning ; Intramuscular Injection; Intraosseous Injection; Inhalational Delivery 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...required in cyanide - poisoned victims, since they may be hypotensive with collapsed peripheral veins. Thus, intravenous antidote administration would not

  17. Preparing South Carolina Emergency Departments for Mass Casualties with an Emphasis on the Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    distributed by government and community leaders via the media (i.e., public service announcements, radio bulletins, television “ crawlers ,” Emergency Alert...volunteers while maintaining a database of volunteers. The Hampshire County MRC provides web - based registration and hard-copy applications. It does not...the web to assist hospitals and public health agencies integrate volunteer support into hospital inpatient, emergency department, and incident

  18. 77 FR 52746 - Medical Countermeasures for a Burn Mass Casualty Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... attendees on the concept of medical utilization and response integration. The overall goal is to engage... Oak Campus, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Building 31 Conference Center, the Great Room (rm. 1503A), Silver Spring, MD 20993. Entrance for the public meeting participants (non-FDA-employees) is through...

  19. Rotorcraft Use in Disaster Relief and Mass Casualty Incidents - Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    ground-level complex comprised of a casino, showrooms , convention facilities, jai alai fronton, and mercantile complex. The hotel was partially...horrifying: at least half a dozen cars and trucks on the northbound span had their rooftops virtually crushed to seat level or sheared off completely... virtually the only rescue vehicle able to quickly reach and rescue the survivors. It would have taken an ice-breaker several hours to plow its way

  20. Markers of Decompression Stress of Mass Stranded/Live Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Caught and Released vs. Single Stranded Marine Mammals Michael Moore Biology Department Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Woods Hole, MA 02543...Society for Marine Mammalogy 2013 Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals in New Zealand. Dr. Fahlman’s graduate student Lauren Gonzalez...Harabin, Metabolism and thermoregulation in guinea pigs in hyperbaric hydrogen: Effects of pressure. Journal of Thermal Biology , 1997. 22(1): p. 31-41

  1. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Explosive-Compound Classes on a Single Instrument via Flow-Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    on a Single In‐ strument via Flow‐Injection Analysis Tandem Mass  Spectrometry   Alla Ostrinskaya, Roderick R. Kunz, Michelle Clark, Rich P...alla.ostrinskaya@ll.mit.edu    ABSTRACT: A flow injection analysis (FIA) tandem mass spectrometry (MSMS) method was developed for rapid quantita- tive analysis of...and has redundant detection channels for reduced  error   rates necessary  for probative use,  (b)  is more  rapid  than existing methods to allow for

  2. In-source collision-induced dissociation (IS-CID): Applications, issues and structure elucidation with single-stage mass analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jon F; Wang, Mei; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2018-01-01

    A discussion of the definition, advantages, and issues with the formation of ions in the transition region between an electrospray ionization (ESI) source and the ion optics of a mass analyzer is presented. The various types of ions formed in the so-called in-source collision-induced dissociation (IS-CID) process are illustrated. Applications of IS-CID with single-stage mass analyzers, such as structure elucidation and quantitation, are demonstrated. The discussion is illustrated by examples of the in-source fragmentation of ginkgolides, which are marker compounds found only in Ginkgo biloba. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with non-aqueous eluents was used to achieve a fast resolution of the ginkgolides without the hydrolysis reactions possible with aqueous high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) eluents. In-source ion generation occurs at relatively high pressures (ca. 1-3 torr) compared to the low pressure normally observed in collision chambers of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). As a result, the fragmentation process is complex and often generates ions other than the fragments observed with classic CID or the same ions at different intensities. The objective of the current tutorial is to illustrate the conditions under which single-stage, quadrupole or time-of-flight mass analyzers with electrospray or in-air (direct analysis in real time; DART) ionization can be used for quantitation and structure elucidation in a manner similar to that observed with MS/MS. While the low m/z (≤ [M±H] ± ) ions formed in-source often duplicate the ions observed in MS/MS systems, it is the focus of this discussion to illustrate the utility of in-source generated fragment ions that may not be observed or observed at different intensities than in the collision cells of MS/MS instruments. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Using guanidine-hydrochloride for fast and efficient protein digestion and single-step affinity-purification mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jon Wriedt; Madsen, Christian Toft; Young, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    be optimally completed within 30 min with endoprotease Lys-C. No chemical artifacts were introduced when samples were incubated in Gnd-HCl at 95 °C, making Gnd-HCl an appropriate digestion buffer for shotgun proteomics. Current methodologies for investigating protein-protein interactions (PPIs) often require...... several preparation steps, which prolongs any parallel operation and high-throughput interaction analysis. Gnd-HCl allow the efficient elution and subsequent fast digestion of PPIs to provide a convenient high-throughput methodology for affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments...

  4. Quantitative imaging of chemical composition in single cells by secondary ion mass spectrometry: cisplatin affects calcium stores in renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    A detailed protocol for quantitative single cell mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) analysis is described in this chapter with examples of the treatment of cells with anticancer drug, cisplatin. Cisplatin, cis-diamminedichloridoplatinum ii (CDDP), is widely used for the treatment of many malignancies, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, cervical, head and neck, and small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. The possibility of renal injury by cisplatin treatment is a major dose-limiting factor in this cancer therapy. At present, the mechanisms of cisplatin-induced renal cytotoxicity are poorly understood. In this work, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used for investigating cisplatin-induced alterations in intracellular chemical composition in a well-established model (LLC-PK(1) cell line) for studying renal injury. The cells were cryogenically prepared by the sandwich freeze-fracture method for subcellular imaging analysis of chemical composition (total concentrations of K(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+)) in individual cells. The single cell analysis of these diffusible ions necessitates the use of reliable cryogenic sample preparations for SIMS. The sandwich freeze-fracture method offers a simple approach for cryogenically preserving diffusible ions and molecules inside the cells for SIMS analysis. A CAMECA IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope instrument capable of producing chemical images of single cells with 500-nm spatial resolution was used in the study. In cisplatin-treated cells, SIMS imaging showed the presence of detectable amount of platinum at mass 195, as (195)Pt(+) secondary ions in individual cells. SIMS observations also revealed that individual cells differed in their response to cisplatin. While the chemical composition of some cells was unaffected by cisplatin, others showed a reduction in cytoplasmic calcium stores that was not associated with changes in their intracellular K or Na concentrations. Another population of cells displayed an increase in

  5. The analysis of dyes in ball point pen inks on single paper fibres using laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (LDI-TOFMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Broderick; Walker, G Stewart; Kobus, Hilton; Pigou, Paul; Bird, Carolyne; Smith, Glyn

    2011-06-15

    An important requisite for the forensic analysis of inks on documents is that damage to the document is avoided or minimised. This paper describes a technique for dye identification in ballpoint pen inks using LDI-TOFMS on single ink bearing paper fibres and its application to a case. A single ink bearing paper fibre can be prised from the surface of the document under a stereo microscope and presented to the instrument for analysis without further treatment. This sampling process causes imperceptible damage to the surface of the document. Clear mass spectrometric identification of the ink dyes is obtained. A case example is provided to illustrate the practical application of the technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple method to reconstruct the molar mass signal of respiratory gas to assess small airways with a double-tracer gas single-breath washout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Johannes; Tao, Ziran; Junger, Annika; Joppek, Christoph; Tempel, Philipp; Husemann, Kim; Singer, Florian; Latzin, Philipp; Yammine, Sophie; Nagel, Joachim H; Kohlhäufl, Martin

    2017-11-01

    For the assessment of small airway diseases, a noninvasive double-tracer gas single-breath washout (DTG-SBW) with sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and helium (He) as tracer components has been proposed. It is assumed that small airway diseases may produce typical ventilation inhomogeneities which can be detected within one single tidal breath, when using two tracer components. Characteristic parameters calculated from a relative molar mass (MM) signal of the airflow during the washout expiration phase are analyzed. The DTG-SBW signal is acquired by subtracting a reconstructed MM signal without tracer gas from the signal measured with an ultrasonic sensor during in- and exhalation of the double-tracer gas for one tidal breath. In this paper, a simple method to determine the reconstructed MM signal is presented. Measurements on subjects with and without obstructive lung diseases including the small airways have shown high reliability and reproducibility of this method.

  7. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 37893) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds is... bonds, including continuous bonds, currently in force with above listed Company, bond-approving officers...

  8. 75 FR 38188 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service [NAIC 10952] Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal...

  9. Interpreting Comparative Died of Wounds Rates as a Quality Benchmark of Combat Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    care 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Patel S., Rasmussen T. E., Gifford S. M., Apodaca A. N...Holcomb JB. The 2004 Fitts Lecture: current perspective on combat casualty care. J Trauma. 2005;59:990. 6. Eastridge BJ, Jenkins D, Flaherty S

  10. Eating Order: A 13-Week Trust Model Class for Dieting Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dieting distorts eating behaviors and causes weight escalation. Desperation about losing weight results in pursuit of extreme weight loss measures. Instead of offering yet another diet, nutrition educators can teach chronic dieters (dieting casualties) to develop eating competence. Eating Order, a 13-week class for chronic dieters based on…

  11. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety Bond Branch, 3700 East-West Highway... Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury..., published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874...

  12. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Allegheny Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 20782. Dated: September 24, 2010. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division...-- Allegheny Casualty Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury..., published July 1, 2010, at 75 FR 38192. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874...

  13. Role 2 military hospitals: results of a new trauma care concept on 170 casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, A; Cetinkaya, R A; Ege, T; Ozmen, P; Hurmeric, V; Ozer, M T; Petrone, P

    2015-04-01

    In recent military conflicts, military surgeons encounter more high-energy injuries associated with explosives. Advances in the field care and shorter evacuation time increased survival. However, casualties still incur severe injuries especially to the extremities. We present wound patterns, anatomical distribution and severity of injuries in a Role 2 hospital. Two years data have been retrospectively reviewed. Only explosives and firearms injuries were included in the study. Patient profile, admission details, mechanism of injury, AIS anatomical locations, ISS, surgical and medical treatments have been analyzed. Data revealed 170 male casualties. IEDs and GSW accounted for 133 (78%) and 37 (22%) casualties, respectively. An average of 1.8 IED and 1.2 GSW anatomical locations were exposed to injuries. Regardless of the mechanism, injuries were most commonly located in the extremities. IEDs caused significantly higher soft tissue injuries. Explosives do not necessarily cause more severe injuries than firearms. However, fragments create multiple, complicated soft tissue injuries which constitute more than half of the injuries. Timely wound debridement and excision of contaminated tissue are crucial to manage extremity soft tissue injuries. Casualty care should be assessed within the context of the capabilities present at a hospital and the cause, type and severity of the wounds. The NATO description of Role 2 care only requires an integrated surgical team for damage control surgery with limited diagnostic and infrastructural capabilities.

  14. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies the...

  15. Changes in ion channel geometry resolved to sub-ångström precision via single molecule mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Kasianowicz, John J.; Reiner, Joseph E.

    2010-11-01

    The ion channel formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin switches between multiple open conducting states. We describe a method for precisely estimating the changes in the ion channel geometry that correspond to these different states. Experimentally, we observed that the permeability of a single channel to differently sized poly(ethylene glycol) molecules depends on the magnitude of the open state conductance. A simple theory is proposed for determining changes in channel length of 4.2% and in cross-sectional area of - 0.4%.

  16. Mass-charge-heat coupled transfers in a single cell of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell; Transferts couples masse-charge-chaleur dans une cellule de pile a combustible a membrane polymere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramousse, J.

    2005-11-15

    Understanding and modelling of coupled mass, charges and heat transfers phenomena are fundamental to analyze the electrical behaviour of the system. The aim of the present model is to describe electrical performances of a PEFMC according to the fluidic and thermal operating conditions. The water content of the membrane and the water distribution in the single cell are estimated according to the coupled simulations of mass transport in the thickness of the single cell and in the feeding channels of the bipolar plates. A microscopic model of a Gas Diffusion Electrode is built up to describe charges transfer phenomena occurring at the electrodes. Completed by a study of heat transfer in the Membrane Electrode Assembly, conditions and preferential sites of water vapor condensation can be highlighted. A set of measurements of the effective thermal conductivity of carbon felts used in fuel cells as porous backing layers have also been performed. Although the value of this parameter is essential for the study of heat transfer, it is still under investigation because of the strong thermal anisotropy of the medium. (author)

  17. Optimizing the supply chain of biomass and biogas for a single plant considering mass and energy losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida Græsted; Münster, Marie; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    to represent capital and operational expenditures at the biogas plant; considers the chain from the farmer to the end market; and includes changes of mass and energy content along the chain by modeling the losses and gains for all processes in the chain. Biomass inputs are scheduled on a weekly basis whereas...... energy outputs are scheduled on an hourly basis to better capture the changes of energy prices and potentially take advantage of these changes. The model is tested on a case study with co-digestion of straw, sugar beet and manure, considering natural gas, heat, and electricity as end products. The model...... finds a production and investment plan for a predefined location of the plant within half an hour of central processing unit (CPU) time. The resulting project turns out to be profitable and gives a production plan for each process, which underlines the possibilities of optimizing the processes...

  18. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sakir Eksi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical myelopathy (CM is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery.

  19. Measuring the temporal evolution of aerosol composition in a remote marine environment influenced by Saharan dust outflow using a new single particle mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Nicholas; Williams, Paul; Flynn, Michael; Taylor, Jonathan; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James; Coe, Hugh

    2016-04-01

    Refractory material constitutes a significant fraction of the atmospheric aerosol burden and has a strong influence on climate through the direct radiative effect and aerosol-cloud interactions, particularly in cold and mixed phase clouds. Composition of refractory aerosols is traditionally measured using off-line analytical techniques such as filter analyses. However, when using off-line techniques the temporal evolution of the data set is lost, meaning the measurements are difficult to relate to atmospheric processes. Recently, single particle mass spectrometry (SPMS) has proven a useful tool for the on-line study of refractory aerosols with the ability to probe size resolved chemical composition with high temporal resolution on a particle by particle basis. A new Laser Ablation Aerosol Time-of-Flight (LAAP-TOF) SPMS instrument with a modified optical detection system was deployed for ground based measurements at Praia, Cape Verde during the Ice in Cloud - Dust (ICE-D) multi-platform campaign in August 2015. A primary aim of the project was to evaluate the impact of Saharan dust on ice nucleation in mixed phase clouds. The instrument was operated over a 16 day period in which several hundred thousand single particle mass spectra were obtained from air masses with back trajectories traversing the Mid-Atlantic, Sahara Desert and West Africa. The data presented indicate external mixtures of sea salt and silicate mineral dust internally mixed with secondary species that are consistent with long range transport to a remote marine environment. The composition and size distributions measured with the LAAP-TOF are compared with measurements from an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and data from SEM-EDX analysis of filter samples. The particle number fraction identified as silicate mineral from the mass spectra correlates with a fraction of the incandescent particles measured with the SP2. We discuss the suitability of the modified

  20. Two-Step Single Particle Mass Spectrometry for On-Line Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Bound to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Bente, M.; Sklorz, M.

