WorldWideScience

Sample records for single mask uv-photolithography

  1. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...

  2. Sinusoidal masks for single channel speech separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowlaee, Pejman; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show that the......In this paper we present a new approach for binary and soft masks used in single-channel speech separation. We present a novel approach called the sinusoidal mask (binary mask and Wiener filter) in a sinusoidal space. Theoretical analysis is presented for the proposed method, and we show...... that the proposed method is able to minimize the target speech distortion while suppressing the crosstalk to a predetermined threshold. It is observed that compared to the STFTbased masks, the proposed sinusoidal masks improve the separation performance in terms of objective measures (SSNR and PESQ) and are mostly...

  3. Single-mask double-patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaida, Rani S.; Torres, George; Gupta, Puneet

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes shift-trim double patterning lithography (ST-DPL), a cost-effective method for achieving 2× pitchrelaxation with a single photomask (especially at polysilicon layer). The mask is re-used for the second exposure by applying a translational mask-shift. Extra printed features are then removed using a non-critical trim exposure. The viability of ST-DPL is demonstrated. The proposed method has many advantages with virtually no area overhead (DPL, (2) reduces overlay errors between the two patterns and can virtually eliminate it in some process implementations, (3) alleviates the bimodal problem in doublepatterning, and (4) enhances throughput of first-rate scanners. We implement a small 45nm standard-cell library and small benchmark designs with ST-DPL to illustrate its viability.

  4. Ferromagnetic shadow mask for spray coating of polymer patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Bosco, Filippo; Boisen, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties of the sha......We present the fabrication of a wafer-scale shadow mask with arrays of circular holes with diameters of 150–400 μm. Standard UV photolithography is used to define 700 μm thick SU-8 structures followed by electroplating of nickel and etching of the template. The ferromagnetic properties...... of the shadow mask allow magnetic clamping to the substrate and spray coating of well defined polymer patterns....

  5. Single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, B.; Hogervorst, R.P.; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; van Dijk, J.W.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Abelmann, Leon

    In this work we describe a one degree- of-freedom microelectromechanical thermal displacement sensor integrated with an actuated stage. The system was fabricated in the device layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer using a single-mask process. The sensor is based on the temperature dependent

  6. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded, comparative study of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bikramjit; Jamil, Shahin N; Mitra, Subhro; Varshney, Rohit K

    2012-01-01

    Context: ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA) for airway maintenance in pediatric patients. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA gr...

  7. Single-Mask Fabrication of Temperature Triggered MEMS Switch for Cooling Control in SSL System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, J.; Ye, H.; Van Zeijl, H.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    A micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) based, temperature triggered, switch is developed as a cost-effective solution for smart cooling control of solid-state-lighting systems. The switch (1.0x0.4 mm2) is embedded in a silicon substrate and fabricated with a single-mask 3D micro-machining process.

  8. Fourier phase retrieval with a single mask by Douglas-Rachford algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengwen; Fannjiang, Albert

    2018-05-01

    The Fourier-domain Douglas-Rachford (FDR) algorithm is analyzed for phase retrieval with a single random mask. Since the uniqueness of phase retrieval solution requires more than a single oversampled coded diffraction pattern, the extra information is imposed in either of the following forms: 1) the sector condition on the object; 2) another oversampled diffraction pattern, coded or uncoded. For both settings, the uniqueness of projected fixed point is proved and for setting 2) the local, geometric convergence is derived with a rate given by a spectral gap condition. Numerical experiments demonstrate global, power-law convergence of FDR from arbitrary initialization for both settings as well as for 3 or more coded diffraction patterns without oversampling. In practice, the geometric convergence can be recovered from the power-law regime by a simple projection trick, resulting in highly accurate reconstruction from generic initialization.

  9. Method to make a single-step etch mask for 3D monolithic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grishina, Diana; Harteveld, Cornelis A.M.; Woldering, L.A.; Vos, Willem L.

    2015-01-01

    Current nanostructure fabrication by etching is usually limited to planar structures as they are defined by a planar mask. The realization of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures by etching requires technologies beyond planar masks. We present a method for fabricating a 3D mask that allows one to

  10. EMHP: an accurate automated hole masking algorithm for single-particle cryo-EM image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndsen, Zachary; Bowman, Charles; Jang, Haerin; Ward, Andrew B

    2017-12-01

    The Electron Microscopy Hole Punch (EMHP) is a streamlined suite of tools for quick assessment, sorting and hole masking of electron micrographs. With recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) data processing allowing for the rapid determination of protein structures using a smaller computational footprint, we saw the need for a fast and simple tool for data pre-processing that could run independent of existing high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructures. EMHP provides a data preprocessing platform in a small package that requires minimal python dependencies to function. https://www.bitbucket.org/chazbot/emhp Apache 2.0 License. bowman@scripps.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Mask-based approach to phasing of single-particle diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunin, Vladimir Y; Lunina, Natalia L; Petrova, Tatiana E; Baumstark, Manfred W; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre G

    2016-01-01

    A Monte Carlo-type approach for low- and medium-resolution phasing of single-particle diffraction data is suggested. Firstly, the single-particle phase problem is substituted with the phase problem for an imaginary crystal. A unit cell of this crystal contains a single isolated particle surrounded by a large volume of bulk solvent. The developed phasing procedure then generates a large number of connected and finite molecular masks, calculates their Fourier coefficients, selects the sets with magnitudes that are highly correlated with the experimental values and finally aligns the selected phase sets and calculates the averaged phase values. A test with the known structure of monomeric photosystem II resulted in phases that have 97% correlation with the exact phases in the full 25 Å resolution shell (1054 structure factors) and correlations of 99, 94, 81 and 79% for the resolution shells ∞-60, 60-40, 40-30 and 30-25 Å, respectively. The same procedure may be used for crystallographic ab initio phasing.

  12. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded, comparative study of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bikramjit; Jamil, Shahin N; Mitra, Subhro; Varshney, Rohit K

    2012-07-01

    ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA) is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia. To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA) for airway maintenance in pediatric patients. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA groups. Parameters noted were time for insertion, number of attempts, airway sealing pressure, blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, and mean), pulse rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO(2)), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO(2)), and postoperative change in abdominal circumference, and airway trauma. Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the chi-square (χ(2)) test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD). Significance was taken as P insertion, airway sealing pressure, hemodynamic responses, SpO(2), EtCO(2) and postoperative changes in abdominal circumference. Patients in the PLMA group had longer time of insertion and higher incidence of airway trauma. The PLMA and the CLMA were comparable for hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters and change in abdominal circumference; however, the time taken for insertion and airway trauma was more with PLMA.

  13. Thermoresponsive micropatterned substrates for single cell studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Mandal

    Full Text Available We describe the design of micropatterned surfaces for single cell studies, based on thermoresponsive polymer brushes. We show that brushes made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide grafted at high surface density display excellent protein and cell anti-adhesive properties. Such brushes are readily patterned at the micron scale via deep UV photolithography. A proper choice of the adhesive pattern shapes, combined with the temperature-dependent swelling properties of PNIPAM, allow us to use the polymer brush as a microactuator which induces cell detachment when the temperature is reduced below [Formula: see text]C.

  14. Mitigation of informational masking in individuals with single-sided deafness by integrated bone conduction hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Bradford J; Bowditch, Stephen; Liu, Yinda; Eisen, Marc; Niparko, John K

    2014-01-01

    To confirm an increased susceptibility to informational masking among individuals with single-sided deafness (SSD). To demonstrate a reduction in informational masking when SSD is treated with an integrated bone conduction hearing aid (IBC). To identify the acoustic cues that contribute to IBC-aided masking release. To determine the effects of device experience on the IBC advantage. Informational masking was evaluated with the coordinate-response measure. Participants performed the task by reporting color and number coordinates that changed randomly within target sentences. The target sentences were presented in free field accompanied by zero to three distracting sentences. Target and distracting sentences were spoken by different talkers and originated from different source locations, creating two sources of information for auditory streaming. Susceptibility to informational masking was inferred from the error rates of unaided SSD patients relative to normal controls. These baseline measures were derived by testing inexperienced IBC users without the device on the day of their initial fitting. The benefits of IBC-aided listening were assessed by measuring the aided performance of users who had at least 3 months' device experience. The acoustic basis of the listening advantage was isolated by correlating response errors with the voice pitch and location of distracting sentences. The effects of learning on cue effectiveness were evaluated by comparing the error rates of experienced and inexperienced users. Unaided SSD participants (inexperienced users) performed as well as normal controls when tested without distracting sentences but produced significantly higher error rates when tested with distracting sentences. Most errors involved responding with coordinates that were contained in distracting sentences. This increased susceptibility to informational masking was significantly reduced when experienced IBC users were tested with the device. The listening advantage

  15. A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded, comparative study of Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway (PLMA is extensively being used in pediatric anesthesia. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of PLMA as compared to Classic Laryngeal Mask Airway (CLMA for airway maintenance in pediatric patients. Settings and Design: A prospective, randomized, Single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: Sixty ASA I and II children were included. Patients were randomized to either size 2 PLMA or size 2 CLMA groups. Parameters noted were time for insertion, number of attempts, airway sealing pressure, blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, and mean, pulse rate, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 , peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO 2 , and postoperative change in abdominal circumference, and airway trauma. Statistical analysis used: Parametric data were analyzed with the unpaired t-test and non-parametric data were analyzed with the chi-square (c2 test. Unless otherwise stated, data are presented as mean (SD. Significance was taken as P < 0.05. Results: There was no statistical difference between the two groups for the success rates at the first attempt of insertion, airway sealing pressure, hemodynamic responses, SpO 2, EtCO 2 and postoperative changes in abdominal circumference. Patients in the PLMA group had longer time of insertion and higher incidence of airway trauma. Conclusions: The PLMA and the CLMA were comparable for hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters and change in abdominal circumference; however, the time taken for insertion and airway trauma was more with PLMA.

  16. A super-high angular resolution principle for coded-mask X-ray imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chen; Zhang Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always useful in astrophysics and solar physics. In principle, it can be performed by using coded-mask imaging with a very long mask-detector distance. Previously, the diffraction-interference effect was thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at the low energy end with its very long mask-detector distance. The diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size is 50 x 50 μm 2 and the mask-detector distance is 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV (λ = 1 nm), where diffraction cannot be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also briefly discussed. (invited reviews)

  17. Large bladder calculus masking a stone in single-system ureterocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Ved; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Purkait, Bimalesh; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2017-06-14

    Ureterocele in an elderly is a rare entity. The presence of stone within ureterocele along with a large bladder calculus is an even rarer presentation. This phenomenon has not been reported so far to the best of our knowledge. We present an unusual case of a large bladder calculus with a concomitant stone in the associated ureterocele. The diagnosis was missed in the first instance due to the masking effect by the larger bladder calculus. Herein, we discuss this case and its management. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Deep reactive ion etching of fused silica using a single-coated soft mask layer for bio-analytical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Tathagata; Zhu, Haixin; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we present our results from process development and characterization of reactive ion etching (RIE) of fused silica using a single-coated soft masking layer (KMPR® 1025, Microchem Corporation, Newton, MA). The effects of a number of fluorine-radical-based gaseous chemistries, the gas flow rate, RF power and chamber pressure on the etch rate and etching selectivity of fused silica were studied using factorial experimental designs. RF power and pressure were found to be the most important factors in determining the etch rate. The highest fused silica etch rate obtained was about 933 Å min −1 by using SF 6 -based gas chemistry, and the highest etching selectivity between the fused silica and KMPR® 1025 was up to 1.2 using a combination of CF 4 , CHF 3 and Ar. Up to 30 µm deep microstructures have been successfully fabricated using the developed processes. The average area roughness (R a ) of the etched surface was measured and results showed it is comparable to the roughness obtained using a wet etching technique. Additionally, near-vertical sidewalls (with a taper angle up to 85°) have been obtained for the etched microstructures. The processes developed here can be applied to any application requiring fabrication of deep microstructures in fused silica with near-vertical sidewalls. To our knowledge, this is the first note on deep RIE of fused silica using a single-coated KMPR® 1025 masking layer and a non-ICP-based reactive ion etcher. (technical note)

  19. Combination of binaural and harmonic masking release effects in the detection of a single component in complex tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Hennig, Martin; Dietz, Mathias; Hohmann, Volker

    2018-03-01

    Both harmonic and binaural signal properties are relevant for auditory processing. To investigate how these cues combine in the auditory system, detection thresholds for an 800-Hz tone masked by a diotic (i.e., identical between the ears) harmonic complex tone were measured in six normal-hearing subjects. The target tone was presented either diotically or with an interaural phase difference (IPD) of 180° and in either harmonic or "mistuned" relationship to the diotic masker. Three different maskers were used, a resolved and an unresolved complex tone (fundamental frequency: 160 and 40 Hz) with four components below and above the target frequency and a broadband unresolved complex tone with 12 additional components. The target IPD provided release from masking in most masker conditions, whereas mistuning led to a significant release from masking only in the diotic conditions with the resolved and the narrowband unresolved maskers. A significant effect of mistuning was neither found in the diotic condition with the wideband unresolved masker nor in any of the dichotic conditions. An auditory model with a single analysis frequency band and different binaural processing schemes was employed to predict the data of the unresolved masker conditions. Sensitivity to modulation cues was achieved by including an auditory-motivated modulation filter in the processing pathway. The predictions of the diotic data were in line with the experimental results and literature data in the narrowband condition, but not in the broadband condition, suggesting that across-frequency processing is involved in processing modulation information. The experimental and model results in the dichotic conditions show that the binaural processor cannot exploit modulation information in binaurally unmasked conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ion Beam Etching: Replication of Micro Nano-structured 3D Stencil Masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Patrick; Guibert, Edouard; Mikhailov, Serguei; Bruegger, Juergen; Villanueva, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    Ion beam LIGA allows the etching of 3D nano-structures by direct writing with a nano-sized beam. However, this is a relatively time consuming process. We propose here another approach for etching structures on large surfaces and faster, compared to the direct writing process. This approach consists of replicating 3D structured masks, by scanning an unfocused ion beam. A polymer substrate is placed behind the mask, as in UV photolithography. But the main advantage is that the 3D structure of the mask can be replicated into the polymer. For that purpose, the masks (developped at LMIS1, EPFL) are made of a silicon nitride membrane 100 nm thick, on which 3D gold structures up to 200 nm thick, are deposited. The 3D Au structures are made with the nanostencil method, based on successive gold deposition. The IMA institute, from HE-Arc, owns a High Voltage Engineering 1.7 MV Tandetron with both solid and gaseous negative ion sources, able to generate ions from almost every chemical element in a broad range of energies comprised between 400 keV and 6.8 MeV. The beam composition and energy are chosen in such a way, that ions lose a significant fraction of their energy when passing through the thickest regions of the mask. Ions passing through thinner regions of the mask loose a smaller fraction of their energy and etch the polymer with larger thicknesses, allowing a replication of the mask into the polymer. For our trials, we have used a carbon beam with an energy of 500 keV. The beam was focussed to a diameter of 5 mm with solid slits, in order to avoid border effects and thus ensure a homogeneous dose distribution on the beam diameter. The feasibility of this technique has been demonstrated, allowing industrial applications for micro-mould fabrication, micro-fluidics and micro-optics.

  1. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R; Ferron, John

    2017-06-10

    Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of Type I error. In masked visual analysis (MVA), response-guided decisions are made by a researcher who is blinded to participants' identities and treatment assignments. MVA also makes it possible to conduct a hypothesis test assessing the significance of treatment effects. This tutorial describes the principles of MVA, including both how experiments can be set up and how results can be used for hypothesis testing. We then report a case study showing how MVA was deployed in a multiple-baseline across-subjects study investigating treatment for residual errors affecting rhotics. Strengths and weaknesses of MVA are discussed. Given their important role in the evidence base that informs clinical decision making, it is critical for single-case experimental studies to be conducted in a way that allows researchers to draw valid inferences. As a method that can increase the rigor of single-case studies while preserving the benefits of a response-guided approach, MVA warrants expanded attention from researchers in communication disorders.

  2. Plasma exchange combined with azathioprine in multiple sclerosis using serial gadolinium-enhanced MRI to monitor disease activity: a randomized single-masked cross-over pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Wanscher, B; Szpirt, W

    1996-01-01

    We enrolled 11 patients with secondary progressive MS in a randomized single-masked cross-over study of plasma exchange (PE) in combination with azathioprine 2 mg/kg. PE was performed once a week for 4 weeks and thereafter every second week for 20 weeks (14 treatments). Eight patients completed...

  3. Single image super-resolution using self-optimizing mask via fractional-order gradient interpolation and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Zhang, Yanzhu; Zhao, Tiebiao; Chen, YangQuan

    2017-04-04

    Image super-resolution using self-optimizing mask via fractional-order gradient interpolation and reconstruction aims to recover detailed information from low-resolution images and reconstruct them into high-resolution images. Due to the limited amount of data and information retrieved from low-resolution images, it is difficult to restore clear, artifact-free images, while still preserving enough structure of the image such as the texture. This paper presents a new single image super-resolution method which is based on adaptive fractional-order gradient interpolation and reconstruction. The interpolated image gradient via optimal fractional-order gradient is first constructed according to the image similarity and afterwards the minimum energy function is employed to reconstruct the final high-resolution image. Fractional-order gradient based interpolation methods provide an additional degree of freedom which helps optimize the implementation quality due to the fact that an extra free parameter α-order is being used. The proposed method is able to produce a rich texture detail while still being able to maintain structural similarity even under large zoom conditions. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better than current single image super-resolution techniques. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallon, G. K.; Diemoz, P. C.; Vittoria, F. A.; Basta, D.; Endrizzi, M.; Olivo, A.

    2017-10-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF.

  5. Comparing signal intensity and refraction sensitivity of double and single mask edge illumination lab-based x-ray phase contrast imaging set-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallon, G K; Diemoz, P C; Vittoria, F A; Basta, D; Endrizzi, M; Olivo, A

    2017-01-01

    Double mask edge illumination (DM-EI) set-ups can detect differential phase and attenuation information from a sample. However, analytical separation of the two signals often requires acquiring two frames with inverted differential phase contrast signals. Typically, between these two acquisitions, the first mask is moved to create a different illumination condition. This can lead to potential errors which adversely affect the data collected. In this paper, we implement a single mask EI laboratory set-up that allows for a single shot retrieval of the differential phase and attenuation images, without the need for a high resolution detector or high magnification. As well as simplifying mask alignment, the advantages of the proposed set-up can be exploited in one of two ways: either the total acquisition time can be halved with respect to the DM-EI set-up or, for the same acquisition time, twice the statistics can be collected. In this latter configuration, the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast in the mixed intensity images, and the angular sensitivity of the two set-ups were compared. We also show that the angular sensitivity of the single mask set-up can be well approximated from its illumination curve, which has been modelled as a convolution between the source spatial distribution at the detector plane, the pre-sample mask and the detector point spread function (PSF). A polychromatic wave optics simulation was developed on these bases and benchmarked against experimental data. It can also be used to predict the angular sensitivity and contrast of any set-up as a function of detector PSF. (paper)

  6. A single mask process for the realization of fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Kim, Minsoo; Allen, Mark G.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-height metallic structures are of importance for various MEMS applications, including master molds for creating 3D structures by nanoimprint lithography, or realizing vertically displaced electrodes for out-of-plane electrostatic actuators. Normally these types of multi-height structures require a multi-mask process with increased fabrication complexity. In this work, a fabrication technology is presented in which fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps can be realized using a self-aligned, single-mask process. The main scheme of this proposed process is through-mold electrodeposition, where two photoresist mold fabrication steps and two electrodeposition steps are sequentially implemented to define the thinner and thicker structures in the dual-height configuration. The process relies on two self-aligned steps enabled by the electrodeposited thinner structures: a wet-etching of the seed layer utilizing the thinner structure as an etch-mask to electrically isolate the thinner and the thicker structures, and a backside UV lithography utilizing the thinner structure as a lithographic mask to create a high-aspect-ratio mold for the thicker structure through-mold electrodeposition. The latter step requires the metallic structures to be fabricated on a transparent substrate. Test structures with differences in aspect ratio are demonstrated to showcase the capability of the process.

  7. E-O technique is superior to E-C technique in manikins during single person bag mask ventilation performed by novices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Krishna, Rohith; Chaudhuri, Souvik; Tim, Thomas Joseph; Shwethapriya, Rao

    2014-06-01

    Conventional E-C technique of mask holding is unreliable during single person bag mask ventilation (BMV) due mainly to leak around the mask and inexperience of the persons. In this manikin study, conventional E-C technique was compared with E-O technique during single person BMV both with experienced (n = 50) and novice (n = 50) volunteers. The E-O technique involved encircling the mask neck with the web between thumb and index finger while the other digits provided chin lift. Two independent observers recorded the chest expansion as 1 (nil), 2 (minimal), 3 (moderate) and 4 (good). For analysis ideal and average chest expansion were clubbed as acceptable. E-C technique in experienced volunteers showed acceptable results in 49 (31 + 18) occasions, while with novices acceptable is 39 (17 + 22). With E-O technique, expansion was acceptable in 47 (38 + 9) experienced volunteers, and acceptable in 46 (32 + 14) novices. (P = 0.003). In cross over analysis for experienced volunteers, similar chest expansion was obtained on 30 occasions with both techniques, E-C better than E-O on 8 and E-O better than E-C on 12 occasions. Novices had comparable results on 17 occasions, E-C better than E-O on 8 and E-O better than E-C on 25 occasions (P = 0.016). The conventionally taught E-C technique of single person BMV provides acceptable chest expansion on most occasions with experienced operators than novices. Novices should use E-O technique as the first choice for single person BMV. Both techniques may be used interchangeably when one fails.

  8. Plasma exchange combined with azathioprine in multiple sclerosis using serial gadolinium-enhanced MRI to monitor disease activity: a randomized single-masked cross-over pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Wanscher, B; Szpirt, W

    1996-01-01

    We enrolled 11 patients with secondary progressive MS in a randomized single-masked cross-over study of plasma exchange (PE) in combination with azathioprine 2 mg/kg. PE was performed once a week for 4 weeks and thereafter every second week for 20 weeks (14 treatments). Eight patients completed...... in the two periods. Although the total MS lesion load on MRI was significantly lower (p effect of PE or encourage a subsequent large...

  9. Life masks and death masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschutt, D; Taff, M L; Boglioli, L R

    1992-12-01

    The death of a relative or anyone in a small, tightly knit community with closely shared cultural and religious values has great social impact. As part of the grieving process, people wish to preserve the memory of a loved one or a community leader. Life masks and death masks have been used as art forms to mark life passages, offering permanent reminders of family and continuity with the past. This article discusses the history and technique of life and death masks and their role in 19th-century American culture.

  10. Clay Mask Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Masks can represent so many things, such as emotions (happy, sad, fearful) and power. The familiar "comedy and tragedy" masks, derived from ancient Greek theater, are just one example from mask history. Death masks from the ancient Egyptians influenced the ancient Romans into creating similar masks for their departed. Masks can represent many…

  11. Masked Visual Analysis: Minimizing Type I Error in Visually Guided Single-Case Design for Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Tara McAllister; Hitchcock, Elaine R.; Ferron, John

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Single-case experimental designs are widely used to study interventions for communication disorders. Traditionally, single-case experiments follow a response-guided approach, where design decisions during the study are based on participants' observed patterns of behavior. However, this approach has been criticized for its high rate of…

  12. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  13. venice: Mask utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupon, Jean

    2018-02-01

    venice reads a mask file (DS9 or fits type) and a catalogue of objects (ascii or fits type) to create a pixelized mask, find objects inside/outside a mask, or generate a random catalogue of objects inside/outside a mask. The program reads the mask file and checks if a point, giving its coordinates, is inside or outside the mask, i.e. inside or outside at least one polygon of the mask.

  14. Visual masking & schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herzog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual masking is a frequently used tool in schizophrenia research. Visual masking has a very high sensitivity and specificity and masking paradigms have been proven to be endophenotypes. Whereas masking is a powerful technique to study schizophrenia, the underlying mechanisms are discussed controversially. For example, for more than 25 years, masking deficits of schizophrenia patients were mainly attributed to a deficient magno-cellular system (M-system. Here, we show that there is very little evidence that masking deficits are magno-cellular deficits. We will discuss the magno-cellular and other approaches in detail and highlight their pros and cons.

  15. Keeping African Masks Real

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  16. Mask industry assessment: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert V.; Hector, Scott D.

    2004-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the third in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey builds upon the 2003 survey to provide an ongoing database using the same questions as a baseline with only a few minor changes or additions. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  17. 2013 mask industry survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive survey was sent to merchant and captive mask shops to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. 2013 marks the 12th consecutive year for this process. Historical topics including general mask profile, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, maintenance, and returns were included and new topics were added. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. While each year's survey includes minor updates based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics, the bulk of the survey and reporting structure have remained relatively constant. A series of improvements is being phased in beginning in 2013 to add value to a wider audience, while at the same time retaining the historical content required for trend analyses of the traditional metrics. Additions in 2013 include topics such as top challenges, future concerns, and additional details in key aspects of mask masking, such as the number of masks per mask set per ground rule, minimum mask resolution shipped, and yield by ground rule. These expansions beyond the historical topics are aimed at identifying common issues, gaps, and needs. They will also provide a better understanding of real-life mask requirements and capabilities for comparison to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).

  18. The optimum bolus dose of remifentanil to facilitate laryngeal mask airway insertion with a single standard dose of propofol at induction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, H J; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y B; Chae, Y J; Kim, J Y

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal bolus dose of remifentanil required for the successful insertion of the laryngeal mask airway during propofol induction in children without a neuromuscular blocking agent. Twenty-six paediatric patients, aged 3-10 years, requiring anaesthesia for short ambulatory surgery were recruited. A predetermined bolus dose of remifentanil was injected over 30 s, followed by propofol 2.5 mg.kg(-1) over 10 s. The bolus dose of remifentanil was determined by a modified Dixon's up-and-down method, starting from 0.5 microg.kg(-1) (0.1 microg.kg(-1) as a step size). Laryngeal mask insertion was attempted 90 s after the end of remifentanil injection and the response of patients was classified as either 'movement' or 'no movement'. The bolus dose of remifentanil at which there was a 50% probability of successful laryngeal mask insertion (ED(50)) during induction with 2.5 mg.kg(-1) propofol was 0.56 (0.07) microg.kg(-1) in children without a neuromuscular blocking agent. From probit analysis, the ED(50) and ED(95) of remifentanil were 0.52 microg.kg(-1) (95% confidence limits, 0.42-0.62 microg.kg(-1)) and 0.71 microg.kg(-1) (95% confidence limits, 0.61-1.40 microg.kg(-1)), respectively.

