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Sample records for single masked trial

  1. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show that the......In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  2. Single-mask double-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, Rani S.; Torres, George; Gupta, Puneet

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes shift-trim double patterning lithography (ST-DPL), a cost-effective method for achieving 2× pitchrelaxation with a single photomask (especially at polysilicon layer). The mask is re-used for the second exposure by applying a translational mask-shift. Extra printed features are then removed using a non-critical trim exposure. The viability of ST-DPL is demonstrated. The proposed method has many advantages with virtually no area overhead (DPL, (2) reduces overlay errors between the two patterns and can virtually eliminate it in some process implementations, (3) alleviates the bimodal problem in doublepatterning, and (4) enhances throughput of first-rate scanners. We implement a small 45nm standard-cell library and small benchmark designs with ST-DPL to illustrate its viability.

  3. Replacing a double-lumen tube with a single-lumen tube or a laryngeal mask airway device to reduce coughing at emergence after thoracic surgery: a randomized controlled single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoubi, Issam; Sun, Joanna Ng Man; Drolet, Pierre; Fortier, Louis-Philippe; Donati, François

    2015-09-01

    Coughing episodes occur frequently at extubation after thoracic surgery, and this may be due in part to the double-lumen tube (DLT). In this study, the DLT was replaced with either a single-lumen endotracheal tube (ETT) or a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) device or left in place, and the incidence of coughing at emergence was compared between the three groups. Fifty-eight adults scheduled for thoracic surgery with a DLT were included. Exclusion criteria were an anticipated difficult airway, obesity, and contraindication to the use of an LMA ProSeal™ (LMA-P). After surgery but before emergence, patients were randomized to having the DLT (1) removed and replaced by an LMA-P (LMA-P Group), (2) removed and replaced by an ETT (ETT Group), or (3) left in place (DLT Group). The primary outcome was the number of coughing episodes at extubation. Among 184 patients screened, 124 did not meet inclusion criteria, and two patients, both in the ETT Group, were excluded after randomization, leaving 20, 18, and 20 patients in the LMA-P, ETT, and DLT Groups, respectively. There were fewer coughing episodes (median [quartiles]) in the LMA-P Group than in the DLT Group (0[0-1] vs 2[1-3], respectively; P = 0.01). In the DLT Group, 90% of patients coughed at least once. This incidence was not significantly different in the ETT Group (83%; P = 0.222) but was significantly reduced in the LMA-P Group (35%; P replaced by an LMA-P before emergence. The number of patients in this trial was too small to evaluate the risks associated with exchanging the airway device. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00925613.

  4. Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway versus Face Mask during Neonatal Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Cavallin, Francesco; Nguyen, Loi Ngoc; Nguyen, Tien Viet; Tran, Linh Dieu; Tran, Chien Dinh; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Moccia, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of supreme laryngeal mask airway (SLMA) over face mask ventilation for preventing need for endotracheal intubation at birth. We report a prospective, randomized, parallel 1:1, unblinded, controlled trial. After a short-term educational intervention on SLMA use, infants ≥34-week gestation and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g requiring positive pressure ventilation (PPV) at birth were randomized to resuscitation by SLMA or face mask. The primary outcome was the success rate of the resuscitation devices (SLMA or face mask) defined as the achievement of an effective PPV preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. We enrolled 142 patients (71 in SLMA and 71 in face mask group, respectively). Successful resuscitation rate was significantly higher with the SLMA compared with face mask ventilation (91.5% vs 78.9%; P = .03). Apgar score at 5 minutes was significantly higher in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). Neonatal intensive care unit admission rate was significantly lower in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). No complications related to the procedure occurred. In newborns with gestational age ≥34 weeks and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g needing PPV at birth, the SLMA is more effective than face mask to prevent endotracheal intubation. The SLMA is effective in clinical practice after a short-term educational intervention. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01963936. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, B.; Hogervorst, R.P.; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; van Dijk, J.W.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Abelmann, Leon

    In this work we describe a one degree- of-freedom microelectromechanical thermal displacement sensor integrated with an actuated stage. The system was fabricated in the device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer using a single-mask process. The sensor is based on the temperature dependent

  6. A randomised trial comparing the laryngeal mask airway Supreme™ with the laryngeal mask airway Unique™ in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, N; Sohn, L E; Sawardekar, A; Chang, E; Langen, K E; Anderson, K

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a randomised controlled trial comparing the laryngeal mask airway Supreme(™) with the laryngeal mask airway Unique(™) in children. Fifty children presenting for elective surgery were randomly assigned to receive either the laryngeal mask airway Supreme or laryngeal mask airway Unique. The outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease and time for insertion, insertion success rate, fibreoptic examination, incidence of gastric insufflation, ease of gastric tube placement through the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, quality of airway during anaesthetic maintenance and complications. Median (IQR [range]) time to successful device placement was shorter with the laryngeal mask airway Unique, 14.5 [13.5-16.3 (10.0-23.6)] s than with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, 17.4 [14.8-19.8 (11.5-29.2)] s; p = 0.007. Median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressures for the laryngeal mask airway Supreme and laryngeal mask airway Unique were 20 [16-21 (12-22)] cmH(2)O and 15 [14-18 (10-24)] cmH(2)O, respectively (p = 0.001). The incidence of gastric insufflation was lower with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (zero vs six patients), p = 0.01. In conclusion, the laryngeal mask airway Supreme performed as well as the laryngeal mask airway Unique and is a useful alternative for airway maintenance, particularly in children who require evacuation of gastric contents during anaesthesia. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Trial manufacture of round mask for TV fluoroscopic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shoji; Matsumoto, Yukio

    1977-01-01

    Demands for revision of existing medical law were described together with an introduction of TV fluoroscopic unit. Round mask, which does not always press out the bottom face of used x-ray beam from the effective primary fluorescent face of photomultiplier inspite of shifting of a spot in time of TV fluoroscopy, was manufactured for trial, and it was furnished with already established fluoroscopic stand. It is used in daily examination without any trouble. Round mask was divided into two parts, and opened upward and downward quickly by lod motor in time of photographing. Multiple iris was operated in order to fit to film size, and round mask was closed at the same time of the finishment of photographing and fluoroscopy was performed again. Item 3 of Para 2 of Art 30 of the existing medical low states that it is good not to press out, the distance between x-ray focus and fluorescent screen, and used x-ray beam from fluorescent screen. However, a regulation, which states that x-ray beam should not be pressed out from effective primary fluorescent face in x-ray fluoroscopy using photomultiplier, must be added. Improvement of the existing unit is expected, and decrease of unnecessary exposure even in small amount is proposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. Design features of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT): a multicenter randomized single-masked clinical trial testing the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, S; Gelato, M; Hyman, L; Michalowicz, B S; Schoenfeld, E

    2013-11-01

    Evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), raising the question of whether periodontitis treatment may improve glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Meta-analyses of mostly small clinical trials suggest that periodontitis treatment results in a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c. The purpose of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) was to determine if periodontal treatment reduces HbA1c in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. DPTT was a phase-III, single-masked, multi-center, randomized trial with a planned enrollment of 600 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive periodontal treatment immediately (Treatment Group) or after 6 months (Control Group). HbA1c values and clinical periodontal measures were determined at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization. Medication usage and dosing were assessed at each visit. Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling and root planing for a minimum of two 90-minute sessions, plus the use of an antibacterial mouth rinse for at least 32 days afterwards. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 6 months and the trial was powered to detect a between-group difference of 0.6%. Secondary outcomes included changes in periodontal clinical measures, fasting plasma glucose, the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) and the need for rescue diabetes or periodontal therapy. Dental and medical researchers collaborated to recruit, treat and monitor participants with two chronic diseases to determine if treatment of one condition affects the status of the other. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design Features of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT): A Multicenter Randomized Single-Masked Clinical Trial Testing the Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Levels in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), raising the question of whether periodontitis treatment may improve glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Meta-analyses of mostly small clinical trials suggest that periodontitis treatment results in a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c. Purpose The purpose of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) was to determine if periodontal treatment reduces HbA1c in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. Methods DPTT was a phase-III, single-masked, multi-center, randomized trial with a planned enrollment of 600 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive periodontal treatment immediately (Treatment Group) or after 6 months (Control Group). HbA1c values and clinical periodontal measures were determined at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization. Medication usage and dosing were assessed at each visit. Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling and root planing for a minimum of two 90-minute sessions, plus the use of an antibacterial mouth rinse for at least 32 days afterwards. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 6 months and the trial was powered to detect a between-group difference of 0.6%. Secondary outcomes included changes in periodontal clinical measures, fasting plasma glucose, the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) and the need for rescue diabetes or periodontal therapy. Conclusion Dental and medical researchers collaborated to recruit, treat and monitor participants with two chronic diseases to determine if treatment of one condition affects the status of the other. PMID:24080100

  10. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  11. Universal Mask Usage for Reduction of Respiratory Viral Infections After Stem Cell Transplant: A Prospective Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Anthony D; Sung, Julia A M; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Gasparetto, Cristina; Long, Gwynn; Rizzieri, David; Sullivan, Keith M; Corbet, Kelly; Broadwater, Gloria; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2016-10-15

    Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are frequent complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Surgical masks are a simple and inexpensive intervention that may reduce nosocomial spread. In this prospective single-center study, we instituted a universal surgical mask policy requiring all individuals with direct contact with HSCT patients to wear a surgical mask, regardless of symptoms or season. The primary endpoint was the incidence of RVIs in the mask period (2010-2014) compared with the premask period (2003-2009). RVIs decreased from 10.3% (95/920 patients) in the premask period to 4.4% (40/911) in the mask period (P mask group compared with the premask group (0.19-0.85, P = .02). In contrast, no decrease was observed during this same period in an adjacent hematologic malignancy unit, which followed the same infection control practices except for the mask policy. The majority of this decrease was in parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) (8.3% to 2.2%, P mask is associated with a reduction in RVIs, particularly PIV3, during the most vulnerable period following HSCT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Impact of different nasal masks on CPAP therapy for obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzeret, Pierre-Charles; Morin, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    Patient interface is important for the success of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but few trials have examined the influence of mask choice on CPAP adherence. To compare the impact of different nasal masks on CPAP in patients with newly-diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). OSA patients were randomized in a 2:3 ratio to receive CPAP via different first-line nasal masks: ResMed Mirage FX® (MFX) or control mask (Fisher & Paykel Zest ® , HC407 ® or Philips EasyLife ® ). Mask acceptance, CPAP compliance and Home Care Provider (HCP) interventions were compared between groups after 3 months of CPAP therapy using modified intent-to-treat (mITT; after exclusion of patients with mouth leaks during CPAP initiation) and on-treatment (OT; CPAP adherent) analyses. Of 285 randomized patients, 90 requiring a full-face mask were excluded, leaving 195 and 151 in the mITT and OT analyses, respectively. Mask acceptance rate was higher in the MFX versus control group (mITT: 79% vs 68%, P = 0.067; OT: 90% vs 76%, P = 0.022). CPAP compliance was higher (5.9 ± 1.8 vs 5.1 ± 1.6 h/night, P = 0.011) and nasal mask issue-related HCP visits lower (3% vs 17%, P = 0.006) in the MFX group. Nasal mask failures due to mask discomfort (5% vs 1%) or unintentional leakage (5% vs 0%) were higher in control vs MFX group. Mask acceptance was significantly associated with fewer mask leaks (P = 0.002) and higher pressure therapy (P = 0.042). This study highlights differences between nasal masks for CPAP delivery and shows that initial mask selection can influence adherence and healthcare utilization during CPAP. © 2016 ResMed Germany Inc. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dynamic Adaptation to History of Trial Difficulty Explains the Effect of Congruency Proportion on Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Sachiko; Mozer, Michael C.; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2011-01-01

    In reaction time research, there has been an increasing appreciation that response-initiation processes are sensitive to recent experience and, in particular, the difficulty of previous trials. From this perspective, the authors propose an explanation for a perplexing property of masked priming: Although primes are not consciously identified,…

  14. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded, comparative study of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bikramjit; Jamil, Shahin N; Mitra, Subhro; Varshney, Rohit K

    2012-01-01

    Context: ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA) for airway maintenance in pediatric patients. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA gr...

  15. Single-Mask Fabrication of Temperature Triggered MEMS Switch for Cooling Control in SSL System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, J.; Ye, H.; Van Zeijl, H.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    A micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) based, temperature triggered, switch is developed as a cost-effective solution for smart cooling control of solid-state-lighting systems. The switch (1.0x0.4 mm2) is embedded in a silicon substrate and fabricated with a single-mask 3D micro-machining process.

  16. Mask ventilation with two different face masks in the delivery room for preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, D; Mian, Q; Cheung, P-Y; O'Reilly, M; Aziz, K; van Os, S; Pichler, G; Schmölzer, G M

    2015-07-01

    If an infant fails to initiate spontaneous breathing after birth, international guidelines recommend a positive pressure ventilation (PPV). However, PPV by face mask is frequently inadequate because of leak between the face and mask. Despite a variety of available face masks, none have been prospectively compared in a randomized fashion. We aimed to evaluate and compare leak between two commercially available round face masks (Fisher & Paykel (F&P) and Laerdal) in preterm infants mask PPV in the delivery room routinely had a flow sensor placed between the mask and T-piece resuscitator. Infants were randomly assigned to receive PPV with either a F&P or Laerdal face mask. All resuscitators were trained in the use of both face masks. We compared mask leak, airway pressures, tidal volume and ventilation rate between the two groups. Fifty-six preterm infants (n=28 in each group) were enrolled; mean±s.d. gestational age 28±3 weeks; birth weight 1210±448 g; and 30 (52%) were male. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were 5±3 and 7±2, respectively. Infants randomized to the F&P face mask and Laerdal face mask had similar mask leak (30 (25-38) versus 35 (24-46)%, median (interquartile range), respectively, P=0.40) and tidal volume (7.1 (4.9-8.9) versus 6.6 (5.2-8.9) ml kg(-1), P=0.69) during PPV. There were no significant differences in ventilation rate, inflation time or airway pressures between groups. The use of either face mask during PPV in the delivery room yields similar mask leak in preterm infants <33 weeks gestational age.

  17. Fourier phase retrieval with a single mask by Douglas-Rachford algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengwen; Fannjiang, Albert

    2018-05-01

    The Fourier-domain Douglas-Rachford (FDR) algorithm is analyzed for phase retrieval with a single random mask. Since the uniqueness of phase retrieval solution requires more than a single oversampled coded diffraction pattern, the extra information is imposed in either of the following forms: 1) the sector condition on the object; 2) another oversampled diffraction pattern, coded or uncoded. For both settings, the uniqueness of projected fixed point is proved and for setting 2) the local, geometric convergence is derived with a rate given by a spectral gap condition. Numerical experiments demonstrate global, power-law convergence of FDR from arbitrary initialization for both settings as well as for 3 or more coded diffraction patterns without oversampling. In practice, the geometric convergence can be recovered from the power-law regime by a simple projection trick, resulting in highly accurate reconstruction from generic initialization.

  18. Method to make a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grishina, Diana; Harteveld, Cornelis A.M.; Woldering, L.A.; Vos, Willem L.

    2015-01-01

    Current nanostructure fabrication by etching is usually limited to planar structures as they are defined by a planar mask. The realization of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by etching requires technologies beyond planar masks. We present a method for fabricating a 3D mask that allows one to

  19. EMHP: an accurate automated hole masking algorithm for single-particle cryo-EM image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndsen, Zachary; Bowman, Charles; Jang, Haerin; Ward, Andrew B

    2017-12-01

    The Electron Microscopy Hole Punch (EMHP) is a streamlined suite of tools for quick assessment, sorting and hole masking of electron micrographs. With recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) data processing allowing for the rapid determination of protein structures using a smaller computational footprint, we saw the need for a fast and simple tool for data pre-processing that could run independent of existing high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructures. EMHP provides a data preprocessing platform in a small package that requires minimal python dependencies to function. https://www.bitbucket.org/chazbot/emhp Apache 2.0 License. bowman@scripps.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Administration of rescue surfactant by laryngeal mask airway: lessons from a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attridge, Joshua T; Stewart, Corrine; Stukenborg, George J; Kattwinkel, John

    2013-03-01

    To determine if surfactant can be effectively administered to larger preterm babies by laryngeal mask airway (LMA), reducing the need for supplemental oxygen. Enrollment criteria: birth weight > 1200 g, O2 saturations at 88 to 95%. A total of 26 patients (13 per group) were randomized, and 24 completed the study (11 experimental, 13 control). Groups were similar with respect to gender, mode of delivery, estimated gestational age, birth weight, and oxygen and pressure requirements at enrollment. Infants enrolled in the treatment group had an abrupt and sustained decrease in oxygen requirement after LMA surfactant therapy. This pilot study demonstrates that surfactant can be delivered by LMA, which leads to a significant decrease in supplemental oxygen requirement. Larger controlled trials in low-resource settings may show this technique to be valuable in clinical situations where direct laryngoscopy and intubation are difficult or where resources for mechanical ventilation are limited. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Single-Trial Inference on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrholm, Mads; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about...... Report trial. This result retrodicts a latent attentional state of the subject using the observed response from that particular trial and thus differs from other predictions made with TVA which are based on expected values of observed variables. We show an example of the result in single-trial analysis...

  2. Surgical mask to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Canini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Facemasks and respirators have been stockpiled during pandemic preparedness. However, data on their effectiveness for limiting transmission are scarce. We evaluated the effectiveness of facemask use by index cases for limiting influenza transmission by large droplets produced during coughing in households.A cluster randomized intervention trial was conducted in France during the 2008-2009 influenza season. Households were recruited during a medical visit of a household member with a positive rapid influenza A test and symptoms lasting less than 48 hours. Households were randomized either to the mask or control group for 7 days. In the intervention arm, the index case had to wear a surgical mask from the medical visit and for a period of 5 days. The trial was initially intended to include 372 households but was prematurely interrupted after the inclusion of 105 households (306 contacts following the advice of an independent steering committee. We used generalized estimating equations to test the association between the intervention and the proportion of household contacts who developed an influenza-like illness during the 7 days following the inclusion. Influenza-like illness was reported in 24/148 (16.2% of the contacts in the intervention arm and in 25/158 (15.8% of the contacts in the control arm and the difference between arms was 0.40% (95%CI: -10% to 11%, P = 1.00. We observed a good adherence to the intervention. In various sensitivity analyses, we did not identify any trend in the results suggesting effectiveness of facemasks.This study should be interpreted with caution since the lack of statistical power prevents us to draw formal conclusion regarding effectiveness of facemasks in the context of a seasonal epidemic.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00774774.

  3. Mask-based approach to phasing of single-particle diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Vladimir Y; Lunina, Natalia L; Petrova, Tatiana E; Baumstark, Manfred W; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre G

    2016-01-01

    A Monte Carlo-type approach for low- and medium-resolution phasing of single-particle diffraction data is suggested. Firstly, the single-particle phase problem is substituted with the phase problem for an imaginary crystal. A unit cell of this crystal contains a single isolated particle surrounded by a large volume of bulk solvent. The developed phasing procedure then generates a large number of connected and finite molecular masks, calculates their Fourier coefficients, selects the sets with magnitudes that are highly correlated with the experimental values and finally aligns the selected phase sets and calculates the averaged phase values. A test with the known structure of monomeric photosystem II resulted in phases that have 97% correlation with the exact phases in the full 25 Å resolution shell (1054 structure factors) and correlations of 99, 94, 81 and 79% for the resolution shells ∞-60, 60-40, 40-30 and 30-25 Å, respectively. The same procedure may be used for crystallographic ab initio phasing.

  4. A randomized equivalence trial comparing the i-gel and laryngeal mask airway Supreme in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Sommers, Katherine; Sohn, Lisa E; Sawardekar, Amod; Shah, Ravi D; Mukherji, Isabella I; Miller, Steven; Voronov, Polina; Seraphin, Sally

    2013-02-01

    The laryngeal mask airway Supreme (Supreme) is a new single-use supraglottic device with gastric access capability now available in all sizes for children. To compare the i-gel with the Supreme in children for routine airway maintenance. One hundred and seventy children, aged 3 months to 11 years, 5-50 kg in weight, were randomly assigned to receive either the i-gel or the Supreme. The primary outcome measured was airway leak pressure. Secondary outcomes included the following: ease and time for insertion, insertion success rate, fiberoptic grade of view, ease of gastric tube placement, number of airway manipulations, quality of airway during anesthetic maintenance, and complications. A total of 168 patients were assessed for the outcomes. The median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressure for the i-gel was higher than with the Supreme, 20 (18-25 [9-40]) cm H(2)O vs 17 (14-22 [10-40]) cm H(2)O, respectively (P = 0.001). There were no differences in the time for device insertion, fiberoptic grade of view, quality of airway, and complications. Median (IQR[range]) time of successful insertion of a gastric tube was faster with the Supreme, 12 (9.2-14.3 [5.2-44.2]) s than with the i-gel, 14 (11.9-19 [6.9-75]) s; P = 0.01. The number of airway manipulations during placement was higher with the i-gel than with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (12 vs 13 patients), P = 0.02. In infants and children, when a single-use supraglottic device with gastric access capabilities is required, the i-gel demonstrated higher airway leak pressures and can be a useful alternative to the Supreme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. SU-E-T-65: A Prospective Trial of Open Face Masks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, D; Squire, S; Maurer, J; Liu, H; Hayes, L; Sintay, B [Cone Health Cancer Center, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Open face head and neck masks allow for active patient monitoring during treatment and may reduced claustrophobia and anxiety compared to closed masks. The ability of open masks to limit intrafraction motion and to preserve the patient shape/position from simulation over protracted treatments should be considered. Methods: Thirty-two head and neck patients were prospectively randomized to treatment in a closed mask or a novel open face mask. All patients received daily volumetric imaging. The daily images were automatically rigidly registered to the planning CT’s offline using a commercial image processing tool. The shifts needed to optimize the registration, the mutual information coefficient (MI), and the Pearson correlation (PC) coefficients were recorded to evaluate shape preservation. The open group was set-up and monitored with surface imaging at treatment. The real time surface imaging information was recorded to evaluate intrafraction motion. Results: Sixteen patients were included in each group. Evaluations were made over a total of 984 fractions. The mean MI and PC showed significantly higher shape preservation for the open group than for the closed group (p = 0). The mean rotations for the open group were smaller or < 0.15° larger versus the closed group. The mean intrafraction motion for the open group was 0.93 +/−0.99 mm (2 SD). The maximum single fraction displacement was 3.2 mm. Fourteen of 16 patients showed no significant correlation of motion with fraction number (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The open masks preserved shape as well as the closed masks, and they limited motion to < 2 mm for 95% of the treated fractions. These results are consistent over treatment courses of up to 35 fractions. The open mask is suitable for treatment with or without active monitoring. This work was partially supported by Qfix.

  6. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded, comparative study of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bikramjit; Jamil, Shahin N; Mitra, Subhro; Varshney, Rohit K

    2012-07-01

    ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia. To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA) for airway maintenance in pediatric patients. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA groups. Parameters noted were time for insertion, number of attempts, airway sealing pressure, blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, and mean), pulse rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO(2)), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), and postoperative change in abdominal circumference, and airway trauma. Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the chi-square (χ(2)) test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD). Significance was taken as P insertion, airway sealing pressure, hemodynamic responses, SpO(2), EtCO(2) and postoperative changes in abdominal circumference. Patients in the PLMA group had longer time of insertion and higher incidence of airway trauma. The PLMA and the CLMA were comparable for hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters and change in abdominal circumference; however, the time taken for insertion and airway trauma was more with PLMA.

  7. Comparison of Comfort and Effectiveness of Total Face Mask and Oronasal Mask in Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: A Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Sadeghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM or total facemask (TFM in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV, so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods. Between February and November 2014, a total of 48 patients with respiratory failure were studied. Patients were randomized to receive NPPV via ONM or TFM. Data were recorded at 60 minutes and six and 24 hours after intervention. Patient comfort was assessed using a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using t-test and chi-square test. Repeated measures ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U test were used to compare clinical and laboratory data. Results. There were no differences in venous blood gas (VBG values between the two groups (P>0.05. However, at six hours, TFM was much more effective in reducing the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 (P=0.04. Patient comfort and acceptance were statistically similar in both groups (P>0.05. Total time of NPPV was also similar in the two groups (P>0.05. Conclusions. TFM was superior to ONM in acute phase of respiratory failure but not once the patients were out of acute phase.

  8. Mitigation of informational masking in individuals with single-sided deafness by integrated bone conduction hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bradford J; Bowditch, Stephen; Liu, Yinda; Eisen, Marc; Niparko, John K

    2014-01-01

    To confirm an increased susceptibility to informational masking among individuals with single-sided deafness (SSD). To demonstrate a reduction in informational masking when SSD is treated with an integrated bone conduction hearing aid (IBC). To identify the acoustic cues that contribute to IBC-aided masking release. To determine the effects of device experience on the IBC advantage. Informational masking was evaluated with the coordinate-response measure. Participants performed the task by reporting color and number coordinates that changed randomly within target sentences. The target sentences were presented in free field accompanied by zero to three distracting sentences. Target and distracting sentences were spoken by different talkers and originated from different source locations, creating two sources of information for auditory streaming. Susceptibility to informational masking was inferred from the error rates of unaided SSD patients relative to normal controls. These baseline measures were derived by testing inexperienced IBC users without the device on the day of their initial fitting. The benefits of IBC-aided listening were assessed by measuring the aided performance of users who had at least 3 months' device experience. The acoustic basis of the listening advantage was isolated by correlating response errors with the voice pitch and location of distracting sentences. The effects of learning on cue effectiveness were evaluated by comparing the error rates of experienced and inexperienced users. Unaided SSD participants (inexperienced users) performed as well as normal controls when tested without distracting sentences but produced significantly higher error rates when tested with distracting sentences. Most errors involved responding with coordinates that were contained in distracting sentences. This increased susceptibility to informational masking was significantly reduced when experienced IBC users were tested with the device. The listening advantage

  9. Clinical efficacy and safety of a light mask for prevention of dark adaptation in treating and preventing progression of early diabetic macular oedema at 24 months (CLEOPATRA): a multicentre, phase 3, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Vasconcelos, Joana C; Prevost, A Toby; Holmes, Helen; Hykin, Philip; George, Sheena; Murphy, Caroline; Kelly, Joanna; Arden, Geoffrey B

    2018-03-05

    We aimed to assess 24-month outcomes of wearing an organic light-emitting sleep mask as an intervention to treat and prevent progression of non-central diabetic macular oedema. CLEOPATRA was a phase 3, single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial undertaken at 15 ophthalmic centres in the UK. Adults with non-centre-involving diabetic macular oedema were randomly assigned (1:1) to wearing either a light mask during sleep (Noctura 400 Sleep Mask, PolyPhotonix Medical, Sedgefield, UK) or a sham (non-light) mask, for 24 months. Randomisation was by minimisation generated by a central web-based computer system. Outcome assessors were masked technicians and optometrists. The primary outcome was the change in maximum retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) at 24 months, analysed using a linear mixed-effects model incorporating 4-monthly measurements and baseline adjustment. Analysis was done using the intention-to-treat principle in all randomised patients with OCT data. Safety was assessed in all patients. This trial is registered with Controlled-Trials.com, number ISRCTN85596558. Between April 10, 2014, and June 15, 2015, 308 patients were randomly assigned to wearing the light mask (n=155) or a sham mask (n=153). 277 patients (144 assigned the light mask and 133 the sham mask) contributed to the mixed-effects model over time, including 246 patients with OCT data at 24 months. The change in maximum retinal thickness at 24 months did not differ between treatment groups (mean change -9·2 μm [SE 2·5] for the light mask vs -12·9 μm [SE 2·9] for the sham mask; adjusted mean difference -0·65 μm, 95% CI -6·90 to 5·59; p=0·84). Median compliance with wearing the light mask at 24 months was 19·5% (IQR 1·9-51·6). No serious adverse events were related to either mask. The most frequent adverse events related to the assigned treatment were discomfort on the eyes (14 with the light mask vs seven with the sham mask), painful, sticky, or

  10. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded, comparative study of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA for airway maintenance in pediatric patients. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA groups. Parameters noted were time for insertion, number of attempts, airway sealing pressure, blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, and mean, pulse rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 , peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO 2 , and postoperative change in abdominal circumference, and airway trauma. Statistical analysis used: Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the chi-square (c2 test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD. Significance was taken as P < 0.05. Results: There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the success rates at the first attempt of insertion, airway sealing pressure, hemodynamic responses, SpO 2, EtCO 2 and postoperative changes in abdominal circumference. Patients in the PLMA group had longer time of insertion and higher incidence of airway trauma. Conclusions: The PLMA and the CLMA were comparable for hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters and change in abdominal circumference; however, the time taken for insertion and airway trauma was more with PLMA.

  11. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  12. Nasal masks or binasal prongs for delivering continuous positive airway pressure in preterm neonates-a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Aparna; Thukral, Anu; Jeeva Sankar, M; Agarwal, Ramesh; Paul, Vinod K; Deorari, Ashok K

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered using nasal masks with binasal prongs. We randomly allocated 72 neonates between 26 and 32 weeks gestation to receive bubble CPAP by either nasal mask (n = 37) or short binasal prongs (n = 35). Primary outcome was mean FiO 2 requirement at 6, 12 and 24 h of CPAP initiation and the area under curve (AUC) of FiO 2 against time during the first 24 h (FiO 2 AUC 0-24 ). Secondary outcomes were the incidence of CPAP failure and nasal trauma. FiO 2 requirement at 6, 12 and 24 h (mean (SD); 25 (5.8) vs. 27.9 (8); 23.8 (4.5) vs. 25.4 (6.8) and 22.6 (6.8) vs. 22.7 (3.3)) as well as FiO 2 AUC 0-24 (584.0 (117.8) vs. 610.6 (123.6)) were similar between the groups. There was no difference in the incidence of CPAP failure (14 vs. 20%; relative risk 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.24-1.93). Incidence of severe nasal trauma was lower with the use of nasal masks (0 vs. 31%; p Nasal masks appear to be as efficacious as binasal prongs in providing CPAP. Masks are associated with lower risk of severe nasal trauma. CTRI2012/08/002868 What is Known? • Binasal prongs are better than single nasal and nasopharyngeal prongs for delivering continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preventing need for re-intubation. • It is unclear if they are superior to newer generation nasal masks in preterm neonates requiring CPAP. What is New? • Oxygen requirement during the first 24 h of CPAP delivery is comparable with use of nasal masks and binasal prongs. • Use of nasal masks is, however, associated with significantly lower risk of severe grades of nasal injury.

  13. Born not breathing: A randomised trial comparing two self-inflating bag-masks during newborn resuscitation in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallinger, Monica; Ersdal, Hege Langli; Francis, Fortunata; Yeconia, Anita; Mduma, Estomih; Kidanto, Hussein; Linde, Jørgen Erland; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Gunnes, Nina; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-07-01

    Effective ventilation is crucial to save non-breathing newborns. We compared standard equipment for newborn resuscitation to a new Upright bag, in an area with high neonatal mortality. Newborns requiring resuscitation at Haydom Lutheran Hospital, Tanzania, were ventilated with 230ml standard or 320ml Upright bag-mask by weekly non-blinded block randomisation. A Laerdal Newborn Resuscitation Monitor collected ventilation data through a flow sensor between mask and bag and heart rate with electrocardiography electrodes. Primary outcome was expiratory tidal volume per birth weight. Of 6110 babies born, 136 randomised to standard bag-mask and 192 to Upright, both groups had similar birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores, gender, and mode of delivery. Compared to standard bag-mask, Upright gave higher median expiratory tidal volume (8.6ml/kg (IQR: 3.5-13.8) vs. 10.0ml/kg (IQR: 4.3-16.8) difference ratio 1.29, 95%CI 1.05, 1.58, p=0.014)), increased mean airway and peak inspiratory pressures, and higher early expired CO 2 (median at 20s 4.2% vs. 3.2%, p=0.0099). Clinical outcome 30min post-delivery was normal in 44% with standard versus 57% with Upright (p=0.016), but similar at 24h. Upright provided higher expired tidal volume, MAP, PIP and early ECO 2 than the standard bag. Clinical outcome differed at 30min, but not at 24h. Larger volume of Upright than standard bag can be an important factor. The results are relevant for low- and high-income settings as ventilatory and heart rate parameters during resuscitation of newborns are rarely reported. Trial registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01869582. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Melatonin for sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: randomised double masked placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringras, P; Gamble, C; Jones, A P; Wiggs, L; Williamson, P R; Sutcliffe, A; Montgomery, P; Whitehouse, W P; Choonara, I; Allport, T; Edmond, A; Appleton, R

    2012-11-05

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of melatonin in treating severe sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. 12 week double masked randomised placebo controlled phase III trial. 19 hospitals across England and Wales. 146 children aged 3 years to 15 years 8 months were randomised. They had a range of neurological and developmental disorders and a severe sleep problem that had not responded to a standardised sleep behaviour advice booklet provided to parents four to six weeks before randomisation. A sleep problem was defined as the child not falling asleep within one hour of lights out or having less than six hours' continuous sleep. Immediate release melatonin or matching placebo capsules administered 45 minutes before the child's bedtime for a period of 12 weeks. All children started with a 0.5 mg capsule, which was increased through 2 mg, 6 mg, and 12 mg depending on their response to treatment. Total sleep time at night after 12 weeks adjusted for baseline recorded in sleep diaries completed by the parent. Secondary outcomes included sleep onset latency, assessments of child behaviour, family functioning, and adverse events. Sleep was measured with diaries and actigraphy. Melatonin increased total sleep time by 22.4 minutes (95% confidence interval 0.5 to 44.3 minutes) measured by sleep diaries (n=110) and 13.3 (-15.5 to 42.2) measured by actigraphy (n=59). Melatonin reduced sleep onset latency measured by sleep diaries (-37.5 minutes, -55.3 to -19.7 minutes) and actigraphy (-45.3 minutes, -68.8 to -21.9 minutes) and was most effective for children with the longest sleep latency (P=0.009). Melatonin was associated with earlier waking times than placebo (29.9 minutes, 13.6 to 46.3 minutes). Child behaviour and family functioning outcomes showed some improvement and favoured use of melatonin. Adverse events were mild and similar between the two groups. Children gained little additional sleep on melatonin; though they fell asleep

  15. Randomized, Double-masked, Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial on the Effects of Propolis and Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses on Gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Anauate-Netto, Camilo; Biomaterials Research Group – School of Dentistry – UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University – São Paulo – SP – Brazil.; Anido-Anido, Andréa; School of Dentistry, UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University – 02171-013 São Paulo, Brazil; Lewgoy, Hugo Roberto; School of Dentistry, UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University – 02171-013 São Paulo, Brazil; Matsumoto, Ricardo; School of Dentistry, UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University – 02171-013 São Paulo, Brazil; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; School of Dentistry, UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University – 02171-013 São Paulo, Brazil; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; School of Pharmacy, UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University - 02171-013 São Paulo, Brazil; Paulino, Niraldo; School of Pharmacy, UNIBAN Bandeirante Anhanguera University - 02171-013 São Paulo, Brazil; Bretz, Walter Antonio; College of Dentistry, New York University 10010 New York-NY, USA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of typified propolis and chlorhexidine mouthrinses on gingival health in a randomized double-masked placebo-controlled clinical trial.Methods: Sixty participants were randomized to 3 mouthrinse study groups: 1) 2% typified propolis (n=20); 2) 0.12% chlorhexidine (n=20), and 3) placebo (n=20). Participants rinsed unsupervised twice a day for 28 days. The Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS) was measured on the mesio-buccal surfaces of all t...

  16. A super-high angular resolution principle for coded-mask X-ray imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chen; Zhang Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always useful in astrophysics and solar physics. In principle, it can be performed by using coded-mask imaging with a very long mask-detector distance. Previously, the diffraction-interference effect was thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at the low energy end with its very long mask-detector distance. The diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size is 50 x 50 μm 2 and the mask-detector distance is 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV (λ = 1 nm), where diffraction cannot be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also briefly discussed. (invited reviews)

  17. Large bladder calculus masking a stone in single-system ureterocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ved; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Purkait, Bimalesh; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2017-06-14

    Ureterocele in an elderly is a rare entity. The presence of stone within ureterocele along with a large bladder calculus is an even rarer presentation. This phenomenon has not been reported so far to the best of our knowledge. We present an unusual case of a large bladder calculus with a concomitant stone in the associated ureterocele. The diagnosis was missed in the first instance due to the masking effect by the larger bladder calculus. Herein, we discuss this case and its management. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Fibrin glue versus sutures for attaching the conjunctival autograft in pterygium surgery: a prospective observer masked clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S; Dollin, M; McAllum, P; Berger, Y; Rootman, D S; Slomovic, A R

    2009-02-01

    To compare the degree of conjunctival autograft inflammation, subconjunctival haemorrhage (SCH) and graft stability following the use of sutures or fibrin glue (FG) during pterygium surgery. Prospective, observer masked, clinical trial. 40 eyes of 40 patients undergoing primary pterygium surgery with conjunctival autograft were allocated into two groups. Group 1 (n = 20) had FG (Tisseel) for attaching the conjunctival autograft, whereas group 2 (n = 20) had sutures. Standardised digital slit-lamp photographs were taken at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. Sutures were masked using commercially available photo-editing software. Two masked observers objectively graded the digital photographs for degree of inflammation, SCH and graft stability. 34 of the 40 patients completed the study. When using FG, the degree of inflammation was significantly less than with sutures at 1 month (p = 0.019) and 3 months (p = 0.001) postoperatively. No significant difference was found for inflammation at 1 week postoperatively (p = 0.518). Conjunctival grafts secured with FG were as stable as those secured with sutures (p = 0.258, p = 0.076 and p = 0.624, at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months, respectively). No significant difference was found in degree of postoperative SCH between the groups (p = 0.417, p = 1 and p = 1, at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months, respectively). This is the first prospective clinical trial confirming that conjunctival grafts secured with FG during pterygium surgery not only are as stable as those secured with sutures, but also produce significantly less inflammation.

  19. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  20. A clinical trial evaluating the laryngeal mask airway-Supreme in obese children during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yue; Wu, Xiu-Ying; Li, Lu; Ma, Ling; Li, Yun-Feng

    2017-02-01

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Supreme is a disposable double-lumen laryngeal mask airway that is widely used in clinical practice. However, its use in obese children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine whether the LMA-Supreme could perform equally as well as endotracheal intubation in obese children having a minor surgical procedure. After ethical board approval, 100 obese male children receiving non-emergent appendectomy for chronic appendicitis or surgery to correct concealed penis were randomly divided into an endotracheal intubation group and an LMA-Supreme group. Endotracheal intubation was performed under direct vision laryngoscopy. In the LMA group, a size-3 LMA-Supreme was placed and a stomach tube inserted via the drainage tube of the mask. Cardiovascular and respiratory parameters, time taken for placement, placement attempts, time to removal of the endotracheal tube/LMA, length of stay in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU), and complications were recorded. Insertion time was significantly longer ( p airway pressure was significantly higher, and pulmonary compliance and PACU stay time lower in the LMA-Supreme group. No significant differences between endotracheal intubation and the LMA-Supreme were seen in other parameters, except for a higher incidence of coughing in the endotracheal intubation group. The LMA-Supreme can be easily inserted and effectively used for airway management in obese children undergoing minor surgery.

  1. Combination of binaural and harmonic masking release effects in the detection of a single component in complex tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Hennig, Martin; Dietz, Mathias; Hohmann, Volker

    2018-03-01

    Both harmonic and binaural signal properties are relevant for auditory processing. To investigate how these cues combine in the auditory system, detection thresholds for an 800-Hz tone masked by a diotic (i.e., identical between the ears) harmonic complex tone were measured in six normal-hearing subjects. The target tone was presented either diotically or with an interaural phase difference (IPD) of 180° and in either harmonic or "mistuned" relationship to the diotic masker. Three different maskers were used, a resolved and an unresolved complex tone (fundamental frequency: 160 and 40 Hz) with four components below and above the target frequency and a broadband unresolved complex tone with 12 additional components. The target IPD provided release from masking in most masker conditions, whereas mistuning led to a significant release from masking only in the diotic conditions with the resolved and the narrowband unresolved maskers. A significant effect of mistuning was neither found in the diotic condition with the wideband unresolved masker nor in any of the dichotic conditions. An auditory model with a single analysis frequency band and different binaural processing schemes was employed to predict the data of the unresolved masker conditions. Sensitivity to modulation cues was achieved by including an auditory-motivated modulation filter in the processing pathway. The predictions of the diotic data were in line with the experimental results and literature data in the narrowband condition, but not in the broadband condition, suggesting that across-frequency processing is involved in processing modulation information. The experimental and model results in the dichotic conditions show that the binaural processor cannot exploit modulation information in binaurally unmasked conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R; Ferron, John

    2017-06-10

    Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.

  3. Single-center trials in neonatology: Issues to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ian P; Sinha, Sunil K

    2015-12-01

    Single-center randomized controlled trials confer certain advantages over multi-center trials, in that they are cheaper and easier to design and conduct. However, recent research suggests that single-center trials are likely to overestimate treatment effects. There are notable examples in neonatology where results from multi-center trials have contradicted results of single-center studies. In this paper we discuss issues around external generalizability of single-center studies, and methodological issues that may cause bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laryngeal mask airway vs the endotracheal tube in paediatric airway management: A meta-analysis of prospective randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhiruchi Patki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was performed on prospective randomised controlled trials to assess whether the laryngeal mask airway (LMA offered any advantage over the conventional endotracheal tube in the paediatric age group. Using the Cochrane methodology, a literature search was carried out through peer-reviewed indexed journals in three medical databases to obtain all publications comparing the LMA with the endotracheal tube in the paediatric age group (age less than 12 years, available till December 2010. Data from 16 randomised controlled clinical trials were selected for analysis. A null hypothesis was formed against each of the seven issues tested using the Fisher′s method of combining P values. The LMA was seen to have three advantages over the tracheal tube in the form of lower incidence of cough during emergence, lower incidence of postoperative sore throat and lower incidence of postoperative vomiting (P<0.05. It was seen to offer no advantage over the tracheal tube in incidence of bronchospasm or laryngospasm during emergence; also, it did not offer any advantage in increasing the efficacy of the airway seal. The only disadvantage the LMA had over the tracheal tube was its greater incidence of placement failure in the first attempt.

  5. Implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia in children: a double-masked randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Xiuzhi; Smith, Katherine R; Sheppard, Suzette J; Bradshaw, Carolyn; Lo, Eric; Davidson, Andrew J

    2010-05-01

    Implicit memory cannot be consciously recalled but may be revealed by changes in behavior. There is evidence for implicit memory formation during anesthesia in adults, but several studies in children have found no evidence for implicit memory. This may be due to insensitive testing. Also many of these tests were undertaken under controlled conditions. It remains unknown whether implicit memory is formed during routine pediatric anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia in children, using a degraded auditory stimulus recognition task. Three hundred and twelve children, aged 5-12 yr, were randomly assigned to be played either a sheep sound or white noise continuously through headphones during general anesthesia. No attempt was made to standardize the anesthetic. On recovery, children were played a sheep sound degraded by a white noise mask that progressively decreased over 60 s, with the outcome being the time taken to correctly recognize the sheep sound. Three hundred children completed the task. A comparison of the distribution of recognition times between the two groups found little evidence that exposure to a sheep sound during anesthesia was associated with postoperative time to recognition of a degraded sheep sound (hazard ratio 1.14, 95% CI of 0.90-1.43, P = 0.28). No implicit memory formation during routine anesthesia was demonstrated in children. It is increasingly likely that the potential clinical implications of implicit memory formation are less of a concern for pediatric anesthetists.

  6. Plasma exchange combined with azathioprine in multiple sclerosis using serial gadolinium-enhanced MRI to monitor disease activity: a randomized single-masked cross-over pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Wanscher, B; Szpirt, W

    1996-01-01

    We enrolled 11 patients with secondary progressive MS in a randomized single-masked cross-over study of plasma exchange (PE) in combination with azathioprine 2 mg/kg. PE was performed once a week for 4 weeks and thereafter every second week for 20 weeks (14 treatments). Eight patients completed...

  7. Single image super-resolution using self-optimizing mask via fractional-order gradient interpolation and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Zhang, Yanzhu; Zhao, Tiebiao; Chen, YangQuan

    2017-04-04

    Image super-resolution using self-optimizing mask via fractional-order gradient interpolation and reconstruction aims to recover detailed information from low-resolution images and reconstruct them into high-resolution images. Due to the limited amount of data and information retrieved from low-resolution images, it is difficult to restore clear, artifact-free images, while still preserving enough structure of the image such as the texture. This paper presents a new single image super-resolution method which is based on adaptive fractional-order gradient interpolation and reconstruction. The interpolated image gradient via optimal fractional-order gradient is first constructed according to the image similarity and afterwards the minimum energy function is employed to reconstruct the final high-resolution image. Fractional-order gradient based interpolation methods provide an additional degree of freedom which helps optimize the implementation quality due to the fact that an extra free parameter α-order is being used. The proposed method is able to produce a rich texture detail while still being able to maintain structural similarity even under large zoom conditions. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better than current single image super-resolution techniques. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallon, G. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Vittoria, F. A.; Basta, D.; Endrizzi, M.; Olivo, A.

    2017-10-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF.

  9. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallon, G K; Diemoz, P C; Vittoria, F A; Basta, D; Endrizzi, M; Olivo, A

    2017-01-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF. (paper)

  10. A randomized controlled trial of the laryngeal mask airway for surfactant administration in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rosilu F; Simões E Silva, Ana C; Silva, Yerkes P

    To compare the short-term efficacy of surfactant administration by laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal tube. Preterm infants (28-35 weeks of gestational age), weighing 1kg or more, with respiratory distress syndrome, requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure, with increased respiratory effort and/or fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 )≥0.40 to maintain oxygen saturation 91-95%, were randomized to receive surfactant by LMA following nCPAP or by ETT following mechanical ventilation (MV). The primary outcome was a clinical response defined as FiO 2 ≤0.30 three hours after surfactant. Secondary outcomes for LMA group were: need of surfactant retreatment during the first 24h, MV requirement, and presence of surfactant in gastric content. Forty-eight patients were randomized; 26 in the LMA group and 22 in the ETT group. Six of 26 patients (23%) in the LMA group and five of 22 patients (22.7%) in the ETT group did not meet the primary outcome (p=0.977). Fourteen (53.8%) of the LMA patients were not intubated nor ventilated; 12 (46.1%) were ventilated: for surfactant failure (23%), for nCPAP failure (11.5%), and for late complications (11.5%). Groups were similar regarding prenatal status, birth conditions, and adverse events. No significant gastric content was found in 61.5% of the LMA patients. Oxygen and second dose surfactant requirements, arterial/alveolar ratio, and morbidities were similar among groups. Surfactant administration by LMA showed short-term efficacy, with similar supplementary oxygen need compared to surfactant by ETT, and lower MV requirement. Further studies with larger sample size are necessary to confirm these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomised controlled trial on the effect of mask choice on residual respiratory events with continuous positive airway pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Matthew R; Narizhnaya, Mariya; Segal, Alan Z; Barone, Daniel; Krieger, Ana C

    2014-06-01

    It has been found that mask style can affect the amount of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) required to reduce an apnoea/hyponoea index (AHI) to mask style to another post titration could affect the residual AHI with CPAP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in residual AHI with CPAP treatment between oronasal and nasal masks. Twenty-one subjects (age mean (M)=62.9, body mass index (BMI) M=29.6 kg/m2) were randomised (14 subjects completed the protocol) to undergo an in-laboratory CPAP titration with either a nasal mask or an oronasal mask. Subjects were then assigned this mask for 3weeks of at-home CPAP use with the optimal treatment pressure determined on the laboratory study (CPAP M=8.4 cm of H2O). At the end of this 3-week period, data were collected from the CPAP machine and the subject was given the other mask to use with the same CPAP settings for the next 3weeks at home (if the nasal mask was given initially, the oronasal one was given later and vice versa). On completion of the second 3-week period, data on residual AHI were again collected and compared with the first 3-week period on CPAP. A Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test (two-tailed) revealed that residual AHI with CPAP treatment was significantly higher with the oronasal compared with the nasal mask (z = -3.296, pmask, and 50% of the subjects had a residual AHI >10/h in the oronasal mask condition, even though all of these subjects were titrated to an AHI of mask compared with a nasal mask. Switching to an oronasal mask post titration results in an increase in residual AHI with CPAP treatment, and pressure adjustment may be warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Basic life support trained nurses ventilate more efficiently with laryngeal mask supreme than with facemask or laryngeal tube suction-disposable--a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Oberhammer, Rosmarie; Balkenhol, Karla; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Brugger, Hermann; Falk, Markus; Paal, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In some emergency situations resuscitation and ventilation may have to be performed by basic life support trained personnel, especially in rural areas where arrival of advanced life support teams can be delayed. The use of advanced airway devices such as endotracheal intubation has been deemphasized for basically-trained personnel, but it is unclear whether supraglottic airway devices are advisable over traditional mask-ventilation. In this prospective, randomized clinical single-centre trial we compared airway management and ventilation performed by nurses using facemask, laryngeal mask Supreme (LMA-S) and laryngeal tube suction-disposable (LTS-D). Basic life support trained nurses (n=20) received one-hour practical training with each device. ASA 1-2 patients scheduled for elective surgery were included (n=150). After induction of anaesthesia and neuromuscular block nurses had two 90-second attempts to manage the airway and ventilate the patient with volume-controlled ventilation. Ventilation failed in 34% of patients with facemask, 2% with LMA-S and 22% with LTS-D (P<0.001). In patients who could be ventilated successfully mean tidal volume was 240±210 ml with facemask, 470±120 ml with LMA-S and 470±140 ml with LTS-D (P<0.001). Leak pressure was lower with LMA-S (23.3±10.8 cm H2O, 95% CI 20.2-26.4) than with LTS-D (28.9±13.9 cm·H2O, 95% CI 24.4-33.4; P=0.047). After one hour of introductory training, nurses were able to use LMA-S more effectively than facemask and LTS-D. High ventilation failure rates with facemask and LTS-D may indicate that additional training is required to perform airway management adequately with these devices. High-level trials are needed to confirm these results in cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Binasal Prong versus Nasal Mask for Applying CPAP to Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, Birgul; Kanmaz Kutman, Hayriye Gozde; Oguz, Serife Suna; Oncel, Mehmet Yekta; Arayici, Sema; Canpolat, Fuat Emre; Uras, Nurdan; Karahan, Sevilay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is being widely used for the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. However, there are only a few studies which compare different interfaces of NCPAP delivery and their effects on respiratory outcomes. We aimed to determine whether NCPAP applied with binasal prongs compared to that with a nasal mask (NM) reduces the rate of moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. Infants between 26 and 32 weeks' gestation who suffered from RDS and were treated with NCPAP were assessed. Parallel randomization was performed to eligible infants to receive NCPAP either via binasal prongs or NM. Infants were intubated if they fulfilled the predefined failure criteria. Data were collected by using the intention-to-treat principle. One hundred and sixty infants were screened and 149 were randomized. Seventy-five infants in the binasal prong (NP) group and 74 in the NM group were analyzed. Mean gestational ages were 29.3 ± 1.6 vs. 29.1 ± 2.0 weeks (p = 0.55), and birth weights were 1,225 ± 257 vs. 1,282 ± 312 g (p = 0.22) in the NP and NM groups, respectively. The frequency of NCPAP failure within 24 h of life was higher in the NP than the NM group (8 vs. 0%; p = 0.09). The median duration of NCPAP was significantly higher in the NP group [median 4 (1-5) vs. 2 (1-3) h, p death rates were not different between the 2 groups (NM group: n = 18 or 24.3%; NP group: n = 19 or 25.3%; p = 0.51). The NM was successfully used for delivering NCPAP in preterm infants, and no NCPAP failure was observed within the first 24 h. These data show that applying NCPAP by NM yielded a shorter duration of NCPAP and statistically reduced the rates of moderate and severe BPD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Single-trial detection for intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Liu, H T; Luk, K D K; Hu, Y

    2015-12-01

    Abnormalities of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) provide effective evidence for impairment of the somatosensory system, so that SEPs have been widely used in both clinical diagnosis and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. However, due to their low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SEPs are generally measured using ensemble averaging across hundreds of trials, thus unavoidably producing a tardiness of SEPs to the potential damages caused by surgical maneuvers and a loss of dynamical information of cortical processing related to somatosensory inputs. Here, we aimed to enhance the SNR of single-trial SEPs using Kalman filtering and time-frequency multiple linear regression (TF-MLR) and measure their single-trial parameters, both in the time domain and in the time-frequency domain. We first showed that, Kalman filtering and TF-MLR can effectively capture the single-trial SEP responses and provide accurate estimates of single-trial SEP parameters in the time domain and time-frequency domain, respectively. Furthermore, we identified significant correlations between the stimulus intensity and a set of indicative single-trial SEP parameters, including the correlation coefficient (between each single-trial SEPs and their average), P37 amplitude, N45 amplitude, P37-N45 amplitude, and phase value (at the zero-crossing points between P37 and N45). Finally, based on each indicative single-trial SEP parameter, we investigated the minimum number of trials required on a single-trial basis to suggest the existence of SEP responses, thus providing important information for fast SEP extraction in intraoperative monitoring.

  15. A randomized triple-masked controlled trial on the effects of synbiotics on inflammation markers in overweight children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the low degree of inflammation in obesity contributes to systemic metabolic dysfunction. Recent experimental studies proposed some effects of alteration in gut microbiota on inflammatory factors. This study aimed to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of a synbiotic supplement on inflammation markers in overweight and obese children and adolescents. METHODS: this randomized triple-masked controlled trial was conducted among 70 participants aged 6 to 18 years, with a body mass index (BMI equal or higher than the 85th percentile. They were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number to receive synbiotic or placebo for eight weeks. RESULTS: fifty-six of 70 participants (80% completed the study. Compared with the placebo group, the synbiotic group had significant decrease in mean values of tumor necrosis-α and interleukin-6, with significant increase in adiponectin; these changes were no longer significant after adjustment for BMI. There was no significant change in the mean values of high-sensitive C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: the present findings suggest the positive influence of synbiotic supplementation on inflammation factors, which are dependent to its effect on weight reduction in overweight and obese children.

  16. Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis With 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae Toothpaste: A Randomized, Double-Masked Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongchun; Yin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Cortex Ilicis Rotundae has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated the effects of toothpastes containing Cortex Ilicis Rotundae. This study evaluates the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a test toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae extract in a calcium carbonate base compared with a control toothpaste without any active ingredient. One hundred adults with a mean plaque index (PI) ≥ 1.5 and a mean gingival index (GI) ≥ 1.0 were enrolled in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. They were assigned randomly to use a test toothpaste or a control toothpaste. At baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, they received examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, using Löe-Silness GI for gingivitis and the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein PI for PI. Adverse events were monitored. When the study was completed, the test group reported lower mean GI than the control group (1.13 ± 0.22 versus 1.30 ± 0.23; P = 0.001) and lower mean PI than the control group (2.53 ± 0.5 versus 2.93 ± 0.44; P gingivitis after 12 weeks of use compared with a negative control toothpaste.