    2007-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are formed as trace products in combustion processes and are emitted to the atmosphere. Larger PAH have low vapour pressure and are predominantly bound to the ambient fine particulate matter (PM). Upon inhalation, PAH show both, chronic human toxicity (i.e. many PAH are potent carcinogens) as well as acute human toxicity (i.e. inflammatory effects due to oxi-dative stress) and are discussed to be relevant for the observed health effect of ambient PM. Therefore a better understanding of the occurrence, dynamics and particle size dependence of particle bound-PAH is of great interest. On-line aerosol mass spectrometry in principle is the method of choice to investigate the size resolved changes in the chemical speciation of particles as well the status of internal vs. external mixing of chemical constituents. However the present available aerosol mass spectrometers (ATOFMS and AMS) do not allow detection of PAH from ambient air PM. In order to allow a single particle based monitoring of PAH from ambient PM a new single particle laser ionisation mass spectrometer was built and applied. The system is based on ATOFMS principle but uses a two- step photo-ionization. A tracked and sized particle firstly is laser desorbed (LD) by a IR-laser pulse (CO2-laser, λ=10.2 μm) and subsequently the released PAH are selectively ionized by an intense UV-laser pulse (ArF excimer, λ=248 nm) in a resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation process (REMPI). The PAH-ions are detected in a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A virtual impactor enrichment unit is used to increase the detection frequency of the ambient particles. With the current inlet system particles from about 400 nm to 10 μm are accessible. Single particle based temporal profiles of PAH containing particles ion (size distribution and PAH speciation) have been recorded in Oberschleissheim, Germany from ambient air. Furthermore profiles of relevant emission sources (e

  1. Does Ultrasound-Guided Directional Vacuum-Assisted Removal Help Eliminate Abnormal Nipple Discharge in Patients with Benign Intraductal Single Mass?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Na Ri Ya; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Seon [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se Yeong [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Mi Jung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate whether the removal of an intraductal mass using an ultrasound (US)-guided directional vacuum-assisted device can eliminate symptoms in patients presenting with abnormal nipple discharge. Between March 2004 and October 2006, 36 patients who presented with abnormal nipple discharge, underwent US-guided, 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy for a benign intraductal single mass on US. The ability of the procedure to eliminate nipple discharge was evaluated by physical examination during follow-up US. Lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and histologic features were analyzed to identify factors affecting symptom resolution. Of the 36 lesions, 25 (69%) were intraductal papillomas, 10 (28%) were fibrocystic changes, and one (3%) was a fibroadenoma. The nipple discharge disappeared in 69% (25 of 36) of the women at a mean follow-up time of 25 months (range 12-42 month). There was no difference in the lesion characteristics, biopsy variables, and the histologic features between groups that eliminated the symptom compared those with persistent nipple discharge. US-guided directional vacuum-assisted removal of an intraductal mass appears to eliminate nipple discharge in only 69% of patients and thus, it should not be considered as an alternative to surgical excision.

  2. Fractionation and Characterization of High Aspect Ratio Gold Nanorods Using Asymmetric-Flow Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao M. Nguyen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are of particular interest for biomedical applications due to their unique size-dependent longitudinal surface plasmon resonance band in the visible to near-infrared. Purified GNRs are essential for the advancement of technologies based on these materials. Used in concert, asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F and single particle inductively coupled mass spectrometry (spICP-MS provide unique advantages for fractionating and analyzing the typically complex mixtures produced by common synthetic procedures. A4F fractions collected at specific elution times were analyzed off-line by spICP-MS. The individual particle masses were obtained by conversion of the ICP-MS pulse intensity for each detected particle event, using a defined calibration procedure. Size distributions were then derived by transforming particle mass to length assuming a fixed diameter. The resulting particle lengths correlated closely with ex situ transmission electron microscopy. In contrast to our previously reported observations on the fractionation of low-aspect ratio (AR GNRs (AR < 4, under optimal A4F separation conditions the results for high-AR GNRs of fixed diameter (≈20 nm suggest normal, rather than steric, mode elution (i.e., shorter rods with lower AR generally elute first. The relatively narrow populations in late eluting fractions suggest the method can be used to collect and analyze specific length fractions; it is feasible that A4F could be appropriately modified for industrial scale purification of GNRs.

  3. Low-mobility-pass filter between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and electrospray ionization sources and a single quadrupole mass spectrometer: computational models and measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menlyadiev, Marlen R; Tadjimukhamedov, Fatkhulla Kh; Tarassov, Alexander; Wollnik, Hermann; Eiceman, Gary A

    2014-01-15

    Mixtures of ions produced in sources at atmospheric pressure, including chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray ionization (ESI) can be simplified at or near ambient pressure using ion mobility based filters. A low-mobility-pass filter (LMPF) based on a simple mechanical design and simple electronic control was designed, modeled and tested with vapors of 2-hexadecanone in an APCI source and with spray of peptide solutions in an ESI source. The LMPF geometry was planar and small (4 mm wide × 13 mm long) and electric control was through a symmetric waveform in low kHz with amplitude between 0 and 10 V. Computational models established idealized performance for transmission efficiency of ions of several reduced mobility coefficients over the range of amplitudes and were matched by computed values from ion abundances in mass spectra. The filter exhibited a broad response function, equivalent to a Bode Plot in electronic filters, suggesting that ion filtering could be done in blocks ~50 m/z units wide. The benefit of this concept is that discrimination against ions of high mobility is controlled by only a single parameter: waveform amplitude at fixed frequency. The effective removal of high mobility ions, those of low mass-to-charge, can be beneficial for applications with ion-trap-based mass spectrometers to remove excessive levels of solvent or matrix ions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Search for Supersymmetry with a Highly Compressed Mass Spectrum in the Single Soft Lepton Channel with the CMS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zarucki, Mateusz

    2017-01-01

    Models with compressed mass spectra target a very interesting region of the SUSY parameter space and are very well motivated by theoretical considerations, such as dark matter constraints and naturalness. The presented analysis focuses on signal events containing a single low-momentum lepton and moderate missing transverse energy. The search targets a simplified model in which the signal consists of stop (supersymmetric partner of the top quark) pair-production, followed by 4-body decays into a lepton-neutrino (quark-antiquark) pair, a b-quark and a neutralino, which is considered the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), and with a mass gap between the stop and the LSP that is smaller than the W-boson mass. The LSPs and the neutrino escape the detector, leading to a missing transverse energy signature. Compressed regions are challenging to study, as the visible decay products have low momentum and generally do not pass detector acceptance thresholds. This difficulty can be mitigated by requiring the presen...

  5. Correlation of precursor and product ions in single-stage high resolution mass spectrometry. A tool for detecting diagnostic ions and improving the precursor elemental composition elucidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borràs, S. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Kaufmann, A., E-mail: anton.kaufmann@klzh.ch [Official Food Control Authority, Fehrenstrasse 15, 8032 Zürich (Switzerland); Companyó, R. [Departament de Química Analítica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1-11, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We are describing a technique to spot ions which are derived from each other. ► Single stage high resolution data is used. ► This “in silicon” technique is compared to conventional precursor scan. ► Some applications for this technique are presented. -- Abstract: Monitoring of common diagnostic fragments is essential for recognizing molecules which are members of a particular compound class. Up to now, unit resolving tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers, operating in the precursor ion scan mode, have been typically used to perform such analysis. By means of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) a much more sensitive and selective detection can be achieved. However, using a single-stage HRMS instrument, there is no unequivocal link to the corresponding precursor ion, since such instrumentation does not permit a previous precursor selection. Thus, to address this limitation, an in silico approach to locate precursor ions, based on diagnostic fragments, was developed. Implemented as an Excel macro, the algorithm rapidly assembles and surveys exact mass data to provide a list of feasible precursor candidates according to the correlation of the chromatographic peak shape profile and other additional filtering criteria (e.g. neutral losses and isotopes). The macro was tested with two families of veterinary drugs, sulfonamides and penicillins, which are known to yield diagnostic product ions when fragmented. Data sets obtained from different food matrices (fish and liver), both at high and low concentration of the target compounds, were investigated in order to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of the reported approach. Finally, other possible applications of this technique, such as the elucidation of elemental compositions based on product ions and corresponding neutral losses, were also presented and discussed.

  6. Skeletal muscle mass in hospitalized elderly patients: comparison of measurements by single-frequency BIA and DXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Wilcox, Gisela; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Strauss, Boyd J

    2014-06-01

    There is increasing interest in estimating skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in clinical practice. We aimed to validate a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) prediction equation for SMM, developed in a different healthy elderly population, in a population of hospital patients aged 70 and over, by comparison with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) SMM estimates. Comparison was also made with two other previously published BIA muscle prediction equations. Muscle measurements by BIA and DXA were compared in 117 patients with a range of clinical conditions (45 female, 72 male, mean age 75 years). The BIA equation used yielded an accurate estimate of DXA-derived SMM. Mean (SD) difference was 0.26(1.79) kg (ns). The two other BIA equations over-estimated SMM compared to DXA (both p equations were highly correlated. The BIA equation used, developed in a different healthy elderly population, gave an accurate estimate of DXA-derived SMM in a population with various clinical disorders. BIA appears potentially capable to estimate SMM in clinical disorders, but the optimal approach to its use for this purpose requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Airborne single particle mass spectrometers (SPLAT II & miniSPLAT) and new software for data visualization and analysis in a geo-spatial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jun; Mueller, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effect of aerosols on climate requires knowledge of the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles-two fundamental properties that determine an aerosol's optical properties and ability to serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. Here we present our aircraft-compatible single particle mass spectrometers, SPLAT II and its new, miniaturized version, miniSPLAT that measure in-situ and in real-time the size and chemical composition of individual aerosol particles with extremely high sensitivity, temporal resolution, and sizing precision on the order of a monolayer. Although miniSPLAT's size, weight, and power consumption are significantly smaller, its performance is on par with SPLAT II. Both instruments operate in dual data acquisition mode to measure, in addition to single particle size and composition, particle number concentrations, size distributions, density, and asphericity with high temporal resolution. We also present ND-Scope, our newly developed interactive visual analytics software package. ND-Scope is designed to explore and visualize the vast amount of complex, multidimensional data acquired by our single particle mass spectrometers, along with other aerosol and cloud characterization instruments on-board aircraft. We demonstrate that ND-Scope makes it possible to visualize the relationships between different observables and to view the data in a geo-spatial context, using the interactive and fully coupled Google Earth and Parallel Coordinates displays. Here we illustrate the utility of ND-Scope to visualize the spatial distribution of atmospheric particles of different compositions, and explore the relationship between individual particle compositions and their activity as cloud condensation nuclei.

  8. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization mass spectrometric imaging of olanzapine in a single hair using esculetin as a matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ge; Hong, Lizhi

    2017-07-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in drug consumption. The embedding of a low drug concentration in the hydrophobic hair matrix makes it difficult to extract and detect, and requires an improved method to increase detection sensitivity. In this study, an MSI method using MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance was developed for direct identification and imaging of olanzapine in hair samples using the positive ion mode. Following decontamination, scalp hair samples from an olanzapine user were scraped from the proximal to the distal end three times, and 5mm hair sections were fixed onto an Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated microscopic glass slide. Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxy-2H-chromen-2-one) was used as a new hydrophobic matrix to increase the affinity, extraction and ionization efficiency of olanzapine in the hair samples. The spatial distribution of olanzapine was observed using five single hairs from the same drug user. This matrix improves the affinity of olanzapine in hair for molecular imaging with mass spectrometry. This method may provide a detection power for olanzapine to the nanogram level per 5mm hair. Time course changes in the MSI results were also compared with quantitative HPLC-MS/MS for each 5mm segment of single hair shafts selected from the MALDI target. MALDI imaging intensities in single hairs showed good semi-quantitative correlation with the results from conventional HPLC-MS/MS. MALDI-MSI is suitable for monitoring drug intake with a high time resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. UVnovo: A de Novo Sequencing Algorithm Using Single Series of Fragment Ions via Chromophore Tagging and 351 nm Ultraviolet Photodissociation Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Scott A; Horton, Andrew P; Cannon, Joe R; Cotham, Victoria C; Marcotte, Edward M; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2016-04-05

    De novo peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry represents an important strategy for characterizing novel peptides and proteins, in which a peptide's amino acid sequence is inferred directly from the precursor peptide mass and tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS or MS(3)) fragment ions, without comparison to a reference proteome. This method is ideal for organisms or samples lacking a complete or well-annotated reference sequence set. One of the major barriers to de novo spectral interpretation arises from confusion of N- and C-terminal ion series due to the symmetry between b and y ion pairs created by collisional activation methods (or c, z ions for electron-based activation methods). This is known as the "antisymmetric path problem" and leads to inverted amino acid subsequences within a de novo reconstruction. Here, we combine several key strategies for de novo peptide sequencing into a single high-throughput pipeline: high-efficiency carbamylation blocks lysine side chains, and subsequent tryptic digestion and N-terminal peptide derivatization with the ultraviolet chromophore AMCA yield peptides susceptible to 351 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD). UVPD-MS/MS of the AMCA-modified peptides then predominantly produces y ions in the MS/MS spectra, specifically addressing the antisymmetric path problem. Finally, the program UVnovo applies a random forest algorithm to automatically learn from and then interpret UVPD mass spectra, passing results to a hidden Markov model for de novo sequence prediction and scoring. We show this combined strategy provides high-performance de novo peptide sequencing, enabling the de novo sequencing of thousands of peptides from an Escherichia coli lysate at high confidence.