  19. How color, regularity, and good Gestalt determine backward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Manassi, Mauro; Herzog, Michael

    2014-06-18

    The strength of visual backward masking depends on the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between target and mask. Recently, it was shown that the conjoint spatial layout of target and mask is as crucial as SOA. Particularly, masking strength depends on whether target and mask group with each other. The same is true in crowding where the global spatial layout of the flankers and target-flanker grouping determine crowding strength. Here, we presented a vernier target followed by different flanker configurations at varying SOAs. Similar to crowding, masking of a red vernier target was strongly reduced for arrays of 10 green compared with 10 red flanking lines. Unlike crowding, single green lines flanking the red vernier showed strong masking. Irregularly arranged flanking lines yielded stronger masking than did regularly arranged lines, again similar to crowding. While cuboid flankers reduced crowding compared with single lines, this was not the case in masking. We propose that, first, masking is reduced when the flankers are part of a larger spatial structure. Second, spatial factors counteract color differences between the target and the flankers. Third, complex Gestalts, such as cuboids, seem to need longer processing times to show ungrouping effects as observed in crowding. Strong parallels between masking and crowding suggest similar underlying mechanism; however, temporal factors in masking additionally modulate performance, acting as an additional grouping cue. © 2014 ARVO.

  20. Mask industry assessment: 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2003-12-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask technology and mask supply issues of cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was initiated in 2002 with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition.1 This paper presents the results of the second annual survey which is an enhanced version of the inaugural survey building upon its strengths and improving the weak points. The original survey was designed with the input of member company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. The assessment is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the critical mask industry. An objective is to create a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities and to guide investments on critical-path issues. As subsequent years are added, historical profiles can also be created. This assessment includes inputs from ten major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers representing approximately 80% of the global mask market (using revenue as the measure) and making this the most comprehensive mask industry survey ever. The participating companies are: Compugraphics, Dai Nippon Printing, Dupont Photomask, Hoya, IBM, Infineon, Intel, Taiwan Mask Company, Toppan, and TSMC. Questions are grouped into five categories: General Business Profile Information; Data Processing; Yields and Yield loss Mechanisms; Delivery Time; and Returns and Services. Within each category are a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry.

  1. Replacing a double-lumen tube with a single-lumen tube or a laryngeal mask airway device to reduce coughing at emergence after thoracic surgery: a randomized controlled single-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoubi, Issam; Sun, Joanna Ng Man; Drolet, Pierre; Fortier, Louis-Philippe; Donati, François

    2015-09-01

    Coughing episodes occur frequently at extubation after thoracic surgery, and this may be due in part to the double-lumen tube (DLT). In this study, the DLT was replaced with either a single-lumen endotracheal tube (ETT) or a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) device or left in place, and the incidence of coughing at emergence was compared between the three groups. Fifty-eight adults scheduled for thoracic surgery with a DLT were included. Exclusion criteria were an anticipated difficult airway, obesity, and contraindication to the use of an LMA ProSeal™ (LMA-P). After surgery but before emergence, patients were randomized to having the DLT (1) removed and replaced by an LMA-P (LMA-P Group), (2) removed and replaced by an ETT (ETT Group), or (3) left in place (DLT Group). The primary outcome was the number of coughing episodes at extubation. Among 184 patients screened, 124 did not meet inclusion criteria, and two patients, both in the ETT Group, were excluded after randomization, leaving 20, 18, and 20 patients in the LMA-P, ETT, and DLT Groups, respectively. There were fewer coughing episodes (median [quartiles]) in the LMA-P Group than in the DLT Group (0[0-1] vs 2[1-3], respectively; P = 0.01). In the DLT Group, 90% of patients coughed at least once. This incidence was not significantly different in the ETT Group (83%; P = 0.222) but was significantly reduced in the LMA-P Group (35%; P replaced by an LMA-P before emergence. The number of patients in this trial was too small to evaluate the risks associated with exchanging the airway device. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00925613.

  2. Mask R-CNN

    OpenAIRE

    He, Kaiming; Gkioxari, Georgia; Dollár, Piotr; Girshick, Ross

    2017-01-01

    We present a conceptually simple, flexible, and general framework for object instance segmentation. Our approach efficiently detects objects in an image while simultaneously generating a high-quality segmentation mask for each instance. The method, called Mask R-CNN, extends Faster R-CNN by adding a branch for predicting an object mask in parallel with the existing branch for bounding box recognition. Mask R-CNN is simple to train and adds only a small overhead to Faster R-CNN, running at 5 f...

  3. Mask industry assessment: 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. A survey was created with support from International SEMATECH (ISMT) and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of equipment for mask fabrication. This year's assessment is the fourth in the current series of annual reports and is intended to be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. This report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey contains all of the 2004 survey questions to provide an ongoing database. Additional questions were added to the survey covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors and equipment utilization. Within each category are a many questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. This assessment includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market. This participation rate is reduced by one captive from 2004. Note: Toppan, DuPont Photomasks Inc and AMTC (new) were consolidated into one input therefore the 2004 and 2005 surveys are basically equivalent.

  4. Enhanced Efficiency of GaAs Single-Junction Solar Cells with Inverted-Cone-Shaped Nanoholes Fabricated Using Anodic Aluminum Oxide Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangho Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The GaAs solar cells are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD and fabricated by photolithography, metal evaporation, annealing, and wet chemical etch processes. Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO masks are prepared from an aluminum foil by a two-step anodization method. Inductively coupled plasma dry etching is used to etch and define the nanoarray structures on top of an InGaP window layer of the GaAs solar cells. The inverted-cone-shaped nanoholes with a surface diameter of about 50 nm are formed on the top surface of the solar cells after the AAO mask removal. Photovoltaic and optical characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the nanohole arrays are investigated. The reflectance of the AAO nanopatterned samples is lower than that of the planar GaAs solar cell in the measured range. The short-circuit current density increased up to 11.63% and the conversion efficiency improved from 10.53 to 11.57% under 1-sun AM 1.5 G conditions by using the nanohole arrays. Dependence of the efficiency enhancement on the etching depth of the nanohole arrays is also investigated. These results show that the nanohole arrays fabricated with an AAO technique may be employed to improve the light absorption and, in turn, the conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell.

  5. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  6. The Moody Mask Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarke Alexander; Andkjær, Kasper Ingdahl; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new relation model, called "The Moody Mask model", for Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS), based on Franceso Osborne's "Mask Model" from 2011. This, mixed with some elements from Chris Crawford's Personality Models, is a system designed for dynamic interaction between ch...

  7. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experime......The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either...... experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined ideal binary mask is evaluated using hearing impaired listeners, and a novel binary mask -- the target...... binary mask -- is introduced. The target binary mask shows the same substantial increase in intelligibility as the ideal binary mask and is proposed as a new reference for binary masking. In the category of real-life applications, two new methods are proposed: a method for estimation of the ideal binary...

  8. Mask materials in powderblasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    1999-01-01

    Powderblasting has the opportunity to become a standard technology in micromachining. To machine small details with powderbalsting, it is necessary to use a suiabled mask. In this paper four mask types ares examined. BF400 resist foil is most suitable for standard use in powderblasting for reason of

  9. The transparent face mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, E A; Strate, R G; Solem, L D

    1979-02-01

    Fabrication of an accurate transparent mask for total contact pressure to the healed burned face proved helpful in controlling scarring. Wearing the mask for 20 hours daily, secured by elastic straps giving 35-mmHG pressure to the scar, can prevent the original facial contours from being distorted by contracting scar tissue.

  10. Mask industry assessment: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2006-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  11. Mask industry assessment: 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the eighth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2008 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This in combination with the past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  12. Mask Industry Assessment: 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia; Hughes, Greg

    2007-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the sixth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 and 2006 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  13. Mask industry assessment: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2008-10-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers, and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2007 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  14. What's in a mask? Information masking with forward and backward visual masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2011-10-01

    Three experiments tested how the physical format and information content of forward and backward masks affected the extent of visual pattern masking. This involved using different types of forward and backward masks with target discrimination measured by percentage correct in the first experiment (with a fixed target duration) and by an adaptive threshold procedure in the last two. The rationale behind the manipulation of the content of the masks stemmed from masking theories emphasizing attentional and/or conceptual factors rather than visual ones. Experiment 1 used word masks and showed that masking was reduced (a masking reduction effect) when the forward and backward masks were the same word (although in different case) compared to when the masks were different words. Experiment 2 tested the extent to which a reduction in masking might occur due to the physical similarity between the forward and backward masks by comparing the effect of the same content of the masks in the same versus different case. The result showed a significant reduction in masking for same content masks but no significant effect of case. The last experiment examined whether the reduction in masking effect would be observed with nonword masks--that is, having no high-level representation. No reduction in masking was found from same compared to different nonword masks (Experiment 3). These results support the view that the conscious perception of a rapidly displayed target stimulus is in part determined by high-level perceptual/cognitive factors concerned with masking stimulus grouping and attention.

  15. Hybrid mask for deep etching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2017-08-10

    Deep reactive ion etching is essential for creating high aspect ratio micro-structures for microelectromechanical systems, sensors and actuators, and emerging flexible electronics. A novel hybrid dual soft/hard mask bilayer may be deposited during semiconductor manufacturing for deep reactive etches. Such a manufacturing process may include depositing a first mask material on a substrate; depositing a second mask material on the first mask material; depositing a third mask material on the second mask material; patterning the third mask material with a pattern corresponding to one or more trenches for transfer to the substrate; transferring the pattern from the third mask material to the second mask material; transferring the pattern from the second mask material to the first mask material; and/or transferring the pattern from the first mask material to the substrate.

  16. 2012 Mask Industry Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

    2012-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

  17. Masked Photocathode for Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2010-01-01

    In this research note, we propose a scheme to insert a photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto the electrode, a masked electrode with small hole is used to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material very simple by rotating the photocathode behind the mask into the hole. This will significantly increase the usage lifetime of a photocathode. Furthermore, this also helps reduce the dark current or secondary electron emission from the photocathode. The hole on the mask also provides a transverse cut-off to the Gaussian laser profile which can be beneficial from the beam dynamics point of view.

  18. New mask technology challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2001-09-01

    Mask technology development has accelerated dramatically in recent years from the glacial pace of the last three decades to the rapid and sometimes simultaneous introductions of new wavelengths and mask-based resolution enhancement techniques. The nature of the semiconductor business has also become one driven by time-to-market as an overwhelming factor in capturing market share and profit. These are among the factors that have created enormous stress on the mask industry to produce masks with enhanced capabilities, such as phase-shifting attenuators, sub-resolution assist bars, and optical proximity correction (OPC) features, while maintaining or reducing cost and cycle time. The mask can no longer be considered a commodity item that is purchased form the lowest-cost supplier. Instead, it must now be promoted as an integral part of the technical and business case for a total lithographic solution. Improving partnership between designer, mask-maker, and wafer lithographer will be the harbinger of success in finding a profitable balance of capability, cost, and cycle time. Likewise for equipment infrastructure development, stronger partnership on the international level is necessary to control development cost and mitigate schedule and technical risks.

  19. Mask Industry Assessment: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2011-11-01

    A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the tenth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report has been used as one of the baselines to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It continues to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was essentially the same as the 2005 through 2010 surveys. Questions are grouped into following categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  20. Mask Industry Assessment: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Chan, David Y.

    2010-09-01

    A survey created supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to microelectronics industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the ninth in the current series of annual reports. With ongoing industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. It will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments pertaining to critical path issues. This year's survey was basically the same as the 2005 through 2009 surveys. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. This profile combined with the responses to past surveys represents a comprehensive view of changes in the industry.

  1. Masks: The Artist in Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Whether masks are made from cardboard, papier-mache, metal, wood, leather, fabric, clay or any combination of these materials, they bring out the artist in people. Young children like to wear masks when they play to pretend they were another person or animal. Masks let them fantasize and be creative. The author's students made masks representing…

  2. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  3. Mask ventilation, hypocapnia, and seizure duration in electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukalas, Christopher G; Walter, James; Glick, David; O'Connor, Michael F; Tung, Avery; Dinwiddie, Stephen H; Nunnally, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    To compare the Mapleson D circuit and the bag-valve-mask device for mask ventilation of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Cross-over study. Single-center academic medical center. 18 patients undergoing ECT for major depressive disorder. Patients were randomized to undergo mask ventilation by the Mapleson D circuit or the bag-valve-mask device. End-tidal CO(2), seizure duration, and airway pressure values were recorded. End-tidal CO(2) was significantly lower with the bag-valve-mask device. When compared with the bag-valve-mask device, ventilation with the Mapleson circuit resulted in rebreathing of CO(2) in nearly all patients, shorter expiratory time, and lower pressure ramp slope. Hypocapnia was not associated with longer seizures, and the user-device interaction might affect device performance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Individuals and Their Masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Altuna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay works on the opposition between face and mask, where ‘face’ is understood as that which makes every human being singular, and makes visible her or his unique worth, while ‘mask’ is understood as whatever hides that singularity, and refers to a category, stereotype or cliché. The etymological history that relates face and mask to the concept of person, and the history of modern portrait painting, which alternates representations of face and mask, both lead to a discussion with authors who diagnose a contemporary “defeat of the face” as a result of the crisis of humanism and of ethical individualism, which give meaning and dignity to that face.

  5. COAs: Behind the Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Szifra

    1993-01-01

    Provides information on alcoholism and codependency to help teachers identify and respond to children of alcoholics (COAs). Discusses characteristics of alcoholic homes and problems encountered by children and adult COAs. Examines survival "masks" of COAs, including hero, rebel, adjustor, clown, and caretaker. Lists organizational,…

  6. Competing for Consciousness: Prolonged Mask Exposure Reduces Object Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Dux, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    In object substitution masking (OSM) a sparse, temporally trailing 4-dot mask impairs target identification, even though it has different contours from, and does not spatially overlap with the target. Here, we demonstrate a previously unknown characteristic of OSM: Observers show reduced masking at prolonged (e.g., 640 ms) relative to intermediate…

  7. EUV mask process specifics and development challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesladek, Pavel

    2014-07-01

    EUV lithography is currently the favorite and most promising candidate among the next generation lithography (NGL) technologies. Decade ago the NGL was supposed to be used for 45 nm technology node. Due to introduction of immersion 193nm lithography, double/triple patterning and further techniques, the 193 nm lithography capabilities was greatly improved, so it is expected to be used successfully depending on business decision of the end user down to 10 nm logic. Subsequent technology node will require EUV or DSA alternative technology. Manufacturing and especially process development for EUV technology requires significant number of unique processes, in several cases performed at dedicated tools. Currently several of these tools as e.g. EUV AIMS or actinic reflectometer are not available on site yet. The process development is done using external services /tools with impact on the single unit process development timeline and the uncertainty of the process performance estimation, therefore compromises in process development, caused by assumption about similarities between optical and EUV mask made in experiment planning and omitting of tests are further reasons for challenges to unit process development. Increased defect risk and uncertainty in process qualification are just two examples, which can impact mask quality / process development. The aim of this paper is to identify critical aspects of the EUV mask manufacturing with respect to defects on the mask with focus on mask cleaning and defect repair and discuss the impact of the EUV specific requirements on the experiments needed.

  8. Masked multichannel analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiecki, A.L.; Kroop, D.C.; McGee, M.K.; Lenkszus, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical instrument and particularly a time-of-flight-mass spectrometer for processing a large number of analog signals irregularly spaced over a spectrum, with programmable masking of portions of the spectrum where signals are unlikely in order to reduce memory requirements and/or with a signal capturing assembly having a plurality of signal capturing devices fewer in number than the analog signals for use in repeated cycles within the data processing time period.

  9. Binary Masking & Speech Intelligibility

    OpenAIRE

    Boldt, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine how binary masking can be used to increase intelligibility in situations where hearing impaired listeners have difficulties understanding what is being said. The major part of the experiments carried out in this thesis can be categorized as either experiments under ideal conditions or as experiments under more realistic conditions useful for real-life applications such as hearing aids. In the experiments under ideal conditions, the previously defined i...

  10. Masking and manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The list of prohibited substances in sports includes a group of masking agents that are forbidden in both in- and out-of-competition doping tests. This group consists of a series of compounds that are misused in sports to mask the administration of other doping agents, and includes: diuretics, used to reduce the concentration in urine of other doping agents either by increasing the urine volume or by reducing the excretion of basic doping agents by increasing the urinary pH; probenecid, used to reduce the concentration in urine of acidic compounds, such as glucuronoconjugates of some doping agents; 5alpha-reductase inhibitors, used to reduce the formation of 5alpha-reduced metabolites of anabolic androgenic steroids; plasma expanders, used to maintain the plasma volume after misuse of erythropoietin or red blood cells concentrates; and epitestosterone, used to mask the detection of the administration of testosterone. Diuretics may be also misused to achieve acute weight loss before competition in sports with weight categories. In this chapter, pharmacological modes of action, intended pharmacological effects for doping purposes, main routes of biotransformation and analytical procedures used for anti-doping controls to screen and confirm these substances will be reviewed and discussed.

  11. Mask strategy at International SEMATECH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kurt R.

    2002-08-01

    International SEMATECH (ISMT) is a consortium consisting of 13 leading semiconductor manufacturers from around the globe. Its objective is to develop the infrastructure necessary for its member companies to realize the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) through efficiencies of shared development resources and knowledge. The largest area of effort is lithography, recognized as a crucial enabler for microelectronics technology progress. Within the Lithography Division, most of the efforts center on mask-related issues. The development strategy at International SEMATCH will be presented and the interlock of lithography projects clarified. Because of the limited size of the mask production equipment market, the business case is weak for aggressive investment commensurate with the pace of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors. With masks becoming the overwhelming component of lithography cost, new ways of reducing or eliminating mask costs are being explored. Will mask technology survive without a strong business case? Will the mask industry limit the growth of the semiconductor industry? Are advanced masks worth their escalating cost? An analysis of mask cost from the perspective of mask value imparted to the user is presented with examples and generic formulas for the reader to apply independently. A key part to the success for both International SEMATECH and the industry globally will be partnerships on both the local level between mask-maker and mask-user, and the macro level where global collaborations will be necessary to resolve technology development cost challenges.

  12. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Hector, Scott; Marmillion, Pat; Lercel, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name mask cost and cycle time as top issues of concern. In 2002, a survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey is designed with the input of mask technologists from semiconductor manufacturers, merchant mask suppliers, and makers of mask equipment. The 2005 survey was the fourth in the current series of annual surveys. The survey data can be used as a baseline for the mask industry and the microelectronics industry to gain a perspective on the technical and business status of the mask industry. The results may be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. Questions are grouped into categories: general business profile information, data processing, yields and yield loss mechanisms, delivery times, returns and services, operating cost factors, and equipment utilization. Because the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were just added to the survey, no trend analysis is possible. Within each category are many questions that together create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. The assessment participation has changed from year to year. The 2005 survey, for example, includes inputs from eight major global merchant and captive mask manufacturers whose revenue represents approximately 85% of the global mask market.

  13. Masks of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Edward

    2011-11-01

    Preface; Introducing the masks; Part I. Worlds in the Making: 1. The magic Universe; 2. The mythic Universe; 3. The geometric Universe; 4. The medieval Universe; 5. The infinite Universe; 6. The mechanistic Universe; Part II. The Heart Divine: 7. Dance of the atoms and waves; 8. Fabric of space and time; 9. Nearer to the heart's desire; 10. The cosmic tide; 11. Do dreams ever come true?; Part III. The Cloud of Unknowing: 12. The witch universe; 13. The spear of Archytas; 14. All that is made; 15. The cloud of unknowing; 16. Learned ignorance.

  14. Mask fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Gregory F.

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating masks and reticles useful for projection lithography systems. An absorber layer is conventionally patterned using a pattern and etch process. Following the step of patterning, the entire surface of the remaining top patterning photoresist layer as well as that portion of an underlying protective photoresist layer where absorber material has been etched away is exposed to UV radiation. The UV-exposed regions of the protective photoresist layer and the top patterning photoresist layer are then removed by solution development, thereby eliminating the need for an oxygen plasma etch and strip and chances for damaging the surface of the substrate or coatings.

  15. X-ray masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.C.; Satchell, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacture, where X-ray irradiation is used, a thin silicon membrane can be used as an X-ray mask. This membrane has areas on which are patterns to define the regions to be irradiated. These regions are of antireflection material. With the thin, in the order of 3 microns, membranes used, fragility is a problem. Hence a number of ribs of silicon are formed integral with the membrane, and which are relatively thick, 5 to 10 microns. The ribs may be formed by localised deeper boron deposition followed by a selective etch. (author)

  16. Mask alignment system for semiconductor processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Weaver, William T.; Grant, Christopher N.

    2017-02-14

    A mask alignment system for providing precise and repeatable alignment between ion implantation masks and workpieces. The system includes a mask frame having a plurality of ion implantation masks loosely connected thereto. The mask frame is provided with a plurality of frame alignment cavities, and each mask is provided with a plurality of mask alignment cavities. The system further includes a platen for holding workpieces. The platen may be provided with a plurality of mask alignment pins and frame alignment pins configured to engage the mask alignment cavities and frame alignment cavities, respectively. The mask frame can be lowered onto the platen, with the frame alignment cavities moving into registration with the frame alignment pins to provide rough alignment between the masks and workpieces. The mask alignment cavities are then moved into registration with the mask alignment pins, thereby shifting each individual mask into precise alignment with a respective workpiece.

  17. SEMATECH EUVL mask program status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Henry; Goodwin, Frank; Huh, Sungmin; Orvek, Kevin; Cha, Brian; Rastegar, Abbas; Kearney, Patrick

    2009-04-01

    As we approach the 22nm half-pitch (hp) technology node, the industry is rapidly running out of patterning options. Of the several lithography techniques highlighted in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the leading contender for the 22nm hp insertion is extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL). Despite recent advances with EUV resist and improvements in source power, achieving defect free EUV mask blank and enabling the EUV mask infrastructure still remain critical issues. To meet the desired EUV high volume manufacturing (HVM) insertion target date of 2013, these obstacles must be resolved on a timely bases. Many of the EUV mask related challenges remain in the pre-competitive stage and a collaborative industry based consortia, such as SEMATECH can play an important role to enable the EUVL landscape. SEMATECH based in Albany, NY is an international consortium representing several of the largest manufacturers in the semiconductor market. Full members include Intel, Samsung, AMD, IBM, Panasonic, HP, TI, UMC, CNSE (College of Nanoscience and Engineering), and Fuller Road Management. Within the SEMATECH lithography division a major thrust is centered on enabling the EUVL ecosystem from mask development, EUV resist development and addressing EUV manufacturability concerns. An important area of focus for the SEMATECH mask program has been the Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC). At the MBDC key issues in EUV blank development such as defect reduction and inspection capabilities are actively pursued together with research partners, key suppliers and member companies. In addition the mask program continues a successful track record of working with the mask community to manage and fund critical mask tools programs. This paper will highlight recent status of mask projects and longer term strategic direction at the MBDC. It is important that mask technology be ready to support pilot line development HVM by 2013. In several areas progress has been

  18. Wafer fab mask qualification techniques and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, Andre; Maelzer, Stephanie; Spence, Chris; Tabery, Cyrus; Lang, Michael; Schnasse, Guido; Peikert, Milko; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve

    2006-10-01

    Mask inspection and qualification is a must for wafer fabs to ensure and guarantee high and stable yields. Single defect events can easily cause a million dollar loss through a defect duplicating onto the wafer. Several techniques and methods for mask qualification within a wafer fab are known but not all of them are neither used nor understood regarding their limitations. Increasing effort on existing tool platforms is necessary to detect the defects of interest which are at the limit of the tools specification - On the other hand next generation tools are very sensitive and therefore consume only a negligible amount of time for recipe optimization. Knowing the limits of each inspection tool helps to balance between effort and benefit. Masks with programmed defects of 90nm and 65nm design rule were used in order to compare the different available inspection techniques. During the course of this technical work, the authors concentrate mainly on two inspection techniques. The first one inspects the reticle itself using KLA-Tencor's SLF27 (TeraStar) and SL536 (TeraScan) tools. As the reticle gets inspected itself this is the so called "direct" mask defect inspection. The second inspection technique discussed is the "indirect" mask defect inspection which consists of printing the pattern on a blank wafer and use KLA-Tencor's bright-field wafer inspection tool (2xxx series) to inspect the wafer. Data of this work will include description of the techniques, inspection results, defect maps, sensitivity analysis, effort estimation as well as limitations for both techniques for the used design rule.

  19. Mask industry assessment trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data were presented in detail at BACUS and the detailed trend analysis presented at EMLC. The survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. This year's assessment is the seventh in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2007. Questions are grouped into seven categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. (Examples are given below). Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  20. Effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter; Waehler, Tobias; Singh, Sherjang; Jonckheere, Rik; Baudemprez, Bart

    2011-03-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is considered the leading lithography technology choice for semiconductor devices at 16nm HP node and beyond. However, before EUV Lithography can enter into High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) of advanced semiconductor devices, the ability to guarantee mask integrity at point-of-exposure must be established. Highly efficient, damage free mask cleaning plays a critical role during the mask manufacturing cycle and throughout the life of the mask, where the absence of a pellicle to protect the EUV mask increases the risk of contamination during storage, handling and use. In this paper, we will present effective EUVL mask cleaning technology solutions for mask manufacturing and in-fab mask maintenance, which employs an intelligent, holistic approach to maximize Mean Time Between Cleans (MBTC) and extend the useful life span of the reticle. The data presented will demonstrate the protection of the capping and absorber layers, preservation of pattern integrity as well as optical and mechanical properties to avoid unpredictable CD-linewidth and overlay shifts. Experiments were performed on EUV blanks and pattern masks using various process conditions. Conditions showing high particle removal efficiency (PRE) and minimum surface layer impact were then selected for durability studies. Surface layer impact was evaluated over multiple cleaning cycles by means of UV reflectivity metrology XPS analysis and wafer prints. Experimental results were compared to computational models. Mask life time predictions where made using the same computational models. The paper will provide a generic overview of the cleaning sequence which yielded best results, but will also provide recommendations for an efficient in-fab mask maintenance scheme, addressing handling, storage, cleaning and inspection.

  1. Keep pushing! Limiting interruptions to CPR; bag-valve mask versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has led to first responders and paramedics performing single rescuer CPR using a bag-valve-mask (BVM) device as opposed to the historical practice of intubating and ventilating via an endotracheal tube. Bag-valve-mask ventilations, especially during single rescuer CPR, are however associated with complications ...