  17. The effects of laryngeal mask airway passage simulation training on the acquisition of undergraduate clinical skills: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilford Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA requires learning proper insertion technique in normal patients undergoing routine surgical procedures. However, there is a move towards simulation training for learning practical clinical skills, such as LMA placement. The evidence linking different amounts of mannequin simulation training to the undergraduate clinical skill of LMA placement in real patients is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness in vivo of two LMA placement simulation courses of different durations. Methods Medical students (n = 126 enrolled in a randomised controlled trial. Seventy-eight of these students completed the trial. The control group (n = 38 received brief mannequin training while the intervention group (n = 40 received additional more intensive mannequin training as part of which they repeated LMA insertion until they were proficient. The anaesthetists supervising LMA placements in real patients rated the participants' performance on assessment forms. Participants completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results Additional mannequin training was not associated with improved performance (37% of intervention participants received an overall placement rating of > 3/5 on their first patient compared to 48% of the control group, X2 = 0.81, p = 0.37. The agreement between the participants and their instructors in terms of LMA placement success rates was poor to fair. Participants reported that mannequins were poor at mimicking reality. Conclusions The results suggest that the value of extended mannequin simulation training in the case of LMA placement is limited. Educators considering simulation for the training of practical skills should reflect on the extent to which the in vitro simulation mimics the skill required and the degree of difficulty of the procedure.

  18. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese particip...

  19. Obtaining evidence by a single well-powered trial or several modestly powered trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hout, J. in't; Ioannidis, J.P.; Borm, G.F.

    2016-01-01

    There is debate whether clinical trials with suboptimal power are justified and whether results from large studies are more reliable than the (combined) results of smaller trials. We quantified the error rates for evaluations based on single conventionally powered trials (80% or 90% power) versus

  20. Detecting Semantic Priming at the Single-Trial Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, J.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Farquhar, J.D.R.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Semantic priming is usually studied by examining ERPs over many trials and subjects. This article aims at detecting semantic priming at the single-trial level. By using machine learning techniques it is possible to analyse and classify short traces of brain activity, which could, for example, be

  1. How attention influences perceptual decision making: Single-trial EEG correlates of drift-diffusion model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Michael D; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2017-02-01

    Perceptual decision making can be accounted for by drift-diffusion models, a class of decision-making models that assume a stochastic accumulation of evidence on each trial. Fitting response time and accuracy to a drift-diffusion model produces evidence accumulation rate and non-decision time parameter estimates that reflect cognitive processes. Our goal is to elucidate the effect of attention on visual decision making. In this study, we show that measures of attention obtained from simultaneous EEG recordings can explain per-trial evidence accumulation rates and perceptual preprocessing times during a visual decision making task. Models assuming linear relationships between diffusion model parameters and EEG measures as external inputs were fit in a single step in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The EEG measures were features of the evoked potential (EP) to the onset of a masking noise and the onset of a task-relevant signal stimulus. Single-trial evoked EEG responses, P200s to the onsets of visual noise and N200s to the onsets of visual signal, explain single-trial evidence accumulation and preprocessing times. Within-trial evidence accumulation variance was not found to be influenced by attention to the signal or noise. Single-trial measures of attention lead to better out-of-sample predictions of accuracy and correct reaction time distributions for individual subjects.

  2. A single mask process for the realization of fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Kim, Minsoo; Allen, Mark G.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-height metallic structures are of importance for various MEMS applications, including master molds for creating 3D structures by nanoimprint lithography, or realizing vertically displaced electrodes for out-of-plane electrostatic actuators. Normally these types of multi-height structures require a multi-mask process with increased fabrication complexity. In this work, a fabrication technology is presented in which fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps can be realized using a self-aligned, single-mask process. The main scheme of this proposed process is through-mold electrodeposition, where two photoresist mold fabrication steps and two electrodeposition steps are sequentially implemented to define the thinner and thicker structures in the dual-height configuration. The process relies on two self-aligned steps enabled by the electrodeposited thinner structures: a wet-etching of the seed layer utilizing the thinner structure as an etch-mask to electrically isolate the thinner and the thicker structures, and a backside UV lithography utilizing the thinner structure as a lithographic mask to create a high-aspect-ratio mold for the thicker structure through-mold electrodeposition. The latter step requires the metallic structures to be fabricated on a transparent substrate. Test structures with differences in aspect ratio are demonstrated to showcase the capability of the process.

  3. E-O technique is superior to E-C technique in manikins during single person bag mask ventilation performed by novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Krishna, Rohith; Chaudhuri, Souvik; Tim, Thomas Joseph; Shwethapriya, Rao

    2014-06-01

    Conventional E-C technique of mask holding is unreliable during single person bag mask ventilation (BMV) due mainly to leak around the mask and inexperience of the persons. In this manikin study, conventional E-C technique was compared with E-O technique during single person BMV both with experienced (n = 50) and novice (n = 50) volunteers. The E-O technique involved encircling the mask neck with the web between thumb and index finger while the other digits provided chin lift. Two independent observers recorded the chest expansion as 1 (nil), 2 (minimal), 3 (moderate) and 4 (good). For analysis ideal and average chest expansion were clubbed as acceptable. E-C technique in experienced volunteers showed acceptable results in 49 (31 + 18) occasions, while with novices acceptable is 39 (17 + 22). With E-O technique, expansion was acceptable in 47 (38 + 9) experienced volunteers, and acceptable in 46 (32 + 14) novices. (P = 0.003). In cross over analysis for experienced volunteers, similar chest expansion was obtained on 30 occasions with both techniques, E-C better than E-O on 8 and E-O better than E-C on 12 occasions. Novices had comparable results on 17 occasions, E-C better than E-O on 8 and E-O better than E-C on 25 occasions (P = 0.016). The conventionally taught E-C technique of single person BMV provides acceptable chest expansion on most occasions with experienced operators than novices. Novices should use E-O technique as the first choice for single person BMV. Both techniques may be used interchangeably when one fails.

  4. Plasma exchange combined with azathioprine in multiple sclerosis using serial gadolinium-enhanced MRI to monitor disease activity: a randomized single-masked cross-over pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Wanscher, B; Szpirt, W

    1996-01-01

    We enrolled 11 patients with secondary progressive MS in a randomized single-masked cross-over study of plasma exchange (PE) in combination with azathioprine 2 mg/kg. PE was performed once a week for 4 weeks and thereafter every second week for 20 weeks (14 treatments). Eight patients completed...... in the two periods. Although the total MS lesion load on MRI was significantly lower (p effect of PE or encourage a subsequent large...

  5. Effect of Low-dose Atracurium on Laryngeal Mask Airway Insertion Conditions: A Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Nasseri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The amount of sedation and muscle relaxation of the jaw may have an impact on complications caused by laryngeal mask airway (LMA. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of low-dose Atracurium on conditions of insertion, complications, and hemodynamic responses to LMA insertion following induction of anesthesia with propofol, in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Patients and Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial study, 60 patients were randomly divided into two groups. Initially, the patients in the study group received 0.15 mg/kg intravenous injection of atracurium, and the patients in the control group received 2 ml of intravenous injection of normal saline, after which anesthesia in both groups were induced with midazolam, fentanyl, lidocaine, and propofol. The amount of jaw relaxation, ease of insertion, and the time needed for insertion, hemodynamic responses and complications of LMA insertion were evaluated. Results: Jaw relaxation and ease of LMA insertion in the study group was significantly better than that of the control group (P = 0.02. Average time needed for LMA placement in the study group (5/06 ± 0.52 second was significantly lower than the control group (5/76 ± 0.67 second (P = 0.001. Hemodynamic response to LMA insertion was similar in both groups. Sore throat at recovery and 24 h after surgery in the control group was significantly higher than that of the study group (3/30 vs. 10/30 (P = 0.01. Conclusions: Using low doses of atracurium decreases the time needed for LMA insertion and sore throat after the operation. Atracurium also increases jaw relaxation and facilitates the placement of LMA.

  6. Pre- and postoperative dexamethasone does not reduce bleaching-induced tooth sensitivity: A randomized, triple-masked clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Márcia; Bonafé, Elize; Vochikovski, Laína; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra; Kossatz, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Tooth sensitivity (TS) is the most common side effect of dental bleaching therapies. Dexamethasone has been used with tooth bleaching to reduce TS. The efficacy of dexamethasone for this purpose has not been well studied. The authors conducted a triple-masked, randomized, clinical trial with a parallel design involving 63 healthy participants who received either a placebo or dexamethasone. The placebo or dexamethasone (8 milligrams) was administered 1 hour before the in-office bleaching (35% hydrogen peroxide) and extra doses of 4 mg were administered every 6 hours for a total of 48 hours. TS was recorded on 2 scales: visual analog scale (0-10) and numeric rating scale (0-4) in different periods. The color evaluations were performed before and 1 month after dental bleaching with visual shade guides VITA Classical (VITA Zahnfabrik) and VITA Bleachedguide 3D-MASTER (VITA Zahnfabrik), and for a shade guide evaluation, the authors used a digital spectrophotometer, VITA Easyshade (VITA Zahnfabrik). The absolute risk of TS was evaluated by a Fisher exact test. Data of TS intensity using the NRS scale for the 2 groups were compared with Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests, whereas data from the visual analog scale were evaluated by 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance. The color changes between groups were compared using a t test (α = .05). In both groups, the authors detected a high risk of TS, which was approximately 90%. No significant difference was observed in terms of TS intensity. A whitening of approximately 3 shade guide units of the VITA Classical was detected in both groups, which were statistically similar. The use of dexamethasone before bleaching did not reduce the risk and intensity of bleaching-induced TS. The use of the steroidal anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone was not capable of preventing TS arising from in-office dental bleaching. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Robust single-trial ERP estimation based on spatiotemporal filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruijiang; Principe, Jose C; Bradley, Margaret; Ferrari, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Most spatiotemporal filtering methods for the problem of single-trial event-related potentials (ERP) estimation relies on the analysis of the second-order statistics (SOS) of electroencephalograph (EEG) data. Due to the noisy nature of EEG, these methods often suffer from the outliers in EEG. We combine a recently proposed spatiotemporal filtering method with the maximum correntropy criterion (MCC) for the single-trial estimation of the ERP amplitude. Study with real cognitive ERP data shows the robustness of the method with reduced estimation variance.

  8. Life masks and death masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschutt, D; Taff, M L; Boglioli, L R

    1992-12-01

    The death of a relative or anyone in a small, tightly knit community with closely shared cultural and religious values has great social impact. As part of the grieving process, people wish to preserve the memory of a loved one or a community leader. Life masks and death masks have been used as art forms to mark life passages, offering permanent reminders of family and continuity with the past. This article discusses the history and technique of life and death masks and their role in 19th-century American culture.

  9. Comparison of Ambu® AuraGain™ laryngeal mask and air-Q™ intubating laryngeal airway for blind tracheal intubation in adults: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Sethi; Souvik Maitra; Vikas Saini; Tanvir Samara

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study has been designed to compare the performance of Ambu® AuraGain™ laryngeal mask with the air-Q™ as a conduit for blind tracheal intubation in adult patients. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial blind endotracheal intubation success rates were compared between Ambu® AuraGain™ and air-Q™ intubating laryngeal airway in 90 adult patients. Patients were randomized in two equal groups: Group Ambu® AuraGain™ (n = 45) and Group air-Q™ (n = 45). Results...

  10. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Usually, a computer program makes the group assignments. Masking The term "masking" refers to not telling the clinical trial participants which treatment they're getting. Masking, or "blinding," helps avoid bias. For this reason, ...

  11. Effects of earplugs and eye masks combined with relaxing music on sleep, melatonin and cortisol levels in ICU patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong-Fang; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Hegadoren, Kathleen M; Zhang, You-Hua

    2015-03-27

    Intensive care unit (ICU) environmental factors such as noise and light have been cited as important causes of sleep deprivation in critically ill patients. Previous studies indicated that using earplugs and eye masks can improve REM sleep in healthy subjects in simulated ICU environment, and improve sleep quality in ICU patients. This study aimed to determine the effects of using earplugs and eye masks with relaxing background music on sleep, melatonin and cortisol levels in ICU patients. Fifty patients who underwent a scheduled cardiac surgery and were expected to stay at least 2 nights in Cardiac Surgical ICU (CSICU) were included. They were randomized to sleep with or without earplugs and eye masks combined with 30-minute relaxing music during the postoperative nights in CSICU. Urine was analyzed for nocturnal melatonin and cortisol levels. Subjective sleep quality was evaluated using the Chinese version of Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (a visual analog scale, ranging 0-100). Data from 45 patients (20 in intervention group, 25 in control group) were analyzed. Significant differences were found between groups in depth of sleep, falling asleep, awakenings, falling asleep again after awakening and overall sleep quality (P  0.05). The urinary melatonin levels of the first and second postoperative nights were significantly lower than those of the night before surgery (P = 0.01). The opposite pattern was seen with urinary cortisol levels (P = 0.00). This combination of non-pharmacological interventions is useful for promoting sleep in ICU adult patients; however, any influence on nocturnal melatonin levels and cortisol level may have been masked by several factors such as the timing of surgery, medication use and individual differences. Larger scale studies would be needed to examine the potential influences of these factors on biological markers and intervention efficacy on sleep. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-IOR-14005511 . Registered

  12. Single-trial normalization for event-related spectral decomposition reduces sensitivity to noisy trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eGrandchamp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In EEG research, the classical Event-Related Potential (ERP model often proves to be a limited method when studying complex brain dynamics. For this reason, spectral techniques adapted from signal processing such as Event-Related Spectral Perturbation (ERSP – and its variant ERS (Event-Related Synchronization and ERD (Event-Related Desynchronization – have been used over the past 20-years. They represent average spectral changes in response to a stimulus.These spectral methods do not have strong consensus for comparing pre and post-stimulus activity. When computing ERSP, pre-stimulus baseline removal is usually performed after averaging the spectral estimate of multiple trials. Correcting the baseline of each single-trial prior to averaging spectral estimates is an alternative baseline correction method. However, we show that this method leads to positively skewed post-stimulus ERSP values. We eventually present new single-trial based ERSP baseline correction methods that perform trial normalization or centering prior to applying classical baseline correction methods. We show that single-trial correction methods minimize the contribution of artifactual data trials with high-amplitude spectral estimates and are robust to outliers when performing statistical inference testing. We then characterize these methods in terms of their time-frequency responses and behavior when performing statistical inference testing compared to classical ERSP methods.

  13. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-08-01

    Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  14. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in children with metabolic syndrome: a triple-masked controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this triple-masked controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: the study comprised 50 participants, aged 10 to16 years, who were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number. In this 12-week trial, one group received oral vitamin D (300,000 IU and the other group received placebo. Cardiometabolic risk factors, insulin resistance, and a continuous value of metabolic syndrome (cMetS were determined. Statistical analysis was conducted after adjustment for covariate interactions. RESULTS: overall, 21 patients in the vitamin D group and 22 in the placebo group completed the trial. No significant difference was observed in the baseline characteristics of the two groups. After the trial, in the vitamin D group, serum insulin and triglyceride concentrations, as well as HOM -IR and C-MetS decreased significantly, both when compared with the baseline and with the placebo group. No significant difference was observed when comparing total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure. CONCLUSION: the present findings support the favorable effects of vitamin D supplementation on reducing insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children.

  15. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in children with metabolic syndrome: a triple-masked controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Salek, Shadi; Salek, Mehdi; Hashemipour, Mahin; Movahedian, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    This triple-masked controlled trial aimed to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents. The study comprised 50 participants, aged 10 to 16 years, who were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number. In this 12-week trial, one group received oral vitamin D (300,000 IU) and the other group received placebo. Cardiometabolic risk factors, insulin resistance, and a continuous value of metabolic syndrome (cMetS) were determined. Statistical analysis was conducted after adjustment for covariate interactions. Overall, 21 patients in the vitamin D group and 22 in the placebo group completed the trial. No significant difference was observed in the baseline characteristics of the two groups. After the trial, in the vitamin D group, serum insulin and triglyceride concentrations, as well as HOM -IR and C-MetS decreased significantly, both when compared with the baseline and with the placebo group. No significant difference was observed when comparing total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure. The present findings support the favorable effects of vitamin D supplementation on reducing insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Chusuit, Toon; Raknam, Panithi; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product. Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21-40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale. The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale. A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.

  17. The optimum dose of intranasal remifentanil for laryngeal mask airway insertion during sevoflurane induction in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yusheng; Ni, Juan; Yang, Yang; Guo, Yanhua; Ye, Huazhen; Chen, Yanqing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum dose of intranasal remifentanil required to produce satisfactory laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions during inhalation induction of anesthesia using 5% sevoflurane in children. Seven-five American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA) I subjects, aged 2-5 years, scheduled for minor elective surgery were randomly allocated to receive one of five doses of intranasal remifentanil (nil, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 μg·kg(-1)) during 5% sevoflurane induction. Laryngeal mask insertion was attempted 120 s after intranasal remifentanil administration and the response of subjects was classified as either 'Failure' or 'Success'. "Success" was defined as a relaxed mandible without coughing, gapping, swallowing, laryngospasm or gross purposeful movement. Secondary outcomes included the duration of apnea, hemodynamic changes and complications. For each groups (nil, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 or 1.0 μg·kg(-1) remifentanil), the incidence of satisfactory LMA insertion conditions was 0, 33.3%, 60%, 86.7% and 100% respectively. None of subjects suffered from any serious complications such as laryngospasm,or hypotension and bradycardia. The ED50 and ED95 of intranasal remifentanil for successful LMA insertion in children were estimated to be 0.36 and 0.998 μg·kg(-1) during 5% sevoflurane inhalation induction for 3 min.

  18. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  19. Interpretable deep neural networks for single-trial EEG classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Irene; Lapuschkin, Sebastian; Samek, Wojciech; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-12-01

    In cognitive neuroscience the potential of deep neural networks (DNNs) for solving complex classification tasks is yet to be fully exploited. The most limiting factor is that DNNs as notorious 'black boxes' do not provide insight into neurophysiological phenomena underlying a decision. Layer-wise relevance propagation (LRP) has been introduced as a novel method to explain individual network decisions. We propose the application of DNNs with LRP for the first time for EEG data analysis. Through LRP the single-trial DNN decisions are transformed into heatmaps indicating each data point's relevance for the outcome of the decision. DNN achieves classification accuracies comparable to those of CSP-LDA. In subjects with low performance subject-to-subject transfer of trained DNNs can improve the results. The single-trial LRP heatmaps reveal neurophysiologically plausible patterns, resembling CSP-derived scalp maps. Critically, while CSP patterns represent class-wise aggregated information, LRP heatmaps pinpoint neural patterns to single time points in single trials. We compare the classification performance of DNNs to that of linear CSP-LDA on two data sets related to motor-imaginary BCI. We have demonstrated that DNN is a powerful non-linear tool for EEG analysis. With LRP a new quality of high-resolution assessment of neural activity can be reached. LRP is a potential remedy for the lack of interpretability of DNNs that has limited their utility in neuroscientific applications. The extreme specificity of the LRP-derived heatmaps opens up new avenues for investigating neural activity underlying complex perception or decision-related processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Jesper; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2016-02-02

    To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Academic medical centre. 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥ 20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥ 30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference -7.1 points, 95% confidence interval -9.8 to -4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference -4.5 points, -7.5 to -1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self reported satisfaction was high. CBT can be delivered safely via the internet to patients with body

  1. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Ferron, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of…

  2. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001 higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05 and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47 than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79. FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  3. Detecting semantic priming at the single-trial level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Geuze

    Full Text Available Semantic priming is usually studied by examining ERPs over many trials and subjects. This article aims at detecting semantic priming at the single-trial level. By using machine learning techniques it is possible to analyse and classify short traces of brain activity, which could, for example, be used to build a Brain Computer Interface (BCI. This article describes an experiment where subjects were presented with word pairs and asked to decide whether the words were related or not. A classifier was trained to determine whether the subjects judged words as related or unrelated based on one second of EEG data. The results show that the classifier accuracy when training per subject varies between 54% and 67%, and is significantly above chance level for all subjects (N  = 12 and the accuracy when training over subjects varies between 51% and 63%, and is significantly above chance level for 11 subjects, pointing to a general effect.

  4. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  5. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively...... with reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking....... Interestingly, the same result was observed using backward masking. In a follow-up experiment, where we assessed observer’s visual awareness using single-trial visibility ratings, we demonstrated that these ultra-fast responses were actually linked to subsequent reported visibility. Taken together...

  6. venice: Mask utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean

    2018-02-01

    venice reads a mask file (DS9 or fits type) and a catalogue of objects (ascii or fits type) to create a pixelized mask, find objects inside/outside a mask, or generate a random catalogue of objects inside/outside a mask. The program reads the mask file and checks if a point, giving its coordinates, is inside or outside the mask, i.e. inside or outside at least one polygon of the mask.

  7. The role of visual awareness for conflict adaptation in the masked priming task: comparing block-wise adaptation with trial-by-trial adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Hasegawa, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Shin’ya

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of participants’ visual awareness in the block-wise and the trial-by-trial adaptations. We employed a subliminal response compatibility task in which a prime arrow was briefly presented before the target arrow, and the participants were requested to indicate the direction of the target arrow. The direction of the prime and direction of the target were either the same (compatible trial) or different (incompatible trial). To examine block-wise adaptation, two bl...

  8. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calices on Dyslipidemia in Obese Adolescents: A Triple-masked Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Ataei, Ehsan; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghannadi, Alireza; Soltani, Rasool; Badri, Shirinsadat; Shirani, Shahin

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Objective We aimed to evaluate the effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calices on controlling dyslipidemia in obese adolescents. Methodology In this triple blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial which was registered in the Iranian registry for clinical trials (IRCT201109122306N2), 90 obese adolescents aged 12-18 years with documented dyslipidemia were randomly assigned in two groups of cases who received 2 grams of fine powdered calices of Hibiscus sabdariffa per day for one month and controls who received placebo powder with the same dietary and physical activity recommendations and duration of exposure. Full lipid profile and fasting blood sugar measured before and after the trial. Data were analyzed using multivariate general linear model. Findings Overall, 72 participants (mean age of 14.21±1.6, 35 boys) completed the trial. The two arms of the study (cases and controls) were not statistically different in terms of age, gender, weight, body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile before the trial. Serum total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum triglyceride showed a significant decrease in cases group but high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not changed significantly. Conclusion It is concluded that Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces powder may have significant positive effects on lipid profile of adolescents which maybe attributed to its polyphenolic and antioxidant content. Further studies are needed on dose-response and formulation optimization. PMID:24082826

  9. Ambu AuraOnce versus i-gel laryngeal mask airway in infants and children undergoing surgical procedures. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahem, Abdulrahman M; Aqil, Mansoor; Alzahrani, Tariq A; Aljazaeri, Ayman H

    2017-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and performance of the pediatric Ambu AuraOnce (Ambu AO) mask (Ambu, Copenhagen, Denmark) and i-gel mask (Intersurgical Ltd., Wokingham, United Kingdom). Methods: From May 2015 to September 2016, 112 patients, 0-14 years old, underwent elective surgery at a tertiary university hospital (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia). They were randomly assigned to the Ambu AO or i-gel group. Three groups underwent a subgroup analysis: ≤5 kg (group 1), 5.1-10.0 kg (group 2), and >10 kg (group 3). Results: The oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for the i-gel (25.4±4.1 cm H2O) than for the Ambu AO (22.5±3.9 cm H2O, p less than 0.001). The Ambu AO had a slightly higher ease of insertion compared to the i-gel (100% versus 94%, p=0.08)  and required less manipulation (2% versus 11%, p=0.07).The Ambu AO and i-gel showed non-significant differences in performance between weight groups. There were statistically significant differences for higher leak pressure in group 2 (p=0.01) and group 3 (p=0.002) in favor of the i-gel, and for less manipulation in the Ambu AO in group 1 (p=0.04). Fiberoptic viewing was superior in group 2 for the i-gel (p=0.03) and in group 3 for the Ambu AO (p=0.02). Conclusion: Both devices demonstrated equally good performance with low morbidity. The Ambu AO had a statistical tendency towards easier insertion and less manipulation. Confirming this finding will require large scale trials.

  10. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuaikit T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Toon Chusuit, Panithi Raknam, Prapaporn BoonmeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandBackground: Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product.Methods: Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21–40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale.Results: The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P < 0.05 after a single application. No obvious effects on other skin characteristics were found. The cellulose mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale.Conclusions: A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.Keywords: bacterial cellulose, facial mask, skin characteristics, skin hydration, user

  11. Analgesic efficacy of lidocaine for suction-assisted lipectomy with tumescent technique under general anesthesia: a randomized, double-masked, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilla, Stefan; Fontbona, Montserrat; de Valdés, Victoria Diaz; Dagnino, Bruno; Sorolla, Juan Pablo; Israel, Guillermo; Searle, Susana; Norambuena, Hernán; Cabello, Rodrigo

    2013-08-01

    Suction-assisted lipectomy is one of the most common procedures performed in plastic surgery. To minimize blood loss and to obtain adequate analgesia, a liquid solution is infiltrated into the subcutaneous plane before suction. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of lidocaine in the infiltration solution reduces postoperative pain. A prospective, randomized, double-masked, clinical trial was designed. Each side of patients' body zones to be treated with suction-assisted lipectomy was randomized to receive infiltration solution with or without lidocaine. Treatment allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers in permuted blocks of eight. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale and registered 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after the procedure. The trial was stopped after a first interim analysis. The use of lidocaine in the dilute solution reduced pain by 0.5 point on the visual analogue scale (95 percent CI, 0.3 to 0.8; peffect was independent of the suctioned body zone (p=0.756), and lasted until 18 hours after surgery. Its analgesic effect was lost at the 24-hour postoperative control. Pain increased an average of 0.018 point on the visual analogue scale per hour (95 percent CI, 0.001 to 0.036; p=0.043). The use of lidocaine in the infiltration solution is effective in postoperative pain control until 18 hours after surgery. Nevertheless, its clinical effect is limited and clinically irrelevant, and therefore it is no longer used by the authors. Therapeutic, I.

  12. Use of adjunctive mitomycin C in external dacryocystorhinostomy surgery compared with surgery alone in patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A prospective, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Seyhmus; Gun, Ramazan; Surmeli, Serdar; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Caca, Ihsan

    2009-08-01

    The most common cause for the failure of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) surgery is the formation of granulation tissue at the osteotomy site or common canaliculus. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of intraoperative adjunctive mitomycin C (MMC) treatment in external DCR surgery and to compare this procedure with the standard DCR procedure alone in the long term (1 year). In this prospective, double-masked, randomized, controlled trial, patients with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction were randomized (using a random number table) into 2 groups based on surgical procedure. In the MMC group, intraoperative adjunctive MMC 0.2 mg/mL was applied to the osteotomy site for 30 minutes. The control group underwent standard DCR procedure only. The results of the DCR surgeries were assessed using objective findings (eg, cessation of excessive tearing via nasolacrimal duct irrigation and the improvement in height of tear meniscus) and subjective symptoms (asking patients to describe the degree of tearing improvement). Both the patients and the researchers who were assessing the study outcomes were masked to treatment group. One hundred eyes of 100 Turkish patients were assessed and equally randomized to the MMC (27 women, 23 men; mean [SD] age, 47.0 [7.6] years) and control (26 women, 24 men; mean age, 46.6 [8.8] years) groups. The follow-up period was not significantly different between the MMC and the control groups (13.1 [1.1] vs 13.2 [1.4] months). Significantly more eyes in the MMC group than the control group remained symptom-free throughout the 1-year follow-up period (45/50 [90%] vs 33/50 [66%]; P=0.005). Significantly more patients in the control group than the MMC group had an improvement in symptoms at the 1-year follow-up (8/50 [16%] vs 2/50 [4%] eyes; P=0.005). Based on the patency of the drainage system, the success rate was significantly greater in the MMC group than the control group (48/50 [96%] vs 42/50 [84%]; P=0.005). Based

  13. Effects of an ascorbic acid-derivative dentifrice in patients with gingivitis: a double-masked, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Yoshio; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa; Tamazawa, Kaoru; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Ito, Koichi; Chikazawa, Takashi; Kataoka, Shinsuke; Murakami, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species might be associated with the onset and progression of gingival inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a dentifrice containing L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium salt (APM), a long-acting ascorbic acid derivative with antioxidant properties, on gingival inflammation. The clinical effects of APM were investigated in a multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, controlled clinical trial comprising 300 individuals with gingivitis. Half of the participants were given an APM-containing dentifrice and half were given a control dentifrice. The primary outcome was the gingival index (GI) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included gingival redness as an indicator of the degree of local gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding as a measure of the gingivitis severity index, and total antioxidant activity of the saliva. Under the intent-to-treat analysis, GI did not significantly differ between the groups (P = 0.12). However, under the per-protocol analysis, GI was significantly lower in the APM group (P = 0.01) than in the control group. In the APM group, gingival redness was significantly lower, and the difference from the baseline gingivitis severity index was significantly greater (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). The total antioxidant activity of the saliva was significantly higher in the APM group (P = 0.03). The incidence of adverse events did not significantly differ between the groups (P > 0.15). These findings indicate that the regular application of an APM-containing dentifrice could reduce gingival inflammation.

  14. Linear dynamic models for classification of single-trial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdin, S Balqis; Ting, Chee-Ming; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Ariff, A K; Mohd Noor, A B

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of linear dynamic models (LDMs) to improve classification of single-trial EEG signals. Existing dynamic classification of EEG uses discrete-state hidden Markov models (HMMs) based on piecewise-stationary assumption, which is inadequate for modeling the highly non-stationary dynamics underlying EEG. The continuous hidden states of LDMs could better describe this continuously changing characteristic of EEG, and thus improve the classification performance. We consider two examples of LDM: a simple local level model (LLM) and a time-varying autoregressive (TVAR) state-space model. AR parameters and band power are used as features. Parameter estimation of the LDMs is performed by using expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. We also investigate different covariance modeling of Gaussian noises in LDMs for EEG classification. The experimental results on two-class motor-imagery classification show that both types of LDMs outperform the HMM baseline, with the best relative accuracy improvement of 14.8% by LLM with full covariance for Gaussian noises. It may due to that LDMs offer more flexibility in fitting the underlying dynamics of EEG.

  15. Single-arm phase II trial design under parametric cure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The current practice of designing single-arm phase II survival trials is limited under the exponential model. Trial design under the exponential model may not be appropriate when a portion of patients are cured. There is no literature available for designing single-arm phase II trials under the parametric cure model. In this paper, a test statistic is proposed, and a sample size formula is derived for designing single-arm phase II trials under a class of parametric cure models. Extensive simulations showed that the proposed test and sample size formula perform very well under different scenarios. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Prediction of difficult mask ventilation using a systematic assessment of risk factors vs. existing practice - a cluster randomised clinical trial in 94,006 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, A K; Wetterslev, J; Rosenstock, C V

    2017-01-01

    We compared implementation of systematic airway assessment with existing practice of airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation. Twenty-six departments were cluster-randomised to assess eleven risk factors for difficult airway management (intervention) or to continue.......2% in the control group, OR 0.61 (0.41-0.91), p = 0.016. The systematic intervention did not alter the overall incidence of unpredicted difficult mask ventilations, but of the patients who were found to be difficult to mask ventilate, the proportion predicted was higher in the intervention group than in the control...

  17. Prophylactic antibiotics after acute stroke for reducing pneumonia in patients with dysphagia (STROKE-INF): a prospective, cluster-randomised, open-label, masked endpoint, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Lalit; Irshad, Saddif; Hodsoll, John; Simpson, Matthew; Gulliford, Martin; Smithard, David; Patel, Anita; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene

    2015-11-07

    Post-stroke pneumonia is associated with increased mortality and poor functional outcomes. This study assessed the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for reducing pneumonia in patients with dysphagia after acute stroke. We did a prospective, multicentre, cluster-randomised, open-label controlled trial with masked endpoint assessment of patients older than 18 years with dysphagia after new stroke recruited from 48 stroke units in the UK, accredited and included in the UK National Stroke Audit. We excluded patients with contraindications to antibiotics, pre-existing dysphagia, or known infections, or who were not expected to survive beyond 14 days. We randomly assigned the units (1:1) by computer to give either prophylactic antibiotics for 7 days plus standard stroke unit care or standard stroke unit care only to patients clustered in the units within 48 h of stroke onset. We did the randomisation with minimisation to stratify for number of admissions and access to specialist care. Patient and staff who did the assessments and analyses were masked to stroke unit allocation. The primary outcome was post-stroke pneumonia in the first 14 days, assessed with both a criteria-based, hierarchical algorithm and by physician diagnosis in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was also analysed by intention to treat. This trial is closed to new participants and is registered with isrctn.com, number ISRCTN37118456. Between April 21, 2008, and May 17, 2014, we randomly assigned 48 stroke units (and 1224 patients clustered within the units) to the two treatment groups: 24 to antibiotics and 24 to standard care alone (control). 11 units and seven patients withdrew after randomisation before 14 days, leaving 1217 patients in 37 units for the intention-to-treat analysis (615 patients in the antibiotics group, 602 in control). Prophylactic antibiotics did not affect the incidence of algorithm-defined post-stroke pneumonia (71 [13%] of 564 patients in antibiotics group vs 52

  18. Comparison of 3 intranasal mists for anesthetizing maxillary teeth in adults: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter phase 3 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Sebastian G; Marberger, Adam D; Ayoub, Fadi; Garlapo, Davis A; Pantera, Eugene A; Pantera, Carole T; Al-Mubarak, Sultan; Sobieraj, Benita D; He, David Y; Myneni, Srinivas R

    2016-05-01

    This double-masked, parallel-design, clinical trial assessed whether a combination nasal spray (K305; 3% tetracaine hydrochloride and 0.05% oxymetazoline hydrochloride) compared with a tetracaine-only spray and a placebo spray would be safer and superior in producing local anesthesia sufficient to complete a direct restorative procedure in maxillary nonmolar teeth. The authors randomized eligible patients to receive K305 spray (n = 44), tetracaine hydrochloride spray (n = 44), or a placebo solution (n = 22). The authors compared the incidence of the primary efficacy end point-completion of the procedure without rescue local anesthetic-by means of a 1-tailed Fisher exact test. The end point incidence was 84.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 69.9-93.4) with K305, 27.3% (95% CI, 15.0-42.8) with tetracaine only, and 27.3% (95% CI, 10.7-50.2) with placebo (P < .001 for K305 versus tetracaine only and versus placebo). Combination spray was associated with statistically significant but transient increases in blood pressure. The most frequent adverse events were rhinorrhea and nasal congestion, which resolved within 2 hours after treatment and occurred more often in the K305 group and tetracaine-only group. In this study population, the K305 combination nasal spray was safe and more effective in attaining pulpal anesthesia of maxillary teeth from premolar to premolar compared with tetracaine-only and placebo sprays. The combination nasal spray might represent a valuable alternative to injected local anesthetic for patients undergoing invasive maxillary dental procedures. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01710787. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Punctal Plug Retention Rates for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Dry Eye: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissette, Ashley R; Mednick, Zale D; Schweitzer, Kelly D; Bona, Mark D; Baxter, Stephanie A

    2015-08-01

    To compare retention rates of Super Flex (Eagle Vision, Memphis, Tennessee, USA; Softplug-Oasis Medical Inc, Glendora, California, USA) vs Parasol (Odyssey Medical, Memphis, Tennessee, USA; Beaver Visitec International, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA) punctal plugs. Randomized, double-masked, interventional controlled clinical trial. Institutional study at Hotel Dieu Hospital (Queen's University) of 50 eyes, from patients with moderate to severe dry eye. Each eye from eligible patients was separately randomized to receive Super Flex or Parasol punctal plugs. The main outcome measure was plug retention at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included objective tests of Schirmer I (mm), tear meniscus height (mm), tear break-up time (s), inferior fluorescein corneal staining (National Eye Institute [NEI] scale), and average lissamine green conjunctival staining (NEI scale). Punctal plug retention was significantly different at 6 months (P = .011). Sixty-eight percent of Parasol plugs were retained compared to 32% of Super Flex plugs. Parasol plugs required less frequent artificial tear use at 6 months (P = .024). There was a statistically significant improvement in all secondary outcome measures (Schirmer, tear meniscus height, tear break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining) at 6 months within plug groups except conjunctival staining. There were no additional significant differences between groups and no plug complications reported. Punctal plugs improve symptoms of moderate to severe dry eye; however, retention rates differ significantly. These data will allow us to guide patient decision making for the safe and effective treatment of punctal plugs for moderate to severe dry eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical efficacy and safety of a novel tetravalent dengue vaccine in healthy children in Asia: a phase 3, randomised, observer-masked, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeding, Maria Rosario; Tran, Ngoc Huu; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki S; Ismail, Hussain Imam H J Muhammad; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Chua, Mary Noreen; Luong, Chan Quang; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Nallusamy, Revathy; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Thisyakorn, Usa; Yoon, In-Kyu; van der Vliet, Diane; Langevin, Edith; Laot, Thelma; Hutagalung, Yanee; Frago, Carina; Boaz, Mark; Wartel, T Anh; Tornieporth, Nadia G; Saville, Melanie; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2014-10-11

    An estimated 100 million people have symptomatic dengue infection every year. This is the first report of a phase 3 vaccine efficacy trial of a candidate dengue vaccine. We aimed to assess the efficacy of the CYD dengue vaccine against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue in children. We did an observer-masked, randomised controlled, multicentre, phase 3 trial in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Between June 3, and Dec 1, 2011, healthy children aged 2-14 years were randomly assigned (2:1), by computer-generated permuted blocks of six with an interactive voice or web response system, to receive three injections of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV), or placebo, at months 0, 6, and 12. Randomisation was stratified by age and site. Participants were followed up until month 25. Trial staff responsible for the preparation and administration of injections were unmasked to group allocation, but were not included in the follow-up of the participants; allocation was concealed from the study sponsor, investigators, and parents and guardians. Our primary objective was to assess protective efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue, irrespective of disease severity or serotype, that took place more than 28 days after the third injection. The primary endpoint was for the lower bound of the 95% CI of vaccine efficacy to be greater than 25%. Analysis was by intention to treat and per procotol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01373281. We randomly assigned 10,275 children to receive either vaccine (n=6851) or placebo (n=3424), of whom 6710 (98%) and 3350 (98%), respectively, were included in the primary analysis. 250 cases of virologically confirmed dengue took place more than 28 days after the third injection (117 [47%] in the vaccine group and 133 [53%] in the control group). The primary endpoint was achieved with 56·5% (95% CI 43·8-66·4) efficacy. We recorded 647 serious adverse

  1. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  2. High-Dosage Ascorbic Acid Treatment in Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1A: Results of a Randomized, Double-Masked, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard A.; McDermott, Michael P.; Herrmann, David N.; Hoke, Ahmet; Clawson, Lora L.; Siskind, Carly; Feely, Shawna M. E.; Miller, Lindsey J.; Barohn, Richard J.; Smith, Patricia; Luebbe, Elizabeth; Wu, Xingyao; Shy, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Importance No current medications improve neuropathy in subjects with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A). Ascorbic acid (AA) treatment improved the neuropathy of a transgenic mouse model of CMT1A and is a potential therapy. A lower dosage (1.5 g/d) did not cause improvement in humans. It is unknown whether a higher dosage would prove more effective. Objective To determine whether 4-g/d AA improves the neuropathy of subjects with CMT1A. Design A futility design to determine whether AA was unable to reduce worsening on the CMT Neuropathy Score (CMTNS) by at least 50% over a 2-year period relative to a natural history control group. Setting Three referral centers with peripheral nerve clinics (Wayne State University, Johns Hopkins University, and University of Rochester). Participants One hundred seventy-four subjects with CMT1A were assessed for eligibility; 48 did not meet eligibility criteria and 16 declined to participate. The remaining 110 subjects, aged 13 to 70 years, were randomly assigned in a double-masked fashion with 4:1 allocation to oral AA (87 subjects) or matching placebo (23 subjects). Sixty-nine subjects from the treatment group and 16 from the placebo group completed the study. Two subjects from the treatment group and 1 from the placebo group withdrew because of adverse effects. Interventions Oral AA (4 g/d) or matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures Change from baseline to year 2 in the CMTNS, a validated composite impairment score for CMT. Results The mean 2-year change in the CMTNS was −0.21 for the AA group and −0.92 for the placebo group, both better than natural history (+1.33). This was well below 50% reduction of CMTNS worsening from natural history, so futility could not be declared (P > .99). Conclusions and Relevance Both treated patients and those receiving placebo performed better than natural history. It seems unlikely that our results support undertaking a larger trial of 4-g/d AA treatment in subjects with CMT1A

  3. Current Status of Single-Agent Phase I Trials in Japan: Toward Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizugaki, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Noboru; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yasuhide; Tamura, Tomohide

    2015-06-20

    In Japan, phase I trials, except first-in-human trials, are usually initiated from approximately 50% of the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) or maximum administered dose (MAD) determined during the initial phase I trials in North America and Europe (the West). However, the key findings of phase I trials in Japan and the West, such as dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) profiles and MTD or MAD levels, have not been compared. We retrospectively analyzed data for patients enrolled onto single-agent phase I trials at the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1995 and 2012. DLT profiles, MTDs, and MADs of single-agent phase I trials in Japan were compared with those from trials in the West that were obtained from the literature. A total of 777 patients were enrolled onto 54 single-agent phase I trials, including five first-in-human trials. DLTs were observed in 11.1% of the patients. Importantly, 66.4% of the DLTs were observed within a dose range (80% to 120%) similar to those reported for the trials in the West. The majority of MTDs or MADs could be considered similar between patients, and 80.3% of the drugs had similar MTDs or MADs in the West. The toxicity profiles of single-agent phase I agents determined from trials conducted in Japan were comparable to those obtained from trials in the West. We believe that phase I trials in Japan could be conducted over timelines similar to those in the West, allowing for global or parallel phase I clinical trials. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Randomised Comparison of the AMBU AuraOnce Laryngeal Mask and the LMA Unique Laryngeal Mask Airway in Spontaneously Breathing Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Daryl Lindsay; Zeng, James M.; Alexander, Karl D.; Andrews, David T.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a randomised single-blind controlled trial comparing the LMA-Unique (LMAU) and the AMBU AuraOnce (AMBU) disposable laryngeal mask in spontaneously breathing adult patients undergoing general anaesthesia. Eighty-two adult patients (ASA status I–IV) were randomly allocated to receive the LMAU or AMBU and were blinded to device selection. Patients received a standardized anesthetic and all airway devices were inserted by trained anaesthetists. Size selection was guided by manufactur...

  5. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  6. Mycophenolate plus methylprednisolone versus methylprednisolone alone in active, moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy (MINGO): a randomised, observer-masked, multicentre trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Riedl, Michaela; König, Jochem; Pitz, Susanne; Ponto, Katharina; Diana, Tanja; Kampmann, Elena; Kolbe, Elisa; Eckstein, Anja; Moeller, Lars C; Führer, Dagmar; Salvi, Mario; Curro, Nicola; Campi, Irene; Covelli, Danila; Leo, Marenza; Marinò, Michele; Menconi, Francesca; Marcocci, Claudio; Bartalena, Luigi; Perros, Petros; Wiersinga, Wilmar M

    2018-04-01

    European guidelines recommend intravenous methylprednisolone as first-line treatment for active and severe Graves' orbitopathy; however, it is common for patients to have no response or have relapse after discontinuation of treatment. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of add-on mycophenolate to methylprednisolone in comparison with methylprednisolone alone in patients with moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy. MINGO was an observer-masked, multicentre, block-randomised, centre-stratified trial done in two centres in Germany and two in Italy. Patients with active moderate-to-severe Graves' orbitopathy were randomly assigned to receive intravenous methylprednisolone (500 mg once per week for 6 weeks followed by 250 mg per week for 6 weeks) either alone or with mycophenolate (one 360 mg tablet twice per day for 24 weeks). The prespecified primary endpoints were rate of response (reduction of at least two parameters of a composite ophthalmic index [eyelid swelling, clinical activity score, proptosis, lid width, diplopia, and eye muscle motility] without deterioration in any other parameter) at 12 weeks and rate of relapse (a worsening of symptoms that occurred after a response) at 24 and 36 weeks. Rates of response at week 24 and sustained response at week 36 were added as post-hoc outcomes. Prespecified primary outcomes and post-hoc outcomes were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (defined as all patients assigned to treatment who received at least one infusion of methylprednisolone, when outcome data were available), and safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register, EUDRACT number 2008-002123-93. 164 patients were enrolled and randomised between Nov 29, 2009, and July 31, 2015. 81 were randomly assigned to receive methylprednisolone alone and 83 to receive methylprednisolone with mycophenolate. In the intention-to-treat population at 12

  7. Comparison of propofol (1%) with admixture (1:1) of thiopentone (1.25%) and propofol (0.5%) for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children undergoing elective eye surgery: Double-masked randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Renu; Shende, Dilip; Garg, Rakesh

    2010-03-01

    Intravenous propofol 1% has been the preferred agent for Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) insertion. Admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1) has been used by various authors for induction as well as insertion of LMA in adults. There is no previous report where this admixture has been used for insertion of LMA in children. This study has been designed to investigate whether this admixture can be a suitable alternative to propofol, in relation to ease of insertion of the LMA, haemodynamic stability, cost containment, pain on injection and recovery in children. In this randomized, double-masked study, 50 ASA grade 1 and 2 patients of age 3 - 15 years and weighing more than 10 kg were included. The patients were divided into two groups; the P group received propofol 1%, while the Ad group received an admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1). All the children were evaluated for incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging, laryngospasm, involuntary limb movements, incidence of hypotension and recovery. The demographic data, incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging and involuntary movements were comparable in both groups. In the P group recovery was faster as compared to the Ad group. The admixture was cost effective as compared to Propofol alone [Indian National Rupees (INR) 24.64 +/- 7.62 vs. INR 48.75 +/- 23.25] (P = 0.001)). Admixture of propofol and thiopentone was a cheap, safe and effective alternative to propofol alone, for LMA insertion in children.

  8. Comparison of propofol (1% with admixture (1:1 of thiopentone (1.25% and propofol (0.5% for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children undergoing elective eye surgery: Double-masked randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous propofol 1% has been the preferred agent for Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA insertion. Admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1 has been used by various authors for induction as well as insertion of LMA in adults. There is no previous report where this admixture has been used for insertion of LMA in children. This study has been designed to investigate whether this admixture can be a suitable alternative to propofol, in relation to ease of insertion of the LMA, haemodynamic stability, cost containment, pain on injection and recovery in children. In this randomized, double-masked study, 50 ASA grade 1 and 2 patients of age 3 - 15 years and weighing more than 10 kg were included. The patients were divided into two groups; the P group received propofol 1%, while the Ad group received an admixture of thiopentone 1.25% and propofol 0.5% (1:1. All the children were evaluated for incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging, laryngospasm, involuntary limb movements, incidence of hypotension and recovery. The demographic data, incidence of apnoea, pain on injection, jaw relaxation, ease of LMA insertion, coughing, gagging and involuntary movements were comparable in both groups. In the P group recovery was faster as compared to the Ad group. The admixture was cost effective as compared to Propofol alone [Indian National Rupees (INR 24.64 ± 7.62 vs. INR 48.75 ± 23.25] (P = 0.001. Admixture of propofol and thiopentone was a cheap, safe and effective alternative to propofol alone, for LMA insertion in children.

  9. Oronasal Masks Require a Higher Pressure than Nasal and Nasal Pillow Masks for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sheetal; Joosten, Simon; Turton, Anthony; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane; Mansfield, Darren R; Hamilton, Garun S

    2016-09-15

    Oronasal masks are frequently used for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to (1) determine if CPAP requirements are higher for oronasal masks compared to nasal mask interfaces and (2) assess whether polysomnography and patient characteristics differed among mask preference groups. Retrospective analysis of all CPAP implementation polysomnograms between July 2013 and June 2014. Prescribed CPAP level, polysomnography results and patient data were compared according to mask type (n = 358). Oronasal masks were used in 46%, nasal masks in 35% and nasal pillow masks in 19%. There was no difference according to mask type for baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI), waist or neck circumference. CPAP level was higher for oronasal masks, 12 (10-15.5) cm H2O compared to nasal pillow masks, 11 (8-12.5) cm H2O and nasal masks, 10 (8-12) cm H2O, p CPAP pressure (p CPAP ≥ 15 cm H2O, there was an odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI 2.5-8.0) for having an oronasal compared to a nasal or nasal pillow mask. Residual median AHI was higher for oronasal masks (11.3 events/h) than for nasal masks (6.4 events/h) and nasal pillows (6.7 events/h), p nasal mask types, oronasal masks are associated with higher CPAP pressures (particularly pressures ≥ 15 cm H2O) and a higher residual AHI. Further evaluation with a randomized control trial is required to definitively establish the effect of mask type on pressure requirements. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  10. Micronutrient fortified milk improves iron status, anemia and growth among children 1-4 years: a double masked, randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sazawal

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are highly prevalent among preschool children and often lead to anemia and growth faltering. Given the limited success of supplementation and health education programs, fortification of foods could be a viable and sustainable option. We report results from a community based double-masked, randomized trial among children 1-4 years evaluating the effects of micronutrients (especially of zinc and iron delivered through fortified milk on growth, anemia and iron status markers as part of a four group study design, running two studies simultaneously.Enrolled children (n = 633 were randomly allocated to receive either micronutrients fortified milk (MN = 316 or control milk (Co = 317. Intervention of MN milk provided additional 7.8 mg zinc, 9.6 mg iron, 4.2 microg selenium, 0.27 mg copper, 156 microg vitamin A, 40.2 mg vitamin C, and 7.5 mg vitamin E per day (three serves for one year. Anthropometry was recorded at baseline, mid- and end-study. Hematological parameters were estimated at baseline and end-study. Both groups were comparable at baseline. Compliance was over 85% and did not vary between groups. Compared to children consuming Co milk, children consuming MN milk showed significant improvement in weight gain (difference of mean: 0.21 kg/year; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12 to 0.31, p<0.001 and height gain (difference of mean: 0.51 cm/year; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.75, p<0.001. Mean hemoglobin (Hb (difference of 13.6 g/L; 95% CI 11.1 to 16.0, p<0.001 and serum ferritin levels (difference of 7.9 microg/L; 95% CI 5.4 to 10.5, p<0.001 also improved. Children in MN group had 88% (odds ratio = 0.12, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.20, p<0.001 lower risk of iron deficiency anemia.Milk provides an acceptable and effective vehicle for delivery of specific micronutrients, especially zinc and iron. Micronutrient bundle improved growth and iron status and reduced anemia in children 1-4 years old.

  11. ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway Attenuates Systemic and Cerebral Hemodynamic Response During Awakening of Neurosurgical Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló-Cerdà, Laura; Fàbregas, Neus; López, Ana M; Rios, José; Tercero, Javier; Carrero, Enrique; Hurtado, Paola; Hervías, Adriana; Gracia, Isabel; Caral, Luis; de Riva, Nicolás; Valero, Ricard

    2015-07-01

    Extubation and emergence from anesthesia may lead to systemic and cerebral hemodynamic changes that endanger neurosurgical patients. We aimed to compare systemic and cerebral hemodynamic variables and cough incidence in neurosurgery patients emerging from general anesthesia with the standard procedure (endotracheal tube [ETT] extubation) or after replacement of the ETT with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Forty-two patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy under general anesthesia were included in a randomized open-label parallel trial. Patients were randomized (sealed envelopes labeled with software-generated randomized numbers) to awaken with the ETT in place or after its replacement with a ProSeal LMA. We recorded mean arterial pressure as the primary endpoint and heart rate, middle cerebral artery flow velocity, regional cerebral oxygen saturation, norepinephrine plasma concentrations, and coughing. No differences were found between groups at baseline. All hemodynamic variables increased significantly from baseline in both groups during emergence. The ETT group had significantly higher mean arterial pressure (11.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-21.8 mm Hg) (P=0.017), heart rate (7.2 beats/min; 95% CI, 0.7-13.7 beats/min) (P=0.03), and rate-pressure product (1045.4; 95% CI, 440.8-1650) (P=0.001). Antihypertensive medication was administered to more ETT-group patients than LMA-group patients (9 [42.9%] vs. 3 [14.3%] patients, respectively; P=0.04). The percent increase in regional cerebral oxygen saturation was greater in the ETT group by 26.1% (95% CI, 9.1%-43.2%) (P=0.002), but no between-group differences were found in MCA flow velocity. Norepinephrine plasma concentrations rose in both groups between baseline and the end of emergence: LMA: from 87.5±7.1 to 125.6±17.3 pg/mL; and ETT: from 118.1±14.1 to 158.1±24.7 pg/mL (P=0.007). The differences between groups were not significant. The incidence of cough was higher in the ETT group (87

  12. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  13. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  14. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: Single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.F.M. Kok (Niels); M.Y. Smits-Lind (May); B.M.E. Hansson (Birgitta); D. Pilzecker (Desiree); I.R.A.M. Mertens Zur Borg (Ingrid); B.C. Knipscheer (Ben); E.J. Hazebroek (Eric Jasper); I.M. Dooper (Ine); W. Weimar (Willem); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); E.M.M. Adang (Eddy); G.-J. van der Wilt (Gert-Jan); H.J. Bonjer (Jaap); J.A. van der Vliet (Adam); J.N.M. IJzermans (Jan)

    2006-01-01

    markdownabstractOBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living

  15. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, N.F.; Lind, M.Y.; Hansson, B.M.; Pilzecker, D.; Mertens zur Borg, I.R.; Knipscheer, B.C.; Hazebroek, E.J.; Dooper, P.M.M.; Weimar, W.; Hop, W.C.J.; Adang, E.M.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Bonjer, H.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; Ijzermans, J.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. DESIGN: Single blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 100 living kidney donors.