  10. Linfoma não-Hodgkin apresentando-se como massa hepática única Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a single liver mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mila Correia Góis Peixoto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as principais características de imagem do linfoma não-Hodgkin apresentando-se como massa hepática única. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Realizamos estudo retrospectivo mediante análise de casos de pacientes com massa hepática única aos exames de ultrassonografia, tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética, com diagnóstico histológico de linfoma não-Hodgkin. Esses exames foram analisados por dois examinadores em consenso. RESULTADOS: Identificamos três pacientes, todos do sexo masculino, na quinta década de vida, com quadro clínico inespecífico e que apresentavam massa hepática única e com diagnóstico de linfoma não-Hodgkin. Na ultrassonografia a lesão hepática apresentava-se como massa com aspecto "em alvo" nos três casos estudados. Na tomografia computadorizada observou-se massa hipodensa e heterogênea, com realce anelar em todos os casos. Na ressonância magnética as lesões apresentavam-se heterogêneas, hipointensas em T1 e hiperintensas em T2, e também com realce anelar após a injeção do contraste. Nenhum paciente apresentava linfonodomegalia ou comprometimento de outras vísceras sólidas no momento do diagnóstico. CONCLUSÃO: Na presença de massa hepática solitária e com aspecto "em alvo" deve-se considerar, entre as hipóteses, o diagnóstico de linfoma.OBJECTIVE: To describe the main imaging findings of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting as a single liver mass. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was developed with analysis of cases where a single liver mass was observed at ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and histologically diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The studies were reviewed by two observers in consensus. RESULTS: Three male patients in the fifth decade of life, with non-specific clinical manifestations and single liver mass diagnosed as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were identified. A hepatic lesion with target sign was observed at

  11. Guidelines for Mass Casualty Decontamination During a HAZMAT/Weapon of Mass Destruction Incident. Volumes 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    the body surface • Radiation - heat exchange between two objects not in direct contact Most people are unaware of all four heat transfer mechanisms...days (mustard agents). • Nerve agents: Miosis: Contracting of the pupils. Rapid effect that becomes more acute over time Headache Twitching of... Pneumonic is more fatal (nearly 100% if untreated) than bubonic (50% fatality). Protection and Precautions • Protective equipment with

  12. Radiographic interpretation of the appendicular skeleton: A comparison between casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Liz; Piper, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess how accurately and confidently casualty officers, nurse practitioners and radiographers, practicing within the emergency department (ED), recognize and describe radiographic trauma within an image test bank of 20 appendicular radiographs. Method: The participants consisted of 7 casualty officers, 13 nurse practitioners and 18 radiographers. All 20 radiographic examinations selected for the image test bank had been acquired following trauma and included some subtle, yet clinically significant abnormalities. The test bank score (maximum 40 marks), sensitivity and specificity percentages were calculated against an agreed radiological diagnosis (reference standard). Alternative Free-response Receiver Operating Characteristic (AFROC) analysis was used to assess the overall performance of the diagnostic accuracy of these professional groups. The variation in performance between each group was measured using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, to identify any statistical significant differences in the performance in interpretation between these groups. The relationship between the participants' perceived image interpretation accuracy during clinical practice and the actual accuracy of their image test bank score was examined using Pearson's Correlation Coefficient (r). Results: The results revealed that the radiographers gained the highest mean test bank score (28.5/40; 71%). This score was statistically higher than the mean test bank scores attained by the participating nurse practitioners (21/40; 53%) and casualty officers (21.5/40; 54%), with p < 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. When compared with each other, the scores from these latter groups showed no significant difference (p = 0.91). The mean 'area under the curve' (AUC) value achieved by the radiographers was also significantly higher (p < 0.01) in comparison to the AUC values demonstrated by the nurse practitioners and casualty officers, whose results, when compared, showed no significant

  13. The contribution of the Israeli trauma system to the survival of road traffic casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Sharon; Siman-Tov, Maya; Bahouth, H; Kessel, B; Klein, Y; Michaelson, M; Miklosh, B; Rivkind, A; Shaked, G; Simon, D; Soffer, D; Stein, M; Peleg, Kobi

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, over one million people die annually from traffic crashes, in which over half are pedestrians, bicycle riders and two-wheel motor vehicles. In Israel, during the last decade, mortality from traffic crashes has decreased from 636 in 1998 to 288 in 2011. Professionals attribute the decrease in mortality to enforcement, improved infrastructure and roads and behavioral changes among road users, while no credit is given to the trauma system. Trauma systems which care for severe and critical casualties improve the injury outcomes and reduce mortality among road casualties. 1) To evaluate the contribution of the Israeli Health System, especially the trauma system, on the reduction in mortality among traffic casualties. 2) To evaluate the chance of survival among hospitalized traffic casualties, according to age, gender, injury severity and type of road user. A retrospective study based on the National Trauma Registry, 1998-2011, including hospitalization data from eight hospitals. During the study period, the Trauma Registry included 262,947 hospitalized trauma patients, of which 25.3% were due to a road accident. During the study period, a 25% reduction in traffic related mortality was reported, from 3.6% in 1998 to 2.7% in 2011. Among severe and critical (ISS 16+) casualties the reduction in mortality rates was even more significant, 41%; from 18.6% in 1998 to 11.0% in 2011. Among severe and critical pedestrian injuries, a 44% decrease was reported (from 29.1% in 1998 to 16.2% in 2011) and a 65% reduction among bicycle injuries. During the study period, the risk of mortality decreased by over 50% from 1998 to 2011 (OR 0.44 95% 0.33-0.59. In addition, a simulation was conducted to determine the impact of the trauma system on mortality of hospitalized road casualties. Presuming that the mortality rate remained constant at 18.6% and without any improvement in the trauma system, in 2011 there would have been 182 in-hospital deaths

  14. Transfusion: -80°C Frozen Blood Products Are Safe and Effective in Military Casualty Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Badloe, John F.; Hess, John R.; Hoencamp, Rigo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Netherlands Armed Forces use -80°C frozen red blood cells (RBCs), plasma and platelets combined with regular liquid stored RBCs, for the treatment of (military) casualties in Medical Treatment Facilities abroad. Our objective was to assess and compare the use of -80°C frozen blood products in combination with the different transfusion protocols and their effect on the outcome of trauma casualties. Materials and Methods Hemovigilance and combat casualties data from Afghanistan 2006–2010 for 272 (military) trauma casualties with or without massive transfusions (MT: ≥6 RBC/24hr, N = 82 and non-MT: 1–5 RBC/24hr, N = 190) were analyzed retrospectively. In November 2007, a massive transfusion protocol (MTP; 4:3:1 RBC:Plasma:Platelets) for ATLS® class III/IV hemorrhage was introduced in military theatre. Blood product use, injury severity and mortality were assessed pre- and post-introduction of the MTP. Data were compared to civilian and military trauma studies to assess effectiveness of the frozen blood products and MTP. Results No ABO incompatible blood products were transfused and only 1 mild transfusion reaction was observed with 3,060 transfused products. In hospital mortality decreased post-MTP for MT patients from 44% to 14% (P = 0.005) and for non-MT patients from 12.7% to 5.9% (P = 0.139). Average 24-hour RBC, plasma and platelet ratios were comparable and accompanying 24-hour mortality rates were low compared to studies that used similar numbers of liquid stored (and on site donated) blood products. Conclusion This report describes for the first time that the combination of -80°C frozen platelets, plasma and red cells is safe and at least as effective as standard blood products in the treatment of (military) trauma casualties. Frozen blood can save the lives of casualties of armed conflict without the need for in-theatre blood collection. These results may also contribute to solutions for logistic problems in civilian blood supply in

  15. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Martin; Galameau, Mike; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula

    2003-01-01

    ... to treat victims of biochemical agents on the battlefield. This study reviewed Marine Corps medical supply blocks for biological and chemical warfare casualties - Authorized Medical Allowance Lists (AMALs) 687 and 688...

  16. Now and Then: Combat Casualty Care Policies for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom Compared With Those of Vietnam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...

  17. Multi-Isotope Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Combining Heavy Water 2H with 15N Labeling As Complementary Tracers for Metabolic Heterogeneity at the Single-Cell Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, S.; McGlynn, S.; Cowley, E.; Green, A.; Newman, D. K.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic rates of microbial communities constitute a key physiological parameter for understanding the in situ growth constraints for life in any environment. Isotope labeling techniques provide a powerful approach for measuring such biological activity, due to the use of isotopically enriched substrate tracers whose incorporation into biological materials can be detected with high sensitivity by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) combined with stable isotope labeling provides a unique tool for studying the spatiometabolic activity of microbial populations at the single cell level in order to assess both community structure and population diversity. However, assessing the distribution and range of microbial activity in complex environmental systems with slow-growing organisms, diverse carbon and nitrogen sources, or heterotrophic subpopulations poses a tremendous technical challenge because the introduction of isotopically labeled substrates frequently changes the nutrient availability and can inflate or bias measures of activity. Here, we present the use of hydrogen isotope labeling with deuterated water as an important new addition to the isotopic toolkit and apply it for the determination of single cell microbial activities by NanoSIMS imaging. This tool provides a labeling technique that minimally alters any aquatic chemical environment, can be administered with strong labels even in minimal addition (natural background is very low), is an equally universal substrate for all forms of life even in complex, carbon and nitrogen saturated systems, and can be combined with other isotopic tracers. The combination of heavy water labeling with the most commonly used NanoSIMS tracer, 15N, is technically challenging but opens up a powerful new set of multi-tracer experiments for the study of microbial activity in complex communities. We present the first truly simultaneous single cell triple isotope system

  18. Temperature field, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O mass transfer in SOFC single cell: Electrode and electrolyte thickness effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitouni, Bariza; Moussa, Hocine Ben; Saighi, Slimane [Laboratoire d' etude des systemes energetiques industriels (LESEI), Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Oulmi, Kafia [Laboratoire de chimie et de chimie de l' environnement, Universite de Batna, Batna (Algeria); Chetehouna, Khaled [Laboratoire Energetique Explosions Structures (LEES). ENSI, Bourges (France)

    2009-06-15

    The temperature increment in electrodes and electrolyte of a fuel cell is mainly attributed to the chemical reaction and the irreversibilities. The aim of this work is to study the increasing temperature of a SOFC single cell under the influence of the electrode and electrolyte thicknesses for its type of heat source. The hydrogen and water field are also discussed according to anode thickness. The results of a self-developed mathematical model show the increasing temperature in the solid side of SOFC; anode, electrolyte and cathode by heat source types ''Joule effect'' at the several geometric configurations of SOFC. The maximum temperature value is also discussed for several cathode thicknesses under the activation polarization effect. Moreover, mass transfer for both hydrogen and water is studied according to anode thickness. (author)

  19. A third-party casualty risk model for unmanned aircraft system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, Richard; Schrage, Daniel; Volovoi, Vitali; Jimenez, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) integration into the National Airspace System (NAS) is an important goal of many members of the Aerospace community including stakeholders such as the military, law enforcement and potential civil users of UAS. However, integration efforts have remained relatively limited due to safety concerns. Due to the nature of UAS, safety predictions must look beyond the system itself and take the operating environment into account. A framework that can link UAS reliability and physical characteristics to the effects on the bystander population is required. This study proposes using a Target Level of Safety approach and an event tree format, populated with data from existing studies that share characteristics of UAS crashes to enable casualty prediction for UAS operations. - Highlights: • A framework for predicting bystander casualties caused by UAS mishaps. • A method to facilitate UAS integration by linking system reliability to system safety. • A tool to help develop UAS certification standards

  20. Internet-accessible radiographic database of Vietnam War casualties for medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, Eric P; Smirniotopoulos, James G

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of archiving radiographic images from Vietnam era conflict casualties into a personal computer-based electronic database of text and images and displaying the data using an Internet-accessible database for preservation and educational purposes. Thirty-two patient cases were selected at random from a pool of 1,000 autopsy reports in which radiographs were available. A total of 74 radiographs from these cases were digitized using a commercial image scanner and then uploaded into an Internet accessible database. The quality of the digitized images was assessed by administering an image-based test to a group of 12 medical students. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) differences were found between test scores when using the original radiographs versus using the digitized radiographs on the Internet-accessible database. An Internet-accessible database is capable of effectively archiving Vietnam era casualty radiographs for educational purposes.

  1. Mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties and damage cost through regression analysis using matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrutia, J D; Bautista, L A; Baccay, E B

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop mathematical models for estimating earthquake casualties such as death, number of injured persons, affected families and total cost of damage. To quantify the direct damages from earthquakes to human beings and properties given the magnitude, intensity, depth of focus, location of epicentre and time duration, the regression models were made. The researchers formulated models through regression analysis using matrices and used α = 0.01. The study considered thirty destructive earthquakes that hit the Philippines from the inclusive years 1968 to 2012. Relevant data about these said earthquakes were obtained from Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Data on damages and casualties were gathered from the records of National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council. This study will be of great value in emergency planning, initiating and updating programs for earthquake hazard reduction in the Philippines, which is an earthquake-prone country.

  2. "Depth-profiling" and quantitative characterization of the size, composition, shape, density, and morphology of fine particles with SPLAT, a single-particle mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Yang, Juan; Song, Chen; Zaveri, Rahul A; Imre, Dan

    2008-01-31

    A significant fraction of atmospheric particles are composed of inorganic substances that are mixed or coated with organic compounds. The properties and behavior of these particles depend on the internal composition and arrangement of the specific constituents in each particle. It is important to know which constituent is on the surface and whether it covers the particle surface partially or entirely. We demonstrate here an instrument consisting of an ultrasensitive single-particle mass spectrometer coupled with a differential mobility analyzer to quantitatively measure in real time individual particle composition, size, density, and shape and to determine which substance is on the surface and whether it entirely covers the particle. For this study, we use NaCl particles completely coated with liquid dioctyl phthalate to generate spherical particles, and NaCl particles partially coated with pyrene, a solid poly aromatic hydrocarbon, to produce aspherical particles with pyrene nodules and an exposed NaCl core. We show that the behavior of the mass spectral intensities as a function of laser fluence yields information that can be used to determine the morphological distribution of individual particle constituents.

  3. [Seasonal Variation Characteristics and Potential Source Contribution of Sulfate, Nitrate and Ammonium in Beijing by Using Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lang; Zhang, Wen-jie; Du, Shi-yong; Hou, Lu-jian; Han, Bin; Yang, Wen; Chen, Min-dong; Bai, Zhi-peng

    2016-05-15

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was deployed to continuously observe the aerosol particles of Beijing urban area from 2013-12 to 2014-11, and the hourly average data of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium (SNA) were obtained using the characteristic ion tracer method. The mixing state and size distribution of SNA were analyzed. In addition, based on Hysplit 48 h back air mass trajectory results in combination with Concentration Weighted Trajectory method (CWT), we obtained the seasonal potential source contribution area of SNA. The results showed that the mixture of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in spring and summer was more stable than that in autumn and winter. The size distribution of sulfate and nitrate was very similar. The size distribution characteristics of SNA followed the order of autumn > summer > spring > winter. The potential source region of SNA had similar spatial distribution characteristics, and the potential source region of SNA was mainly located in Beijing and south areas, especially at Tianjin, Langfang, Hengshui, Baoding and Shijiazhuang.

  4. Civilian Casualties in the Colombian Conflict: A New Approach to Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Spagat, M; Restrepo, J

    2006-01-01

    We develop a new, quantitative approach to the analysis of human security during armed conflict and apply this methodology to the Colombian conflict, 1988-2003. We consider 21 different attack types (unopposed events) plus clashes between pairs of armed groups. For each event type we determine the number of civilian killings and injuries (casualties), the armed group(s) involved and the population density of the municipalities where these events occur. We also study the dynamics of civilian c...