  2. EUV mask manufacturing readiness in the merchant mask industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Choi, Yohan; Ham, Young; Kamberian, Henry; Progler, Chris; Tseng, Shih-En; Chiou, Tsann-Bim; Miyazaki, Junji; Lammers, Ad; Chen, Alek

    2017-10-01

    As nodes progress into the 7nm and below regime, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) becomes critical for all industry participants interested in remaining at the leading edge. One key cost driver for EUV in the supply chain is the reflective EUV mask. As of today, the relatively few end users of EUV consist primarily of integrated device manufactures (IDMs) and foundries that have internal (captive) mask manufacturing capability. At the same time, strong and early participation in EUV by the merchant mask industry should bring value to these chip makers, aiding the wide-scale adoption of EUV in the future. For this, merchants need access to high quality, representative test vehicles to develop and validate their own processes. This business circumstance provides the motivation for merchants to form Joint Development Partnerships (JDPs) with IDMs, foundries, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and other members of the EUV supplier ecosystem that leverage complementary strengths. In this paper, we will show how, through a collaborative supplier JDP model between a merchant and OEM, a novel, test chip driven strategy is applied to guide and validate mask level process development. We demonstrate how an EUV test vehicle (TV) is generated for mask process characterization in advance of receiving chip maker-specific designs. We utilize the TV to carry out mask process "stress testing" to define process boundary conditions which can be used to create Mask Rule Check (MRC) rules as well as serve as baseline conditions for future process improvement. We utilize Advanced Mask Characterization (AMC) techniques to understand process capability on designs of varying complexity that include EUV OPC models with and without sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs). Through these collaborations, we demonstrate ways to develop EUV processes and reduce implementation risks for eventual mass production. By reducing these risks, we hope to expand access to EUV mask capability for

  3. Masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y.

    1998-01-01

    In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed

  4. The performances of standard and ResMed masks during bag-valve-mask ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung Youn; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Byung Kook; Lee, Seung Joon; Jung, Yong Hun; Lee, Geo Sung; Min, Yong Il; Heo, Tag

    2013-01-01

    A tight mask seal is frequently difficult to obtain and maintain during single-rescuer bag-valve-mask (BVM) ventilation. The ResMed mask (Bella Vista, NSW, Australia) is a continuous-positive-airway-pressure mask (CM) designed for noninvasive ventilation. In this study, we compared the ventilation performances of a standard mask (SM) and a ResMed CM using a simulation manikin in an out-of-hospital single-rescuer BVM ventilation scenario. Thirty emergency medical technicians (EMTs) performed two 2-minute attempts to ventilate a simulation manikin using BVM ventilation, alternatively, with the SM or the ResMed CM in a randomized order. Ventilation parameters including tidal volume and peak airway pressure were measured using computer analysis software connected to the simulation manikin. Successful volume delivery was defined as delivery of 440-540 mL of tidal volume in accord with present cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines. BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM produced higher mean (± standard deviation) tidal volumes (452 ± 50 mL vs. 394 ± 113 mL, p = 0.014) and had a higher proportion of successful volume deliveries (65.3% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.001) than that using the SM. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM (p = 0.035). Stomach insufflation did not occur during either method. Twenty-nine of the participants (96.7%) preferred BVM ventilation using the ResMed CM. BVM ventilations using ResMed CM resulted in a significantly higher proportion of successful volume deliveries meeting the currently recommended range of tidal volume. Clinical studies are needed to determine the value of the ResMed CM for BVM ventilation.

  5. Hg-Mask Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourget, P.; Veiga, C. H.; Vieira Martins, R.; Assus, P.; Colas, F.

    In order to optimize the occulting process of a Lyot coronagraph and to provide a high dynamic range imaging, a new kind of occulting disk has been developed at the National Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. A mercury (Hg) drop glued onto an optical window by molecular cohesion and compressed by a pellicle film is used as the occulting disk. The minimum of the superficial tension potential function provides an optical precision (lambda/100) of the toric free surface of the mercury. This process provides a size control for the adaptation to the seeing conditions and to the apparent diameter of a resolved object, and in the case of adaptive optics, to the Airy diameter fraction needed. The occultation is a three dimensional process near the focal plane on the toric free surface that provides an apodization of the occultation. The Hg-Mask coronagraph has been projected for astrometric observations of faint satellites near to Jovian planets and works since 2000 at the 1.6 m telescope of the Pico dos Dias Observatory (OPD - Brazil).

  6. Mechanical alignment of substrates to a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Aaron P.; Carlson, Charles T.; Honan, Michael; Amato, Luigi G.; Grant, Christopher Neil; Strassner, James D.

    2016-11-08

    A plurality of masks is attached to the underside of a mask frame. This attachment is made such that each mask can independently move relative to the mask frame in three directions. This relative movement allows each mask to adjust its position to align with respective alignment pins disposed on a working surface. In one embodiment, each mask is attached to the mask frame using fasteners, where the fasteners have a shaft with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the mounting hole disposed on the mask. A bias element may be used to allow relative movement between the mask and the mask frame in the vertical direction. Each mask may also have kinematic features to mate with the respective alignment pins on the working surface.

  7. The efficacy of three different mask styles on a PAP titration night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, Matthew R; Oyegbile, Temitayo; Pollak, Charles P

    2012-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of three different masks, nasal pillows, nasal masks and full face (oronasal) masks, during a single night of titration with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Fifty five subjects that included men (n=33) and women (n=22) were randomly assigned to one of three masks and underwent a routine titration with incremental CPAP applied through the different masks. CPAP applied through the nasal pillows and nasal mask was equally effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. However, CPAP applied through the oronasal mask required a significantly higher pressure compared to nasal masks to treat moderately severe (2.8 cm of H(2)O ± 2.1 SD) and severe (6.0 cm of H(2)O ± 3.2 SD) obstructive sleep apnea. CPAP applied with either nasal mask was effective in treating mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea. The oronasal mask required significantly higher pressures in subjects with moderate to severe disease. Therefore, when changing from a nasal to an oronasal mask, a repeat titration is required to ensure effective treatment of sleep apnea, especially in patients with moderate to severe disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. What determines the object-level visual masking: The bottom-up role of topological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; He, Lixia; Wang, Wenbo; Meng, Qianli; Zhou, Tiangang; Chen, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur on an object level without a close spatiotemporal proximity of target and mask. An influential account for OSM is "object updating," which espouses that OSM occurs when the target is updated by the mask as they share a single object representation. However, it is unclear what attribute determines whether the mask shares the same object representation as the target. We hypothesize that topological property determines whether a new object representation is built, and hence topological perception modulates object-level masking. We systematically manipulated the similarity between the target and the mask by changing a topological property (number of holes), color, shape, and orientation. We found that the topological change between the target and the mask reduced masking effects of all the other properties. Changing color, shape, or orientation, however, did not affect the masking effect of any other property. The global effect of the topological change remained across a variety of temporal and spatial distances between the target and the mask and was not limited to masking paradigms. Thus, our results suggest that the object representation, constrained by its topological properties, serves as a higher and global level of OSM, influencing the ongoing visual processing of features that are at a lower and local level.

  9. Influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of bag-mask ventilation in a neonatal manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deindl, Philipp; O'Reilly, Megan; Zoller, Katharina; Berger, Angelika; Pollak, Arnold; Schwindt, Jens; Schmölzer, Georg M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical face mask with an air cushion rim might be placed accidentally in a false orientation on the newborn's face or filled with various amounts of air during neonatal resuscitation. Both false orientation as well as variable filling may reduce a tight seal and therefore hamper effective positive pressure ventilation (PPV). We aimed to measure the influence of mask type and mask position on the effectiveness of PPV. Twenty neonatal staff members delivered PPV to a modified, leak-free manikin. Resuscitation parameters were recorded using a self-inflatable bag PPV with an Intersurgical anatomical air cushion rim face mask (IS) and a size 0/1 Laerdal round face mask. Three different positions of the IS were tested: correct position, 90° and 180° rotation in reference to the midline of the face. IS masks in each correct position on the face but with different inflation of the air cushion (empty, 10, 20 and 30 mL). Mask leak was similar with mask rotation to either 90° or 180° but significantly increased from 27 (13-73) % with an adequate filled IS mask compared to 52 (16-83) % with an emptied air cushion rim. Anatomical-shaped face mask had similar mask leaks compared to round face mask. A wrongly positioned anatomical-shaped mask does not influence mask leak. Mask leak significantly increased once the air cushion rim was empty, which may cause failure in mask PPV.

  10. Vibrotactile masking through the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-09-01

    Touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations on the opposite side of the body. These interactions suggest an intimate connection between the two sides of the body. Here, we explore the effect of masking not across the body but through the body by measuring the effect of a masking stimulus on the back on the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding point on the front. Tactile sensitivity was measured on each side of the stomach, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to one side of the front and to points on the back including the point directly behind the test point on the front. Results were compared to sensitivity, while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the shoulder. A reduction in sensitivity of about .8 dB was found that required the masking stimulus to be within about 2 cm of the corresponding point on the back.

  11. Image differencing using masked CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.; Webber, C.J. St. J.

    1987-01-01

    A charge coupled device has some of its ''pixels'' masked by a material which is opaque to the radiation to which the device is to be exposed, each masked region being employed as a storage zone into which the charge pattern from the unmasked pixels can be transferred to enable a subsequent charge pattern to be established on further exposure of the unmasked pixels. The components of the resulting video signal corresponding to the respective charge patterns read-out from the CCD are subtracted to produce a video signal corresponding to the difference between the two images which formed the respective charge patterns. Alternate rows of pixels may be masked, or chequer-board pattern masking may be employed. In an X-ray imaging system the CCD is coupled to image intensifying and converting means. (author)

  12. Meniscus-Mask Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramova, Vera

    This dissertation describes meniscus-mask lithography (MML): a planar top-down method for the fabrication of precisely positioned narrow graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and metallic and semiconducting nanowires. The method does not require demanding high resolution lithography tools. The mechanism behind the method involves masking by atmospheric water adsorbed at the edge of the lithography pattern written on top of the target material. Chapter 1 describes the fabrication of sub-10 nm GNR from graphene sheets using MML technique. The electronic properties of resulting GNRs depend on the graphene etching method with argon reactive ion etching yielding remarkably consistent results. The influence of the most common substrates (Si/SiO2 and BN) on the electronic properties of GNRs is demonstrated. The MML technique is also shown to be applicable for fabrication of narrow metallic wires, underscoring the generality of MML for narrow features on diverse materials. In chapter 2 the MML method is shown to be effective for fabrication of narrow wires in a variety of materials. Si, SiO2, Au, Cr, W, Ti, TiO2, Al nanowires are fabricated and characterized. A wide range of materials and etching processes are used and the generality of approach suggests possible applicability of MML to a majority of materials used in modern planar technology. High reproducibility of MML method is shown and some fabrication issues specific to MML are addressed. Crossbar structures produced by MML demonstrate that junctions of nanowires could be fabricated as well, providing all the building blocks required for fabrication of nanowire structures of any complex planar geometry. Chapter 3 is focused on nanoscale menisci behavior and provides additional insights into the mechanism of MML. The width of structures formed by the MML process in concave corners is found to be much more sensitive to changes in the process than the width of MML nanowires. The possibility of change in lateral dimensions of

  13. Cosmic Masks Still Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, David L.; Puerari, Ivânio; Frogel, Jay A.; Eskridge, Paul B.; Stockton, Alan; Fuchs, Burkhard

    The Hubble classification scheme of galaxies is based on their optical appearance or `masks'. As one goes from early to late type spirals, both barred and unbarred, the optical appearance will be dominated more and more by the young Population I, i.e., blue stars and dust. Atlases reveal the rich variety of responses of the Population I component of gas and dust (the mask) to the underlying, older, stellar population. However, the gaseous Population I component, may only constitute 5 percent of the dynamical mass of the galaxy. Masks of negligible mass may conceal the human face - and that of galaxy. In the near-infrared, the morphology of older star-dominated disk indicates a simple classification scheme: the dominant Fourier m-mode in the dust penetrated regime, and the associated pitch angle. A ubiquity of low m=1 and m=2 modes is confirmed. On the basis of deprojected H (1.65 μm) and K' (2.1μm) images, we propose that the evolved stellar disks may be grouped into three principal dust penetrated archetypes: those with tightly wound stellar arms characterised by pitch angles at K' of ~ 10^° (the α class), an intermediate group with pitch angles of ~ 25^° (the β class) and thirdly, those with open spirals demarcated by pitch angles at K' of ~ 40^° (the γ bin). Flat or falling rotation curves give rise to the tightly wound α class; rising rotation curves are associated with the open γ class. The observed dust penetrated classes are inextricably related to the rate of shear in the stellar disk, as determined by A/ω. Here A is the first Oort constant andω denotes the angular velocity. There is no correlation between our dust penetrated classes and optical Hubble binning; the Hubble tuning fork does not constrain the morphology of the old stellar Population II disks. NGC 3223 and NGC 7083 (both SbI-II and almost the same absolute blue magnitude) have identical Hubble types and identical luminosity classes; the dust penetrated disk of NGC 3223 has tightly

  14. Bubble masks for time-encoded imaging of fast neutrons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Marleau, Peter; Nowack, Aaron B.; Steele, John T.; Sweany, Melinda; Throckmorton, Daniel J.

    2013-09-01

    Time-encoded imaging is an approach to directional radiation detection that is being developed at SNL with a focus on fast neutron directional detection. In this technique, a time modulation of a detected neutron signal is inducedtypically, a moving mask that attenuates neutrons with a time structure that depends on the source position. An important challenge in time-encoded imaging is to develop high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capabilities; building a mechanically moving high-resolution mask presents challenges both theoretical and technical. We have investigated an alternative to mechanical masks that replaces the solid mask with a liquid such as mineral oil. Instead of fixed blocks of solid material that move in pre-defined patterns, the oil is contained in tubing structures, and carefully introduced air gapsbubblespropagate through the tubing, generating moving patterns of oil mask elements and air apertures. Compared to current moving-mask techniques, the bubble mask is simple, since mechanical motion is replaced by gravity-driven bubble propagation; it is flexible, since arbitrary bubble patterns can be generated by a software-controlled valve actuator; and it is potentially high performance, since the tubing and bubble size can be tuned for high-resolution imaging requirements. We have built and tested various single-tube mask elements, and will present results on bubble introduction and propagation as a function of tubing size and cross-sectional shape; real-time bubble position tracking; neutron source imaging tests; and reconstruction techniques demonstrated on simple test data as well as a simulated full detector system.

  15. A masking index for quantifying hidden glitches

    OpenAIRE

    Berti-Equille, Laure; Loh, J. M.; Dasu, T.

    2015-01-01

    Data glitches are errors in a dataset. They are complex entities that often span multiple attributes and records. When they co-occur in data, the presence of one type of glitch can hinder the detection of another type of glitch. This phenomenon is called masking. In this paper, we define two important types of masking and propose a novel, statistically rigorous indicator called masking index for quantifying the hidden glitches. We outline four cases of masking: outliers masked by missing valu...

  16. Contralateral tactile masking between forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2014-03-01

    Masking effects have been demonstrated in which tactile sensitivity is affected when one touch is close to another on the body surface. Such effects are likely a result of local lateral inhibitory circuits that sharpen the spatial tuning of a given tactile receptor. Mutually inhibitory pathways have also been demonstrated between cortical tactile maps of the two halves of the body. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at contralateral locations. Here, we measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on this contralateral masking effect. Tactile sensitivity was measured on one forearm, while vibrotactile masking stimulation was applied to the opposite arm. Results were compared to sensitivity while vibrotactile stimulation was applied to a control site on the right shoulder. Sensitivity on the forearm was reduced by over 3 dB when the arms were touching and by 0.52 dB when they were held parallel. The masking effect depended on the position of the masking stimulus. Its effectiveness fell off by 1 STD when the stimulus was 29 % of arm length from the corresponding contralateral point. This long-range inhibitory effect in the tactile system suggests a surprisingly intimate relationship between the two sides of the body.

  17. Self-Rescue Mask Training

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Nine new self-rescue mask instructors have been trained since early 2013, which provides CERN with a total of 26 self-rescue mask instructors to date. This will allow us to meet the increasing training needs caused by the Long Shut Down LS1.   The self-rescue mask instructors have trained 1650 persons in 2012 and about 500 persons since the beginning of the year on how to wear the masks properly. We thank all the instructors and all the persons that made this training possible. Please remember that the self-rescue masks training sessions are scheduled as follows: Basic course: Tuesday and Thursday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration:  1.30 hour, in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue – Course code 077Y00. Refresher training : Monday mornings (2 sessions – 8.30 AM and 10.30 AM), duration: 1.30 hour , in French and English – registration via CERN online training catalogue &...

  18. Early, Equivalent ERP Masked Priming Effects for Regular and Irregular Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joanna; Stockall, Linnaea

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence from behavioral masked priming (Rastle & Davis, 2008), EEG masked priming (Morris, Frank, Grainger, & Holcomb, 2007) and single word MEG (Zweig & Pylkkanen, 2008) experiments has provided robust support for a model of lexical processing which includes an early, automatic, visual word form based stage of morphological parsing…

  19. Electrostatic mask for active targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancin, J; Gangnant, P; Libin, J-F; Raabe, R; Roger, T; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Gibelin, J; Goth, M

    2012-01-01

    Active gas targets have been used in nuclear physics since 30 years. They are promising systems in view of the new exotic beams soon available at facilities like SPIRAL2 or FAIR, but the system can still be improved. One of the main limitation is the dynamic range in energy deposition. The energy deposited per unit length can be 3 decades higher for the beam than for the light reaction products and the risk to saturate the electronics or that the detector spark are not negligible. A simple solution using a wire plane to mask partially the beam is presented here. Some simulation has been realized and some experimental results are shown confirming the feasibility of this wire tunable mask. The mask can be used from full transparency to full opacity without degrading neither the drift electric field of the chamber nor the performances of detection of the beam or the light products.

  20. The Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™: safety and efficacy during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ (LMA Supreme™) is a new single-use polyvinyl chloride supraglottic device that offers gastric access. To date, studies that have tested the LMA Supreme™) for use in laparoscopic surgery have been reported. We present the largest evaluative study that describes the use of ...

  1. Masked Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Stanley S.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Hansen, Tine W.; Boggia, José; Liu, Yanping; Asayama, Kei; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Filipovský, Jan; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. Prevalence of masked hypertension in untreated normotensive participants was higher (Phypertensives tended to be higher than in normotensives (hazard rate [HR], 1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97–3.97; P=0.059), similar to untreated stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 1.07; CI, 0.58–1.98; P=0.82), but less than stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.53; CI, 0.29–0.99; P=0.048). In contrast, cardiovascular risk was not significantly different in antihypertensive-treated diabetic-masked hypertensives, as compared with the normotensive comparator group (HR, 1.13; CI, 0.54–2.35; P=0.75), stage 1 hypertensives (HR, 0.91; CI, 0.49–1.69; P=0.76), and stage 2 hypertensives (HR, 0.65; CI, 0.35–1.20; P=0.17). In the untreated diabetic-masked hypertensive population, mean conventional systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 129.2±8.0/76.0±7.3 mm Hg, and mean daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure 141.5±9.1/83.7±6.5 mm Hg. In conclusion, masked hypertension occurred in 29% of untreated diabetics, had comparable cardiovascular risk as stage 1 hypertension, and would require considerable reduction in conventional blood pressure to reach daytime ambulatory treatment goal. Importantly, many hypertensive diabetics when receiving antihypertensive therapy can present with normalized conventional and elevated ambulatory blood pressure that mimics masked hypertension. PMID:23478096

  2. Can monaural temporal masking explain the ongoing precedence effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Morse-Fortier, Charlotte; Griffin, Amanda M; Zurek, Patrick M

    2018-02-01

    The precedence effect for transient sounds has been proposed to be based primarily on monaural processes, manifested by asymmetric temporal masking. This study explored the potential for monaural explanations with longer ("ongoing") sounds exhibiting the precedence effect. Transient stimuli were single lead-lag noise burst pairs; ongoing stimuli were trains of 63 burst pairs. Unlike with transients, monaural masking data for ongoing sounds showed no advantage for the lead, and are inconsistent with asymmetric audibility as an explanation for ongoing precedence. This result, along with supplementary measurements of interaural time discrimination, suggests different explanations for transient and ongoing precedence.

  3. Masked hypertension in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Although distinguishing features of masked hypertension in diabetics are well known, the significance of antihypertensive treatment on clinical practice decisions has not been fully explored. We analyzed 9691 subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood...

  4. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  5. Causal binary mask estimation for speech enhancement using sparsity constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kressner, Abigail Anne; Anderson, David V.; Rozell, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    While most single-channel noise reduction algorithms fail to improve speech intelligibility, the ideal binary mask (IBM) has demonstrated substantial intelligibility improvements for both normal- and impaired-hearing listeners. However, this approach exploits oracle knowledge of the target...... the disjoint placement of the target and interferer in time and frequency to create a time-frequency signal representation that is more sparse (i.e., has fewer non-zeros). In recent work (submitted to ICASSP 2013) we have introduced a novel time-frequency masking algorithm based on a sparse approximation...... algorithm from the signal processing literature. However, the algorithm employs a non-causal estimator. The present work introduces an improved de-noising algorithm that uses more realistic frame-based (causal) computations to estimate a binary mask....

  6. "The Mask Who Wasn't There": Visual Masking Effect with the Perceptual Absence of the Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Amandine Eve; Riou, Benoit; Muller, Dominique; Dabic, Stéphanie; Versace, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Does a visual mask need to be perceptually present to disrupt processing? In the present research, we proposed to explore the link between perceptual and memory mechanisms by demonstrating that a typical sensory phenomenon (visual masking) can be replicated at a memory level. Experiment 1 highlighted an interference effect of a visual mask on the…

  7. Phonological and Orthographic Overlap Effects in Fast and Masked Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisson, Steven; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how orthographic and phonological information is activated during reading, using a fast priming task, and during single word recognition, using masked priming. Specifically, different types of overlap between prime and target were contrasted: high orthographic and high phonological overlap (track-crack), high orthographic and low phonological overlap (bear-gear), or low orthographic and high phonological overlap (fruit-chute). In addition, we examined whether (orthographic) beginning overlap (swoop-swoon) yielded the same priming pattern as end (rhyme) overlap (track-crack). Prime durations were 32 and 50ms in the fast priming version, and 50ms in the masked priming version, and mode of presentation (prime and target in lower case) was identical. The fast priming experiment showed facilitatory priming effects when both orthography and phonology overlapped, with no apparent differences between beginning and end overlap pairs. Facilitation was also found when prime and target only overlapped orthographically. In contrast, the masked priming experiment showed inhibition for both types of end overlap pairs (with and without phonological overlap), and no difference for begin overlap items. When prime and target only shared principally phonological information, facilitation was only found with a long prime duration in the fast priming experiment, while no differences were found in the masked priming version. These contrasting results suggest that fast priming and masked priming do not necessarily tap into the same type of processing. PMID:24365065

  8. Physiological functioning of the ear and masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The physiological functions of the ear and the role masking plays in speech communication are examined. Topics under investigation include sound analysis of the ear, the aural reflex, and various types of noise masking.

  9. The time-course of visual masking effects on saccadic responses indicates that masking interferes with reentrant processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, S.; Pin, Simon Hviid Del; Overgaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly presented target in a search array is surrounded by small dots that remain visible after the target disappears. Here, we tested the widespread assumption that OSM selectively impairs reentrant processing. If OSM interferes selectively...... with reentrant processing, then the first feedforward sweep should be left relatively intact. Using a standard OSM paradigm in combination with a saccadic choice task, giving access to an early phase of visual processing (the fastest saccades occurring only 100 ms after target onset), we compared the masking....... Interestingly, the same result was observed using backward masking. In a follow-up experiment, where we assessed observer’s visual awareness using single-trial visibility ratings, we demonstrated that these ultra-fast responses were actually linked to subsequent reported visibility. Taken together...

  10. Ergonomic evaluation of pilot oxygen mask designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, W.; Yang, Xiaopeng; Jung, Daehan; Park, Seikwon; Kim, Heeeun; You, Heecheon

    2018-01-01

    A revised pilot oxygen mask design was developed for better fit to the Korean Air Force pilots’ faces. The present study compared an existing pilot oxygen mask and a prototype of the revised mask design with 88 Korean Air Force pilots in terms of subjective discomfort, facial contact pressure,

  11. 21 CFR 868.5570 - Nonrebreathing mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonrebreathing mask. 868.5570 Section 868.5570...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5570 Nonrebreathing mask. (a) Identification. A nonrebreathing mask is a device fitting over a patient's face to administer oxygen. It utilizes...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5600 - Venturi mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venturi mask. 868.5600 Section 868.5600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5600 Venturi mask. (a) Identification. A venturi mask is a...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5580 - Oxygen mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxygen mask. 868.5580 Section 868.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5580 Oxygen mask. (a) Identification. An oxygen mask is a device...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5590 - Scavenging mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scavenging mask. 868.5590 Section 868.5590 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5590 Scavenging mask. (a) Identification. A scavenging mask is a device positioned over a patient's nose to deliver anesthetic or analgesic gases to the...

  15. Shadows alter facial expressions of Noh masks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kawai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Noh mask, worn by expert actors during performance on the Japanese traditional Noh drama, conveys various emotional expressions despite its fixed physical properties. How does the mask change its expressions? Shadows change subtly during the actual Noh drama, which plays a key role in creating elusive artistic enchantment. We here describe evidence from two experiments regarding how attached shadows of the Noh masks influence the observers' recognition of the emotional expressions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, neutral-faced Noh masks having the attached shadows of the happy/sad masks were recognized as bearing happy/sad expressions, respectively. This was true for all four types of masks each of which represented a character differing in sex and age, even though the original characteristics of the masks also greatly influenced the evaluation of emotions. Experiment 2 further revealed that frontal Noh mask images having shadows of upward/downward tilted masks were evaluated as sad/happy, respectively. This was consistent with outcomes from preceding studies using actually tilted Noh mask images. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from the two experiments concur that purely manipulating attached shadows of the different types of Noh masks significantly alters the emotion recognition. These findings go in line with the mysterious facial expressions observed in Western paintings, such as the elusive qualities of Mona Lisa's smile. They also agree with the aesthetic principle of Japanese traditional art "yugen (profound grace and subtlety", which highly appreciates subtle emotional expressions in the darkness.