  16. Multiple linear regression to estimate time-frequency electrophysiological responses in single trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Zhang, Z G; Mouraux, A; Iannetti, G D

    2015-05-01

    Transient sensory, motor or cognitive event elicit not only phase-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) in the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG), but also induce non-phase-locked modulations of ongoing EEG oscillations. These modulations can be detected when single-trial waveforms are analysed in the time-frequency domain, and consist in stimulus-induced decreases (event-related desynchronization, ERD) or increases (event-related synchronization, ERS) of synchrony in the activity of the underlying neuronal populations. ERD and ERS reflect changes in the parameters that control oscillations in neuronal networks and, depending on the frequency at which they occur, represent neuronal mechanisms involved in cortical activation, inhibition and binding. ERD and ERS are commonly estimated by averaging the time-frequency decomposition of single trials. However, their trial-to-trial variability that can reflect physiologically-important information is lost by across-trial averaging. Here, we aim to (1) develop novel approaches to explore single-trial parameters (including latency, frequency and magnitude) of ERP/ERD/ERS; (2) disclose the relationship between estimated single-trial parameters and other experimental factors (e.g., perceived intensity). We found that (1) stimulus-elicited ERP/ERD/ERS can be correctly separated using principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition with Varimax rotation on the single-trial time-frequency distributions; (2) time-frequency multiple linear regression with dispersion term (TF-MLRd) enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of ERP/ERD/ERS in single trials, and provides an unbiased estimation of their latency, frequency, and magnitude at single-trial level; (3) these estimates can be meaningfully correlated with each other and with other experimental factors at single-trial level (e.g., perceived stimulus intensity and ERP magnitude). The methods described in this article allow exploring fully non-phase-locked stimulus-induced cortical

  17. The optimum bolus dose of remifentanil to facilitate laryngeal mask airway insertion with a single standard dose of propofol at induction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, H J; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y B; Chae, Y J; Kim, J Y

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal bolus dose of remifentanil required for the successful insertion of the laryngeal mask airway during propofol induction in children without a neuromuscular blocking agent. Twenty-six paediatric patients, aged 3-10 years, requiring anaesthesia for short ambulatory surgery were recruited. A predetermined bolus dose of remifentanil was injected over 30 s, followed by propofol 2.5 mg.kg(-1) over 10 s. The bolus dose of remifentanil was determined by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method, starting from 0.5 microg.kg(-1) (0.1 microg.kg(-1) as a step size). Laryngeal mask insertion was attempted 90 s after the end of remifentanil injection and the response of patients was classified as either 'movement' or 'no movement'. The bolus dose of remifentanil at which there was a 50% probability of successful laryngeal mask insertion (ED(50)) during induction with 2.5 mg.kg(-1) propofol was 0.56 (0.07) microg.kg(-1) in children without a neuromuscular blocking agent. From probit analysis, the ED(50) and ED(95) of remifentanil were 0.52 microg.kg(-1) (95% confidence limits, 0.42-0.62 microg.kg(-1)) and 0.71 microg.kg(-1) (95% confidence limits, 0.61-1.40 microg.kg(-1)), respectively.

  18. Single-trial regression elucidates the role of prefrontal theta oscillations in response conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In most cognitive neuroscience experiments there are many behavioral and experimental dynamics, and many indices of brain activity, that vary from trial to trial. For example, in studies of response conflict, conflict is usually treated as a binary variable (i.e., response conflict exists or does not in any given trial, whereas some evidence and intuition suggests that conflict may vary in intensity from trial to trial. Here we demonstrate that single-trial multiple regression of time-frequency electrophysiological activity reveals neural mechanisms of cognitive control that are not apparent in cross-trial averages. We also introduce a novel extension to oscillation phase coherence and synchronization analyses, based on weighted phase modulation, that has advantages over standard coherence measures in terms of linking electrophysiological dynamics to trial-varying behavior and experimental variables. After replicating previous response conflict findings using trial-averaged data, we extend these findings using single trial analytic methods to provide novel evidence for the role of medial frontal-lateral prefrontal theta-band synchronization in conflict-induced response time dynamics, including a role for lateral prefrontal theta-band activity in biasing response times according to perceptual conflict. Given that these methods shed new light on the prefrontal mechanisms of response conflict, they are also likely to be useful for investigating other neurocognitive processes.

  19. How color, regularity, and good Gestalt determine backward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Manassi, Mauro; Herzog, Michael

    2014-06-18

    The strength of visual backward masking depends on the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and mask. Recently, it was shown that the conjoint spatial layout of target and mask is as crucial as SOA. Particularly, masking strength depends on whether target and mask group with each other. The same is true in crowding where the global spatial layout of the flankers and target-flanker grouping determine crowding strength. Here, we presented a vernier target followed by different flanker configurations at varying SOAs. Similar to crowding, masking of a red vernier target was strongly reduced for arrays of 10 green compared with 10 red flanking lines. Unlike crowding, single green lines flanking the red vernier showed strong masking. Irregularly arranged flanking lines yielded stronger masking than did regularly arranged lines, again similar to crowding. While cuboid flankers reduced crowding compared with single lines, this was not the case in masking. We propose that, first, masking is reduced when the flankers are part of a larger spatial structure. Second, spatial factors counteract color differences between the target and the flankers. Third, complex Gestalts, such as cuboids, seem to need longer processing times to show ungrouping effects as observed in crowding. Strong parallels between masking and crowding suggest similar underlying mechanism; however, temporal factors in masking additionally modulate performance, acting as an additional grouping cue. © 2014 ARVO.

  20. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  1. Evaluating time between birth to cry or bag and mask ventilation using mobile delivery room timers in India: the NICHD Global Network's Helping Babies Breathe Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somannavar, Manjunath S; Goudar, Shivaprasad S; Revankar, Amit P; Moore, Janet L; McClure, Elizabeth M; Destefanis, Pablo; DeCain, Martha; Goco, Norman; Wright, Linda L

    2015-08-06

    The Golden Minute®, the first minute following birth of a newborn, is a critical period for establishing ventilation after delivery, as emphasized in the Helping Babies Breathe® and other resuscitation training programs. Previous studies have reinforced training through observers' evaluation of this time period; although observation is useful for research, it may not be a sustainable method to support resuscitation practice in low-resource settings where few birth attendants are available. In order to reinforce resuscitation within The Golden Minute®, we sought to develop a simple mobile delivery-room timer on an Android cell phone platform for birth attendants to use at the time of delivery. We developed and evaluated a mobile delivery room timer to document the time interval from birth to the initiation of newborn crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation in a convenience sample of women who delivered in five hospitals in Karnataka, India. The mobile delivery room timer is an Android cell phone-based application that recorded key events including crowning, delivery, and crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. The mobile delivery room timer recorded the birth attendant verbally indicating the time of crowning, birth-(defined as when the entire baby was delivered), crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. The mobile delivery room timer results were validated in a subsample by a trained observer (nurse) who independently recorded the time between delivery and initiation of crying/spontaneous respiration or bag and mask ventilation. Of the total 4,597 deliveries, 2,107 (46%) were timed; a sample (n = 438) of these deliveries was also observed by a trained nurse. There was high concordance between the mobile delivery room timer and observed time elapsed between birth and crying/spontaneous respiration or ventilation (correlation =0.94, p cried/breathed spontaneously or received bag and mask ventilation by 1

  2. Mask R-CNN

    OpenAIRE

    He, Kaiming; Gkioxari, Georgia; Dollár, Piotr; Girshick, Ross

    2017-01-01

    We present a conceptually simple, flexible, and general framework for object instance segmentation. Our approach efficiently detects objects in an image while simultaneously generating a high-quality segmentation mask for each instance. The method, called Mask R-CNN, extends Faster R-CNN by adding a branch for predicting an object mask in parallel with the existing branch for bounding box recognition. Mask R-CNN is simple to train and adds only a small overhead to Faster R-CNN, running at 5 f...

  3. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  4. Pre-Trial EEG-based Single-Trial Motor Performance Prediction to Enhance Neuroergonomics for a Hand Force Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMeinel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a framework for building electrophysiological predictors of single-trial motor performance variations, exemplified for SVIPT, a sequential isometric force control task suitable for hand motor rehabilitation after stroke.Electroencephalogram (EEG data of 20 subjects with mean age of 53 years was recorded prior to and during 400 trials of SVIPT. They were executed within a single session with the non-dominant left hand, while receiving continuous visual feedback of the produced force trajectories. The behavioral data showed strong trial-by-trial performance variations for five clinically relevant metrics, which accounted for reaction time as well as for the smoothness and precision of the produced force trajectory.18 out of 20 tested subjects remained after preprocessing and entered offline analysis. Source Power Comodulation (SPoC was applied on EEG data of a short time interval prior to the start of each SVIPT trial. For 11 subjects, SPoC revealed robust oscillatory EEG subspace components, whose bandpower activity are predictive for the performance of the upcoming trial. Since SPoC may overfit to non-informative subspaces, we propose to apply three selection criteria accounting for the meaningfulness of the features. Across all subjects, the obtained components were spread along the frequency spectrum and showed a variety of spatial activity patterns. Those containing the highest level of predictive information resided in and close to the alpha band. Their spatial patterns resemble topologies reported for visual attention processes as well as those of imagined or executed hand motor tasks. In summary, we identified subject-specific single predictors that explain up to 36 % of the performance fluctuations and may serve for enhancing neuroergonomics of motor rehabilitation scenarios.

  5. Enhanced Efficiency of GaAs Single-Junction Solar Cells with Inverted-Cone-Shaped Nanoholes Fabricated Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangho Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The GaAs solar cells are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD and fabricated by photolithography, metal evaporation, annealing, and wet chemical etch processes. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO masks are prepared from an aluminum foil by a two-step anodization method. Inductively coupled plasma dry etching is used to etch and define the nanoarray structures on top of an InGaP window layer of the GaAs solar cells. The inverted-cone-shaped nanoholes with a surface diameter of about 50 nm are formed on the top surface of the solar cells after the AAO mask removal. Photovoltaic and optical characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the nanohole arrays are investigated. The reflectance of the AAO nanopatterned samples is lower than that of the planar GaAs solar cell in the measured range. The short-circuit current density increased up to 11.63% and the conversion efficiency improved from 10.53 to 11.57% under 1-sun AM 1.5 G conditions by using the nanohole arrays. Dependence of the efficiency enhancement on the etching depth of the nanohole arrays is also investigated. These results show that the nanohole arrays fabricated with an AAO technique may be employed to improve the light absorption and, in turn, the conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell.

  6. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  7. The Moody Mask Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Andkjær, Kasper Ingdahl; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new relation model, called "The Moody Mask model", for Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS), based on Franceso Osborne's "Mask Model" from 2011. This, mixed with some elements from Chris Crawford's Personality Models, is a system designed for dynamic interaction between ch...

  8. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  9. Mask materials in powderblasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    Powderblasting has the opportunity to become a standard technology in micromachining. To machine small details with powderbalsting, it is necessary to use a suiabled mask. In this paper four mask types ares examined. BF400 resist foil is most suitable for standard use in powderblasting for reason of

  10. The transparent face mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, E A; Strate, R G; Solem, L D

    1979-02-01

    Fabrication of an accurate transparent mask for total contact pressure to the healed burned face proved helpful in controlling scarring. Wearing the mask for 20 hours daily, secured by elastic straps giving 35-mmHG pressure to the scar, can prevent the original facial contours from being distorted by contracting scar tissue.

  11. Mask industry assessment: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2006-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  12. Mask industry assessment: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the eighth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2008 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This in combination with the past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  13. Mask Industry Assessment: 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia; Hughes, Greg

    2007-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the sixth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 and 2006 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  14. Mask industry assessment: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2008-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2007 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  15. What's in a mask? Information masking with forward and backward visual masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2011-10-01

    Three experiments tested how the physical format and information content of forward and backward masks affected the extent of visual pattern masking. This involved using different types of forward and backward masks with target discrimination measured by percentage correct in the first experiment (with a fixed target duration) and by an adaptive threshold procedure in the last two. The rationale behind the manipulation of the content of the masks stemmed from masking theories emphasizing attentional and/or conceptual factors rather than visual ones. Experiment 1 used word masks and showed that masking was reduced (a masking reduction effect) when the forward and backward masks were the same word (although in different case) compared to when the masks were different words. Experiment 2 tested the extent to which a reduction in masking might occur due to the physical similarity between the forward and backward masks by comparing the effect of the same content of the masks in the same versus different case. The result showed a significant reduction in masking for same content masks but no significant effect of case. The last experiment examined whether the reduction in masking effect would be observed with nonword masks--that is, having no high-level representation. No reduction in masking was found from same compared to different nonword masks (Experiment 3). These results support the view that the conscious perception of a rapidly displayed target stimulus is in part determined by high-level perceptual/cognitive factors concerned with masking stimulus grouping and attention.

  16. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  17. Comparative Efficacy and Mechanisms of a Single-Session Pain Psychology Class in Chronic Low Back Pain: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnall, Beth D; Ziadni, Maisa S; Roy, Anuradha; Kao, Ming-Chih; Sturgeon, John A; Cook, Karon F; Lorig, Kate; Burns, John W; Mackey, Sean C

    2018-03-06

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) reported that chronic pain affects about 100 million U.S. adults, with chronic low back pain (CLBP) cited as the most prevalent type. Pain catastrophizing is a psychological construct shown to predict the development and trajectory of chronic pain and patient response to pain treatments. While effective treatment for pain catastrophizing typically includes eight-session groups of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a single-session targeted treatment class yielded promising results which, if replicated and extended, could prove to efficiently and cost-effectively reduce pain catastrophizing. In this trial, we seek to determine the comparative efficacy of this novel single-session pain catastrophizing class to an eight-session course of pain CBT and a single-session back pain health education class. We will also explore the psychosocial mechanisms and outcomes of pain catastrophizing treatment. In this trial we will randomize 231 individuals with CLBP to one of three treatment arms: (1) pain-CBT (eight weekly 2-h group sessions with home exercises and readings); (2) a single 2-h pain catastrophizing class; or (3) a single 2-h back pain health education class (active control). For the primary outcome of pain catastrophizing, the trial is designed as a non-inferiority test between pain-CBT and the single-session pain catastrophizing class, and as a superiority test between the single-session pain catastrophizing class and the health education class. Team researchers masked to treatment assignment will assess outcomes up to six months post treatment. If the single-session targeted pain catastrophizing class is found to be an effective treatment for patients with CLBP, this low cost and low burden treatment could dismantle many of the current barriers and burdens of effective pain care. Further, elucidation of the mechanisms of pain catastrophizing treatments will facilitate future research on the topic as well as further development and

  18. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  19. A comparison of 3 ventilation strategies in children younger than 1 year using a Proseal laryngeal mask airway: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, T Wesley; Hoke, Lauren K; Templeton, Leah B; Ririe, Douglas G; Rose, Danielle M; Bryan, Yvon F

    2016-12-01

    To determine quantitative differences in several routinely measured ventilation parameters using a standardized anesthetic technique and 3 different ventilation modalities in patients younger than 1 year with a ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA). Randomized prospective study. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Thirty-nine American Society Anesthesiologists classifications 1 to 2, pediatric patients younger than 1 year. Three different ventilation strategies (spontaneous ventilation [SV], pressure support ventilation [PSV], and pressure-controlled ventilation [PCV]) were randomly applied to patients who underwent a standardized mask induction with sevoflurane/oxygen and propofol 2 mg/kg and fentanyl 2 μg/kg administered intravenously followed by PLMA insertion. Patients were maintained on sevoflurane and N 2 O. We measured the differences in end-tidal CO 2 (etco 2 ), tidal volume (TV), and respiratory rate (RR) over time between SV, PSV, and PCV. These data were recorded at 5-minute intervals. etco 2 (mm Hg) was not significantly higher in the SV vs PSV (P=2.11) and SV vs PCV (P=.24). TV (mL/kg) was significantly lower in SV vs PSV (Pchildren younger than 1 year. Although we did not observe a statistically significant increase in etco 2 , differences in TV and RR, and the small but significant incidence of apnea may make PSV or PCV more optimal ventilation strategies in children younger than 1 year when using a PLMA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Randomised, single-masked non-inferiority trial of femtosecond laser-assisted versus manual phacoemulsification cataract surgery for adults with visually significant cataract : the FACT trial protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Day, Alexander C; Burr, Jennifer M; Bunce, Catey; Doré, Caroline J; Sylvestre, Yvonne; Wormald, Richard P L; Round, Jeff; McCudden, Victoria; Rubin, Gary; Wilkins, Mark R; Schilder, Anne|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/09110906X

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cataract is one of the leading causes of low vision in the westernised world, and cataract surgery is one of the most commonly performed operations. Laser platforms for cataract surgery are now available, the anticipated advantages of which are broad and may include better visual

  1. Single-Trial Linear Correlation Analysis: Application to characterization of stimulus modality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoforos eChristoforou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A key objective in systems and cognitive neuroscience is to establish associations between behavioral measures and concurrent neuronal activity. Single-trial analysis has been proposed as a novel method for characterizing such correlates by first extracting neural components that maximally discriminate trials on a categorical variable, (e.g., hard vs. easy, correct vs. incorrect etc., and then correlate those components to a continues dependent variable of interest , e.g. reaction time, difficulty Index, etc. However, often times in experiment design it is difficult to either define meaningful categorical variables, or to record enough trials for the method to extract the discriminant components. Experiments designed for the study of the effects of stimulus presentation modality in working memory provide such a scenario, as will be exemplified. In this paper, we proposed a new approach to single-trial analysis in which we directly extract neural activity that maximally correlates to single-trial manual response times; eliminating the need to define an arbitrary categorical variable. We demonstrate our method on real EEG data recordings from the study of stimulus presentation modality effect.

  2. Masked Photocathode for Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-01-01

    In this research note, we propose a scheme to insert a photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto the electrode, a masked electrode with small hole is used to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material very simple by rotating the photocathode behind the mask into the hole. This will significantly increase the usage lifetime of a photocathode. Furthermore, this also helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode. The hole on the mask also provides a transverse cut-off to the Gaussian laser profile which can be beneficial from the beam dynamics point of view.

  3. Single-trial multisensory memories affect later auditory and visual object discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Thelen Antonia; Talsma Durk; Murray Micah M.

    2015-01-01

    Multisensory memory traces established via single-trial exposures can impact subsequent visual object recognition. This impact appears to depend on the meaningfulness of the initial multisensory pairing, implying that multisensory exposures establish distinct object representations that are accessible during later unisensory processing. Multisensory contexts may be particularly effective in influencing auditory discrimination, given the purportedly inferior recognition memory in this sensory ...

  4. Kernel PLS Estimation of Single-trial Event-related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosipal, Roman; Trejo, Leonard J.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear kernel partial least squaes (KPLS) regressior, is a novel smoothing approach to nonparametric regression curve fitting. We have developed a KPLS approach to the estimation of single-trial event related potentials (ERPs). For improved accuracy of estimation, we also developed a local KPLS method for situations in which there exists prior knowledge about the approximate latency of individual ERP components. To assess the utility of the KPLS approach, we compared non-local KPLS and local KPLS smoothing with other nonparametric signal processing and smoothing methods. In particular, we examined wavelet denoising, smoothing splines, and localized smoothing splines. We applied these methods to the estimation of simulated mixtures of human ERPs and ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) activity using a dipole simulator (BESA). In this scenario we considered ongoing EEG to represent spatially and temporally correlated noise added to the ERPs. This simulation provided a reasonable but simplified model of real-world ERP measurements. For estimation of the simulated single-trial ERPs, local KPLS provided a level of accuracy that was comparable with or better than the other methods. We also applied the local KPLS method to the estimation of human ERPs recorded in an experiment on co,onitive fatigue. For these data, the local KPLS method provided a clear improvement in visualization of single-trial ERPs as well as their averages. The local KPLS method may serve as a new alternative to the estimation of single-trial ERPs and improvement of ERP averages.

  5. Detection of User Independent Single Trial ERPs in Brain Computer Interfaces: An Adaptive Spatial Filtering Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leza, Cristina; Puthusserypady, Sadasivan

    2017-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) use brain signals to communicate with the external world. The main challenges to address are speed, accuracy and adaptability. Here, a novel algorithm for P300 based BCI spelling system is presented, specifically suited for single-trial detection of Event...

  6. New mask technology challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2001-09-01

    Mask technology development has accelerated dramatically in recent years from the glacial pace of the last three decades to the rapid and sometimes simultaneous introductions of new wavelengths and mask-based resolution enhancement techniques. The nature of the semiconductor business has also become one driven by time-to-market as an overwhelming factor in capturing market share and profit. These are among the factors that have created enormous stress on the mask industry to produce masks with enhanced capabilities, such as phase-shifting attenuators, sub-resolution assist bars, and optical proximity correction (OPC) features, while maintaining or reducing cost and cycle time. The mask can no longer be considered a commodity item that is purchased form the lowest-cost supplier. Instead, it must now be promoted as an integral part of the technical and business case for a total lithographic solution. Improving partnership between designer, mask-maker, and wafer lithographer will be the harbinger of success in finding a profitable balance of capability, cost, and cycle time. Likewise for equipment infrastructure development, stronger partnership on the international level is necessary to control development cost and mitigate schedule and technical risks.

  7. Mask Industry Assessment: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2011-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the tenth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report has been used as one of the baselines to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It continues to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was essentially the same as the 2005 through 2010 surveys. Questions are grouped into following categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  8. Mask Industry Assessment: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Chan, David Y.

    2010-09-01

    A survey created supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the ninth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was basically the same as the 2005 through 2009 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  9. A Bayesian predictive sample size selection design for single-arm exploratory clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramukai, Satoshi; Daimon, Takashi; Zohar, Sarah

    2012-12-30

    The aim of an exploratory clinical trial is to determine whether a new intervention is promising for further testing in confirmatory clinical trials. Most exploratory clinical trials are designed as single-arm trials using a binary outcome with or without interim monitoring for early stopping. In this context, we propose a Bayesian adaptive design denoted as predictive sample size selection design (PSSD). The design allows for sample size selection following any planned interim analyses for early stopping of a trial, together with sample size determination before starting the trial. In the PSSD, we determine the sample size using the method proposed by Sambucini (Statistics in Medicine 2008; 27:1199-1224), which adopts a predictive probability criterion with two kinds of prior distributions, that is, an 'analysis prior' used to compute posterior probabilities and a 'design prior' used to obtain prior predictive distributions. In the sample size determination of the PSSD, we provide two sample sizes, that is, N and N(max) , using two types of design priors. At each interim analysis, we calculate the predictive probabilities of achieving a successful result at the end of the trial using the analysis prior in order to stop the trial in case of low or high efficacy (Lee et al., Clinical Trials 2008; 5:93-106), and we select an optimal sample size, that is, either N or N(max) as needed, on the basis of the predictive probabilities. We investigate the operating characteristics through simulation studies, and the PSSD retrospectively applies to a lung cancer clinical trial. (243) Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Masks: The Artist in Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Whether masks are made from cardboard, papier-mache, metal, wood, leather, fabric, clay or any combination of these materials, they bring out the artist in people. Young children like to wear masks when they play to pretend they were another person or animal. Masks let them fantasize and be creative. The author's students made masks representing…

  11. Decoding sequence learning from single-trial intracranial EEG in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia De Lucia

    Full Text Available We propose and validate a multivariate classification algorithm for characterizing changes in human intracranial electroencephalographic data (iEEG after learning motor sequences. The algorithm is based on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM that captures spatio-temporal properties of the iEEG at the level of single trials. Continuous intracranial iEEG was acquired during two sessions (one before and one after a night of sleep in two patients with depth electrodes implanted in several brain areas. They performed a visuomotor sequence (serial reaction time task, SRTT using the fingers of their non-dominant hand. Our results show that the decoding algorithm correctly classified single iEEG trials from the trained sequence as belonging to either the initial training phase (day 1, before sleep or a later consolidated phase (day 2, after sleep, whereas it failed to do so for trials belonging to a control condition (pseudo-random sequence. Accurate single-trial classification was achieved by taking advantage of the distributed pattern of neural activity. However, across all the contacts the hippocampus contributed most significantly to the classification accuracy for both patients, and one fronto-striatal contact for one patient. Together, these human intracranial findings demonstrate that a multivariate decoding approach can detect learning-related changes at the level of single-trial iEEG. Because it allows an unbiased identification of brain sites contributing to a behavioral effect (or experimental condition at the level of single subject, this approach could be usefully applied to assess the neural correlates of other complex cognitive functions in patients implanted with multiple electrodes.

  12. Spatial-Temporal Feature Analysis on Single-Trial Event Related Potential for Rapid Face Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The event-related potential (ERP is the brain response measured in electroencephalography (EEG, which reflects the process of human cognitive activity. ERP has been introduced into brain computer interfaces (BCIs to communicate the computer with the subject's intention. Due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG, most ERP studies are based on grand-averaging over many trials. Recently single-trial ERP detection attracts more attention, which enables real time processing tasks as rapid face identification. All the targets needed to be retrieved may appear only once, and there is no knowledge of target label for averaging. More interestingly, how the features contribute temporally and spatially to single-trial ERP detection has not been fully investigated. In this paper, we propose to implement a local-learning-based (LLB feature extraction method to investigate the importance of spatial-temporal components of ERP in a task of rapid face identification using single-trial detection. Comparing to previous methods, LLB method preserves the nonlinear structure of EEG signal distribution, and analyze the importance of original spatial-temporal components via optimization in feature space. As a data-driven methods, the weighting of the spatial-temporal component does not depend on the ERP detection method. The importance weights are optimized by making the targets more different from non-targets in feature space, and regularization penalty is introduced in optimization for sparse weights. This spatial-temporal feature extraction method is evaluated on the EEG data of 15 participants in performing a face identification task using rapid serial visual presentation paradigm. Comparing with other methods, the proposed spatial-temporal analysis method uses sparser (only 10% of the total features, and could achieve comparable performance (98% of single-trial ERP detection as the whole features across different detection methods. The interesting finding is

  13. Cumulative recruitment experience in two large single-center randomized, controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbreath, Autumn Dawn; Smith, Brad; Wood, Pamela; Forkner, Emma; Peters, Jay I

    2008-05-01

    Trial recruitment is challenging for researchers, who frequently overestimate the pool of qualified, willing participants. Little has been written about recruitment and the comparative success of recruitment strategies. We describe one center's experience with recruitment in two regional single-center clinical trials with a combined total of 1971 participants. The heart failure trial was conducted between 1999 and 2003. The asthma trial was performed between 2003 and 2006. Trial databases were queried for referral source of each individual. Data were analyzed for effectiveness of referral source using three measures: percentage of enrollment due to that source, subject commitment to the trial (retention rate), and economics (cost per enrollee). 47.8% of CHF enrollees came from computer-generated lists or from healthcare provider referrals. Average marketing cost for enrollees and completers was $29.20 and $41.96 respectively. The most economical marketing strategy was self-referral in response to flyers. Most asthma participants (53.5%) were referred from healthcare providers, mailings to lists from local healthcare institutions, or self-referred in response to flyers. Average marketing cost for enrollees and completers was $20.44 and $38.10 respectively. The most economical marketing strategy was patient mailings. Retention rates were not markedly different among referral sources in either trial. In order to be considered effective, a recruitment strategy must demonstrate a balance between response to recruitment, retention rates, and economics. Despite the differences between these two clinical trials, the most effective recruitment strategies in both trials were mailings to locally-generated, targeted lists, and referrals from healthcare providers.

  14. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  15. A behavioral database for masked form priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S; Johnson, Rebecca L; McCormick, Samantha F; McKague, Meredith; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Bowers, Jeffrey S; Perry, Jason R; Lupker, Stephen J; Forster, Kenneth I; Cortese, Michael J; Scaltritti, Michele; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Coane, Jennifer H; White, Laurence; Yap, Melvin J; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Colin J

    2014-12-01

    Reading involves a process of matching an orthographic input with stored representations in lexical memory. The masked priming paradigm has become a standard tool for investigating this process. Use of existing results from this paradigm can be limited by the precision of the data and the need for cross-experiment comparisons that lack normal experimental controls. Here, we present a single, large, high-precision, multicondition experiment to address these problems. Over 1,000 participants from 14 sites responded to 840 trials involving 28 different types of orthographically related primes (e.g., castfe-CASTLE) in a lexical decision task, as well as completing measures of spelling and vocabulary. The data were indeed highly sensitive to differences between conditions: After correction for multiple comparisons, prime type condition differences of 2.90 ms and above reached significance at the 5% level. This article presents the method of data collection and preliminary findings from these data, which included replications of the most widely agreed-upon differences between prime types, further evidence for systematic individual differences in susceptibility to priming, and new evidence regarding lexical properties associated with a target word's susceptibility to priming. These analyses will form a basis for the use of these data in quantitative model fitting and evaluation and for future exploration of these data that will inform and motivate new experiments.

  16. Mobile Phone Text Messages to Support Treatment Adherence in Adults With High Blood Pressure (SMS-Text Adherence Support [StAR]): A Single-Blind, Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Kirsten; Farmer, Andrew J; Springer, David; Shanyinde, Milensu; Yu, Ly-Mee; Brennan, Thomas; Rayner, Brian; Namane, Mosedi; Steyn, Krisela; Tarassenko, Lionel; Levitt, Naomi

    2016-02-09

    We assessed the effect of automated treatment adherence support delivered via mobile phone short message system (SMS) text messages on blood pressure. In this pragmatic, single-blind, 3-arm, randomized trial (SMS-Text Adherence Support [StAR]) undertaken in South Africa, patients treated for high blood pressure were randomly allocated in a 1:1:1 ratio to information only, interactive SMS text messaging, or usual care. The primary outcome was change in systolic blood pressure at 12 months from baseline measured with a validated oscillometric device. All trial staff were masked to treatment allocation. Analyses were intention to treat. Between June 26, 2012, and November 23, 2012, 1372 participants were randomized to receive information-only SMS text messages (n=457), interactive SMS text messages (n=458), or usual care (n=457). Primary outcome data were available for 1256 participants (92%). At 12 months, the mean adjusted change in systolic blood pressure compared with usual care was -2.2 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -4.4 to -0.04) with information-only SMS and -1.6 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -3.7 to 0.6) with interactive SMS. Odds ratios for the proportion of participants with a blood pressure high blood pressure, we found a small reduction in systolic blood pressure control compared with usual care at 12 months. There was no evidence that an interactive intervention increased this effect. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02019823. South African National Clinical Trials Register, number SANCTR DOH-27-1212-386; Pan Africa Trial Register, number PACTR201411000724141. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. A MISO-ARX-Based Method for Single-Trial Evoked Potential Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method for solving the single-trial evoked potential (EP estimation problem. In this method, the single-trial EP is considered as a complex containing many components, which may originate from different functional brain sites; these components can be distinguished according to their respective latencies and amplitudes and are extracted simultaneously by multiple-input single-output autoregressive modeling with exogenous input (MISO-ARX. The extraction process is performed in three stages: first, we use a reference EP as a template and decompose it into a set of components, which serve as subtemplates for the remaining steps. Then, a dictionary is constructed with these subtemplates, and EPs are preliminarily extracted by sparse coding in order to roughly estimate the latency of each component. Finally, the single-trial measurement is parametrically modeled by MISO-ARX while characterizing spontaneous electroencephalographic activity as an autoregression model driven by white noise and with each component of the EP modeled by autoregressive-moving-average filtering of the subtemplates. Once optimized, all components of the EP can be extracted. Compared with ARX, our method has greater tracking capabilities of specific components of the EP complex as each component is modeled individually in MISO-ARX. We provide exhaustive experimental results to show the effectiveness and feasibility of our method.

  18. Mask ventilation, hypocapnia, and seizure duration in electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukalas, Christopher G; Walter, James; Glick, David; O'Connor, Michael F; Tung, Avery; Dinwiddie, Stephen H; Nunnally, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    To compare the Mapleson D circuit and the bag-valve-mask device for mask ventilation of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Cross-over study. Single-center academic medical center. 18 patients undergoing ECT for major depressive disorder. Patients were randomized to undergo mask ventilation by the Mapleson D circuit or the bag-valve-mask device. End-tidal CO(2), seizure duration, and airway pressure values were recorded. End-tidal CO(2) was significantly lower with the bag-valve-mask device. When compared with the bag-valve-mask device, ventilation with the Mapleson circuit resulted in rebreathing of CO(2) in nearly all patients, shorter expiratory time, and lower pressure ramp slope. Hypocapnia was not associated with longer seizures, and the user-device interaction might affect device performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Individuals and Their Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Altuna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay works on the opposition between face and mask, where ‘face’ is understood as that which makes every human being singular, and makes visible her or his unique worth, while ‘mask’ is understood as whatever hides that singularity, and refers to a category, stereotype or cliché. The etymological history that relates face and mask to the concept of person, and the history of modern portrait painting, which alternates representations of face and mask, both lead to a discussion with authors who diagnose a contemporary “defeat of the face” as a result of the crisis of humanism and of ethical individualism, which give meaning and dignity to that face.

  20. The Primacy and Recency Effects in Successive Single-Trial Immediate Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Ning; Tomasini, Jerry; Nikl, Larry

    1977-10-01

    The present study of 82 male and female college students re-examined the primacy and recency effects in successive single-trial immediate free recall of lists of unrelated English words. With a trial-by-trial analysis of the serial position curve (SPC), it showed the shape of SPC was not invariant. The primacy effect was greater than the recency effect on the very first recall, and the relationship of these two effects immediately reversed and remained so thereafter. Analysis of the correlation between the presentation and recall order of the items recalled over successive recalls revealed an additional phenomenon-the rapid development of a recall strategy. The development of strategy concurred closely with reversal of the primacy and recency effects. An interlist proactive interference interpretation and a recall strategy interpretation have been suggested to account for the transitory change of the shape of the SPC in free recall.

  1. Oversampling method to extract excitatory and inhibitory conductances from single-trial membrane potential recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Claude; Béhuret, Sebastien; Deleuze, Charlotte; Bal, Thierry; Destexhe, Alain

    2012-09-15

    Variations of excitatory and inhibitory conductances determine the membrane potential (V(m)) activity of neurons, as well as their spike responses, and are thus of primary importance. Methods to estimate these conductances require clamping the cell at several different levels of V(m), thus making it impossible to estimate conductances from "single trial" V(m) recordings. We present here a new method that allows extracting estimates of the full time course of excitatory and inhibitory conductances from single-trial V(m) recordings. This method is based on oversampling of the V(m). We test the method numerically using models of increasing complexity. Finally, the method is evaluated using controlled conductance injection in cortical neurons in vitro using the dynamic-clamp technique. This conductance extraction method should be very useful for future in vivo applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multi-port versus single-port cholecystectomy: results of a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial (MUSIC trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezzo, Alberto; Passera, Roberto; Bullano, Alberto; Mintz, Yoav; Kedar, Asaf; Boni, Luigi; Cassinotti, Elisa; Rosati, Riccardo; Fumagalli Romario, Uberto; Sorrentino, Mario; Brizzolari, Marco; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Gaspari, Achille Lucio; Andreone, Dario; De Stefani, Elena; Navarra, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Salvatore; Degiuli, Maurizio; Shishin, Kirill; Khatkov, Igor; Kazakov, Ivan; Schrittwieser, Rudolf; Carus, Thomas; Corradi, Alessio; Sitzman, Guenther; Lacy, Antonio; Uranues, Selman; Szold, Amir; Morino, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Single-port laparoscopic surgery as an alternative to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy for benign disease has not yet been accepted as a standard procedure. The aim of the multi-port versus single-port cholecystectomy trial was to compare morbidity rates after single-access (SPC) and standard laparoscopy (MPC). This non-inferiority phase 3 trial was conducted at 20 hospital surgical departments in six countries. At each centre, patients were randomly assigned to undergo either SPC or MPC. The primary outcome was overall morbidity within 60 days after surgery. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01104727). The study was conducted between April 2011 and May 2015. A total of 600 patients were randomly assigned to receive either SPC (n = 297) or MPC (n = 303) and were eligible for data analysis. Postsurgical complications within 60 days were recorded in 13 patients (4.7 %) in the SPC group and in 16 (6.1 %) in the MPC group (P = 0.468); however, single-access procedures took longer [70 min (range 25-265) vs. 55 min (range 22-185); P < 0.001]. There were no significant differences in hospital length of stay or pain VAS scores between the two groups. An incisional hernia developed within 1 year in six patients in the SPC group and in three in the MPC group (P = 0.331). Patients were more satisfied with aesthetic results after SPC, whereas surgeons rated the aesthetic results higher after MPC. No difference in quality of life scores, as measured by the gastrointestinal quality of life index at 60 days after surgery, was observed between the two groups. In selected patients undergoing cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder disease, SPC is non-inferior to MPC in terms of safety but it entails a longer operative time. Possible concerns about a higher risk of incisional hernia following SPC do not appear to be justified. Patient satisfaction with aesthetic results was greater after SPC than after

  3. Single-trial analysis and classification of ERP components--a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankertz, Benjamin; Lemm, Steven; Treder, Matthias; Haufe, Stefan; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2011-05-15

    Analyzing brain states that correspond to event related potentials (ERPs) on a single trial basis is a hard problem due to the high trial-to-trial variability and the unfavorable ratio between signal (ERP) and noise (artifacts and neural background activity). In this tutorial, we provide a comprehensive framework for decoding ERPs, elaborating on linear concepts, namely spatio-temporal patterns and filters as well as linear ERP classification. However, the bottleneck of these techniques is that they require an accurate covariance matrix estimation in high dimensional sensor spaces which is a highly intricate problem. As a remedy, we propose to use shrinkage estimators and show that appropriate regularization of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) by shrinkage yields excellent results for single-trial ERP classification that are far superior to classical LDA classification. Furthermore, we give practical hints on the interpretation of what classifiers learned from the data and demonstrate in particular that the trade-off between goodness-of-fit and model complexity in regularized LDA relates to a morphing between a difference pattern of ERPs and a spatial filter which cancels non task-related brain activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A randomised trial to compare i-gel and ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway for airway management in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirupa, R; Gombar, Satinder; Ahuja, Vanita; Sharma, Preeti

    2016-10-01

    i-gel™ is a newer supraglottic airway device with a unique non-inflatable cuff. We aimed to compare i-gel™ with ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway (PLMA™) in children scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia (GA) with controlled ventilation. This prospective, randomised controlled study was conducted in 100 surgical patients, aged 2-6 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I-II scheduled under GA. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either size 2 i-gel™ or PLMA™ as an airway device. The primary aim was oropharyngeal leak pressure assessed at 5 min following correct placement of the device. Secondary outcomes measured included number of attempts, ease of insertion, time of insertion, quality of initial airway, fibre-optic grading and effects on pulmonary mechanics. Statistical analysis was done using paired t -test and Chi-square test. The demographic data were similar in both the groups. The oropharyngeal leak pressure in the i-gel™ group was 29.5 ± 2.5 cmH 2 O as compared to 26.1 ± 3.8 cmH 2 O in PLMA™ group ( P = 0.002). The time taken for successful insertion in PLMA™ was longer as compared to i-gel (12.4 ± 2.7 vs. 10.2 ± 1.9 s, P = 0.007). The quality of initial airway was superior with i-gel™. The number of attempts, ease of insertion of supraglottic device, insertion of orogastric tube and pulmonary mechanics were similar in both the groups. Size 2 i-gel™ exhibited superior oropharyngeal leak pressure and quality of airway in paediatric patients with controlled ventilation as compared to PLMA™ although the pulmonary mechanics were similar.

  5. A randomised trial to compare i-gel and ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway for airway management in paediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nirupa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: i-gel™ is a newer supraglottic airway device with a unique non-inflatable cuff. We aimed to compare i-gel™ with ProSeal™ laryngeal mask airway (PLMA™ in children scheduled for surgery under general anaesthesia (GA with controlled ventilation. Methods: This prospective, randomised controlled study was conducted in 100 surgical patients, aged 2-6 years of American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I-II scheduled under GA. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either size 2 i-gel™ or PLMA™ as an airway device. The primary aim was oropharyngeal leak pressure assessed at 5 min following correct placement of the device. Secondary outcomes measured included number of attempts, ease of insertion, time of insertion, quality of initial airway, fibre-optic grading and effects on pulmonary mechanics. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The demographic data were similar in both the groups. The oropharyngeal leak pressure in the i-gel™ group was 29.5 ± 2.5 cmH 2 O as compared to 26.1 ± 3.8 cmH 2 O in PLMA™ group (P = 0.002. The time taken for successful insertion in PLMA™ was longer as compared to i-gel (12.4 ± 2.7 vs. 10.2 ± 1.9 s, P = 0.007. The quality of initial airway was superior with i-gel™. The number of attempts, ease of insertion of supraglottic device, insertion of orogastric tube and pulmonary mechanics were similar in both the groups. Conclusion: Size 2 i-gel™ exhibited superior oropharyngeal leak pressure and quality of airway in paediatric patients with controlled ventilation as compared to PLMA™ although the pulmonary mechanics were similar.

  6. Evolutionary optimization of classifiers and features for single-trial EEG Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessberg Johan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background State-of-the-art signal processing methods are known to detect information in single-trial event-related EEG data, a crucial aspect in development of real-time applications such as brain computer interfaces. This paper investigates one such novel approach, evaluating how individual classifier and feature subset tailoring affects classification of single-trial EEG finger movements. The discrete wavelet transform was used to extract signal features that were classified using linear regression and non-linear neural network models, which were trained and architecturally optimized with evolutionary algorithms. The input feature subsets were also allowed to evolve, thus performing feature selection in a wrapper fashion. Filter approaches were implemented as well by limiting the degree of optimization. Results Using only 10 features and 100 patterns, the non-linear wrapper approach achieved the highest validation classification accuracy (subject mean 75%, closely followed by the linear wrapper method (73.5%. The optimal features differed much between subjects, yet some physiologically plausible patterns were observed. Conclusion High degrees of classifier parameter, structure and feature subset tailoring on individual levels substantially increase single-trial EEG classification rates, an important consideration in areas where highly accurate detection rates are essential. Also, the presented method provides insight into the spatial characteristics of finger movement EEG patterns.

  7. Relevant Feature Integration and Extraction for Single-Trial Motor Imagery Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lili; Xu, Guanghua; Zhang, Feng; Xie, Jun; Li, Min

    2017-01-01

    Brain computer interfaces provide a novel channel for the communication between brain and output devices. The effectiveness of the brain computer interface is based on the classification accuracy of single trial brain signals. The common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm is believed to be an effective algorithm for the classification of single trial brain signals. As the amplitude feature for spatial projection applied by this algorithm is based on a broad frequency bandpass filter (mainly 5-30 Hz) in which the frequency band is often selected by experience, the CSP is sensitive to noise and the influence of other irrelevant information in the selected broad frequency band. In this paper, to improve the CSP, a novel relevant feature integration and extraction algorithm is proposed. Before projecting, we integrated the motor relevant information to suppress the interference of noise and irrelevant information, as well as to improve the spatial difference for projection. The algorithm was evaluated with public datasets. It showed significantly better classification performance with single trial electroencephalography (EEG) data, increasing by 6.8% compared with the CSP.

  8. COAs: Behind the Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Szifra

    1993-01-01

    Provides information on alcoholism and codependency to help teachers identify and respond to children of alcoholics (COAs). Discusses characteristics of alcoholic homes and problems encountered by children and adult COAs. Examines survival "masks" of COAs, including hero, rebel, adjustor, clown, and caretaker. Lists organizational,…

  9. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  10. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  11. Factors affecting growth in infants with single ventricle physiology: a report from the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard V; Zak, Victor; Ravishankar, Chitra; Altmann, Karen; Anderson, Jeffrey; Atz, Andrew M; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ghanayem, Nancy; Lambert, Linda; Lurito, Karen; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Margossian, Renee; Pemberton, Victoria L; Russell, Jennifer; Stylianou, Mario; Hsu, Daphne

    2011-12-01

    To describe growth patterns in infants with single ventricle physiology and determine factors influencing growth. Data from 230 subjects enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Enalapril Trial were used to assess factors influencing change in weight-for-age z-score (z) from study enrollment (0.7 ± 0.4 months) to pre-superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC; 5.1 ± 1.8 months, period 1) and pre-SCPC to final study visit (14.1 ± 0.9 months, period 2). Predictor variables included patient characteristics, feeding regimen, clinical center, and medical factors during neonatal (period 1) and SCPC hospitalizations (period 2). Univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by backward stepwise regression and bootstrapping reliability to inform a final multivariable model. Weights were available for 197 of 230 subjects for period 1 and 173 of 197 subjects for period 2. For period 1, greater gestational age, younger age at study enrollment, tube feeding at neonatal hospitalization discharge, and clinical center were associated with a greater negative z (poorer growth) in multivariable modeling (adjusted R(2) = 0.39, P SCPC and greater daily caloric intake were associated with greater positive z (better growth; R(2) = 0.10, P = .002). Aggressive nutritional support and earlier SCPC are modifiable factors associated with a favorable change in weight-for-age z-score. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Impacting Growth in Infants with Single Ventricle Physiology: A Report from Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard V.; Zak, Victor; Ravishankar, Chitra; Altmann, Karen; Anderson, Jeffrey; Atz, Andrew M.; Dunbar-Masterson, Carolyn; Ghanayem, Nancy; Lambert, Linda; Lurito, Karen; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara; Margossian, Renee; Pemberton, Victoria L.; Russell, Jennifer; Stylianou, Mario; Hsu, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe growth patterns in infants with single ventricle physiology and determine factors influencing growth. Study design Data from 230 subjects enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle Enalapril Trial were used to assess factors influencing change in weight-for-age z-score (Δz) from study enrollment (0.7 ± 0.4 months) to pre-superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) (5.1 ± 1.8 months, period 1), and pre-SCPC to final study visit (14.1 ± 0.9 months, period 2). Predictor variables included patient characteristics, feeding regimen, clinical center, and medical factors during neonatal (period 1) and SCPC hospitalizations (period 2). Univariate regression analysis was performed, followed by backward stepwise regression and bootstrapping reliability to inform a final multivariable model. Results Weights were available for 197/230 subjects for period 1 and 173/197 for period 2. For period 1, greater gestational age, younger age at study enrollment, tube feeding at neonatal discharge, and clinical center were associated with a greater negative Δz (poorer growth) in multivariable modeling (adjusted R2 = 0.39, p SCPC and greater daily caloric intake were associated with greater positive Δz (better growth) (R2 = 0.10, p = 0.002). Conclusions Aggressive nutritional support and earlier SCPC are modifiable factors associated with a favorable change in weight-for-age z-score. PMID:21784436

  13. Visual mismatch and predictive coding: A computational single-trial ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanics, Gabor; Heinzle, Jakob; Attila Horváth, András; Enno Stephan, Klaas

    2018-03-26

    Predictive coding (PC) posits that the brain employs a generative model to infer the environmental causes of its sensory data and uses precision-weighted prediction errors (pwPE) to continuously update this model. While supported by much circumstantial evidence, experimental tests grounded in formal trial-by-trial predictions are rare. One partial exception are event-related potential (ERP) studies of the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN), where computational models have found signatures of pwPEs and related model-updating processes.Here, we tested this hypothesis in the visual domain, examining possible links between visual mismatch responses and pwPEs. We used a novel visual 'roving standard' paradigm to elicit mismatch responses in humans (of both sexes) by unexpected changes in either color or emotional expression of faces. Using a hierarchical Bayesian model, we simulated pwPE trajectories of a Bayes-optimal observer and used these to conduct a comprehensive trial-by-trial analysis across the time×sensor space. We found significant modulation of brain activity by both color and emotion pwPEs. The scalp distribution and timing of these single-trial pwPE responses were in agreement with visual mismatch responses obtained by traditional averaging and subtraction (deviant-minus-standard) approaches. Finally, we compared the Bayesian model to a more classical change detection (CD) model of MMN. Model comparison revealed that trial-wise pwPEs explained the observed mismatch responses better than categorical change detection.Our results suggest that visual mismatch responses reflect trial-wise pwPEs, as postulated by PC. These findings go beyond classical ERP analyses of visual mismatch and illustrate the utility of computational analyses for studying automatic perceptual processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Human perception is thought to rely on a predictive model of the environment which is updated via precision-weighted prediction errors (pwPE) when events violate

  14. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Masking, or "blinding," helps avoid bias. For this reason, researchers also may not be told which treatments ... from a study at any time, for any reason. Also, during the trial, you have the right ...

  15. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  16. Masked multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiecki, A.L.; Kroop, D.C.; McGee, M.K.; Lenkszus, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical instrument and particularly a time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for processing a large number of analog signals irregularly spaced over a spectrum, with programmable masking of portions of the spectrum where signals are unlikely in order to reduce memory requirements and/or with a signal capturing assembly having a plurality of signal capturing devices fewer in number than the analog signals for use in repeated cycles within the data processing time period.

  17. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    OpenAIRE

    Boldt, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined i...

  18. Masking and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The list of prohibited substances in sports includes a group of masking agents that are forbidden in both in- and out-of-competition doping tests. This group consists of a series of compounds that are misused in sports to mask the administration of other doping agents, and includes: diuretics, used to reduce the concentration in urine of other doping agents either by increasing the urine volume or by reducing the excretion of basic doping agents by increasing the urinary pH; probenecid, used to reduce the concentration in urine of acidic compounds, such as glucuronoconjugates of some doping agents; 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, used to reduce the formation of 5alpha-reduced metabolites of anabolic androgenic steroids; plasma expanders, used to maintain the plasma volume after misuse of erythropoietin or red blood cells concentrates; and epitestosterone, used to mask the detection of the administration of testosterone. Diuretics may be also misused to achieve acute weight loss before competition in sports with weight categories. In this chapter, pharmacological modes of action, intended pharmacological effects for doping purposes, main routes of biotransformation and analytical procedures used for anti-doping controls to screen and confirm these substances will be reviewed and discussed.

  19. A randomised, double-masked phase III/IV study of the efficacy and safety of Avastin® (Bevacizumab intravitreal injections compared to standard therapy in subjects with choroidal neovascularisation secondary to age-related macular degeneration: clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunce Catey

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD has been transformed by the introduction of agents delivered by intravitreal injection which block the action of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (anti-VEGF agents. One such agent in widespread use is bevacizumab which was initially developed for use in oncology. Most of the evidence supporting the use of bevacizumab for nAMD has come from interventional case series and this clinical trial was initiated because of the increasing and widespread use of this agent in the treatment of nAMD (an off-label indication despite a lack of definitive unbiased safety and efficacy data. Methods and design The Avastin® (bevacizumab for choroidal neovascularisation (ABC trial is a double-masked randomised controlled trial comparing intravitreal bevacizumab injections to standard therapy in the treatment of nAMD. Patients are randomised to intravitreal bevacizumab or standard therapy available at the time of trial initiation (verteporfin photodynamic therapy, intravitreal pegaptanib or sham treatment. Ranibizumab treatment was not included in the control arm as it had not been licensed for use at the start of recruitment for this trial. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters of visual acuity at 1 year and secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with stable vision and mean visual acuity change. Discussion The ABC Trial is the first double-masked randomised control trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal bevacizumab in the treatment of nAMD. This trial fully recruited in November 2007 and results should be available in early 2009. Important design issues for this clinical trial include (a defining the control group (b use of gain in vision as primary efficacy end-point and (c use of pro re nata treatment using intravitreal bevacizumab rather than continuous therapy. Trial registration Current controlled

  20. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  1. Using Matrix and Tensor Factorizations for the Single-Trial Analysis of Population Spike Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Arno; Liu, Jian K.; Karunasekara, P. P. Chamanthi R.; Delis, Ioannis; Gollisch, Tim; Panzeri, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neuronal recording techniques are leading to ever larger numbers of simultaneously monitored neurons. This poses the important analytical challenge of how to capture compactly all sensory information that neural population codes carry in their spatial dimension (differences in stimulus tuning across neurons at different locations), in their temporal dimension (temporal neural response variations), or in their combination (temporally coordinated neural population firing). Here we investigate the utility of tensor factorizations of population spike trains along space and time. These factorizations decompose a dataset of single-trial population spike trains into spatial firing patterns (combinations of neurons firing together), temporal firing patterns (temporal activation of these groups of neurons) and trial-dependent activation coefficients (strength of recruitment of such neural patterns on each trial). We validated various factorization methods on simulated data and on populations of ganglion cells simultaneously recorded in the salamander retina. We found that single-trial tensor space-by-time decompositions provided low-dimensional data-robust representations of spike trains that capture efficiently both their spatial and temporal information about sensory stimuli. Tensor decompositions with orthogonality constraints were the most efficient in extracting sensory information, whereas non-negative tensor decompositions worked well even on non-independent and overlapping spike patterns, and retrieved informative firing patterns expressed by the same population in response to novel stimuli. Our method showed that populations of retinal ganglion cells carried information in their spike timing on the ten-milliseconds-scale about spatial details of natural images. This information could not be recovered from the spike counts of these cells. First-spike latencies carried the majority of information provided by the whole spike train about fine-scale image

  2. Using Matrix and Tensor Factorizations for the Single-Trial Analysis of Population Spike Trains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Onken

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuronal recording techniques are leading to ever larger numbers of simultaneously monitored neurons. This poses the important analytical challenge of how to capture compactly all sensory information that neural population codes carry in their spatial dimension (differences in stimulus tuning across neurons at different locations, in their temporal dimension (temporal neural response variations, or in their combination (temporally coordinated neural population firing. Here we investigate the utility of tensor factorizations of population spike trains along space and time. These factorizations decompose a dataset of single-trial population spike trains into spatial firing patterns (combinations of neurons firing together, temporal firing patterns (temporal activation of these groups of neurons and trial-dependent activation coefficients (strength of recruitment of such neural patterns on each trial. We validated various factorization methods on simulated data and on populations of ganglion cells simultaneously recorded in the salamander retina. We found that single-trial tensor space-by-time decompositions provided low-dimensional data-robust representations of spike trains that capture efficiently both their spatial and temporal information about sensory stimuli. Tensor decompositions with orthogonality constraints were the most efficient in extracting sensory information, whereas non-negative tensor decompositions worked well even on non-independent and overlapping spike patterns, and retrieved informative firing patterns expressed by the same population in response to novel stimuli. Our method showed that populations of retinal ganglion cells carried information in their spike timing on the ten-milliseconds-scale about spatial details of natural images. This information could not be recovered from the spike counts of these cells. First-spike latencies carried the majority of information provided by the whole spike train about fine

  3. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Correlates of Belief Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawski, Carsten; Bode, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Belief updating—the process by which an agent alters an internal model of its environment—is a core function of the CNS. Recent theory has proposed broad principles by which belief updating might operate, but more precise details of its implementation in the human brain remain unclear. In order to address this question, we studied how two components of the human event-related potential encoded different aspects of belief updating. Participants completed a novel perceptual learning task while electroencephalography was recorded. Participants learned the mapping between the contrast of a dynamic visual stimulus and a monetary reward and updated their beliefs about a target contrast on each trial. A Bayesian computational model was formulated to estimate belief states at each trial and was used to quantify the following two variables: belief update size and belief uncertainty. Robust single-trial regression was used to assess how these model-derived variables were related to the amplitudes of the P3 and the stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN), respectively. Results showed a positive relationship between belief update size and P3 amplitude at one fronto-central electrode, and a negative relationship between SPN amplitude and belief uncertainty at a left central and a right parietal electrode. These results provide evidence that belief update size and belief uncertainty have distinct neural signatures that can be tracked in single trials in specific ERP components. This, in turn, provides evidence that the cognitive mechanisms underlying belief updating in humans can be described well within a Bayesian framework. PMID:26473170

  4. Method for exploratory cluster analysis and visualisation of single-trial ERP ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N J; Nasuto, S J; Saddy, J D

    2015-07-30

    The validity of ensemble averaging on event-related potential (ERP) data has been questioned, due to its assumption that the ERP is identical across trials. Thus, there is a need for preliminary testing for cluster structure in the data. We propose a complete pipeline for the cluster analysis of ERP data. To increase the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the raw single-trials, we used a denoising method based on Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD). Next, we used a bootstrap-based method to determine the number of clusters, through a measure called the Stability Index (SI). We then used a clustering algorithm based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to define initial cluster centroids for subsequent k-means clustering. Finally, we visualised the clustering results through a scheme based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). After validating the pipeline on simulated data, we tested it on data from two experiments - a P300 speller paradigm on a single subject and a language processing study on 25 subjects. Results revealed evidence for the existence of 6 clusters in one experimental condition from the language processing study. Further, a two-way chi-square test revealed an influence of subject on cluster membership. Our analysis operates on denoised single-trials, the number of clusters are determined in a principled manner and the results are presented through an intuitive visualisation. Given the cluster structure in some experimental conditions, we suggest application of cluster analysis as a preliminary step before ensemble averaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Brandmeyer

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1 Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2 Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native. A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  6. Single trial time-frequency domain analysis of error processing in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans, Zachary A; El-Baz, Ayman S; Hollifield, Michael; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2012-09-13

    Error processing studies in psychology and psychiatry are relatively common. Event-related potentials (ERPs) are often used as measures of error processing, two such response-locked ERPs being the error-related negativity (ERN) and the error-related positivity (Pe). The ERN and Pe occur following committed error in reaction time tasks as low frequency (4-8 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations registered at the midline fronto-central sites. We created an alternative method for analyzing error processing using time-frequency analysis in the form of a wavelet transform. A study was conducted in which subjects with PTSD and healthy control completed a forced-choice task. Single trial EEG data from errors in the task were processed using a continuous wavelet transform. Coefficients from the transform that corresponded to the theta range were averaged to isolate a theta waveform in the time-frequency domain. Measures called the time-frequency ERN and Pe were obtained from these waveforms for five different channels and then averaged to obtain a single time-frequency ERN and Pe for each error trial. A comparison of the amplitude and latency for the time-frequency ERN and Pe between the PTSD and control group was performed. A significant group effect was found on the amplitude of both measures. These results indicate that the developed single trial time-frequency error analysis method is suitable for examining error processing in PTSD and possibly other psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Single-trial multisensory memories affect later auditory and visual object discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Antonia; Talsma, Durk; Murray, Micah M

    2015-05-01

    Multisensory memory traces established via single-trial exposures can impact subsequent visual object recognition. This impact appears to depend on the meaningfulness of the initial multisensory pairing, implying that multisensory exposures establish distinct object representations that are accessible during later unisensory processing. Multisensory contexts may be particularly effective in influencing auditory discrimination, given the purportedly inferior recognition memory in this sensory modality. The possibility of this generalization and the equivalence of effects when memory discrimination was being performed in the visual vs. auditory modality were at the focus of this study. First, we demonstrate that visual object discrimination is affected by the context of prior multisensory encounters, replicating and extending previous findings by controlling for the probability of multisensory contexts during initial as well as repeated object presentations. Second, we provide the first evidence that single-trial multisensory memories impact subsequent auditory object discrimination. Auditory object discrimination was enhanced when initial presentations entailed semantically congruent multisensory pairs and was impaired after semantically incongruent multisensory encounters, compared to sounds that had been encountered only in a unisensory manner. Third, the impact of single-trial multisensory memories upon unisensory object discrimination was greater when the task was performed in the auditory vs. visual modality. Fourth, there was no evidence for correlation between effects of past multisensory experiences on visual and auditory processing, suggestive of largely independent object processing mechanisms between modalities. We discuss these findings in terms of the conceptual short term memory (CSTM) model and predictive coding. Our results suggest differential recruitment and modulation of conceptual memory networks according to the sensory task at hand. Copyright

  8. A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-masked, variable dosage, clinical trial of azathioprine with and without methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, G W; Myers, L W; Mickey, M R; Graves, M C; Tourtellotte, W W; Syndulko, K; Holevoet-Howson, M I; Lerner, C D; Frane, M V; Pettler-Jennings, P

    1989-08-01

    Ninety-eight patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the chronic progression phase entered a 3-year clinical trial to determine if azathioprine (AZ) alone or with adrenal cortical steroids stabilizes the course of MS. In group AM, the patients took AZ throughout and methylprednisolone (MP) for the first 36 weeks. Group AP received AZ and placebo instead of MP. Group PP took placebos for both drugs. We adjusted the AZ to maintain the total white blood cell count within 3,000 to 4,000/mm3; we gave the MP in a fixed dose "pulse" and alternate-day regimen. The "intent-to-treat" groups had no statistically significant differences in the rates of progression among the 3 treatments. Subgroup analysis suggests that patients in the AM group who completed treatment exactly according to protocol did statistically significantly better than the placebo recipients using the sum of Standard Neurological Examination scores, slightly better using the quantitative neuro-performance tests, but no better using Mickey's Illness Severity Scores or Kurtzke's Disability Status Scale. Also, the AZ-treated groups had half the relapse rate of the placebo-treated group. Adverse reactions to AZ accounted for most withdrawals. Hematologic and hepatic abnormalities were significantly associated with AZ, but serious non-MS abnormalities were uncommon and were equally distributed among the 3 groups. Addition of MP to the AZ slightly improved the efficacy of the treatment, but also increased the adverse effects. The benefits of AZ with or without steroids did not outweigh the risks, and therefore we do not recommend this treatment for patients with chronic progressive MS.