  5. Unit Ministry Team Religious Support to Casualties on the Airland Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-28

    will to resist the enemy. Chaplain support impacts on the soldier’s mo -ale and his combat effective- ness as a fighting force. Inability to provide...uncertainty and fatigue In order to break their will to resist at all echelons. Casualties In the first and second echelons will be inordinately high...210 Pediculosis, Mod 211 Scabies , Mod 212 Pilonial Cyst/Abscess 455 76 213 Pilonial Cyst, Mod 411 59 214 Ingrown Toenails, Severe 43 7 215

  6. The Armed Forces Casualty Assistance Readiness Enhancement System (AF-CARES), Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-08

    of the grieving family members and less on administrative tasks. Previous Work A considerable amount of previous work was done as part of this...The software did not handle less than perfect data sets, it would break on a missing casualty social security number or badly formed Excel...BE A SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR OR HAVE ADMINISTRATOR PRIVILEDGES ON YOUR COMPUTER. Installation requires you to: 1. Download the software from either

  7. Extracorporeal Organ Support following Trauma: The Dawn of a New Era in Combat Casualty Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    hemofiltration,56 CVVH, and peritoneal dialysis .57 Given these experiences, medical doctrine has evolved to incorporate RRT in select ech- elon or...identify capability gaps, while researchers at home investigate solutions to fill them. CONCLUSION Advances in trauma care and combat casualty care re...WJ, Morley SW, et al. Respiratory dialysis with an active-mixing extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal system in a chronic sheep study. Intensive Care

  8. Needle Decompression of Tension Pneumothorax Tactical Combat Casualty Care Guideline Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    pleural space at either the second ICS at the MCL or the fourth or fifth ICS AAL and is not suitable for optimal use in ND. 1, 4 The majority of...Consider chest tube insertion if no improvement and/or long transport is anticipated. c. Most combat casualties do not require supplemental oxygen...JG, Kerr ST, et al.: Needle versus tube thoracostomy in a swine model of traumatic tension hemopneumpothorax Prehosp Emerg Care. 2009; 13:18-27 3

  9. Combining single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to evaluate the release of colloidal arsenic from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Bolea, Eduardo; O'Day, Peggy A; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Garrido, Fernando; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Detection and sizing of natural colloids involved in the release and transport of toxic metals and metalloids is essential to understand and model their environmental effects. Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) was applied for the detection of arsenic-bearing particles released from mine wastes. Arsenic-bearing particles were detected in leachates from mine wastes, with a mass-per-particle detection limit of 0.64 ng of arsenic. Conversion of the mass-per-particle information provided by SP-ICP-MS into size information requires knowledge of the nature of the particles; therefore, synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was used to identify scorodite (FeAsO4·2H2O) as the main species in the colloidal particles isolated by ultrafiltration. The size of the scorodite particles detected in the leachates was below 300-350 nm, in good agreement with the values obtained by TEM. The size of the particles detected by SP-ICP-MS was determined as the average edge of scorodite crystals, which show a rhombic dipyramidal form, achieving a size detection limit of 117 nm. The combined use of SP-ICP-MS and XAS allowed detection, identification, and size determination of scorodite particles released from mine wastes, suggesting their potential to transport arsenic. Graphical abstract Analytical approach for the detection and size characterization of As-bearing particles by SP-ICP-MS and XAS in environmental samples.

  10. Rapid analysis of Fructus forsythiae essential oil by ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Jiao; Ma, Dan-Hui; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new ILAMD-HS-SDME method is developed for the microextraction of essential oil. •ILs used as destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption medium. •Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency are optimized by Box–Behnken design. •Procedure benefits: similar constituents, shorter duration and smaller sample amount. •ILAMD-HS-SDME followed by GC–MS is a promising technique in analytical fields. -- Abstract: A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation and analytical technique, i.e. ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction (ILAMD-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed for the analysis of essential oil (EO) in Fructus forsythiae. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were not only used as the absorption medium of microwave irradiation but also as the destruction agent of plant cell walls. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim]OAc) was chosen as the optimal ILs. Moreover, n-heptadecane (2.0 μL) was selected as the appropriate suspended solvent for the extraction and concentration of EO. Extraction conditions of the proposed method were optimized using the relative peak area of EO constituents as the index, and the optimal operational parameters were obtained as follows: irradiation power (300 W), sample mass (0.7 g), mass ratio of ILs to sample (2.4), temperature (78 °C) and time (3.4 min). In comparison to previous reports, the proposed method was faster and required smaller sample amount but could equally monitor all EO constituents with no significant differences

  11. Rapid analysis of Fructus forsythiae essential oil by ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Jiao [State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Ma, Dan-Hui [College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng [State Engineering Laboratory of Bio-Resource Eco-Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Fu, Yu-Jie, E-mail: yujie_fu2002@yahoo.com [State Engineering Laboratory of Bio-Resource Eco-Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Ma, Wei, E-mail: mawei@hljucm.net [State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); School of Pharmaceutical, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new ILAMD-HS-SDME method is developed for the microextraction of essential oil. •ILs used as destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption medium. •Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency are optimized by Box–Behnken design. •Procedure benefits: similar constituents, shorter duration and smaller sample amount. •ILAMD-HS-SDME followed by GC–MS is a promising technique in analytical fields. -- Abstract: A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation and analytical technique, i.e. ionic liquids-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction (ILAMD-HS-SDME) followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was developed for the analysis of essential oil (EO) in Fructus forsythiae. In this work, ionic liquids (ILs) were not only used as the absorption medium of microwave irradiation but also as the destruction agent of plant cell walls. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C{sub 2}mim]OAc) was chosen as the optimal ILs. Moreover, n-heptadecane (2.0 μL) was selected as the appropriate suspended solvent for the extraction and concentration of EO. Extraction conditions of the proposed method were optimized using the relative peak area of EO constituents as the index, and the optimal operational parameters were obtained as follows: irradiation power (300 W), sample mass (0.7 g), mass ratio of ILs to sample (2.4), temperature (78 °C) and time (3.4 min). In comparison to previous reports, the proposed method was faster and required smaller sample amount but could equally monitor all EO constituents with no significant differences.

  12. Optimization of a single-drop microextraction method for multielemental determination by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following in situ vapor generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Sandra; Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    A headspace single-drop microextraction (HS-SDME) method has been developed in combination with electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for the simultaneous determination of As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg in aqueous solutions. Vapor generation is carried out in a 40 mL volume closed-vial containing a solution with the target analytes in hydrochloric acid and potassium ferricyanide medium. Hydrides (As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn) and Hg vapor are trapped onto an aqueous single drop (3 μL volume) containing Pd(II), followed by the subsequent injection in the ETV. Experimental variables such as medium composition, sodium tetrahydroborate (III) volume and concentration, stirring rate, extraction time, sample volume, ascorbic acid concentration and palladium amount in the drop were fully optimized. The limits of detection (LOD) (3σ criterion) of the proposed method for As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg were 0.2, 0.04, 0.01, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.8 μg/L, respectively. Enrichment factors of 9, 85, 138, 130, 37 and 72 for As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg, respectively, were achieved in 210 s. The relative standard deviations (N = 5) ranged from 4 to 8%. The proposed HS-SDME-ETV-ICP-MS method has been applied for the determination of As, Sb, Bi, Pb, Sn and Hg in NWRI TM-28.3 certified reference material.

  13. Determination of patulin in apple juice by single-drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Li, Hongmei; Ma, Wen; Guo, Zhen; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Xiuqin; Zhang, Qinghe

    2018-08-15

    Quick and simple analytical methodology has been developed for the measurement of patulin in apple juice by combining single-drop liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction with isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. After systematic parameters optimization, the whole sample pretreatment only consisted of single extraction that consumed 1.5 mL ethyl acetate. While, other methods usually needed complicated pretreatment, including extraction, purification, evaporation and redissolution. This sample pretreatment method could greatly lower the interferences from sugar-rich matrix, and the limit of detection was 0.5 μg/L and limit of quantification was 2 μg/L in apple juice. Moreover, linear range covered three orders of magnitude from 2 to 2000 μg/L. The proposed method is promising for patulin extraction and detection in apple juice, which will opens a new perspective in the enrichment of trace contaminations in high sugar complex matrix. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Operational Canine and K9 Tactical Emergency Casualty Care Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lee E; Maricle, Richard; Brenner, Jo-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 20% to 25% of trauma-related, prehospital fatalities in humans are due to preventable deaths. Data are lacking, however, on the nature and the prevalence of operational canine (OC) prehospital deaths. It is plausible that OCs engaged in high-threat operations are also at risk for suffering some type of preventable death. Tactical Combat Casualty Care has significantly reduced human fatality rates on the battlefield. Standardized guidelines specifically for prehospital trauma care have not been developed for the OC caregiver. An initiation has been approved by the Committee for Tactical Emergency Casualty Care to form a K9-Tactical Emergency Casualty Care (TECC) working group to develop such guidelines. The intent of the K9-TECC initiative is to form best practice recommendations for the civilian high-risk OC caregiver. These recommendations are to focus on interventions that (1) eliminate the major causes of canine out-of-hospital preventable deaths, (2) are easily learned and applied by any civilian first responder, and (2) minimize resource consumption. 2015.

  15. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ann Rogers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  16. Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla B. Keenan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.

  17. Earthquake casualty models within the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Earle, Paul S.; Porter, Keith A.; Hearne, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Since the launch of the USGS’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system in fall of 2007, the time needed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min. PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system, estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake. To account for wide variability and uncertainty associated with inventory, structural vulnerability and casualty data, PAGER employs three different global earthquake fatality/loss computation models. This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since 2007. The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction. The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse.

  18. Optimization of mass spectrometric parameters improve the identification performance of capillary zone electrophoresis for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Dovichi, Norman J

    2018-02-25

    The effects of MS1 injection time, MS2 injection time, dynamic exclusion time, intensity threshold, and isolation width were investigated on the numbers of peptide and protein identifications for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis using CZE-MS/MS analysis of a Xenopus laevis tryptic digest. An electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface was used to couple a linear-polyacrylamide coated capillary to a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. A sensitive method that used a 1.4 Th isolation width, 60,000 MS2 resolution, 110 ms MS2 injection time, and a top 7 fragmentation produced the largest number of identifications when the CZE loading amount was less than 100 ng. A programmable autogain control method (pAGC) that used a 1.4 Th isolation width, 15,000 MS2 resolution, 110 ms MS2 injection time, and top 10 fragmentation produced the largest number of identifications for CZE loading amounts greater than 100 ng; 7218 unique peptides and 1653 protein groups were identified from 200 ng by using the pAGC method. The effect of mass spectrometer conditions on the performance of UPLC-MS/MS was also investigated. A fast method that used a 1.4 Th isolation width, 30,000 MS2 resolution, 45 ms MS2 injection time, and top 12 fragmentation produced the largest number of identifications for 200 ng UPLC loading amount (6025 unique peptides and 1501 protein groups). This is the first report where the identification number for CZE surpasses that of the UPLC at the 200 ng loading level. However, more peptides (11476) and protein groups (2378) were identified by using UPLC-MS/MS when the sample loading amount was increased to 2 μg with the fast method. To exploit the fast scan speed of the Q-Exactive HF mass spectrometer, higher sample loading amounts are required for single-shot bottom-up proteomics analysis using CZE-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ratiometric, single-dye, pH-sensitive inhibited laser-induced fluorescence for the characterization of mixing and mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacassagne, Tom; Simoëns, Serge; El Hajem, Mahmoud; Champagne, Jean-Yves

    2018-01-01

    Inhibited planar laser-induced fluorescence (I-PLIF) techniques are widely used for heat and mass transfer studies in fluid mechanics. They allow the visualization of instantaneous two-dimensional field of a passive or reactive scalar, providing that this scalar acts as an inhibitor to the fluorescence of a specific molecule, and that this molecule is homogeneously mixed in the fluid at a known concentration. Local scalar values are deduced from fluorescence recordings thanks to preliminary calibration procedure. When confronted with non-optically thin systems, however, the knowledge of the excitation intensity distribution in the region of interest is also required, and this information is most of the time hard to obtain. To overcome that problem, two-color ratiometric PLIF techniques ( {I}^ {r}-PLIF) have been developed. In these methods, the ratio of two different fluorescence wavelengths triggered by the same excitation is used as an indicator of the scalar value. Such techniques have been used for temperature measurements in several studies but never, to the author's knowledge, for pH tracking and acid-base mixing, despite the frequent use of the one-color version in mass transfer studies. In the present work, a ratiometric pH-sensitive-inhibited PLIF technique ( {I}_ {pH}^ {r}-PLIF) using fluorescein sodium as a single dye and applicable to complex geometries and flows is developed. Theoretical considerations show that the ratio of the two-color fluorescence intensities should only depend on the dye's spectral quantum yield, itself pH-dependent. A detailed spectrofluorimetric study of fluorescein reveals that this ratio strictly increases with the pH for two well-chosen spectral bands (fluorescence colors). A similar trend is found when using sCmos cameras equipped with optical filters to record fluorescence signals. The method is then experimented on a test flow, a turbulent acidic jet injected in an initially pH-neutral volume of fluid. The results obtained

  20. PET/CT-guided percutaneous liver mass biopsies and ablations: Targeting accuracy of a single 20 s breath-hold PET acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyn, P.B.; Tatli, S.; Sahni, V.A.; Sadow, C.A.; Forgione, K.; Mauri, G.; Morrison, P.R.; Catalano, P.J.; Silverman, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether a single 20 s breath-hold positron-emission tomography (PET) acquisition obtained during combined PET/computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous liver biopsy or ablation procedures has the potential to target 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-avid liver masses as accurately as up to 180 s breath-hold PET acquisitions. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 10 adult patients with 13 liver masses who underwent FDG PET/CT-guided percutaneous biopsies (n = 5) or ablations (n = 5). PET was acquired as nine sequential 20 s, monitored, same-level breath-hold frames and CT was acquired in one monitored breath-hold. Twenty, 40, 60, and 180 s PET datasets were reconstructed. Two blinded readers marked tumour centres on randomized PET and CT datasets. Three-dimensional spatial localization differences between PET datasets and either 180 s PET or CT were analysed using multiple regression analyses. Statistical tests were two-sided and p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Targeting differences between 20 s PET and 180 s PET ranged from 0.7–20.3 mm (mean 5.3 ± 4.4 mm; median 4.3) and were not statistically different from 40 or 60 s PET (p = 0.74 and 0.91, respectively). Targeting differences between 20 s PET and CT ranged from 1.4–36 mm (mean 9.6 ± 7.1 mm; median 8.2 mm) and were not statistically different from 40, 60, or 180 s PET (p = 0.84, 0.77, and 0.35, respectively). Conclusion: Single 20 s breath-hold PET acquisitions from PET/CT-guided percutaneous liver procedures have the potential to target FDG-avid liver masses with equivalent accuracy to 180 s summed, breath-hold PET acquisitions and may facilitate strategies that improve image registration and shorten procedure times

  1. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  2. Evaluation of left ventricular mass and function, lipid profile, and insulin resistance in Egyptian children with growth hormone deficiency: A single-center prospective case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotb Abbass Metwalley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth hormone deficiency (GHD in adults is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that may contribute to an increased mortality for cardiovascular disease. In children, relatively few studies have investigated the effect of GHD and replacement therapy on cardiac performance and metabolic abnormalities that may place them at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD at an early age. Aim: This study was aimed to assess the left ventricular function, lipid profile, and degree of insulin resistance in Egyptian children with GHD before and after 1 year of GH replacement therapy. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study, single-center study. Materials and Methods: Thirty children with short stature due to GHD were studied in comparison to 20 healthy age- and sex-matched children. All subjects were subjected to history, clinical examination, auxological assessment, and echocardiography to assess the left ventricular function. Blood samples were collected for measuring IGF-1, lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and atherogenic index (AI, fasting blood sugar, and fasting insulin levels. In addition, basal and stimulated GH levels were measured in children with suspected GHD. Statistical Analysis Used: Student′s t-test was used for parametric data, and the Mann-Whitney U-test was used for non-parametric data. Results: Total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI, and insulin were significantly higher in children with GHD than in healthy controls at baseline. After 12 months of GH replacement therapy, total, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, AI and insulin were significantly decreased, while homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR was significantly increased compared to both pre-treatment and control values. At baseline, the left ventricular mass (LVM and left ventricular mass index (LVMi were significantly lower in GHD children than in controls. After 12 months of GH