  16. Temporal Masking Contributions of Inherent Envelope Fluctuations for Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Adam

    Gaussian noise (GN) simultaneous maskers yield higher masked thresholds for pure tones than low-fluctuation noise (LFN) simultaneous maskers for listeners with normal hearing. This increased residual masking is thought to be due to inherent fluctuations in the temporal envelope of Gaussian noise, but these masking effects using forward maskers have been previously unexamined. Because differences in forward masking due to age and hearing loss are known, the first study measured forward-masked detection thresholds for younger and older adults with normal hearing (NH) and older adults with hearing loss (HI) for a 4000 Hz pure-tone probe at a single masker-probe delay in narrowband noises with maximal (GN) or minimal (LFN) inherent envelope fluctuations. As predicted, results suggested that no effect of age was observed. Surprisingly, forward-masked threshold differences between GN and LFN, an estimate of the magnitude of the effect of inherent masker envelope fluctuations, were not significantly different for older HI listeners compared to younger or older NH listeners. Due to the surprising similarities between listeners with normal and impaired hearing, the second study was designed to assess effects of hearing loss on the slopes and magnitudes of recovery from forward maskers that varied in inherent envelope fluctuations for masker-probe delays of 25, 50, and 75 ms. In addition to measuring these effects centered at 4000 Hz, forward-masked thresholds were also measured at 2000 Hz, a region of better hearing for the HI listeners. As hypothesized, regardless of masker fluctuations, slopes of recovery from forward masking were shallower for HI than NH listeners in all conditions. At 4000 Hz, additional residual masking was greater in HI than NH listeners at the longest masker-probe delays; whereas, no differences in additional residual masking between HI and NH listeners were observed for 2000 Hz. These results suggest that the masking effects from inherent envelope

  17. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100–2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000–10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0–50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance

  18. Universal Mask Usage for Reduction of Respiratory Viral Infections After Stem Cell Transplant: A Prospective Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Anthony D; Sung, Julia A M; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Gasparetto, Cristina; Long, Gwynn; Rizzieri, David; Sullivan, Keith M; Corbet, Kelly; Broadwater, Gloria; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2016-10-15

    Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are frequent complications of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Surgical masks are a simple and inexpensive intervention that may reduce nosocomial spread. In this prospective single-center study, we instituted a universal surgical mask policy requiring all individuals with direct contact with HSCT patients to wear a surgical mask, regardless of symptoms or season. The primary endpoint was the incidence of RVIs in the mask period (2010-2014) compared with the premask period (2003-2009). RVIs decreased from 10.3% (95/920 patients) in the premask period to 4.4% (40/911) in the mask period (P mask group compared with the premask group (0.19-0.85, P = .02). In contrast, no decrease was observed during this same period in an adjacent hematologic malignancy unit, which followed the same infection control practices except for the mask policy. The majority of this decrease was in parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3) (8.3% to 2.2%, P mask is associated with a reduction in RVIs, particularly PIV3, during the most vulnerable period following HSCT. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Masking as an effective quality control method for next-generation sequencing data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sajung; Yun, Sijung

    2014-12-13

    Next generation sequencing produces base calls with low quality scores that can affect the accuracy of identifying simple nucleotide variation calls, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and small insertions and deletions. Here we compare the effectiveness of two data preprocessing methods, masking and trimming, and the accuracy of simple nucleotide variation calls on whole-genome sequence data from Caenorhabditis elegans. Masking substitutes low quality base calls with 'N's (undetermined bases), whereas trimming removes low quality bases that results in a shorter read lengths. We demonstrate that masking is more effective than trimming in reducing the false-positive rate in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calling. However, both of the preprocessing methods did not affect the false-negative rate in SNP calling with statistical significance compared to the data analysis without preprocessing. False-positive rate and false-negative rate for small insertions and deletions did not show differences between masking and trimming. We recommend masking over trimming as a more effective preprocessing method for next generation sequencing data analysis since masking reduces the false-positive rate in SNP calling without sacrificing the false-negative rate although trimming is more commonly used currently in the field. The perl script for masking is available at http://code.google.com/p/subn/. The sequencing data used in the study were deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRX450968 and SRX451773).

  20. Jig Aligns Shadow Mask On CCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Carlos V.

    1989-01-01

    Alignment viewed through microscope. Alignment jig positions shadow mask on charge-coupled device (CCD) so metal film deposited on it precisely. Allows CCD package to be inserted and removed without disturbing alignment of mask. Holds CCD packages securely and isolates it electrostatically while providing electrical contact to each of its pins. When alignment jig assembled with CCD, used to move mask under micrometer control.

  1. A Masked Photocathode in a Photoinjector

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ji

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a masked photocathode inside a photoinjector for generating high brightness electron beam. Instead of mounting the photocathode onto an electrode, an electrode with small hole is used as a mask to shield the photocathode from the accelerating vacuum chamber. Using such a masked photocathode will make the replacement of photocathode material easy by rotating the photocathode behind the electrode into the hole. Furthermore, this helps reduce the dark current or seconda...

  2. Set Size and Mask Duration Do Not Interact in Object-Substitution Masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Ioannis; Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Carter, Wakefield

    2013-01-01

    Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a mask, such as four dots that surround a brief target item, onsets simultaneously with the target and offsets a short time after the target, rather than simultaneously with it. OSM is a reduction in accuracy of reporting the target with the temporally trailing mask, compared with the simultaneously…

  3. Psychophysical estimates of cochlear phase response: masking by harmonic complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, J J; Leek, M R

    2001-12-01

    Harmonic complexes with identical component frequencies and amplitudes but different phase spectra may be differentially effective as maskers. Such harmonic waveforms, constructed with positive or negative Schroeder phases, have similar envelopes and identical long-term power spectra, but the positive Schroeder-phase waveform is typically a less effective masker than the negative Schroeder-phase waveform. These masking differences have been attributed to an interaction between the masker phase spectrum and the phase characteristic of the basilar membrane. To explore this relationship, the gradient of stimulus phase change across masker bandwidth was varied by systematically altering the Schroeder-phase algorithm. Observers detected a signal tone added in-phase to a single component of a masker whose frequencies ranged from 200 to 5000 Hz, with a fundamental frequency of 100 Hz. For signal frequencies of 1000-4000 Hz, differences in masking across the harmonic complexes could be as large as 5-10 dB for phase gradients changing by only 10%. The phase gradient that resulted in a minimum amount of masking varied with signal frequency, with low frequencies masked least effectively by stimuli with rapidly changing component phases and high frequencies masked by stimuli with more shallow phase gradients. A gammachirp filter was implemented to model these results, predicting the qualitative changes in curvature of the phase-byfrequency function estimated from the empirical data: In some cases, small modifications to the gammachirp filter produced better quantitative predictions of curvature changes across frequency, but this filter, as implemented here, was unable to accurately represent all the data.

  4. Mask process correction (MPC) modeling and its application to EUV mask for electron beam mask writer EBM-7000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Hara, Shigehiro; Anze, Hirohito; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Tamamushi, Shuichi; Bai, Shufeng; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Howell, Rafael; Chen, George; Li, Jiangwei; Tao, Jun; Wiley, Jim; Kurosawa, Terunobu; Saito, Yasuko; Takigawa, Tadahiro

    2010-09-01

    In electron beam writing on EUV mask, it has been reported that CD linearity does not show simple signatures as observed with conventional COG (Cr on Glass) masks because they are caused by scattered electrons form EUV mask itself which comprises stacked heavy metals and thick multi-layers. To resolve this issue, Mask Process Correction (MPC) will be ideally applicable. Every pattern is reshaped in MPC. Therefore, the number of shots would not increase and writing time will be kept within reasonable range. In this paper, MPC is extended to modeling for correction of CD linearity errors on EUV mask. And its effectiveness is verified with simulations and experiments through actual writing test.

  5. Ipsilateral masking between acoustic and electric stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Payton; Turner, Christopher W; Gantz, Bruce J; Djalilian, Hamid R; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Residual acoustic hearing can be preserved in the same ear following cochlear implantation with minimally traumatic surgical techniques and short-electrode arrays. The combined electric-acoustic stimulation significantly improves cochlear implant performance, particularly speech recognition in noise. The present study measures simultaneous masking by electric pulses on acoustic pure tones, or vice versa, to investigate electric-acoustic interactions and their underlying psychophysical mechanisms. Six subjects, with acoustic hearing preserved at low frequencies in their implanted ear, participated in the study. One subject had a fully inserted 24 mm Nucleus Freedom array and five subjects had Iowa/Nucleus hybrid implants that were only 10 mm in length. Electric masking data of the long-electrode subject showed that stimulation from the most apical electrodes produced threshold elevations over 10 dB for 500, 625, and 750 Hz probe tones, but no elevation for 125 and 250 Hz tones. On the contrary, electric stimulation did not produce any electric masking in the short-electrode subjects. In the acoustic masking experiment, 125-750 Hz pure tones were used to acoustically mask electric stimulation. The acoustic masking results showed that, independent of pure tone frequency, both long- and short-electrode subjects showed threshold elevations at apical and basal electrodes. The present results can be interpreted in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms related to either place-dependent peripheral masking or place-independent central masking.

  6. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  7. Chemical modification of colloidal masks for nanolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, D.L.J.; Penninkhof, J.J.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to tune the holes in colloidal masks used for nanolithography. Using a simple wet-chemical method, a thin layer of silica is grown on masks of silica particles. The size of the holes is controlled by the amount of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) added. More accurate tuning of the hole

  8. Electrostatic mask protection for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, R.; Heerens, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Electrostatic protection of mask for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) was discussed. Both charged and neutral particles could be prevented from moving towards the mask by choosing a nonuniform electrical field. Benefits of electrostatic protection are that it does not affect the EUV beam and

  9. Computing Challenges in Coded Mask Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This slide presaentation reviews the complications and challenges in developing computer systems for Coded Mask Imaging telescopes. The coded mask technique is used when there is no other way to create the telescope, (i.e., when there are wide fields of view, high energies for focusing or low energies for the Compton/Tracker Techniques and very good angular resolution.) The coded mask telescope is described, and the mask is reviewed. The coded Masks for the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) instruments are shown, and a chart showing the types of position sensitive detectors used for the coded mask telescopes is also reviewed. Slides describe the mechanism of recovering an image from the masked pattern. The correlation with the mask pattern is described. The Matrix approach is reviewed, and other approaches to image reconstruction are described. Included in the presentation is a review of the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST) / High Energy Telescope (HET), with information about the mission, the operation of the telescope, comparison of the EXIST/HET with the SWIFT/BAT and details of the design of the EXIST/HET.

  10. Mask industry assessment trend analysis 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, Gilbert; Marmillion, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders routinely name the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was created with support from SEMATECH and administered by SEMI North America to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's survey data was presented at BACUS and a detailed trend analysis is presented here. The annual survey is designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists, merchant mask suppliers and industry equipment makers. This year's assessment is the fifth in the current series of annual reports. With continued industry support the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify trends in the mask industry. The results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 survey. Questions are grouped into categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss, Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns and Services, Operating Cost Factors, and Equipment Utilization. Within each category is a multitude of questions that create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. Note: the questions covering operating cost factors and equipment utilization were only added to the survey in 2005; therefore meaningful trend analysis is not yet available.

  11. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Yun, Henry

    2010-05-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was designed with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers and support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's assessment was the eighth in the current series of annual reports. Its data were presented in detail at BACUS, and the detailed trend analysis is presented at EMLC. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. Its results will be used to guide future investments on critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the surveys in 2005 through 2009. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that creates a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  12. Unmasking Zorro: functional importance of the facial mask in the Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Reuven Yosef; Piotr Zduniak; Piotr Tryjanowski

    2012-01-01

    The facial mask is a prominent feature in the animal kingdom. We hypothesized that the facial mask of shrikes allows them to hunt into the sun, which accords them detection and surprise-attack capabilities. We conducted a field experiment to determine whether the mask facilitated foraging while facing into the sun. Male shrikes with white-painted masks hunted facing away from the sun more than birds with black-painted masks, which are the natural color, and more than individuals in the contro...

  13. A mask manufacturer's perspective on maskless lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Peter; Biechler, Charles; Kalk, Franklin

    2005-11-01

    Maskless Lithography (ML2) is again being considered for use in mainstream CMOS IC manufacturing. Sessions at technical conferences are being devoted to ML2. A multitude of new companies have been formed in the last several years to apply new concepts to breaking the throughput barrier that has in the past prevented ML2 from achieving the cost and cycle time performance necessary to become economically viable, except in rare cases. Has Maskless Lithography's (we used to call it "Direct Write Lithography") time really come? If so, what is the expected impact on the mask manufacturer and does it matter? The lithography tools used today in mask manufacturing are similar in concept to ML2 except for scale, both in throughput and feature size. These mask tools produce highly accurate lithographic images directly from electronic pattern files, perform multi-layer overlay, and mix-n-match across multiple tools, tool types and sites. Mask manufacturers are already accustomed to the ultimate low volume - one substrate per design layer. In order to achieve the economically required throughput, proposed ML2 systems eliminate or greatly reduce some of the functions that are the source of the mask writer's accuracy. Can these ML2 systems meet the demanding lithographic requirements without these functions? ML2 may eliminate the reticle but many of the processes and procedures performed today by the mask manufacturer are still required. Examples include the increasingly complex mask data preparation step and the verification performed to ensure that the pattern on the reticle is accurately representing the design intent. The error sources that are fixed on a reticle are variable with time on an ML2 system. It has been proposed that if ML2 is successful it will become uneconomical to be in the mask business - that ML2, by taking the high profit masks will take all profitability out of mask manufacturing and thereby endanger the entire semiconductor industry. Others suggest that a

  14. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuaikit, Thanaporn; Chusuit, Toon; Raknam, Panithi; Boonme, Prapaporn

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product. Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21-40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale. The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale. A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.

  15. Computational mask defect review for contamination and haze inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Corcoran, Noel; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Peng, Danping; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram; Wolf, Yulian; Shah, Pinkesh

    2013-09-01

    As optical lithography continues to extend into sub-0.35 k1 regime, mask defect inspection and subsequent review has become tremendously challenging, and indeed the largest component to mask manufacturing cost. The routine use of various resolution enhancement techniques (RET) have resulted in complex mask patterns, which together with the need to detect even smaller defects due to higher MEEFs, now requires an inspection engineer to use combination of inspection modes. This is achieved in 193nm AeraTM mask inspection systems wherein masks are not only inspected at their scanner equivalent aerial exposure conditions, but also at higher Numerical Aperture resolution, and special reflected-light, and single-die contamination modes, providing better coverage over all available patterns, and defect types. Once the required defects are detected by the inspection system, comprehensively reviewing and dispositioning each defect then becomes the Achilles heel of the overall mask inspection process. Traditionally, defects have been reviewed manually by an operator, which makes the process error-prone especially given the low-contrast in the convoluted aerial images. Such manual review also limits the quality and quantity of classifications in terms of the different types of characterization and number of defects that can practically be reviewed by a person. In some ways, such manual classification limits the capability of the inspection tool itself from being setup to detect smaller defects since it often results in many more defects that need to be then manually reviewed. Paper 8681-109 at SPIE Advanced Lithography 2013 discussed an innovative approach to actinic mask defect review using computational technology, and focused on Die-to-Die transmitted aerial and high-resolution inspections. In this approach, every defect is characterized in two different ways, viz., quantitatively in terms of its print impact on wafer, and qualitatively in terms of its nature and origin in

  16. A behavioral database for masked form priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S; Johnson, Rebecca L; McCormick, Samantha F; McKague, Meredith; Kinoshita, Sachiko; Bowers, Jeffrey S; Perry, Jason R; Lupker, Stephen J; Forster, Kenneth I; Cortese, Michael J; Scaltritti, Michele; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Coane, Jennifer H; White, Laurence; Yap, Melvin J; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Colin J

    2014-12-01

    Reading involves a process of matching an orthographic input with stored representations in lexical memory. The masked priming paradigm has become a standard tool for investigating this process. Use of existing results from this paradigm can be limited by the precision of the data and the need for cross-experiment comparisons that lack normal experimental controls. Here, we present a single, large, high-precision, multicondition experiment to address these problems. Over 1,000 participants from 14 sites responded to 840 trials involving 28 different types of orthographically related primes (e.g., castfe-CASTLE) in a lexical decision task, as well as completing measures of spelling and vocabulary. The data were indeed highly sensitive to differences between conditions: After correction for multiple comparisons, prime type condition differences of 2.90 ms and above reached significance at the 5% level. This article presents the method of data collection and preliminary findings from these data, which included replications of the most widely agreed-upon differences between prime types, further evidence for systematic individual differences in susceptibility to priming, and new evidence regarding lexical properties associated with a target word's susceptibility to priming. These analyses will form a basis for the use of these data in quantitative model fitting and evaluation and for future exploration of these data that will inform and motivate new experiments.

  17. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 μm wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  18. Mask industry assessment trend analysis: 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y. David

    2012-02-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply among the top critical issues for lithography. A survey was designed by SEMATECH with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers to objectively assess the overall conditions of the mask industry. With the continued support of the industry, this year's assessment was the tenth in the current series of annual reports. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2011 surveys. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category is a multitude of questions that ultimately produce a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry. We received data from 11 companies this year, which was a record high since the beginning of the series. The responding companies represented more than 96% of the volume shipped and about 90% of the 2011 revenue for the photomask industry. These survey reports are often used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. They will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify strengths and opportunities. Results can also be used to guide future investments in critical path issues.

  19. High-charge and multiple-star vortex coronagraphy from stacked vector vortex phase masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksanyan, Artur; Brasselet, Etienne

    2018-02-01

    Optical vortex phase masks are now installed at many ground-based large telescopes for high-contrast astronomical imaging. To date, such instrumental advances have been restricted to the use of helical phase masks of the lowest even order, while future giant telescopes will require high-order masks. Here we propose a single-stage on-axis scheme to create high-order vortex coronagraphs based on second-order vortex phase masks. By extending our approach to an off-axis design, we also explore the implementation of multiple-star vortex coronagraphy. An experimental laboratory demonstration is reported and supported by numerical simulations. These results offer a practical roadmap to the development of future coronagraphic tools with enhanced performances.

  20. Side lobe suppression in phase mask-based nonlinear superresolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beams, Ryan; Stranick, Stephan J.

    2017-08-01

    We compare side lobe suppression methods for nonlinear superresolution optical microscopy using phase masked excitation beams. The excitation point spread function (PSF) can be engineered by introducing a phase mask for superresolution microscopy. By applying a single π phase step to the excitation the central spot can be narrowed and provide improved lateral resolution. However, the energy redistribution leads to side lobes with increased intensity that complicates imaging applications. Several methods have been implemented to suppress the strength of the side lobes including confocal detection and utilizing beams with different phase masks in multiphoton microscopy. Side lobe suppression methods using confocal detection and different phase masks for the excitation beams are compared theoretically and experimentally. These results demonstrate the additional flexibility for PSF engineering for nonlinear optical processes.

  1. Effects of a cellulose mask synthesized by a bacterium on facial skin characteristics and user satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amnuaikit T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanaporn Amnuaikit, Toon Chusuit, Panithi Raknam, Prapaporn BoonmeDepartment of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandBackground: Cellulose masks obtained from natural sources such as bacteria are of interest as cosmetic devices for the treatment of dry skin because they not only improve hydration of the skin, but have low toxicity and are biodegradable. The aims of this study were to determine the in vivo effects of a cellulose mask obtained from Acetobacter xylinum on skin characteristics and to evaluate user satisfaction with the product.Methods: Thirty healthy Thai volunteers aged 21–40 years participated in the study. The volunteers were randomly separated into a control group and an experimental group. For the control group, volunteers were assigned to apply moist towels to the face for 25 minutes. For the experimental group, the volunteers were assigned to apply the masks, ie, translucent patches which could be fitted onto the face for the same period. The following week, the groups were changed over to the alternative treatment. Skin moisture, sebum, elasticity, texture, dullness, and desquamation levels were assessed using a system used for routine skin counseling before applying the trial product and five minutes after its removal. Degree of satisfaction with use of the cellulose mask was investigated using a five-point rating scale.Results: The cellulose mask increased moisture levels in the skin significantly more than moist towels (P < 0.05 after a single application. No obvious effects on other skin characteristics were found. The cellulose mask product rated around 4/5 on the satisfaction rating scale.Conclusions: A single application of the trial cellulose mask enhanced moisture uptake by facial skin. Users also reported being satisfied with the trial product.Keywords: bacterial cellulose, facial mask, skin characteristics, skin hydration, user

  2. Phase-enhanced defect sensitivity for EUV mask inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yow-Gwo; Miyakawa, Ryan; Chao, Weilun; Goldberg, Kenneth; Neureuther, Andy; Naulleau, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present a complete study on mask blank and patterned mask inspection utilizing the Zernike phase contrast method. The Zernike phase contrast method provides in-focus inspection ability to study phase defects with enhanced defect sensitivity. However, the 90 degree phase shift in the pupil will significantly reduce the amplitude defect signal at focus. In order to detect both types of defects with a single scan, an optimized phase shift instead of 90 degree on the pupil plane is proposed to achieve an acceptable trade-off on their signal strengths. We can get a 70% of its maximum signal strength at focus for both amplitude and phase defects with a 47 degree phase shift. For SNR, the tradeoff between speckle noise and signal strength has to be considered. The SNR of phase and amplitude defects at focus can both reach 11 with 13 degree phase shift and 50% apodization. Moreover, the simulation results on patterned mask inspection of partially hidden phase defects with die-to-database inspection approach on the blank inspection tool show that the improvement of the Zernike phase method is more limited. A 40% enhancement of peak signal strength can be achieved with the Zernike phase contrast method when the defect is centered in the space, while the enhancement drops to less than 10% when it is beneath the line.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  4. A study of defects on EUV mask using blank inspection, patterned mask inspection, and wafer inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, S.; Ren, L.; Chan, D.; Wurm, S.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Nakajima, T.; Kishimoto, M.; Ahn, B.; Kang, I.; Park, J.-O.; Cho, K.; Han, S.-I.; Laursen, T.

    2010-03-12

    The availability of defect-free masks remains one of the key challenges for inserting extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) into high volume manufacturing. yet link data is available for understanding native defects on real masks. In this paper, a full-field EUV mask is fabricated to investigate the printability of various defects on the mask. The printability of defects and identification of their source from mask fabrication to handling were studied using wafer inspection. The printable blank defect density excluding particles and patterns is 0.63 cm{sup 2}. Mask inspection is shown to have better sensitivity than wafer inspection. The sensitivity of wafer inspection must be improved using through-focus analysis and a different wafer stack.

  5. Evaluation of Criteria to Detect Masked Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N.; Muntner, Paul; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Bello, Natalie A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of masked hypertension, out-of-clinic daytime systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP)≥135/85 mmHg on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among adults with clinic SBP/DBPABPM testing criterion. In a derivation cohort (n=695), the index was clinic SBP+1.3*clinic DBP. In an external validation cohort (n=675), the sensitivity for masked hypertension using an index ≥190 mmHg and ≥217 mmHg and prehypertension status was 98.5%, 71.5% and 82.5%, respectively. Using NHANES data (n=11,778), we estimated that these thresholds would refer 118.6, 44.4 and 59.3 million US adults, respectively, to ABPM screening for masked hypertension. In conclusion, the CBP index provides a useful approach to identify candidates for masked hypertension screening using ABPM. PMID:27126770

  6. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last fe...

  7. Design of Data Masking Architecture and Analysis of Data Masking Techniques for Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar G K,; Manjunath T. N,; Ravindra S. Hegadi,; Archana.R.A

    2011-01-01

    Data masking is the process of obscuring-masking, specific data elements within data stores. It ensures that sensitive data is replaced with realistic but not real data. The goal is that sensitive customer information is not available outside of the authorized environment. Data masking is typically done while provisioning nonproduction environments so that copies created to support test and development processes are not exposing sensitive information and thus avoiding risks of leaking. Maskin...

  8. Effects of hard mask etch on final topography of advanced phase shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortenbach, Olga; Rolff, Haiko; Lajn, Alexander; Baessler, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Continuous shrinking of the semiconductor device dimensions demands steady improvements of the lithographic resolution on wafer level. These requirements challenge the photomask industry to further improve the mask quality in all relevant printing characteristics. In this paper topography of the Phase Shift Masks (PSM) was investigated. Effects of hard mask etch on phase shift uniformity and mask absorber profile were studied. Design of experiments method (DoE) was used for the process optimization, whereas gas composition, bias power of the hard mask main etch and bias power of the over-etch were varied. In addition, influence of the over-etch time was examined at the end of the experiment. Absorber depth uniformity, sidewall angle (SWA), reactive ion etch lag (RIE lag) and through pitch (TP) dependence were analyzed. Measurements were performed by means of Atomic-force microscopy (AFM) using critical dimension (CD) mode with a boot-shaped tip. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section images were prepared to verify the profile quality. Finally CD analysis was performed to confirm the optimal etch conditions. Significant dependence of the absorber SWA on hard mask (HM) etch conditions was observed revealing an improvement potential for the mask absorber profile. It was found that hard mask etch can leave a depth footprint in the absorber layer. Thus, the etch depth uniformity of hard mask etch is crucial for achieving a uniform phase shift over the active mask area. The optimized hard mask etch process results in significantly improved mask topography without deterioration of tight CD specifications.

  9. Masked Uncontrolled Hypertension in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Pappas, Maria K; Sinha, Arjun D

    2016-03-01

    Masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUCH) is diagnosed in patients treated for hypertension who are normotensive in the clinic but hypertensive outside. In this study of 333 veterans with CKD, we prospectively evaluated the prevalence of MUCH as determined by ambulatory BP monitoring using three definitions of hypertension (daytime hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg; either nighttime hypertension ≥120/70 mmHg or daytime hypertension; and 24-hour hypertension ≥130/80 mmHg) or by home BP monitoring (hypertension ≥135/85 mmHg). The prevalence of MUCH was 26.7% by daytime ambulatory BP, 32.8% by 24-hour ambulatory BP, 56.1% by daytime or night-time ambulatory BP, and 50.8% by home BP. To assess the reproducibility of the diagnosis, we repeated these measurements after 4 weeks. Agreement in MUCH diagnosis by ambulatory BP was 75-78% (κ coefficient for agreement, 0.44-0.51), depending on the definition used. In contrast, home BP showed an agreement of only 63% and a κ coefficient of 0.25. Prevalence of MUCH increased with increasing clinic systolic BP: 2% in the 90-110 mmHg group, 17% in the 110-119 mmHg group, 34% in the 120-129 mmHg group, and 66% in the 130-139 mmHg group. Clinic BP was a good determinant of MUCH (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.76-0.87). In diagnosing MUCH, home BP was not different from clinic BP. In conclusion, among people with CKD, MUCH is common and reproducible, and should be suspected when clinic BP is in the prehypertensive range. Confirmation of MUCH diagnosis should rely on ambulatory BP monitoring. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Optimized qualification protocol on particle cleanliness for EUV mask infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Donck, J. C. J.; Stortelder, J. K.; Derksen, G. B.