  9. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott; Marmillion, Pat; Lercel, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. In 2002, a survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of mask equipment. The 2005 survey was the fourth in the current series of annual surveys. The survey data can be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors, and equipment utilization. Because the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were just added to the survey, no trend analysis is possible. Within each category are many questions that together create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. The assessment participation has changed from year to year. The 2005 survey, for example, includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  10. Statistical issues for design and analysis of single-arm multi-stage phase II cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2015-05-01

    Phase II trials have been very widely conducted and published every year for cancer clinical research. In spite of the fast progress in design and analysis methods, single-arm two-stage design is still the most popular for phase II cancer clinical trials. Because of their small sample sizes, statistical methods based on large sample approximation are not appropriate for design and analysis of phase II trials. As a prospective clinical research, the analysis method of a phase II trial is predetermined at the design stage and it is analyzed during and at the end of the trial as planned by the design. The analysis method of a trial should be matched with the design method. For two-stage single arm phase II trials, Simon's method has been the standards for choosing an optimal design, but the resulting data have been analyzed and published ignoring the two-stage design aspect with small sample sizes. In this article, we review analysis methods that exactly get along with the exact two-stage design method. We also discuss some statistical methods to improve the existing design and analysis methods for single-arm two-stage phase II trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-invasive single-trial detection of variable population spike responses in human somatosensory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterstraat, Gunnar; Scheuermann, Manuel; Curio, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) around 600 Hz ('σ-bursts') are correlates of cortical population spikes. Recently, single-trial σ-bursts were detected in human scalp EEG using 29-channel low-noise recordings in an electromagnetically shielded room. To achieve clinical applicability, this study aimed to establish a protocol using only 8 EEG channels in an unshielded environment and to quantify the variability of σ-bursts. Median nerve SEPs were recorded in 10 healthy subjects using a custom-built low-noise EEG amplifier. A detection algorithm for single-trial σ-bursts was trained as combination of spatio-temporal filters and a non-linear classifier. The single-trial responses were probed for the presence of significant increases of amplitude and variability. Single-trial σ-burst detection succeeded with Detection Rates and Positive Predictive Values above 80% in subjects with high SNR. A significant inter-trial variability in the amplitudes of early low-frequency SEPs and σ-bursts could be demonstrated. Single-trial σ-bursts can be detected on scalp-EEG using only 8 EEG channels in an electromagnetically disturbed environment. The combination of dedicated hardware and detection algorithms allows quantifying and describing their variability. The variability of population spikes in the human somatosensory cortex can be traced non-invasively in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Pavlovian craver: Neural and experiential correlates of single trial naturalistic food conditioning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, J; Testa, G; Georgii, C; Klimesch, W; Wilhelm, F H

    2016-05-01

    Present-day environments are replete with tempting foods and the current obesity pandemic speaks to humans' inability to adjust to this. Pavlovian processes may be fundamental to such hedonic overeating. However, a lack of naturalistic Pavlovian paradigms in humans makes translational research difficult and important parameters such as implicitness and acquisition speed are unknown. Here we present a novel naturalistic conditioning task: an image of a neutral object was conditioned to marzipan taste in a single trial procedure by asking the participant to eat the 'object' (made from marzipan). Relative to control objects, results demonstrate robust pre- to post-conditioning changes of both subjective ratings and early as well as late event related brain potentials, suggesting contributions of implicit (attentional) and explicit (motivational) processes. Naturalistic single-trial taste-appetitive conditioning is potent in humans and shapes attentional and motivational neural processes that might challenge self-regulation during exposure to tempting foods. Thus, appetitive conditioning processes might contribute to overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Raheel eBhutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into true and lie classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  14. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  15. Decoding of single-trial auditory mismatch responses for online perceptual monitoring and neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBrandmeyer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate pattern classification methods are increasingly applied to neuroimaging data in the context of both fundamental research and in brain-computer interfacing approaches. Such methods provide a framework for interpreting measurements made at the single-trial level with respect to a set of two or more distinct mental states. Here, we define an approach in which the output of a binary classifier trained on data from an auditory mismatch paradigm can be used for online tracking of perception and as a neurofeedback signal. The auditory mismatch paradigm is known to induce distinct perceptual states related to the presentation of high- and low-probability stimuli, which are reflected in event-related potential (ERP components such as the mismatch negativity (MMN. In the first part of the paper, we illustrate how pattern classification methods can be applied to data collected in an MMN paradigm, including discussion of the optimization of preprocessing steps, the interpretation of features and how the performance of these methods generalizes across individual participants and measurement sessions. We then go on to show that the output of these decoding methods can be used in online settings as a continuous index of single-trial brain activation underlying perceptual discrimination. We conclude by discussing several potential domains of application, including neurofeedback, cognitive monitoring and passive brain-computer interfaces.

  16. Single-trial lie detection using a combined fNIRS-polygraph system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, M Raheel; Hong, Melissa J; Kim, Yun-Hee; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2015-01-01

    Deception is a human behavior that many people experience in daily life. It involves complex neuronal activities in addition to several physiological changes in the body. A polygraph, which can measure some of the physiological responses from the body, has been widely employed in lie-detection. Many researchers, however, believe that lie detection can become more precise if the neuronal changes that occur in the process of deception can be isolated and measured. In this study, we combine both measures (i.e., physiological and neuronal changes) for enhanced lie-detection. Specifically, to investigate the deception-related hemodynamic response, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is applied at the prefrontal cortex besides a commercially available polygraph system. A mock crime scenario with a single-trial stimulus is set up as a deception protocol. The acquired data are classified into "true" and "lie" classes based on the fNIRS-based hemoglobin-concentration changes and polygraph-based physiological signal changes. Linear discriminant analysis is utilized as a classifier. The results indicate that the combined fNIRS-polygraph system delivers much higher classification accuracy than that of a singular system. This study demonstrates a plausible solution toward single-trial lie-detection by combining fNIRS and the polygraph.

  17. Single-trial effective brain connectivity patterns enhance discriminability of mental imagery tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Dheeraj; Cecotti, Hubert; Prasad, Girijesh

    2017-10-01

    Objective. The majority of the current approaches of connectivity based brain-computer interface (BCI) systems focus on distinguishing between different motor imagery (MI) tasks. Brain regions associated with MI are anatomically close to each other, hence these BCI systems suffer from low performances. Our objective is to introduce single-trial connectivity feature based BCI system for cognition imagery (CI) based tasks wherein the associated brain regions are located relatively far away as compared to those for MI. Approach. We implemented time-domain partial Granger causality (PGC) for the estimation of the connectivity features in a BCI setting. The proposed hypothesis has been verified with two publically available datasets involving MI and CI tasks. Main results. The results support the conclusion that connectivity based features can provide a better performance than a classical signal processing framework based on bandpass features coupled with spatial filtering for CI tasks, including word generation, subtraction, and spatial navigation. These results show for the first time that connectivity features can provide a reliable performance for imagery-based BCI system. Significance. We show that single-trial connectivity features for mixed imagery tasks (i.e. combination of CI and MI) can outperform the features obtained by current state-of-the-art method and hence can be successfully applied for BCI applications.

  18. Masks of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Edward

    2011-11-01

    Preface; Introducing the masks; Part I. Worlds in the Making: 1. The magic Universe; 2. The mythic Universe; 3. The geometric Universe; 4. The medieval Universe; 5. The infinite Universe; 6. The mechanistic Universe; Part II. The Heart Divine: 7. Dance of the atoms and waves; 8. Fabric of space and time; 9. Nearer to the heart's desire; 10. The cosmic tide; 11. Do dreams ever come true?; Part III. The Cloud of Unknowing: 12. The witch universe; 13. The spear of Archytas; 14. All that is made; 15. The cloud of unknowing; 16. Learned ignorance.

  19. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  20. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  1. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  2. Comparative efficacy of two different topical povidone-iodine 5% regimens in reducing conjunctival bacterial flora: A randomized parallel double-masked clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Fernandes Barroso

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of multi-resistant bacteria is a major public health concern. Infections acquired during ophthalmic surgery are devastating. The purpose of the current study is to compare the proportion of eyes with negative bacterial cultures on all tested media after 1 versus 3 sequential drops of povidone-iodine (PI 5% into the inferior conjunctival fornix.Patients were randomly assigned to receive 1 (PI group drop (at time 28 minutes or 3 (PI plus group sequential drops (at time 0, 20 minutes and 28 minutes of PI 5% into the inferior conjunctival sac of one randomly selected eye. A swab culture was obtained from the inferior conjunctival fornix 5 minutes before and 30 minutes after time 0. Central corneal thickness (CCT was measured shortly before time 0 and shortly after time 30. Conjunctival swabs were incubated aerobically in enriched Thioglycolate liquid medium (meat broth and in three solid culture media (chocolate agar, trypticase soy agar with 5% sheep blood, and Sabouraud agar.There was no significant difference in the proportion of negative cultures after intervention between groups (p = 0.1638. Also in the PI group (n = 59, the proportion of eyes with negative cultures after PI (79.7% did not differ significantly from baseline (76.3%; p = 0.7539. However in the PI plus group (n = 61, the proportion of eyes with all negative cultures after PI (85.3% was significantly higher than before PI (70.5% (p = 0.0177. There was no significant difference in mean CCT before and after the intervention in both groups.Instillation of 3 sequential drops of PI was associated with a significant increase in the proportion of eyes with all negative cultures, while instillation of a single drop of PI was not associated with a significant increase in the proportion of negative cultures. Further study is warranted to determine whether the difference between the PI administration regimens is also associated with differences in the rates of

  3. Radiotherapy for calcaneodynia. Results of a single center prospective randomized dose optimization trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Jeremias, C.; Gaipl, U.S.; Frey, B.; Schmidt, M.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of two different dose fractionation schedules for radiotherapy of patients with calcaneodynia. Between February 2006 and April 2010, 457 consecutive evaluable patients were recruited for this prospective randomized trial. All patients received radiotherapy using the orthovoltage technique. One radiotherapy series consisted of 6 single fractions/3 weeks. In case of insufficient remission of pain after 6 weeks a second radiation series was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either single doses of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy. Endpoint was pain reduction. Pain was measured before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after radiotherapy using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a comprehensive pain score (CPS). The overall response rate for all patients was 87 % directly after and 88 % 6 weeks after radiotherapy. The mean VAS values before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after treatment for the 0.5 and 1.0 Gy groups were 65.5 {+-} 22.1 and 64.0 {+-} 20.5 (p = 0.188), 34.8 {+-} 24.7 and 39.0 {+-} 26.3 (p = 0.122), and 25.1 {+-} 26.8 and 28.9 {+-} 26.8 (p = 0.156), respectively. The mean CPS before, immediately after, and 6 weeks after treatment was 10.1 {+-} 2.7 and 10.0 {+-} 3.0 (p = 0.783), 5.6 {+-} 3.7 and 6.0 {+-} 3.9 (p = 0.336), 4.0 {+-} 4.1 and 4.3 {+-} 3.6 (p = 0.257), respectively. No statistically significant differences between the two single dose trial arms for early (p = 0.216) and delayed response (p = 0.080) were found. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for the management of calcaneodynia. For radiation protection reasons, the dose for a radiotherapy series is recommended not to exceed 3-6 Gy. (orig.)

  4. A comparative study of Laryngeal Mask Airway size 1 vs. i-gel size 1 in infants undergoing daycare procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepanjali; Koul, Archna; Sharma, Bimla; Sood, Jayashree

    2015-04-01

    The i-gel size 1 is a relatively new, single use, second generation supraglottic airway device. This prospective, randomized, observational study compares the suitability of the i-gel size 1 with the classical Laryngeal Mask Airway (cLaryngeal Mask Airway) size 1 in pediatric patients undergoing elective daycare procedures. Forty ASA I and II children (2-5 kg body weight) were randomized to two groups of 20 each, to receive either the i-gel or the cLaryngeal Mask Airway as an airway device. The primary outcome variable was oropharyngeal seal pressure (OSP). We also assessed ease of insertion, number of insertion attempts, time taken for successful insertion and any intra-operative complications. Demographic data did not differ between the two groups. The OSP with the i-gel was 22.30 ± 4.72 cm H2O as compared to 18.05 ± 1.95 cm H2O with the cLaryngeal Mask Airway and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Displacement of the airway device following change of position was reported less often with the i-gel as compared to the cLaryngeal Mask Airway [n = 1 (5%) vs. n = 5 (35%), P = 0.04]. There were no major complications with either device and rest of all the variables were comparable with both the devices. The OSP of the i-gel size 1 was higher than that of the cLaryngeal Mask Airway. This was statistically significant, although may not be of clinical significance. The i-gel size 1 is less prone to displacement during position changes. However, being a preliminary study carried out on a small number of patients, further trials are warranted to come to any definite conclusion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Robot-assisted single-site compared with laparoscopic single-incision cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder disease: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochola, Lukasz Filip; Soll, Christopher; Zehnder, Adrian; Wyss, Roland; Herzog, Pascal; Breitenstein, Stefan

    2017-02-09

    Recent advances in robotic technology suggest that the utilization of the da Vinci Single-Site™ platform for cholecystectomy is safe, feasible and results in a shorter learning curve compared to conventional single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Moreover, the robot-assisted technology has been shown to reduce the surgeon's stress load compared to standard single-incision laparoscopy in an experimental setup, suggesting an important advantage of the da Vinci platform. However, the above-mentioned observations are based solely on case series, case reports and experimental data, as high-quality clinical trials to demonstrate the benefits of the da Vinci Single-Site™ cholecystectomy have not been performed to date. This study addresses the question whether robot-assisted Single-Site™ cholecystectomy provides significant benefits over single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in terms of surgeon's stress load, while matching the standards of the conventional single-incision approach with regard to peri- and postoperative outcomes. It is designed as a single centre, single-blinded randomized controlled trial, which compares both surgical approaches with the primary endpoint surgeon's physical and mental stress load at the time of surgery. In addition, the study aims to assess secondary endpoints such as operating time, conversion rates, additional trocar placement, intra-operative blood loss, length of hospital stay, costs of procedure, health-related quality of life, cosmesis and complications. Patients as well as ward staff are blinded until the 1 st postoperative year. Sample size calculation based on the results of a previously published experimental setup utilizing an estimated effect size of surgeon's comfort of 0.8 (power of 0.8, alpha-error level of 0.05, error margin of 10-15%) resulted in a number of 30 randomized patients per arm. The study is the first randomized controlled trial that compares the da Vinci Single Site™ platform to

  6. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  7. Wafer fab mask qualification techniques and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, Andre; Maelzer, Stephanie; Spence, Chris; Tabery, Cyrus; Lang, Michael; Schnasse, Guido; Peikert, Milko; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

    2006-10-01

    Mask inspection and qualification is a must for wafer fabs to ensure and guarantee high and stable yields. Single defect events can easily cause a million dollar loss through a defect duplicating onto the wafer. Several techniques and methods for mask qualification within a wafer fab are known but not all of them are neither used nor understood regarding their limitations. Increasing effort on existing tool platforms is necessary to detect the defects of interest which are at the limit of the tools specification - On the other hand next generation tools are very sensitive and therefore consume only a negligible amount of time for recipe optimization. Knowing the limits of each inspection tool helps to balance between effort and benefit. Masks with programmed defects of 90nm and 65nm design rule were used in order to compare the different available inspection techniques. During the course of this technical work, the authors concentrate mainly on two inspection techniques. The first one inspects the reticle itself using KLA-Tencor's SLF27 (TeraStar) and SL536 (TeraScan) tools. As the reticle gets inspected itself this is the so called "direct" mask defect inspection. The second inspection technique discussed is the "indirect" mask defect inspection which consists of printing the pattern on a blank wafer and use KLA-Tencor's bright-field wafer inspection tool (2xxx series) to inspect the wafer. Data of this work will include description of the techniques, inspection results, defect maps, sensitivity analysis, effort estimation as well as limitations for both techniques for the used design rule.

  8. SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE TRIAL VECTORS IN CLASSICAL DIFFERENTIAL EVOLUTION FOR OPTIMIZING THE QUANTIZATION TABLE IN JPEG BASELINE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vinoth Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantization Table is responsible for compression / quality trade-off in baseline Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG algorithm and therefore it is viewed as an optimization problem. In the literature, it has been found that Classical Differential Evolution (CDE is a promising algorithm to generate the optimal quantization table. However, the searching capability of CDE could be limited due to generation of single trial vector in an iteration which in turn reduces the convergence speed. This paper studies the performance of CDE by employing multiple trial vectors in a single iteration. An extensive performance analysis has been made between CDE and CDE with multiple trial vectors in terms of Optimization process, accuracy, convergence speed and reliability. The analysis report reveals that CDE with multiple trial vectors improves the convergence speed of CDE and the same is confirmed using a statistical hypothesis test (t-test.

  9. The FINISH-3 Trial : A Phase 3, International, Randomized, Single-Blind, Controlled Trial of Topical Fibrocaps in Intraoperative Surgical Hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochicchio, Grant V.; Gupta, Navyash; Porte, Robert J.; Renkens, Kenneth L.; Pattyn, Piet; Topal, Baki; Troisi, Roberto Ivan; Muir, William; Chetter, Ian; Gillen, Daniel L.; Zuckerman, Linda A.; Frohna, Paul A.

    BACKGROUND: This Phase 3, international, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial (FINISH-3) compared the efficacy and safety of Fibrocaps, a ready-to-use, dry-powder fibrin sealant containing human plasma-derived thrombin and fibrinogen, vs gelatin sponge alone for use as a hemostat for surgical

  10. Prospective single blinded randomised controlled trial of two orally administered activated charcoal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R; Hanson, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare two activated charcoal preparations (Carbomix and Actidose-Aqua) in terms of amount ingested and incidence of vomiting after ingestion. METHODS: Single blinded prospective randomised controlled trial. RESULTS: The mean amount of charcoal ingested was Carbomix 26.5 g, Actidose-Aqua 19.5 g. The mean difference was 7 g (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5 to 12.4 g). The incidence of vomiting was for the Carbomix 6% and the Actidose-Aqua 8%. The mean difference in vomiting was 2% (95% CI -0.8 to 4.8) CONCLUSIONS: Carbomix administration results in an increased amount of activated charcoal ingested after oral administration. Rates of vomiting after activated charcoal administration were low when compared with previously reported rates. PMID:9918281

  11. Single-trial analysis of the neural correlates of speech quality perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porbadnigk, Anne K; Treder, Matthias S; Blankertz, Benjamin; Antons, Jan-Niklas; Schleicher, Robert; Möller, Sebastian; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2013-10-01

    Assessing speech quality perception is a challenge typically addressed in behavioral and opinion-seeking experiments. Only recently, neuroimaging methods were introduced, which were used to study the neural processing of quality at group level. However, our electroencephalography (EEG) studies show that the neural correlates of quality perception are highly individual. Therefore, it became necessary to establish dedicated machine learning methods for decoding subject-specific effects. The effectiveness of our methods is shown by the data of an EEG study that investigates how the quality of spoken vowels is processed neurally. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had perceived a degradation of quality (signal-correlated noise) in vowels, presented in an oddball paradigm. We find that the P3 amplitude is attenuated with increasing noise. Single-trial analysis allows one to show that this is partly due to an increasing jitter of the P3 component. A novel classification approach helps to detect trials with presumably non-conscious processing at the threshold of perception. We show that this approach uncovers a non-trivial confounder between neural hits and neural misses. The combined use of EEG signals and machine learning methods results in a significant 'neural' gain in sensitivity (in processing quality loss) when compared to standard behavioral evaluation; averaged over 11 subjects, this amounts to a relative improvement in sensitivity of 35%.

  12. Single-trial analysis of the neural correlates of speech quality perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porbadnigk, Anne K.; Treder, Matthias S.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Antons, Jan-Niklas; Schleicher, Robert; Möller, Sebastian; Curio, Gabriel; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Assessing speech quality perception is a challenge typically addressed in behavioral and opinion-seeking experiments. Only recently, neuroimaging methods were introduced, which were used to study the neural processing of quality at group level. However, our electroencephalography (EEG) studies show that the neural correlates of quality perception are highly individual. Therefore, it became necessary to establish dedicated machine learning methods for decoding subject-specific effects. Approach. The effectiveness of our methods is shown by the data of an EEG study that investigates how the quality of spoken vowels is processed neurally. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had perceived a degradation of quality (signal-correlated noise) in vowels, presented in an oddball paradigm. Main results. We find that the P3 amplitude is attenuated with increasing noise. Single-trial analysis allows one to show that this is partly due to an increasing jitter of the P3 component. A novel classification approach helps to detect trials with presumably non-conscious processing at the threshold of perception. We show that this approach uncovers a non-trivial confounder between neural hits and neural misses. Significance. The combined use of EEG signals and machine learning methods results in a significant ‘neural’ gain in sensitivity (in processing quality loss) when compared to standard behavioral evaluation; averaged over 11 subjects, this amounts to a relative improvement in sensitivity of 35%.

  13. Acupuncture for Pain in Chronic Pancreatitis: A Single-Blinded Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juel, Jacob; Liguori, Stefano; Liguori, Aldo; Poulsen, Jakob L; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Graversen, Carina; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2017-02-01

    Many patients with painful chronic pancreatitis (CP) have insufficient effect of treatment, and the prevalence of adverse effects is high. Consequently, alternatives to conventional management are needed. We aimed to study the effect of acupuncture in painful CP. This was a prospective, single-blinded, randomized crossover trial. Fifteen patients with CP were assigned to a session of acupuncture followed by sham stimulation or vice versa. Patients rated clinical pain scores daily on a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS) and completed the Patient Global Impression of Change. For mechanistic linkage, resting state electroencephalograms were recorded and quantified by spectral power analysis to explore effects on central pain processing. Acupuncture, compared with sham stimulation, caused more pain relief (2.0 ± 1.5 VAS vs 0.7 ± 0.8 VAS; P = 0.009). The effect, however, was short, and after 1-week follow-up, there was no difference in clinical pain scores between groups (P = 1.0) or the rating of Patient Global Impression of Change (P = 0.8). Electroencephalogram spectral power distributions between sham and acupuncture were comparable between groups (all P > 0.6). The study presents proof-of-concept for the analgesic effect of acupuncture in pancreatic pain. Although the effect was short lasting, the framework may be used to conceptualize future trials of acupuncture in visceral pain.

  14. Single trial prediction of self-paced reaching directions from EEG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Yi Lee Lew

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Early detection of movement intention could possibly minimize the delays in the activation of neuroprosthetic devices. As yet, single trial analysis using non-invasive approaches for understanding such movement preparation remains a challenging task. We studied the feasibility of predicting movement directions in self-paced upper limb center-out reaching tasks, i.e., spontaneous movements executed without an external cue that can better reflect natural motor behavior in humans. We reported results of non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG recorded from mild stroke patients and able-bodied participants. Previous studies have shown that low frequency EEG oscillations are modulated by the intent to move and therefore, can be decoded prior to the movement execution. Motivated by these results, we investigated whether slow cortical potentials (SCPs preceding movement onset can be used to classify reaching directions and evaluated the performance using 5-fold cross-validation. For able-bodied subjects, we obtained an average decoding accuracy of 76% (chance level of 25% at 62.5ms before onset using the amplitude of on-going SCPs with above chance level performances between 875ms to 437.5ms prior to onset. The decoding accuracy for the stroke patients was on average 47% with their paretic arms. Comparison of the decoding accuracy across different frequency ranges (i.e., SCPs, delta, theta, alpha and gamma yielded the best accuracy using SCPs filtered between 0.1 to 1 Hz. Across all the subjects, including stroke subjects, the best selected features were obtained mostly from the fronto-parietal regions, hence consistent with previous neurophysiological studies on arm reaching tasks. In summary, we concluded that SCPs allow the possibility of single trial decoding of reaching directions at least 312.5ms before onset of reach.

  15. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data were presented in detail at BACUS and the detailed trend analysis presented at EMLC. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2007. Questions are grouped into seven categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. (Examples are given below). Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  16. Efficacy and safety of primaquine and methylene blue for prevention of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Mali: a phase 2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Alassane; Roh, Michelle E; Diawara, Halimatou; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Soumare, Harouna M; Lanke, Kjerstin; Bradley, John; Sanogo, Koualy; Kone, Daouda T; Diarra, Kalifa; Keita, Sekouba; Issiaka, Djibrilla; Traore, Sekou F; McCulloch, Charles; Stone, Will J R; Hwang, Jimee; Müller, Olaf; Brown, Joelle M; Srinivasan, Vinay; Drakeley, Chris; Gosling, Roly; Chen, Ingrid; Bousema, Teun

    2018-02-05

    Primaquine and methylene blue are gametocytocidal compounds that could prevent Plasmodium falciparum transmission to mosquitoes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of primaquine and methylene blue in preventing human to mosquito transmission of P falciparum among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-normal, gametocytaemic male participants. This was a phase 2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial done at the Clinical Research Centre of the Malaria Research and Training Centre (MRTC) of the University of Bamako (Bamako, Mali). We enrolled male participants aged 5-50 years with asymptomatic P falciparum malaria. G6PD-normal participants with gametocytes detected by blood smear were randomised 1:1:1:1 in block sizes of eight, using a sealed-envelope design, to receive either sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine plus a single dose of 0·25 mg/kg primaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus 15 mg/kg per day methylene blue for 3 days. Laboratory staff, investigators, and insectary technicians were masked to the treatment group and gametocyte density of study participants. The study pharmacist and treating physician were not masked. Participants could request unmasking. The primary efficacy endpoint, analysed in all infected patients with at least one infectivity measure before and after treatment, was median within-person percentage change in mosquito infectivity 2 and 7 days after treatment, assessed by membrane feeding. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02831023. Between June 27, 2016, and Nov 1, 2016, 80 participants were enrolled and assigned to the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine (n=20), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine plus primaquine (n=20), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n=20), or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus methylene blue (n=20) groups. Among participants infectious at baseline (54 [68%] of 80), those in the

  17. Single-trial detection of visual evoked potentials by common spatial patterns and wavelet filtering for brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiheng; Huang, Gan; Hung, Yeung Sam; Hu, Li; Hu, Yong; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are widely used in brain-computer interface (BCI) systems as input signals conveying a subject's intention. A fast and reliable single-trial ERP detection method can be used to develop a BCI system with both high speed and high accuracy. However, most of single-trial ERP detection methods are developed for offline EEG analysis and thus have a high computational complexity and need manual operations. Therefore, they are not applicable to practical BCI systems, which require a low-complexity and automatic ERP detection method. This work presents a joint spatial-time-frequency filter that combines common spatial patterns (CSP) and wavelet filtering (WF) for improving the signal-to-noise (SNR) of visual evoked potentials (VEP), which can lead to a single-trial ERP-based BCI.

  18. Effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter; Waehler, Tobias; Singh, Sherjang; Jonckheere, Rik; Baudemprez, Bart

    2011-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is considered the leading lithography technology choice for semiconductor devices at 16nm HP node and beyond. However, before EUV Lithography can enter into High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) of advanced semiconductor devices, the ability to guarantee mask integrity at point-of-exposure must be established. Highly efficient, damage free mask cleaning plays a critical role during the mask manufacturing cycle and throughout the life of the mask, where the absence of a pellicle to protect the EUV mask increases the risk of contamination during storage, handling and use. In this paper, we will present effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance, which employs an intelligent, holistic approach to maximize Mean Time Between Cleans (MBTC) and extend the useful life span of the reticle. The data presented will demonstrate the protection of the capping and absorber layers, preservation of pattern integrity as well as optical and mechanical properties to avoid unpredictable CD-linewidth and overlay shifts. Experiments were performed on EUV blanks and pattern masks using various process conditions. Conditions showing high particle removal efficiency (PRE) and minimum surface layer impact were then selected for durability studies. Surface layer impact was evaluated over multiple cleaning cycles by means of UV reflectivity metrology XPS analysis and wafer prints. Experimental results were compared to computational models. Mask life time predictions where made using the same computational models. The paper will provide a generic overview of the cleaning sequence which yielded best results, but will also provide recommendations for an efficient in-fab mask maintenance scheme, addressing handling, storage, cleaning and inspection.

  19. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with TKM-130803: A Single-Arm Phase 2 Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunning, Jake; Sahr, Foday; Rojek, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: TKM-130803, a small interfering RNA lipid nanoparticle product, has been developed for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD), but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been evaluated. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this single-arm phase 2 trial, adults with laboratory-confirmed EVD...... of TKM-130803 at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/d by intravenous infusion to adult patients with severe EVD was not shown to improve survival when compared to historic controls. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201501000997429....

  20. Selectivity of N170 for visual words in the right hemisphere: Evidence from single-trial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhao, Jing; Gaspar, Carl M; Chen, Wei; Tan, Yufei; Weng, Xuchu

    2017-08-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have identified the involvement of the right posterior region in the processing of visual words. Interestingly, in contrast, ERP studies of the N170 typically demonstrate selectivity for words more strikingly over the left hemisphere. Why is right hemisphere selectivity for words during the N170 epoch typically not observed, despite the clear involvement of this region in word processing? One possibility is that amplitude differences measured on averaged ERPs in previous studies may have been obscured by variation in peak latency across trials. This study examined this possibility by using single-trial analysis. Results show that words evoked greater single-trial N170s than control stimuli in the right hemisphere. Additionally, we observed larger trial-to-trial variability on N170 peak latency for words as compared to control stimuli over the right hemisphere. Results demonstrate that, in contrast to much of the prior literature, the N170 can be selective to words over the right hemisphere. This discrepancy is explained in terms of variability in trial-to-trial peak latency for responses to words over the right hemisphere. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Effect of intranasal dexmedetomidine or oral midazolam premedication on sevoflurane EC50 for successful laryngeal mask airway placement in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savla, Jyothi R; Ghai, Babita; Bansal, Dipika; Wig, Jyotsna

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of oral midazolam (OM) or intranasal dexmedetomidine (IND) on the EC50 of sevoflurane for successful laryngeal mask airway placement in children. We hypothesize that premedication with either agent might reduce the sevoflurane EC50 for laryngeal mask airway placement in children to a similar extent. Fifty-two American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I children (aged 1-6 years) scheduled for general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway were randomized to one of the three groups: group M received 0.5 mg · kg(-1) OM with honey and intranasal saline, group D received 2 μg · kg(-1) IND along with oral honey, and group P received oral honey and intranasal saline at least 30 min prior to induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with incremental sevoflurane up to 8% in 100% O2 . A predetermined target endtidal sevoflurane (ETsevo ) concentration (2% in the first child of all three groups) was sustained for 10 min before the attempt of laryngeal mask airway insertion by adjusting dial concentration. No intravenous anesthetic or neuromuscular blockade was used. ETsevo was increased/decreased (step size 0.2%) using Dixon's and Massey's up and down method in next patient depending upon previous patient's response. Placement of the laryngeal mask airway without movement, coughing, biting, or bucking was considered as successful. EC50 of sevoflurane was calculated as the average of the crossover midpoints in each group, which was further confirmed by probit analysis. The EC50 of sevoflurane for laryngeal mask airway placement after OM (1.66 ± 0.31) and IND (1.57 ± 0.14) premedications was significantly lower than the placebo group (2.00 ± 0.17, P mask airway insertion in children by 17% and 21%, respectively. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  3. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek

    2017-10-01

    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  4. Single dose intravenous methyl prednisolone versus oral prednisolone in Bell's palsy: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Prithvi; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Verma, Rajesh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of Bell's palsy and several other postinfectious neurological conditions. We hypothesized that administration of a single dose of intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone might be an effective alternative to oral prednisolone. Materials and Methods: In this open label, randomized trial, patients with acute Bell's palsy were randomized into two groups. One group received single dose (500 mg) of IV methylprednisolone while the other group received 10 days of oral prednisone. Outcome was assessed at 1 and 3 months with House–Brackmann scale. Results: At 3 months, 93 (79.48%) patients had completely recovered. IV methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone groups had similar recovery rates (80% vs. 78.33%, P > 0.05). Patients with Grade 2 and 3 recovered completely. In patients with Grade 6, the recovery rate was 20%. A better outcome was observed if corticosteroids were administered within 3 days of onset of palsy. Conclusion: Intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone showed equivalent benefit in patients with acute Bell's palsy. PMID:25878371

  5. Single-event multilevel surgery in children with spastic diplegia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Pamela; Baker, Richard; Dodd, Karen; Taylor, Nicholas; Selber, Paulo; Wolfe, Rory; Graham, H Kerr

    2011-03-02

    Single-event multilevel surgery is considered the standard of care to improve gait and functioning of children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. However, the evidence base is limited. This pilot study is the first randomized controlled trial of single-event multilevel surgery, to our knowledge. Nineteen children (twelve boys and seven girls with a mean age of nine years and eight months) with spastic diplegia were enrolled. Eleven children were randomized to the surgical group and eight, to the control group. The control group underwent a program of progressive resistance strength training. The randomized phase of the trial concluded at twelve months. The control group then exited the study and progressed to surgery, whereas the surgical group continued to be followed in a prospective cohort study. The primary outcome measures were the Gait Profile Score (GPS) and the Gillette Gait Index (GGI). Secondary outcome measures were gross motor function (Gross Motor Function Measure-66 [GMFM-66]), functional mobility (Functional Mobility Scale [FMS]), time spent in the upright position, and health-related quality of life (Child Health Questionnaire [CHQ]). A total of eighty-five surgical procedures were performed, with a mean of eight procedures per child (standard deviation, four). The surgical group had a 34% improvement in the GPS and a 57% improvement in the GGI at twelve months. The control group had a small nonsignificant deterioration in both indices. The between-group differences for the change in the GPS (-5.5; 95% confidence interval, -7.6 to -3.4) and the GGI (-218; 95% confidence interval, -299 to -136) were highly significant. The differences between the groups with regard to the secondary outcome measures were not significant at twelve months. At twenty-four months after surgery, there was a 4.9% increase in the GMFM-66 score and improvements in the FMS score, time spent in the upright position, and the physical functioning domain of the CHQ in the

  6. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinicians tend to avoid the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in the prone position, but several trials demonstrate its low rate of complication if patient selection is performed properly. Obesity is also demonstrated not to be a contraindication to this anaesthetic technique. Patients are more haemodynamically stable if ...

  7. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  8. The performances of standard and ResMed masks during bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Youn; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Seung Joon; Jung, Yong Hun; Lee, Geo Sung; Min, Yong Il; Heo, Tag

    2013-01-01

    A tight mask seal is frequently difficult to obtain and maintain during single-rescuer bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation. The ResMed mask (Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) is a continuous-positive-airway-pressure mask (CM) designed for noninvasive ventilation. In this study, we compared the ventilation performances of a standard mask (SM) and a ResMed CM using a simulation manikin in an out-of-hospital single-rescuer BVM ventilation scenario. Thirty emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performed two 2-minute attempts to ventilate a simulation manikin using BVM ventilation, alternatively, with the SM or the ResMed CM in a randomized order. Ventilation parameters including tidal volume and peak airway pressure were measured using computer analysis software connected to the simulation manikin. Successful volume delivery was defined as delivery of 440-540 mL of tidal volume in accord with present cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM produced higher mean (± standard deviation) tidal volumes (452 ± 50 mL vs. 394 ± 113 mL, p = 0.014) and had a higher proportion of successful volume deliveries (65.3% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001) than that using the SM. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM (p = 0.035). Stomach insufflation did not occur during either method. Twenty-nine of the participants (96.7%) preferred BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM. BVM ventilations using ResMed CM resulted in a significantly higher proportion of successful volume deliveries meeting the currently recommended range of tidal volume. Clinical studies are needed to determine the value of the ResMed CM for BVM ventilation.

  9. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  10. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDelis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Muscle synergies, i.e. invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the variance accounted for (VAF. Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics, our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task

  11. Quantitative evaluation of muscle synergy models: a single-trial task decoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Ioannis; Berret, Bastien; Pozzo, Thierry; Panzeri, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Muscle synergies, i.e., invariant coordinated activations of groups of muscles, have been proposed as building blocks that the central nervous system (CNS) uses to construct the patterns of muscle activity utilized for executing movements. Several efficient dimensionality reduction algorithms that extract putative synergies from electromyographic (EMG) signals have been developed. Typically, the quality of synergy decompositions is assessed by computing the Variance Accounted For (VAF). Yet, little is known about the extent to which the combination of those synergies encodes task-discriminating variations of muscle activity in individual trials. To address this question, here we conceive and develop a novel computational framework to evaluate muscle synergy decompositions in task space. Unlike previous methods considering the total variance of muscle patterns (VAF based metrics), our approach focuses on variance discriminating execution of different tasks. The procedure is based on single-trial task decoding from muscle synergy activation features. The task decoding based metric evaluates quantitatively the mapping between synergy recruitment and task identification and automatically determines the minimal number of synergies that captures all the task-discriminating variability in the synergy activations. In this paper, we first validate the method on plausibly simulated EMG datasets. We then show that it can be applied to different types of muscle synergy decomposition and illustrate its applicability to real data by using it for the analysis of EMG recordings during an arm pointing task. We find that time-varying and synchronous synergies with similar number of parameters are equally efficient in task decoding, suggesting that in this experimental paradigm they are equally valid representations of muscle synergies. Overall, these findings stress the effectiveness of the decoding metric in systematically assessing muscle synergy decompositions in task space.

  12. Simulating real world functioning in schizophrenia using a naturalistic city environment and single-trial, goal-directed navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, John A; Girard, Todd A; Foussias, George; Rodrigues, Alicia; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Lerch, Jason P; Grady, Cheryl; Remington, Gary; Wong, Albert H C

    2013-01-01

    To develop a virtual reality platform that would serve as a functionally meaningful measure of cognition in schizophrenia and that would also complement standard batteries of cognitive tests during clinical trials for cognitive treatments in schizophrenia, be amenable to human neuroimaging research, yet lend itself to neurobiological comparison with rodent analogs. Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls matched for age, sex, video gaming experience, and education completed eight rapid, single-trial virtual navigation tasks within a naturalistic virtual city. Four trials tested their ability to find different targets seen during the passive viewing of a closed path that led them around different city blocks. Four subsequent trials tested their ability to return to four different starting points after viewing a path that took them several blocks away from the starting position. Individuals with schizophrenia had difficulties in way-finding, measured as distance travelled to find targets previously encountered within the virtual city. They were also more likely not to notice the target during passive viewing, less likely to find novel shortcuts to targets, and more likely to become lost and fail completely in finding the target. Total travel distances across all eight trials strongly correlated (negatively) with neurocognitive measures and, for 49 participants who completed the Quality of Life Scale, psychosocial functioning. Single-trial, goal-directed navigation in a naturalistic virtual environment is a functionally meaningful measure of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

  13. Simulating real world functioning in schizophrenia using a naturalistic city environment and single-trial, goal-directed navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Zawadzki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a virtual reality platform that would serve as a functionally meaningful measure of cognition in schizophrenia that would complement standard batteries of cognitive tests during clinical trials for cognitive treatments in schizophrenia, be amenable to human neuroimaging research, yet lend itself to neurobiological comparison with rodent analogues.Method: Thirty-three patients with schizophrenia and 33 healthy controls matched for age, sex, video gaming experience and education completed eight rapid, single-trial virtual navigation tasks within a naturalistic virtual city. Four trials tested their ability to find different targets seen during the passive viewing of a closed path that led them around different city blocks. Four subsequent trials tested their ability to return to four different starting points after viewing a path that took them several blocks away from the starting position. Results: Individuals with schizophrenia had difficulties in way-finding, measured as distance travelled to find targets previously encountered within the virtual city. They were also more likely not to notice the target during passive viewing, less likely to find novel shortcuts to targets and more likely to become lost and fail completely in finding the target. Total travel distances across all eight trials strongly correlated (negatively with neurocognitive measures and, for 49 participants who completed the Quality of Life Scale, psychosocial functioning. Conclusion: Single-trial, goal-directed navigation in a naturalistic virtual environment is a functionally meaningful measure of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia.

  14. Equivalence of nasal and oronasal masks during initial CPAP titration for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Ming; Amis, Terence; Lee, Sharon; Falland, Karina; Lambert, Stephen; Wheatley, John

    2011-07-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration studies are commonly performed using a nasal mask but some patients may prefer a full-face or oronasal mask. There is little evidence regarding the equivalence of different mask interfaces used to initiate treatment. We hypothesized that oronasal breathing when using an oronasal mask increases upper airway collapsibility and that a higher pressure may be required to maintain airway patency. We also assessed patient preferences for the 2 mask interfaces. Prospective, randomized, cross-over design with 2 consecutive CPAP titration nights. Accredited laboratory in a university hospital. Twenty-four treatment-naive subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and respiratory disturbance index of greater than 15 events per hour. CPAP titration was performed using an auto-titrating machine with randomization to a nasal or oronasal mask, followed by a second titration night using the alternate mask style. There was no significant difference in the mean pressures determined between nasal and oronasal masks, although 43% of subjects had nasal-to-oronasal mask-pressure differences of 2 cm H(2)O or more. Residual respiratory events, arousals, and measured leak were all greater with the oronasal mask. Seventy-nine percent of subjects preferred the nasal mask. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome can generally switch between nasal and oronasal masks without changing machine pressure, although there are individual differences that may be clinically significant. Measured leak is greater with the oronasal mask. Most patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome prefer a nasal mask as the interface for initiation of CPAP. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN: ACTRN12611000243910. URL: http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12611000243910.aspx

  15. Flexible optical intubation via the Ambu Aura-i vs blind intubation via the single-use LMA Fastrach: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artime, Carlos A; Altamirano, Alfonso; Normand, Katherine C; Ferrario, Lara; Aijazi, Hassan; Cattano, Davide; Hagberg, Carin A

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the Ambu Aura-i to the single-use LMA Fastrach regarding time to intubation, success rate, and airway morbidity in patients undergoing elective surgery requiring general anesthesia. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Academic medical center. Sixty-five adult patients scheduled for elective surgery requiring general anesthesia. Patients were randomized into 2 groups. Group A (n=33) were intubated using Ambu Aura-i and the Ambu aScope 2, a disposable flexible intubating scope, whereas those in group B (n=33) were blindly intubated using the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA). First-attempt intubation success rate, overall intubation success rate, time to intubation, incidence of airway morbidity. The data demonstrated that time for endotracheal intubation in the ILMA group was significantly shorter than in the Ambu Aura-i group (PAura-i=26/33, 78.8%; ILMA=27/33, 81.8%; P=.757) or the overall intubation success rate (Aura-i=29/33, 87.9%; ILMA=31/33, 93.9%; P=.392) between the groups. Four patients (12%) in the Ambu Aura-i group had a failed intubation; 1 was due to a failure of the aScope monitor, whereas 3 were due to inability to visualize the glottis. Two patients (7%) in the ILMA group had a failed intubation due to esophageal intubation. There was no statistically significant difference in airway morbidity between the 2 groups. The data suggest that intubation with the ILMA is faster but that first-attempt and overall intubation success rates were comparable in both groups. The results suggest that although the flexible intubating scope-guided Aura-i does not outperform blind intubation via the ILMA, the technique is comparable in terms of first-attempt and overall intubation success rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-photon compatibility and single-voxel, single-trial detection of subthreshold neuronal activity by a two-component optical voltage sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ann E; Bender, Kevin J; Trussell, Laurence O; Otis, Thomas S; DiGregorio, David A

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive measurements of neuronal activity are essential for understanding how signal processing is performed by neuronal networks. While optical strategies for making such measurements hold great promise, optical sensors generally lack the speed and sensitivity necessary to record neuronal activity on a single-trial, single-neuron basis. Here we present additional biophysical characterization and practical improvements of a two-component optical voltage sensor (2cVoS), comprised of the neuronal tracer dye, DiO, and dipicrylamine (DiO/DPA). Using laser spot illumination we demonstrate that membrane potential-dependent fluorescence changes can be obtained in a wide variety of cell types within brain slices. We show a correlation between membrane labeling and the sensitivity of the magnitude of fluorescence signal, such that neurons with the brightest membrane labeling yield the largest ΔF/F values per action potential (AP; ∼40%). By substituting a blue-shifted donor for DiO we confirm that DiO/DPA works, at least in part, via a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism. We also describe a straightforward iontophoretic method for labeling multiple neurons with DiO and show that DiO/DPA is compatible with two-photon (2P) imaging. Finally, exploiting the high sensitivity of DiO/DPA, we demonstrate AP-induced fluorescence transients (fAPs) recorded from single spines of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and single-trial measurements of subthreshold synaptic inputs to granule cell dendrites. Our findings suggest that the 2cVoS, DiO/DPA, enables optical measurements of trial-to-trial voltage fluctuations with very high spatial and temporal resolution, properties well suited for monitoring electrical signals from multiple neurons within intact neuronal networks.

  17. Two-photon compatibility and single-voxel, single-trial detection of subthreshold neuronal activity by a two-component optical voltage sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Fink

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive measurements of neuronal activity are essential for understanding how signal processing is performed by neuronal networks. While optical strategies for making such measurements hold great promise, optical sensors generally lack the speed and sensitivity necessary to record neuronal activity on a single-trial, single-neuron basis. Here we present additional biophysical characterization and practical improvements of a two-component optical voltage sensor (2cVoS, comprised of the neuronal tracer dye, DiO, and dipicrylamine (DiO/DPA. Using laser spot illumination we demonstrate that membrane potential-dependent fluorescence changes can be obtained in a wide variety of cell types within brain slices. We show a correlation between membrane labeling and the sensitivity of the magnitude of fluorescence signal, such that neurons with the brightest membrane labeling yield the largest ΔF/F values per action potential (AP; ∼40%. By substituting a blue-shifted donor for DiO we confirm that DiO/DPA works, at least in part, via a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET mechanism. We also describe a straightforward iontophoretic method for labeling multiple neurons with DiO and show that DiO/DPA is compatible with two-photon (2P imaging. Finally, exploiting the high sensitivity of DiO/DPA, we demonstrate AP-induced fluorescence transients (fAPs recorded from single spines of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and single-trial measurements of subthreshold synaptic inputs to granule cell dendrites. Our findings suggest that the 2cVoS, DiO/DPA, enables optical measurements of trial-to-trial voltage fluctuations with very high spatial and temporal resolution, properties well suited for monitoring electrical signals from multiple neurons within intact neuronal networks.

  18. Internet-Based Intervention for Tinnitus: Outcome of a Single-Group Open Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukes, Eldré W; Allen, Peter M; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Baguley, David M; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-04-01

    Managing chronic tinnitus is challenging, and innovative ways to address the resulting health-care burden are required. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for tinnitus shows promise as a cost-effective treatment option. The feasibility and effectiveness of iCBT in the United Kingdom are yet to be explored. Furthermore, it is not known if iCBT can be supported by an audiologist rather than a psychologist. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of guided iCBT using audiological support on tinnitus distress and tinnitus-related comorbidities. Furthermore, it aimed to establish the feasibility of iCBT for tinnitus distress in the United Kingdom, by determining recruitment, attrition, and compliance rates. Finally, it aimed to identify which aspects of the protocol require refinement for subsequent clinical trials. A single-group open trial design was implemented. This study would serve as a prerequisite study, to identify barriers, before undertaking effectiveness trials. Participants consisted of 37 adults (18 males, 19 females), with an age range of between 50 and 59 yr. The mean preintervention tinnitus severity rating was 56.15 (standard deviation = 18.35), which is categorized as "severe tinnitus" as measured by the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI). Five participants withdrew during the study, and 29 of the remaining participants completed the postintervention questionnaire. The guided iCBT intervention ran over an eight-week period and consisted of 16 obligatory modules and five optional modules. The intervention was designed to be interactive, interesting, and stimulating. A key element was the provision of support from an audiologist throughout the program. Online questionnaires were used throughout the study. These were administered at baseline and postintervention to determine attrition and compliance rates and to facilitate sample size estimates for further clinical trials. Outcome measures for tinnitus severity, hearing handicap

  19. The Women's wellness after cancer program: a multisite, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte; Tjondronegoro, Dian; Turner, Jane; Monterosso, Leanne; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine; Song, Wei; Yates, Patsy; King, Neil; Young, Leonie; White, Kate; Lee, Kathryn; Hall, Sonj; Krishnasamy, Mei; Wells, Kathy; Balaam, Sarah; McCarthy, Alexandra L

    2017-02-03

    Despite advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment have significantly improved survival rates, patients post-treatment-related health needs are often not adequately addressed by current health services. The aim of the Women's Wellness after Cancer Program (WWACP), which is a digitised multimodal lifestyle intervention, is to enhance health-related quality of life in women previously treated for blood, breast and gynaecological cancers. A single-blinded, multi-centre randomized controlled trial recruited a total of 351 women within 24 months of completion of chemotherapy (primary or adjuvant) and/or radiotherapy. Women were randomly assigned to either usual care or intervention using computer-generated permuted-block randomisation. The intervention comprises an evidence-based interactive iBook and journal, web interface, and virtual health consultations by an experienced cancer nurse trained in the delivery of the WWACP. The 12 week intervention focuses on evidence-based health education and health promotion after a cancer diagnosis. Components are drawn from the American Cancer Research Institute and the World Cancer Research Fund Guidelines (2010), incorporating promotion of physical activity, good diet, smoking cessation, reduction of alcohol intake, plus strategies for sleep and stress management. The program is based on Bandura's social cognitive theoretical framework. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life, as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G). Secondary outcomes are menopausal symptoms as assessed by Greene Climacteric Scale; physical activity elicited with the Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF); sleep measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; habitual dietary intake monitored with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ); alcohol intake and tobacco use measured by the Australian Health Survey and anthropometric measures including height, weight and waist-to-hip ratio. All

  20. Randomized Trial of the Effect of Contact Lens Wear on Self-Perception in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walline, J.J.; Jones, L.A.; Sinnott, L.; Chitkara, M.; Coffey, B.; Jackson, J.M.; Manny, R.E.; Rath, M.J.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether contact lens wear affects children's self-perceptions. Methods. The Adolescent and Child Health Initiative to Encourage Vision Empowerment Study was a randomized, single-masked trial conducted at five clinical centers in the United States. Subjects were 8- to

  1. Impact of adding a second-layer to a single unlocked closure of Cesarean uterine incision: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, Martin; Bennich, G; Wilken-Jensen, C

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate short- and long term effects on residual myometrial thickness (RMT) by adding a second-layer to a single unlocked closure of caesarean uterine incision. METHOD: he study was a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Healthy nulliparous scheduled...