  3. Death on the battlefield (2001-2011): implications for the future of combat casualty care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, Brian J; Mabry, Robert L; Seguin, Peter; Cantrell, Joyce; Tops, Terrill; Uribe, Paul; Mallett, Olga; Zubko, Tamara; Oetjen-Gerdes, Lynne; Rasmussen, Todd E; Butler, Frank K; Kotwal, Russ S; Kotwal, Russell S; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles; Champion, Howard; Lawnick, Mimi; Moores, Leon; Blackbourne, Lorne H

    2012-12-01

    Critical evaluation of all aspects of combat casualty care, including mortality, with a special focus on the incidence and causes of potentially preventable deaths among US combat fatalities, is central to identifying gaps in knowledge, training, equipment, and execution of battlefield trauma care. The impetus to produce this analysis was to develop a comprehensive perspective of battlefield death, concentrating on deaths that occurred in the pre-medical treatment facility (pre-MTF) environment. The Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service Mortality Surveillance Division was used to identify Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualties from October 2001 to June 2011 who died from injury in the deployed environment. The autopsy records, perimortem records, photographs on file, and Mortality Trauma Registry of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service were used to compile mechanism of injury, cause of injury, medical intervention performed, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) on all lethal injuries. All data were used by the expert panel for the conduct of the potential for injury survivability assessment of this study. For the study interval between October 2001 and June 2011, 4,596 battlefield fatalities were reviewed and analyzed. The stratification of mortality demonstrated that 87.3% of all injury mortality occurred in the pre-MTF environment. Of the pre-MTF deaths, 75.7% (n = 3,040) were classified as nonsurvivable, and 24.3% (n = 976) were deemed potentially survivable (PS). The injury/physiologic focus of PS acute mortality was largely associated with hemorrhage (90.9%). The site of lethal hemorrhage was truncal (67.3%), followed by junctional (19.2%) and peripheral-extremity (13.5%) hemorrhage. Most battlefield casualties died of their injuries before ever reaching a surgeon. As most pre-MTF deaths are nonsurvivable, mitigation strategies to impact outcomes in this population need to be directed

  4. Challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland: 3. emergency and casualty slaughter certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J

    2017-01-01

    Veterinarians are faced with significant conflicts of interest when issuing certificates for the transport and slaughter of acutely injured and casualty livestock. In a recent Policy Delphi study, emergency and casualty slaughter certification was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the third in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and the on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials), we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and opportunities for best practice in emergency and casualty slaughter certification in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely a representative from the regulatory body, local authority veterinarians with research experience in emergency slaughter, an animal welfare research scientist, official veterinarians from the competent authority, a private veterinary practitioner, and a member of a farming organisation. Results revealed a conflict between the responsibility of private veterinary practitioners (PVPs) to safeguard the welfare of acutely injured bovines on-farm and the client's commercial concerns. As a consequence, some PVPs may feel under pressure to certify, for example, an acutely injured animal for casualty slaughter instead of recommending either on-farm emergency slaughter or disposal by the knackery service. Among Official Veterinarians, there are concerns about the pressure within processing plants to accept acutely injured livestock as casualty animals. Confusion pertaining to legislation and definition of fitness to travel also contribute to these dilemmas. Conflicts of interest arise due to the gap between governance and provision to facilitate on-farm emergency slaughter of livestock. Increased availability and acceptance of on

  5. The Vulnerability of People to Landslides: A Case Study on the Relationship between the Casualties and Volume of Landslides in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qigen Lin; Ying Wang; Tianxue Liu; Yingqi Zhu; Qi Sui

    2017-01-01

    The lack of a detailed landslide inventory makes research on the vulnerability of people to landslides highly limited. In this paper, the authors collect information on the landslides that have caused casualties in China, and established the Landslides Casualties Inventory of China. 100 landslide cases from 2003 to 2012 were utilized to develop an empirical relationship between the volume of a landslide event and the casualties caused by the occurrence of the event. The error bars were used t...

  6. Highly resolved online organic-chemical speciation of evolved gases from thermal analysis devices by cryogenically modulated fast gas chromatography coupled to single photon ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji-Bozorgzad, Mohammad R; Eschner, Markus; Groeger, Thomas M; Streibel, Thorsten; Geissler, Robert; Kaisersberger, Erwin; Denner, Thomas; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2010-12-01

    Multi-dimensional analysis (MDA) in analytical chemistry is often applied to improve the selectivity of an analytical device and, therefore, to achieve a better overview of a sample composition. Recently, the hyphenation of thermogravimetry with single photo ionization mass spectrometry (TG-SPIMS) using an electron beam pumped excimer lamp (EBEL) for VUV radiation was applied. The concept of MDA has been realized by upgrading the TG-SPIMS system with a quasi comprehensive chromatographic separation step before the soft ionization (TG-GCxSPIMS). The system was characterized by the thermal analysis of diesel fuel, which has often been investigated by the GCxGC-community and is therefore a well-known sample material in MDA. Data from this measurement are used to explain the three-dimensional data structure and the advantages of the online TG-GCxSPIMS as compared to TG-SPIMS. Subsequently, the thermal decomposition behavior of a polymer, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), is investigated. TG-GCxSPIMS provides a two-dimensional analysis of the evolved gaseous products. TG relevant data are obtained as well as an improved resolution power to separate isobaric molecular structures without losing any fraction of the samples, as is often the case in heart cutting approaches. Additionally, this solution is not associated with any extension of the measurement time. The assignment of the substance pattern to distinct species is improved as compared to solely using mass spectrometry without a preceding separation step. Furthermore, hitherto undetected compounds have been found in the evolved gases from the thermal degradation of ABS. Finally, a first estimation of the limit of detection has been carried out. This results in a significant decrease of the LOD in case of TG-GCxSPIMS (500 ppt for toluene) as compared to 30 ppb, which could be reached with TG-SPIMS.

  7. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, Daniel P., E-mail: daniel.cassidy@wmich.edu [Department of Geosciences, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States); Srivastava, Vipul J., E-mail: vipul.srivastava@ch2m.com [CH2M HILL, 125S Wacker, Ste 3000, Chicago, IL 60606 (United States); Dombrowski, Frank J., E-mail: frank.dombrowski@we-energies.com [We Energies, 333W Everett St., A231, Milwaukee, WI 53203 (United States); Lingle, James W., E-mail: jlingle@epri.com [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 4927W Willow Road, Brown Deer, WI 53223 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Portland cement and lime activated persulfate by increasing pH and temperature. • Chemical oxidation achieved BTEX and PAH removal ranging from 55% to 75%. • Activating persulfate with ISS amendments reduced leachability more than NaOH. • Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded PAHs within weeks after ISCO finished. • ISCO, ISS, and anaerobic bioremediation were combined in a single application. - Abstract: Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks.

  8. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative targeted and retrospective data analysis of relevant pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins in bakery products by liquid chromatography-single-stage Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dominicis, Emiliano; Commissati, Italo; Gritti, Elisa; Catellani, Dante; Suman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In addition to 'traditional' multi-residue and multi-contaminant multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometric techniques devoted to quantifying a list of targeted compounds, the global food industry requires non-targeted methods capable of detecting other possible potentially hazardous compounds. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography combined with a single-stage Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer (UHPLC-HRMS Exactive™-Orbitrap Technology) was successfully exploited for the complete selective and quantitative determination of 33 target compounds within three major cross categories (pesticides, antibiotics and mycotoxins) in bakery matrices (specifically milk, wheat flour and mini-cakes). Resolution was set at 50 000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) to achieve the right compromise between an adequate scan speed and selectivity, allowing for the limitations related to the necessary generic sample preparation approach. An exact mass with tolerance of 5 ppm and minimum peak threshold of 10 000 units were fixed as the main identification conditions, including retention time and isotopic pattern as additional criteria devoted to greatly reducing the risk of false-positive findings. The full validation for all the target analytes was performed: linearity, intermediate repeatability and recovery (28 analytes within 70-120%) were positively assessed; furthermore, limits of quantification between 5 and 100 µg kg(-1) (with most of the analytes having a limit of detection below 6 µg kg(-1)) indicate good performance, which is compatible with almost all the regulatory needs. Naturally contaminated and fortified mini-cakes, prepared through combined use of industrial and pilot plant production lines, were analysed at two different concentration levels, obtaining good overall quantitative results and providing preliminary indications of the potential of full-scan HRMS cluster analysis. The effectiveness of this analytical approach was also tested in

  10. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Srivastava, Vipul J; Dombrowski, Frank J; Lingle, James W

    2015-10-30

    Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occurrence of insect kinins in the flesh fly, stable fly and horn fly-mass spectrometric identification from single nerves and diuretic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Ronald J; Coast, Geoffrey M; Tichy, Shane E; Russell, David H; Miller, J Allen; Predel, Reinhard

    2002-11-01

    MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of single lateral abdominal nerves (LANs) demonstrate the presence of the insect kinin Musdo-K in the housefly Musca domestica, and identify heretofore unknown insect kinins in two other Dipteran species as Musdo-K in the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans and horn fly Haematobia irritans. The insect kinin native to the flesh fly Neobellieria bullata is identified as Drome-K. Musdo-K and Drome-K are identical save for the conservative substitution of Ser for Thr in position 2. The sequences of the insect kinins are, therefore, remarkably conserved throughout Dipterans. The in vitro Malpighian tubule fluid secretion activity of Musdo-K in the stable fly is similar to that in the housefly, whereas that of Drome-K is 30-fold more potent in the flesh fly than in the fruit fly. Given the structural identities of the kinins and CRF-like diuretic hormones of these Dipteran species, the housefly can serve as a model insect for the study of diuretic peptides and their functions in the stable fly and horn fly, both livestock pests.

  12. Simultaneous characterisation of silver nanoparticles and determination of dissolved silver in chicken meat subjected to in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion using single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, K; Ramos, L; Gómez-Gómez, M M

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a chicken meat containing AgNPs (candidate reference material Nanolyse 14) has been used as a model matrix to study the fate and behaviour of AgNPs upon oral ingestion following an in vitro model that included saliva, gastric and intestinal digestions. The behaviour of a 40nm AgNPs standard solution during the three digestion steps was also evaluated. Sample preparation conditions were optimised to prevent AgNPs oxidation and/or aggregation and to ensure the representativeness of the reported results. Total silver released from the test sample and the evaluated AgNP standard was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The presence of both AgNPs and dissolved silver in the extracts was confirmed by single particle (SP)-ICPMS analysis. AgNPs were sized and the particle number concentration determined in the three digestion juices. Experimental results demonstrated differentiated behaviours for AgNP from the standard solution and the meat sample highlighting the relevance of using physiological conditions for accurate risk assessment. In the most realistic scenario assayed (i.e., spiked chicken meat analysis), only 13% of the AgNPs present in the reference material would reach the intestine wall. Meanwhile, other bioaccessible dissolved forms of silver would account for as much as 44% of the silver initially spiked to the meat paste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of gold nanoparticle uptake by tomato plants using enzymatic extraction followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yongbo; Zhang, Weilan; Xue, Runmiao; Ma, Xingmao; Stephan, Chady; Shi, Honglan

    2015-03-03

    Plant uptake and accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) represent an important pathway for potential human expose to NPs. Consequently, it is imperative to understand the uptake of accumulation of NPs in plant tissues and their unique physical and chemical properties within plant tissues. Current technologies are limited in revealing the unique characteristics of NPs after they enter plant tissues. An enzymatic digestion method, followed by single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) analysis, was developed for simultaneous determination of gold NP (AuNP) size, size distribution, particle concentration, and dissolved Au concentration in tomato plant tissues. The experimental results showed that Macerozyme R-10 enzyme was capable of extracting AuNPs from tomato plants without causing dissolution or aggregation of AuNPs. The detection limit for quantification of AuNP size was 20 nm, and the AuNP particle concentration detection limit was 1000 NPs/mL. The particle concentration recoveries of spiked AuNPs were high (79-96%) in quality control samples. The developed SP-ICP-MS method was able to accurately measure AuNP size, size distribution, and particle concentration in the plant matrix. The dosing study indicated that tomato can uptake AuNPs as intact particles without alternating the AuNP properties.

  14. Integrative modelling coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry reveals structural features of the clamp loader in complex with single-stranded DNA binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Argyris; Park, Ah Young; Hall, Zoe; Ruotolo, Brandon T; Robinson, Carol V

    2013-11-29

    DNA polymerase III, a decameric 420-kDa assembly, simultaneously replicates both strands of the chromosome in Escherichia coli. A subassembly of this holoenzyme, the seven-subunit clamp loader complex, is responsible for loading the sliding clamp (β2) onto DNA. Here, we use structural information derived from ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to build three-dimensional models of one form of the full clamp loader complex, γ3δδ'ψχ (254 kDa). By probing the interaction between the clamp loader and a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein (SSB4) and by identifying two distinct conformational states, with and without ssDNA, we assemble models of ψχ-SSB4 (108 kDa) and the clamp loader-SSB4 (340 kDa) consistent with IM data. A significant increase in measured collision cross-section (~10%) of the clamp loader-SSB4 complex upon DNA binding suggests large conformational rearrangements. This DNA bound conformation represents the active state and, along with the presence of ψχ, stabilises the clamp loader-SSB4 complex. Overall, this study of a large heteromeric complex analysed by IM-MS, coupled with integrative modelling, highlights the potential of such an approach to reveal structural features of previously unknown complexes of high biological importance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rhabdomyolysis among critically ill combat casualties: Associations with acute kidney injury and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian J; Faulk, Tarra I; Sosnov, Jonathan A; Clemens, Michael S; Elterman, Joel; Ross, James D; Howard, Jeffrey T; Fang, Raymond; Zonies, David H; Chung, Kevin K

    2016-03-01

    Rhabdomyolysis has been associated with poor outcomes in patients with traumatic injury, especially in the setting of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, rhabdomyolysis has not been systematically examined in a large cohort of combat casualties injured in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. We conducted a retrospective study of casualties injured during combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan who were initially admitted to the intensive care unit from February 1, 2002, to February 1, 2011. Information on age, sex, Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), mechanism of injury, shock index, creatine kinase, and serum creatinine were collected. These variables were examined via multivariate logistic and Cox regression analyses to determine factors independently associated with rhabdomyolysis, AKI, and death. Of 6,011 admissions identified, a total of 2,109 patients met inclusion criteria and were included for analysis. Rhabdomyolysis, defined as creatine kinase greater than 5,000 U/L, was present in 656 subjects (31.1%). Risk factors for rhabdomyolysis identified on multivariable analysis included injuries to the abdomen and extremities, increased ISS, male sex, explosive mechanism of injury, and shock index greater than 0.9. After adjustment, patients with rhabdomyolysis had a greater than twofold increase in the odds of AKI. In the analysis for mortality, rhabdomyolysis was significantly associated with death until AKI was added, at which point it lost statistical significance. We found that rhabdomyolysis is associated with the development of AKI in combat casualties. While rhabdomyolysis was strongly associated with mortality on the univariate model and in conjunction with both ISS and age, it was not associated with mortality after the inclusion of AKI. This suggests that the effect of rhabdomyolysis on mortality may be mediated by AKI. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level III.