    2011-11-01

    With the market introduction of the NXE:3100, Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) enters a new stage. Now infrastructure in the wafer fabs must be prepared for new processes and new materials. Especially the infrastructure for masks poses a challenge. Because of the absence of a pellicle reticle front sides are exceptionally vulnerable to particles. It was also shown that particles on the backside of a reticle may cause tool down time. These effects set extreme requirements to the cleanliness level of the fab infrastructure for EUV masks. The cost of EUV masks justifies the use of equipment that is qualified on particle cleanliness. Until now equipment qualification on particle cleanliness have not been carried out with statistically based qualification procedures. Since we are dealing with extreme clean equipment the number of observed particles is expected to be very low. These particle levels can only be measured by repetitively cycling a mask substrate in the equipment. Recent work in the EUV AD-tool presents data on added particles during load/unload cycles, reported as number of Particles per Reticle Pass (PRP). In the interpretation of the data, variation by deposition statistics is not taken into account. In measurements with low numbers of added particles the standard deviation in PRP number can be large. An additional issue is that particles which are added in the routing outside the equipment may have a large impact on the testing result. The number mismatch between a single handling step outside the tool and the multiple cycling in the equipment makes accuracy of measurements rather complex. The low number of expected particles, the large variation in results and the combined effect of added particles inside and outside the equipment justifies putting good effort in making a test plan. Without a proper statistical background, tests may not be suitable for proving that equipment qualifies for the limiting cleanliness levels. Other risks are that a

  11. Modulation cues influence binaural masking-level difference in masking-pattern experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Verhey, Jesko L

    2012-03-01

    Binaural masking patterns show a steep decrease in the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD) when masker and signal have no frequency component in common. Experimental threshold data are presented together with model simulations for a diotic masker centered at 250 or 500 Hz and a bandwidth of 10 or 100 Hz masking a sinusoid interaurally in phase (S(0)) or in antiphase (S(π)). Simulations with a binaural model, including a modulation filterbank for the monaural analysis, indicate that a large portion of the decrease in the BMLD in remote-masking conditions may be due to an additional modulation cue available for monaural detection. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America

  12. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  13. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  14. Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway versus Face Mask during Neonatal Resuscitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanuto, Daniele; Cavallin, Francesco; Nguyen, Loi Ngoc; Nguyen, Tien Viet; Tran, Linh Dieu; Tran, Chien Dinh; Doglioni, Nicoletta; Micaglio, Massimo; Moccia, Luciano

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of supreme laryngeal mask airway (SLMA) over face mask ventilation for preventing need for endotracheal intubation at birth. We report a prospective, randomized, parallel 1:1, unblinded, controlled trial. After a short-term educational intervention on SLMA use, infants ≥34-week gestation and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g requiring positive pressure ventilation (PPV) at birth were randomized to resuscitation by SLMA or face mask. The primary outcome was the success rate of the resuscitation devices (SLMA or face mask) defined as the achievement of an effective PPV preventing the need for endotracheal intubation. We enrolled 142 patients (71 in SLMA and 71 in face mask group, respectively). Successful resuscitation rate was significantly higher with the SLMA compared with face mask ventilation (91.5% vs 78.9%; P = .03). Apgar score at 5 minutes was significantly higher in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). Neonatal intensive care unit admission rate was significantly lower in SLMA than in face mask group (P = .02). No complications related to the procedure occurred. In newborns with gestational age ≥34 weeks and/or expected birth weight ≥1500 g needing PPV at birth, the SLMA is more effective than face mask to prevent endotracheal intubation. The SLMA is effective in clinical practice after a short-term educational intervention. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01963936. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis and test of laws for backward (metacontrast) masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francis, G.; Rothmayer, M.; Hermens, F.

    2004-01-01

    In backward visual masking, it is common to find that the mask has its biggest effect when it follows the target by several tens of milliseconds. Research in the 1960s and 1970s suggested that masking effects were best characterized by the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the target and mask.

  16. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.

  17. 42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...

  18. 37 CFR 211.3 - Mask work fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mask work fees. 211.3 Section... PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.3 Mask work fees. (a) Section 201.3 of this chapter prescribes the fees or charges established by the Register of Copyrights for services relating to mask works. (b) Section...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5560 - Gas mask head strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas mask head strap. 868.5560 Section 868.5560...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5560 Gas mask head strap. (a) Identification. A gas mask head strap is a device used to hold an anesthetic gas mask in position on a patient's...

  20. AutoMOPS- B2B and B2C in mask making: Mask manufacturing performance and customer satisfaction improvement through better information flow management using generic models and standardized languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filies, Olaf; de Ridder, Luc; Rodriguez, Ben; Kujiken, Aart

    2002-03-01

    Semiconductor manufacturing has become a global business, in which companies of different size unite in virtual enterprises to meet new opportunities. Therefore Mask manufacturing is a key business, but mask ordering is a complex process and is always critical regarding design to market time, even though mask complexity and customer base are increasing using a wide variety of different mask order forms which are frequently faulty and very seldom complete. This is effectively blocking agile manufacturing and can tie wafer fabs to a single mask The goal of the project is elimination of the order verification through paperless, electronically linked information sharing/exchange between chip design, mask production and production stages, which will allow automation of the mask preparation. To cover these new techniques and their specifications as well as the common ones with automated tools a special generic Meta-model will be generated, based on the current standards for mask specifications, including the requirements from the involved partners (Alcatel Microelectronics, Altis, Compugraphics, Infineon, Nimble, Sigma-C), the project works out a pre-normative standard. The paper presents the current status of work. This work is partly funded by the Commission of the European Union under the Fifth Framework project IST-1999-10332 AutoMOPS.

  1. Phase analysis of amplitude binary mask structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthankovilakam, Krishnaparvathy; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Vogler, Uwe; Bramati, Arianna; Voelkel, Reinhard

    2016-03-01

    Shaping of light behind masks using different techniques is the milestone of the printing industry. The aerial image distribution or the intensity distribution at the printing distances defines the resolution of the structure after printing. Contrast and phase are the two parameters that play a major role in shaping of light to get the desired intensity pattern. Here, in contrast to many other contributions that focus on intensity, we discuss the phase evolution for different structures. The amplitude or intensity characteristics of the structures in a binary mask at different proximity gaps have been analyzed extensively for many industrial applications. But the phase evolution from the binary mask having OPC structures is not considered so far. The mask we consider here is the normal amplitude binary mask but having high resolution Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) structures for corners. The corner structures represent a two dimensional problem which is difficult to handle with simple rules of phase masks design and therefore of particular interest. The evolution of light from small amplitude structures might lead to high contrast by creating sharp phase changes or phase singularities which are points of zero intensity. We show the phase modulation at different proximity gaps and can visualize the shaping of light according to the phase changes. The analysis is done with an instrument called High Resolution Interference Microscopy (HRIM), a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that gives access to three-dimensional phase and amplitude images. The current paper emphasizes on the phase measurement of different optical proximity correction structures, and especially on corners of a binary mask.

  2. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  3. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  4. A single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, R.P.; Krijnen, B.; Krijnen, B.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Staufer, U.

    Position sensing in MEMS is often based on the principle of varying capacitance [1]. Alternative position sensing principles include using integrated optical waveguides [2] or varying thermal conductance [3]. Lantz et al demonstrated a thermal displacement sensor achieving nanometre resolution on a

  5. A single-mask thermal displacement sensor in MEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, B.; Krijnen, B.; Hogervorst, R.P.; van Dijk, J.W.; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Woldering, L.A.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Abelmann, Leon; Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a MEMS displacement sensor based on the conductive heat transfer of a resistively heated silicon structure towards an actuated stage parallel to the structure. This differential sensor can be easily incorporated into a silicon-on-insulator-based process, and fabricated within the

  6. [Recognition of visual objects under forward masking. Effects of cathegorial similarity of test and masking stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, N Iu; Slavutskaia, A V; Kalinin, S A; Kulikov, M A; Mikhaĭlova, E S

    2013-01-01

    In 38 healthy subjects accuracy and response time were examined during recognition of two categories of images--animals andnonliving objects--under forward masking. We revealed new data that masking effects depended of categorical similarity of target and masking stimuli. The recognition accuracy was the lowest and the response time was the most slow, when the target and masking stimuli belongs to the same category, that was combined with high dispersion of response times. The revealed effects were more clear in the task of animal recognition in comparison with the recognition of nonliving objects. We supposed that the revealed effects connected with interference between cortical representations of the target and masking stimuli and discussed our results in context of cortical interference and negative priming.

  7. Design features of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT): a multicenter randomized single-masked clinical trial testing the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in subjects with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, S; Gelato, M; Hyman, L; Michalowicz, B S; Schoenfeld, E

    2013-11-01

    Evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), raising the question of whether periodontitis treatment may improve glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Meta-analyses of mostly small clinical trials suggest that periodontitis treatment results in a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c. The purpose of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) was to determine if periodontal treatment reduces HbA1c in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. DPTT was a phase-III, single-masked, multi-center, randomized trial with a planned enrollment of 600 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive periodontal treatment immediately (Treatment Group) or after 6 months (Control Group). HbA1c values and clinical periodontal measures were determined at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization. Medication usage and dosing were assessed at each visit. Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling and root planing for a minimum of two 90-minute sessions, plus the use of an antibacterial mouth rinse for at least 32 days afterwards. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 6 months and the trial was powered to detect a between-group difference of 0.6%. Secondary outcomes included changes in periodontal clinical measures, fasting plasma glucose, the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) and the need for rescue diabetes or periodontal therapy. Dental and medical researchers collaborated to recruit, treat and monitor participants with two chronic diseases to determine if treatment of one condition affects the status of the other. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design Features of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT): A Multicenter Randomized Single-Masked Clinical Trial Testing the Effect of Non-surgical Periodontal Therapy on Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Levels in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), raising the question of whether periodontitis treatment may improve glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Meta-analyses of mostly small clinical trials suggest that periodontitis treatment results in a modest reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb) A1c. Purpose The purpose of the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT) was to determine if periodontal treatment reduces HbA1c in patients with T2DM and periodontitis. Methods DPTT was a phase-III, single-masked, multi-center, randomized trial with a planned enrollment of 600 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to receive periodontal treatment immediately (Treatment Group) or after 6 months (Control Group). HbA1c values and clinical periodontal measures were determined at baseline and 3 and 6 months following randomization. Medication usage and dosing were assessed at each visit. Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling and root planing for a minimum of two 90-minute sessions, plus the use of an antibacterial mouth rinse for at least 32 days afterwards. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from baseline to 6 months and the trial was powered to detect a between-group difference of 0.6%. Secondary outcomes included changes in periodontal clinical measures, fasting plasma glucose, the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) and the need for rescue diabetes or periodontal therapy. Conclusion Dental and medical researchers collaborated to recruit, treat and monitor participants with two chronic diseases to determine if treatment of one condition affects the status of the other. PMID:24080100

  9. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  10. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene...... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...... diameter and 20 nm periodicity are successfully transferred to both substrates. The method allowed to realize the first ever transfer of moiré patterns to silicon. Furthermore, in collaboration with CNG, device with nanostructured graphene are fabricated and electrical measurements made on these devices...

  11. The fastest saccadic responses escape visual masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crouzet, Sébastien M.; Overgaard, Morten; Busch, Niko A.

    2014-01-01

    visual processing while the initial feedforward processing is thought to be left intact. We tested a prediction derived from this hypothesis: the fastest responses, being triggered before the beginning of reentrant processing, should escape the OSM interference. In a saccadic choice reaction time task......, which gives access to very early stages of visual processing, target visibility was reduced either by OSM, conventional backward masking, or low stimulus contrast. A general reduction of performance was observed in all three conditions. However, the fastest saccades did not show any sign of interference...... under either OSM or backward masking, as they did under the low-contrast condition. This finding supports the hypothesis that masking interferes mostly with reentrant processing at later stages, while leaving early feedforward processing largely intact....

  12. The technique of death masks making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, H H; Leist, P

    1977-12-01

    In taking death-masks two different techniques are used. In the technique using a plaster matrix the plaster mash is brought on the face. When the plaster-cast has dried it is filled with plaster mash. Later the matrix is removed in order to lay open the mask. In the technique using a plastic matrix the plastic powder Palgat is brought on the face after mixing it rapidly with icewater until it appears pappy. After that a layer of several centimeters of plaster mash follows in order to stabilize the delicate plastic matrix. Likewise the matrix is filled with plaster mash. The mask can be furnished with a collar and a fixation and the surface can be prepared. The skin relief of the face is reproduced finer using the cast of a plastic matrix.

  13. Effective masking bandwidths at low frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, S; Horonjeff, R; Teffeteller, S; Green, D M

    1983-02-01

    Masking of low-frequency sinusoids of varying durations by Gaussian noise of varying spectral shape was measured in three different studies. Common solutions to technical problems associated with control and specification of low-frequency signals were used in the three studies. If interpreted in terms of Fletcher's critical ratio assumptions, data from the first study lead to the inference that the masking bandwidth is inversely related to signal frequency below about 200 Hz. Data from the second study rule out the likelihood that the apparent increase in masking bandwidth is attributable to changes in auditory integration times at low frequencies. The data of the third study suggest that the apparent increase in auditory filter bandwidth at low frequencies is more adequately explained by a decrease in observers' detection efficiency than by broadening of the filter bandpass.

  14. Effect of mask dead space and occlusion of mask holes on delivery of nebulized albuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinski, Ariel

    2014-08-01

    Infants and children with respiratory conditions are often prescribed bronchodilators. Face masks are used to facilitate the administration of nebulized therapy in patients unable to use a mouthpiece. Masks incorporate holes into their design, and their occlusion during aerosol delivery has been a common practice. Masks are available in different sizes and different dead volumes. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different degrees of occlusion of the mask holes and different mask dead space on the amount of nebulized albuterol available at the mouth opening in a model of a spontaneously breathing child. A breathing simulator mimicking infant (tidal volume [VT] = 50 mL, breathing frequency = 30 breaths/min, inspiratory-expiratory ratio [I:E] = 1:3), child (VT = 155 mL, breathing frequency = 25 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2), and adult (VT = 500 mL, breathing frequency = 15 breaths/min, I:E = 1:2) breathing patterns was connected to a collection filter hidden behind a face plate. A pediatric size mask and an adult size mask connected to a continuous output jet nebulizer were sealed to the face plate. Three nebulizers were loaded with albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) and operated with 6 L/min compressed air for 5 min. Experiments were repeated with different degrees of occlusion (0%, 50%, and 90%). Albuterol was extracted from the filter and measured with a spectrophotometer at 276 nm. Occlusion of the holes in the large mask did not increase the amount of albuterol in any of the breathing patterns. The amount of albuterol captured at the mouth opening did not change when the small mask was switched to the large mask, except with the breathing pattern of a child, and when the holes in the mask were 50% occluded (P = .02). Neither decreasing the dead space of the mask nor occluding the mask holes increased the amount of nebulized albuterol captured at the mouth opening.

  15. Individual differences in metacontrast masking regarding sensitivity and response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Thorsten; Mattler, Uwe

    2012-09-01

    In metacontrast masking target visibility is modulated by the time until a masking stimulus appears. The effect of this temporal delay differs across participants in such a way that individual human observers' performance shows distinguishable types of masking functions which remain largely unchanged for months. Here we examined whether individual differences in masking functions depend on different response criteria in addition to differences in discrimination sensitivity. To this end we reanalyzed previously published data and conducted a new experiment for further data analyses. Our analyses demonstrate that a distinction of masking functions based on the type of masking stimulus is superior to a distinction based on the target-mask congruency. Individually different masking functions are based on individual differences in discrimination sensitivities and in response criteria. Results suggest that individual differences in metacontrast masking result from individually different criterion contents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  17. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  18. [Application of laryngeal mask airway anaesthesia combined with sacral canal block in pediatric anaesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Wang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    To compare the advantages and disadvantages between laryngeal mask airway anaesthesia combined with sacral canal block and single tracheal tube anaesthesia in pediatric surgery. Sixty 2-12-year-old children for lower limb or lower abdominal surgery were randomly assigned into two groups: a group that was given laryngeal mask airway anaesthesia combined with sacral canal block and a group was given single tracheal tube anaesthesia (n=30 each). Mean arterial pressure (MAP), SpO₂ and heart rate (HR) were recorded before induction of anaesthesia, before and after insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) or tracheal tube (TT) and after removal of LMA or TT. The waking-up time, VAS pain scores and the frequency of mania were recorded after surgery. There were no significant differences in MAP, SpO₂ and HR between the combined and single anaesthesia groups before anaesthesia and insertion of LMA or TT, while the MAP and HR in the combined anaesthesia group were significantly lower than those in the single anaesthesia group after insertion and removal of LMA or TT (Pchildren during the induction and the waking-time of laryngeal mask anesthesia combined with sacral canal block. The anesthesia may relieve postoperative pain, shorten the waking-up time and decrease the frequency of mania.

  19. Water body detection from TanDEM-X data: concept and first evaluation of an accurate water indication mask

    OpenAIRE

    Wendleder, Anna; Breunig, Markus; Klaus, Martin; Wessel, Birgit; Roth, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Additionally to the global DEM which is the main product of the TanDEM-X mission a global water body mask will be produced. The main goal of this water mask is to deliver an information layer for any subsequent DEM editing process. It is derived from the SAR amplitude and coherence. In this paper, the concept of the global water body detection is explained and a first evaluation of the single coverage water body detection is presented.

  20. Challenges of anamorphic high-NA lithography and mask making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen D.; Liu, Jingjing

    2017-06-01

    Chip makers are actively working on the adoption of 0.33 numerical aperture (NA) EUV scanners for the 7-nm and 5-nm nodes (B. Turko, S. L. Carson, A. Lio, T. Liang, M. Phillips, et al., in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 977602 (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225014; A. Lio, in `Proc. SPIE9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97760V (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2225017). In the meantime, leading foundries and integrated device manufacturers are starting to investigate patterning options beyond the 5-nm node (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022). To minimize the cost and process complexity of multiple patterning beyond the 5-nm node, EUV high-NA single-exposure patterning is a preferred method over EUV double patterning (O. Wood, S. Raghunathan, P. Mangat, V. Philipsen, V. Luong, et al., in `Proc. SPIE. 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', vol. 94220I (2015) doi: 10.1117/12.2085022; J. van Schoot, K. van Ingen Schenau, G. Bottiglieri, K. Troost, J. Zimmerman, et al., `Proc. SPIE. 9776, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VII', vol. 97761I (2016) doi: 10.1117/12.2220150). The EUV high-NA scanner equipped with a projection lens of 0.55 NA is designed to support resolutions below 10 nm. The high-NA system is beneficial for enhancing resolution, minimizing mask proximity correction bias, improving normalized image log slope (NILS), and controlling CD uniformity (CDU). However, increasing NA from 0.33 to 0.55 reduces the depth of focus (DOF) significantly. Therefore, the source mask optimization (SMO) with sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs) are needed to increase DOF to meet the demanding full chip process control requirements (S. Hsu, R. Howell, J. Jia, H.-Y. Liu, K. Gronlund, et al., EUV `Proc. SPIE9048, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI', (2015) doi: 10

  1. The pros and cons of masked priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, K I

    1998-03-01

    Masked priming paradigms offer the promise of tapping automatic, strategy-free lexical processing, as evidenced by the lack of expectancy disconfirmation effects, and proportionality effects in semantic priming experiments. But several recent findings suggest the effects may be prelexical. These findings concern nonword priming effects in lexical decision and naming, the effects of mixed-case presentation on nonword priming, and the dependence of priming on the nature of the distractors in lexical decision, suggesting possible strategy effects. The theory underlying each of these effects is discussed, and alternative explanations are developed that do not preclude a lexical basis for masked priming effects.

  2. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  3. Are Masking-Based Models of Risk Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisiner, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    As our understanding of directly observable effects from anthropogenic sound exposure has improved, concern about "unobservable" effects such as stress and masking have received greater attention. Equal energy models of masking such as power spectrum models have the appeal of simplicity, but do they offer biologically realistic assessments of the risk of masking? Data relevant to masking such as critical ratios, critical bandwidths, temporal resolution, and directional resolution along with what is known about general mammalian antimasking mechanisms all argue for a much more complicated view of masking when making decisions about the risk of masking inherent in a given anthropogenic sound exposure scenario.

  4. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  5. Soft-mask fabrication of gallium arsenide nanomembranes for integrated quantum photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midolo, L; Pregnolato, T; Kiršanskė, G; Stobbe, S

    2015-12-04

    We report on the fabrication of quantum photonic integrated circuits based on suspended GaAs membranes. The fabrication process consists of a single lithographic step followed by inductively coupled-plasma dry etching through an electron-beam-resist mask and wet etching of a sacrificial layer. This method does not require depositing, etching, and stripping a hard mask, greatly reducing fabrication time and costs, while at the same time yielding devices of excellent structural quality. We discuss in detail the procedures for cleaning the resist residues caused by the plasma etching and present a statistical analysis of the etched feature size after each fabrication step.

  6. Oronasal Masks Require a Higher Pressure than Nasal and Nasal Pillow Masks for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sheetal; Joosten, Simon; Turton, Anthony; Edwards, Bradley A; Landry, Shane; Mansfield, Darren R; Hamilton, Garun S

    2016-09-15

    Oronasal masks are frequently used for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to (1) determine if CPAP requirements are higher for oronasal masks compared to nasal mask interfaces and (2) assess whether polysomnography and patient characteristics differed among mask preference groups. Retrospective analysis of all CPAP implementation polysomnograms between July 2013 and June 2014. Prescribed CPAP level, polysomnography results and patient data were compared according to mask type (n = 358). Oronasal masks were used in 46%, nasal masks in 35% and nasal pillow masks in 19%. There was no difference according to mask type for baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), body mass index (BMI), waist or neck circumference. CPAP level was higher for oronasal masks, 12 (10-15.5) cm H2O compared to nasal pillow masks, 11 (8-12.5) cm H2O and nasal masks, 10 (8-12) cm H2O, p CPAP pressure (p CPAP ≥ 15 cm H2O, there was an odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI 2.5-8.0) for having an oronasal compared to a nasal or nasal pillow mask. Residual median AHI was higher for oronasal masks (11.3 events/h) than for nasal masks (6.4 events/h) and nasal pillows (6.7 events/h), p nasal mask types, oronasal masks are associated with higher CPAP pressures (particularly pressures ≥ 15 cm H2O) and a higher residual AHI. Further evaluation with a randomized control trial is required to definitively establish the effect of mask type on pressure requirements. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1209. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  7. Mask contribution on CD and OVL errors budgets for double patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, I.; Lapeyre, C.; Barnola, S.; Connolly, B.; Ploss, R.; Nakagawa, K.; Buck, P.; McCallum, M.

    2009-01-01

    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) is now considered as the mainstream technology for 32 nm node lithography. The main DPT processes have been developed according targeted applications: spacer and pitch splitting either by dual line or dual trench approaches. However, the successful implementation of DPT requires overcoming certain technical challenges in terms of exposure tool capability, process integration, mask performance and finally metrology (1, 2). For pitch splitting process, the mask performance becomes critical as the technique requires a set of two masks (3). This paper will focus on the mask impact to the global critical dimension (CD) and overlay (OVL) errors for DPT. The mask long-distance and local off target CD variation and image placement were determined on DP features at 180 nm and 128 nm pitches, dedicated to 45 nm and 32 nm nodes respectively. The mask data were then compared to the wafer CD and OVL results achieved on same DP patterns. Edge placement errors have been programmed on DP like-structures on reticle in order to investigate the offsets impact on CD and image placement. The CD lines increases with asymmetric spaces adjacent to the drawn lines for offsets higher than 12 nm, and then have been compared to the corresponding density induced by individual dense and sparse symmetric edges and have been correlated to the simulated prediction. The single reticle trans-X offsets were then compared to the impact on CD by OVL errors in the double patterning strategy. Finally, the pellicle-induced reticle distortions impact on image placement errors was investigated (4). The mechanical performance of pellicle was achieved by mask registration measurements before and after pellicle removal. The reticle contribution to the overall wafer CD and OVL errors budgets were addressed to meet the ITRS requirements.

  8. Wafer based mask characterization for double patterning lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kruif, Robert; Bubke, Karsten; Janssen, Gert-Jan; van der Heijden, Eddy; Fochler, Jörg; Dusa, Mircea; Peters, Jan Hendrik; de Haas, Paul; Connolly, Brid

    2008-04-01

    Double Patterning Technology (DPT) is considered the most acceptable solution for 32nm node lithography. Apart from the obvious drawbacks of additional exposure and processing steps and therefore reduced throughput, DPT possesses a number of additional technical challenges. This relates to exposure tool capability, the actual applied process in the wafer fab but also to mask performance. This paper will focus on the latter. We will report on the performance of a two-reticle set based on a design developed to study the impact of mask global and local placement errors on a DPT dual line process. For 32 nm node lithography using DPT a reticle to reticle overlay contribution target of data resulting from the earlier mentioned reticle set. The reticles contain a 13x19 array of modules comprising various standard overlay features such as ASML overlay gratings and bar-in-bar overlay targets. Furthermore the modules contain split 40nm half pitch DPT features. The reticles have been exposed on an ASML XT:1700i on several wafers in multiple fields. Reticle to reticle overlay contribution has been studied in resist (double exposure) and using the IMEC dual line process (DPT). We will show that the reticle to reticle overlay contribution on the wafer is smaller than 1.5nm (1x). We will compare the wafer data with the reticle data, study the correlation and show that reticle to reticle overlay contribution based single mask registration measurements can be used to qualify the reticle to reticle overlay contribution on wafer.

  9. Adaptation to different noninvasive ventilation masks in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Matos da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify which noninvasive ventilation (NIV masks are most commonly used and the problems related to the adaptation to such masks in critically ill patients admitted to a hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: An observational study involving patients ≥ 18 years of age admitted to intensive care units and submitted to NIV. The reason for NIV use, type of mask, NIV regimen, adaptation to the mask, and reasons for non-adaptation to the mask were investigated. RESULTS: We evaluated 245 patients, with a median age of 82 years. Acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use (in 71.3%. Total face masks were the most commonly used (in 74.7%, followed by full face masks and near-total face masks (in 24.5% and 0.8%, respectively. Intermittent NIV was used in 82.4% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to the mask was found in 76% of the patients. Masks had to be replaced by another type of mask in 24% of the patients. Adequate adaptation to total face masks and full face masks was found in 75.5% and 80.0% of the patients, respectively. Non-adaptation occurred in the 2 patients using near-total facial masks. The most common reason for non-adaptation was the shape of the face, in 30.5% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our sample, acute respiratory failure was the most common reason for NIV use, and total face masks were the most commonly used. The most common reason for non-adaptation to the mask was the shape of the face, which was resolved by changing the type of mask employed.