  2. Single-dose brachytherapy versus metal stent placement for the palliation of dysphagia from oesophageal cancer: multicentre randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homs, Marjolein Y. V.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Eijkenboom, Wilhelmina M. H.; Tilanus, Hugo W.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Bartelsman, Joep F. W. M.; van Lanschot, Jan J. B.; Wijrdeman, Harm K.; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Reinders, Janny G.; Boot, Henk; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Siersema, Peter D.

    2004-01-01

    Background Both single-dose brachytherapy and self-expanding metal stent placement are commonly used for palliation of oesophageal obstruction due to inoperable cancer, but their relative merits are unknown. We under-took a randomised trial to compare the outcomes of brachytherapy and stent

  3. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  4. Single-Trial EEG-EMG coherence analysis reveals muscle fatigue-related progressive alterations in corticomuscular coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, Vlodek; Sahgal, Vinod; Yue, Guang H

    2010-04-01

    Voluntary muscle fatigue is a progressive process. A recent study demonstrated muscle fatigue-induced weakening of functional corticomuscular coupling measured by coherence between the brain [electroencephalogram (EEG)] and muscle [electromyogram (EMG)] signals after a relatively long-duration muscle contraction. Comparing the EEG-EMG coherence before versus after fatigue or between data of two long-duration time blocks is not adequate to reveal the dynamic nature of the fatigue process. The purpose of this study was to address this issue by quantifying single-trial EEG-EMG coherence and EEG, EMG power based on wavelet transform. Eight healthy subjects performed 200 maximal intermittent handgrip contractions in a single session with handgrip force, EEG and EMG signals acquired simultaneously. The EEG and EMG data during each 2-s handgrip was subjected to single trial EEG-EMG wavelet energy spectrum and coherence computation. The EEG-EMG coherence and energy spectrum at beta (15 ~ 35 Hz) and gamma (35-50 Hz) frequency bands were statistically analyzed in 2-block (75 trials per block), 5-block (30 trials/block), and 10-block (15 trials/block) data settings. The energy of both the EEG and EMG signals decreased significantly with muscle fatigue. The EEG-EMG coherence had a significant reduction for the 2-block comparison. More detailed dynamical changing and inter-subject variation of the EEG-EMG coherence and energy were revealed by 5- and 10-block comparisons. These results show feasibility of wavelet transform-based measurement of the EEG-EMG coherence and corresponding energy based on single-trial data, which provides extra information to demonstrate a time course of dynamic adaptations of the functional corticomuscular coupling, as well as brain and muscle signals during muscle fatigue.

  5. The efficacy of three different mask styles on a PAP titration night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Matthew R; Oyegbile, Temitayo; Pollak, Charles P

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of three different masks, nasal pillows, nasal masks and full face (oronasal) masks, during a single night of titration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Fifty five subjects that included men (n=33) and women (n=22) were randomly assigned to one of three masks and underwent a routine titration with incremental CPAP applied through the different masks. CPAP applied through the nasal pillows and nasal mask was equally effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. However, CPAP applied through the oronasal mask required a significantly higher pressure compared to nasal masks to treat moderately severe (2.8 cm of H(2)O ± 2.1 SD) and severe (6.0 cm of H(2)O ± 3.2 SD) obstructive sleep apnea. CPAP applied with either nasal mask was effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. The oronasal mask required significantly higher pressures in subjects with moderate to severe disease. Therefore, when changing from a nasal to an oronasal mask, a repeat titration is required to ensure effective treatment of sleep apnea, especially in patients with moderate to severe disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. What determines the object-level visual masking: The bottom-up role of topological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; He, Lixia; Wang, Wenbo; Meng, Qianli; Zhou, Tiangang; Chen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur on an object level without a close spatiotemporal proximity of target and mask. An influential account for OSM is "object updating," which espouses that OSM occurs when the target is updated by the mask as they share a single object representation. However, it is unclear what attribute determines whether the mask shares the same object representation as the target. We hypothesize that topological property determines whether a new object representation is built, and hence topological perception modulates object-level masking. We systematically manipulated the similarity between the target and the mask by changing a topological property (number of holes), color, shape, and orientation. We found that the topological change between the target and the mask reduced masking effects of all the other properties. Changing color, shape, or orientation, however, did not affect the masking effect of any other property. The global effect of the topological change remained across a variety of temporal and spatial distances between the target and the mask and was not limited to masking paradigms. Thus, our results suggest that the object representation, constrained by its topological properties, serves as a higher and global level of OSM, influencing the ongoing visual processing of features that are at a lower and local level.

  7. Statistical frequency-dependent analysis of trial-to-trial variability in single time series by recurrence plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eTosic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, research in neuroscience has supported the hypothesis that brain dynamics exhibits recurrent metastable states connected by transients, which together encode fundamental neural information processing. To understand the system’s dynamics it is important to detect such recurrence domains, but it is challenging to extract them from experimental neuroscience datasets due to the large trial-to-trial variability. The proposed methodology extracts recurrent metastable states in univariate time series by transforming datasets into their time-frequency representations and computing recurrence plots based on instantaneous spectral power values in various frequency bands. Additionally, a new statistical inference analysis compares different trial recurrence plots with corresponding surrogates to obtain statistically significant recurrent structures. This combination of methods is validated by applying it to two artificial datasets. In a final study of visually-evoked Local Field Potentials in partially anesthetized ferrets, the methodology is able to reveal recurrence structures of neural responses with trial-to-trial variability. Focusing on different frequency bands, the delta-band activity is much less recurrent than alpha-band activity. Moreover, alpha-activity is susceptible to pre-stimuli, while delta-activity is much less sensitive to pre-stimuli. This difference in recurrence structures in different frequency bands indicates diverse underlying information processing steps in the brain.

  8. Influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of bag-mask ventilation in a neonatal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Philipp; O'Reilly, Megan; Zoller, Katharina; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Schwindt, Jens; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical face mask with an air cushion rim might be placed accidentally in a false orientation on the newborn's face or filled with various amounts of air during neonatal resuscitation. Both false orientation as well as variable filling may reduce a tight seal and therefore hamper effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV). We aimed to measure the influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of PPV. Twenty neonatal staff members delivered PPV to a modified, leak-free manikin. Resuscitation parameters were recorded using a self-inflatable bag PPV with an Intersurgical anatomical air cushion rim face mask (IS) and a size 0/1 Laerdal round face mask. Three different positions of the IS were tested: correct position, 90° and 180° rotation in reference to the midline of the face. IS masks in each correct position on the face but with different inflation of the air cushion (empty, 10, 20 and 30 mL). Mask leak was similar with mask rotation to either 90° or 180° but significantly increased from 27 (13-73) % with an adequate filled IS mask compared to 52 (16-83) % with an emptied air cushion rim. Anatomical-shaped face mask had similar mask leaks compared to round face mask. A wrongly positioned anatomical-shaped mask does not influence mask leak. Mask leak significantly increased once the air cushion rim was empty, which may cause failure in mask PPV.

  9. Vibrotactile masking through the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-09-01

    Touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations on the opposite side of the body. These interactions suggest an intimate connection between the two sides of the body. Here, we explore the effect of masking not across the body but through the body by measuring the effect of a masking stimulus on the back on the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding point on the front. Tactile sensitivity was measured on each side of the stomach, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to one side of the front and to points on the back including the point directly behind the test point on the front. Results were compared to sensitivity, while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the shoulder. A reduction in sensitivity of about .8 dB was found that required the masking stimulus to be within about 2 cm of the corresponding point on the back.

  10. Image differencing using masked CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.; Webber, C.J. St. J.

    1987-01-01

    A charge coupled device has some of its ''pixels'' masked by a material which is opaque to the radiation to which the device is to be exposed, each masked region being employed as a storage zone into which the charge pattern from the unmasked pixels can be transferred to enable a subsequent charge pattern to be established on further exposure of the unmasked pixels. The components of the resulting video signal corresponding to the respective charge patterns read-out from the CCD are subtracted to produce a video signal corresponding to the difference between the two images which formed the respective charge patterns. Alternate rows of pixels may be masked, or chequer-board pattern masking may be employed. In an X-ray imaging system the CCD is coupled to image intensifying and converting means. (author)

  11. Randomized trial of single dose versus fractionated palliative radiotherapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, O.S.; Bentzen, S.M.; Sandberg, E.; Gadeberg, C.C.; Timothy, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Data in the literature suggest that for painful bone metastases a single dose is as effective as fractionated radiotherapy. In the present multicentre prospective trial, the effects of 8 Gy x1 and 5 Gy x4 were compared. Patients and methods: A total of 241 patients were randomized to 8 Gy (122 patients) or 20 Gy (119 patients). The primary tumour was in the breast in 39% of patients, in the prostate in 34% of patients, in the lung in 13% of patients and in other locations in 14% of patients. Outcome measures were pain relief as measured by VAS and in half of the patients also by a five-point categorical pain scale, global quality of life (QoL) and analgesic consumption. Evaluation was performed before and 4, 8, 12 and 20 weeks after treatment. Results: A total of 239 patients were evaluable for response. The two groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, primary tumour, metastasis localization, analgesic consumption (type and dose), performance status, prior systemic treatment, degree of pain and QoL. The treatment was completed as planned in 98% of patients. The degree of pain relief did not differ between the two treatment groups. At 4 weeks the difference in pain relief was 6% (95% CI 7, 20%) and at 8 weeks the difference was 13% (95% CI 3, 28%). Neither was there any significant difference in the duration of pain relief, the number of new painful sites and the need for reirradiation and toxicity was minor. Conclusion: The present randomized study showed that a single fraction of 8 Gy was as effective as 5 Gy x4 in relieving pain from bone metastasis. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. Priming of Visual Search Facilitates Attention Shifts: Evidence From Object-Substitution Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-03-01

    Priming of visual search strongly affects visual function, releasing items from crowding and during free-choice primed targets are chosen over unprimed ones. Two accounts of priming have been proposed: attentional facilitation of primed features and postperceptual episodic memory retrieval that involves mapping responses to visual events. Here, well-known masking effects were used to assess the two accounts. Object-substitution masking has been considered to reflect attentional processing: It does not occur when a target is precued and is strengthened when distractors are present. Conversely, metacontrast masking has been connected to lower level processing where attention exerts little effect. If priming facilitates attention shifts, it should mitigate object-substitution masking, while lower level masking might not be similarly influenced. Observers searched for an odd-colored target among distractors. Unpredictably (on 20% of trials), object-substitution masks or metacontrast masks appeared around the target. Object-substitution masking was strongly mitigated for primed target colors, while metacontrast masking was mostly unaffected. This argues against episodic retrieval accounts of priming, placing the priming locus firmly within the realm of attentional processing. The results suggest that priming of visual search facilitates attention shifts to the target, which allows better spatiotemporal resolution that overcomes object-substitution masking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Meniscus-Mask Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Vera

    This dissertation describes meniscus-mask lithography (MML): a planar top-down method for the fabrication of precisely positioned narrow graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and metallic and semiconducting nanowires. The method does not require demanding high resolution lithography tools. The mechanism behind the method involves masking by atmospheric water adsorbed at the edge of the lithography pattern written on top of the target material. Chapter 1 describes the fabrication of sub-10 nm GNR from graphene sheets using MML technique. The electronic properties of resulting GNRs depend on the graphene etching method with argon reactive ion etching yielding remarkably consistent results. The influence of the most common substrates (Si/SiO2 and BN) on the electronic properties of GNRs is demonstrated. The MML technique is also shown to be applicable for fabrication of narrow metallic wires, underscoring the generality of MML for narrow features on diverse materials. In chapter 2 the MML method is shown to be effective for fabrication of narrow wires in a variety of materials. Si, SiO2, Au, Cr, W, Ti, TiO2, Al nanowires are fabricated and characterized. A wide range of materials and etching processes are used and the generality of approach suggests possible applicability of MML to a majority of materials used in modern planar technology. High reproducibility of MML method is shown and some fabrication issues specific to MML are addressed. Crossbar structures produced by MML demonstrate that junctions of nanowires could be fabricated as well, providing all the building blocks required for fabrication of nanowire structures of any complex planar geometry. Chapter 3 is focused on nanoscale menisci behavior and provides additional insights into the mechanism of MML. The width of structures formed by the MML process in concave corners is found to be much more sensitive to changes in the process than the width of MML nanowires. The possibility of change in lateral dimensions of

  14. Cosmic Masks Still Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivânio; Frogel, Jay A.; Eskridge, Paul B.; Stockton, Alan; Fuchs, Burkhard

    The Hubble classification scheme of galaxies is based on their optical appearance or `masks'. As one goes from early to late type spirals, both barred and unbarred, the optical appearance will be dominated more and more by the young Population I, i.e., blue stars and dust. Atlases reveal the rich variety of responses of the Population I component of gas and dust (the mask) to the underlying, older, stellar population. However, the gaseous Population I component, may only constitute 5 percent of the dynamical mass of the galaxy. Masks of negligible mass may conceal the human face - and that of galaxy. In the near-infrared, the morphology of older star-dominated disk indicates a simple classification scheme: the dominant Fourier m-mode in the dust penetrated regime, and the associated pitch angle. A ubiquity of low m=1 and m=2 modes is confirmed. On the basis of deprojected H (1.65 μm) and K' (2.1μm) images, we propose that the evolved stellar disks may be grouped into three principal dust penetrated archetypes: those with tightly wound stellar arms characterised by pitch angles at K' of ~ 10^° (the α class), an intermediate group with pitch angles of ~ 25^° (the β class) and thirdly, those with open spirals demarcated by pitch angles at K' of ~ 40^° (the γ bin). Flat or falling rotation curves give rise to the tightly wound α class; rising rotation curves are associated with the open γ class. The observed dust penetrated classes are inextricably related to the rate of shear in the stellar disk, as determined by A/ω. Here A is the first Oort constant andω denotes the angular velocity. There is no correlation between our dust penetrated classes and optical Hubble binning; the Hubble tuning fork does not constrain the morphology of the old stellar Population II disks. NGC 3223 and NGC 7083 (both SbI-II and almost the same absolute blue magnitude) have identical Hubble types and identical luminosity classes; the dust penetrated disk of NGC 3223 has tightly

  15. [Single event multilevel surgery to improve gait in diplegic cerebral palsy - a prospective controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, E B; Saraph, V; Strobl, W; Steinwender, G

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate prospectively the outcome of gait-improvement surgery in children with spastic diplegia. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed in twenty children with spastic diplegia. Ten children underwent single event multilevel surgery for gait improvement. Indications for individual procedures followed a fixed set of selection criteria. The other ten children continued with their physiotherapy programme and served as a control group. A second gait analysis was performed in all children after 1.5 years. Time-distance parameters and kinematics of the pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane served as main outcome measures The patients walked faster with an increased stride length after surgery in comparison to the conservatively treated controls. The average pelvic tilt increased slightly and the range of motion of the knee joint increased considerably after multilevel surgery. The motion at the ankle remained unchanged over the study period in both the groups. An improved knee extension during the stance phase of gait served to improve stance limb stability and facilitated an unhindered swing phase of the opposite limb. This prospective trial showed favourable changes in gait function after multilevel surgery in spastic diplegic children.

  16. Distance education and diabetes empowerment: A single-blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Zirak, Mohammad; Hemmati Maslakpak, Masomeh; Parizad, Naser

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes is one of the biggest problems in healthcare systems and kills many people every year. Diabetes management is impossible when only utilizing medication. So, patients must be educated to manage their diabetes. This study aims to assess the effect of education by telephone and short message service on empowering patients with type 2 diabetes (primary outcome). A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Urmia diabetes association in Iran. Sixty six participants with definitive diagnosis of type 2 diabetes entered into the study. Patients with secondary health problems were excluded. Patients were selected by simple random sampling then allocated into intervention (n=33) and control (n=33) groups. The intervention group received an educational text message daily and instructive phone calls three days a week for three months along with usual care. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) with confirmed validity and reliability was used for collecting data. Data was analyzed using SPSS V6.1. Independent t-test, paired t-test and chi-square were used to analyze the data. The empowerment of the intervention group compared with the control group significantly improved after three months of distance education (pdistance education has a significant effect on empowering patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, using distance education along with other diabetes management intervention is highly effective and should be part of the care in diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of laparoscopic and mini incision open donor nephrectomy: single blind, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Niels F M; Lind, May Y; Hansson, Birgitta M E; Pilzecker, Desiree; Mertens zur Borg, Ingrid R A M; Knipscheer, Ben C; Hazebroek, Eric J; Dooper, Ine M; Weimar, Willem; Hop, Wim C J; Adang, Eddy M M; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Bonjer, Hendrik J; van der Vliet, Jordanus A; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2006-07-29

    To determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to minimise discomfort to the donor and to provide good graft function. Single blind, randomised controlled trial. Two university medical centres, the Netherlands. 100 living kidney donors. Participants were randomly assigned to either laparoscopic donor nephrectomy or to mini incision muscle splitting open donor nephrectomy. The primary outcome was physical fatigue using the multidimensional fatigue inventory 20 (MFI-20). Secondary outcomes were physical function using the SF-36, hospital stay after surgery, pain, operating times, recipient graft function, and graft survival. Conversions did not occur. Compared with mini incision open donor nephrectomy, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy resulted in longer skin to skin time (median 221 v 164 minutes, P fatigue was less (difference - 1.3, 95% confidence interval - 2.4 to - 0.1) and physical function was better (difference 6.2, 2.0 to 10.3) after laparoscopic nephrectomy. Function of the graft and graft survival rate of the recipient at one year censored for death did not differ (100% after laparoscopic nephrectomy and 98% after open nephrectomy). Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy results in a better quality of life compared with mini incision open donor nephrectomy but equal safety and graft function.

  18. The brain uses single-trial multisensory memories to discriminate without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Micah M; Foxe, John J; Wylie, Glenn R

    2005-08-15

    Multisensory experiences enhance perceptions and facilitate memory retrieval processes, even when only unisensory information is available for accessing such memories. Using fMRI, we identified human brain regions involved in discriminating visual stimuli according to past multisensory vs. unisensory experiences. Subjects performed a completely orthogonal task, discriminating repeated from initial image presentations intermixed within a continuous recognition task. Half of initial presentations were multisensory, and all repetitions were exclusively visual. Despite only single-trial exposures to initial image presentations, accuracy in indicating image repetitions was significantly improved by past auditory-visual multisensory experiences over images only encountered visually. Similarly, regions within the lateral-occipital complex-areas typically associated with visual object recognition processes-were more active to visual stimuli with multisensory than unisensory pasts. Additional differential responses were observed in the anterior cingulate and frontal cortices. Multisensory experiences are registered by the brain even when of no immediate behavioral relevance and can be used to categorize memories. These data reveal the functional efficacy of multisensory processing.

  19. Single-Trial Decoding of Bistable Perception Based on Sparse Nonnegative Tensor Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhisong; Maier, Alexander; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Liang, Hualou

    2008-01-01

    The study of the neuronal correlates of the spontaneous alternation in perception elicited by bistable visual stimuli is promising for understanding the mechanism of neural information processing and the neural basis of visual perception and perceptual decision-making. In this paper, we develop a sparse nonnegative tensor factorization-(NTF)-based method to extract features from the local field potential (LFP), collected from the middle temporal (MT) visual cortex in a macaque monkey, for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion (SFM) perception. We apply the feature extraction approach to the multichannel time-frequency representation of the intracortical LFP data. The advantages of the sparse NTF-based feature extraction approach lies in its capability to yield components common across the space, time, and frequency domains yet discriminative across different conditions without prior knowledge of the discriminating frequency bands and temporal windows for a specific subject. We employ the support vector machines (SVMs) classifier based on the features of the NTF components for single-trial decoding the reported perception. Our results suggest that although other bands also have certain discriminability, the gamma band feature carries the most discriminative information for bistable perception, and that imposing the sparseness constraints on the nonnegative tensor factorization improves extraction of this feature. PMID:18528515

  20. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  1. Role of multisensory stimuli in vigilance enhancement- a single trial event related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Nida Itrat; Bodala, Indu Prasad; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Yu Sun; Al-Nashash, Hasan; Thakor, Nitish V

    2017-07-01

    Development of interventions to prevent vigilance decrement has important applications in sensitive areas like transportation and defence. The objective of this work is to use multisensory (visual and haptic) stimuli for cognitive enhancement during mundane tasks. Two different epoch intervals representing sensory perception and motor response were analysed using minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) based single trial ERP estimation to understand the performance dependency on both factors. Bereitschaftspotential (BP) latency L3 (r=0.6 in phase 1 (visual) and r=0.71 in phase 2 (visual and haptic)) was significantly correlated with reaction time as compared to that of sensory ERP latency L2 (r=0.1 in both phase 1 and phase 2). This implies that low performance in monotonous tasks is predominantly dependent on the prolonged neural interaction with the muscles to initiate movement. Further, negative relationship was found between the ERP latencies related to sensory perception and Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and occurrence of epochs when multisensory cues are provided. This means that vigilance decrement is reduced with the help of multisensory stimulus presentation in prolonged monotonous tasks.

  2. The application of particle filters in single trial event-related potential estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Hamid R; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Sanei, Saeid; Wilding, Edward L

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an approach for the estimation of single trial event-related potentials (ST-ERPs) using particle filters (PFs) is presented. The method is based on recursive Bayesian mean square estimation of ERP wavelet coefficients using their previous estimates as prior information. To enable a performance evaluation of the approach in the Gaussian and non-Gaussian distributed noise conditions, we added Gaussian white noise (GWN) and real electroencephalogram (EEG) signals recorded during rest to the simulated ERPs. The results were compared to that of the Kalman filtering (KF) approach demonstrating the robustness of the PF over the KF to the added GWN noise. The proposed method also outperforms the KF when the assumption about the Gaussianity of the noise is violated. We also applied this technique to real EEG potentials recorded in an odd-ball paradigm and investigated the correlation between the amplitude and the latency of the estimated ERP components. Unlike the KF method, for the PF there was a statistically significant negative correlation between amplitude and latency of the estimated ERPs, matching previous neurophysiological findings

  3. Randomized Trial of Immediate Postoperative Pain Following Single-incision Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Liu, Yang; Han, Wei; Liu, Jun; Jin, Lan; Li, Jian-She; Zhang, Zhong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background: We undertook a randomized controlled trial to ascertain if single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) was more beneficial for reducing postoperative pain than traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC). Moreover, the influencing factors of SILC were analyzed. Methods: A total of 552 patients with symptomatic gallstones or polyps were allocated randomly to undergo SILC (n = 138) or TLC (n = 414). Data on postoperative pain score, operative time, complications, procedure conversion, and hospital costs were collected. After a 6-month follow-up, all data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Results: Among SILC group, 4 (2.9%) cases required conversion to TLC. Mean operative time of SILC was significantly longer than that of TLC (58.97 ± 21.56 vs. 43.38 ± 19.02 min, P 5 (≥100 min: 5/7 patients vs. <40 min, 3/16 patients, P = 0.015). Conclusions: The primary benefit of SILC appears to be slightly less pain immediately after surgery. Surgeon training seems to be important because the shorter operative time for SILC may elicit less pain immediately after surgery. PMID:26668145

  4. Randomized Trial of Immediate Postoperative Pain Following Single-incision Versus Traditional Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We undertook a randomized controlled trial to ascertain if single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC was more beneficial for reducing postoperative pain than traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC. Moreover, the influencing factors of SILC were analyzed. Methods: A total of 552 patients with symptomatic gallstones or polyps were allocated randomly to undergo SILC (n = 138 or TLC (n = 414. Data on postoperative pain score, operative time, complications, procedure conversion, and hospital costs were collected. After a 6-month follow-up, all data were analyzed using the intention-to-treat principle. Results: Among SILC group, 4 (2.9% cases required conversion to TLC. Mean operative time of SILC was significantly longer than that of TLC (58.97 ± 21.56 vs. 43.38 ± 19.02 min, P 5 (≥100 min: 5/7 patients vs. <40 min, 3/16 patients, P = 0.015. Conclusions: The primary benefit of SILC appears to be slightly less pain immediately after surgery. Surgeon training seems to be important because the shorter operative time for SILC may elicit less pain immediately after surgery.

  5. Rating the methodological quality of single-subject designs and n-of-1 trials: introducing the Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Robyn L; McDonald, Skye; Perdices, Michael; Togher, Leanne; Schultz, Regina; Savage, Sharon

    2008-08-01

    Rating scales that assess methodological quality of clinical trials provide a means to critically appraise the literature. Scales are currently available to rate randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, but there are none that assess single-subject designs. The Single-Case Experimental Design (SCED) Scale was developed for this purpose and evaluated for reliability. Six clinical researchers who were trained and experienced in rating methodological quality of clinical trials developed the scale and participated in reliability studies. The SCED Scale is an 11-item rating scale for single-subject designs, of which 10 items are used to assess methodological quality and use of statistical analysis. The scale was developed and refined over a 3-year period. Content validity was addressed by identifying items to reduce the main sources of bias in single-case methodology as stipulated by authorities in the field, which were empirically tested against 85 published reports. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using a random sample of 20/312 single-subject reports archived in the Psychological Database of Brain Impairment Treatment Efficacy (PsycBITE). Inter-rater reliability for the total score was excellent, both for individual raters (overall ICC = 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.92) and for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (overall ICC = 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.78-0.95). Item reliability was fair to excellent for consensus ratings between pairs of raters (range k = 0.48 to 1.00). The results were replicated with two independent novice raters who were trained in the use of the scale (ICC = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.95). The SCED Scale thus provides a brief and valid evaluation of methodological quality of single-subject designs, with the total score demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability using both individual and consensus ratings. Items from the scale can also be used as a checklist in the design, reporting and critical

  6. Impact of target probability on single-trial EEG target detection in a difficult rapid serial visual presentation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecotti, Hubert; Sato-Reinhold, Joyce; Sy, Jocelyn L; Elliott, James C; Eckstein, Miguel P; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2011-01-01

    In non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI), the analysis of event-related potentials (ERP) has typically focused on averaged trials, a current trend is to analyze single-trial evoked response individually with new approaches in pattern recognition and signal processing. Such single trial detection requires a robust response that can be detected in a variety task conditions. Here, we investigated the influence of target probability, a key factor known to influence the amplitude of the evoked response, on single trial target classification in a difficult rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Our classification approach for detecting target vs. non target responses, considers spatial filters obtained through the maximization of the signal to signal-plus-noise ratio, and then uses the resulting information as inputs to a Bayesian discriminant analysis. The method is evaluated across eight healthy subjects, on four probability conditions (P=0.05, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50). We show that the target probability has a statistically significant effect on both the behavioral performance and the target detection. The best mean area under the ROC curve is achieved with P=0.10, AUC=0.82. These results suggest that optimal performance of ERP detection in RSVP tasks is critically dependent on target probability.

  7. Risk of uterine rupture with a trial of labor in women with multiple and single prior cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Mark B; Spong, Catherine Y; Thom, Elizabeth; Hauth, John C; Bloom, Steven L; Varner, Michael W; Moawad, Atef H; Caritis, Steve N; Harper, Margaret; Wapner, Ronald J; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Carpenter, Marshall; Peaceman, Alan M; O'sullivan, Mary J; Sibai, Baha M; Langer, Oded; Thorp, John M; Ramin, Susan M; Mercer, Brian M; Gabbe, Steven G

    2006-07-01

    To determine whether the risk for uterine rupture is increased in women attempting vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries. We conducted a prospective multicenter observational study of women with prior cesarean delivery undergoing trial of labor and elective repeat operation. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared among women attempting vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries and those with a single prior cesarean delivery. We also compared outcomes for women with multiple prior cesarean deliveries undergoing trial of labor with those electing repeat cesarean delivery. Uterine rupture occurred in 9 of 975 (0.9%) women with multiple prior cesarean compared with 115 of 16,915 (0.7%) women with a single prior operation (P = .37). Multivariable analysis confirmed that multiple prior cesarean delivery was not associated with an increased risk for uterine rupture. The rates of hysterectomy (0.6% versus 0.2%, P = .023) and transfusion (3.2% versus 1.6%, P cesarean deliveries compared with women with a single prior cesarean delivery attempting trial of labor. Similarly, a composite of maternal morbidity was increased in women with multiple prior cesarean deliveries undergoing trial of labor compared with those having elective repeat cesarean delivery (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.93). A history of multiple cesarean deliveries is not associated with an increased rate of uterine rupture in women attempting vaginal birth compared with those with a single prior operation. Maternal morbidity is increased with trial of labor after multiple cesarean deliveries, compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, but the absolute risk for complications is small. Vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries should remain an option for eligible women. II-2.

  8. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  9. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  10. Reactogenicity of Cervarix and Gardasil human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in a randomized single blind trial in healthy UK adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins-Coulter, Tao; Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-06-03

    One hundred and ninety eight females aged 12-15 y were enrolled in an observer-blinded randomized trial to assess the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the tetravalent HPV vaccine Gardasil® (group 2), in comparison to the bivalent HPV vaccine, Cervarix® (group 1), which was routinely offered in the national vaccination schedule at the time. Participants were blinded to treatment group until all 3 vaccinations had been given, while laboratory staff were masked during testing. For the majority of local and general reactions, recipients of both vaccines reported comparable frequencies. Local and systemic events were rarely of high severity, except for tenderness at the injection site which reached a severe level after at least one of the doses in 24% of the Cervarix® group and 7% of the Gardasil® group (p = 0.001 comparing groups). For most reactions, no dose response was recorded, except for swelling with higher reporting at dose 3 (17.7%) than dose 1 (3.1%) for Cervarix®. SAE reporting was low (n = 3) and considered unrelated to either vaccine. This paper supports the body of evidence that Gardasil® has an acceptable safety profile when compared with Cervarix® and other vaccines given in the national program.

  11. Corticosteroids and vestibular exercises in vestibular neuritis. Single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudakos, John K; Markou, Konstantinos D; Psillas, George; Vital, Victor; Tsaligopoulos, Miltiadis

    2014-05-01

    IMPORTANCE The management of patients with unilateral acute vestibular neuritis (VN) has not been established to date. OBJECTIVE To compare the use of vestibular exercises vs corticosteroid therapy in the recovery of patients with acute VN. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective, single-blind, randomized clinical trial at a primary referral center. Among all patients with acute vertigo, those having VN were eligible for inclusion in the study. INTERVENTIONS Forty patients with acute VN were randomly assigned to perform vestibular exercises or to receive corticosteroid therapy. After a baseline examination, follow-up evaluations were performed at 1, 6, and 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Efficacy outcomes included clinical, canal, and otolith recovery. Scores on the European Evaluation of Vertigo Scale and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory were used for the evaluation of clinical recovery. Findings of caloric irrigation and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials indicated canal and otolith improvement, respectively. RESULTS Comparing the 2 treatment groups, no statistically significant differences were found in clinical, canal, or otolith recovery. At the 6-month examination, the number of patients with complete disease resolution in the corticosteroids group was significantly higher than that in the vestibular exercises group. However, at the end of the follow-up period, 45%(9 of 20) of patients in the vestibular exercises group and 50% (10 of 20) of patients in the corticosteroids group had complete disease resolution (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Treating patients who have acute VN with vestibular exercises seems equivalently effective as treating them with corticosteroid therapy in clinical, caloric, and otolith recovery. Corticosteroid therapy seems to enhance earlier complete acute VN resolution, with no added benefit in the long-term prognosis.

  12. Skin closure methods after single port laparoscopic surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sue Yeon; Kim, Kye Hyun; Yuk, Jin-Sung; Ji, Hyun Young; Lee, Jung Hun

    2015-06-01

    To compare postoperative cosmetic outcomes according to different umbilical closure methods after single port laparoscopic surgery (SP-LS). A total of 138 women who were scheduled to receive elective SP-LS were randomized to undergo closure of the umbilical incision with either a subcutaneous suture only without subcuticular skin suture (case group, n=68) or both a subcutaneous suture and subcuticular skin suture (control group, n=70) after fascial closure. At postoperative months 1 and 3, the umbilical scar was evaluated using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS), the patient and observer scar assessment scale, and a visual analog scale (VAS). Overall satisfaction with scar cosmesis and surgery was assessed with the VAS. There was no significant difference in the clinical characteristics and operative data between the groups. The objective and subjective scar assessments and the overall satisfaction with scar cosmesis were not different between the groups. In the control group, four (5.7%) women experienced wound discharge and were treated with conservative treatments and delayed closure. In women who completed the first and second assessments, the changes in the scar assessment and overall satisfaction with the scar according to time after surgery were not different in either group, but the patient scar assessment scale in both groups and the VSS in the case group improved. After SP-LS, the approximation of the fascia and subcutaneous layer seems to be enough for the closure of an umbilical incision. Skin closure with subcuticular sutures did not improve the postoperative cosmetic outcomes and might lead to impaired wound healing. However, large randomized trials with various closure techniques and materials are needed to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single Trial EEG Patterns for the Prediction of Individual Differences in Fluid Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Emad-Ul-Haq; Hussain, Muhammad; Aboalsamh, Hatim; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Bamatraf, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Assessing a person's intelligence level is required in many situations, such as career counseling and clinical applications. EEG evoked potentials in oddball task and fluid intelligence score are correlated because both reflect the cognitive processing and attention. A system for prediction of an individual's fluid intelligence level using single trial Electroencephalography (EEG) signals has been proposed. For this purpose, we employed 2D and 3D contents and 34 subjects each for 2D and 3D, which were divided into low-ability (LA) and high-ability (HA) groups using Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) test. Using visual oddball cognitive task, neural activity of each group was measured and analyzed over three midline electrodes (Fz, Cz, and Pz). To predict whether an individual belongs to LA or HA group, features were extracted using wavelet decomposition of EEG signals recorded in visual oddball task and support vector machine (SVM) was used as a classifier. Two different types of Haar wavelet transform based features have been extracted from the band (0.3 to 30 Hz) of EEG signals. Statistical wavelet features and wavelet coefficient features from the frequency bands 0.0-1.875 Hz (delta low) and 1.875-3.75 Hz (delta high), resulted in the 100 and 98% prediction accuracies, respectively, both for 2D and 3D contents. The analysis of these frequency bands showed clear difference between LA and HA groups. Further, discriminative values of the features have been validated using statistical significance tests and inter-class and intra-class variation analysis. Also, statistical test showed that there was no effect of 2D and 3D content on the assessment of fluid intelligence level. Comparisons with state-of-the-art techniques showed the superiority of the proposed system.

  14. fMRI single trial discovery of spatio-temporal brain activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Michele; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Pizzagalli, Fabrizio; Baftizadeh, Fahimeh; Maieron, Marta; Reverberi, Carlo; Laio, Alessandro; Amati, Daniele

    2017-03-01

    There is growing interest in the description of short-lived patterns in the spatiotemporal cortical activity monitored via neuroimaging. Most traditional analysis methods, designed to estimate relatively long-term brain dynamics, are not always appropriate to capture these patterns. Here we introduce a novel data-driven approach for detecting short-lived fMRI brain activity patterns. Exploiting Density Peak Clustering (Rodriguez and Laio [2014]), our approach reveals well localized clusters by identifying and grouping together voxels whose time-series are similar, irrespective of their brain location, even when very short time windows (∼10 volumes) are used. The method, which we call Coherence Density Peak Clustering (CDPC), is first tested on simulated data and compared with a standard unsupervised approach for fMRI analysis, independent component analysis (ICA). CDPC identifies activated voxels with essentially no false-positives and proves more reliable than ICA, which is troubled by a number of false positives comparable to that of true positives. The reliability of the method is demonstrated on real fMRI data from a simple motor task, containing brief iterations of the same movement. The clusters identified are found in regions expected to be involved in the task, and repeat synchronously with the paradigm. The methodology proposed is especially suitable for the study of short-time brain dynamics and single trial experiments, where the event or task of interest cannot be repeated for the same subject, as happens, for instance, in problem-solving, learning and decision-making. A GUI implementation of our method is available for download at https://github.com/micheleallegra/CDPC. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1421-1437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) treatment trial: a study protocol of a pilot, multicentre, single-blind, randomised crossover trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Wilson, Edward; Shepstone, Lee; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A number of studies have established that children, adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) have significant problems with anxiety. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety in a variety of clinical populations. There is a growing interest in exploring the effectiveness of CBT for people with AS who have mental health problems, but currently there are no known clinical trials involving adults with AS or HFA. Studies with children who have AS have reported some success. The current study aims to examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an AS population is likely to be efficacious. Methods and analysis This study is a randomised, single-blind crossover trial. At least 36 individuals will be recruited and randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. During treatment, individuals will receive 3 sessions of individual CBT, followed by 21 sessions of group CBT. Primary outcome measures focus on anxiety. Secondary outcome measures focus on everyday social and psychiatric functioning, additional measures of anxiety and fear, depression, health-related quality of life and treatment cost. Assessments will be administered at pregroup and postgroup and at follow-up by researchers who are blinded to group allocation. The trial aims to find out whether or not psychological treatments for anxiety can be adapted and used to successfully treat the anxiety experienced by people with AS. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether this intervention represents good value for money. Ethics and dissemination The trial received a favourable ethical opinion from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. All participants provided written informed consent. Findings will be shared with all trial participants, and the general public, as well as the scientific community. Trial Registration ISRCTN 30265294 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN30265294), UKCRN

  16. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-03-01

    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  17. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  18. Early, Equivalent ERP Masked Priming Effects for Regular and Irregular Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanna; Stockall, Linnaea

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkanen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing…

  19. Time for Awareness: The Influence of Temporal Properties of the Mask on Continuous Flash Suppression Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Zhu

    Full Text Available Visual processing is not instantaneous, but instead our conscious perception depends on the integration of sensory input over time. In the case of Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS, masks are flashed to one eye, suppressing awareness of stimuli presented to the other eye. One potential explanation of CFS is that it depends, at least in part, on the flashing mask continually interrupting visual processing before the stimulus reaches awareness. We investigated the temporal features of masks in two ways. First, we measured the suppression effectiveness of a wide range of masking frequencies (0-32Hz, using both complex (faces/houses and simple (closed/open geometric shapes stimuli. Second, we varied whether the different frequencies were interleaved within blocks or separated in homogenous blocks, in order to see if suppression was stronger or weaker when the frequency remained constant across trials. We found that break-through contrast differed dramatically between masking frequencies, with mask effectiveness following a skewed-normal curve peaking around 6Hz and little or no masking for low and high temporal frequencies. Peak frequency was similar for trial-randomized and block randomized conditions. In terms of type of stimulus, we found no significant difference in peak frequency between the stimulus groups (complex/simple, face/house, closed/open. These findings suggest that temporal factors play a critical role in perceptual awareness, perhaps due to interactions between mask frequency and the time frame of visual processing.

  20. Intranasal dexmedetomidine premedication reduces minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for laryngeal mask airway insertion and emergence delirium in children: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yusheng; Qian, Bin; Lin, Ying; Wu, Weilan; Ye, Huazhen; Chen, Yanqing

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to verify the hypothesis that intranasal dexmedetomidine premedication can reduce the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane for laryngeal mask airway insertion in children. Ninety American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I subjects, aged 3-7 years, were randomized to three equal groups to receive saline (Group S), dexmedetomidine 1 μg · kg(-1) (Group D1 ), or dexmedetomidine 2 μg · kg(-1) (Group D2 ) approximately 45 min before anesthesia. The minimum alveolar concentration for laryngeal mask airway insertion of sevoflurane was determined according to the Dixon's up-and-down method. Emergence delirium was evaluated using the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium (PAED) scale in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Dexmedetomidine premedication of 1 and 2 μg · kg(-1) was associated with reduction in sevoflurane from 1.92% to 1.53% and 1.23%, corresponding to decrease of 20% and 36%, respectively. The peak PAED scores (median [IQR]) were 9 [8-11.5], 5 [3-5.3], and 3 [2-4] in Group S, Group D1, and Group D2 , respectively. The incidence of emergence delirium (defined as peak PAED score ≥ 10) was significantly lower in Groups D1 and D2 than in Group S (P laryngeal mask airway insertion of sevoflurane and emergence delirium in the PACU. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Single-trial regression elucidates the role of prefrontal theta oscillations in response conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, M.X.; Cavanagh, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    In most cognitive neuroscience experiments there are many behavioral and experimental dynamics, and many indices of brain activity, that vary from trial to trial. For example, in studies of response conflict, conflict is usually treated as a binary variable (i.e., response conflict exists or does

  2. Electrostatic mask for active targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Gangnant, P; Libin, J-F; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Gibelin, J; Goth, M

    2012-01-01

    Active gas targets have been used in nuclear physics since 30 years. They are promising systems in view of the new exotic beams soon available at facilities like SPIRAL2 or FAIR, but the system can still be improved. One of the main limitation is the dynamic range in energy deposition. The energy deposited per unit length can be 3 decades higher for the beam than for the light reaction products and the risk to saturate the electronics or that the detector spark are not negligible. A simple solution using a wire plane to mask partially the beam is presented here. Some simulation has been realized and some experimental results are shown confirming the feasibility of this wire tunable mask. The mask can be used from full transparency to full opacity without degrading neither the drift electric field of the chamber nor the performances of detection of the beam or the light products.

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis of single-trial EEG of emotional pictures based on independent component analysis and source location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangang; Tian, Jie

    2007-03-01

    The present study combined the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) algorithms to identify the spatial distribution and time course of single-trial EEG record differences between neural responses to emotional stimuli vs. the neutral. Single-trial multichannel (129-sensor) EEG records were collected from 21 healthy, right-handed subjects viewing the emotion emotional (pleasant/unpleasant) and neutral pictures selected from International Affective Picture System (IAPS). For each subject, the single-trial EEG records of each emotional pictures were concatenated with the neutral, and a three-step analysis was applied to each of them in the same way. First, the ICA was performed to decompose each concatenated single-trial EEG records into temporally independent and spatially fixed components, namely independent components (ICs). The IC associated with artifacts were isolated. Second, the clustering analysis classified, across subjects, the temporally and spatially similar ICs into the same clusters, in which nonparametric permutation test for Global Field Power (GFP) of IC projection scalp maps identified significantly different temporal segments of each emotional condition vs. neutral. Third, the brain regions accounted for those significant segments were localized spatially with LORETA analysis. In each cluster, a voxel-by-voxel randomization test identified significantly different brain regions between each emotional condition vs. the neutral. Compared to the neutral, both emotional pictures elicited activation in the visual, temporal, ventromedial and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated gyrus. In addition, the pleasant pictures activated the left middle prefrontal cortex and the posterior precuneus, while the unpleasant pictures activated the right orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulated gyrus and somatosensory region. Our results were well consistent with other functional imaging

  4. The Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™: safety and efficacy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ (LMA Supreme™) is a new single-use polyvinyl chloride supraglottic device that offers gastric access. To date, studies that have tested the LMA Supreme™) for use in laparoscopic surgery have been reported. We present the largest evaluative study that describes the use of ...

  5. Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Boggia, José; Liu, Yanping; Asayama, Kei; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (Phypertensives tended to be higher than in normotensives (hazard rate [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–3.97; P=0.059), similar to untreated stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 1.07; CI, 0.58–1.98; P=0.82), but less than stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.29–0.99; P=0.048). In contrast, cardiovascular risk was not significantly different in antihypertensive-treated diabetic-masked hypertensives, as compared with the normotensive comparator group (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.54–2.35; P=0.75), stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 0.91; CI, 0.49–1.69; P=0.76), and stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.65; CI, 0.35–1.20; P=0.17). In the untreated diabetic-masked hypertensive population, mean conventional systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 129.2±8.0/76.0±7.3 mm Hg, and mean daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure 141.5±9.1/83.7±6.5 mm Hg. In conclusion, masked hypertension occurred in 29% of untreated diabetics, had comparable cardiovascular risk as stage 1 hypertension, and would require considerable reduction in conventional blood pressure to reach daytime ambulatory treatment goal. Importantly, many hypertensive diabetics when receiving antihypertensive therapy can present with normalized conventional and elevated ambulatory blood pressure that mimics masked hypertension. PMID:23478096

  6. Mask versus Nasal Tube for Stabilization of Preterm Infants at Birth: Respiratory Function Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vonderen, Jeroen J; Kamlin, C Omar; Dawson, Jennifer A; Walther, Frans J; Davis, Peter G; te Pas, Arjan B

    2015-07-01

    To compare the nasal tube with face mask as interfaces for stabilization of very preterm infants at birth by using physiological measurements of leak, obstruction, and expired tidal volumes during positive pressure ventilation (PPV). In the delivery room, 43 infants mask. Respiratory function, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured. Occurrence of obstruction, amount of leak, and tidal volumes were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test or a Fisher exact test. The first 5 minutes after initiation of PPV were analyzed (1566 inflations in the nasal tube group and 1896 inflations in the face mask group). Spontaneous breathing coincided with PPV in 32% of nasal tube and 34% of face mask inflations. During inflations, higher leak was observed using nasal tube compared with face mask (98% [33%-100%] vs 14 [0%-39%]; P mask (0.0 [0.0-3.1] vs 9.9 [5.5-12.8] mL/kg; P 0.05). Heart rate was not significantly different between groups, but oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the nasal tube group the first 2 minutes after start of respiratory support. The use of a nasal tube led to large leak, more obstruction, and inadequate tidal volumes compared with face mask. Trial registration Registered with the Dutch Trial Registry (NTR 2061) and the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN 12610000230055). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Asperger syndrome and anxiety disorders (PAsSA) treatment trial: a study protocol of a pilot, multicentre, single-blind, randomised crossover trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Peter E; Murphy, Glynis H; Wilson, Edward; Shepstone, Lee; Fowler, David; Heavens, David; Malovic, Aida; Russell, Alexandra

    2013-07-30

    A number of studies have established that children, adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism (HFA) have significant problems with anxiety. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for anxiety in a variety of clinical populations. There is a growing interest in exploring the effectiveness of CBT for people with AS who have mental health problems, but currently there are no known clinical trials involving adults with AS or HFA. Studies with children who have AS have reported some success. The current study aims to examine whether modified group CBT for clinically significant anxiety in an AS population is likely to be efficacious. This study is a randomised, single-blind crossover trial. At least 36 individuals will be recruited and randomised into a treatment arm or a waiting-list control arm. During treatment, individuals will receive 3 sessions of individual CBT, followed by 21 sessions of group CBT. Primary outcome measures focus on anxiety. Secondary outcome measures focus on everyday social and psychiatric functioning, additional measures of anxiety and fear, depression, health-related quality of life and treatment cost. Assessments will be administered at pregroup and postgroup and at follow-up by researchers who are blinded to group allocation. The trial aims to find out whether or not psychological treatments for anxiety can be adapted and used to successfully treat the anxiety experienced by people with AS. Furthermore, we aim to determine whether this intervention represents good value for money. The trial received a favourable ethical opinion from a National Health Service (NHS) Research Ethics Committee. All participants provided written informed consent. Findings will be shared with all trial participants, and the general public, as well as the scientific community. ISRCTN 30265294 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN30265294), UKCRN 8370.

  8. Can monaural temporal masking explain the ongoing precedence effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Morse-Fortier, Charlotte; Griffin, Amanda M; Zurek, Patrick M

    2018-02-01

    The precedence effect for transient sounds has been proposed to be based primarily on monaural processes, manifested by asymmetric temporal masking. This study explored the potential for monaural explanations with longer ("ongoing") sounds exhibiting the precedence effect. Transient stimuli were single lead-lag noise burst pairs; ongoing stimuli were trains of 63 burst pairs. Unlike with transients, monaural masking data for ongoing sounds showed no advantage for the lead, and are inconsistent with asymmetric audibility as an explanation for ongoing precedence. This result, along with supplementary measurements of interaural time discrimination, suggests different explanations for transient and ongoing precedence.

  9. Efficacy of paraffin bath therapy in hand osteoarthritis: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Banu; Gözüm, Mehtap; Şahin, Ebru; Baydar, Meltem; Ergör, Gül; El, Ozlem; Bircan, Çigdem; Gülbahar, Selmin

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of paraffin bath therapy on pain, function, and muscle strength in patients with hand osteoarthritis. Prospective single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Department of physical medicine and rehabilitation in a university hospital. Patients with bilateral hand osteoarthritis (N=56). Patients were randomized into 2 groups with a random number table by using block randomization with 4 patients in a block. Group 1 (n=29) had paraffin bath therapy (5 times per week, for 3-week duration) for both hands. Group 2 (n=27) was the control group. All patients were informed about joint-protection techniques, and paracetamol intake was recorded. The primary outcome measures were pain (at last 48h) at rest and during activities of daily living (ADL), assessed with a visual analog scale (0-10cm) at 12 weeks. The secondary outcome measures were the Australian Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN) and the Dreiser Functional Index (DFI), used for subjective functional evaluation, loss of range of motion (ROM), grip and pinch strength, painful and tender joint counts, and paracetamol intake. A researcher blind to group allocation recorded the measures for both hands at baseline, 3 weeks, and 12 weeks at the hospital setting. At baseline, there were no significant differences between groups in any of the parameters (P>.05). After treatment, the paraffin group exhibited significant improvement in pain at rest and during ADL, ROM of the right hand, and pain and stiffness dimensions of the AUSCAN (P.05). The control group showed a significant deterioration in right hand grip and bilateral lateral pinch and right chuck pinch strength (Pparaffin group (Pparaffin group were significantly higher than the control group at 12 weeks (PParaffin bath therapy seemed to be effective both in reducing pain and tenderness and maintaining muscle strength in hand osteoarthritis. It may be regarded as a beneficial short-term therapy option, which is effective for a 12

  10. Single-trial classification of motor imagery differing in task complexity: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Martin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For brain computer interfaces (BCIs, which may be valuable in neurorehabilitation, brain signals derived from mental activation can be monitored by non-invasive methods, such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. Single-trial classification is important for this purpose and this was the aim of the presented study. In particular, we aimed to investigate a combined approach: 1 offline single-trial classification of brain signals derived from a novel wireless fNIRS instrument; 2 to use motor imagery (MI as mental task thereby discriminating between MI signals in response to different tasks complexities, i.e. simple and complex MI tasks. Methods 12 subjects were asked to imagine either a simple finger-tapping task using their right thumb or a complex sequential finger-tapping task using all fingers of their right hand. fNIRS was recorded over secondary motor areas of the contralateral hemisphere. Using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA and cross validation, we selected for each subject a best-performing feature combination consisting of 1 one out of three channel, 2 an analysis time interval ranging from 5-15 s after stimulation onset and 3 up to four Δ[O2Hb] signal features (Δ[O2Hb] mean signal amplitudes, variance, skewness and kurtosis. Results The results of our single-trial classification showed that using the simple combination set of channels, time intervals and up to four Δ[O2Hb] signal features comprising Δ[O2Hb] mean signal amplitudes, variance, skewness and kurtosis, it was possible to discriminate single-trials of MI tasks differing in complexity, i.e. simple versus complex tasks (inter-task paired t-test p ≤ 0.001, over secondary motor areas with an average classification accuracy of 81%. Conclusions Although the classification accuracies look promising they are nevertheless subject of considerable subject-to-subject variability. In the discussion we address each of these aspects, their

  11. Preliminary ten year results from a randomised single centre mass screening trial for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Juul, Søren; Fasting, H

    2006-01-01

    At present, several regions and countries are considering screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, The Chichester Aneurysms Screening Trial has reported poor long term benefit of screening for AAA. We therefore supplement previously published data with a preliminary analysis...

  12. Multivariate Bayesian decoding of single-trial event-related fMRI responses for memory retrieval of voluntary actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Lee

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for classifying event-related fMRI responses in a specialized setting of many known but few unknown stimuli presented in a rapid event-related design. Compared to block design fMRI signals, classification of the response to a single or a few stimulus trial(s is not a trivial problem due to contamination by preceding events as well as the low signal-to-noise ratio. To overcome such problems, we proposed a single trial-based classification method of rapid event-related fMRI signals utilizing sparse multivariate Bayesian decoding of spatio-temporal fMRI responses. We applied the proposed method to classification of memory retrieval processes for two different classes of episodic memories: a voluntarily conducted experience and a passive experience induced by watching a video of others' actions. A cross-validation showed higher classification performance of the proposed method compared to that of a support vector machine or of a classifier based on the general linear model. Evaluation of classification performances for one, two, and three stimuli from the same class and a correlation analysis between classification accuracy and target stimulus positions among trials suggest that presenting two target stimuli at longer inter-stimulus intervals is optimal in the design of classification experiments to identify the target stimuli. The proposed method for decoding subject-specific memory retrieval of voluntary behavior using fMRI would be useful in forensic applications in a natural environment, where many known trials can be extracted from a simulation of everyday tasks and few target stimuli from a crime scene.

  13. SINGLE-DOSE VERSUS 3-DAY PROPHYLAXIS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN IN TRANSURETHRAL SURGERY - A CLINICAL-TRIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIJL, W; JANKNEGT, RA

    1993-01-01

    in 235 patients who underwent transurethral surgery, perioperative oral ciprofloxacin prophylaxis was given as a single dose 500 mg versus a 3-day regimen. Out of 180 evaluable patients, 84 received a single dose and 96 received a 3-day course. In the single dose prophylaxis group there were 5

  14. Disposable surgical face masks for preventing surgical wound infection in clean surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Lipp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surgical face masks were originally developed to contain and filter droplets containing microorganisms expelled from the mouth and nasopharynx of healthcare workers during surgery, thereby providing protection for the patient. However, there are several ways in which surgical face masks could potentially contribute to contamination of the surgical wound, e.g. by incorrect wear or by leaking air from the side of the mask due to poor string tension. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether disposable surgical face masks worn by the surgical team during clean surgery prevent postoperative surgical wound infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 14 September 2011; The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 3; Ovid MEDLINE (2008 to August Week 5 2011; Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process &Other Non-Indexed Citations September 13, 2011; Ovid EMBASE (2008 to 2011 Week 35; and EBSCO CINAHL (2008 to 9 September 2011. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the use of disposable surgical masks with the use of no mask. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data independently. MAIN RESULTS: Three trials were included, involving a total of 2113 participants. There was no statistically significant difference in infection rates between the masked and unmasked group in any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: From the limited results it is unclear whether the wearing of surgical face masks by members of the surgical team has any impact on surgical wound infection rates for patients undergoing clean surgery.

  15. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...