  16. A review of pre-admission advanced airway management in combat casualties, Helmand Province 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Harry E J; LeClerc, S; Mclennan, J

    2015-06-01

    Airway compromise is the third leading cause of potentially preventable combat death. Pre-hospital airway management has lower success rates than in hospital. This study reviewed advanced airway management focusing on cricothyroidotomies and supraglottic airway devices in combat casualties prior to admission to a Role 3 Hospital in Afghanistan. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who required advanced airway management prior to arrival at the Role 3 Hospital, Bastion, Helmand Province over a 30-week period identified by the US Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. The notes and relevant X-rays were analysed. The opinions of US and UK clinical Subject Matter Experts (SME) were then sought. Fifty-seven advanced airway interventions were identified. 45 casualties had attempted intubations, 37 (82%) were successful and of those who had failed intubations, one had a King LT Airway (supraglottic device) and seven had a rescue cricothyroidotomy. The other initial advanced airway interventions were five attempted King LT airways and seven attempted cricothyroidotomies. In total, 14 cricothyroidotomies were performed; in this group, there were nine complications/significant events. The SMEs suggested that dedicated surgical airway kits should be used and students in training should be taught to secure the cricothyroidotomy tube as well as how to insert it. This review re-emphasises the need to 'ensure the right person, with the right equipment and the right training, is present at the right time if we are to improve the survival of patients with airway compromise on the battlefield'. The audit reference number is RCDM/Res/Audit/1036/12/0368. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Chapter 3 innovations in the en route care of combat casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzfeld, Jennifer J; Dukes, Susan; Bridges, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The en route care environment is dynamic and requires constant innovation to ensure appropriate nursing care for combat casualties. Building on experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, there have been tremendous innovations in the process of transporting patients, including the movement of patients with spinal injuries. Advances have also been made in pain management and noninvasive monitoring, particularly for trauma and surgical patients requiring close monitoring of their hemodynamic and perfusion status. In addition to institutionalizing these innovations, future efforts are needed to eliminate secondary insults to patients with traumatic brain injuries and technologies to provide closed-loop sedation and ventilation.

  18. Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical aid for radiation accident casualties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.P.

    1977-01-01

    Problems associated with the organization and planning of medical treatment for radiation accident casualties are considered for different types of radiation accident: whole-body or partial irradiation, external or internal contamination and small or large numbers of cases. The problems posed are ones of competence, urgency and capacity; on the diagnostic side there is the problem of evaluating the exposure or contamination and assessing the resultant damage, while on the treatment side the questions of first aid, conventional treatment and specialized treatment have to be considered. The solutions envisaged involve organization at the local and national levels and planning of medical treatment by skilled, multidisciplinary medical teams. (author)

  19. [Traffic casualties and injuries: a problem of costs, too. A Swiss survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, S; Quadri, B; Casabianca, A

    1993-01-01

    Based on an epidemiological observation in Ticino 1985, following statement is possible: in Switzerland every year 900 people dye in traffic casualties. Many victims of tragic accidents get lifetime disabled. Direct and indirect costs of traffic injuries are yearly 3 billions of swiss francs. Only a small percentage (6%) is devoted to medical treatment. The most part is due to compensation of income, disability with its allocations and lost productivity. Among "avoidable" deaths, traffic victims are an essential portion because the are young. More efforts should be undertaken to lower road mortality because she erodes the swiss population pyramid in a significant manner.

  20. The interaction of exercise ability and body mass index upon long-term outcomes among patients undergoing stress-rest perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, Seth; Supariwala, Azhar; Gurram, Srinivasa; Bonda, Sri Lakshmi Kala; Thota, Naganath; Bezwada, Prema; Manchireddy, Seema; Nair, Subu; Cohen, Randy; Rozanski, Alan

    2013-07-01

    The obesity paradox has been reported in several populations of patients with cardiovascular disease. Recent data have shown that physical fitness may attenuate the obesity paradox. Patients who undergo pharmacologic stress testing are known to have a higher risk of mortality than those who can exercise. The purpose of this study is to determine the interaction of obesity and exercise ability on survival among patients with a normal stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A total of 5,203 (60 ± 13 years, male 37%) patients without a history of heart disease and a normal stress-rest SPECT between the years 1995 and 2010 were included in this analysis. Body mass index categories were defined according to the World Health Organization classification: normal weight, 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2); overweight, 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2); and obese, ≥30 kg/m(2). Patients were divided into 3 groups based on their ability to exercise: those who reached ≥6 METs on exercise, those who attained a level of stress. Patients in each of these fitness groups were further divided into 3 subgroups based on their body mass index. There were 939 (18%) deaths during a mean follow-up of 8.1 ± 4.1 years, for an overall event rate of 2.3%/y. Both exercise to ≥6 METs and being obese were associated with lower mortality. Adjusted multivariate analysis using the obese high-fit patients as the reference showed a wide heterogeneity in annualized mortality rates according to exercise and weight status, with annualized event rates which varied from 0.6%/y in the obese subjects who were physically fit to 5.3%/y among healthy subjects who underwent pharmacologic stress testing (P Stress mode and body weight impacted long-term survival in patients with a normal stress SPECT. The benefit of being physically fit was evident in all weight groups, as was the adverse effect of being unable to exercise. However, with regard to body weight, there was a paradoxical survival advantage for

  1. Single Photon Ionization Mass Spectroscopy of Hydrogen Bonded and van der Waals Cluster Systems Using a Capillary Discharge Soft X-Ray Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbuch, S.; Dong, F.; Bernstein, E. R.; Rocca, J. J.

    We report the first use of a soft x-ray laser in photochemistry studies. A 46.9 nm capillary discharge soft x-ray laser was used to study hydrogen bonded and van der Waals cluster systems. The study of van der Waals cluster formation and growth in the gas phase can contribute to the understanding of solvation processes, solvation dynamics, and the nucleation and growth of small clusters. The comparative investigation of water, methanol, and ammonia clusters is of importance because these clusters demonstrate a wide range of van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding: water clusters are very strongly and dominantly hydrogen bonded; methanol clusters somewhat less so; and ammonia clusters perhaps not at all. Sulfur dioxide is the major contributor to acid rain and a generator of soot. The process of SO2 and water forming acid rain has been studied for some time in order to determine the atmospheric mechanism for this environmental issue. Carbon dioxide is the major gas phase pollutant responsible for the "green house effect" of the atmosphere. Many experiments employing supersonic expansion coupled with mass spectroscopic detection have been conducted in order to study monomeric and clustered structure and behavior of each of these systems. Spectroscopic and photochemical properties of the systems should be related to cluster structure. However, one of the most serious problems in the investigation of the distribution of neutral hydrogen-bonded and van der Waals clusters is the fragmentation or the intra-cluster ion-molecule reactions to the protonated cluster ions. Electron Impact (EI) ionization usually suffers considerably from fragmentation of parent cluster ions on account of the large excess energies during the ionization process. Multiphoton ionization (MPI) processes result in the predissociation of the neutral clusters before ionization. Single photon ionization is a more "gentle" way to study hydrogen-bonded and Van der Waals clusters since less

  2. The Vulnerability of People to Landslides: A Case Study on the Relationship between the Casualties and Volume of Landslides in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qigen; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tianxue; Zhu, Yingqi; Sui, Qi

    2017-02-21

    The lack of a detailed landslide inventory makes research on the vulnerability of people to landslides highly limited. In this paper, the authors collect information on the landslides that have caused casualties in China, and established the Landslides Casualties Inventory of China . 100 landslide cases from 2003 to 2012 were utilized to develop an empirical relationship between the volume of a landslide event and the casualties caused by the occurrence of the event. The error bars were used to describe the uncertainty of casualties resulting from landslides and to establish a threshold curve of casualties caused by landslides in China. The threshold curve was then applied to the landslide cases occurred in 2013 and 2014. The validation results show that the estimated casualties of the threshold curve were in good agreement with the real casualties with a small deviation. Therefore, the threshold curve can be used for estimating potential casualties and landslide vulnerability, which is meaningful for emergency rescue operations after landslides occurred and for risk assessment research.

  3. The Vulnerability of People to Landslides: A Case Study on the Relationship between the Casualties and Volume of Landslides in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qigen Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a detailed landslide inventory makes research on the vulnerability of people to landslides highly limited. In this paper, the authors collect information on the landslides that have caused casualties in China, and established the Landslides Casualties Inventory of China. 100 landslide cases from 2003 to 2012 were utilized to develop an empirical relationship between the volume of a landslide event and the casualties caused by the occurrence of the event. The error bars were used to describe the uncertainty of casualties resulting from landslides and to establish a threshold curve of casualties caused by landslides in China. The threshold curve was then applied to the landslide cases occurred in 2013 and 2014. The validation results show that the estimated casualties of the threshold curve were in good agreement with the real casualties with a small deviation. Therefore, the threshold curve can be used for estimating potential casualties and landslide vulnerability, which is meaningful for emergency rescue operations after landslides occurred and for risk assessment research.

  4. Results of an interlaboratory method performance study for the size determination and quantification of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud J.; Löschner, Katrin

    2017-01-01

    Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS) promises fast and selective determination of nanoparticle size and number concentrations. While several studies on practical applications have been published, data on formal, especially interlaboratory validation of sp-ICP-M...

  5. Results of an interlaboratory method performance study for the size determination and quantification of silver nanoparticles in chicken meat by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weigel, Stefan; Peters, Ruud; Loeschner, Katrin; Grombe, Ringo; Linsinger, Thomas P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (sp-ICP-MS) promises fast and selective determination of nanoparticle size and number concentrations. While several studies on practical applications have been published, data on formal, especially interlaboratory validation of sp-ICP-MS,

  6. Sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index in adolescents and adults after single-ventricle palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S

    2012-06-01

    Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.

  7. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The real part of the refractive indices and effective densities for chemically segregated ambient aerosols in Guangzhou measured by a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols is essential to better evaluate their radiative forcing. This paper presents an estimate of the real part of the refractive indices (n and effective densities (ρeff of chemically segregated atmospheric aerosols in Guangzhou, China. Vacuum aerodynamic diameter, chemical compositions, and light-scattering intensities of individual particles were simultaneously measured by a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS during the fall of 2012. On the basis of Mie theory, n at a wavelength of 532 nm and ρeff were estimated for 17 particle types in four categories: organics (OC, elemental carbon (EC, internally mixed EC and OC (ECOC, and Metal-rich. The results indicate the presence of spherical or nearly spherical shapes for the majority of particle types, whose partial scattering cross-section versus sizes were well fitted to Mie theoretical modeling results. While sharing n in a narrow range (1.47–1.53, majority of particle types exhibited a wide range of ρeff (0.87–1.51 g cm−3. The OC group is associated with the lowest ρeff (0.87–1.07 g cm−3, and the Metal-rich group with the highest ones (1.29–1.51 g cm−3. It is noteworthy that a specific EC type exhibits a complex scattering curve versus size due to the presence of both compact and irregularly shaped particles. Overall, the results on the detailed relationship between physical and chemical properties benefits future research on the impact of aerosols on visibility and climate.

  9. Detection and Quantification of Silver Nanoparticles at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations Using Asymmetric Flow Field??Flow Fractionation Online with Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aquatic environments could potentially cause adverse impacts on ecosystems and human health. However, current understanding of the environmental fate and transport of AgNPs is still limited because their properties in complex environmental samples cannot be accurately determined. In this study, the feasibility of using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) connected online with single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS) to detect and quantify AgNPs at environmentally relevant concentrations was investigated. The AF4 channel had a thickness of 350 00b5m and its accumulation wall was a 10 kDa regenerated cellulose membrane. A 0.02 % FL-70 surfactant solution was used as an AF4 carrier. With 1.2 mL/min AF4 cross flow rate, 1.5 mL/min AF4 channel flow rate, and 5 ms spICPMS dwell time, the AF4??spICPMS can detect and quantify 40 ?? 80 nm AgNPs, as well as Ag-SiO2 nanoparticles (51.0 nm diameter Ag core and 21.6 nm SiO2 shell), with good recovery within 30 min. This system was not only effective in differentiating and quantifying different types of AgNPs with similar hydrodynamic diameters, such as in mixtures containing Ag-SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles and 40 ?? 80 nm AgNPs, but also suitable for differentiating between 40 nm AgNPs and elevated dissolved Ag content. The study results indicate that AF4??spICPMS is capable of detecting and quantifying AgNPs and other engineered

  10. Ethylene hydrogenation catalysis on Pt(111) single-crystal surfaces studied by using mass spectrometry and in situ infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillekaratne, Aashani; Simonovis, Juan Pablo; Zaera, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    The catalytic hydrogenation of ethylene promoted by a Pt(111) single crystal was studied by using a ultrahigh-vacuum surface-science instrument equipped with a so-called high-pressure cell. Kinetic data were acquired continuously during the catalytic conversion of atmospheric-pressure mixtures of ethylene and hydrogen by using mass spectrometry while simultaneously characterizing the surface species in operando mode by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Many observations reported in previous studies of this system were corroborated, including the presence of adsorbed alkylidyne intermediates during the reaction and the zero-order dependence of the rate of hydrogenation on the pressure of ethylene. In addition, the high quality of the kinetic data, which could be recorded continuously versus time and processed to calculate time-dependent turnover frequencies (TOFs), afforded a more detailed analysis of the mechanism. Specifically, deuterium labeling could be used to estimate the extent of isotope scrambling reached with mixed-isotope-substituted reactants (C2H4 + D2 and C2D4 + H2). Perhaps the most important new observation from this work is that, although extensive H-D exchange takes place on ethylene before being fully converted to ethane, the average stoichiometry of the final product retains the expected stoichiometry of the gas mixture, that is, four regular hydrogen atoms and two deuteriums per ethane molecule in the case of the experiments with C2H4 + D2. This means that no hydrogen atoms are removed from the surface via their inter-recombination to produce X2 (X = H or D). It is concluded that, under catalytic conditions, hydrogen surface recombination is much slower than ethylene hydrogenation and H-D exchange.