  10. Evaluation of a new pediatric positive airway pressure mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Clete A; Halbower, Ann C; Kryger, Meir H; Pelayo, Rafael; Assalone, Valerie; Cardell, Chia-Yu; Huston, Stephanie; Willes, Leslee; Wimms, Alison J; Mendoza, June

    2014-09-15

    The choice and variety of pediatric masks for continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is limited in the US. Therefore, clinicians often prescribe modified adult masks. Until recently a mask for children aged mask for children aged 2-7 years (Pixi; ResMed Ltd, Sydney, Australia). Patients aged 2-7 years were enrolled and underwent in-lab baseline polysomnography (PSG) using their previous mask, then used their previous mask and the VPAP III ST-A flow generator for ≥ 10 nights at home. Thereafter, patients switched to the Pixi mask for ≥ 2 nights before returning for a PSG during PAP therapy via the Pixi mask. Patients then used the Pixi mask at home for ≥ 21 nights. Patients and their parents/guardians returned to the clinic for follow-up and provided feedback on the Pixi mask versus their previous mask. AHI with the Pixi mask was 1.1 ± 1.5/h vs 2.6 ± 5.4/h with the previous mask (p = 0.3538). Parents rated the Pixi mask positively for: restfulness of the child's sleep, trouble in getting the child to sleep, and trouble in having the child stay asleep. The Pixi mask was also rated highly for leaving fewer or no marks on the upper lip and under the child's ears, and being easy to remove. The Pixi mask is suitable for children aged 2-7 years and provides an alternative to other masks available for PAP therapy in this age group. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  11. Micropatterning on cylindrical surfaces via electrochemical etching using laser masking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chull Hee; Shin, Hong Shik; Chu, Chong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various micropatterns were fabricated on the cylindrical surface of a stainless steel shaft. • Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching. • Laser masking characteristics on the non-planar surface were investigated. • A uniform mask layer was formed on the cylindrical surface via synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system. • The characteristics of electrochemical etching on the non-planar surface were investigated. - Abstract: This paper proposes a method of selective electrochemical dissolution on the cylindrical surfaces of stainless steel shafts. Selective electrochemical dissolution was achieved via electrochemical etching using laser masking. A micropatterned recast layer was formed on the surface via ytterbium-doped pulsed fiber laser irradiation. The micropatterned recast layer could be used as a mask layer during the electrochemical etching process. Laser masking condition to form adequate mask layer on the planar surface for etching cannot be used directly on the non-planar surface. Laser masking condition changes depending on the morphological surface. The laser masking characteristics were investigated in order to form a uniform mask layer on the cylindrical surface. To minimize factors causing non-uniformity in the mask layer on the cylindrical surface, synchronized laser line scanning with a rotary system was applied during the laser masking process. Electrochemical etching characteristics were also investigated to achieve deeper etched depth, without collapsing the recast layer. Consequently, through a series process of laser masking and electrochemical etching, various micropatternings were successfully performed on the cylindrical surfaces

  12. Testing Tactile Masking between the Forearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R

    2016-02-10

    Masking, in which one stimulus affects the detection of another, is a classic technique that has been used in visual, auditory, and tactile research, usually using stimuli that are close together to reveal local interactions. Masking effects have also been demonstrated in which a tactile stimulus alters the perception of a touch at a distant location. Such effects can provide insight into how components of the body's representations in the brain may be linked. Occasional reports have indicated that touches on one hand or forearm can affect tactile sensitivity at corresponding contralateral locations. To explore the matching of corresponding points across the body, we can measure the spatial tuning and effect of posture on contralateral masking. Careful controls are required to rule out direct effects of the remote stimulus, for example by mechanical transmission, and also attention effects in which thresholds may be altered by the participant's attention being drawn away from the stimulus of interest. The use of this technique is beneficial as a behavioural measure for exploring which parts of the body are functionally connected and whether the two sides of the body interact in a somatotopic representation. This manuscript describes a behavioural protocol that can be used for studying contralateral tactile masking.

  13. Shadow mask evaporation through monolayer modified nanostencils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolbel, M.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Brugger, J.P.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    Gradual clogging of the apertures of nanostencils used as miniature shadow masks in metal evaporations can be reduced by coating the stencil with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). This is quantified by the dimensions (height and volume) of gold features obtained by nanostencil evaporation as measured

  14. Posleslovije k "Zolotoi maske" / Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuch, Boris, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Vene draamafestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" lavastusest : "September.doc", lav. Mihhail Ugarov, I. Võrõpajevi "Hapnik" lav. Viktor Rõzhakov Teatr.doc esituses, Sophoklese "Kuningas Oidipus" lav. Andrei Prikotenko Peterburi Teatri Liteinõi esituses, M. Ugarovi lavastus "OblomOFF"

  15. Pattern inspection of etched multilayer EUV mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2015-10-01

    Patterned mask inspection for an etched multilayer (ML) EUV mask was investigated. In order to optimize the mask structure from the standpoint of not only a pattern inspection by using a projection electron microscope (PEM), but also by considering the other fabrication processes using electron beam (EB) techniques such as CD metrology and mask repair, we employed a conductive layer between the ML and substrate. By measuring the secondary electron emission coefficients (SEECs) of the candidate materials for conductive layer, we evaluated the image contrast and the influence of charging effect. In the cases of 40-pair-ML, 16 nm sized extrusion and intrusion defects were found to be detectable more than 10 sigma in hp 44 nm, 40 nm, and 32 nm line and space (L/S) patterns. Reducing 40-pair-ML to 20-pair-ML degraded the image contrast and the defect detectability. However, by selecting B4C as a conductive layer, 16 nm sized defects remained detectable. These defects were also detected after the etched part was refilled with Si. Moreover, the simulation shows a high sensitivity for detecting the residual-type defects (etching residues). A double layer structure with 2.5-nm-thik B4C on metal film used as a conductive layer was found to have sufficient conductivity and also was found to be free from the surface charging effect and influence of native oxide.

  16. Method for coating substrates and mask holder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Maas, Edward Lambertus Gerardus; Bruineman, Caspar

    2004-01-01

    When coating substrates it is frequently desired that the layer thickness should be a certain function of the position on the substrate to be coated. To control the layer thickness a mask is conventionally arranged between the coating particle source and the substrate. This leads to undesirable

  17. Progressive Dysphagia Post Laryngeal Mask Airway Intubation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is an important addition to the anaesthetic equipments; however its use may involve some important complications. We report an unusual and potentially serious complication arising from the use of this equipment. A 58 year old man underwent cataract surgery under general anaesthesia ...

  18. Mask cycle time reduction for foundry projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinski, A.

    2011-11-01

    One of key deliverables of foundry based manufacturing is low cycletime. Building new and enhancing existing products by mask changes involves significant logistical effort, which could be reduced by standardizing data management and communication procedures among design house, mask shop, and foundry (fab) [1]. As an example, a typical process of taping out can take up to two weeks in addition to technical effort, for database handling, mask form completion, management approval, PO signoff and JDV review, translating into loss of revenue. In order to reduce this delay, we are proposing to develop a unified online system which should assist with the following functions: database edits, final verifications, document approvals, mask order entries, and JDV review with engineering signoff as required. This would help a growing number of semiconductor products to be flexibly manufactured at different manufacturing sites. We discuss how the data architecture based on a non-relational database management system (NRDMBS) extracted into a relational one (RDMBS) should provide quality information [2], to reduce cycle time significantly beyond 70% for an example 2 week tapeout schedule.

  19. Modelling binaural processes involved in simultaneous reflection masking: limitations of current models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Masked thresholds were measured for a single test reflection, masked by the direct sound, as a function of the reflection delay. This was done for diotic as well as for dichotic stimulus presentations and all stimuli were presented via headphones. The input signal was a 200-ms long broadband noise......, such as normalized cross-correlation models (e.g., Bernstein et al., 1999, JASA, pp. 870-876), the power-addition model (Zurek, 1979, JASA, pp. 1750-1757), or Equalization-Cancellation-based models (e.g., Breebaart et al., 2001, JASA, pp. 1074-1088), cannot account for the psychoacoustical data. The present talk...... aims at understanding why these binaural models in their current form cannot describe the binaural mechanisms involved in reflection masking and a number of model-modifications are discussed that might help to overcome this deficiency....

  20. A chronometric exploration of high-resolution 'sensitive TMS masking' effects on subjective and objective measures of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Tom A; Herring, Jim; Sack, Alexander T

    2011-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can induce masking by interfering with ongoing neural activity in early visual cortex. Previous work has explored the chronometry of occipital involvement in vision by using single pulses of TMS with high temporal resolution. However, conventionally TMS intensities have been high and the only measure used to evaluate masking was objective in nature. Recent studies have begun to incorporate subjective measures of vision, alongside objective ones. The current study goes beyond previous work in two regards. First, we explored both objective vision (an orientation discrimination task) and subjective vision (a stimulus visibility rating on a four-point scale), across a wide range of time windows with high temporal resolution. Second, we used a very sensitive TMS-masking paradigm: stimulation was at relatively low TMS intensities, with a figure-8 coil, and the small stimulus was difficult to discriminate already at baseline level. We hypothesized that this should increase the effective temporal resolution of our paradigm. Perhaps for this reason, we are able to report a rather interesting masking curve. Within the classical-masking time window, previously reported to encompass broad SOAs anywhere between 60 and 120 ms, we report not one, but at least two dips in objective performance, with no masking in-between. The subjective measure of vision did not mirror this pattern. These preliminary data from our exploratory design suggest that, with sensitive TMS masking, we might be able to reveal visual processes in early visual cortex previously unreported.

  1. Regular Nanoscale Protein Patterns via Directed Adsorption through Self-Assembled DNA Origami Masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Saminathan; Subramaniam, Sivaraman; Stewart, A Francis; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian

    2016-11-16

    DNA origami has become a widely used method for synthesizing well-defined nanostructures with promising applications in various areas of nanotechnology, biophysics, and medicine. Recently, the possibility to transfer the shape of single DNA origami nanostructures into different materials via molecular lithography approaches has received growing interest due to the great structural control provided by the DNA origami technique. Here, we use ordered monolayers of DNA origami nanostructures with internal cavities on mica surfaces as molecular lithography masks for the fabrication of regular protein patterns over large surface areas. Exposure of the masked sample surface to negatively charged proteins results in the directed adsorption of the proteins onto the exposed surface areas in the holes of the mask. By controlling the buffer and adsorption conditions, the protein coverage of the exposed areas can be varied from single proteins to densely packed monolayers. To demonstrate the versatility of this approach, regular nanopatterns of four different proteins are fabricated: the single-strand annealing proteins Redβ and Sak, the iron-storage protein ferritin, and the blood protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). We furthermore demonstrate the desorption of the DNA origami mask after directed protein adsorption, which may enable the fabrication of hierarchical patterns composed of different protein species. Because selectivity in adsorption is achieved by electrostatic interactions between the proteins and the exposed surface areas, this approach may enable also the large-scale patterning of other charged molecular species or even nanoparticles.

  2. The prevalence effect in lateral masking and its relevance for visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, B P; Wertheim, A H

    2015-04-01

    In stimulus displays with or without a single target amid 1,644 identical distractors, target prevalence was varied between 20, 50 and 80 %. Maximum gaze deviation was measured to determine the strength of lateral masking in these arrays. The results show that lateral masking was strongest in the 20 % prevalence condition, which differed significantly from both the 50 and 80 % prevalence conditions. No difference was observed between the latter two. This pattern of results corresponds to that found in the literature on the prevalence effect in visual search (stronger lateral masking corresponding to longer search times). The data add to similar findings reported earlier (Wertheim et al. in Exp Brain Res, 170:387-402, 2006), according to which the effects of many well-known factors in visual search correspond to those on lateral masking. These were the effects of set size, disjunctions versus conjunctions, display area, distractor density, the asymmetry effect (Q vs. O's) and viewing distance. The present data, taken together with those earlier findings, may lend credit to a causal hypothesis that lateral masking could be a more important mechanism in visual search than usually assumed.

  3. Impact of MSD and mask manufacture errors on 45nm-node lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Liu, Lihui; Guo, Xuejia; Wang, Xuxia; Yang, Jianhong

    2012-10-01

    Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is quite sensitive in 45nm node lithography and beyond, thus, more attentions should be paid on the controlling of CDU. Moving Standard Deviation (MSD) and Mask Manufacture Errors (MMEs) including the Mask Critical Dimension Error (MCDE), Mask Transmittance Error (MTE) and Mask Phase Error (MPE) are the two important factors influencing CDU. The study on the impact of MSD and MMEs is a helpful way to improve the lithographic quality. Previous researches often emphasize on the single impact of MSD or MMEs, however the impact of both of them usually exists simultaneously. The studies on the co-impact of MSD and MMEs are more significant. In this paper, the impact and the cross-talk between MSD and MMEs on Critical Dimension (CD) and Exposure Latitude verse Depth of Focus (EL-DOF) for different pattern under various illumination conditions have been evaluated by simulation, which is carried on PROLITHTM X3 and in-house software IntLitho. And then, the MSD's tolerance with the existence of MMEs is discussed. The simulation results show that CD error caused by the co-existence of MSD and MMEs is not the simple algebraic sum of the individual CD error caused by MSD or MMEs. The CD error becomes more pronounced when the MSD and MMEs interact with each other. The studies on the tolerance reveal that the tolerance of MSD decreases due to MMEs' existence and mainly depends on the mask pattern's pitch.

  4. Taking a SHARP look at mask 3D effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benk, Markus P.; Chao, Weilun; Miyakawa, Ryan; Goldberg, Kenneth; Naulleau, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Mask 3D effects are an area of active research in EUV mask technology. Mask-side numerical aperture, illumination, feature size and absorber thickness are key factors modulating mask 3D effects and affecting printability and process window. Variable mask-side NA and flexible illumination make the SHARP actinic EUV microscope a powerful instrument for the study of mask 3D effects. We show an application example, comparing mask 3D effects for a standard Tantalum Nitride absorber and a thinner, 40-nm Nickel absorber. Data is presented for 0.33 4xNA and anamorphic 0.55 4x/8xNA. The influence of different illumination settings on mask 3D effects is discussed.

  5. Summation versus suppression in metacontrast masking: On the potential pitfalls of using metacontrast masking to assess perceptual-motor dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Leite, Pedro; Waszak, Florian

    2014-07-01

    A briefly flashed target stimulus can become "invisible" when immediately followed by a mask-a phenomenon known as backward masking, which constitutes a major tool in the cognitive sciences. One form of backward masking is termed metacontrast masking. It is generally assumed that in metacontrast masking, the mask suppresses activity on which the conscious perception of the target relies. This assumption biases conclusions when masking is used as a tool-for example, to study the independence between perceptual detection and motor reaction. This is because other models can account for reduced perceptual performance without requiring suppression mechanisms. In this study, we used signal detection theory to test the suppression model against an alternative view of metacontrast masking, referred to as the summation model. This model claims that target- and mask-related activations fuse and that the difficulty in detecting the target results from the difficulty to discriminate this fused response from the response produced by the mask alone. Our data support this alternative view. This study is not a thorough investigation of metacontrast masking. Instead, we wanted to point out that when a different model is used to account for the reduced perceptual performance in metacontrast masking, there is no need to postulate a dissociation between perceptual and motor responses to account for the data. Metacontrast masking, as implemented in the Fehrer-Raab situation, therefore is not a valid method to assess perceptual-motor dissociations.

  6. Mask_explorer: A tool for exploring brain masks in fMRI group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdoš, Martin; Mikl, Michal; Mareček, Radek

    2016-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of the human brain are appearing in increasing numbers, providing interesting information about this complex system. Unique information about healthy and diseased brains is inferred using many types of experiments and analyses. In order to obtain reliable information, it is necessary to conduct consistent experiments with large samples of subjects and to involve statistical methods to confirm or reject any tested hypotheses. Group analysis is performed for all voxels within a group mask, i.e. a common space where all of the involved subjects contribute information. To our knowledge, a user-friendly interface with the ability to visualize subject-specific details in a common analysis space did not yet exist. The purpose of our work is to develop and present such interface. Several pitfalls have to be avoided while preparing fMRI data for group analysis. One such pitfall is spurious non-detection, caused by inferring conclusions in the volume of a group mask that has been corrupted due to a preprocessing failure. We describe a MATLAB toolbox, called the mask_explorer, designed for prevention of this pitfall. The mask_explorer uses a graphical user interface, enables a user-friendly exploration of subject masks and is freely available. It is able to compute subject masks from raw data and create lists of subjects with potentially problematic data. It runs under MATLAB with the widely used SPM toolbox. Moreover, we present several practical examples where the mask_explorer is usefully applied. The mask_explorer is designed to quickly control the quality of the group fMRI analysis volume and to identify specific failures related to preprocessing steps and acquisition. It helps researchers detect subjects with potentially problematic data and consequently enables inspection of the data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral mask ventilation is more effective than face mask ventilation after nasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioğlu, Dilek; Baran, Ilkay; Uzumcugil, Filiz; Ozturk, Ibrahim; Utebey, Gulten; Sayın, M Murat

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the face mask (FM) and oral mask (OM) ventilation techniques during anesthesia emergence regarding tidal volume, leak volume, and difficult mask ventilation (DMV) incidence. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Operating room, training and research hospital. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II adult patients scheduled for nasal surgery. Patients in group FM-OM received FM ventilation first, followed by OM ventilation, and patients in group OM-FM received OM ventilation first, followed by FM ventilation, with spontaneous ventilation after deep extubation. The FM ventilation was applied with the 1-handed EC-clamp technique. The OM was placed only over the mouth, and the 1-handed EC-clamp technique was used again. A child's size FM was used for the OM ventilation technique, the mask was rotated, and the inferior part of the mask was placed toward the nose. The leak volume (MVleak), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and expired tidal volume (TVe) were assessed with each mask technique for 3 consecutive breaths. A mask ventilation grade ≥3 was considered DMV. DMV occurred more frequently during FM ventilation (75% with FM vs 8% with OM). In the FM-first sequence, the mean TVe was 249±61mL with the FM and 455±35mL with the OM (P=.0001), whereas in the OM-first sequence, it was 276±81mL with the FM and 409±37mL with the OM (P=.0001). Regardless of the order used, the OM technique significantly decreased the MVleak and increased the TVe when compared to the FM technique. During anesthesia emergence after nasal surgery the OM may offer an effective ventilation method as it decreases the incidence of DMV and the gas leak around the mask and provides higher tidal volume delivery compared with FM ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated mask creation from a 3D model using Faethm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2007-11-01

    We have developed and implemented a method which given a three-dimensional object can infer from topology the two-dimensional masks needed to produce that object with surface micro-machining. The masks produced by this design tool can be generic, process independent masks, or if given process constraints, specific for a target process. This design tool calculates the two-dimensional mask set required to produce a given three-dimensional model by investigating the vertical topology of the model.

  9. The multiple pronunciations of Japanese kanji: a masked priming investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus Gerardus; La Heij, Wido; Tamaoka, Katsuo; Kiyama, Sachiko; You, Wen-Ping; Schiller, Niels Olaf

    2013-01-01

    English words with an inconsistent grapheme-to-phoneme conversion or with more than one pronunciation ("homographic heterophones"; e.g., "lead"-/lεd/, /lid/) are read aloud more slowly than matched controls, presumably due to competition processes. In Japanese kanji, the majority of the characters have multiple readings for the same orthographic unit: the native Japanese reading (KUN) and the derived Chinese reading (ON). This leads to the question of whether reading these characters also shows processing costs. Studies examining this issue have provided mixed evidence. The current study addressed the question of whether processing of these kanji characters leads to the simultaneous activation of their KUN and ON reading, This was measured in a direct way in a masked priming paradigm. In addition, we assessed whether the relative frequencies of the KUN and ON pronunciations ("dominance ratio", measured in compound words) affect the amount of priming. The results of two experiments showed that: (a) a single kanji, presented as a masked prime, facilitates the reading of the (katakana transcriptions of) their KUN and ON pronunciations; however, (b) this was most consistently found when the dominance ratio was around 50% (no strong dominance towards either pronunciation) and when the dominance was towards the ON reading (high-ON group). When the dominance was towards the KUN reading (high-KUN group), no significant priming for the ON reading was observed. Implications for models of kanji processing are discussed.

  10. Forward Masking in Cochlear Implant Users: Electrophysiological and Psychophysical Data Using Pulse Train Maskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Youssef; Hilkhuysen, Gaston; Noreña, Arnaud; Cazals, Yves; Roman, Stéphane; Macherey, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Electrical stimulation of auditory nerve fibers using cochlear implants (CI) shows psychophysical forward masking (pFM) up to several hundreds of milliseconds. By contrast, recovery of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) from forward masking (eFM) was shown to be more rapid, with time constants no greater than a few milliseconds. These discrepancies suggested two main contributors to pFM: a rapid-recovery process due to refractory properties of the auditory nerve and a slow-recovery process arising from more central structures. In the present study, we investigate whether the use of different maskers between eCAP and psychophysical measures, specifically single-pulse versus pulse train maskers, may have been a source of confound.In experiment 1, we measured eFM using the following: a single-pulse masker, a 300-ms low-rate pulse train masker (LTM, 250 pps), and a 300-ms high-rate pulse train masker (HTM, 5000 pps). The maskers were presented either at same physical current (Φ) or at same perceptual (Ψ) level corresponding to comfortable loudness. Responses to a single-pulse probe were measured for masker-probe intervals ranging from 1 to 512 ms. Recovery from masking was much slower for pulse trains than for the single-pulse masker. When presented at Φ level, HTM produced more and longer-lasting masking than LTM. However, results were inconsistent when LTM and HTM were compared at Ψ level. In experiment 2, masked detection thresholds of single-pulse probes were measured using the same pulse train masker conditions. In line with our eFM findings, masked thresholds for HTM were higher than those for LTM at Φ level. However, the opposite result was found when the pulse trains were presented at Ψ level.Our results confirm the presence of slow-recovery phenomena at the level of the auditory nerve in CI users, as previously shown in animal studies. Inconsistencies between eFM and pFM results, despite using the same masking conditions, further

  11. Taste-masking effect of physical and organoleptic methods on peppermint-scented orally disintegrating tablet of famotidine based on suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Takeshi; Uchida, Shinya; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) are useful for improving benefits for patients of various ages. Masking the unpleasant taste of a drug is an important factor in the compliance of patients who take ODTs. We evaluated the taste acceptability effects of various taste-masking methods on bitter famotidine ODTs as a clinical pharmacological study. The following methods were tested to compare taste-masking effects: physical masking by spray-coating famotidine with ethyl cellulose versus organoleptic masking with added sweetener and flavor. The ODT samples were prepared as single or combinations of each taste-masking method using a novel suspension spray-coating method including a placebo. A total of 31 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind study and asked to score their bitterness, sweetness and total palate impressions by 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). VAS scores were significantly improved by the physical and organoleptic methods as compared to without taste-masked ODTs. Furthermore, the combination of both taste-masking methods was most effective for improving palatability and VAS scores were similar to those of placebo ODTs. The results of this study suggest that different taste-masking mechanisms function cooperatively.

  12. 21 CFR 868.5550 - Anesthetic gas mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthetic gas mask. 868.5550 Section 868.5550...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5550 Anesthetic gas mask. (a) Identification. An anesthetic gas mask is a device, usually made of conductive rubber, that is positioned over a...

  13. Performance and stability of mask process correction for EBM-7000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasuko; Chen, George; Wang, Jen-Shiang; Bai, Shufeng; Howell, Rafael; Li, Jiangwei; Tao, Jun; VanDenBroeke, Doug; Wiley, Jim; Takigawa, Tadahiro; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Kamikubo, Takashi; Hara, Shigehiro; Anze, Hirohito; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Tamamushi, Shuichi

    2010-05-01

    In order to support complex optical masks today and EUV masks in the near future, it is critical to correct mask patterning errors with a magnitude of up to 20nm over a range of 2000nm at mask scale caused by short range mask process proximity effects. A new mask process correction technology, MPC+, has been developed to achieve the target requirements for the next generation node. In this paper, the accuracy and throughput performance of MPC+ technology is evaluated using the most advanced mask writing tool, the EBM-70001), and high quality mask metrology . The accuracy of MPC+ is achieved by using a new comprehensive mask model. The results of through-pitch and through-linewidth linearity curves and error statistics for multiple pattern layouts (including both 1D and 2D patterns) are demonstrated and show post-correction accuracy of 2.34nm 3σ for through-pitch/through-linewidth linearity. Implementing faster mask model simulation and more efficient correction recipes; full mask area (100cm2) processing run time is less than 7 hours for 32nm half-pitch technology node. From these results, it can be concluded that MPC+ with its higher precision and speed is a practical technology for the 32nm node and future technology generations, including EUV, when used with advance mask writing processes like the EBM-7000.

  14. Scatterometry on pelliclized masks: an option for wafer fabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily; Benson, Craig; Higuchi, Masaru; Okumoto, Yasuhiro; Kwon, Michael; Yedur, Sanjay; Li, Shifang; Lee, Sangbong; Tabet, Milad

    2007-03-01

    Optical scatterometry-based metrology is now widely used in wafer fabs for lithography, etch, and CMP applications. This acceptance of a new metrology method occurred despite the abundance of wellestablished CD-SEM and AFM methods. It was driven by the desire to make measurements faster and with a lower cost of ownership. Over the last year, scatterometry has also been introduced in advanced mask shops for mask measurements. Binary and phase shift masks have been successfully measured at all desired points during photomask production before the pellicle is mounted. There is a significant benefit to measuring masks with the pellicle in place. From the wafer fab's perspective, through-pellicle metrology would verify mask effects on the same features that are characterized on wafer. On-site mask verification would enable quality control and trouble-shooting without returning the mask to a mask house. Another potential application is monitoring changes to mask films once the mask has been delivered to the fab (haze, oxide growth, etc.). Similar opportunities apply to the mask metrologist receiving line returns from a wafer fab. The ability to make line-return measurements without risking defect introduction is clearly attractive. This paper will evaluate the feasibility of collecting scatterometry data on pelliclized masks. We explore the effects of several different pellicle types on scatterometry measurements made with broadband light in the range of 320-780 nm. The complexity introduced by the pellicles' optical behavior will be studied.

  15. Randomised Comparison of the AMBU AuraOnce Laryngeal Mask and the LMA Unique Laryngeal Mask Airway in Spontaneously Breathing Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Daryl Lindsay; Zeng, James M.; Alexander, Karl D.; Andrews, David T.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a randomised single-blind controlled trial comparing the LMA-Unique (LMAU) and the AMBU AuraOnce (AMBU) disposable laryngeal mask in spontaneously breathing adult patients undergoing general anaesthesia. Eighty-two adult patients (ASA status I–IV) were randomly allocated to receive the LMAU or AMBU and were blinded to device selection. Patients received a standardized anesthetic and all airway devices were inserted by trained anaesthetists. Size selection was guided by manufactur...