  16. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  17. A single error is one too many: Examining alternative cutoffs on Trial 2 of the TOMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Rai, Jaspreet K

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of alternative, more liberal cutoffs on Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) to improve classification accuracy relative to the standard cutoffs (≤44). The sample consisted of 152 patients (49.3% male) with psychiatric conditions (PSY) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) referred for neuropsychological assessment in a medico-legal setting (M Age = 44.4, M Education = 11.9 years). Classification accuracy for various TOMM Trial 2 cutoffs was computed against three criterion measures. Patients with TBI failed TOMM Trial 2 cutoffs at higher rates than patients with PSY. Trial 2 ≤49 achieved acceptable combinations of sensitivity (0.38-0.67) and specificity (0.89-0.96) in all but one comparison group. Trial 2 ≤48 improved specificity (0.94-0.98) with minimal loss in sensitivity. The standard cutoff (≤44) disproportionally traded sensitivity (0.15-0.50) for specificity (0.96-1.00). One error on TOMM Trial 2 constitutes sufficient evidence to question the credibility of a response set. However, the confidence in classifying a score as invalid continues to increase with each additional error. Even at the most liberal conceivable cutoff (≤49), the TOMM detected only about half of the patients who failed other criterion measures. Therefore, it should never be used in isolation to determine performance validity.

  18. Taking into account latency, amplitude, and morphology: improved estimation of single-trial ERPs by wavelet filtering and multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L; Liang, M; Mouraux, A; Wise, R G; Hu, Y; Iannetti, G D

    2011-12-01

    Across-trial averaging is a widely used approach to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, across-trial variability of ERP latency and amplitude may contain physiologically relevant information that is lost by across-trial averaging. Hence, we aimed to develop a novel method that uses 1) wavelet filtering (WF) to enhance the SNR of ERPs and 2) a multiple linear regression with a dispersion term (MLR(d)) that takes into account shape distortions to estimate the single-trial latency and amplitude of ERP peaks. Using simulated ERP data sets containing different levels of noise, we provide evidence that, compared with other approaches, the proposed WF+MLR(d) method yields the most accurate estimate of single-trial ERP features. When applied to a real laser-evoked potential data set, the WF+MLR(d) approach provides reliable estimation of single-trial latency, amplitude, and morphology of ERPs and thereby allows performing meaningful correlations at single-trial level. We obtained three main findings. First, WF significantly enhances the SNR of single-trial ERPs. Second, MLR(d) effectively captures and measures the variability in the morphology of single-trial ERPs, thus providing an accurate and unbiased estimate of their peak latency and amplitude. Third, intensity of pain perception significantly correlates with the single-trial estimates of N2 and P2 amplitude. These results indicate that WF+MLR(d) can be used to explore the dynamics between different ERP features, behavioral variables, and other neuroimaging measures of brain activity, thus providing new insights into the functional significance of the different brain processes underlying the brain responses to sensory stimuli.

  19. Causal binary mask estimation for speech enhancement using sparsity constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kressner, Abigail Anne; Anderson, David V.; Rozell, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    While most single-channel noise reduction algorithms fail to improve speech intelligibility, the ideal binary mask (IBM) has demonstrated substantial intelligibility improvements for both normal- and impaired-hearing listeners. However, this approach exploits oracle knowledge of the target...... the disjoint placement of the target and interferer in time and frequency to create a time-frequency signal representation that is more sparse (i.e., has fewer non-zeros). In recent work (submitted to ICASSP 2013) we have introduced a novel time-frequency masking algorithm based on a sparse approximation...... algorithm from the signal processing literature. However, the algorithm employs a non-causal estimator. The present work introduces an improved de-noising algorithm that uses more realistic frame-based (causal) computations to estimate a binary mask....

  20. "The Mask Who Wasn't There": Visual Masking Effect with the Perceptual Absence of the Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Amandine Eve; Riou, Benoit; Muller, Dominique; Dabic, Stéphanie; Versace, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Does a visual mask need to be perceptually present to disrupt processing? In the present research, we proposed to explore the link between perceptual and memory mechanisms by demonstrating that a typical sensory phenomenon (visual masking) can be replicated at a memory level. Experiment 1 highlighted an interference effect of a visual mask on the…

  1. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  2. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  3. Single-Trial Classification of Bistable Perception by Integrating Empirical Mode Decomposition, Clustering, and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualou Liang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD- based method to extract features from the multichannel recordings of local field potential (LFP, collected from the middle temporal (MT visual cortex in a macaque monkey, for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion (SFM perception. The feature extraction approach consists of three stages. First, we employ EMD to decompose nonstationary single-trial time series into narrowband components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs with time scales dependent on the data. Second, we adopt unsupervised K-means clustering to group the IMFs and residues into several clusters across all trials and channels. Third, we use the supervised common spatial patterns (CSP approach to design spatial filters for the clustered spatiotemporal signals. We exploit the support vector machine (SVM classifier on the extracted features to decode the reported perception on a single-trial basis. We demonstrate that the CSP feature of the cluster in the gamma frequency band outperforms the features in other frequency bands and leads to the best decoding performance. We also show that the EMD-based feature extraction can be useful for evoked potential estimation. Our proposed feature extraction approach may have potential for many applications involving nonstationary multivariable time series such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI.

  4. Optimal Continuous-Monitoring Design of Single-arm Phase II Trial Based on the Simulated Annealing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nan; Lee, J. Jack

    2013-01-01

    Simon’s two-stage design is commonly used in phase II single-arm clinical trials because of its simplicity and smaller sample size under the null hypothesis compared to the one-stage design. Some studies extend this design to accommodate more interim analyses (i.e., three-stage or four-stage designs). However, most of these studies, together with the original Simon’s two-stage design, are based on the exhaustive search method, which is difficult to extend to high-dimensional, general multi-stage designs. In this study, we propose a simulated annealing (SA)-based design to optimize the early stopping boundaries and minimize the expected sample size for multi-stage or continuous monitoring single-arm trials. We compare the results of the SA method, the decision-theoretic method, the predictive probability method, and the posterior probability method. The SA method can reach the smallest expected sample sizes in all scenarios under the constraints of the same type I and type II errors. The expected sample sizes from the SA method are generally 10–20% smaller than those from the posterior probability method or the predictive probability method, and are slightly smaller than those from the decision-theoretic method in almost all scenarios. The SA method offers an excellent alternative in designing phase II trials with continuous monitoring. PMID:23545075

  5. Phase change material for thermotherapy of Buruli ulcer: a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Junghanss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer (BU is an infection of the subcutaneous tissue leading to chronic necrotizing skin ulcers. The causative pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, grows best at 30 degrees C-33 degrees C and not above 37 degrees C. We explored the safety, tolerability and efficacy of phase change material (PCM, a novel heat application system for thermotherapy of BU. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a prospective observational single centre proof-of-principle trial in Ayos/Cameroon, six laboratory reconfirmed patients with ulcerative Buruli lesions received 28-31 (ulcers 2 cm days of thermotherapy with the PCM sodium acetate trihydrate as heat application system. This PCM is widely used in commercial pocket heat pads, it is easy to apply, rechargeable in hot water, non-toxic and non-hazardous to the environment. All patients enrolled in the trial completed treatment. Being completely mobile during the well-tolerated heat application, acceptability of the PCM bandages was very high. In patients with smaller ulcers, wounds healed completely without further intervention. Patients with large defects had skin grafting after successful heat treatment. Heat treatment was not associated with marked increases in local inflammation or the development of ectopic lymphoid tissue. One and a half years after completion of treatment, all patients are relapse-free. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our reusable PCM-based heat application device appears perfectly suited to treat BU in endemic countries with limited resources and infrastructure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN88392614.

  6. Efficacy of intraorbital electroacupuncture for diabetic abducens nerve palsy: study protocol for a prospective single-center randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yun Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abducens nerve palsy (ANP is commonly seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. The validity of acupuncture as a traditional Chinese medicine method in peripheral nerve repair is well established. However, its efficacy in randomized controlled trials remains unclear. Herein, we designed a protocol for a prospective, single-center, randomized controlled trial to investigate the effect of intraorbital electroacupuncture on diabetic ANP. We plan to recruit 60 patients with diabetic ANP, and randomly divide them into treatment and control groups. Patients in both groups will continue their glucose-lowering therapy. A neural nutrition drug will be given to both groups for six weeks. The treatment group will also receive intraorbital electroacupuncture therapy. We will assess efficacy of treatment, eyeball movement, diplopia deviation and the levels of fasting blood-glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin before treatment at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after treatment. The efficacy and recurrence will be investigated during follow-up (1 month after intervention. This protocol was registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on 16 January 2015 (ChiCTR-IPR-15005836. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee ofFirst Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University of China (approval number: 201452. All protocols will be in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki, formulated by the World Medical Association. Written informed consent will be provided by participants. We envisage that the results of this clinical trial will provide evidence for promoting clinical use of this new therapy for management of ANP.

  7. Cosmesis and body image after single-port laparoscopic or conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a multicenter double blinded randomised controlled trial (SPOCC-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vonlanthen René

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging attempts have been made to reduce operative trauma and improve cosmetic results of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a trend towards minimizing the number of incisions such as natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES and single-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SPLC. Many retrospective case series propose excellent cosmesis and reduced pain in SPLC. As the latter has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial, patient's satisfaction on cosmesis is still controversially debated. Methods/Design The SPOCC trial is a prospective, multi-center, double blinded, randomized controlled study comparing SPLC with 4-port conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (4PLC in elective surgery. The hypothesis and primary objective is that patients undergoing SPLC will have a better outcome in cosmesis and body image 12 weeks after surgery. This primary endpoint is assessed using a validated 8-item multiple choice type questionnaire on cosmesis and body image. The secondary endpoint has three entities: the quality of life 12 weeks after surgery assessed by the validated Short-Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, postoperative pain assessed by a visual analogue scale and the use of analgesics. Operative time, surgeon's experience with SPLC and 4PLC, use of additional ports, conversion to 4PLC or open cholecystectomy, length of stay, costs, time of work as well as intra- and postoperative complications are further aspects of the secondary endpoint. Patients are randomly assigned either to SPLC or to 4PLC. Patients as well as treating physicians, nurses and assessors are blinded until the 7th postoperative day. Sample size calculation performed by estimating a difference of cosmesis of 20% (alpha = 0.05 and beta = 0.90, drop out rate of 10% resulted in a number of 55 randomized patients per arm. Discussion The SPOCC-trial is a prospective, multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study to assess cosmesis and body

  8. Ergonomic evaluation of pilot oxygen mask designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Yang, Xiaopeng; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; Kim, Heeeun; You, Heecheon

    2018-01-01

    A revised pilot oxygen mask design was developed for better fit to the Korean Air Force pilots’ faces. The present study compared an existing pilot oxygen mask and a prototype of the revised mask design with 88 Korean Air Force pilots in terms of subjective discomfort, facial contact pressure,

  9. 21 CFR 868.5570 - Nonrebreathing mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonrebreathing mask. 868.5570 Section 868.5570...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5570 Nonrebreathing mask. (a) Identification. A nonrebreathing mask is a device fitting over a patient's face to administer oxygen. It utilizes...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5600 - Venturi mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venturi mask. 868.5600 Section 868.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5600 Venturi mask. (a) Identification. A venturi mask is a...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5590 - Scavenging mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scavenging mask. 868.5590 Section 868.5590 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5590 Scavenging mask. (a) Identification. A scavenging mask is a device positioned over a patient's nose to deliver anesthetic or analgesic gases to the...

  13. A single center analysis of factors influencing study start-up timeline in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafcik, Brianna M; Doros, Gheorghe; Malikova, Marina A

    2017-11-01

    Efficient start-up phase in clinical trials is crucial to execution. The goal was to determine factors contributing to delays. The start-up milestones were assessed for 38 studies and analyzed. Total start-up time was shorter for following studies: device trials, no outsourcing, fewer ancillary services used and in interventional versus observational designs. The use of a centralized Institutional Review Board (IRB) versus a local IRB reduced time to approval. Studies that never enrolled took longer on average to finalize their budget/contract, and obtain IRB than ones that did enroll. Different features of clinical trials can affect timeline of start-up process. An understanding of the impact of each feature allows for optimization.

  14. Single-dose, subcutaneous recombinant phenylalanine ammonia lyase conjugated with polyethylene glycol in adult patients with phenylketonuria: an open-label, multicentre, phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O; Burton, Barbara K; Grange, Dorothy K; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M; Dorenbaum, Alejandro; Neuenburg, Jutta K; Musson, Donald G; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-07-05

    Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and efficacy of recombinant Anabaena variabilis phenylalanine ammonia lyase (produced in Escherichia coli) conjugated with polyethylene glycol (rAvPAL-PEG) in reducing phenylalanine concentrations in adult patients with phenylketonuria. In this open-label, phase 1, multicentre trial, single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG were given in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·010, 0·030, and 0·100 mg/kg) to adults with phenylketonuria. Participants aged 18 years or older with blood phenylalanine concentrations of 600 μmol/L or higher were recruited from among patients attending metabolic disease clinics in the USA. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability of rAvPAL-PEG. Secondary endpoints were the pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drug and its effect on concentrations of phenylalanine. Participants and investigators were not masked to assigned dose group. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00925054. 25 participants were recruited from seven centres between May 6, 2008, and April 15, 2009, with five participants assigned to each escalating dose group. All participants were included in the safety population. The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness, which were self-limited and without sequelae. Two participants had serious adverse reactions to intramuscular medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug that contains polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three of five participants given the highest dose of rAvPAL-PEG (0·100 mg/kg) developed a generalised skin rash

  15. Concordance between timeline follow-back and single-question assessment of self-reported smoking in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation clinical trials assess tobacco abstinence using self-report and biomarkers. Optimum methods for each are unclear; a common question assesses smoking in the prior 7 days. In contrast, timeline follow-back (TLFB) is another technique often used to assess use of alcohol in treatment trials; it is used less frequently in studies of smoking cessation. The goal of this study was to assess concordance between the 7-day smoking question and a 7-day TLFB. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation was conducted at a busy, urban hospital emergency department (ED) from October 2010 to December 2012. At 1, 3, and 12 months, subjects were contacted by phone to assess smoking status. Those reporting abstinence at 3 months were asked to return for an in-person measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide. For this analysis, smoking status at 1 month was compared for subjects in response to 2 questions asked concurrently, addressing 7-day point prevalence tobacco use and a 7-day TLFB. Of 780 subjects, 666 (85.4%) were available for 1-month follow-up. Of these, 99 (14.9%) reported no smoking in response to the 7-day question, and 96 (14.4%) reported no smoking in response to the 7-day TLFB. The overall proportionate agreement between the 2 methods was 98.6%, with a kappa of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91-0.98). A single question that assesses smoking at 7 days provides excellent concordance with the more detailed TLFB. The single question appears adequate to assess self-reported tobacco use in clinical trials of smoking cessation.

  16. The role of auditory cortices in the retrieval of single-trial auditory-visual object memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusz, Pawel J; Thelen, Antonia; Amrein, Sarah; Geiser, Eveline; Anken, Jacques; Murray, Micah M

    2015-03-01

    Single-trial encounters with multisensory stimuli affect both memory performance and early-latency brain responses to visual stimuli. Whether and how auditory cortices support memory processes based on single-trial multisensory learning is unknown and may differ qualitatively and quantitatively from comparable processes within visual cortices due to purported differences in memory capacities across the senses. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) as healthy adults (n = 18) performed a continuous recognition task in the auditory modality, discriminating initial (new) from repeated (old) sounds of environmental objects. Initial presentations were either unisensory or multisensory; the latter entailed synchronous presentation of a semantically congruent or a meaningless image. Repeated presentations were exclusively auditory, thus differing only according to the context in which the sound was initially encountered. Discrimination abilities (indexed by d') were increased for repeated sounds that were initially encountered with a semantically congruent image versus sounds initially encountered with either a meaningless or no image. Analyses of ERPs within an electrical neuroimaging framework revealed that early stages of auditory processing of repeated sounds were affected by prior single-trial multisensory contexts. These effects followed from significantly reduced activity within a distributed network, including the right superior temporal cortex, suggesting an inverse relationship between brain activity and behavioural outcome on this task. The present findings demonstrate how auditory cortices contribute to long-term effects of multisensory experiences on auditory object discrimination. We propose a new framework for the efficacy of multisensory processes to impact both current multisensory stimulus processing and unisensory discrimination abilities later in time. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Paradigm free mapping with sparse regression automatically detects single-trial functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation level dependent responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero Gaudes, César; Petridou, Natalia; Francis, Susan T; Dryden, Ian L; Gowland, Penny A

    2013-03-01

    The ability to detect single trial responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies is essential, particularly if investigating learning or adaptation processes or unpredictable events. We recently introduced paradigm free mapping (PFM), an analysis method that detects single trial blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses without specifying prior information on the timing of the events. PFM is based on the deconvolution of the fMRI signal using a linear hemodynamic convolution model. Our previous PFM method (Caballero-Gaudes et al., 2011: Hum Brain Mapp) used the ridge regression estimator for signal deconvolution and required a baseline signal period for statistical inference. In this work, we investigate the application of sparse regression techniques in PFM. In particular, a novel PFM approach is developed using the Dantzig selector estimator, solved via an efficient homotopy procedure, along with statistical model selection criteria. Simulation results demonstrated that, using the Bayesian information criterion to select the regularization parameter, this method obtains high detection rates of the BOLD responses, comparable with a model-based analysis, but requiring no information on the timing of the events and being robust against hemodynamic response function variability. The practical operation of this sparse PFM method was assessed with single-trial fMRI data acquired at 7T, where it automatically detected all task-related events, and was an improvement on our previous PFM method, as it does not require the definition of a baseline state and amplitude thresholding and does not compromise on specificity and sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Outpatient overnight glucose control with dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, or conventional insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: an open-label, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ahmad; Legault, Laurent; Matteau-Pelletier, Laurence; Messier, Virginie; Dallaire, Maryse; Ladouceur, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2015-08-01

    Additional benefits of the dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas compared with the single-hormone (insulin alone) artificial pancreas have not been assessed in young people in outpatient unrestricted conditions. We evaluated the efficacy of three systems for nocturnal glucose control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. We did a randomised, three-way, crossover trial in children aged 9-17 years with type 1 diabetes attending a diabetes camp in Canada. With use of sealed envelopes, children were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1:1:1 ratio with blocks of six to different sequences of the three interventions (single-hormone artificial pancreas, dual-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional continuous subcutaneous insulin pump therapy). Each intervention was applied for 3 consecutive nights. Participants, study staff, and endpoint assessors were not masked. The primary outcome was the percentage of time spent with glucose concentrations lower than 4·0 mmol/L from 2300 h to 0700 h. Analysis was by intention to treat. A p value of less than 0·0167 was regarded as significant. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02189694. Between June 30, 2014, and Aug 9, 2014, we enrolled 33 children of mean age 13·3 years (SD 2·3; range 9-17). The time spent at a glucose concentration lower than 4·0 mmol/L was median 0% (IQR 0·0-2·4) during nights with the dual-hormone artificial pancreas, 3·1% (0·0-6·9) during nights with the single-hormone artificial pancreas (p=0·032), and 3·4% (0-11·0) during nights with conventional pump therapy (p=0·0048 compared with dual-hormone artificial pancreas and p=0·32 compared with single-hormone artificial pancreas). 15 hypoglycaemic events (pump therapy compared with four events with the single-hormone system and no events with the dual-hormone system. None of the assessed outcomes varied with the order in which children and young adults were assigned interventions. The dual

  19. Collagen hemostat significantly reduces time to hemostasis compared with cellulose: COBBANA, a single-center, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qerimi, Bekim; Baumann, Petra; Hüsing, Johannes; Knaebel, Hanns-Peter; Schumacher, Hardy

    2013-06-01

    This single-center, randomized trial compares the hemostatic effectiveness of microfibrillar collagen and oxidized cellulose in arterial bypass surgery. In patients undergoing arterial bypass surgery, 2 hemostats, microfibrillar collagen and oxidized cellulose, were randomly used to achieve hemostasis. The primary endpoint was the time to hemostasis. The secondary endpoints were the complication rate, mortality, number of hemostats required, handling, and adhesion. Collagen achieved hemostasis significantly faster than cellulose, with considerably less hemostats. In addition, its ease of use was rated substantially better. In arterial bypass surgery, microfibrillar collagen is more effective than oxidized cellulose in achieving hemostasis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treating Acute Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a “Single-Shot” of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason G.; Cushing, Toby; Germain, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite considerable evidence supporting cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for chronic insomnia, it remains untested within the context of acute insomnia. This study examined the efficacy of a single session of CBT-I, with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, for individuals with acute insomnia. Design: A pragmatic parallel group randomized controlled trial. Setting: Community. Participants: Forty adults (mean age 32.9 ± 13.72 y) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defined insomnia disorder, except a self-reported duration of less than 3 mo (i.e., acute insomnia), who reported no previous exposure to CBT-I and were not currently taking medication for sleep. Interventions: A single 60- to 70-min session of CBT-I (n = 20), with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, or wait list control group (n = 20). All subjects were offered a full individual course of CBT-I on completion of the study, regardless of group allocation. Measurements and Results: Subjects completed sleep diaries and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) pretreatment and 1 mo following treatment. There were no between-group differences on baseline ISI scores or subjective sleep continuity. The intervention group reported significantly lower ISI scores than controls (t(38) 2.24, P insomnia caseness (i.e., ≥ 10), 60% of those in the CBT-I group had remitted by 1 mo compared to 15% of those in the control group. Conclusions: This single session of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is sufficiently efficacious for a significant proportion of those with acute insomnia. The results are discussed in terms of integrating this brief form of CBT-I into the “stepped care” model of insomnia. Trial Registration: Testing the efficacy of an early intervention for acute insomnia (SRCTN05891695) http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN05891695. Citation: Ellis JG, Cushing T, Germain A. Treating acute insomnia: a randomized

  1. Constructing optimized binary masks for reservoir computing with delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, Lennert; van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Fischer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a novel bio-inspired computing method, capable of solving complex tasks in a computationally efficient way. It has recently been successfully implemented using delayed feedback systems, allowing to reduce the hardware complexity of brain-inspired computers drastically. In this approach, the pre-processing procedure relies on the definition of a temporal mask which serves as a scaled time-mutiplexing of the input. Originally, random masks had been chosen, motivated by the random connectivity in reservoirs. This random generation can sometimes fail. Moreover, for hardware implementations random generation is not ideal due to its complexity and the requirement for trial and error. We outline a procedure to reliably construct an optimal mask pattern in terms of multipurpose performance, derived from the concept of maximum length sequences. Not only does this ensure the creation of the shortest possible mask that leads to maximum variability in the reservoir states for the given reservoir, it also allows for an interpretation of the statistical significance of the provided training samples for the task at hand.

  2. LMA Supreme for neonatal resuscitation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Cavallin, Francesco; Mardegan, Veronica; Loi, Nguyen Ngoc; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Linh, Tran Dieu; Chien, Tran Dinh; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Chiandetti, Lino; Moccia, Luciano

    2014-07-15

    The most important action in the resuscitation of a newborn in the delivery room is to establish effective assisted ventilation. The face mask and endotracheal tube are the devices used to achieve this goal. Laryngeal mask airways that fit over the laryngeal inlet have been shown to be effective for ventilating newborns at birth and should be considered as an alternative to facemask ventilation or endotracheal intubation among newborns weighing >2,000 g or delivered ≥34 weeks' gestation. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis of supraglottic airways in neonatal resuscitation reported the results of four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) stating that fewer infants in the group using laryngeal mask airways required endotracheal intubation (1.5%) compared to the group using face masks (12.0%). However, there were methodological concerns over all the RCTs including the fact that the majority of the operators in the trials were anesthesiologists.Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that ventilating newborns needing positive pressure ventilation with a laryngeal mask airway will be more effective than ventilating with a face mask in a setting where neonatal resuscitation is performed by midwives, nurses, and pediatricians. The primary aim of this study will be to assess the effectiveness of the laryngeal mask airway over the face mask in preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. This will be an open, prospective, randomized, single center, clinical trial. In this study, 142 newborns weighing >1,500 g or delivered ≥34 weeks gestation needing positive pressure ventilation at birth will be randomized to be ventilated with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA SupremeTM, LMA Company, UK - intervention group) or with a face mask (control group). Proportion of newborns needing endotracheal intubation. Apgar score at 5 minutes, time to first breath, onset of the first cry, duration of resuscitation, death or moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

  3. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  4. Randomized clinical trial of extended versus single-dose perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis for acute calculous cholecystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loozen, C. S.; Kortram, K.; Kornmann, V. N. N.; van Ramshorst, B.; Vlaminckx, B.; Knibbe, C. A. J.; Kelder, J. C.; Donkervoort, S. C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G. A. P.; Ponten, J. E. H.; van Geloven, A. A. W.; van Duijvendijk, P.; Bos, W. J. W.; Besselink, M. G. H.; Gouma, D. J.; van Santvoort, H. C.; Boerma, D.

    2017-01-01

    Many patients who have surgery for acute cholecystitis receive postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis, with the intent to reduce infectious complications. There is, however, no evidence that extending antibiotics beyond a single perioperative dose is advantageous. This study aimed to determine the

  5. Vulvar field resection based on ontogenetic cancer field theory for surgical treatment of vulvar carcinoma: a single-centre, single-group, prospective trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höckel, Michael; Trott, Sophia; Dornhöfer, Nadja; Horn, Lars-Christian; Hentschel, Bettina; Wolf, Benjamin

    2018-03-09

    The incidence of vulvar cancer is increasing, but surgical treatment-the current standard of care-often leads to unsatisfactory outcomes, especially in patients with node-positive disease. Preliminary results at our centre showed that locoregional spread of vulvar carcinoma occurs within tissue domains defined by stepwise embryonic and fetal development (ontogenetic cancer fields and associated lymph node regions). We propose that clinical translation of these insights into practice could improve outcomes of surgical treatment of vulvar cancer. We did a single-centre prospective trial at the University of Leipzig's Cancer Center. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had ontogenetic stage 1-3b histologically proven primary carcinoma of the vulva, and had not undergone previous surgical or radiotherapy treatment for vulvar cancer or any other major perineal or pelvic disease. In view of staged morphogenesis of the vulva from the cloacal membrane endoderm at Carnegie stage 11 to adulthood, we defined the tissue domains of tumour spread according to the theory of ontogenetic cancer fields. On the basis of ontogenetic staging, patients were treated locally with partial, total, or extended vulvar field resection; regionally with therapeutic inguinopelvic lymph node dissection; and anatomical reconstruction without adjuvant radiotherapy. The primary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, disease-specific survival, and early postoperative complications. Analysis of tumour spread and early postoperative surgical complications was done by intention to treat (ie, all patients were included), whereas outcome analyses were done per protocol. This ongoing trial is registered with the German Clinical Trials Register, number DRKS00013358. Between March 1, 2009, and June 8, 2017, 97 consecutive patients were included in the study, of whom 94 were treated per protocol with vulvar field resection, therapeutic inguinopelvic lymph node dissection, and anatomical

  6. Single and combined effects of beetroot juice and caffeine supplementation on cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Stephen C; Hawley, John A; Desbrow, Ben; Jones, Andrew M; Blackwell, James R; Ross, Megan L; Zemski, Adam J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-09-01

    Both caffeine and beetroot juice have ergogenic effects on endurance cycling performance. We investigated whether there is an additive effect of these supplements on the performance of a cycling time trial (TT) simulating the 2012 London Olympic Games course. Twelve male and 12 female competitive cyclists each completed 4 experimental trials in a double-blind Latin square design. Trials were undertaken with a caffeinated gum (CAFF) (3 mg·kg(-1) body mass (BM), 40 min prior to the TT), concentrated beetroot juice supplementation (BJ) (8.4 mmol of nitrate (NO3(-)), 2 h prior to the TT), caffeine plus beetroot juice (CAFF+BJ), or a control (CONT). Subjects completed the TT (females: 29.35 km; males: 43.83 km) on a laboratory cycle ergometer under conditions of best practice nutrition: following a carbohydrate-rich pre-event meal, with the ingestion of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink and regular oral carbohydrate contact during the TT. Compared with CONT, power output was significantly enhanced after CAFF+BJ and CAFF (3.0% and 3.9%, respectively, p caffeine (-0.9%, p = 0.4 compared with CAFF). We conclude that caffeine (3 mg·kg(-1) BM) administered in the form of a caffeinated gum increased cycling TT performance lasting ∼50-60 min by ∼3%-4% in both males and females. Beetroot juice supplementation was not ergogenic under the conditions of this study.

  7. Temporal Masking Contributions of Inherent Envelope Fluctuations for Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Adam

    Gaussian noise (GN) simultaneous maskers yield higher masked thresholds for pure tones than low-fluctuation noise (LFN) simultaneous maskers for listeners with normal hearing. This increased residual masking is thought to be due to inherent fluctuations in the temporal envelope of Gaussian noise, but these masking effects using forward maskers have been previously unexamined. Because differences in forward masking due to age and hearing loss are known, the first study measured forward-masked detection thresholds for younger and older adults with normal hearing (NH) and older adults with hearing loss (HI) for a 4000 Hz pure-tone probe at a single masker-probe delay in narrowband noises with maximal (GN) or minimal (LFN) inherent envelope fluctuations. As predicted, results suggested that no effect of age was observed. Surprisingly, forward-masked threshold differences between GN and LFN, an estimate of the magnitude of the effect of inherent masker envelope fluctuations, were not significantly different for older HI listeners compared to younger or older NH listeners. Due to the surprising similarities between listeners with normal and impaired hearing, the second study was designed to assess effects of hearing loss on the slopes and magnitudes of recovery from forward maskers that varied in inherent envelope fluctuations for masker-probe delays of 25, 50, and 75 ms. In addition to measuring these effects centered at 4000 Hz, forward-masked thresholds were also measured at 2000 Hz, a region of better hearing for the HI listeners. As hypothesized, regardless of masker fluctuations, slopes of recovery from forward masking were shallower for HI than NH listeners in all conditions. At 4000 Hz, additional residual masking was greater in HI than NH listeners at the longest masker-probe delays; whereas, no differences in additional residual masking between HI and NH listeners were observed for 2000 Hz. These results suggest that the masking effects from inherent envelope

  8. Comparison of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy for glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes: an open-label randomised controlled crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Ahmad; Legault, Laurent; Messier, Virginie; Mitre, Tina Maria; Leroux, Catherine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    The artificial pancreas is an emerging technology for the treatment of type 1 diabetes and two configurations have been proposed: single-hormone (insulin alone) and dual-hormone (insulin and glucagon). We aimed to delineate the usefulness of glucagon in the artificial pancreas system. We did a randomised crossover trial of dual-hormone artificial pancreas, single-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) in participants aged 12 years or older with type 1 diabetes. Participants were assigned in a 1:1:1:1:1:1 ratio with blocked randomisation to the three interventions and attended a research facility for three 24-h study visits. During visits when the patient used the single-hormone artificial pancreas, insulin was delivered based on glucose sensor readings and a predictive dosing algorithm. During dual-hormone artificial pancreas visits, glucagon was also delivered during low or falling glucose. During conventional insulin pump therapy visits, patients received continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The study was not masked. The primary outcome was the time for which plasma glucose concentrations were in the target range (4·0-10·0 mmol/L for 2 h postprandially and 4·0-8·0 mmol/L otherwise). Hypoglycaemic events were defined as plasma glucose concentration of less than 3·3 mmol/L with symptoms or less than 3·0 mmol/L irrespective of symptoms. Analysis was by modified intention to treat, in which we included data for all patients who completed at least two visits. A p value of less than 0·0167 (0·05/3) was regarded as significant. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01754337. The mean proportion of time spent in the plasma glucose target range over 24 h was 62% (SD 18), 63% (18), and 51% (19) with single-hormone artificial pancreas, dual-hormone artificial pancreas, and conventional insulin pump therapy, respectively. The mean difference in time spent in the target

  9. Offline identification of imagined speed of wrist movements in paralyzed ALS patients from single-trial EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the possibility of identifying the speed of an imagined movement from EEG recordings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS patients. EEG signals were acquired from four ALS patients during imagination of wrist extensions at two speeds (fast and slow, each repeated up to 100 times in random order. The movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs and averaged sensorimotor rhythm associated with the two tasks were obtained from the EEG recordings. Moreover, offline single-trial EEG classification was performed with discrete wavelet transform for feature extraction and support vector machine for classification. The speed of the task was encoded in the time delay of peak negativity in the MRCPs, which was shorter for faster than for slower movements. The average single-trial misclassification rate between speeds was 30.4 ± 3.5 % when the best scalp location and time interval were selected for each individual. The scalp location and time interval leading to the lowest misclassification rate varied among patients. The results indicate that the imagination of movements at different speeds is a viable strategy for controlling a brain-computer interface system by ALS patients.

  10. Automated single-trial assessment of laser-evoked potentials as an objective functional diagnostic tool for the nociceptive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, S M; Hu, L; Ragé, M; Gierasimowicz, A; Plaghki, L; Bouhassira, D; Attal, N; Iannetti, G D; Mouraux, A

    2012-12-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of an automated analysis of event-related potentials (ERPs). Nociceptive laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and non-nociceptive somatosensory electrically-evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded in 37 patients with syringomyelia and 21 controls. LEP and SEP peak amplitudes and latencies were estimated using a single-trial automated approach based on time-frequency wavelet filtering and multiple linear regression, as well as a conventional approach based on visual inspection. The amplitudes and latencies of normal and abnormal LEP and SEP peaks were identified reliably using both approaches, with similar sensitivity and specificity. Because the automated approach provided an unbiased solution to account for average waveforms where no ERP could be identified visually, it revealed significant differences between patients and controls that were not revealed using the visual approach. The automated analysis of ERPs characterized reliably and objectively LEP and SEP waveforms in patients. The automated single-trial analysis can be used to characterize normal and abnormal ERPs with a similar sensitivity and specificity as visual inspection. While this does not justify its use in a routine clinical setting, the technique could be useful to avoid observer-dependent biases in clinical research. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Single Dose Versus 3 Doses of Intramuscular Benzathine Penicillin for Early Syphilis in HIV: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberto; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Yasukawa, Kosuke; Villarreal, Erick; Ross, Michael; Serpa, Jose A

    2017-03-15

    Patients coinfected with syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may have a slower decrease in rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers. Currently a single dose of 2.4 million units of intramuscular benzathine penicillin G (BPG) is recommended for the treatment of early syphilis. Some observational studies have suggested that this regimen may lead to high failure rates in coinfected patients. We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of single-dose and 3-dose regimens of BPG for the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected individuals. RPR titers were monitored every 3 months. Treatment success was defined as a decrease in RPR titers of ≥2 dilutions (4-fold) during a 12-month follow-up period. Sixty-four patients were included. In the intention-to-treat analysis, treatment success rates were 80% (28 of 35 subjects) and 93% (27 of 29 subjects) in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 13% [95% confidence interval {CI}, -5% to 30%; P = .17). In the per-protocol analysis, success rates were 93% (27 of 29) and 100% in the single-dose and 3-dose regimens, respectively (absolute difference, 7% [95% CI, -7% to 22%]; P = .49). CD4 T-cell count, RPR titer and syphilis stage did not affect treatment results. When compared with a single dose of BPG, a 3-dose regimen did not improve syphilis serological outcomes. Our results support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendation of a single dose of BPG in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. NCT02611765.

  12. Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schache Anthony G

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks. Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii patellar taping; (iv manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the

  13. Targeted physiotherapy for patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis: A protocol for a randomised, single-blind controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Pandy, Marcus G; Schache, Anthony G; Hinman, Rana S

    2008-01-01

    Background The patellofemoral joint (PFJ) is one compartment of the knee that is frequently affected by osteoarthritis (OA) and is a potent source of OA symptoms. However, there is a dearth of evidence for compartment-specific treatments for PFJ OA. Therefore, this project aims to evaluate whether a physiotherapy treatment, targeted to the PFJ, results in greater improvements in pain and physical function than a physiotherapy education intervention in people with symptomatic and radiographic PFJ OA. Methods 90 people with PFJ OA (PFJ-specific history, signs and symptoms and radiographic evidence of PFJ OA) will be recruited from the community and randomly allocated into one of two treatments. A randomised controlled trial adhering to CONSORT guidelines will evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks, as well as a home exercise program 4 times/week) compared to a physiotherapist-delivered OA education control treatment (8 individual sessions over 12 weeks). Physiotherapy treatment will consist of (i) quadriceps muscle retraining; (ii) quadriceps and hip muscle strengthening; (iii) patellar taping; (iv) manual PFJ and soft tissue mobilisation; and (v) OA education. Resistance and dosage of exercises will be tailored to the participant's functional level and clinical state. Primary outcomes will be evaluated by a blinded examiner at baseline, 12 weeks and 9 months using validated and reliable pain, physical function and perceived global effect scales. All analyses will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis using linear mixed regression models, including respective baseline scores as a covariate, subjects as a random effect, treatment condition as a fixed factor and the covariate by treatment interaction. Conclusion This RCT is targeting PFJ OA, an important sub-group of knee OA patients, with a specifically designed conservative intervention. The project's outcome will influence PFJ OA rehabilitation, with the potential to reduce

  14. Clinical pharmacists on medical care of pediatric inpatients: a single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the best interventions and working patterns of clinical pharmacists in pediatrics and to determine the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists in pediatrics. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 160 pediatric patients with nerve system disease, respiratory system disease or digestive system disease, who were randomly allocated into two groups, with 80 in each group. Interventions by clinical pharmacists in the experimental group included answering questions of physicians and nurses, giving advice on treating patients, checking prescriptions and patient counseling at discharge. In the control group, patients were treated without clinical pharmacist interventions. RESULTS: Of the 109 interventions provided by clinical pharmacists during 4 months, 47 were consultations for physicians and nurses, 31 were suggestions of treatment, with 30 accepted by physicians (96.77% and 31 were medical errors found in 641 prescriptions. Five adverse drug reactions were submitted to the adverse drug reaction monitoring network, with three in the experimental group and two in the control group. The average length of stay (LOS for patients with respiratory system diseases in the experimental group was 6.45 days, in comparison with 10.83 days in the control group, which was statistically different (p value<0.05; Average drug compliance rate in the experimental group was 81.41%, in comparison with 70.17% of the control group, which was statistically different (p value<0.05. Cost of drugs and hospitalization and rate of readmission in two weeks after discharge in the two groups were not statistically different. CONCLUSION: Participation by clinical pharmacists in the pharmacotherapy of pediatric patients can reduce LOS of patients with respiratory system disease and improve compliance rate through discharge education, showing no significant effects on prevention of ADR, reduction of cost of drugs and hospitalization and readmission

  15. Shock efficacy of single and dual coil electrodes-new insights from the NORDIC ICD Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan

    2017-01-01

    efficacy (FSE) after implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Methods and results: One thousand and seventy-seven patients of the NORDIC ICD trial were randomly assigned to first time ICD implantation with or without defibrillation (DF) testing. The electrode configuration was determined...... before randomization. One thousand and sixty-seven patients eventually received an ICD, 516 (48.4%) with a SC- and 551 (51.6%) with a DC-electrode. DC-electrodes were preferentially selected in older patients, renal failure, atrial fibrillation, dual chamber, Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT...

  16. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100–2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000–10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0–50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance

  17. Safety and efficacy of dual-lead thalamic deep brain stimulation for patients with treatment-refractory multiple sclerosis tremor: a single-centre, randomised, single-blind, pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveria, Seth F; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Bowers, Dawn; Kantor, Daniel; Hilliard, Justin D; Monari, Erin H; Scott, Bonnie M; Okun, Michael S; Foote, Kelly D

    2017-09-01

    Efficacy in previous studies of surgical treatments of refractory multiple sclerosis tremor using lesioning or deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been variable. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of dual-lead thalamic DBS (one targeting the ventralis intermedius-ventralis oralis posterior nucleus border [the VIM lead] and one targeting the ventralis oralis anterior-ventralis oralis posterior border [the VO lead]) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis tremor. We did a single centre, single-blind, prospective, randomised pilot trial at the University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration clinic (Gainesville, FL, USA). We recruited adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of multiple sclerosis tremor refractory to previous medical therapy. Before surgery to implant both leads, we randomly assigned patients (1:1) to receive 3 months of optimised single-lead DBS-either VIM or VO. We did the randomisation with a computer-generated sequence, using three blocks of four patients, and independent members of the Center did the assignment. Patients and all clinicians other than the DBS programming nurse were masked to the choice of lead. Patients underwent surgery 1 month after their baseline visit for implantation of the dual lead DBS system. A pulse generator and two extension cables were implanted in a second surgery 3-4 weeks later. Patients then received an initial 3-month period of continuous stimulation of either the VIM or VO lead followed by blinded safety assessment of their tremor with the Tolosa-Fahn-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (TRS) during optimised VIM or VO lead stimulation at the end of the 3 months. After this visit, both leads were activated in all patients for an additional 3 months, and optimally programmed during serial visits as dictated by a prespecified programming algorithm. At the 6-month follow-up visit, TRS score was measured, and mood and psychological batteries were administered under four

  18. Treating Acute Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a "Single-Shot" of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jason G; Cushing, Toby; Germain, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Despite considerable evidence supporting cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for chronic insomnia, it remains untested within the context of acute insomnia. This study examined the efficacy of a single session of CBT-I, with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, for individuals with acute insomnia. A pragmatic parallel group randomized controlled trial. Community. Forty adults (mean age 32.9 ± 13.72 y) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defined insomnia disorder, except a self-reported duration of less than 3 mo (i.e., acute insomnia), who reported no previous exposure to CBT-I and were not currently taking medication for sleep. A single 60- to 70-min session of CBT-I (n = 20), with an accompanying self-help pamphlet, or wait list control group (n = 20). All subjects were offered a full individual course of CBT-I on completion of the study, regardless of group allocation. Subjects completed sleep diaries and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) pretreatment and 1 mo following treatment. There were no between-group differences on baseline ISI scores or subjective sleep continuity. The intervention group reported significantly lower ISI scores than controls (t(38) 2.24, P insomnia caseness (i.e., ≥ 10), 60% of those in the CBT-I group had remitted by 1 mo compared to 15% of those in the control group. This single session of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is sufficiently efficacious for a significant proportion of those with acute insomnia. The results are discussed in terms of integrating this brief form of CBT-I into the "stepped care" model of insomnia. Testing the efficacy of an early intervention for acute insomnia (SRCTN05891695) http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN05891695. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Immediate non-occlusal loading of single implants in the aesthetic zone : A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stellingsma, Kees; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    P>Aim This study compared the outcome of immediate non-occlusal loading with conventional loading for single implants in the maxillary aesthetic zone. It was hypothesized that immediate non-occlusal loading is not inferior to conventional loading. Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients with a

  20. Anterior single implants with different neck designs : 5 Year results of a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Meijer, Henny J A; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    BACKGROUND: The design of the implant neck might be significant for preservation of marginal bone. PURPOSE: To compare the 5-year radiographic and clinical outcome of single anterior implants provided with a smooth neck, a rough neck or a scalloped rough neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 93 Patients with

  1. Single implants with different neck designs in the aesthetic zone : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Laurens; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Tymstra, Nynke; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare single implants in the aesthetic zone with different neck designs for marginal bone-level changes and clinical outcome measures. Materials and methods: Ninety-three patients with a missing anterior tooth in the maxilla were randomly assigned to be treated with an implant with

  2. Detection and Characterization of Single-Trial fMRI BOLD Responses : Paradigm Free Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudes, Cesar Caballero; Petridou, Natalia; Dryden, Ian L.; Bai, Li; Francis, Susan T.; Gowland, Penny A.

    This work presents a novel method of mapping the brain's response to single stimuli in space and time without prior knowledge of the paradigm timing: paradigm free mapping (PFM). This method is based on deconvolution of the hemodynamic response from the voxel time series assuming a linear response

  3. Single Layered Versus Double Layered Intestinal Anastomosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Vandana; Singh, Surendra; Rath, Pratap Kumar; Behera, Tapas Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gastrointestinal anastomosis is one of the most common procedures being performed in oesophagogastric, hepatobiliary, bariatric, small bowel and colorectal surgery; however, the safety and efficacy of single layer or double layer anastomotic technique is still unclear. Aim To assess and compare the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of single layered versus double layered intestinal anastomosis. Materials and Methods This prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled comparative study comprised of patients who underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to undergo either single layered extra-mucosal anastomosis (Group-A) or double layered intestinal anastomosis (Group-B). Primary outcome measures included average time taken for anastomosis, postoperative complications, mean duration of hospital stay and cost of suture material used; secondary outcome measures assessed the postoperative return of bowel function. Statistical analysis was done by Chi-square test and student t-test. Results A total of 97 participants were randomized. Fifty patients were allocated to single layered extramucosal continuous anastomosis (Group-A) and 47 patients to double layered anastomosis (Group-B). The patients in each group were well matched for age, sex and diagnosis. The mean time taken for anastomosis (15.12±2.27 minutes in Group-A versus 24.38±2.26 minutes in Group-B) and the length of hospital stay (5.90±1.43 days in Group-A versus 7.29±1.89 days in Group-B) was significantly shorter in Group-A {p-value anastomosis. However, there was no significant difference in the complication rates between the two groups. Conclusion It can be concluded that single layered extramucosal continuous intestinal anastomosis is equally safe and perhaps more cost effective than the conventional double layered method and may represent the optimal choice for routine surgical practice. PMID:28764239

  4. Single versus repeat doses of misoprostol for treatment of early pregnancy loss-a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrachi, Yossi; Dekalo, Ann; Gluck, Ohad; Miremberg, Hadas; Dafna, Lotem; Feldstein, Ohad; Weiner, Eran; Bar, Jacob; Sagiv, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Does repeat administration of misoprostol for early pregnancy loss increase the treatment success rate? Repeat administration of misoprostol does not increase the treatment success rate, and is associated with more analgesics use. Misoprostol reduces the need for surgical evacuation and shortens the time to complete expulsion in patients with early pregnancy loss. However, the impact of repeat doses of misoprostol is not clear. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in a single tertiary hospital, recruiting women with early pregnancy loss (misoprostol vaginally on Day 1, and were then randomly assigned into two groups: Patients in the single-dose group were evaluated on Day 8. Patients in the repeat-dose group were evaluated on Day 4, when they were given a repeat dose if required, and scheduled for re-evaluation on Day 8. If complete expulsion was not achieved on Day 8 (endometrial thickness >15 mm or the presence of gestational sac on transvaginal sonography), participants underwent surgical evacuation. The primary outcome was treatment success, defined as no need for surgical intervention up to Day 8. Final analysis included 87 participants in the single-dose group and 84 participants in the repeat-dose group, out of whom 41 (48.8%) received a second dose. Treatment succeeded in 67 (77%) patients in the single-dose group and 64 (76%) patients in the repeat-dose group (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.83-1.16; P = 0.89). Patients in the repeat-dose group reported more use of over the counter analgesics (82.1% versus 69.0%, P = 0.04). The study was not blinded and our definition of complete expulsion may be debated. Follow-up time was not equal in all participants, since some had a complete expulsion on Day 4 and some underwent emergent D&C before Day 8. This, however, should not affect the primary outcome. Our results suggest that a single-dose protocol is superior to a repeat-dose protocol due to a comparable success rate and more favorable outcomes regarding the need for

  5. Masking as an effective quality control method for next-generation sequencing data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sajung; Yun, Sijung

    2014-12-13

    Next generation sequencing produces base calls with low quality scores that can affect the accuracy of identifying simple nucleotide variation calls, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and small insertions and deletions. Here we compare the effectiveness of two data preprocessing methods, masking and trimming, and the accuracy of simple nucleotide variation calls on whole-genome sequence data from Caenorhabditis elegans. Masking substitutes low quality base calls with 'N's (undetermined bases), whereas trimming removes low quality bases that results in a shorter read lengths. We demonstrate that masking is more effective than trimming in reducing the false-positive rate in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling. However, both of the preprocessing methods did not affect the false-negative rate in SNP calling with statistical significance compared to the data analysis without preprocessing. False-positive rate and false-negative rate for small insertions and deletions did not show differences between masking and trimming. We recommend masking over trimming as a more effective preprocessing method for next generation sequencing data analysis since masking reduces the false-positive rate in SNP calling without sacrificing the false-negative rate although trimming is more commonly used currently in the field. The perl script for masking is available at http://code.google.com/p/subn/. The sequencing data used in the study were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRX450968 and SRX451773).

  6. Cataractogenic potential of quetiapine versus risperidone in the long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a randomized, open-label, ophthalmologist-masked, flexible-dose, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laties, Alan M; Flach, Allan J; Baldycheva, Irina; Rak, Ihor; Earley, Willie; Pathak, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Clinical observations indicate no cataractogenic potential for quetiapine, in contrast to studies in laboratory animals. This randomized, non-inferiority study compared changes in lens opacity during long-term treatment with quetiapine versus risperidone. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated in the 2-year, randomized, multicentre, open-label, ophthalmologist-masked, flexible-dose, parallel-group study. Two ophthalmologists examined each patient 6-monthly for presence of nuclear opalescence (N) and cortical (C) or posterior subcapsular opacification (P), according to the lens opacities classification system II. 1098 patients were randomized to treatment. Mean doses were 386.3 mg/day quetiapine and 3.2 mg/day risperidone. Estimated absolute risk differences in cataractogenic events for quetiapine versus risperidone over 2 years were -0.035 (C), -0.012 (N) and -0.017 (P), with upper margins of confidence intervals within the non-inferiority margin of 10%. In post hoc analysis, risk of any lens opacification event was significantly lower for quetiapine than risperidone (6 and 16 events, respectively; risk difference: -0.058; P = 0.035). Efficacy and other safety assessments were in agreement with known profiles of these medications. Quetiapine was non-inferior to risperidone for changes in lens opacity grade in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, indicating that quetiapine does not have clinically significant cataractogenic potential during long-term treatment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Jig Aligns Shadow Mask On CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Carlos V.

    1989-01-01

    Alignment viewed through microscope. Alignment jig positions shadow mask on charge-coupled device (CCD) so metal film deposited on it precisely. Allows CCD package to be inserted and removed without disturbing alignment of mask. Holds CCD packages securely and isolates it electrostatically while providing electrical contact to each of its pins. When alignment jig assembled with CCD, used to move mask under micrometer control.

  8. A Masked Photocathode in a Photoinjector

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ji

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a masked photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto an electrode, an electrode with small hole is used as a mask to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material easy by rotating the photocathode behind the electrode into the hole. Furthermore, this helps reduce the dark current or seconda...

  9. Single-dose versus two-dose administration of methotrexate for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taejong; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kim, Mi-La; Jung, Yong Wook; Yun, Bo Seong; Seong, Seok Ju

    2016-02-01

    Can a two-dose methotrexate treatment protocol improve the treatment success rate compared with a single-dose protocol in women with an ectopic pregnancy? The two-dose protocol was not superior to the single-dose protocol for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Although the two-dose methotrexate protocol for ectopic pregnancy was recently introduced to combine the efficacy and convenience of the fixed multi-dose and single-dose protocols, studies comparing the success rates, treatment satisfaction and acceptability of the single-dose and two-dose treatment protocols for ectopic pregnancy are currently lacking. A randomized trial was conducted on 92 participants with tubal ectopic pregnancy, between May 2013 and April 2015. Patients who were diagnosed with tubal ectopic pregnancy and who elected to undergo systemic methotrexate treatment were randomly assigned to follow either the single-dose (n = 46) or two-dose protocol (n = 46). The primary outcome measure was treatment success without surgical intervention. The secondary outcome measures were the incidence of methotrexate-associated side effects, β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) resolution time, cost of care received and treatment satisfaction. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. The success rates between the single-dose and two-dose groups did not show a significant difference [82.6 versus 87.0%; relative risk (RR) 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.13]. However, the success rate in a subgroup of participants with a pretreatment β-hCG level of >5000 mIU/ml appeared to be higher in the two-dose group than in the single-dose group (80.0 versus 58.8%), although the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences in methotrexate-associated side effects, cost or treatment satisfaction were observed between the groups. The two-dose group required a lower number of days for the β-hCG level to decrease to ectopic pregnancy. None. www

  10. "Straight Talk" for African-American heterosexual men: results of a single-arm behavioral intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Henny, Kirk; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, heterosexual transmission is the second leading cause of HIV/AIDS, and two-thirds of all heterosexually acquired cases diagnosed between 2005 and 2008 occurred among African-Americans. Few HIV prevention interventions have been designed specifically for African-American heterosexual men not seeking clinical treatment. Here we report results of a single-arm intervention trial of a theory-based HIV prevention intervention designed to increase condom use, reduce concurrent partnering and increase HIV testing among heterosexually active African-American men living in high HIV prevalence areas of New York City. We tested our hypothesis using McNemar discordant pairs exact test for binary variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables. We observed statistically significant declines in mean number of total and new female partners, unprotected sex partners, and partner concurrency in both primary and nonprimary sex partnerships between baseline and 3 months postintervention.

  11. Validity and reliability of the single-trial line drill test of anaerobic power in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, I G; Laparidis, K; Kambas, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Techlikidou, E; Katrabasas, I; Douroudos, I; Leontsini, D; Berberidou, F; Draganidis, D; Christoforidis, C; Tsoukas, D; Kelis, S; Taxildaris, K

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the single-trial line drill test (SLDT) for anaerobic power assessment. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to either a control (C, N.=12) or an experimental (BP, N.=12 basketball players) group. SLDT's (time-to-complete) concurrent validity was evaluated against the Wingate testing (WAnT: mean [MP] and peak power [PP]) and a 30-sec vertical jump testing test (VJT: mean height and MP). Blood lactate concentration was measured at rest and immediately post-test. SLDT's reliability [test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots] and sensitivity were determined (one-way ANOVA). Kendall's tau correlation analysis revealed correlations (Pbasketball players.

  12. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with TKM-130803: A Single-Arm Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Dunning

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available TKM-130803, a small interfering RNA lipid nanoparticle product, has been developed for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been evaluated.In this single-arm phase 2 trial, adults with laboratory-confirmed EVD received 0.3 mg/kg of TKM-130803 by intravenous infusion once daily for up to 7 d. On days when trial enrolment capacity was reached, patients were enrolled into a concurrent observational cohort. The primary outcome was survival to day 14 after admission, excluding patients who died within 48 h of admission. After 14 adults with EVD had received TKM-130803, the pre-specified futility boundary was reached, indicating a probability of survival to day 14 of ≤0.55, and enrolment was stopped. Pre-treatment geometric mean Ebola virus load in the 14 TKM-130803 recipients was 2.24 × 109 RNA copies/ml plasma (95% CI 7.52 × 108, 6.66 × 109. Two of the TKM-130803 recipients died within 48 h of admission and were therefore excluded from the primary outcome analysis. Of the remaining 12 TKM-130803 recipients, nine died and three survived. The probability that a TKM-130803 recipient who survived for 48 h will subsequently survive to day 14 was estimated to be 0.27 (95% CI 0.06, 0.58. TKM-130803 infusions were well tolerated, with 56 doses administered and only one possible infusion-related reaction observed. Three patients were enrolled in the observational cohort, of whom two died.Administration of TKM-130803 at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/d by intravenous infusion to adult patients with severe EVD was not shown to improve survival when compared to historic controls.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201501000997429.