  11. The influence of car registration year on driver casualty rates in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Jeremy

    2012-03-01

    A previous paper analysed data from the British national road accident reporting system to investigate the influence upon car driver casualty rates of the general type of car being driven and its year of first registration. A statistical model was fitted to accident data from 2001 to 2005, and this paper updates the principal results using accident data from 2003 to 2007. Attention focuses upon the role of year of first registration since this allows the influence of developments in car design upon occupant casualty numbers to be evaluated. Three additional topics are also examined with these accident data. Changes over time in frontal and side impacts are compared. Changes in the combined risk for the two drivers involved in a car-car collision are investigated, being the net result of changes in secondary safety and aggressivity. Finally, the results of the new model relating to occupant protection are related to an index that had been developed previously to analyse changes over time in the secondary safety of the car fleet. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using the Design for Demise Philosophy to Reduce Casualty Risk Due to Reentering Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the reentry of a number of vehicles has garnered public attention due to their risk of human casualty due to fragments surviving reentry. In order to minimize this risk for their vehicles, a number of NASA programs have actively sought to minimize the number of components likely to survive reentry at the end of their spacecraft's life in order to meet and/or exceed NASA safety standards for controlled and uncontrolled reentering vehicles. This philosophy, referred to as "Design for Demise" or D4D, has steadily been adopted, to at least some degree, by numerous programs. The result is that many programs are requesting evaluations of components at the early stages of vehicle design, as they strive to find ways to reduce the number surviving components while ensuring that the components meet the performance requirements of their mission. This paper will discuss some of the methods that have been employed to ensure that the consequences of the vehicle s end-of-life are considered at the beginning of the design process. In addition this paper will discuss the technical challenges overcome, as well as some of the more creative solutions which have been utilized to reduce casualty risk.

  13. A behavioral ecology approach to traffic accidents: interspecific variation in causes of traffic casualties among birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Erritzøe, Helga; Erritzøe, Johannes

    2011-04-01

    Birds and other animals are frequently killed by cars, causing the death of many million individuals per year. Why some species are killed more often than others has never been investigated. In this work hypothesized that risk taking behavior may affect the probability of certain kinds of individuals being killed disproportionately often. Furthermore, behavior of individuals on roads, abundance, habitat preferences, breeding sociality, and health status may all potentially affect the risk of being killed on roads. We used information on the abundance of road kills and the abundance in the surrounding environment of 50 species of birds obtained during regular censuses in 2001-2006 in a rural site in Denmark to test these predictions. The frequency of road kills increased linearly with abundance, while the proportion of individuals sitting on the road or flying low across the road only explained little additional variation in frequency of road casualties. After having accounted for abundance, we found that species with a short flight distance and hence taking greater risks when approached by a potential cause of danger were killed disproportionately often. In addition, solitary species, species with a high prevalence of Plasmodium infection, and species with a large bursa of Fabricius for their body size had a high susceptibility to being killed by cars. These findings suggest that a range of different factors indicative of risk-taking behavior, visual acuity and health status cause certain bird species to be susceptible to casualties due to cars.

  14. On the simultaneous deployment of two single-particle mass spectrometers at an urban background and a roadside site during SAPUSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, Manuel; Beddows, David C. S.; McGillicuddy, Eoin J.; Esser-Gietl, Johanna K.; Harrison, Roy M.; Wenger, John C.

    2016-08-01

    The aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) provides size-resolved information on the chemical composition of single particles with high time resolution. Within SAPUSS (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), continuous ATOFMS measurements of ambient particles were made simultaneously at two urban locations: urban background (UB) site and roadside (RS) site in the city of Barcelona (Spain) from 17 September to 18 October 2010. Two different instrumental configurations were used: ATOFMS (TSI 3800) with a converging nozzle inlet (high efficiency at about 800-2000 nm) at the UB site and ATOFMS (TSI 3800-100) with an aerodynamic lens inlet (high efficiency at about 300-700 nm) at the RS site. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that two ATOFMS instruments have been deployed in the same field study. The different instrument configurations had an impact on the observed particle types at the two sites. Nevertheless, 10 particle types were detected at both locations, including local and regional elemental carbon (22.7-58.9 % of total particles), fresh and aged sea salt (1.0-14.6 %), local and regional nitrate-containing aerosols (3-11.6 %), local lead-containing metallic particles (0.1-0.2 %), and transported Fe-nitrate particles (0.8-2.5 %). The ATOFMS at the UB also characterized four particle types: calcium-containing dust (0.9 %), Saharan dust (1.3 %), vanadium-containing particles (0.9 %), and vegetative debris (1.7 %). By contrast, the high statistical counts of fine particles detected at the RS allowed identification of eight particle types. Four of these contained organic nitrogen of primary and secondary origin, which highlights the complex nature of the sources and processes that contribute to this aerosol chemical component. Aminium salts were found related to coarse sulfate-rich particle types, suggesting heterogeneous reaction mechanisms for their formation. The other four particle types mainly containing organic carbon were

  15. Volumetric Single-Beat Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography: Relationship of Image Quality, Heart Rate, and Body Mass Index. Initial Patient Experience With a New Computed Tomography Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad Aamir; Sanchez, Frank W; Sayegh, Karl; Veledar, Emir; Aziz, Muhammad; Malik, Rehan; Haider, Imran; Agatston, Arthur S; Batlle, Juan C; Janowitz, Warren; Peña, Constantino; Ziffer, Jack A; Nasir, Khurram; Cury, Ricardo C

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) image quality (IQ) is very important for accurate diagnosis. We propose to evaluate IQ expressed as Likert scale, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) from coronary CT angiography images acquired with a new volumetric single-beat CT scanner on consecutive patients and assess the IQ dependence on heart rate (HR) and body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively analyzed the data of the first 439 consecutive patients (mean age, 55.13 [SD, 12.1] years; 51.47% male), who underwent noninvasive coronary CT angiography in a new single-beat volumetric CT scanner (Revolution CT) to evaluate chest pain at West Kendall Baptist Hospital. Based on patient BMI (mean, 29.43 [SD, 5.81] kg/m), the kVp (kilovolt potential) value and tube current were adjusted within a range of 80 to 140 kVp and 122 to 720 mA, respectively. Each scan was performed in a single-beat acquisition within 1 cardiac cycle, regardless of the HR. Motion correction software (SnapShot Freeze) was used for correcting motion artifacts in patients with higher HRs. Autogating was used to automatically acquire systolic and diastolic phases for higher HRs with electrocardiographic milliampere dose modulation. Image quality was assessed qualitatively by Likert scale and quantitatively by SNR and CNR for the 4 major vessels right coronary, left main, left anterior descending, and left circumflex arteries on axial and multiplanar reformatted images. Values for Likert scale were as follows: 1, nondiagnostic; 2, poor; 3, good; 4, very good; and 5, excellent. Signal-to-noise ratio and CNR were calculated from the average 2 CT attenuation values within regions of interest placed in the proximal left main and proximal right coronary artery. For contrast comparison, a region of interest was selected from left ventricular wall at midcavity level using a dedicated workstation. We divided patients in 2 groups related to the HR: less than or equal to 70 beats/min (bpm) and

  16. Measurement of the top quark mass in topologies enhanced with single top quarks produced in the $t$-channel at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ using the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00288596

    2014-01-01

    A measurement of the top quark mass in topologies enhanced with single top quarks produced in the $t$-channel produced via weak interactions is presented. The dataset was collected at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=8\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the ATLAS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $20.3\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$. To determine the top quark mass a template method is used based on the distribution of the invariant mass of the lepton and the $b$-tagged jet as estimator. The result of the measurement is $m_{\\mathrm{top}} = 172.2 \\pm 0.7 {\\mathrm{(stat.)}} \\pm 2.0 {\\mathrm{(syst.)}}\\,\\mathrm{GeV}$.

  17. A single LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of 14 antimalarial drugs and their metabolites in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, E M; Zanolari, B; Mercier, T; Biollaz, J; Keiser, J; Olliaro, P; Genton, B; Decosterd, L A

    2009-04-01

    Among the various determinants of treatment response, the achievement of sufficient blood levels is essential for curing malaria. For helping us at improving our current understanding of antimalarial drugs pharmacokinetics, efficacy and toxicity, we have developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS) requiring 200mul of plasma for the simultaneous determination of 14 antimalarial drugs and their metabolites which are the components of the current first-line combination treatments for malaria (artemether, artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, amodiaquine, N-desethyl-amodiaquine, lumefantrine, desbutyl-lumefantrine, piperaquine, pyronaridine, mefloquine, chloroquine, quinine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine). Plasma is purified by a combination of protein precipitation, evaporation and reconstitution in methanol/ammonium formate 20mM (pH 4.0) 1:1. Reverse-phase chromatographic separation of antimalarial drugs is obtained using a gradient elution of 20mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile both containing 0.5% formic acid, followed by rinsing and re-equilibration to the initial solvent composition up to 21min. Analyte quantification, using matrix-matched calibration samples, is performed by electro-spray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by selected reaction monitoring detection in the positive mode. The method was validated according to FDA recommendations, including assessment of extraction yield, matrix effect variability, overall process efficiency, standard addition experiments as well as antimalarials short- and long-term stability in plasma. The reactivity of endoperoxide-containing antimalarials in the presence of hemolysis was tested both in vitro and on malaria patients samples. With this method, signal intensity of artemisinin decreased by about 20% in the presence of 0.2% hemolysed red-blood cells in plasma, whereas its derivatives were essentially not affected. The method is precise (inter-day CV%: 3.1-12.6%) and sensitive

  18. High throughput and accurate serum proteome profiling by integrated sample preparation technology and single-run data independent mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zheng, Jiaxin; Yu, Quan; Chen, Wendong; Xing, Jinchun; Chen, Chenxi; Tian, Ruijun

    2018-03-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based serum proteome analysis is extremely challenging due to its high complexity and dynamic range of protein abundances. Developing high throughput and accurate serum proteomic profiling approach capable of analyzing large cohorts is urgently needed for biomarker discovery. Herein, we report a streamlined workflow for fast and accurate proteomic profiling from 1μL of blood serum. The workflow combined an integrated technique for highly sensitive and reproducible sample preparation and a new data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based MS method. Comparing with standard data dependent acquisition (DDA) approach, the optimized DIA method doubled the number of detected peptides and proteins with better reproducibility. Without protein immunodepletion and prefractionation, the single-run DIA analysis enables quantitative profiling of over 300 proteins with 50min gradient time. The quantified proteins span more than five orders of magnitude of abundance range and contain over 50 FDA-approved disease markers. The workflow allowed us to analyze 20 serum samples per day, with about 358 protein groups per sample being identified. A proof-of-concept study on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) serum samples confirmed the feasibility of the workflow for large scale serum proteomic profiling and disease-related biomarker discovery. Blood serum or plasma is the predominant specimen for clinical proteomic studies while the analysis is extremely challenging for its high complexity. Many efforts had been made in the past for serum proteomics for maximizing protein identifications, whereas few have been concerned with throughput and reproducibility. Here, we establish a rapid, robust and high reproducible DIA-based workflow for streamlined serum proteomic profiling from 1μL serum. The workflow doesn't need protein depletion and pre-fractionation, while still being able to detect disease-relevant proteins accurately. The workflow is promising in clinical application

  19. Determination of {sup 236}U in environmental samples by single extraction chromatography coupled to triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Guosheng [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Division of Nuclear Technology and Applications, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of Radiographic Techniques and Equipment, Beijing, 100049 (China); Tazoe, Hirofumi [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi, E-mail: myamada@hirosaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Chemistry, Institute of Radiation Emergency Medicine, Hirosaki University, 66-1 Hon-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori, 036-8564 (Japan)

    2016-11-09

    In order to measure trace {sup 236}U and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U in environmental samples with a high matrix effect, a novel and simple method was developed that makes the digestion and purification procedures compatible with advanced triple-quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A total dissolution of sample with HF + HNO{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} was followed by chromatographic separation with a single resin column containing normal type DGA resin (N,N,N′,N’-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) as the extractant system. The analytical accuracy and precision of {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios, measured as {sup 236}U{sup 16}O{sup +}/{sup 238}U{sup 16}O{sup +}, were examined by using the reference materials IAEA-135, IAEA-385, IAEA-447, and JSAC 0471. The low method detection limit (3.50 × 10{sup −6} Bq kg{sup −1}) makes it possible to perform routine monitoring of environmental {sup 236}U due to global fallout combined with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident fallout (>10{sup −5} Bq kg{sup −1}). Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to measure {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratios and {sup 236}U activities in soil samples contaminated by the accident. The low {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios ((1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8}) and {sup 236}U activities ((2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1}) indicate {sup 236}U contamination was mainly derived from global fallout in the examined samples. - Highlights: • A simple {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U analytical method has been developed. • The separation required just one DGA column chromatography. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in soil were measured by ICP-MS/MS. • {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios of (1.50–13.5) × 10{sup −8} were observed in Japanese samples. • {sup 236}U activities of (2.25–14.1) × 10{sup −2} mBq kg{sup −1} were found in Japanese samples.

  20. [HIGH VELOCITY PENETRATING HEAD AND NECK INJURIES OF SYRIAN CIVIL WAR CASUALTIES TREATED IN THE GALILEE MEDICAL CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ohad; Assadi, Nidal; Sela, Eyal

    2017-05-01

    For two years the State of Israel has been treating casualties from the Syrian civil war. The Galilee Medical Center in Nahariya is the main hospital for this humanitarian mission. Objectives: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of the casualties that were treated in our department. Information from medical records of all Syrian casualties evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center were evaluated. Between March 2013 and December 2014, 450 casualties were evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center. Of those, 45 were treated in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Of the 45 cases, 43 were male (95.5%) and the mean age was 30.4 years (range 1-79 years). There was a significant difference in terms of gender (p Syrian injured treated in the ENT department, the vast majority were young men. The main cause of injury was gunshot wounds. It is likely that the lack of protective gear that exist in western armies is a factor in the complex injuries treated at the Galilee Medical Center.

  1. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Medical evacuation system of burn casualties and characteristics of burn injuries in US Army in Iraqi War and Afghanistan War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ming FAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Burn injury continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in modern combat. During the armed combats in Iraq and Afghanistan, the US army put their new five-class medical evacuation system into service with the aim to send back the wounded to duty as soon as possible. This new system indeed increased the efficiency of treatment and evacuation of casualties with extensive burn injury. Though the evacuation time was significantly shortened under the new system, the effective and efficient evacuation of burn patients remains to be rather important problems needing further study. This review summarizes the medical evacuation system of burn casualties and features of burn injuries in US Army in the said conflicts. It may provide some ideas for our burn casualty treatment in future armed conflicts, and it may serve as a reference for treatment of massive casualties caused by catastrophic events in peace time. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.01.16

  3. Parameters for Estimation of Casualties from Ammonia (NH3), Tabun (GA), Soman (GD),Cyclosarin (GF) and Lewisite (L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Parameters for Estimation of Casualties from Phosgene, Chlorine, Hydrogen Chloride, Cyanide , Hydrogen Sulfide, B. pseudomallei, Eastern and Western Equine...Effects of L Intoxication .............................................................69 1. Mechanism of Action of L Poisoning ...Hydrogen Chloride, Cyanide , Hydrogen Sulfide, B. pseudomallei, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses, Ricin, and T-2 Mycotoxin, IDA Paper P-5140

  4. Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C.; Bissonette, J.A.; Santos-Reis, M.