  16. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  17. Cross-talk extraction from mask layout

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, E.; Demonchaux, T.; Noullet, J.L.; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The principles of an automated cross-talk extractor from the mask-level description of a CMOS integrated circuit are detailed. The physical extraction principles, the techniques for parasitic coupling evaluation and modeling, the technique for back-annotating the schematic diagram of the integrated circuit are presented. A model for mixed-level simulation is proposed, covering various parasitic effects of the cross-talk phenomenon. The efficiency of the cross-talk extractor is demonstrated th...

  18. Improved Phase-Mask Fabrication of Fiber Bragg Gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Sharma, Anup

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of fabrication of Bragg gratings in optical fibers combines the best features of two prior methods: one that involves the use of a phase mask and one that involves interference between the two coherent laser beams. The improved method affords flexibility for tailoring Bragg wavelengths and bandwidths over wide ranges. A Bragg grating in an optical fiber is a periodic longitudinal variation in the index of refraction of the fiber core. The spatial period (Bragg wavelength) is chosen to obtain enhanced reflection of light of a given wavelength that would otherwise propagate relatively unimpeded along the core. Optionally, the spatial period of the index modulation can be made to vary gradually along the grating (such a grating is said to be chirped ) in order to obtain enhanced reflection across a wavelength band, the width of which is determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum Bragg wavelengths. In the present method as in both prior methods, a Bragg grating is formed by exposing an optical fiber to an ultraviolet-light interference field. The Bragg grating coincides with the pattern of exposure of the fiber core to ultraviolet light; in other words, the Bragg grating coincides with the interference fringes. Hence, the problem of tailoring the Bragg wavelength and bandwidth is largely one of tailoring the interference pattern and the placement of the fiber in the interference pattern. In the prior two-beam interferometric method, a single laser beam is split into two beams, which are subsequently recombined to produce an interference pattern at the location of an optical fiber. In the prior phase-mask method, a phase mask is used to diffract a laser beam mainly into two first orders, the interference between which creates the pattern to which an optical fiber is exposed. The prior two-beam interferometric method offers the advantage that the period of the interference pattern can be adjusted to produce gratings over a wide range

  19. MEG masked priming evidence for form-based decomposition of irregular verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eFruchter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does morphological structure play a role in early processing of visually presented English past tense verbs? Previous masked priming studies have demonstrated effects of obligatory form-based decomposition for genuinely affixed words (teacher-TEACH and pseudo-affixed words (corner-CORN, but not for orthographic controls (brothel-BROTH. Additionally, MEG single word reading studies have demonstrated that the transition probability from stem to affix (in genuinely affixed words modulates an early evoked response known as the M170; parallel findings have been shown for the transition probability from stem to pseudo-affix (in pseudo-affixed words. Here, utilizing the M170 as a neural index of visual form-based morphological decomposition, we ask whether the M170 demonstrates masked morphological priming effects for irregular past tense verbs (following a previous study which obtained behavioral masked priming effects for irregulars. Dual mechanism theories of the English past tense predict a rule-based decomposition for regulars but not for irregulars, while certain single mechanism theories predict rule-based decomposition even for irregulars. MEG data was recorded for 16 subjects performing a visual masked priming lexical decision task. Using a functional region of interest (fROI defined on the basis of repetition priming and regular morphological priming effects within the left fusiform and inferior temporal regions, we found that activity in this fROI was modulated by the masked priming manipulation for irregular verbs, during the time window of the M170. We also found effects of the scores generated by the learning model of Albright & Hayes (2003 on the degree of priming for irregular verbs. The results favor a single mechanism account of the English past tense, in which even irregulars are decomposed into stems and affixes prior to lexical access, as opposed to a dual mechanism model, in which irregulars are recognized as whole

  20. MEG masked priming evidence for form-based decomposition of irregular verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, Joseph; Stockall, Linnaea; Marantz, Alec

    2013-01-01

    To what extent does morphological structure play a role in early processing of visually presented English past tense verbs? Previous masked priming studies have demonstrated effects of obligatory form-based decomposition for genuinely affixed words (teacher-TEACH) and pseudo-affixed words (corner-CORN), but not for orthographic controls (brothel-BROTH). Additionally, MEG single word reading studies have demonstrated that the transition probability from stem to affix (in genuinely affixed words) modulates an early evoked response known as the M170; parallel findings have been shown for the transition probability from stem to pseudo-affix (in pseudo-affixed words). Here, utilizing the M170 as a neural index of visual form-based morphological decomposition, we ask whether the M170 demonstrates masked morphological priming effects for irregular past tense verbs (following a previous study which obtained behavioral masked priming effects for irregulars). Dual mechanism theories of the English past tense predict a rule-based decomposition for regulars but not for irregulars, while certain single mechanism theories predict rule-based decomposition even for irregulars. MEG data was recorded for 16 subjects performing a visual masked priming lexical decision task. Using a functional region of interest (fROI) defined on the basis of repetition priming and regular morphological priming effects within the left fusiform and inferior temporal regions, we found that activity in this fROI was modulated by the masked priming manipulation for irregular verbs, during the time window of the M170. We also found effects of the scores generated by the learning model of Albright and Hayes (2003) on the degree of priming for irregular verbs. The results favor a single mechanism account of the English past tense, in which even irregulars are decomposed into stems and affixes prior to lexical access, as opposed to a dual mechanism model, in which irregulars are recognized as whole forms.

  1. [Patients' reaction to pharmacists wearing a mask during their consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eri; Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2013-01-01

      This study sought to determine the effect of pharmacists wearing a mask on the consultation intention of patients who do not have a trusting relationship with the pharmacists. We conducted a questionnaire survey of customers at a Tokyo drugstore in August 2012. Subjects answered a questionnaire after watching two medical teaching videos, one in which the pharmacist was wearing a mask and the other in which the pharmacist was not wearing a mask. Data analysis was performed using a paired t-test and multiple logistic regression. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference in 'Maintenance Problem' between the two pharmacist situations. After excluding factors not associated with wearing a mask, multiple logistic regression analysis identified three independent variables with a significant effect on participants not wanting to consult with a pharmacist wearing a mask. Positive factors were 'active-inactive' and 'frequency mask use', a negative factor was 'age'. Our study has shown that pharmacists wearing a mask may be a factor that prevents patients from consulting with pharmacist. Those patients whose intention to consult might be affected by the pharmacists wearing a mask tended to be younger, to have no habit of wearing masks preventively themselves, and to form a negative opinion of such pharmacists. Therefore, it was estimated that pharmacists who wear masks need to provide medical education by asking questions more positively than when they do not wear a mask in order to prevent the patient worrying about oneself.

  2. [Bilateral mandibular nerve injury following mask ventilation: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncali, Bahattin; Zeyneloglu, Pinar

    2018-03-19

    Nerve injury following mask ventilation is a rare but serious anesthetic complication. The majority of reported cases are associated with excessive pressure applied to the face mask, long duration of mask ventilation, excessive digital pressure behind the mandible to relieve airway obstruction and pressure exerted by the plastic oropharyngeal airway. We present a case of bilateral mandibular nerve injury following mask ventilation with short duration, most likely due to a semi-silicone facemask with an over-inflated cushion. An over-inflated sealing cushion of a facemask may trigger difficult mask ventilation leading to mandibular nerve injury following mask ventilation. Alternative airway management techniques such as laryngeal mask airway should be considered when airway maintenance can only be achieved with strong pressure applied to the facemask and/or mandible. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Aerial image metrology for OPC modeling and mask qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ao; Foong, Yee Mei; Thaler, Thomas; Buttgereit, Ute; Chung, Angeline; Burbine, Andrew; Sturtevant, John; Clifford, Chris; Adam, Kostas; De Bisschop, Peter

    2017-06-01

    As nodes become smaller and smaller, the OPC applied to enable these nodes becomes more and more sophisticated. This trend peaks today in curve-linear OPC approaches that are currently starting to appear on the roadmap. With this sophistication of OPC, the mask pattern complexity increases. CD-SEM based mask qualification strategies as they are used today are starting to struggle to provide a precise forecast of the printing behavior of a mask on wafer. An aerial image CD measurement performed on ZEISS Wafer-Level CD system (WLCD) is a complementary approach to mask CD-SEMs to judge the lithographical performance of the mask and its critical production features. The advantage of the aerial image is that it includes all optical effects of the mask such as OPC, SRAF, 3D mask effects, once the image is taken under scanner equivalent illumination conditions. Additionally, it reduces the feature complexity and analyzes the printing relevant CD.

  4. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    , 1994). In most studies of attentional dwell time, two masked targets have been used. Moore et al. (1996) have criticised the masking of the first target when measuring the attentional dwell time, finding a shorter attentional dwell time when the first mask was omitted. In the presented work, the effect...... of the first mask is further investigated by including a condition where the first mask is presented without a target. The results from individual subjects show that the findings of Moore et al. can be replicated. The results also suggest that presenting the first mask without a target is enough to produce...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  5. Contact printed masks for 3D microfabrication in negative resists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2005-01-01

    We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded into the ......We present a process based on contact printed shadow masks for three dimensional microfabrication of soft and sensitive overhanging membranes in SU-8. A metal mask is transferred onto unexposed SU-8 from an elastomer stamp made of polydimethylsiloxane. This mask is subsequently embedded...... into the negative resist to protect buried material from UV-exposure. Unlike direct evaporation-deposition of a mask onto the SU-8, printing avoids high stress and radiation, thus preventing resist wrinkling and prepolymerization. We demonstrate effective monolithic fabrication of soft, 4-μm thick and 100-μm long...

  6. Development and evaluation of new mask protocols for gene expression profiling in humans and chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Kimberly D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species gene expression analyses using oligonucleotide microarrays designed to evaluate a single species can provide spurious results due to mismatches between the interrogated transcriptome and arrayed probes. Based on the most recent human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we developed updated and accessible probe masking methods that allow human Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to be used for robust genome-wide expression analyses in both species. In this process, only data from oligonucleotide probes predicted to have robust hybridization sensitivity and specificity for both transcriptomes are retained for analysis. Results To characterize the utility of this resource, we applied our mask protocols to existing expression data from brains, livers, hearts, testes, and kidneys derived from both species and determined the effects probe numbers have on expression scores of specific transcripts. In all five tissues, probe sets with decreasing numbers of probes showed non-linear trends towards increased variation in expression scores. The relationships between expression variation and probe number in brain data closely matched those observed in simulated expression data sets subjected to random probe masking. However, there is evidence that additional factors affect the observed relationships between gene expression scores and probe number in tissues such as liver and kidney. In parallel, we observed that decreasing the number of probes within probe sets lead to linear increases in both gained and lost inferences of differential cross-species expression in all five tissues, which will affect the interpretation of expression data subject to masking. Conclusion We introduce a readily implemented and updated resource for human and chimpanzee transcriptome analysis through a commonly used microarray platform. Based on empirical observations derived from the analysis of five distinct data sets, we provide novel guidelines

  7. Effects of pattern masks on the formation of perceptual grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Bukhari, Farhan

    2017-09-01

    Mechanisms underlying perceptual grouping serve to bind stimulus components that are contained within grouped patterns. In order to examine the time course of grouping development, grids of spatially isolated dots were followed by pattern masks across a range of SOA. Subjects indicated the predominant perceived grouping of the dot patterns. Masks either spatially superimposed target elements (element mask), or superimposed elements as well as paths among elements (connection mask). Element masks thereby disrupted processing of target elements, while connection masks additionally disrupted representations in regions among elements. It was found that element masks disrupted grouping 12ms after target offset, after which masks had no effect. Connection masks disrupted grouping up to 47ms following target offset. Results suggest grouping mechanisms access the afferent signal for a brief period early in processing, after which binding formation proceeds for an addition 35ms. Shortening connection mask duration to 12ms enhanced performance during a brief temporal window within the interference period. For each set of conditions, target elements were visible during the time frame in which stimulus patterns could not be perceptually grouped. Full-field checkerboard masks degraded discrimination similarly as connection masks, although were more effective in disrupting discrimination with an SOA of 24 and 36ms. Degrading stimulus organization progressively extended the time scale for each masking effect. For the grouping of low-level stimulus features tested here, results support a model in which afferent signals are accessed early, followed by progressive binding among grouped elements. Effect of shortening connection masks may reflect incomplete disruption of target processing, or possibly re-entry of stimulus representations by feedback from higher processing areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of different techniques of laryngeal mask placement in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Babita; Wig, Jyotsna

    2009-06-01

    The insertion of laryngeal mask airway is not always easy in children, and many techniques are described to improve success rate of placement. It is very important to determine the optimal insertion technique as unsuccessful prolonged insertion and multiple attempts are associated with adverse respiratory events and trauma in children. This article will review different techniques studied recently for the placement of classical laryngeal mask airway in children as well as recent findings of cuff pressure and depth of anesthesia for laryngeal mask airway placement. Laryngeal mask airway in children has undergone many modifications such as ProSeal laryngeal mask airway to improve its functioning. This article will also review different insertion techniques for ProSeal laryngeal mask airway. Rotational technique with partially inflated cuff is reported to have the highest success rate of insertion and lowest incidence of complications for classical laryngeal mask airway in children. Clinical endpoints for cuff inflation are associated with significant hyperinflation and increased leakage around the laryngeal mask airway cuff. The inferences regarding the dosage of intravenous anesthetic agents and end-tidal concentration of volatile anesthetics in children to achieve adequate depth for laryngeal mask airway placement are very difficult to draw. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway is associated with a very high first attempt success and overall success of insertion in children. Rotational technique may be considered as the first technique of choice for classical laryngeal mask airway insertion in children. The routine use of cuff pressure monitoring is mandatory during the use of laryngeal mask airway in children. Modification of laryngeal mask airway in children, that is ProSeal laryngeal mask airway, is promising and improves the success rate of insertion.

  9. The masked priming toolbox: an open-source MATLAB toolbox for masked priming researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew D; Tresilian, James; Schlaghecken, Friederike

    2011-03-01

    The Masked Priming Toolbox is an open-source collection of MATLAB functions that utilizes the free third-party PsychToolbox-3 (PTB3: Brainard, Spatial Vision, 10, 433-436, 1997; Kleiner, Brainard & Pelli, Perception, 36, 2007; Pelli, Spatial Vision, 10, 437-442, 1997). It is designed to allow a researcher to run masked (and unmasked) priming experiments using a variety of response devices (including keyboards, graphics tablets and force transducers). Very little knowledge of MATLAB is required; experiments are generated by creating a text file with the required parameters, and raw and analyzed data are output to Excel (as well as MATLAB) files for further analysis. The toolbox implements a variety of stimuli for use as primes and targets, as well as a variety of masks. Timing, size, location, and orientation of stimuli are all parameterizable. The code is open-source and made available on the Web under a Creative Commons License.

  10. Implementing flare compensation for EUV masks through localized mask CD resizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautschik, Christof G.; Chandhok, Manish; Zhang, Guojing; Lee, Sang Hun; Goldstein, Michael; Panning, Eric M.; Rice, Bryan J.; Bristol, Robert L.; Singh, Vivek

    2003-06-01

    Early production EUV exposure tools may have difficulty achieving flare requirements in the 5-6% range for the 32nm technology node. In this case, flare compensation may be needed to achieve the necessary CD control budget for production. This paper explores both experimentally as well as computationally wafer CD compensation though mask CD resizing so that proper CD control across the exposure field can be maintained. Experimental resist data collected on POB#2 of the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) suggest that even a simple linear CD compensation model can signifantly improve CD contorl in the presence of flare variation. Extending a similar concpet to a hypothetical full-field 25×33 mm2 mask area containgin 20 nm gate CDs shwos taht CD compensation, while computationally demanding, can be realized through a convolution approach of a 1×1 mm2 mask area using a non-uniform adaptive grid.

  11. Mask ventilation with two different face masks in the delivery room for preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, D; Mian, Q; Cheung, P-Y; O'Reilly, M; Aziz, K; van Os, S; Pichler, G; Schmölzer, G M

    2015-07-01

    If an infant fails to initiate spontaneous breathing after birth, international guidelines recommend a positive pressure ventilation (PPV). However, PPV by face mask is frequently inadequate because of leak between the face and mask. Despite a variety of available face masks, none have been prospectively compared in a randomized fashion. We aimed to evaluate and compare leak between two commercially available round face masks (Fisher & Paykel (F&P) and Laerdal) in preterm infants mask PPV in the delivery room routinely had a flow sensor placed between the mask and T-piece resuscitator. Infants were randomly assigned to receive PPV with either a F&P or Laerdal face mask. All resuscitators were trained in the use of both face masks. We compared mask leak, airway pressures, tidal volume and ventilation rate between the two groups. Fifty-six preterm infants (n=28 in each group) were enrolled; mean±s.d. gestational age 28±3 weeks; birth weight 1210±448 g; and 30 (52%) were male. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were 5±3 and 7±2, respectively. Infants randomized to the F&P face mask and Laerdal face mask had similar mask leak (30 (25-38) versus 35 (24-46)%, median (interquartile range), respectively, P=0.40) and tidal volume (7.1 (4.9-8.9) versus 6.6 (5.2-8.9) ml kg(-1), P=0.69) during PPV. There were no significant differences in ventilation rate, inflation time or airway pressures between groups. The use of either face mask during PPV in the delivery room yields similar mask leak in preterm infants <33 weeks gestational age.

  12. Noninvasive CPAP with face mask: comparison among new air-entrainment masks and the Boussignac valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistraletti, Giovanni; Giacomini, Matteo; Sabbatini, Giovanni; Pinciroli, Riccardo; Mantovani, Elena S; Umbrello, Michele; Palmisano, Debora; Formenti, Paolo; Destrebecq, Anne L L; Iapichino, Gaetano

    2013-02-01

    The performances of 2 noninvasive CPAP systems (high flow and low flow air-entrainment masks) were compared to the Boussignac valve in 3 different scenarios. Scenario 1: pneumatic lung simulator with a tachypnea pattern (tidal volume 800 mL at 40 breaths/min). Scenario 2: Ten healthy subjects studied during tidal breaths and tachypnea. Scenario 3: Twenty ICU subjects enrolled for a noninvasive CPAP session. Differences between set and effective CPAP level and F(IO(2)), as well as the lowest airway pressure and the pressure swing around the imposed CPAP level, were analyzed. The lowest airway pressure and swing were correlated to the pressure-time product (area of the airway pressure curve below the CPAP level) measured with the simulator. P(aO(2)) was a subject's further performance index. Lung simulator: Boussignac F(IO(2)) was 0.54, even if supplied with pure oxygen. The air-entrainment masks had higher swing than the Boussignac (P = .007). Pressure-time product correlated better with pressure swing (Spearman correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.97) than with lowest airway pressure (ρ = 0.92). In healthy subjects, the high-flow air-entrainment mask showed lower difference between set and effective F(IO(2)) (P mask had lower swing than the Boussignac valve (P = .03) with similar P(aO(2)) increase. High-flow air-entrainment mask showed the best performance in human subjects. During high flow demand, the Boussignac valve delivered lower than expected F(IO(2)) and showed higher dynamic hyper-pressurization than the air-entrainment masks. © 2013 Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. The effects of two kinds of mask (with or without exhaust valve) on clothing microclimates inside the mask in participants wearing protective clothing for spraying pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    2004-01-01

    The study aimed at discovering the effects of wearing two types of protective mask on the clothing microclimate (temperature, humidity) inside the mask, physiological parameters and subjective sensations. Five healthy female students performed intermittent step exercise while wearing the protective clothing in a climate chamber at 28 degrees C and 60% relative humidity (RH). One mask was made of non-woven fabric and had no exhaust valve (mask A), and the other had an exhaust valve (mask B). (1) Clothing microclimate temperature inside the mask was significantly lower in mask B than in mask A. The final values were 35.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C in mask A and 34.6 +/- 0.8 degrees C in mask B. (2) Clothing microclimate humidity inside the mask was significantly lower in mask B than in mask A. The final values were 37.9 +/- 0.9 g/m3 in mask A and 35.7 +/- 2.0 g/m3 in mask B. (3) Cheek skin temperature inside the mask was kept significantly lower in mask B than in mask A. (4) Clothing microclimate humidity at trunk level increased more slowly with mask B than with mask A for four participants. (5) Rectal temperature increased more slowly with mask B than with mask A for three participants. (6) Tympanic temperature increased more slowly with mask B than with mask A for two out of four participants. We discussed these findings from the viewpoint that the dry and wet heat loss was accelerated through the nose under the influence of a reduced level of clothing microclimate inside mask B, having probably helped selective brain cooling by cooling more effectively the vein circulating blood through the nose.

  14. Causal mechanisms of masked hypertension: socio-psychological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2010-04-01

    The contribution of Dr Thomas Pickering's study to the measurement of blood pressure (BP) is the defining aspect of his academic career and achievement - narrowly defined. In this regard, two important areas characterized his study as it relates to masked hypertension. First, he introduced the term, masked hypertension, to replace the rather inappropriate term 'reverse white-coat hypertension' and 'white-coat normotension'; thus drawing attention to the fact that these patients are genuinely hypertensive by ambulatory BP but were missed by normal office BP. More importantly, he rightly maintained that masked hypertension is a true continuum of sustained hypertension rather than an aberrant measurement artifact. Second, is his pivotal study on the important role of psychosocial factors as a potential mechanism for the development of masked hypertension. In this regard, he explained masked hypertension as a conditioned response to anxiety in office settings, and highlighted the role that diagnostic labeling plays in its development. His view of masked hypertension is that of a continuum from prehypertension (based on office BP measurement) to masked hypertension (based on ambulatory BP) and finally to sustained hypertension (based on both office and ambulatory BP). He strongly believes that it is the prehypertensive patients who progress to masked hypertension. Subsequently, patients who are prehypertensive should be screened for masked hypertension and treated. In this manuscript, we summarize his study as it relates to the definition of masked hypertension, the psychosocial characteristics, mechanisms and its clinical relevance.

  15. High-resolution mask inspection in advanced fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, Stephanie; Poock, Andre; Reese, Bryan; Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; Mirzaagha, Farzin; Cox, Stephen; Lang, Michael

    2006-10-01

    High resolution mask inspection in advanced wafer fabs is a necessity. Initial and progressive mask defect problem still remains an industry wide mask reliability issue. Defect incidences and its criticality vary significantly among the type of masks, technology node and layer, fab environment and mask usage. A usage and layer based qualification strategy for masks in production need to be adopted in wafer fabs. With the help of a high-resolution direct reticle inspection, early detection of critical and also non-critical defects at high capture rates is possible. A high-resolution inspection that is capable of providing necessary sensitivity to critical emerging defects (near edge) is very important in advanced nodes. At the same time, a way to disposition (make a go / no-go decision) on these defective masks is also very important. As the impact of these defects will depend on not only their size, but also on their transmission and MEEF, various defect types and characteristics have to be considered. In this technical report the adoption of such a high-resolution mask inspection system in wafer fab production is presented and discussed. Data on this work will include inspection results from advanced masks, layer and product based inspection pixel assignment, defect disposition and overall wafer fab strategies in day-to-day production towards mask inspection.

  16. SU-E-T-65: A Prospective Trial of Open Face Masks for Head and Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, D; Squire, S; Maurer, J; Liu, H; Hayes, L; Sintay, B [Cone Health Cancer Center, Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Open face head and neck masks allow for active patient monitoring during treatment and may reduced claustrophobia and anxiety compared to closed masks. The ability of open masks to limit intrafraction motion and to preserve the patient shape/position from simulation over protracted treatments should be considered. Methods: Thirty-two head and neck patients were prospectively randomized to treatment in a closed mask or a novel open face mask. All patients received daily volumetric imaging. The daily images were automatically rigidly registered to the planning CT’s offline using a commercial image processing tool. The shifts needed to optimize the registration, the mutual information coefficient (MI), and the Pearson correlation (PC) coefficients were recorded to evaluate shape preservation. The open group was set-up and monitored with surface imaging at treatment. The real time surface imaging information was recorded to evaluate intrafraction motion. Results: Sixteen patients were included in each group. Evaluations were made over a total of 984 fractions. The mean MI and PC showed significantly higher shape preservation for the open group than for the closed group (p = 0). The mean rotations for the open group were smaller or < 0.15° larger versus the closed group. The mean intrafraction motion for the open group was 0.93 +/−0.99 mm (2 SD). The maximum single fraction displacement was 3.2 mm. Fourteen of 16 patients showed no significant correlation of motion with fraction number (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The open masks preserved shape as well as the closed masks, and they limited motion to < 2 mm for 95% of the treated fractions. These results are consistent over treatment courses of up to 35 fractions. The open mask is suitable for treatment with or without active monitoring. This work was partially supported by Qfix.

  17. TVWS devices spectrum mask test and analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lamola, MM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available techniques to minimize the amount of interference. To protect Primary Users (TV receivers) from interference, we analyze the spectrum output of a low-cost TVWS device and produce its spectral mask to determine its characteristics. Current Television... can clearly be seen in this Figure. � Figure 3: The measured power of the signal at channel 11 with power level set to 10 dBm. V. CONCLUSION & NEXT STEPS We performed a series of tests to evaluate the viability of secondary usage of TV...

  18. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  19. Model-based virtual VSB mask writer verification for efficient mask error checking and optimization prior to MDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Robert C.; Standiford, Keith; Lukanc, Todd; Ning, Guo Xiang; Verma, Piyush; Batarseh, Fadi; Chua, Gek Soon; Fujimura, Akira; Pang, Linyong

    2014-10-01

    A methodology is described wherein a calibrated model-based `Virtual' Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) mask writer process simulator is used to accurately verify complex Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) mask designs prior to Mask Data Preparation (MDP) and mask fabrication. This type of verification addresses physical effects which occur in mask writing that may impact lithographic printing fidelity and variability. The work described here is motivated by requirements for extreme accuracy and control of variations for today's most demanding IC products. These extreme demands necessitate careful and detailed analysis of all potential sources of uncompensated error or variation and extreme control of these at each stage of the integrated OPC/ MDP/ Mask/ silicon lithography flow. The important potential sources of variation we focus on here originate on the basis of VSB mask writer physics and other errors inherent in the mask writing process. The deposited electron beam dose distribution may be examined in a manner similar to optical lithography aerial image analysis and image edge log-slope analysis. This approach enables one to catch, grade, and mitigate problems early and thus reduce the likelihood for costly long-loop iterations between OPC, MDP, and wafer fabrication flows. It moreover describes how to detect regions of a layout or mask where hotspots may occur or where the robustness to intrinsic variations may be improved by modification to the OPC, choice of mask technology, or by judicious design of VSB shots and dose assignment.

  20. Design of a Multistep Phase Mask for High-Energy Terahertz Pulse Generation by Optical Rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Y.; Makaryan, A.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tonouchi, M.