  13. Experimental Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease with TKM-130803: A Single-Arm Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jake; Sahr, Foday; Rojek, Amanda; Gannon, Fiona; Carson, Gail; Idriss, Baimba; Massaquoi, Thomas; Gandi, Regina; Joseph, Sebatu; Osman, Hassan K; Brooks, Timothy J G; Simpson, Andrew J H; Goodfellow, Ian; Thorne, Lucy; Arias, Armando; Merson, Laura; Castle, Lyndsey; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Pardinaz-Solis, Raul; Hope-Gill, Benjamin; Ferri, Mauricio; Grove, Jennifer; Kowalski, Mark; Stepniewska, Kasia; Lang, Trudie; Whitehead, John; Olliaro, Piero; Samai, Mohammed; Horby, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    TKM-130803, a small interfering RNA lipid nanoparticle product, has been developed for the treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD), but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been evaluated. In this single-arm phase 2 trial, adults with laboratory-confirmed EVD received 0.3 mg/kg of TKM-130803 by intravenous infusion once daily for up to 7 d. On days when trial enrolment capacity was reached, patients were enrolled into a concurrent observational cohort. The primary outcome was survival to day 14 after admission, excluding patients who died within 48 h of admission. After 14 adults with EVD had received TKM-130803, the pre-specified futility boundary was reached, indicating a probability of survival to day 14 of ≤0.55, and enrolment was stopped. Pre-treatment geometric mean Ebola virus load in the 14 TKM-130803 recipients was 2.24 × 109 RNA copies/ml plasma (95% CI 7.52 × 108, 6.66 × 109). Two of the TKM-130803 recipients died within 48 h of admission and were therefore excluded from the primary outcome analysis. Of the remaining 12 TKM-130803 recipients, nine died and three survived. The probability that a TKM-130803 recipient who survived for 48 h will subsequently survive to day 14 was estimated to be 0.27 (95% CI 0.06, 0.58). TKM-130803 infusions were well tolerated, with 56 doses administered and only one possible infusion-related reaction observed. Three patients were enrolled in the observational cohort, of whom two died. Administration of TKM-130803 at a dose of 0.3 mg/kg/d by intravenous infusion to adult patients with severe EVD was not shown to improve survival when compared to historic controls. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201501000997429.

  14. Safety and efficacy of a single-rod etonogestrel implant (Implanon): results from 11 international clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Philip; Patel, Ashlesha; Rosen, Kimberly; Shapiro, Lena S; Kaunitz, Andrew M

    2009-05-01

    To present efficacy, safety, and bleeding profile results from the clinical trials that supported the U.S. Food and Drug Administration filing for the approval of a single-rod etonogestrel (ENG) contraceptive implant (Implanon). Integrated analysis of 11 international clinical trials. Contraceptive clinics in U.S., Chile, Asia, and Europe. A total of 942 healthy women, aged 18 to 40 years. Insertion of an ENG implant. Most women were enrolled in studies lasting either 2 or 3 years. Efficacy was measured by the cumulative Pearl Index in women

  15. Varenicline for opioid withdrawal in patients with chronic pain: a randomized, single-blinded, placebo controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, W Michael; Warner, David O

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot trial were to investigate the effects of varenicline on opioid withdrawal among chronic pain patients undergoing opioid detoxification in an interdisciplinary pain program and the feasibility of varenicline use in this population. Twenty-one patients were recruited (varenicline=10, placebo=11), and 7 patients in the varenicline and 11 in the placebo group completed the study. Opioid withdrawal was quantified using the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, and varenicline-related adverse effects were assessed. Opioid withdrawal scores tended to decrease over the course of opioid tapering in those receiving varenicline and increase in those receiving placebo. Varenicline was well-tolerated in this population, with no adverse drug effects (including nausea) observed and no effect on improvements in pain severity and depression. This randomized pilot study provides preliminary data for future trials of varenicline in opioid-dependent adults with chronic pain undergoing medically directed opioid detoxification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Classification of Single-Trial Auditory Events Using Dry-Wireless EEG During Real and Motion Simulated Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eCallan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of neuro-augmentation technology based on dry-wireless EEG may be considerably beneficial for aviation and space operations because of the inherent dangers involved. In this study we evaluate classification performance of perceptual events using a dry-wireless EEG system during motion platform based flight simulation and actual flight in an open cockpit biplane to determine if the system can be used in the presence of considerable environmental and physiological artifacts. A passive task involving 200 random auditory presentations of a chirp sound was used for evaluation. The advantage of this auditory task is that it does not interfere with the perceptual motor processes involved with piloting the plane. Classification was based on identifying the presentation of a chirp sound versus silent periods. Evaluation of Independent component analysis and Kalman filtering to enhance classification performance by extracting brain activity related to the auditory event from other non-task related brain activity and artifacts was assessed. The results of permutation testing revealed that single trial classification of presence or absence of an auditory event was significantly above chance for all conditions on a novel test set. The best performance could be achieved with both ICA and Kalman filtering relative to no processing: Platform Off (83.4% vs 78.3%, Platform On (73.1% vs 71.6%, Biplane Engine Off (81.1% vs 77.4%, and Biplane Engine On (79.2% vs 66.1%. This experiment demonstrates that dry-wireless EEG can be used in environments with considerable vibration, wind, acoustic noise, and physiological artifacts and achieve good single trial classification performance that is necessary for future successful application of neuro-augmentation technology based on brain-machine interfaces.

  17. Classification of single-trial auditory events using dry-wireless EEG during real and motion simulated flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Daniel E; Durantin, Gautier; Terzibas, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Application of neuro-augmentation technology based on dry-wireless EEG may be considerably beneficial for aviation and space operations because of the inherent dangers involved. In this study we evaluate classification performance of perceptual events using a dry-wireless EEG system during motion platform based flight simulation and actual flight in an open cockpit biplane to determine if the system can be used in the presence of considerable environmental and physiological artifacts. A passive task involving 200 random auditory presentations of a chirp sound was used for evaluation. The advantage of this auditory task is that it does not interfere with the perceptual motor processes involved with piloting the plane. Classification was based on identifying the presentation of a chirp sound vs. silent periods. Evaluation of Independent component analysis (ICA) and Kalman filtering to enhance classification performance by extracting brain activity related to the auditory event from other non-task related brain activity and artifacts was assessed. The results of permutation testing revealed that single trial classification of presence or absence of an auditory event was significantly above chance for all conditions on a novel test set. The best performance could be achieved with both ICA and Kalman filtering relative to no processing: Platform Off (83.4% vs. 78.3%), Platform On (73.1% vs. 71.6%), Biplane Engine Off (81.1% vs. 77.4%), and Biplane Engine On (79.2% vs. 66.1%). This experiment demonstrates that dry-wireless EEG can be used in environments with considerable vibration, wind, acoustic noise, and physiological artifacts and achieve good single trial classification performance that is necessary for future successful application of neuro-augmentation technology based on brain-machine interfaces.

  18. [Investigations into the use of respiratory masks for reducing the MRSA-exposure of veterinarians visiting regularly pig herds--first experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaus, Rolf; Schulz, Jochen; Hartung, Jörg; Cuny, Christiane; Fetsch, Alexandra; Blaha, Thomas; Meemken, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The study presents first experiences on the controlled use of respiratory masks against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a multi-person veterinary pig practice. Seven veterinarians entered the trial (five wearing masks, two wearing no masks) after the veterinarians had performed a decolonisation protocol. The pig herds were visited regularly by the veterinarians during the study period. The five "trial" veterinarians wore gloves and respiratory masks for at least 30 days and 30 farm visits. The two "control" veterinarians wore gloves only. Nasal swabs were collected at a seven day interval. Swabs and ten masks per "trial" veterinarian were bacteriologically tested for MRSA including MLST- and spa-typing. The study showed a high MRSA-exposure for the veterinarians, since 68% of the masks were tested positive for MRSA. However, four vets stayed MRSA-negative while using the masks. Only one of the"trial" veterinarians became positive after two weeks. After the masks were not worn any more, two veterinarians returned to colonisation soon again. The two "control" veterinarians turned positive after 26 and 54 days, respectively. The high finding-rates of MRSA in the masks proof an enormous risk of nasal colonisation during routine work.The results of our study do not proof the potential of respiratory masks to prevent nasal colonisation of veterinarians with MRSA. However, there are no hints, that the proper use of masks could be a risk factor for becoming colonised. Further details of the proper use of masks and the quantification of their protective potential need further studies on a larger scale.

  19. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled crossover trial on the effects of L-ornithine on salivary cortisol and feelings of fatigue of flushers the morning after alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokubo Takeshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Residual alcohol effects on physiological and psychological symptoms are commonly experienced the morning after alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of L-ornithine on subjective feelings and salivary stress markers the morning after alcohol consumption and to investigate whether L-ornithine acutely accelerates ethanol metabolism. Methods This study had a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked crossover design. Subjects were all healthy Japanese adults with the ‘flusher’ phenotype for alcohol tolerance. In experiment 1, 11 subjects drank 0.4 g/kg body weight alcohol 1.5 h before their usual bedtime. Half an hour after drinking, they ingested either a placebo or 400 mg ornithine. The next morning on awakening, subjects completed a questionnaire containing a visual analog scale (VAS, the Oguri-Shirakawa-Azumi sleep inventory MA version (OSA-MA, and a profile of mood states (POMS and collected a saliva sample for measurement of salivary stress markers (cortisol, secretory immunoglobulin A, and α-amylase. In experiment 2, placebo or 400 mg ornithine were administrated to 16 subjects both before and after drinking, and the feeling of drunkenness, breath ethanol concentration and one-leg standing time were repeatedly investigated until 180 min after alcohol consumption. Results There were significant decreases in “awareness”, “feeling of fatigue” and “lassitude” VAS scores and in “anger-hostility” and “confusion” POMS scores and a significant increase in “sleep length” in the OSA-MA test. Salivary cortisol concentrations on awakening were reduced after ornithine supplementation. There were no differences between ornithine and placebo in any of the subjective or physiological parameters of acute alcohol metabolism. Conclusions Taking 400 mg ornithine after alcohol consumption improved various negative feelings and decreased the salivary stress marker cortisol the

  20. Set Size and Mask Duration Do Not Interact in Object-Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Ioannis; Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a mask, such as four dots that surround a brief target item, onsets simultaneously with the target and offsets a short time after the target, rather than simultaneously with it. OSM is a reduction in accuracy of reporting the target with the temporally trailing mask, compared with the simultaneously…

  1. A phase II trial of single-agent bevacizumab in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisl, Teri N; Zhang, Weiting; Odia, Yazmin; Shih, Joanna H; Butman, John A; Hammoud, Dima; Iwamoto, Fabio M; Sul, Joohee; Fine, Howard A

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of single-agent bevacizumab in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma and assess correlative advanced imaging parameters. Patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma were treated with bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Complete patient evaluations were repeated every 4 weeks. Correlative dynamic contrast-enhanced MR and (18)fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging studies were obtained to evaluate physiologic changes in tumor and tumor vasculature at time points including baseline, 96 h after the first dose, and after the first 4 weeks of therapy. Median overall survival was 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.08-22.8). Median progression-free survival was 2.93 months (95% CI: 2.01-4.93), and 6-month progression-free survival was 20.9% (95% CI: 10.3%-42.5%). Thirteen (43%) patients achieved a partial response. The most common grade ≥ 3 treatment-related toxicities were hypertension, hypophosphatemia, and thromboembolism. Single-agent bevacizumab produces significant radiographic response in patients with recurrent anaplastic glioma but did not meet the 6-month progression-free survival endpoint. Early change in enhancing tumor volume at 4 days after start of therapy was the most significant prognostic factor for overall and progression-free survival.

  2. The Effect of Peers Support on Postpartum Depression: A Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Kamalifard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postpartum depression and its consequences not only involve mothers and their children but it will also affect their families. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of mothers receiving peer support on postpartum depression. Methods: 100 eligible primiparous women participated in a randomized clinical trial. The intervention group received phone calls by their peers from the last three months of pregnancy until two months after delivery. The control group only had access to routine care. Both groups in the second month after delivery were checked regarding depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Data analysis was performed using independent t-test, chi-square test and covariance analysis. Results: Mean depression score before intervention was 13.92 (3.23 in the control group and 14.06 (3.12 in the intervention group. In week 8 after delivery, mean score of depression in control group was 13.29 (4.08 but in the intervention group it was reduced to 10.25 (4.18. Difference in the reduction of mean postpartum depression score between the two groups showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that peer support was effective in the prevention of postpartum depression, therefore, it is recommended to be used in the reduction of postpartum depression.

  3. Decrowding of lower anterior segment with and without photobiomodulation: a single center, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Amer Z; Samara, Said A; Rastegar-Lari, Tannaz A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level light therapy using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the speed of tooth movements that were required for the leveling and aligning of the lower anterior segment during non-extraction orthodontic treatment. The sample was comprised of patients (n = 40) with lower anterior crowding who were treated with self-ligating orthodontic brackets and a standardized wire sequence. A test group of patients (n = 20) who were treated with extraoral infrared light therapy for 20 min daily with at least 80 % compliance was compared to a control group (n = 20). The date of the first arch wire placement was recorded as T1, and the date of the completion of the lower anterior segment decrowding was recorded as T2. A final impression was also taken at T2. The time between T1 and T2 was significantly reduced by 22 % in the test group compared to the control group (68.3 vs. 87.8 days, respectively, p < 0.043). The use of photobiomodulation for 20 min daily at a wavelength of 850 nm might reduce the time required to resolve lower anterior crowding. This trial and its protocol were not registered on a publicly accessible registry.

  4. Psychophysical estimates of cochlear phase response: masking by harmonic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, J J; Leek, M R

    2001-12-01

    Harmonic complexes with identical component frequencies and amplitudes but different phase spectra may be differentially effective as maskers. Such harmonic waveforms, constructed with positive or negative Schroeder phases, have similar envelopes and identical long-term power spectra, but the positive Schroeder-phase waveform is typically a less effective masker than the negative Schroeder-phase waveform. These masking differences have been attributed to an interaction between the masker phase spectrum and the phase characteristic of the basilar membrane. To explore this relationship, the gradient of stimulus phase change across masker bandwidth was varied by systematically altering the Schroeder-phase algorithm. Observers detected a signal tone added in-phase to a single component of a masker whose frequencies ranged from 200 to 5000 Hz, with a fundamental frequency of 100 Hz. For signal frequencies of 1000-4000 Hz, differences in masking across the harmonic complexes could be as large as 5-10 dB for phase gradients changing by only 10%. The phase gradient that resulted in a minimum amount of masking varied with signal frequency, with low frequencies masked least effectively by stimuli with rapidly changing component phases and high frequencies masked by stimuli with more shallow phase gradients. A gammachirp filter was implemented to model these results, predicting the qualitative changes in curvature of the phase-byfrequency function estimated from the empirical data: In some cases, small modifications to the gammachirp filter produced better quantitative predictions of curvature changes across frequency, but this filter, as implemented here, was unable to accurately represent all the data.

  5. Mask process correction (MPC) modeling and its application to EUV mask for electron beam mask writer EBM-7000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Hara, Shigehiro; Anze, Hirohito; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Bai, Shufeng; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Howell, Rafael; Chen, George; Li, Jiangwei; Tao, Jun; Wiley, Jim; Kurosawa, Terunobu; Saito, Yasuko; Takigawa, Tadahiro

    2010-09-01

    In electron beam writing on EUV mask, it has been reported that CD linearity does not show simple signatures as observed with conventional COG (Cr on Glass) masks because they are caused by scattered electrons form EUV mask itself which comprises stacked heavy metals and thick multi-layers. To resolve this issue, Mask Process Correction (MPC) will be ideally applicable. Every pattern is reshaped in MPC. Therefore, the number of shots would not increase and writing time will be kept within reasonable range. In this paper, MPC is extended to modeling for correction of CD linearity errors on EUV mask. And its effectiveness is verified with simulations and experiments through actual writing test.

  6. Efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mekongi and Opisthorchis viverrini: a randomized, single-blinded dose-comparison trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonore Lovis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis and opisthorchiasis are of public health importance in Southeast Asia. Praziquantel (PZQ is the drug of choice for morbidity control but few dose comparisons have been made. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-three schoolchildren were enrolled in an area of Lao PDR where Schistosoma mekongi and Opisthorchis viverrini coexist for a PZQ dose-comparison trial. Prevalence and intensity of infections were determined by a rigorous diagnostic effort (3 stool specimens, each examined with triplicate Kato-Katz before and 28-30 days after treatment. Ninety children with full baseline data were randomized to receive PZQ: the 40 mg/kg standard single dose (n = 45 or a 75 mg/kg total dose (50 mg/kg+25 mg/kg, 4 hours apart; n = 45. Adverse events were assessed at 3 and 24 hours posttreatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline infection prevalence of S. mekongi and O. viverrini were 87.8% and 98.9%, respectively. S. mekongi cure rates were 75.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 56.6-88.5% and 80.8% (95% CI: 60.6-93.4% for 40 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg PZQ, respectively (P = 0.60. O. viverrini cure rates were significantly different at 71.4% (95% CI: 53.4-84.4% and 96.6% (95% CI: not defined, respectively (P = 0.009. Egg reduction rates (ERRs against O. viverrini were very high for both doses (>99%, but slightly lower for S. mekongi at 40 mg/kg (96.4% vs. 98.1% and not influenced by increasing diagnostic effort. O. viverrini cure rates would have been overestimated and no statistical difference between doses found if efficacy was based on a minimum sampling effort (single Kato-Katz before and after treatment. Adverse events were common (96%, mainly mild with no significant differences between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cure rate from the 75 mg/kg PZQ dose was more efficacious than 40 mg/kg against O. viverrini but not against S. mekongi infections, while ERRs were similar for both doses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials

  7. Supportive text messaging for depression and comorbid alcohol use disorder: single-blind randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O; Ahern, Sinead; McLoughlin, Declan M; Farren, Conor K

    2012-12-10

    Mobile phone text message technology has the potential to improve outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD). To perform a randomised rater-blinded trial to explore the effects of supportive text messages on mood and abstinence outcomes for patients with depression and co-morbid AUD. Participants (n=54) with a DSM IV diagnosis of unipolar depression and AUD who completed an in-patient dual diagnosis treatment programme were randomised to receive twice daily supportive text messages (n=26) or a fortnightly thank you text message (n=28) for three months. Primary outcome measures were Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores and Cumulative Abstinence Duration (CAD) in days at three months. NCT0137868. There was a statistically significant difference in three month BDI-II scores between the intervention and control groups; 8.5 (SD=8.0) vs. 16.7 (SD=10.3) respectively after adjusting for the baseline scores, F (1, 49)=9.54, p=0.003, η(p)(2)=0.17. The mean difference in change BDI-II scores was -7.9 (95% CI -13.06 to -2.76, Cohen'sd=0.85). There was a trend for a greater CAD in the text message group than the control group: 88.3 (SD=6.2) vs. 79.3 (SD=24.1), t=1.78, df=48, p=0.08. Limitations of the study include the small sample size, the potential for loss of rater blinding and the lack of long term follow-up to determine the longer term effects of the intervention. Supportive text messages have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with comorbid depression and alcohol dependency syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Time-dependent approach for single trial classification of covert visuospatial attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, L.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. del R.

    2012-08-01

    Recently, several studies have started to explore covert visuospatial attention as a control signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Covert visuospatial attention represents the ability to change the focus of attention from one point in the space without overt eye movements. Nevertheless, the full potential and possible applications of this paradigm remain relatively unexplored. Voluntary covert visuospatial attention might allow a more natural and intuitive interaction with real environments as neither stimulation nor gazing is required. In order to identify brain correlates of covert visuospatial attention, classical approaches usually rely on the whole α-band over long time intervals. In this work, we propose a more detailed analysis in the frequency and time domains to enhance classification performance. In particular, we investigate the contribution of α sub-bands and the role of time intervals in carrying information about visual attention. Previous neurophysiological studies have already highlighted the role of temporal dynamics in attention mechanisms. However, these important aspects are not yet exploited in BCI. In this work, we studied different methods that explicitly cope with the natural brain dynamics during visuospatial attention tasks in order to enhance BCI robustness and classification performances. Results with ten healthy subjects demonstrate that our approach identifies spectro-temporal patterns that outperform the state-of-the-art classification method. On average, our time-dependent classification reaches 0.74 ± 0.03 of the area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC) value with an increase of 12.3% with respect to standard methods (0.65 ± 0.4). In addition, the proposed approach allows faster classification (<1 instead of 3 s), without compromising performances. Finally, our analysis highlights the fact that discriminant patterns are not stable for the whole trial period but are changing over short time

  9. A pragmatic randomised multi-centre trial of multifamily and single family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Ivan; Simic, Mima; Hodsoll, John; Asen, Eia; Berelowitz, Mark; Connan, Frances; Ellis, Gladys; Hugo, Pippa; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Yi, Irene; Landau, Sabine

    2016-11-24

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in developing effective treatments for child and adolescent anorexia nervosa, with a general consensus in the field that eating disorders focussed family therapy (often referred to as Maudsley Family Therapy or Family Based Treatment) currently offers the most promising outcomes. Nevertheless, a significant number do not respond well and additional treatment developments are needed to improve outcomes. Multifamily therapy is a promising treatment that has attracted considerable interest and we report the results of the first randomised controlled trial of multifamily therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa. The study was a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled superiority trial comparing two outpatient eating disorder focussed family interventions - multifamily therapy (MFT-AN) and single family therapy (FT-AN). A total of 169 adolescents with a DSM-IV diagnosis of anorexia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified (restricting type) were randomised to the two treatments using computer generated blocks of random sizes to ensure balanced numbers in the trial arms. Independent assessors, blind to the allocation, completed evaluations at baseline, 3 months, 12 months (end of treatment) and 18 months. Both treatment groups showed clinically significant improvements with just under 60% achieving a good or intermediate outcome (on the Morgan-Russell scales) at the end of treatment in the FT-AN group and more than 75% in the MFT-AN group - a statistically significant benefit in favour of the multifamily intervention (OR = 2.55 95%; CI 1.17, 5.52; p = 0.019). At follow-up (18 months post baseline) there was relatively little change compared to end of treatment although the difference in primary outcome between the treatments was no longer statistically significant. Clinically significant gains in weight were accompanied by improvements in mood and eating disorder psychopathology. Approximately

  10. Ipsilateral masking between acoustic and electric stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Payton; Turner, Christopher W; Gantz, Bruce J; Djalilian, Hamid R; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Residual acoustic hearing can be preserved in the same ear following cochlear implantation with minimally traumatic surgical techniques and short-electrode arrays. The combined electric-acoustic stimulation significantly improves cochlear implant performance, particularly speech recognition in noise. The present study measures simultaneous masking by electric pulses on acoustic pure tones, or vice versa, to investigate electric-acoustic interactions and their underlying psychophysical mechanisms. Six subjects, with acoustic hearing preserved at low frequencies in their implanted ear, participated in the study. One subject had a fully inserted 24 mm Nucleus Freedom array and five subjects had Iowa/Nucleus hybrid implants that were only 10 mm in length. Electric masking data of the long-electrode subject showed that stimulation from the most apical electrodes produced threshold elevations over 10 dB for 500, 625, and 750 Hz probe tones, but no elevation for 125 and 250 Hz tones. On the contrary, electric stimulation did not produce any electric masking in the short-electrode subjects. In the acoustic masking experiment, 125-750 Hz pure tones were used to acoustically mask electric stimulation. The acoustic masking results showed that, independent of pure tone frequency, both long- and short-electrode subjects showed threshold elevations at apical and basal electrodes. The present results can be interpreted in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms related to either place-dependent peripheral masking or place-independent central masking.

  11. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  12. Chemical modification of colloidal masks for nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, D.L.J.; Penninkhof, J.J.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to tune the holes in colloidal masks used for nanolithography. Using a simple wet-chemical method, a thin layer of silica is grown on masks of silica particles. The size of the holes is controlled by the amount of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) added. More accurate tuning of the hole

  13. Electrostatic mask protection for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, R.; Heerens, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrostatic protection of mask for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) was discussed. Both charged and neutral particles could be prevented from moving towards the mask by choosing a nonuniform electrical field. Benefits of electrostatic protection are that it does not affect the EUV beam and

  14. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  15. Mask industry assessment trend analysis 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data was presented at BACUS and a detailed trend analysis is presented here. The annual survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify trends in the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. Note: the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were only added to the survey in 2005; therefore meaningful trend analysis is not yet available.

  16. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was designed with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers and support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's assessment was the eighth in the current series of annual reports. Its data were presented in detail at BACUS, and the detailed trend analysis is presented at EMLC. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. Its results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2009. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  17. Effectiveness of a Single Education and Counseling Intervention in Reducing Anxiety in Women Undergoing Hysterosalpingography: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo La Fianza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterosalpingography (HSG is generally considered a stressful and painful procedure; we aimed to evaluate whether a single education and counseling intervention could reduce women’s distress and pain after undergoing HSG for infertility. Patients were randomized into control group (n=108 and intervention group (n=109. All patients filled the following questionnaires before and after HSG: Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Z-SAS, Zung self-rating depression scale (Z-SDS, and an ad hoc questionnaire designed to evaluate HSG procedure knowledge. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale. The intervention consisted in a 45-minute individualised session 48 h before HSG. We observed a reduction of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention arm compared to the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, intervention was an independent predictor of the difference of Z-SAS score before and after HSG. This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the potential effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention to lower anxiety in a diagnostic setting.

  18. Effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention in reducing anxiety in women undergoing hysterosalpingography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fianza, Alfredo; Dellafiore, Caterina; Travaini, Daniele; Broglia, Davide; Gambini, Francesca; Scudeller, Luigia; Tinelli, Carmine; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Brondino, Natascia

    2014-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is generally considered a stressful and painful procedure; we aimed to evaluate whether a single education and counseling intervention could reduce women's distress and pain after undergoing HSG for infertility. Patients were randomized into control group (n = 108) and intervention group (n = 109). All patients filled the following questionnaires before and after HSG: Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Z-SAS), Zung self-rating depression scale (Z-SDS), and an ad hoc questionnaire designed to evaluate HSG procedure knowledge. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale. The intervention consisted in a 45-minute individualised session 48 h before HSG. We observed a reduction of anxiety and depression scores in the intervention arm compared to the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, intervention was an independent predictor of the difference of Z-SAS score before and after HSG. This is the first randomised controlled trial to assess the potential effectiveness of a single education and counseling intervention to lower anxiety in a diagnostic setting.

  19. Terminal Complement Inhibitor Eculizumab in Adult Patients With Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, Fadi; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Campistol, Josep M; Cataland, Spero R; Espinosa, Mario; Gaber, A Osama; Menne, Jan; Minetti, Enrico E; Provôt, François; Rondeau, Eric; Ruggenenti, Piero; Weekers, Laurent E; Ogawa, Masayo; Bedrosian, Camille L; Legendre, Christophe M

    2016-07-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare genetic life-threatening disease of chronic uncontrolled complement activation leading to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and severe end-organ damage. Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor approved for aHUS treatment, was reported to improve hematologic and renal parameters in 2 prior prospective phase 2 studies. This is the largest prospective study of eculizumab in aHUS to date, conducted in an adult population. Open-label single-arm phase 2 trial. Patients 18 years or older with aHUS (platelet count dialysis, 5 recovered kidney function before eculizumab initiation and 15 of the remaining 19 (79%) discontinued dialysis during eculizumab treatment. No patients lost existing transplants. Quality-of-life measures were significantly improved. Two patients developed meningococcal infections; both recovered, and 1 remained on eculizumab treatment. Single-arm open-label design. Results highlight the benefits of eculizumab in adult patients with aHUS: improvement in hematologic, renal, and quality-of-life parameters; dialysis discontinuation; and transplant protection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of single buccal infiltrations for maxillary first molars in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy Ulusoy, Ö İ; Alaçam, T

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a single buccal infitration using 4% articaine hydrochloride (HCl) with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine or 4% articaine HCl with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine bitartrate for obtaining adequate pulpal anaesthesia in the palatal roots of maxillary first molars associated with irreversible pulpitis. In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, fifty subjects were randomly allocated to receive maxillary buccal injections of 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine (n = 25) or 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine bitartrate (n = 25). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and pulse rate measurements were recorded during access cavity preparation and initial file placement into the mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal canals. Data were analysed using Duncan and t-tests. There was no significant difference between the two anaesthetic solutions regarding the VAS scores and pulse rate measurements during endodontic procedures. The mean VAS ratings of the 50 patients during file placement into the palatal canals were significantly higher compared with the other three root canal procedures (P pulpitis. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Changes in Postural Sway After a Single Global Postural Reeducation Session in University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Quijada, Carlos; Poveda-Pagán, Emilio J; Segura-Heras, José V; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; Prieto-Castelló, María J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a single session of global postural reeducation (GPR) in postural sway in young adult university students who use data visualization screens. A randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel groups was performed. Sixty-four subjects were randomized in the experimental group (12 men and 20 women) who underwent the GPR session, and a control group (13 men and 19 women) that did not receive any intervention was included. Center of pressure (COP) was assessed using a stabilometric platform, with eyes open and eyes closed before, immediately after, 48 hours after, and 7 days after intervention in both groups. In the interaction of time and gender, statistically significant differences were found for the area covered by COP (P = .020) and for the standard deviation (SD) in the mediolateral axis (P = .035). Considering the complete interaction time, gender, and group, statistically significant differences were found (P = .015) for the anteroposterior rate covered by COP and the SD in the anteroposterior axis (P = .033). In eyes closed condition, the intersubject analysis showed statistically significant differences for the interaction between group and gender for the variable mediolateral SD (P = .043). Considering the interaction of time with group, statistically significant differences were found for full length covered by COP (P = .017). Changes in postural sway were observed after a single GPR session, mainly at 48 hours, with different behaviors between men and women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Cosmetic outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site hysterectomy compared with multi-port surgery: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taejong; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Tae-Joong; Kim, Im-Ryung; Hahm, Tae Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2013-01-01

    To compare cosmetic satisfaction with laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) compared with multi-port surgery. Randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). University hospital. Twenty women who underwent laparoscopically-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) via LESS or multi-port surgery. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery or multi-port surgery. Cosmetic satisfaction was assessed using the Body Image Questionnaire at baseline and at 1, 4, and 24 weeks after surgery. Of the 20 LESS procedures, 1 was converted to multi-port surgery because of severe adhesions, and 1 woman assigned to undergo multi-port surgery was lost to follow-up. The 2 surgery groups did not differ in clinical demographic data and surgical results or postoperative pain scores at 12, 24, and 36 hours. Compared with the multi-port group, the LESS group reported significantly higher cosmetic satisfaction at 1, 4, and 24 weeks after surgery (p surgery, LESS is not only a feasible approach with comparable operative outcomes but also has an advantage insofar as cosmetic outcome. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pre-operative oral nutritional supplementation with dietary advice versus dietary advice alone in weight-losing patients with colorectal cancer: single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Sorrel T; Gibson, Debra J; Lal, Simon; Hill, James; Pilling, Mark; Soop, Mattias; Ramesh, Aswatha; Todd, Chris

    2017-06-01

    Pre-operative weight loss has been consistently associated with increased post-operative morbidity. The study aims to determine if pre-operative oral nutritional supplements (ONSs) with dietary advice reduce post-operative complications. Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. People with colorectal cancer scheduled for surgery with pre-operative weight loss >1 kg/3-6 months were randomized by using stratified blocks (1:1 ratio) in six hospitals (1 November 2013-28 February 2015). Intervention group was given 250 mL/day ONS (10.1 KJ and 0.096 g protein per mL) and dietary advice. Control group received dietary advice alone. Oral nutritional supplements were administered from diagnosis to the day preceding surgery. Research team was masked to group allocation. Primary outcome was patients with one or more surgical site infection (SSI) or chest infection; secondary outcomes included percentage weight loss, total complications, and body composition measurements. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed with both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. A sample size of 88 was required. Of 101 participants, (55 ONS, 46 controls) 97 had surgery. In intention-to-treat analysis, there were 21/45 (47%) patients with an infection-either an SSI or chest infection in the control group vs. 17/55 (30%) in the ONS group. The odds ratio of a patient incurring either an SSI or chest infection was 0.532 (P = 0.135 confidence interval 0.232 to 1.218) in the unadjusted analysis and when adjusted for random differences at baseline (age, gender, percentage weight loss, and cancer staging) was 0.341 (P = 0.031, confidence interval 0.128 to 0.909). Pre-operative percentage weight loss at the first time point after randomization was 4.1% [interquartile range (IQR) 1.7-7.0] in ONS group vs. 6.7% (IQR 2.6-10.8) in controls (Mann-Whitney U P = 0.021) and post-operatively was 7.4% (IQR 4.3-10.0) in ONS group vs. 10.2% (IQR 5.1-18.5) in controls (P = 0.016). Compared

  4. Unmasking Zorro: functional importance of the facial mask in the Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuven Yosef; Piotr Zduniak; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2012-01-01

    The facial mask is a prominent feature in the animal kingdom. We hypothesized that the facial mask of shrikes allows them to hunt into the sun, which accords them detection and surprise-attack capabilities. We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the mask facilitated foraging while facing into the sun. Male shrikes with white-painted masks hunted facing away from the sun more than birds with black-painted masks, which are the natural color, and more than individuals in the contro...

  5. A mask manufacturer's perspective on maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Peter; Biechler, Charles; Kalk, Franklin

    2005-11-01

    Maskless Lithography (ML2) is again being considered for use in mainstream CMOS IC manufacturing. Sessions at technical conferences are being devoted to ML2. A multitude of new companies have been formed in the last several years to apply new concepts to breaking the throughput barrier that has in the past prevented ML2 from achieving the cost and cycle time performance necessary to become economically viable, except in rare cases. Has Maskless Lithography's (we used to call it "Direct Write Lithography") time really come? If so, what is the expected impact on the mask manufacturer and does it matter? The lithography tools used today in mask manufacturing are similar in concept to ML2 except for scale, both in throughput and feature size. These mask tools produce highly accurate lithographic images directly from electronic pattern files, perform multi-layer overlay, and mix-n-match across multiple tools, tool types and sites. Mask manufacturers are already accustomed to the ultimate low volume - one substrate per design layer. In order to achieve the economically required throughput, proposed ML2 systems eliminate or greatly reduce some of the functions that are the source of the mask writer's accuracy. Can these ML2 systems meet the demanding lithographic requirements without these functions? ML2 may eliminate the reticle but many of the processes and procedures performed today by the mask manufacturer are still required. Examples include the increasingly complex mask data preparation step and the verification performed to ensure that the pattern on the reticle is accurately representing the design intent. The error sources that are fixed on a reticle are variable with time on an ML2 system. It has been proposed that if ML2 is successful it will become uneconomical to be in the mask business - that ML2, by taking the high profit masks will take all profitability out of mask manufacturing and thereby endanger the entire semiconductor industry. Others suggest that a

  6. Benign painful shoulder syndrome. Initial results of a single-center prospective randomized radiotherapy dose-optimization trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, O.J.; Hertel, S.; Gaipl, U.S.; Frey, B.; Schmidt, M.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen (Germany). Department of Radiation Oncology

    2012-12-15

    Background and purpose: To compare the efficacy of two different dose-fractionation schedules for radiotherapy of patients with benign painful shoulder syndrome. Patients and methods: Between February 2006 and February 2010, 312 consecutive evaluable patients were recruited for this prospective randomized trial. All patients received radiotherapy with an orthovoltage technique. One radiotherapy course consisted of 6 single fractions in 3 weeks. In case of insufficient remission of pain after 6 weeks, a second radiation series was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either single doses of 0.5 or 1.0 Gy. The endpoint was pain reduction. Pain was measured before, right after, and 6 weeks after radiotherapy using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a comprehensive pain score (CPS). Results: The overall response rate for all patients was 83% directly after and 85% 6 weeks after radiotherapy. The mean VAS values before, directly after, and 6 weeks after treatment for the 0.5 and 1.0 Gy groups were 56.8 {+-} 23.7 and 53.2 {+-} 21.8 (p = 0.158), 38.2 {+-} 26.1 and 34.0 {+-} 24.5 (p = 0.189), and 33.0 {+-} 27.2 and 23.7 {+-} 22.7 (p = 0.044), respectively. The mean CPS before, directly after, and 6 weeks after treatment was 9.7 {+-} 3.0 and 9.5 {+-} 2.7 (p = 0.309), 6.1 {+-} 3.6 and 5.4 {+-} 3.6 (p = 0.096), 5.3 {+-} 3.7 and 4.1 {+-} 3.7 (p = 0.052), respectively. Despite a slight advantage in the VAS analysis for the 1.0 Gy group for delayed response, the CPS analysis revealed no statistically significant differences between the two single-dose trial arms for early (p = 0.652) and delayed response quality (p = 0.380). Conclusion: Radiotherapy is an effective treatment option for the management of benign painful shoulder syndrome. Concerning radiation protection, the dose for a radiotherapy series is recommended not to exceed 3-6 Gy. (orig.)

  7. Selective attention for masked and unmasked threatening words in anxiety: Effects of trait anxiety, state anxiety and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark S; Burt, Jennifer S; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the effects of awareness on selective attention for masked and unmasked verbal threat material using a computerised version of the emotional Stroop. Participants were assigned to the high trait anxious (HTA) and low trait anxious (LTA) groups on the basis of questionnaire scores, and state anxiety was manipulated within participants through the threat of electric shock. To investigate the effects of awareness on responses to threat, the mode of exposure was blocked such that half the participants received masked trials before the unmasked trials, whereas the other half received the reverse order. The results revealed that there was no difference between the HTA and LTA groups in responses to threat for those who received the masked trials before the unmasked trials. However, when unmasked trials were presented before the masked trials HTA individuals were significantly slower to respond to both masked and unmasked threat words compared to the LTA group, and these effects were not further modified by participants' state anxiety status. The results are discussed in terms of the automatic nature of threat processing in anxiety. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. One-trial spatial learning: wild hummingbirds relocate a reward after a single visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Abreu, I Nuri; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D

    2012-07-01

    Beaconing to rewarded locations is typically achieved by visual recognition of the actual goal. Spatial recognition, on the other hand, can occur in the absence of the goal itself, relying instead on the landmarks surrounding the goal location. Although the duration or frequency of experiences that an animal needs to learn the landmarks surrounding a goal have been extensively studied with a variety of laboratory tasks, little is known about the way in which wild vertebrates use them in their natural environment. Here, we allowed hummingbirds to feed once only from a rewarding flower (goal) before it was removed. When we presented a similar flower at a different height in another location, birds frequently returned to the location the flower had previously occupied (spatial recognition) before flying to the flower itself (beaconing). After experiencing three rewarded flowers, each in a different location, they were more likely to beacon to the current visible flower than they were to return to previously rewarded locations (without a visible flower). These data show that hummingbirds can encode a rewarded location on the basis of the surrounding landmarks after a single visit. After multiple goal location manipulations, however, the birds changed their strategy to beaconing presumably because they had learned that the flower itself reliably signalled reward.

  9. Cemented versus screw-retained implant-supported single-tooth crowns: a 10-year randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Paolo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Givani, Andrea; Stellini, Edoardo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this randomised controlled trial was to compare the long-term clinical outcome of cemented and screw-retained implant-supported single-tooth crowns. Eighteen consecutive patients presenting with single-tooth bilateral edentulous sites in the canine/molar region with adequate bone width, similar bone height at the implant sites, and an occlusal scheme that allowed for the establishment of identical occlusal cusp/fossa contacts were treated. Each patient received two identical implants according to a split-mouth design. One side was randomly selected to be restored with a cemented implant-supported single crown, and the other was restored with a screw-retained implant-supported single crown. Outcome measures were implant success, complications, marginal bone levels and peri-implant soft tissue health. Ten years after initial loading, 2 patients moved away and were lost to follow-up. Two implants placed in the same patient failed 5 years after their insertion; the remaining 30 implants survived, resulting in a cumulative implant success rate of 93.7%. No complication occurred. The mean marginal bone resorption at 10 years after implant placement, measured on intraoral radiographs, was 1.1 ± 0.2 mm for both types of restorations. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to peri-implant marginal bone level at the 10-year follow-up appointment (T2) (P = 0.58); at the 4-year follow-up appointment (T1) a statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.01), but this was not considered clinically relevant (mean difference: -0.06 mm). The status of the soft tissue around the implants remained stable over the evaluation period. No statistically significant difference was identified for the facial keratinised gingiva between the two groups at T1 (P = 0.10) or at T2 (P = 0.07). Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that there was no evidence of a significant difference in the clinical

  10. Computational mask defect review for contamination and haze inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Corcoran, Noel; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Peng, Danping; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram; Wolf, Yulian; Shah, Pinkesh

    2013-09-01

    As optical lithography continues to extend into sub-0.35 k1 regime, mask defect inspection and subsequent review has become tremendously challenging, and indeed the largest component to mask manufacturing cost. The routine use of various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) have resulted in complex mask patterns, which together with the need to detect even smaller defects due to higher MEEFs, now requires an inspection engineer to use combination of inspection modes. This is achieved in 193nm AeraTM mask inspection systems wherein masks are not only inspected at their scanner equivalent aerial exposure conditions, but also at higher Numerical Aperture resolution, and special reflected-light, and single-die contamination modes, providing better coverage over all available patterns, and defect types. Once the required defects are detected by the inspection system, comprehensively reviewing and dispositioning each defect then becomes the Achilles heel of the overall mask inspection process. Traditionally, defects have been reviewed manually by an operator, which makes the process error-prone especially given the low-contrast in the convoluted aerial images. Such manual review also limits the quality and quantity of classifications in terms of the different types of characterization and number of defects that can practically be reviewed by a person. In some ways, such manual classification limits the capability of the inspection tool itself from being setup to detect smaller defects since it often results in many more defects that need to be then manually reviewed. Paper 8681-109 at SPIE Advanced Lithography 2013 discussed an innovative approach to actinic mask defect review using computational technology, and focused on Die-to-Die transmitted aerial and high-resolution inspections. In this approach, every defect is characterized in two different ways, viz., quantitatively in terms of its print impact on wafer, and qualitatively in terms of its nature and origin in

  11. Effect of Auricular Acupress Therapy on Insomnia of Cancer Patients : Randomized, Single Blinded, Placebo Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Jung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auricular acupressure is one of the traditional health care treatments in oriental medicine. Approximately, 30~40% of the cancer patients have said to be suffering from insomnia and half of them having chronic and severe insomnia at the same time. Insomnia caused cancer patients feel more pain, fatigue, depression and anxiety and it sometimes let the power to have the best of cancer pull down. Objective: To investigate how effective the auricular acupressure treatment to cancer patients suffering from insomnia. Methods: We recruited participants from East-West Cancer Center of Daejeon University. Finally, of the people whose age range from 20 to 75, 12 patients who got less than 40 points from the score of Oh's sleeping score (OSS were recruited. Single-blind, randomized pilot study was performed. The treatment group received auricular acupressure treatment (AAT on active points and the control group had received sham acupressure treatment (SAT for five times. Sleep parameters were checked by using OSS and numeric rating scale (NRS. We checked the scale everytime, both before and after treatment. We analyzed the data statistically by using independent T-test, paired T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA test. (p<0.05 Results: Twelve cancer patients participated in this pilot study and there was no significant difference between control and treatment group. Only 7 of them had completed the whole treatment process, 4 patients of AAT group and 3 participants of SAT. The OSS of AAT group had increased from 34.0± 4.3 to 39.5±3.1 and that of SAT group had increased from 38.3±3.5 to 40.0±0.0. There was no significant difference between them. The NRS of AAT group had increased from 6.3±2.9 to 4.8±2.1 and that of SAT group had increased from 7.0±1.0 to 5.0±2.6. No significant difference was observed between them. Conclusion: Although both groups did not show significant differences, most of the experimental participants showed

  12. Perceptive rehabilitation and trunk posture alignment in patients with Parkinson disease: a single blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Michelangelo; Miccinilli, Sandra; Bravi, Marco; Paolucci, Teresa; Melgari, Jean M; Salomone, Gaetano; Picelli, Alessandro; Spadini, Ennio; Ranavolo, Alberto; Saraceni, Vincenzo M; DI Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Sterzi, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies aimed to evaluate the potential effects of perceptive rehabilitation in Parkinson Disease reporting promising preliminary results for postural balance and pain symptoms. To date, no randomized controlled trial was carried out to compare the effects of perceptive rehabilitation and conventional treatment in patients with Parkinson Disease. To evaluate whether a perceptive rehabilitation treatment could be more effective than a conventional physical therapy program in improving postural control and gait pattern in patients with Parkinson Disease. Single blind, randomized controlled trial. Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of a University Hospital. Twenty outpatients affected by idiopathic Parkinson Disease at Hoehn and Yahr stage ≤3. Recruited patients were divided into two groups: the first one underwent individual treatment with Surfaces for Perceptive Rehabilitation (Su-Per), consisting of rigid wood surfaces supporting deformable latex cones of various dimensions, and the second one received conventional group physical therapy treatment. Each patient underwent a training program consisting of ten, 45-minute sessions, three days a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Each subject was evaluated before treatment, immediately after treatment and at one month of follow-up, by an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system for gait and posture analysis, and by a computerized platform for stabilometric assessment. Kyphosis angle decreased after ten sessions of perceptive rehabilitation, thus showing a substantial difference with respect to the control group. No significant differences were found as for gait parameters (cadence, gait speed and stride length) within Su-Per group and between groups. Parameters of static and dynamic evaluation on stabilometric platform failed to demonstrate any statistically relevant difference both within-groups and between-groups. Perceptive training may help patients affected by Parkinson Disease into restoring

  13. Tinnitus Suppression by Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation in Single Sided Deafness – A Prospective Clinical Trial: Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Remo A. G. J.; George, Erwin L. J.; Janssen, Miranda; Griessner, Andreas; Zierhofer, Clemens; Stokroos, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Earlier studies show that a Cochlear Implant (CI), capable of providing intracochlear electrical stimulation independent of environmental sounds, appears to suppress tinnitus at least for minutes. The current main objective is to compare the long-term suppressive effects of looped (i.e. repeated) electrical stimulation (without environmental sound perception) with the standard stimulation pattern of a CI (with environmental sound perception). This could open new possibilities for the development of a “Tinnitus Implant” (TI), an intracochlear pulse generator for the suppression of tinnitus. Materials and Methods Ten patients with single sided deafness suffering from unilateral tinnitus in the deaf ear are fitted with a CI (MED-EL Corporation, Innsbruck, Austria). Stimulation patterns are optimized for each individual patient, after which they are compared using a randomized crossover design, with a follow-up of six months, followed by a 3 month period using the modality of patient’s choice. Results Results show that tinnitus can be suppressed with intracochlear electrical stimulation independent of environmental sounds, even long term. No significant difference in tinnitus suppression was found between the standard clinical CI and the TI. Conclusion It can be concluded that coding of environmental sounds is no requirement for tinnitus suppression with intracochlear electrical stimulation. It is therefore plausible that tinnitus suppression by CI is not solely caused by an attention shift from the tinnitus to environmental sounds. Both the standard clinical CI and the experimental TI are potential treatment options for tinnitus. These findings offer perspectives for a successful clinical application of the TI, possibly even in patients with significant residual hearing. Trial Registration TrialRegister.nl NTR3374 PMID:27111333

  14. Perturbation During Treadmill Training Improves Dynamic Balance and Gait in Parkinson's Disease: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steib, Simon; Klamroth, Sarah; Gaßner, Heiko; Pasluosta, Cristian; Eskofier, Björn; Winkler, Jürgen; Klucken, Jochen; Pfeifer, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    Gait and balance dysfunction are major symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Treadmill training improves gait characteristics in this population but does not reflect the dynamic nature of controlling balance during ambulation in everyday life contexts. To evaluate whether postural perturbations during treadmill walking lead to superior effects on gait and balance performance compared with standard treadmill training. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 43 PD patients (Hoehn & Yahr stage 1-3.5) were assigned to either an 8-week perturbed treadmill intervention (n = 21) or a control group (n = 22) training on the identical treadmill without perturbations. Patients were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at 3 months' follow-up. Primary endpoints were overground gait speed and balance (Mini-BESTest). Secondary outcomes included fast gait speed, walking capacity (2-Minute Walk Test), dynamic balance (Timed Up-and-Go), static balance (postural sway), and balance confidence (Activities-Specific Balance Confidence [ABC] scale). There were no significant between-group differences in change over time for the primary outcomes. At postintervention, both groups demonstrated similar improvements in overground gait speed ( P = .009), and no changes in the Mini-BESTest ( P = .641). A significant group-by-time interaction ( P = .048) existed for the Timed Up-and-Go, with improved performance only in the perturbation group. In addition, the perturbation but not the control group significantly increased walking capacity ( P = .038). Intervention effects were not sustained at follow-up. Our primary findings suggest no superior effect of perturbation training on gait and balance in PD patients. However, some favorable trends existed for secondary gait and dynamic balance parameters, which should be investigated in future trials.

  15. Single blind randomized Phase III trial to investigate the benefit of a focal lesion ablative microboost in prostate cancer (FLAME-trial: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lips Irene M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment results of external beam radiotherapy for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer patients are insufficient with five-year biochemical relapse rates of approximately 35%. Several randomized trials have shown that dose escalation to the entire prostate improves biochemical disease free survival. However, further dose escalation to the whole gland is limited due to an unacceptable high risk of acute and late toxicity. Moreover, local recurrences often originate at the location of the macroscopic tumor, so boosting the radiation dose at the macroscopic tumor within the prostate might increase local control. A reduction of distant metastases and improved survival can be expected by reducing local failure. The aim of this study is to investigate the benefit of an ablative microboost to the macroscopic tumor within the prostate in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods/Design The FLAME-trial (Focal Lesion Ablative Microboost in prostatE cancer is a single blind randomized controlled phase III trial. We aim to include 566 patients (283 per treatment arm with intermediate or high risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate who are scheduled for external beam radiotherapy using fiducial markers for position verification. With this number of patients, the expected increase in five-year freedom from biochemical failure rate of 10% can be detected with a power of 80%. Patients allocated to the standard arm receive a dose of 77 Gy in 35 fractions to the entire prostate and patients in the experimental arm receive 77 Gy to the entire prostate and an additional integrated microboost to the macroscopic tumor of 95 Gy in 35 fractions. The secondary outcome measures include treatment-related toxicity, quality of life and disease-specific survival. Furthermore, by localizing the recurrent tumors within the prostate during follow-up and correlating this with the delivered dose, we can obtain

  16. The "when" and the "where" of single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance in young children: Insights into the development of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre; Banta Lavenex, Pamela

    2017-03-01

    Allocentric spatial memory, "where" with respect to the surrounding environment, is one of the three fundamental components of episodic memory: what, where, when. Whereas basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably observed in children after 2 years of age, coinciding with the offset of infantile amnesia, the resolution of allocentric spatial memory acquired over repeated trials improves from 2 to 4 years of age. Here, we first show that single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance improves in children from 3.5 to 7 years of age, during the typical period of childhood amnesia. Second, we show that large individual variation exists in children's performance at this age. Third, and most importantly, we show that improvements in single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance are due to an increasing ability to spatially and temporally separate locations and events. Such improvements in spatial and temporal processing abilities may contribute to the gradual offset of childhood amnesia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A comparative study between a simplified Kalman filter and Sliding Window Averaging for single trial dynamical estimation of event-related potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Fuglø, Jacob; Channir, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    , are variable and depend on cognitive function. This study compares the performance of a simplified Kalman filter with Sliding Window Averaging in tracking dynamical changes in single trial P300. The comparison is performed on simulated P300 data with added background noise consisting of both simulated and real...

  18. Continuous positive airway pressure with helmet versus mask in infants with bronchiolitis: an RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  20. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2012-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply among the top critical issues for lithography. A survey was designed by SEMATECH with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers to objectively assess the overall conditions of the mask industry. With the continued support of the industry, this year's assessment was the tenth in the current series of annual reports. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2011 surveys. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that ultimately produce a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. We received data from 11 companies this year, which was a record high since the beginning of the series. The responding companies represented more than 96% of the volume shipped and about 90% of the 2011 revenue for the photomask industry. These survey reports are often used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. They will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities. Results can also be used to guide future investments in critical path issues.

  1. High-charge and multiple-star vortex coronagraphy from stacked vector vortex phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanyan, Artur; Brasselet, Etienne

    2018-02-01

    Optical vortex phase masks are now installed at many ground-based large telescopes for high-contrast astronomical imaging. To date, such instrumental advances have been restricted to the use of helical phase masks of the lowest even order, while future giant telescopes will require high-order masks. Here we propose a single-stage on-axis scheme to create high-order vortex coronagraphs based on second-order vortex phase masks. By extending our approach to an off-axis design, we also explore the implementation of multiple-star vortex coronagraphy. An experimental laboratory demonstration is reported and supported by numerical simulations. These results offer a practical roadmap to the development of future coronagraphic tools with enhanced performances.

  2. Side lobe suppression in phase mask-based nonlinear superresolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, Ryan; Stranick, Stephan J.

    2017-08-01

    We compare side lobe suppression methods for nonlinear superresolution optical microscopy using phase masked excitation beams. The excitation point spread function (PSF) can be engineered by introducing a phase mask for superresolution microscopy. By applying a single π phase step to the excitation the central spot can be narrowed and provide improved lateral resolution. However, the energy redistribution leads to side lobes with increased intensity that complicates imaging applications. Several methods have been implemented to suppress the strength of the side lobes including confocal detection and utilizing beams with different phase masks in multiphoton microscopy. Side lobe suppression methods using confocal detection and different phase masks for the excitation beams are compared theoretically and experimentally. These results demonstrate the additional flexibility for PSF engineering for nonlinear optical processes.