    2009-01-01

    Many carnivores have been seriously impacted by the expansion of transportation systems and networks; however we know little about carnivore response to the extent and magnitude of road mortality, or which age classes may be disproportionately impacted. Recent research has demonstrated that wildlife-vehicle-collisions (WVC) involving carnivores are modulated by temporal and spatial factors. Thus, we investigated road mortality on a guild of small and medium-sized carnivores in southern Portugal using road-kill data obtained from a systematic 36 months monitoring period along highways (260 km) and national roads (314 km) by addressing the following questions: (a) which species and age class are most vulnerable to WVC? (b) are there temporal and/or spatial patterns in road-kill? and (c) which life-history and/or spatial factors influence the likelihood of collisions? We recorded a total of 806 carnivore casualties, which represented an average of 47 ind./100 km/year. Red fox and stone marten had the highest mortality rates. Our findings highlight three key messages: (1) the majority of road-killed individuals were adults of common species; (2) all carnivores, except genets, were more vulnerable during specific life-history phenological periods: higher casualties were observed when red fox and stone marten were provisioning young, Eurasian badger casualties occurred more frequently during dispersal, and higher Egyptian mongoose mortality occurred during the breeding period; and (3) modeling demonstrated that favorable habitat, curves in the road, and low human disturbance were major contributors to the deadliest road segments. Red fox carcasses were more likely to be found on road sections with passages distant from urban areas. Conversely, stone marten mortalities were found more often on national roads with high of cork oak woodland cover; Egyptian mongoose and genet road-kills were found more often on road segments close to curves. Based on our results, two key

  5. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  6. Bird casualties and wind turbines near the Kreekrak sluices of Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musters, C.J.M.; Noordervliet, M.A.W.; Ter Keurs, W.J.

    1995-03-01

    The impact of wind turbines on birds was investigated for an estuary, situated near the North Sea coast in the Dutch province of Zeeland, with large amount of bird migration. Five 250 kW, three-bladed 25m, 40 rpm turbines were installed on the western side of a dike. The distance between the turbines is 125 m. Since 1 April 1990 the turbines have been in action almost continuously. The study on the title subject was set up to investigate the number of bird casualties caused by the five wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak and the number that may be expected to be caused by a total of 20 turbines. The study also focused on the number of casualties among rare birds in relation to those among the common birds as a result of the wind turbines in the Kreekrak area. An area of 125 x 125 m around each wind turbine, consisting partly of land and partly of water, was searched for dead birds every other day during a period of one year (28 April 1990 - 29 April 1991). During this one-year period, the bodies of 26 birds of 17 different species were found; six birds were certainly or almost certainly killed by the turbines. In three other cases, the birds may have died because of the turbines, while in the case of eight birds, it was not possible to determine the cause of death. The remaining nine birds were not killed by the wind turbines. The annual number of bird victims expected following the installation of 20 wind turbines was estimated at a minimum of 7 and a maximum of 142. For each species a correlation was found between the number of victims and the estimated number of visitors to the area. This suggests that the rare species among the birds were not excessively endangered by the turbines. The number of bird casualties per turbine was low in comparison with the results of other Dutch investigations. On the basis of these results, it is concluded that there is no reason to advise against increasing the number of wind turbines near the sluices of Kreekrak to 20. 3

  7. Genome-wide association study identifies single-nucleotide polymorphism in KCNB1 associated with left ventricular mass in humans: The HyperGEN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraemer Rachel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS and validation study for left ventricular (LV mass in the Family Blood Pressure Program – HyperGEN population. LV mass is a sensitive predictor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in all genders, races, and ages. Polymorphisms of candidate genes in diverse pathways have been associated with LV mass. However, subsequent studies have often failed to replicate these associations. Genome-wide association studies have unprecedented power to identify potential genes with modest effects on left LV mass. We describe here a GWAS for LV mass in Caucasians using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100 k Set. Cases (N = 101 and controls (N = 101 were selected from extreme tails of the LV mass index distribution from 906 individuals in the HyperGEN study. Eleven of 12 promising (Q Results Despite the relatively small sample, we identified 12 promising SNPs in the GWAS. Eleven SNPs were successfully genotyped in the validation study of 704 Caucasians and 1467 African Americans; 5 SNPs on chromosomes 5, 12, and 20 were significantly (P ≤ 0.05 associated with LV mass after correction for multiple testing. One SNP (rs756529 is intragenic within KCNB1, which is dephosphorylated by calcineurin, a previously reported candidate gene for LV hypertrophy within this population. Conclusion These findings suggest KCNB1 may be involved in the development of LV hypertrophy in humans.

  8. Relation between both oxidative and metabolic-osmotic cell damages and initial injury severity in bombing casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučeljić Marina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. We have recently reported the development of oxidative cell damages in bombing casualties within a very early period after the initial injury. The aim of this study, was to investigate malondialdehyde (MDA, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, and osmolal gap (OG, as a good indicator of metabolic cell damages and to assess their relationship with the initial severity of the injury in bombing casualties. Methods. The study included the males (n = 52, injured during the bombing with the Injury Severity Score (ISS ranging from 3 to 66. The whole group of casualties was devided into a group of less severely (ISS < 25, n = 24 and a group of severely (ISS ≥ 26, n = 28 injured males. The uninjured volunteers (n = 10 were the controls. Osmolality, MDA, sodium, glucose, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin and total protein levels were measured in the venous blood, sampled daily, within a ten-day period. Results. In both groups of casualties, MDA and OG levels increased, total protein levels decreased, while other parameters were within the control limits. MDA alterations correlated with ISS (r = 0.414, p < 0.01, while a statistically significant correlation between OG and ISS was not obtained. Interestingly, in spite of some differences in MDA and OG trends, at the end of the examined period they were at the similar level in both groups. Conclusion. The initial oxidative damages of the cellular membrane with intracellular metabolic disorders contributed to the gradual development of metabolic-osmotic damages of cells, which, consequently caused the OG increase. In the bombing casualties, oxidative cell damages were dependent on the initial injury severity, while metabolic-osmotic cell damages were not.

  9. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Explosive-Compound Classes on a Single Instrument via Flow-Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    tailoring the ionization method , declustering potentials, and collision energies for each specific analyte. In doing so, a single instrument can be...of both conventional explosives, homemade explosives, and their related compounds, and many of these methods require special instrumentation . A...10%, respectively, compare favorably to existing methods . Use of a single instrument for detection of multiple explosive classes also reduces the

  10. Blast overpressure and fallout radiation dose models for casualty assessment and other purposes. Rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.R.

    1981-12-01

    The determination of blast overpressures and fallout radiation doses at points on a sufficiently fine grid, for any part or for the whole of the UK, and for any postulated attack, is an essential element in the systematic assessment of casualties, the estimation of numbers of homeless, and the evaluation of life-saving measures generally. Models are described which provide the required blast and dose values and which are intended to supersede existing models which were introduced in 1971. The factors which affect blast and, more particularly, dose values are discussed, and the way in which various factors are modelled is described. The models are incorporated into separate computer programs which are described, the outputs of which are stored on magnetic tape for subsequent use as required. (author)

  11. The potential role of bioscavenger in the medical management of nerve-agent poisoned casualties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Helen; Mann, Tom M; Armstrong, Stuart J; Price, Matthew E; Green, A Chris; Tattersall, John E H

    2016-11-25

    The provision of effective Medical Countermeasures (MedCM) for all agents and routes of exposure is a strategic goal of defence research and development. In the case of military autoinjector-based therapies for nerve agent poisoning, current treatment effectiveness is limited by the oxime reactivator being effective against only certain agents, by rapid clearance times of the drugs and because the doses may not be optimal for treatment of severe poisoning. Prolonged poisoning by nerve agents entering the body through the skin is also challenging. Since casualty handling timelines have reduced significantly in recent years, it may be sufficient for first aid therapy to provide protection for only a few hours until further medical treatment is available. Therefore, the traditional evaluation of first aid therapy in animal models of survival at 24 h may not be appropriate. At various echelons of medical care, further therapeutic interventions are possible. The current basis for the medical management of nerve-agent poisoned casualties is derived mainly from clinical experience with pesticide poisoning. Adjunct therapy with a bioscavenger (such as human butyrylcholinesterase (huBChE)), could have utility as a delayed intervention by reducing the toxic load. It has previously been demonstrated that huBChE is an effective post-exposure therapy against percutaneous VX poisoning. It is recommended that the scope of animal models of nerve agent MedCM are extended to cover evaluation of both first aid MedCM over significantly reduced timescales, and subsequent supportive therapeutic and medical management strategies over longer timescales. In addition to bioscavengers, these strategies could include repeated combined and individual therapy drugs to alleviate symptoms, other classes of drugs or ventilatory support. Crown Copyright © [2016] Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. This is an open access article under the Open Government Licence (OGL) (http

  12. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C

    2016-03-01

    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (Pterrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the workload in the coming days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Johnson, C.; Corneil, W.

    2010-01-01

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, food-borne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, health care and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. (authors)

  14. TEMPO-Assisted Free Radical-Initiated Peptide Sequencing Mass Spectrometry (FRIPS MS) in Q-TOF and Orbitrap Mass Spectrometers: Single-Step Peptide Backbone Dissociations in Positive Ion Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Inae; Lee, Sun Young; Hwangbo, Song; Kang, Dukjin; Lee, Hookeun; Kim, Hugh I.; Moon, Bongjin; Oh, Han Bin

    2017-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that one-step peptide backbone fragmentations can be achieved using the TEMPO [2-(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl piperidine-1-oxyl)]-assisted free radical-initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) mass spectrometry in a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer and a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument in positive ion mode, in contrast to two-step peptide fragmentation in an ion-trap mass spectrometer (reference Anal. Chem. 85, 7044-7051 (30)). In the hybrid Q-TOF and Q-Exactive instruments, higher collisional energies can be applied to the target peptides, compared with the low collisional energies applied by the ion-trap instrument. The higher energy deposition and the additional multiple collisions in the collision cell in both instruments appear to result in one-step peptide backbone dissociations in positive ion mode. This new finding clearly demonstrates that the TEMPO-assisted FRIPS approach is a very useful tool in peptide mass spectrometry research.

  15. Frequency-dependent linear and non-linear response properties of single carrier quantum dots: Role of effective mass and anharmonicity in the confinement potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Parikshit [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)], E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com

    2008-09-01

    We explore the pattern of frequency-dependent linear and non-linear optical (NLO) response of one electron quantum dots harmonically confined in two dimensions. For some fixed values of transverse magnetic field strength ({omega}{sub c}), and harmonic confinement potential ({omega}{sub 0}), the influence of effective mass (m*) of the system and the symmetry breaking anharmonic interaction on the frequency-dependent linear ({alpha}), and the first ({beta}), and second ({gamma}) NLO responses of the dot is computed through linear variational route. The investigation reveals interesting roles played by the anharmonic interaction and effective mass in modulating the response properties.

  16. Label-free Quantification of Proteins in Single Embryonic Cells with Neural Fate in the Cleavage-Stage Frog (Xenopus laevis) Embryo using Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (CE-ESI-HRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard-Banek, Camille; Reddy, Sushma; Moody, Sally A; Nemes, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Quantification of protein expression in single cells promises to advance a systems-level understanding of normal development. Using a bottom-up proteomic workflow and multiplexing quantification by tandem mass tags, we recently demonstrated relative quantification between single embryonic cells (blastomeres) in the frog (Xenopus laevis) embryo. In this study, we minimize derivatization steps to enhance analytical sensitivity and use label-free quantification (LFQ) for single Xenopus cells. The technology builds on a custom-designed capillary electrophoresis microflow-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry platform and LFQ by MaxLFQ (MaxQuant). By judiciously tailoring performance to peptide separation, ionization, and data-dependent acquisition, we demonstrate an ∼75-amol (∼11 nm) lower limit of detection and quantification for proteins in complex cell digests. The platform enabled the identification of 438 nonredundant protein groups by measuring 16 ng of protein digest, or embryo. LFQ intensity was validated as a quantitative proxy for protein abundance. Correlation analysis was performed to compare protein quantities between the embryo and n = 3 different single D11 blastomeres, which are fated to develop into the nervous system. A total of 335 nonredundant protein groups were quantified in union between the single D11 cells spanning a 4 log-order concentration range. LFQ and correlation analysis detected expected proteomic differences between the whole embryo and blastomeres, and also found translational differences between individual D11 cells. LFQ on single cells raises exciting possibilities to study gene expression in other cells and models to help better understand cell processes on a systems biology level. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Label-free Quantification of Proteins in Single Embryonic Cells with Neural Fate in the Cleavage-Stage Frog (Xenopus laevis) Embryo using Capillary Electrophoresis Electrospray Ionization High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (CE-ESI-HRMS)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard-Banek, Camille; Reddy, Sushma; Moody, Sally A.; Nemes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of protein expression in single cells promises to advance a systems-level understanding of normal development. Using a bottom-up proteomic workflow and multiplexing quantification by tandem mass tags, we recently demonstrated relative quantification between single embryonic cells (blastomeres) in the frog (Xenopus laevis) embryo. In this study, we minimize derivatization steps to enhance analytical sensitivity and use label-free quantification (LFQ) for single Xenopus cells. The technology builds on a custom-designed capillary electrophoresis microflow-electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry platform and LFQ by MaxLFQ (MaxQuant). By judiciously tailoring performance to peptide separation, ionization, and data-dependent acquisition, we demonstrate an ∼75-amol (∼11 nm) lower limit of detection and quantification for proteins in complex cell digests. The platform enabled the identification of 438 nonredundant protein groups by measuring 16 ng of protein digest, or embryo. LFQ intensity was validated as a quantitative proxy for protein abundance. Correlation analysis was performed to compare protein quantities between the embryo and n = 3 different single D11 blastomeres, which are fated to develop into the nervous system. A total of 335 nonredundant protein groups were quantified in union between the single D11 cells spanning a 4 log-order concentration range. LFQ and correlation analysis detected expected proteomic differences between the whole embryo and blastomeres, and also found translational differences between individual D11 cells. LFQ on single cells raises exciting possibilities to study gene expression in other cells and models to help better understand cell processes on a systems biology level. PMID:27317400

  18. [Principles of surgical care organization and structural characteristics of sanitary casualties in counter-terrorist operations in the Northern Caucasus (Report I)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumanenko, E K; Samokhvalov, I M; Trusov, A A; Severin, V V

    2005-01-01

    Two operational-and-tactical factors had the main influence on organization of the surgical care rendered to the casualties on the Northern Caucasus: the fulminant and maneuverable nature of combat operations at the beginning of both armed conflicts and rather small territory of war theatre. The main special features of organization of surgical care to the casualties were the use of Medical Squads of Special Purpose in the combat conditions and maximal approximation of the specialized surgical care to the wounded by echelonment of medical units and wide use of helicopter evacuation. The structure of sanitary losses was characterized by the increase in the frequency of mechanical traumas, thermal and combined injuries, by the high share of the casualties with head injuries. Besides the number of seriously wounded and critical casualties has increased.

  19. Thermogravimetry coupled to single photon ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry: a tool to investigate the chemical signature of thermal decomposition of polymeric materia