  3. Can an app supporting psoriasis patients improve adherence to topical treatment? A single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Mathias Tiedemann; Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten Hammond; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2018-02-07

    Topical corticosteroid or corticosteroid/calcipotriol preparations are recommended first-line topical treatments of psoriasis, but a main cause for the lack of efficacy of topical treatments is considered low rates of adherence to topical drugs. Patient support by the use of applications (apps) for smartphones is suggested to improve medical adherence. Design: An investigator-initiated, single-center, single-blind, parallel-group, phase-4 clinical superiority randomized controlled trial (RCT). 134 patients 18 to 75 years of age with mild-to-moderate psoriasis, who are capable of reading English language, own a smartphone, and are candidates for the study drug calcipotriol and betamethasone dipropionate (Cal/BD) cutaneous foam once daily prn (pro re nata). A 28-day adherence-supporting app providing compulsory daily treatment reminders that pop-up on the smartphone screen with a short alert sound. The app synchronizes through Bluetooth® to an electronic monitor (EM) attached to the medication canister. The EM contains a chip registering the amount of foam, day and time the patient use the foam dispenser. The information is displayed in a diary that shows the amount of Cal/BD cutaneous foam used and the number of applied treatment sessions. The app has an optional diary with the patient's rating of symptoms. Non-intervention: Use of Cal/BD cutaneous foam and EM without the app. All participants are prescribed Cal/BD cutaneous foam prn for the entire study period. Primary outcome obtained in week 4: rates of adherence measured by patient report, weight of medication canisters, and number of treatment sessions measured by the EM. Secondary outcomes obtained at baseline, weeks 4, 8, and 26: Lattice System Physician's Global Assessment (LS-PGA) and Dermatology Quality of Life Index (DLQI). This trial tests of whether an app can improve rates of adherence to a topical antipsoriatic drug. If the app improves rates of adherence and reduces the burden of psoriasis in a

  4. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double–Blind Trial in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B.; de Ruyter, Janne C.; Kuijper, Lothar D. J.; Chow, Carson C.; Hall, Kevin D.; Olthof, Margreet R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. Methods and Findings This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar—free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as ‘lower BMI’ and the 238 children above the median as ‘higher BMI’. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment), indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar—free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01). The impact of the

  5. Symptomatic response to blocked and unblocked pentagastrin stimulation in functional dyspepsia - Comparison of responders and non-responders to omeprazole identified in a single-subject trial model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L.G.; Bytzer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The role of acid in functional dyspepsia is controversial and drug treatment trials indicate that only a subset of patients has acid-related symptoms. A novel single-subject trial design, the Random Starting Day trial (RSD trial), was developed to identify acid-related symptoms. We...... was expected not to be influenced by gastric acid stimulation or type of treatment. Methods: Nineteen patients were evaluated. Symptomatic response to pentagastrin (6 mu g/kg) was assessed twice in each patient following placebo and omeprazole (40 mg bid) treatment in a randomized, double-blind, cross......-over design. Epigastric pain was assessed every 15 for 90 min after stimulation using a 5-graded Likert scale and a VAS scale. A positive acid provocation test was defined as an increase of the Likert score of epigastric pain by at least one grade after pentagastrin stimulation during placebo treatment...

  6. Evidence for single-dose protection by the bivalent HPV vaccine-Review of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial and future research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Aimée R; Herrero, Rolando; Sampson, Joshua N; Porras, Carolina; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Chanock, Stephen; Jimenez, Silvia; Schussler, John; Gail, Mitchell H; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J; Cortes, Bernal; Pinto, Ligia A; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula

    2018-01-20

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT), a phase III randomized clinical trial, provided the initial data that one dose of the HPV vaccine could provide durable protection against HPV infection. Although the study design was to administer all participants three doses of HPV or control vaccine, 20% of women did not receive the three-dose regimens, mostly due to involuntary reasons unrelated to vaccination. In 2011, we reported that a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine could be as efficacious as three doses of the vaccine using the endpoint of persistent HPV infection accumulated over the first four years of the trial; findings independently confirmed in the GSK-sponsored PATRICIA trial. Antibody levels after one dose, although lower than levels elicited by three doses, were 9-times higher than levels elicited by natural infection. Importantly, levels remained essentially constant over at least seven years, suggesting that the observed protection provided by a single dose might be durable. Much work has been done to assure these non-randomized findings are valid. Yet, the group of recipients who received one dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine in the CVT and PATRICIA trials was small and not randomly selected nor blinded to the number of doses received. The next phase of research is to conduct a formal randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the protection afforded by a single dose of HPV vaccine. Complementary studies are in progress to bridge our findings to other populations, and to further document the long-term durability of antibody response following a single dose. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The edge of awareness: Mask spatial density, but not color, determines optimal temporal frequency for continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, Jan; Zhu, Weina; Melcher, David

    2018-01-01

    The study of how visual processing functions in the absence of visual awareness has become a major research interest in the vision-science community. One of the main sources of evidence that stimuli that do not reach conscious awareness-and are thus "invisible"-are still processed to some degree by the visual system comes from studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS). Why and how CFS works may provide more general insight into how stimuli access awareness. As spatial and temporal properties of stimuli are major determinants of visual perception, we hypothesized that these properties of the CFS masks would be of significant importance to the achieved suppression depth. In previous studies however, the spatial and temporal properties of the masks themselves have received little study, and masking parameters vary widely across studies, making a metacomparison difficult. To investigate the factors that determine the effectiveness of CFS, we varied both the temporal frequency and the spatial density of Mondrian-style masks. We consistently found the longest suppression duration for a mask temporal frequency of around 6 Hz. In trials using masks with reduced spatial density, suppression was weaker and frequency tuning was less precise. In contrast, removing color reduced mask effectiveness but did not change the pattern of suppression strength as a function of frequency. Overall, this pattern of results stresses the importance of CFS mask parameters and is consistent with the idea that CFS works by disrupting the spatiotemporal mechanisms that underlie conscious access to visual input.

  8. Improving Early Palliative Care with a Scalable, Stepped Peer Navigator and Social Work Intervention: A Single-Arm Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelman, David B; Johnson-Koenke, Rachel; Bowles, Daniel W; Fischer, Stacy M

    2018-02-20

    Patients with cancer could benefit from early primary (i.e., basic) palliative care. Scalable models of care delivery are needed. Examine the feasibility of a stepped peer navigator and social work intervention developed to improve palliative care outcomes. Single-arm prospective clinical trial. The peer navigator educated patients to advocate for pain and symptom management with their healthcare providers, motivated patients to pursue advance care planning, and discussed the role of hospice. The social worker saw patients with persistent psychosocial distress. Patients with advanced cancer at a VA Medical Center not currently in palliative care or hospice whose oncologist would not be surprised if the patient died in the subsequent year. Participation and retention rates, patient-reported symptoms and quality of life, advance directive documentation, patient satisfaction survey, and semistructured interviews. The participation rate was 38% (17/45), and 35% (7/17) completed final survey measures. Patients had stage IV (81%) and primarily genitourinary (47%) and lung (24%) malignancies. Median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0. Patient-reported surveys indicated low distress (mean scores: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General, 75.3 [standard deviation {SD} 17.6]; Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale symptom scores ranged from 1.6 to 3.8; Patient Health Questionnaire-9, 5.7 [SD 5.2]; and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, 2.8 [SD 4.1]). Of those who had not completed advance directives at baseline (n = 11, 65%), five completed them by the end of study (5/11, 45%). Patients who completed satisfaction surveys (n = 7) and interviews (n = 4) provided mixed reviews of the intervention. At a single site, a stepped peer navigator and social work palliative care study had several challenges to feasibility, including low patient-reported distress and loss to follow-up.

  9. Modelling single-trial ERP reveals modulation of bottom-up face visual processing by top-down task constraints (in some subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume A Rousselet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied how task constraints modulate the relationship between single-trial ERPs and image noise. Thirteen subjects performed two interleaved tasks: on different blocks, they saw the same stimuli, but they discriminated either between two faces or between two colours. Stimuli were two pictures of red or green faces that contained from 10% to 80% of phase noise, with 10% increments. Behavioural accuracy followed a noise dependent sigmoid in the identity task but was high and independent of noise level in the colour task. EEG data recorded concurrently were analyzed using a single-trial ANCOVA: we assessed how changes in task constraints modulated ERP noise sensitivity while regressing out the main ERP differences due to identity, colour and task. Single-trial ERP sensitivity to image phase noise started at about 95-110 ms post-stimulus onset. Group analyses showed a significant reduction in noise sensitivity in the colour task compared to the identity task from about 140 ms to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. However, statistical analyses in every subject revealed different results: significant task modulation occurred in 8/13 subjects, one showing an increase and 7 showing a decrease in noise sensitivity in the colour task. Onsets and durations of effects also differed between group and single-trial analyses: at any time point only a maximum of 4 subjects (31% showed results consistent with group analyses. We provide detailed results for all 13 subjects, including a shift function analysis that revealed asymmetric task modulations of single-trial ERP distributions. We conclude that, during face processing, bottom-up sensitivity to phase noise can be modulated by top-down task constraints, in a broad window around the P2, at least in some subjects.

  10. Impact of Masked Replacement of Sugar-Sweetened with Sugar-Free Beverages on Body Weight Increases with Initial BMI: Secondary Analysis of Data from an 18 Month Double-Blind Trial in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Martijn B; de Ruyter, Janne C; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D; Olthof, Margreet R

    2016-01-01

    Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. This effect may be more pronounced in children with a high body mass index (BMI) because their sensing of kilocalories might be compromised. We investigated the impact of sugar-free versus sugary drinks separately in children with a higher and a lower initial BMI z score, and predicted caloric intakes and degree of compensation in the two groups. This is a secondary, explorative analysis of our double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) which showed that replacement of one 250-mL sugary drink per day by a sugar-free drink for 18 months significantly reduced weight gain. In the 477 children who completed the trial, mean initial weights were close to the Dutch average. Only 16% were overweight and 3% obese. Weight changes were expressed as BMI z-score, i.e. as standard deviations of the BMI distribution per age and sex group. We designated the 239 children with an initial BMI z-score below the median as 'lower BMI' and the 238 children above the median as 'higher BMI'. The difference in caloric intake from experimental beverages between treatments was 86 kcal/day both in the lower and in the higher BMI group. We used a multiple linear regression and the coefficient of the interaction term (initial BMI group times treatment), indicated whether children with a lower BMI responded differently from children with a higher BMI. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Relative to the sugar sweetened beverage, consumption of the sugar-free beverage for 18 months reduced the BMI z-score by 0.05 SD units within the lower BMI group and by 0.21 SD within the higher BMI group. Body weight gain was reduced by 0.62 kg in the lower BMI group and by 1.53 kg in the higher BMI group. Thus the treatment reduced the BMI z-score by 0.16 SD units more in the higher BMI group than in the lower BMI group (p = 0.04; 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01). The impact of the intervention on body weight gain differed by 0

  11. Dry needling in patients with chronic heel pain due to plantar fasciitis: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekharsadat, Bina; Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Zeinolabedinzadeh, Vahideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of dry needling on chronic heel pain due to plantar fasciitis. Methods: During this single-blinded clinical trial, 20 eligible patients were randomized into two groups: A case group treated with dry needling and a control group. Patients’ plantar pain severity, (using modified visual analog scale [VAS] scoring system), range of motion of ankle joint in dorsiflexion [ROMDF] and plantar extension[ROMPE] and foot function index (using standard questionnaires of SEM5 and MDC7) were assessed at baseline, four weeks after intervention and four weeks after withdrawing treatment. Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and chi square test were used for data analysis. Results: The mean VAS scores in the case group was significantly lower than the control group after four weeks of intervention (pdry needling, by improving the severity of heel pain, can be used as a good alternative option before proceeding to more invasive therapies of plantar fasciitis. PMID:27683642

  12. A single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves spasticity and balance in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwi-young; In, Tae Sung; Cho, Ki Hun; Song, Chang Ho

    2013-03-01

    Spasticity management is pivotal for achieving functional recovery of stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single trial of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on spasticity and balance in chronic stroke patients. Forty-two chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated into the TENS (n = 22) or the placebo-TENS (n = 20) group. TENS stimulation was applied to the gastrocnemius for 60 min at 100 Hz, 200 µs with 2 to 3 times the sensory threshold (the minimal threshold in detecting electrical stimulation for subjects) after received physical therapy for 30 min. In the placebo-TENS group, electrodes were placed but no electrical stimulation was administered. For measuring spasticity, the resistance encountered during passive muscle stretching of ankle joint was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale, and the Hand held dynamometer was used to assess the resistive force caused by spasticity. Balance ability was measured using a force platform that measures postural sway generated by postural imbalance. The TENS group showed a significantly greater reduction in spasticity of the gastrocnemius, compared to the placebo-TENS group (p TENS resulted in greater balance ability improvements, especially during the eyes closed condition (p TENS provides an immediately effective means of reducing spasticity and of improving balance in chronic stroke patients. The present data may be useful to establish the standard parameters for TENS application in the clinical setting of stroke.

  13. Single-dose oral fluconazole versus topical clotrimazole in patients with pityriasis versicolor: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, Mohammad; Akbari, Negin; Alborzi, Nazila; Sadani, Somayeh; Keshtkar, Abas A

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the therapeutic effects of topical clotrimazole and systemic fluconazole in pityriasis versicolor. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out in the dermatological clinic of Gorgan, northern Iran, between April 2006 and May 2007. All consecutive patients with pityriasis versicolor were included and randomly divided into two groups. In the first group (G1), patients underwent treatment with a single dose of fluconazole capsule (400 mg) and placebo cream. In the second group (G2), patients underwent treatment with clotrimazole cream (twice daily) and placebo capsule. The course of treatment was 2 weeks. All subjects were re-evaluated 2, 4 and 12 weeks after the end of the therapeutic course. After 2 weeks, the rate of complete resolution of disease was significantly higher in G2 than G1 (49.1% vs 30%). After 4 weeks, 41 patients (81.2%) of G1 and 52 patients (94.9%) of G2 showed complete resolution. After 12 weeks, 46 patients (92%) in G1 and 45 patients (81.8%) in G2 showed complete resolution. Recurrence rate in G1 and G2 were 6% and 18.2%, respectively. No complications were seen in either group. In this study, clinical response at week 4 was greater in the clotrimazole group than the fluconazole group. Recurrence at week 12 after treatment was less with oral fluconazole than clotrimazole cream. So, for better evaluation, more studies need to be done.

  14. Exercise training and weight loss, not always a happy marriage: single blind exercise trials in females with diverse BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Fatahi, Fardin; Alabduljader, Kholoud; Jelleyman, Charlotte; Moore, Jonathan P; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted 2 single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50%-90% peak oxygen uptake for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted. Thirty-four females finished the 4-week intervention and 36 females the 8-week intervention. Overweight/obese (OV/OB) and lean female participants' weight/body composition responses were assessed and fasting and postprandial appetite hormone levels (PYY, insulin, amylin, leptin, ghrelin) were measured before and after the intervention for understanding potential contribution to individuals' body weight response to exercise training (study 2). Exercise training in both studies did not lead to a significant reduction of weight/body mass index (BMI) in the participants' groups; however, lean participants gained muscle mass. Appetite hormones levels were significantly (p training did not lead to weight loss in female participants, while a considerable proportion of variance in body weight response to training could be explained by individuals' appetite hormone levels and BMI.

  15. Minimally invasive video-assisted thyroidectomy versus conventional thyroidectomy: A single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Labban Gouda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to test the hypothesis that Minimally Invasive Video-assisted Thyroidectomy (MIVAT affords comparable safety and efficacy as to the open conventional surgery, when dealing with patients with unilateral thyroid nodules or follicular lesions, in terms of cosmetic results, intraoperative and postoperative complications, postoperative pain and hospital stay. Materials And Methods: This was a single-blinded randomised controlled trial comparing the MIVAT with conventional thyroidectomy. The primary endpoints of the study were measurement of postoperative pain after 24 and 48 hours from operation and self-rated patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcome three months postoperatively. The secondary outcome measures were operative time, incidence of temporary and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, postoperative haematoma formation, length of incision, and duration of hospital stay. Results: Operative time was significantly less with open thyroidectomy than with MIVAT, while MIVAT was associated with less pain 24 hours postoperatively. Blood loss did not reach significance between procedures. Comparisons between the two procedures with regard to pain scores after 24 and 48 hours, respectively, depicted statistically significant differences in favour of the MIVAT after 24 hours. MIVAT was associated with less scarring and more satisfactory cosmetic results. There were statistically no significant differences between both procedures for the presence of transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism. Conclusions: MIVAT is a safe procedure that produces outcomes, in view of short-term adverse events, similar to those of open thyroidectomy, and is superior in terms of immediate postoperative pain and cosmetic results.

  16. Comparison of Single Visit Post Endodontic Pain Using Mtwo Rotary and Hand K-File Instruments: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Kashefinejad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pain is an unpleasant outcome of endodontic treatment that can be unbearable to patients. Instrumentation techniques may affect the frequency and intensity of post-endodontic pain. This study aimed to compare single visit post endodontic pain using Mtwo (NiTi rotary and hand K-file instruments.Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 53 patients were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of 30 teeth. In group A, the root canals were prepared with Mtwo (NiTi rotary instruments. In group B, the root canals were prepared with hand K-file instruments. Pain assessment was implemented using visual analog scale (VAS at four, eight, 12 and 24 hours after treatment. The acquired data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Student’s t-test (P<0.05.Results: Patients treated with rotary instruments experienced significantly less post-endodontic pain than those treated with hand instruments (P<0.001.Conclusion: The use of Mtwo (NiTi rotary instruments in root canal preparation contributed to lower incidence of postoperative pain than hand K-files.

  17. Telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for Hong Kong Chinese dementia caregivers: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Timothy; Wong, Bel; Ip, Isaac; Chui, Kenny; Young, Daniel; Ho, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Many family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) are unable to participate in community center-based caregiver support services because of logistical constraints. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers of PWD in alleviating caregiver burden and enhancing caregiving self-efficacy. In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 38 family caregivers of PWD were randomly allocated into an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received psychoeducation from a registered social worker over the phone for 12 sessions. Caregivers in the control group were given a DVD containing educational information about dementia caregiving. Outcomes of the intervention were measured by the Chinese versions of the Zarit Burden Interview and the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-efficacy. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences between the intervention and control groups. The level of burden of caregivers in the intervention group reduced significantly compared with caregivers in the control group. Caregivers in the intervention group also reported significantly more gain in self-efficacy in obtaining respite than the control group. A structured telephone intervention can benefit dementia caregivers in terms of self-efficacy and caregiving burden. The limitations of the research and recommendations for intervention are discussed.

  18. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  19. Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yow-Gwo; Miyakawa, Ryan; Chao, Weilun; Goldberg, Kenneth; Neureuther, Andy; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a complete study on mask blank and patterned mask inspection utilizing the Zernike phase contrast method. The Zernike phase contrast method provides in-focus inspection ability to study phase defects with enhanced defect sensitivity. However, the 90 degree phase shift in the pupil will significantly reduce the amplitude defect signal at focus. In order to detect both types of defects with a single scan, an optimized phase shift instead of 90 degree on the pupil plane is proposed to achieve an acceptable trade-off on their signal strengths. We can get a 70% of its maximum signal strength at focus for both amplitude and phase defects with a 47 degree phase shift. For SNR, the tradeoff between speckle noise and signal strength has to be considered. The SNR of phase and amplitude defects at focus can both reach 11 with 13 degree phase shift and 50% apodization. Moreover, the simulation results on patterned mask inspection of partially hidden phase defects with die-to-database inspection approach on the blank inspection tool show that the improvement of the Zernike phase method is more limited. A 40% enhancement of peak signal strength can be achieved with the Zernike phase contrast method when the defect is centered in the space, while the enhancement drops to less than 10% when it is beneath the line.

  20. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  1. A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

    2010-03-12

    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of systemic tinidazole as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers: A randomized double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Kiany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of systemic tinidazole as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis in smokers. Materials and Methods: Sixty smoker participants with history of moderate to severe generalized chronic periodontitis were selected. Gingival index (GI Leo and Silness, plaque index (PI O'Leary, bleeding index (BI Lenox, pocket depth (PD, recession, and clinical attachment level (CAL were measured at the baseline and 6 weeks after initial periodontal treatment. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to full-mouth scaling and root planning (SRP + placebo (control group and 30 participants were assigned to full-mouth SRP + tinidazole (test group. Results: Both test and control groups showed significant improvement in clinical parameters. Comparison of reduction in PI, GI, BI, PD, and CAL, between two groups, was statistically significant 6 weeks after baseline visit (P < 0.001. The improvements in clinical periodontal parameters were significantly more in test group. Conclusion: Smokers with chronic periodontitis benefited from adjunctive therapy, consisted of systemic tinidazole and SRP.

  3. Can a single session of motor imagery promote motor learning of locomotion in older adults? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson,1 Justin WL Keogh,2–4 Nancy L Low Choy1 1School of Physiotherapy, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD, Australia; 3Human Potential Centre, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Cluster for Health Improvement, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: To investigate the influence of a single session of locomotor-based motor imagery training on motor learning and physical performance. Patients and methods: Thirty independent adults aged >65 years took part in the randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted within an exercise science laboratory. Participants were randomly divided into three groups following baseline locomotor testing: motor imagery training, physical training, and control groups. The motor imagery training group completed 20 imagined repetitions of a locomotor task, the physical training group completed 20 physical repetitions of a locomotor task, and the control group spent 25 minutes playing mentally stimulating games on an iPad. Imagined and physical performance times were measured for each training repetition. Gait speed (preferred and fast, timed-up-and-go, gait variability and the time to complete an obstacle course were completed before and after the single training session. Results: Motor learning occurred in both the motor imagery training and physical training groups. Motor imagery training led to refinements in motor planning resulting in imagined movements better matching the physically performed movement at the end of training. Motor imagery and physical training also promoted improvements in some locomotion outcomes as demonstrated by medium to large effect size improvements after training for fast gait speed and timed-up-and-go. There were no training effects on gait variability. Conclusion: A single session

  4. Evaluation of Criteria to Detect Masked Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N.; Muntner, Paul; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Bello, Natalie A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of masked hypertension, out-of-clinic daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP)≥135/85 mmHg on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among adults with clinic SBP/DBPABPM testing criterion. In a derivation cohort (n=695), the index was clinic SBP+1.3*clinic DBP. In an external validation cohort (n=675), the sensitivity for masked hypertension using an index ≥190 mmHg and ≥217 mmHg and prehypertension status was 98.5%, 71.5% and 82.5%, respectively. Using NHANES data (n=11,778), we estimated that these thresholds would refer 118.6, 44.4 and 59.3 million US adults, respectively, to ABPM screening for masked hypertension. In conclusion, the CBP index provides a useful approach to identify candidates for masked hypertension screening using ABPM. PMID:27126770

  5. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last fe...

  6. Design of Data Masking Architecture and Analysis of Data Masking Techniques for Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar G K,; Manjunath T. N,; Ravindra S. Hegadi,; Archana.R.A

    2011-01-01

    Data masking is the process of obscuring-masking, specific data elements within data stores. It ensures that sensitive data is replaced with realistic but not real data. The goal is that sensitive customer information is not available outside of the authorized environment. Data masking is typically done while provisioning nonproduction environments so that copies created to support test and development processes are not exposing sensitive information and thus avoiding risks of leaking. Maskin...

  7. Effects of hard mask etch on final topography of advanced phase shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortenbach, Olga; Rolff, Haiko; Lajn, Alexander; Baessler, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Continuous shrinking of the semiconductor device dimensions demands steady improvements of the lithographic resolution on wafer level. These requirements challenge the photomask industry to further improve the mask quality in all relevant printing characteristics. In this paper topography of the Phase Shift Masks (PSM) was investigated. Effects of hard mask etch on phase shift uniformity and mask absorber profile were studied. Design of experiments method (DoE) was used for the process optimization, whereas gas composition, bias power of the hard mask main etch and bias power of the over-etch were varied. In addition, influence of the over-etch time was examined at the end of the experiment. Absorber depth uniformity, sidewall angle (SWA), reactive ion etch lag (RIE lag) and through pitch (TP) dependence were analyzed. Measurements were performed by means of Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) using critical dimension (CD) mode with a boot-shaped tip. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section images were prepared to verify the profile quality. Finally CD analysis was performed to confirm the optimal etch conditions. Significant dependence of the absorber SWA on hard mask (HM) etch conditions was observed revealing an improvement potential for the mask absorber profile. It was found that hard mask etch can leave a depth footprint in the absorber layer. Thus, the etch depth uniformity of hard mask etch is crucial for achieving a uniform phase shift over the active mask area. The optimized hard mask etch process results in significantly improved mask topography without deterioration of tight CD specifications.

  8. Oronasal mask may compromise the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure on OSA treatment: is there evidence for avoiding the oronasal route?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela Garcia Santos; Madeiro, Fernanda; Genta, Pedro Rodrigues; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2016-11-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered by nasal mask is the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, oral and oronasal masks are also available. We considered experimental evidence and reviewed clinical trials that evaluated the impact of oral and oronasal mask on OSA treatment. One recent study in 18 OSA patients that slept with a customized oronasal mask with two sealed compartments showed that the change of CPAP flow from nasal to oronasal and oral caused upper airway obstruction because of posterior displacement of the tongue demonstrated by nasoendoscopy. Oral masks use a mouthpiece that may stabilize the jaw and the tongue and have shown to be effective. However, oral masks are not widely used in clinical practice. Four out of five observational studies and all five reviewed randomized studies showed a worse performance of oronasal when compared with nasal masks. Oronasal masks were associated with higher residual apnea-hypopnea index, lower adherence, more leaks, and less satisfaction than nasal mask in the majority of the studies. Nasal CPAP must be the first choice to treat OSA. Patients on oronasal mask should be carefully followed. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  9. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D

    2016-03-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Optimized qualification protocol on particle cleanliness for EUV mask infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donck, J. C. J.; Stortelder, J. K.; Derksen, G. B.

    2011-11-01

    With the market introduction of the NXE:3100, Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) enters a new stage. Now infrastructure in the wafer fabs must be prepared for new processes and new materials. Especially the infrastructure for masks poses a challenge. Because of the absence of a pellicle reticle front sides are exceptionally vulnerable to particles. It was also shown that particles on the backside of a reticle may cause tool down time. These effects set extreme requirements to the cleanliness level of the fab infrastructure for EUV masks. The cost of EUV masks justifies the use of equipment that is qualified on particle cleanliness. Until now equipment qualification on particle cleanliness have not been carried out with statistically based qualification procedures. Since we are dealing with extreme clean equipment the number of observed particles is expected to be very low. These particle levels can only be measured by repetitively cycling a mask substrate in the equipment. Recent work in the EUV AD-tool presents data on added particles during load/unload cycles, reported as number of Particles per Reticle Pass (PRP). In the interpretation of the data, variation by deposition statistics is not taken into account. In measurements with low numbers of added particles the standard deviation in PRP number can be large. An additional issue is that particles which are added in the routing outside the equipment may have a large impact on the testing result. The number mismatch between a single handling step outside the tool and the multiple cycling in the equipment makes accuracy of measurements rather complex. The low number of expected particles, the large variation in results and the combined effect of added particles inside and outside the equipment justifies putting good effort in making a test plan. Without a proper statistical background, tests may not be suitable for proving that equipment qualifies for the limiting cleanliness levels. Other risks are that a

  11. Modulation cues influence binaural masking-level difference in masking-pattern experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Verhey, Jesko L

    2012-03-01

    Binaural masking patterns show a steep decrease in the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) when masker and signal have no frequency component in common. Experimental threshold data are presented together with model simulations for a diotic masker centered at 250 or 500 Hz and a bandwidth of 10 or 100 Hz masking a sinusoid interaurally in phase (S(0)) or in antiphase (S(π)). Simulations with a binaural model, including a modulation filterbank for the monaural analysis, indicate that a large portion of the decrease in the BMLD in remote-masking conditions may be due to an additional modulation cue available for monaural detection. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  12. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  13. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  14. Separability of motor imagery of the self from interpretation of motor intentions of others at the single trial level: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, João; Cecílio, José; Simões, Marco; Sales, Francisco; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-06-26

    We aimed to investigate the separability of the neural correlates of 2 types of motor imagery, self and third person (actions owned by the participant himself vs. another individual). If possible this would allow for the development of BCI interfaces to train disorders of action and intention understanding beyond simple imitation, such as autism. We used EEG recordings from 20 healthy participants, as well as electrocorticography (ECoG) in one, based on a virtual reality setup. To test feasibility of discrimination between each type of imagery at the single trial level, time-frequency and source analysis were performed and further assessed by data-driven statistical classification using Support Vector Machines. The main observed differences between self-other imagery conditions in topographic maps were found in Frontal and Parieto-Occipital regions, in agreement with the presence of 2 independent non μ related contributions in the low alpha frequency range. ECOG corroborated such separability. Source analysis also showed differences near the temporo-parietal junction and single-trial average classification accuracy between both types of motor imagery was 67 ± 1%, and raised above 70% when 3 trials were used. The single-trial classification accuracy was significantly above chance level for all the participants of this study (p Person MI use distinct electrophysiological mechanisms detectable at the scalp (and ECOG) at the single trial level, with separable levels of involvement of the mirror neuron system in different regions. These observations provide a promising step to develop new BCI training/rehabilitation paradigms for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders of action understanding beyond simple imitation, such as autism, who would benefit from training and anticipation of the perceived intention of others as opposed to own intentions in social contexts.

  15. Pressure relief, cold foam or static air? A single center, prospective, controlled randomized clinical trial in a Dutch nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leen, Martin; Hovius, Steven; Neyens, Jacques; Halfens, Ruud; Schols, Jos

    2011-02-01

    At present, the evidence regarding the type of mattress that is the best for preventing pressure ulcers is not convincing. In a single center, prospective, controlled trial we compared a static air overlay mattress (no electric pump needed) on top of a cold foam mattress with a cold foam mattress alone on pressure ulcer incidence in nursing home residents. 83 Patients were included in the study with a score lower than 12 points on the Norton scale and no pressure ulcer at the start of the study. 42 Patients received a cold foam mattress and 41 patients received a static air overlay on top of that cold foam mattress. Out of bed we standardized the pressure reduction in sitting position by using a static air cushion in both groups. Patients were checked weekly in both groups for pressure ulcers. Only when there were signs of developing a pressure ulcer grade 2 or higher, repositioning by our nursing home pressure ulcer protocol (PU protocol) was put into practice. Seven patients (17.1%) on a cold foam mattress and two (4.8%) on a static air mattress developed a pressure ulcer grade 2 or more. There was no difference regarding pressure ulcer incidence between patients with a high risk (Norton 5-8) and patients with a medium risk (Norton 9-12). In 5 out of 7 patients who developed a pressure ulcer on a foam mattress the ulcers showed no healing using our PU protocol. In the static air group all pressure ulcers healed by regular treatment according to our PU protocol. In this study, static air overlay mattresses provided a better prevention than cold foam mattresses alone (4.8% versus 17.1%). The Norton scores of the patients in both groups did not change during the 6 month trial period. Our decision to use repositioning only when there were signs of a pressure ulcer seems to be acceptable when a static air overlay is in position. However, the score of 17.1% development (incidence) of pressure ulcers in the foam group may stress the need of repositioning when using only

  16. Social recovery therapy in combination with early intervention services for enhancement of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis (SUPEREDEN3): a single-blind, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Jo; French, Paul; Marshall, Max; Freemantle, Nick; McCrone, Paul; Everard, Linda; Lavis, Anna; Jones, Peter B; Amos, Tim; Singh, Swaran; Sharma, Vimal; Birchwood, Max

    2018-01-01

    Provision of early intervention services has increased the rate of social recovery in patients with first-episode psychosis; however, many individuals have continuing severe and persistent problems with social functioning. We aimed to assess the efficacy of early intervention services augmented with social recovery therapy in patients with first-episode psychosis. The primary hypothesis was that social recovery therapy plus early intervention services would lead to improvements in social recovery. We did this single-blind, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (SUPEREDEN3) at four specialist early intervention services in the UK. We included participants who were aged 16-35 years, had non-affective psychosis, had been clients of early intervention services for 12-30 months, and had persistent and severe social disability, defined as engagement in less than 30 h per week of structured activity. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (sizes of four to six), to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services or early intervention services alone. Randomisation was stratified by sex and recruitment centre (Norfolk, Birmingham, Lancashire, and Sussex). By necessity, participants were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from outcome assessors. The primary outcome was time spent in structured activity at 9 months, as measured by the Time Use Survey. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN61621571. Between Oct 1, 2012, and June 20, 2014, we randomly assigned 155 participants to receive social recovery therapy plus early intervention services (n=76) or early intervention services alone (n=79); the intention-to-treat population comprised 154 patients. At 9 months, 143 (93%) participants had data for the primary outcome. Social recovery therapy plus early intervention services was associated with an increase in structured

  17. Choosing an Oronasal Mask to Deliver Continuous Positive Airway Pressure May Cause More Upper Airway Obstruction or Lead to Higher Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Requirements than a Nasal Mask in Some Patients: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Justin R; Aiyappan, Vinod; Mercer, Jeremy; Catcheside, Peter G; Chai-Coetzer, Ching Li; McEvoy, R Doug; Antic, Nick

    2016-09-15

    The choice of mask interface used with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy can affect the control of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We describe a case series of four patients with paradoxical worsening of UAO with an oronasal mask and the effect of changing to a nasal mask. We retrospectively reviewed the case histories of 4 patients and recorded patient demographics, in-laboratory and ambulatory CPAP titration data, CPAP therapy data, type of mask interface used and potential confounding factors. The 4 cases (mean ± SD: age = 59 ± 16 y; BMI = 30.5 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) had a high residual apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) (43 ± 14.2 events/h) and high CPAP pressure requirements (14.9 ± 6.6 cmH2O) with an oronasal mask. Changing to a nasal mask allowed adequate control of UAO with a significant reduction in the average residual AHI (3.1 ± 1.5 events/h). In two of the four cases, it was demonstrated that control of UAO was obtained at a much lower CPAP pressure compared to the oronasal mask (Case one = 17.5 cmH2O vs 12cmH2O; Case two = 17.9 cmH2O vs 7.8 cmH2O). Other potential confounding factors were unchanged. There are various physiological observations that may explain these findings but it is uncertain which individuals are susceptible to these mechanisms. If patients have OSA incompletely controlled by CPAP with evidence of residual UAO and/or are requiring surprisingly high CPAP pressure to control OSA with an oronasal mask, the choice of mask should be reviewed and consideration be given to a trial of a nasal mask. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  18. Analysis and test of laws for backward (metacontrast) masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francis, G.; Rothmayer, M.; Hermens, F.

    2004-01-01

    In backward visual masking, it is common to find that the mask has its biggest effect when it follows the target by several tens of milliseconds. Research in the 1960s and 1970s suggested that masking effects were best characterized by the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the target and mask.

  19. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.

  20. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  1. 37 CFR 211.3 - Mask work fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mask work fees. 211.3 Section... PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.3 Mask work fees. (a) Section 201.3 of this chapter prescribes the fees or charges established by the Register of Copyrights for services relating to mask works. (b) Section...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a patient's...

  3. AutoMOPS- B2B and B2C in mask making: Mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction improvement through better information flow management using generic models and standardized languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filies, Olaf; de Ridder, Luc; Rodriguez, Ben; Kujiken, Aart

    2002-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing has become a global business, in which companies of different size unite in virtual enterprises to meet new opportunities. Therefore Mask manufacturing is a key business, but mask ordering is a complex process and is always critical regarding design to market time, even though mask complexity and customer base are increasing using a wide variety of different mask order forms which are frequently faulty and very seldom complete. This is effectively blocking agile manufacturing and can tie wafer fabs to a single mask The goal of the project is elimination of the order verification through paperless, electronically linked information sharing/exchange between chip design, mask production and production stages, which will allow automation of the mask preparation. To cover these new techniques and their specifications as well as the common ones with automated tools a special generic Meta-model will be generated, based on the current standards for mask specifications, including the requirements from the involved partners (Alcatel Microelectronics, Altis, Compugraphics, Infineon, Nimble, Sigma-C), the project works out a pre-normative standard. The paper presents the current status of work. This work is partly funded by the Commission of the European Union under the Fifth Framework project IST-1999-10332 AutoMOPS.

  4. Esthetic outcomes with porcelain-fused-to-ceramic and all-ceramic single-implant crowns: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, German O; Grütter, Linda; Nedir, Rabah; Bischof, Mark; Belser, Urs C

    2011-01-01

    the aim of this randomized-controlled clinical trial was to compare the objective and subjective esthetic outcomes of two types of screwed-retained single-implant crowns. participants were randomly assigned to the test (all-ceramic) and control [porcelain-fused-to-ceramic (PFM)] groups and were seen under investigation at baseline (B), crown insertion (CI), 1-year follow-up (1Y), and 2-year follow-up (2Y). Objective parameters were assessed by an intra-oral digital photograph (1:1 ratio), a study cast, a standardized radiograph, periodontal/peri-implant measurements, and questionnaires were obtained for the subjective parameters. In addition, pink esthetic score (PES) and white esthetic score (WES) were calculated for both groups. For the subjective evaluation, a visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaire was used to assess the level of patient satisfaction regarding the esthetic outcome. Then, nine expert clinicians visually inspected and assessed subjective evaluation at the professional level. Statistical analysis was used to compare between groups and investigational appointments. twenty patients were included in the study, 10 allocated to the all-ceramic group and 10 to the PFM group. No statistically significant differences were observed for the objective measurements comparing the test and control groups. Minor chipping of the ceramic veneering material was observed in the two patients of control group. The mean difference for all groups comparing objective parameters revealed an increase of papilla height between time points. A slight recession (0.26 mm) of the peri-implant mucosal margin at the implant site was observed between 1Y and 2Y. Mean values for PES and WES were 13.9 and 13.1 for the PFM group and for the all-ceramic group, respectively. These values were not statistically significant. Implant crown volume, outline, translucency, and characterization showed major discrepancies with the contra-lateral natural teeth. As for subjective parameters, VAS

  5. Telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for Hong Kong Chinese dementia caregivers: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Bel Wong,2 Isaac Ip,2 Kenny Chui,2 Daniel Young,2 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region Purpose: Many family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD are unable to participate in community center-based caregiver support services because of logistical constraints. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers of PWD in alleviating caregiver burden and enhancing caregiving self-efficacy. Subjects and methods: In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 38 family caregivers of PWD were randomly allocated into an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received psychoeducation from a registered social worker over the phone for 12 sessions. Caregivers in the control group were given a DVD containing educational information about dementia caregiving. Outcomes of the intervention were measured by the Chinese versions of the Zarit Burden Interview and the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-efficacy. Mann–Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences between the intervention and control groups. Results: The level of burden of caregivers in the intervention group reduced significantly compared with caregivers in the control group. Caregivers in the intervention group also reported significantly more gain in self-efficacy in obtaining respite than the control group. Conclusion: A structured telephone intervention can benefit dementia caregivers in terms of self-efficacy and caregiving burden. The limitations of the research and recommendations for intervention are discussed. Keywords: telephone intervention, psychoeducation, dementia caregivers

  6. Effects of one session radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy on post-stroke plantarflexor spasticity: a single-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radinmehr, Hojjat; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Tabatabaei, Azadeh

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To examine the effects of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) on plantarflexor spasticity after stroke. Method Twelve patients with stroke were randomly included for this prospective, single-blind clinical trial. Patients received one rESWT session (0.340 mJ/mm 2 , 2000 shots) on plantarflexor muscle. The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS), H-reflex tests, ankle range of motion (ROM), passive plantarflexor torque (PPFT) and timed up and go test (TUG) were measured at baseline (T 0 ), immediately after treatment (T 1 ) and one hour after the end of the treatment (T 2 ). Results Patients had improved the MMAS scores for both the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles, active and passive ROM, PPFT and TUG over time after rESWT. For the PPFT, it was greater at high velocity than at low velocity, and there was a significant three-way interaction between time, knee position (extended/flexed) and velocity (low/high). The H-reflex latency had decreased at T 1 , but there was no significant effect on H max /M max ratio. Conclusions The rESWT improved plantarflexor spasticity, and the effects sustained for one hour, whereas it was not effective in improving spinal excitability. Implications for Rehabilitation One session radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) is safe and effective in improving post stroke plantarflexor spasticity, ankle active and passive range of motion, passive torque, and walking capability. The spasticity scores improved for both the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles and persisted one hour after rESWT. The magnitude of resistive plantarflexor passive torque in the knee extended position and high velocity was larger over time suggesting greater gastrocnemius spasticity than soleus. The rESWT had no significant effects on alpha motorneuron excitability.

  7. Randomized single-blind clinical trial of intradermal methylene blue on pain reduction after open diathermy haemorrhoidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, H-L; Tan, K-Y

    2014-08-01

    Open haemorrhoidectomy has been associated with considerable postoperative pain and discomfort. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue has been shown to ablate perianal nerve endings and may bring about temporary pain relief after haemorrhoidectomy. We hypothesized that the administration of intradermal methylene blue would reduce postoperative pain during the initial period after surgery. A randomized, prospective, single-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomized to intradermal injection at haemorrhoidectomy of either 4 ml 1% methylene blue and 16 ml 0.5% marcaine or of 16 ml 0.5% marcaine and 4 ml saline prior to surgical dissection. Patients were asked to fill in a pain diary with a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was pain score and analgesic use. Secondary outcomes were complications. There were 37 patients in the methylene blue arm and 30 patients in the placebo arm. There were no statistically significant differences in the sex, type of haemorrhoid, number of haemorrhoids excised, duration of surgery or hospital stay. The mean pain scores were significantly lower and the use of paracetamol was also significantly less in the methylene blue group during the first three postoperative days. The risk ratio of acute urinary retention occurring when methylene blue was not used was 2.320 (95% CI 1.754-3.067). Other complication rates were not significantly different. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue was useful in reducing the initial postoperative pain of open haemorrhoidectomy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Estimating outcomes and cost effectiveness using a single-arm clinical trial: ofatumumab for double-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatswell, Anthony J; Thompson, Gwilym J; Maroudas, Penny A; Sofrygin, Oleg; Delea, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Ofatumumab (Arzerra ® , Novartis) is a treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab [double refractory (DR-CLL)]. Ofatumumab was licensed on the basis of an uncontrolled Phase II study, Hx-CD20-406, in which patients receiving ofatumumab survived for a median of 13.9 months. However, the lack of an internal control arm presents an obstacle for the estimation of comparative effectiveness. The objective of the study was to present a method to estimate the cost effectiveness of ofatumumab in the treatment of DR-CLL. As no suitable historical control was available for modelling, the outcomes from non-responders to ofatumumab were used to model the effect of best supportive care (BSC). This was done via a Cox regression to control for differences in baseline characteristics between groups. This analysis was included in a partitioned survival model built in Microsoft ® Excel with utilities and costs taken from published sources, with costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at a rate of 3.5% per annum. Using the outcomes seen in non-responders, ofatumumab is expected to add approximately 0.62 life years (1.50 vs. 0.88). Using published utility values this translates to an additional 0.30 QALYs (0.77 vs. 0.47). At the list price, ofatumumab had a cost per QALY of £130,563, and a cost per life year of £63,542. The model was sensitive to changes in assumptions regarding overall survival estimates and utility values. This study demonstrates the potential of using data for non-responders to model outcomes for BSC in cost-effectiveness evaluations based on single-arm trials. Further research is needed on the estimation of comparative effectiveness using uncontrolled clinical studies.

  9. Toward FRP-Based Brain-Machine Interfaces-Single-Trial Classification of Fixation-Related Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Finke

    Full Text Available The co-registration of eye tracking and electroencephalography provides a holistic measure of ongoing cognitive processes. Recently, fixation-related potentials have been introduced to quantify the neural activity in such bi-modal recordings. Fixation-related potentials are time-locked to fixation onsets, just like event-related potentials are locked to stimulus onsets. Compared to existing electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces that depend on visual stimuli, fixation-related potentials have the advantages that they can be used in free, unconstrained viewing conditions and can also be classified on a single-trial level. Thus, fixation-related potentials have the potential to allow for conceptually different brain-machine interfaces that directly interpret cortical activity related to the visual processing of specific objects. However, existing research has investigated fixation-related potentials only with very restricted and highly unnatural stimuli in simple search tasks while participant's body movements were restricted. We present a study where we relieved many of these restrictions while retaining some control by using a gaze-contingent visual search task. In our study, participants had to find a target object out of 12 complex and everyday objects presented on a screen while the electrical activity of the brain and eye movements were recorded simultaneously. Our results show that our proposed method for the classification of fixation-related potentials can clearly discriminate between fixations on relevant, non-relevant and background areas. Furthermore, we show that our classification approach generalizes not only to different test sets from the same participant, but also across participants. These results promise to open novel avenues for exploiting fixation-related potentials in electroencephalography-based brain-machine interfaces and thus providing a novel means for intuitive human-machine interaction.

  10. The effect of calf stretching box on stretching calf muscle compliance: a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadchavalpanichaya, Navaporn; Srisawasdi, Gulapar; Suwannakin, Atchara

    2010-12-01

    To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in increasing the compliance of performing calf stretching exercise as compared to the conventional exercise method. To study the effect of calf stretching box usage in decreasing the calf muscle tightness and complications as compared to the conventional exercise method. Eighty patients older than 45 years old with calf muscles tightness were enrolled in a prospective, randomized single-blinded controlled trial at the out-patient Rehabilitation medicine clinic, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok Thailand between April and August 2009. Patients were randomized into two groups, the study group (stretching by using calf stretching box) and the control group (stretching by the conventional exercise method). Patients in both groups were asked to hold the stretch for at least 1 minute and to perform the stretching program at least two times per day, every day for two weeks. Furthermore, they were asked to record the real frequency and duration of their exercise and complications in a logbook every day. Thirty-eight patients in each group completed the study. The baseline characteristics of the patients in both groups were similar. The study group had higher frequency and longer duration of performing calf stretching exercise than the control group. They also reported more decrease of calf muscle tightness with less pain complication (shoulder pain, knee pain, low back pain, and calf muscle pain) than the control group (p calf muscle and degree of ankle range of motion between the two groups. Stretching calf muscle with calf stretching box can increase compliance, decrease calf muscle tightness and decrease complications when compared with the conventional exercise method.

  11. Application of modern tests for stationarity to single-trial MEG data: transferring powerful statistical tools from econometrics to neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiński, Lech; König, Reinhard; Sielużycki, Cezary; Kordecki, Wojciech

    2011-10-01

    Stationarity is a crucial yet rarely questioned assumption in the analysis of time series of magneto- (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). One key drawback of the commonly used tests for stationarity of encephalographic time series is the fact that conclusions on stationarity are only indirectly inferred either from the Gaussianity (e.g. the Shapiro-Wilk test or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) or the randomness of the time series and the absence of trend using very simple time-series models (e.g. the sign and trend tests by Bendat and Piersol). We present a novel approach to the analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series by applying modern statistical methods which were specifically developed in econometrics to verify the hypothesis that a time series is stationary. We report our findings of the application of three different tests of stationarity--the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Schin (KPSS) test for trend or mean stationarity, the Phillips-Perron (PP) test for the presence of a unit root and the White test for homoscedasticity--on an illustrative set of MEG data. For five stimulation sessions, we found already for short epochs of duration of 250 and 500 ms that, although the majority of the studied epochs of single MEG trials were usually mean-stationary (KPSS test and PP test), they were classified as nonstationary due to their heteroscedasticity (White test). We also observed that the presence of external auditory stimulation did not significantly affect the findings regarding the stationarity of the data. We conclude that the combination of these tests allows a refined analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series.

  12. Fluoroscopic Guided Radiofrequency of Genicular Nerves for Pain Alleviation in Chronic Knee Osteoarthritis: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hakeim, Eman H; Elawamy, Abdelraheem; Kamel, Emad Zarief; Goma, Samar H; Gamal, Rania M; Ghandour, Abeer M; Osman, Ayman M; Morsy, Khalid M

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, pain and disability due to chronic knee arthritis is a very common problem in middle aged people. A lot of modalities for management are available, including conservative analgesics and up to surgical interventions. Radiofrequency ablation of genicular nerves is assumed to be an effective less invasive and safe pain alleviation modality. To evaluate the efficacy of fluoroscopic guided radiofrequency neurotomy of the genicular nerves for alleviation of chronic pain and improvement of function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Pain management unit, and Rheumatology and Rehabilitation clinics of Assiut University hospitals, Assiut, Egypt. This study involved 60 patients with chronic knee osteoarthritis. Radiofrequency neurotomy of the genicular nerves was done for 30 patients (Group A) while the other 30 patients (Group C) received conventional analgesics only. The outcome measures included visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index (WOMAC), and Likert scale for patient satisfaction in the 2nd week,3rd, and 6th months. There were significant differences regarding the VAS in the 2nd week, 3rd, and 6th months between the 2 groups, and a significant difference in total WOMAC index in the 6th month only. There were significant changes when comparing pretreatment values with the values during the whole follow-up period with regard to the VAS and total WOMAC index in both groups. No diagnostic block was done prior to radiofrequency. We recommend the use of such a technique on a larger number of OA patients, with a longer follow-up period. RF can ameliorate pain and disability in chronic knee osteoarthritis in a safe and effective manner. Chronic pain, radiofrequency (RF), knee osteoarthritis.

  13. Can teaching research methodology influence students' attitude toward science? Cohort study and nonrandomized trial in a single medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujaklija, Ana; Hren, Darko; Sambunjak, Dario; Vodopivec, Ivana; Ivanis, Ana; Marusić, Ana; Marusić, Matko

    2010-02-01

    Medical teaching aims to develop attitudes and behaviors underlying professional competence of future physicians. We investigated whether a mandatory course on scientific methodology in the second study year could affect students' attitudes toward science in medicine. In a longitudinal study, students (n = 241) enrolling in 2001-2002 academic year at a single medical school were followed up until graduation in 2006-2007. Each year, they filled out a Likert-type questionnaire of 18 statements evaluating attitude toward science. Direct influence of the course on students' attitudes was tested in a nonrandomized controlled trial with the 2006-2007 second year student cohort. Positive students' attitudes toward science increased during study years (mean [SD] score of the maximum score of 90): from 57.6 (6.0) in the first to 69.8 (10.4) in the sixth year. There was a significant trend of increase in attitudes with the years of study (cubic trend by polynomial contrasts analysis, P = 0.011). Attendance of a course on research methodology significantly increased positive attitudes (score, 67.0 [7.0] before and 70.8 [7.5] after course, P = 0.032 vs control group), regardless of grade point average. The intervention had an effect even when the influence of the initial attitude was accounted for (F1,140 = 9.25, P = 0.003; analysis of covariance). The attitude changes after the course was greatest in students with low initial attitude scores (Spearman rinitial score, score difference, -0.44). Medical students have positive attitudes toward science and scientific method in medicine. Attendance of a course on research methodology had positive short-term effect on students' attitudes toward science. This positive effect should be maintained by vertical integration of the course in the medical curriculum.

  14. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  15. Phase analysis of amplitude binary mask structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthankovilakam, Krishnaparvathy; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-03-01

    Shaping of light behind masks using different techniques is the milestone of the printing industry. The aerial image distribution or the intensity distribution at the printing distances defines the resolution of the structure after printing. Contrast and phase are the two parameters that play a major role in shaping of light to get the desired intensity pattern. Here, in contrast to many other contributions that focus on intensity, we discuss the phase evolution for different structures. The amplitude or intensity characteristics of the structures in a binary mask at different proximity gaps have been analyzed extensively for many industrial applications. But the phase evolution from the binary mask having OPC structures is not considered so far. The mask we consider here is the normal amplitude binary mask but having high resolution Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) structures for corners. The corner structures represent a two dimensional problem which is difficult to handle with simple rules of phase masks design and therefore of particular interest. The evolution of light from small amplitude structures might lead to high contrast by creating sharp phase changes or phase singularities which are points of zero intensity. We show the phase modulation at different proximity gaps and can visualize the shaping of light according to the phase changes. The analysis is done with an instrument called High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that gives access to three-dimensional phase and amplitude images. The current paper emphasizes on the phase measurement of different optical proximity correction structures, and especially on corners of a binary mask.

  16. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  17. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  18. A single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, R.P.; Krijnen, B.; Krijnen, B.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Staufer, U.

    Position sensing in MEMS is often based on the principle of varying capacitance [1]. Alternative position sensing principles include using integrated optical waveguides [2] or varying thermal conductance [3]. Lantz et al demonstrated a thermal displacement sensor achieving nanometre resolution on a

  19. A single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, B.; Krijnen, B.; Hogervorst, R.P.; van Dijk, J.W.; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Woldering, L.A.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Abelmann, Leon; Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a MEMS displacement sensor based on the conductive heat transfer of a resistively heated silicon structure towards an actuated stage parallel to the structure. This differential sensor can be easily incorporated into a silicon-on-insulator-based process, and fabricated within the

  20. Defining the risk of toxicity in phase I oncology trials of novel molecularly targeted agents: A single-center experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phase I oncology trials are designed to define the maximum tolerated dose and toxicity of new drugs. This study aims to define the risk of toxicity in phase I trials of novel molecularly targeted agents (MTA), as this therapeutic approach is becoming increasingly relevant. Methods: We

  1. Defining the risk of toxicity in phase I oncology trials of novel molecularly targeted agents : a single centre experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molife, L R; Alam, S; Olmos, D; Puglisi, M; Shah, K; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Trani, L; Tjokrowidjaja, A; de Bono, J S; Banerji, U; Kaye, S B

    BACKGROUND: This study defined the risk of serious toxicity in phase I trials of molecularly targeted agents (MTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of toxicity data from patients treated in phase I trials of MTAs was carried out to define the rate of treatment-related grade 3/4 toxic

  2. Ion Beam Etching: Replication of Micro Nano-structured 3D Stencil Masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Mikhailov, Serguei; Bruegger, Juergen; Villanueva, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam LIGA allows the etching of 3D nano-structures by direct writing with a nano-sized beam. However, this is a relatively time consuming process. We propose here another approach for etching structures on large surfaces and faster, compared to the direct writing process. This approach consists of replicating 3D structured masks, by scanning an unfocused ion beam. A polymer substrate is placed behind the mask, as in UV photolithography. But the main advantage is that the 3D structure of the mask can be replicated into the polymer. For that purpose, the masks (developped at LMIS1, EPFL) are made of a silicon nitride membrane 100 nm thick, on which 3D gold structures up to 200 nm thick, are deposited. The 3D Au structures are made with the nanostencil method, based on successive gold deposition. The IMA institute, from HE-Arc, owns a High Voltage Engineering 1.7 MV Tandetron with both solid and gaseous negative ion sources, able to generate ions from almost every chemical element in a broad range of energies comprised between 400 keV and 6.8 MeV. The beam composition and energy are chosen in such a way, that ions lose a significant fraction of their energy when passing through the thickest regions of the mask. Ions passing through thinner regions of the mask loose a smaller fraction of their energy and etch the polymer with larger thicknesses, allowing a replication of the mask into the polymer. For our trials, we have used a carbon beam with an energy of 500 keV. The beam was focussed to a diameter of 5 mm with solid slits, in order to avoid border effects and thus ensure a homogeneous dose distribution on the beam diameter. The feasibility of this technique has been demonstrated, allowing industrial applications for micro-mould fabrication, micro-fluidics and micro-optics.

  3. Local heat application for the treatment of Buruli ulcer : results of a phase II open label single center non comparative clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Moritz; Bayi, Pierre F.; Ruf, Marie-Thérèse; Bratschi, Martin W.; Bolz, Miriam; Um Boock, Alphonse; Zwahlen, Marcel; Pluschke, Gerd; Junghanss, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Buruli ulcer (BU) is a necrotizing skin disease most prevalent among West African children. The causative organism, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is sensitive to temperatures above 37°C. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a local heat application device based on phase change material. METHODS In a phase II open label single center noncomparative clinical trial (ISRCTN 72102977) under GCP standards in Cameroon, laboratory confirmed BU patients received up to 8 weeks of...

  4. Single-blind randomized clinical trial to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes after one year of immediate versus delayed implant placement supporting full-arch prostheses<