    2017-12-01

    A new scheme for generating high-energy terahertz (THz) pulses based on using a multistep phase mask (MSPM) is suggested and analyzed. The mask is placed on the entrance surface of the nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal eliminating the necessity of the imaging optics. In contrast to the contact grating method, introduction of large amounts of angular dispersion is avoided. The operation principle of the suggested scheme is based on the fact that the MSPM splits a single input beam into many smaller time-delayed "beamlets," which together form a discretely tilted-front laser pulse in NLO crystal. The analysis of THz-pulse generation in ZnTe and lithium niobate (LN) crystals shows that application of ZnTe crystal is more preferable, especially when long-wavelength pump sources are used. The dimensions of the mask's steps required for high-energy THz-pulse generation in ZnTe and LN crystals are calculated. The optimal number of steps is estimated, taking into account individual beamlet's spatial broadening and problems related to the mask fabrication. The proposed method is a promising way to develop high-energy, monolithic, and alignment-free THz-pulse sources.

  1. High Efficiency Mask Based Laser Materials Processing with TEA-CO2 - and Excimer Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review of the ...... line marking with TEA-CO2 laser of high speed canning lines. The second one is manufactured for marking or microdrilling with excimer laser.......In general, mask based laser materials processing techniques suffer from a very low energy efficiency. We have developed a simple device called an energy enhancer, which is capable of increasing the energy efficiency of typical mask based laser materials processing systems. A short review...... of the most widely used applications of these systems is given and the potential advantages of the energy enhancer are discussed.The basic principle behind the energy enhancing technique is explained and two new energy enhancers are presented and evaluated. The first one is designed especially for single text...

  2. Large area buried nanopatterning by broad ion implantation without any mask or direct writing

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Prasanta; Satpati, Biswarup

    2013-01-01

    We have introduced here a simple, single step and cost effective broad ion beam technique for preparation of nanoscale electronic, magnetic, optical and mechanical devices without the need of resist, mask, or focused electron and ion beams. In this approach, broad beam ion implantation of desired atom on a prefabricated ion beam patterned surface promotes site selective deposition by adjusting the local angle of ion implantation. We show that implantation of Fe ions on an O+ induced pre fabri...

  3. Acoustical Masks and sound aspects of Ancient Greek Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Vovolis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible to imagine the ancient Greek theatre without the mask, whether it is tragedy, comedy or satyr plays. All theatrical forms that developed in Athens during the 6th and 5th centuries BC were forms of masked drama. The mask was an organic element in this new form called theatre because the mask is the medium per excellence for the embodiment of the Other and participates in the creation of the stage as a site of the dialogue between the Self andthe Other. But the mask was an organic element of the theatre because in ancient Greek theatre the mask is organically connected through its facial appearance to the ecstatic cries found in the dramatic texts and to the theatre space through its acoustical form. Acoustics permeated all aspects of the ancient Greek theatre and was a way to create even better participation for the audience enhancing its acoustico-visual and synaesthetic experience.

  4. Contribution of EUV mask CD variability on LCDU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Rankin, Jed; Sun, Lei; Levinson, Harry

    2017-03-01

    The shrink in feature sizes enabled by EUV lithography introduces a regime where stochastic limits to resolution can manifest in the form of line edge roughness (LER) for line/space patterns and local critical dimension uniformity (LCDU) for contact/holes. To meet increasing tolerances on edge placement error (EPE) and suppression of stochastic effects, an understanding of EUV mask contributions on lithographic patterning variability is essential. The work here explores stochastic noise originating from the mask patterning process and attempts to quantify its contributions towards on-wafer LCDU. A semiempirical approach was used to statistically decompose the mask variability component from the measured LCDU and provide a first-order understanding of the mask's impact on wafer. Taking a more direct approach, a one-to-one correlation of local CD variation between mask and wafer was also experimentally shown, presenting the possibility for predicting the contributions and impact of mask LCDU on wafer prior to exposure.

  5. Effects of mask imperfections on InP etching profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, D.T.C.; Yan, M.F.; Wynn, J.D.; Wilt, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have demonstrated that the quality of etch masks has a significant effect on the InP etching profiles. In particular, the authors have shown that mask imperfections can cause defective etching profiles, such as vertical sidewalls and extra mask undercutting in InP. The authors also discovered that the geometry of these defective profiles is determined by the orientation of the substrate relative to the direction of the mask imperfections. Along a left-angle 110 right-angle line mask defect, the downward etching process changes the left-angle 110 right-angle v-grooves to vertical sidewalls without extra undercutting. For v-grooves aligned along the left-angle 110 right-angle direction, defects on the mask give a significant extra undercutting without changing the etching profile

  6. Characterizing the monaural and binaural processes underlying reflection masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    Reflection masked thresholds (RMTs) for the simple scenario of a test reflection masked by the direct sound (200 ms long broadband noise) were measured as a function of reflection delay for diotic and dichotic stimulus presentations. In order to discriminate between contributions to reflection...... masking from simultaneous versus forward masking, the simultaneous RMT was measured in addition to the traditional RMT. Simultaneous RM was realized by truncating the offset of the test reflection such that the test reflection and the direct sound had a common offset. By comparing the experimental results...... for the two RMTs, it is shown that forward masking effects only have a significant effect on reflection masking for delays above 7–10 ms. Moreover, binaural mechanisms were revealed which deteriorate auditory detection of test reflections for delays below 7–10 ms and enhance detection for larger delays...

  7. Random mask optimization for fast neutron coded aperture imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brubaker, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    In coded aperture imaging, one of the most important factors determining the quality of reconstructed images is the choice of mask/aperture pattern. In many applications, uniformly redundant arrays (URAs) are widely accepted as the optimal mask pattern. Under ideal conditions, thin and highly opaque masks, URA patterns are mathematically constructed to provide artifact-free reconstruction however, the number of URAs for a chosen number of mask elements is limited and when highly penetrating particles such as fast neutrons and high-energy gamma-rays are being imaged, the optimum is seldom achieved. In this case more robust mask patterns that provide better reconstructed image quality may exist. Through the use of heuristic optimization methods and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction, we show that for both point and extended neutron sources a random mask pattern can be optimized to provide better image quality than that of a URA.

  8. Collapse of the ear canal during masking for bone conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R C; Ford, C N

    1986-01-01

    Although it is well recognized that collapse of the external meatus can mimic a conductive hearing loss in the test ear, attention must also be directed to the masked ear during masked bone conduction threshold testing. Failure to recognize collapse of the masked ear may result in a false air-bone gap in the test ear. Two such cases are presented and the mechanism analyzed. Suggestions as to identification and resolution of this problem are discussed.

  9. Temporal integration and vibrotactile backward masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, P M; Craig, J C

    1986-05-01

    Subjects were presented with vibrotactile target patterns to their left index fingertips. The target patterns varied in the number of line segments that they contained and were presented in the presence or absence of a backward-masking stimulus. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the target and masker was varied. In an identification task, subjects' errors indicated that the effect of the masker at brief SOAs was to increase the perceived number of line segments in the target. This effect diminished with increasing SOA, and at the longest SOAs subjects confused targets with patterns containing the same number of line segments but varying in how the line segments were related. In an estimation task, the effect of the masker was to increase the number of line segments estimated to be contained in the target pattern. The effect of the masker at brief SOAs is discussed in terms of an integration theory of vibrotactile backward masking. At longer SOAs, the results suggest that the masker may interfere with the extraction of relational information in the target pattern.

  10. Silicon drift detector: device design and mask layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Pourus; Mishra, Vijay; Kataria, S.K.; Rao, Ramgopal

    2005-01-01

    The mask design of Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) to be fabricated at the fabrication lab of IIT Bombay has been done. The mask layout consists of 13 distinct designs of varying geometry and design parameters. The design rules related to the silicon fabrication facility at IITB have been strictly adhered to while designing the mask for SDD. Additional features like alignment marks, reference marks and scribe lines have also been incorporated to facilitate convenient fabrication and ease in dicing of devices after processing. The next step is to get the mask set fabricated commercially and subsequently proceed towards SDD fabrication. (author)

  11. Visually lossless coding based on temporal masking in human vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Velibor; Hock, Howard S.; Kalva, Hari

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a method for perceptual video compression that exploits the phenomenon of backward temporal masking. We present an overview of visual temporal masking and discuss models to identify portions of a video sequences masked due to this phenomenon exhibited by the human visual system. A quantization control model based on the psychophysical model of backward visual temporal masking was developed. We conducted two types of subjective evaluations and demonstrated that the proposed method up to 10% bitrate savings on top of state of the art encoder with visually identical video. The proposed methods were evaluated using HEVC encoder.

  12. Communication masking in marine mammals: A review and research strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Reichmuth, Colleen; Cunningham, Kane; Lucke, Klaus; Dooling, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Underwater noise, whether of natural or anthropogenic origin, has the ability to interfere with the way in which marine mammals receive acoustic signals (i.e., for communication, social interaction, foraging, navigation, etc.). This phenomenon, termed auditory masking, has been well studied in humans and terrestrial vertebrates (in particular birds), but less so in marine mammals. Anthropogenic underwater noise seems to be increasing in parts of the world's oceans and concerns about associated bioacoustic effects, including masking, are growing. In this article, we review our understanding of masking in marine mammals, summarise data on marine mammal hearing as they relate to masking (including audiograms, critical ratios, critical bandwidths, and auditory integration times), discuss masking release processes of receivers (including comodulation masking release and spatial release from masking) and anti-masking strategies of signalers (e.g. Lombard effect), and set a research framework for improved assessment of potential masking in marine mammals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Simulation-based MDP verification for leading-edge masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Syrel, Oleg; Pomerantsev, Michael; Hagiwara, Kazuyuki; Pearman, Ryan; Pang, Leo; Fujimara, Aki

    2017-07-01

    For IC design starts below the 20nm technology node, the assist features on photomasks shrink well below 60nm and the printed patterns of those features on masks written by VSB eBeam writers start to show a large deviation from the mask designs. Traditional geometry-based fracturing starts to show large errors for those small features. As a result, other mask data preparation (MDP) methods have become available and adopted, such as rule-based Mask Process Correction (MPC), model-based MPC and eventually model-based MDP. The new MDP methods may place shot edges slightly differently from target to compensate for mask process effects, so that the final patterns on a mask are much closer to the design (which can be viewed as the ideal mask), especially for those assist features. Such an alteration generally produces better masks that are closer to the intended mask design. Traditional XOR-based MDP verification cannot detect problems caused by eBeam effects. Much like model-based OPC verification which became a necessity for OPC a decade ago, we see the same trend in MDP today. Simulation-based MDP verification solution requires a GPU-accelerated computational geometry engine with simulation capabilities. To have a meaningful simulation-based mask check, a good mask process model is needed. The TrueModel® system is a field tested physical mask model developed by D2S. The GPU-accelerated D2S Computational Design Platform (CDP) is used to run simulation-based mask check, as well as model-based MDP. In addition to simulation-based checks such as mask EPE or dose margin, geometry-based rules are also available to detect quality issues such as slivers or CD splits. Dose margin related hotspots can also be detected by setting a correct detection threshold. In this paper, we will demonstrate GPU-acceleration for geometry processing, and give examples of mask check results and performance data. GPU-acceleration is necessary to make simulation-based mask MDP verification

  14. Quality enhancement of parallel MDP flows with mask suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Erwin; Lee, Rachel; Lee, Chun Der

    2013-06-01

    For many maskshops, designed parallel mask data preparation (MDP) flows accompanying with a final data comparison are viewed as a reliable method that could reduce quality risks caused by mis-operation. However, in recent years, more and more mask data mistakes have shown that present parallel MDP flows could not capture all mask data errors yet. In this paper, we will show major failure models of parallel MDP flows from analyzing MDP quality accidents and share our approaches to achieve further improvement with mask suppliers together.

  15. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2008-01-01

    The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....

  16. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  17. Overlay improvement by exposure map based mask registration optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Irene; Guo, Eric; Chen, Ming; Lu, Max; Li, Gordon; Li, Rivan; Tian, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Along with the increased miniaturization of semiconductor electronic devices, the design rules of advanced semiconductor devices shrink dramatically. [1] One of the main challenges of lithography step is the layer-to-layer overlay control. Furthermore, DPT (Double Patterning Technology) has been adapted for the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, corresponding overlay budget becomes even tighter. [2][3] After the in-die mask registration (pattern placement) measurement is introduced, with the model analysis of a KLA SOV (sources of variation) tool, it's observed that registration difference between masks is a significant error source of wafer layer-to-layer overlay at 28nm process. [4][5] Mask registration optimization would highly improve wafer overlay performance accordingly. It was reported that a laser based registration control (RegC) process could be applied after the pattern generation or after pellicle mounting and allowed fine tuning of the mask registration. [6] In this paper we propose a novel method of mask registration correction, which can be applied before mask writing based on mask exposure map, considering the factors of mask chip layout, writing sequence, and pattern density distribution. Our experiment data show if pattern density on the mask keeps at a low level, in-die mask registration residue error in 3sigma could be always under 5nm whatever blank type and related writer POSCOR (position correction) file was applied; it proves random error induced by material or equipment would occupy relatively fixed error budget as an error source of mask registration. On the real production, comparing the mask registration difference through critical production layers, it could be revealed that registration residue error of line space layers with higher pattern density is always much larger than the one of contact hole layers with lower pattern density. Additionally, the mask registration difference between layers with similar pattern density

  18. A randomised trial comparing the laryngeal mask airway Supreme™ with the laryngeal mask airway Unique™ in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, N; Sohn, L E; Sawardekar, A; Chang, E; Langen, K E; Anderson, K

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a randomised controlled trial comparing the laryngeal mask airway Supreme(™) with the laryngeal mask airway Unique(™) in children. Fifty children presenting for elective surgery were randomly assigned to receive either the laryngeal mask airway Supreme or laryngeal mask airway Unique. The outcomes measured were airway leak pressure, ease and time for insertion, insertion success rate, fibreoptic examination, incidence of gastric insufflation, ease of gastric tube placement through the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, quality of airway during anaesthetic maintenance and complications. Median (IQR [range]) time to successful device placement was shorter with the laryngeal mask airway Unique, 14.5 [13.5-16.3 (10.0-23.6)] s than with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme, 17.4 [14.8-19.8 (11.5-29.2)] s; p = 0.007. Median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressures for the laryngeal mask airway Supreme and laryngeal mask airway Unique were 20 [16-21 (12-22)] cmH(2)O and 15 [14-18 (10-24)] cmH(2)O, respectively (p = 0.001). The incidence of gastric insufflation was lower with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (zero vs six patients), p = 0.01. In conclusion, the laryngeal mask airway Supreme performed as well as the laryngeal mask airway Unique and is a useful alternative for airway maintenance, particularly in children who require evacuation of gastric contents during anaesthesia. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. In cadavers, directly measured mucosal pressures are similar for the Unique and the Soft Seal laryngeal mask airway devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Christian; Brimacombe, Joseph; Moriggl, Bernhard; Lirk, Philipp; von Goedecke, Achim

    2004-01-01

    We compare the Soft Seal and Unique single-use, plastic laryngeal mask airway devices with respect to intracuff pressure, directly measured mucosal pressure and in vitro elastance. Ten fresh male cadavers were studied. Microchip pressure sensors were attached to the following locations: A) the

  20. Actinic inspection of multilayer defects on EUV masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barty, A; Liu, Y; Gullikson, E; Taylor, J S; Wood, O

    2005-01-01

    The production of defect-free mask blanks, and the development of techniques for inspecting and qualifying EUV mask blanks, remains a key challenge for EUV lithography. In order to ensure a reliable supply of defect-free mask blanks, it is necessary to develop techniques to reliably and accurately detect defects on un-patterned mask blanks. These inspection tools must be able to accurately detect all critical defects whilst simultaneously having the minimum possible false-positive detection rate. There continues to be improvement in high-speed non-actinic mask blank inspection tools, and it is anticipated that these tools can and will be used by industry to qualify EUV mask blanks. However, the outstanding question remains one of validating that non-actinic inspection techniques are capable of detecting all printable EUV defects. To qualify the performance of non-actinic inspection tools, a unique dual-mode EUV mask inspection system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In high-speed inspection mode, whole mask blanks are scanned for defects using 13.5-nm wavelength light to identify and map all locations on the mask that scatter a significant amount of EUV light. In imaging, or defect review mode, a zone plate is placed in the reflected beam path to image a region of interest onto a CCD detector with an effective resolution on the mask of 100-nm or better. Combining the capabilities of the two inspection tools into one system provides the unique capability to determine the coordinates of native defects that can be used to compare actinic defect inspection with visible light defect inspection tools under commercial development, and to provide data for comparing scattering models for EUV mask defects

  1. Progressive defects caused by crosstalk between mask fabrication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jongkeun; Choi, Junyeol; Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Koh, Hyungho; Kim, Byunggook; Jeon, Chanuk

    2013-06-01

    Most of defects generated in mask fabrication processes have been mainly created during each unit process. It becomes more important to detect and remove smaller defects on mask as pattern nodes keep shrinking. Each unit processes are getting not only more challenging to sustain mask quality and defect level but also more influencing on other processes for smaller pattern nodes. New type of defects based on such influences (crosstalk) between different processes is starting to emerge, which is requesting for a revision of defect reduction strategy because dealing with crosstalk defects is directly related with quality and TAT of mask manufacturing. It is relatively difficult to properly understand root-cause or working mechanism of defects generated by crosstalk between different processes. This is because interaction between different processes from defect generation perspectives has hardly been studied. In this paper, we introduce emerging progressive defects created while etched masks are undergoing cleaning process or subsequent events of moving to next process or temporary storage. We will investigate how etch gas residues on mask surface remaining after etching process interact with cleaning chemicals or moisture from subsequent process or environment to trigger defect generation and its growth. We will also examine effects of POD outgassing on generation of crosstalk progressive defect. Based on this understanding, appropriate solutions to mitigate defects caused by crosstalk between mask fabrication processes will be proposed. It is believed that new type of progressive defects caused by crosstalk between different mask fabrication processes will be more flourishing in the near future where mask blank materials, mask manufacturing processes, and chemicals need to diversify in order to meet much tighter specifications of mask quality. Therefore, it is very crucial to have right understandings on the interactions between various processes and eradicate

  2. Masking properties of ceramics for veneer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllouriotis, Andreas L; Yamamoto, Hideo L; Nathanson, Dan

    2017-10-01

    The translucency and opacity of ceramics play a significant role in emulating the natural color of teeth, but studies of the masking properties and limitations of dental ceramics when used as monolayer restorations are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the translucency of 6 materials used for veneer restorations by assessing their translucency parameters (TPs), contrast ratios (CRs), and potential to mask dark tooth colors. Ten square- or disk-shaped specimens (0.5-mm thickness, shade A2) were fabricated from Vitablocks Mark II (VMII; Vita Zahnfabrik), IPS e.max CAD LT (EMXC LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max CAD HT (EMXC HT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS Empress CAD LT (EMP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), IPS e.max Press LT (EMXP LT; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), and CZR (CZR; Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc). Their luminance (Y) values over black and over white tiles were measured, followed by their color (CIELab) over black tiles and white tiles and shaded A2 (control group), A3.5, A4, and B4 acrylic resin blocks. All measurements were performed using a spectrophotometer in 2 different areas on each specimen. Then CRs, TPs, and color differences (over shaded backgrounds) were determined. Data were subjected to 1-way and 2-way ANOVA (α=.05) for analysis. Mean CR values of EMXP LT were significantly higher than those of the other tested materials, whereas VMII and EMXC HT had the lowest values (Pmasking properties against the A4 background. The color differences of most tested ceramics were more acceptable when tested against the B4 background (ΔE*≤3.3). Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comodulation masking release in electric hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzycki, Robert H; Seeber, Bernhard U

    2014-04-01

    Comodulation masking release (CMR) is an improvement in the detection threshold of a masked signal that occurs when the masker envelopes are correlated across frequency (i.e., comodulation). CMR can be observed when flanking bands (FBs) of noise co-modulated with an on-frequency band (OFB) noise masker are added at remote frequencies (CMR1), or when co-modulated envelopes are used instead of anti-modulated envelopes (OFB and FB envelopes out of phase, CMR2). For FBs widely separated from the OFB, this process is assumed to rely mostly on across-channel comparison of temporal envelopes. Since cochlear implants (CIs) rely predominantly on the transmission of envelope cues, we investigated if CMR can be observed in electric hearing. We stimulated the auditory nerve of eight CI users with trains of modulated electric pulses presented on an OFB electrode alone, or together with pulse trains on one or two FB electrodes. Participants had to detect signal-induced changes in the envelope of an electric pulse train masker presented on the OFB electrode. Envelopes on FB electrodes were either co-modulated or anti-modulated with the envelope of the OFB masker. We observed CMR1 in one of the eight CI users. However, significant CMR2 was observed in most CI users. Reducing amplitude-modulation rate from 20 to 8 Hz, reducing envelopes' randomness or increasing electrode separation did not generally improve CMR1, but increased the prevalence of CMR2. The present results suggest that comodulation of envelopes can aid signal detection in electric hearing.

  4. Masked hypertension: evidence of the need to treat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Agyemang, Charles; Ravenell, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnosis of masked hypertension has been made easier with the widespread availability of home blood pressure monitoring devices with levels of accuracy comparable to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The negative impact of masked hypertension on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is

  5. Self-masking: Listening during vocalization. Normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Erik; Bergkvist, Christina; Gustafsson, Dan

    2009-06-01

    What underlying mechanisms are involved in the ability to talk and listen simultaneously and what role does self-masking play under conditions of hearing impairment? The purpose of the present series of studies is to describe a technique for assessment of masked thresholds during vocalization, to describe normative data for males and females, and to focus on hearing impairment. The masking effect of vocalized [a:] on narrow-band noise pulses (250-8000 Hz) was studied using the maximum vocalization method. An amplitude-modulated series of sound pulses, which sounded like a steam engine, was masked until the criterion of halving the perceived pulse rate was reached. For masking of continuous reading, a just-follow-conversation criterion was applied. Intra-session test-retest reproducibility and inter-session variability were calculated. The results showed that female voices were more efficient in masking high frequency noise bursts than male voices and more efficient in masking both a male and a female test reading. The male had to vocalize 4 dBA louder than the female to produce the same masking effect on the test reading. It is concluded that the method is relatively simple to apply and has small intra-session and fair inter-session variability. Interesting gender differences were observed.

  6. Abstract This paper provides an introduction to the general mask ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tracie1

    nwuru anwu (spirits of the dead) and their chants. The seriousness of the expression and the mystic aura haloing it is what gives the mmonwu type of mask its feared ... A mask with supernatural powers, regarded as a visible spirit in the community and accorded all spiritual respect; b. A spirit coming from the underground in ...

  7. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  8. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, W.J.; Thien, Th.; Kroon, A.A.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Montfrans, G.A. van; Smit, A.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  9. Prevalence and persistence of masked hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Thien, Theo; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Masked hypertension (MH) is defined as a normal blood pressure in the physician's office and an elevated blood pressure when measured out-of-office. The cause of MH may be termed the masked hypertension effect (MHE), and is not restricted to blood-pressure (BP) values around the

  10. Reusable High Aspect Ratio 3-D Nickel Shadow Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandhi, M.M.H.; Leber, M.; Hogan, A.; Warren, D.J.; Bhandari, R.; Negi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Shadow Mask technology has been used over the years for resistless patterning and to pattern on unconventional surfaces, fragile substrate and biomaterial. In this work, we are presenting a novel method to fabricate high aspect ratio (15:1) three-dimensional (3D) Nickel (Ni) shadow mask with vertical pattern length and width of 1.2 mm and 40 μm respectively. The Ni shadow mask is 1.5 mm tall and 100 μm wide at the base. The aspect ratio of the shadow mask is 15. Ni shadow mask is mechanically robust and hence easy to handle. It is also reusable and used to pattern the sidewalls of unconventional and complex 3D geometries such as microneedles or neural electrodes (such as the Utah array). The standard Utah array has 100 active sites at the tip of the shaft. Using the proposed high aspect ratio Ni shadow mask, the Utah array can accommodate 300 active sites, 200 of which will be along and around the shaft. The robust Ni shadow mask is fabricated using laser patterning and electroplating techniques. The use of Ni 3D shadow mask will lower the fabrication cost, complexity and time for patterning out-of-plane structures. PMID:29056835

  11. My Other Half Manifested in Mask-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Xanthippi

    2010-01-01

    Every fall season, each grade level of Rowland Hall St. Mark's Lower School in Salt Lake City, Utah, completes a mask-making project to be featured in a schoolwide parade. This sparked an opportunity to incorporate the fourth-grade unit of realistic and observational drawing with mask making. In this article, the author describes how her students…

  12. Mask Materials and Designs for Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sik; Ahn, Jinho

    2018-03-01

    Extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) is no longer a future technology but is going to be inserted into mass production of semiconductor devices of 7 nm technology node in 2018. EUVL is an extension of optical lithography using extremely short wavelength (13.5 nm). This short wavelength requires major modifications in the optical systems due to the very strong absorption of EUV light by materials. Refractive optics can no longer be used, and reflective optics is the only solution to transfer image from mask to wafer. This is why we need the multilayer (ML) mirror-based mask as well as an oblique incident angle of light. This paper discusses the principal theory on the EUV mask design and its component materials including ML reflector and EUV absorber. Mask shadowing effect (or mask 3D effect) is explained and its technical solutions like phase shift mask is reviewed. Even though not all the technical issues on EUV mask are handled in this review paper, you will be able to understand the principles determining the performance of EUV masks.

  13. Energy enhancer for mask based laser materials processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastue, Jens; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    A device capable of drastically improving the energy efficiency of present mask based laser materials processing systems is presented. Good accordance between experiments and simulations for a TEA-CO2 laser system designed for laser marking has been demonstrated. The energy efficiency may...... be improved with a factor of 2 - 4 for typical mask transmittances between 10 - 40%....

  14. Environment-aware ideal binary mask estimation using monaural cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    We present a monaural approach to speech segregation that estimates the ideal binary mask (IBM) by combining amplitude modulation spectrogram (AMS) features, pitch-based features and speech presence probability (SPP) features derived from noise statistics. To maintain a high mask estimation...

  15. Mechanisms of Masked Priming: Testing the Entry Opening Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Since it was introduced in Forster and Davis (1984), masked priming has been widely adopted in the psycholinguistic research on visual word recognition, but there has been little consensus on its actual mechanisms, i.e. how it occurs and how it should be interpreted. This dissertation addresses two different interpretations of masked priming, one…

  16. The Role of Polysemy in Masked Semantic and Translation Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Forster, Kenneth; Nicol, Janet; Nakamura, Kumiko

    2004-01-01

    A well-known asymmetry exists in the bilingual masked priming literature in which lexical decision is used: namely, masked primes in the dominant language (L1) facilitate decision times on targets in the less dominant language (L2), but not vice versa. In semantic categorization, on the other hand, priming is symmetrical. In Experiments 1-3 we…

  17. Feature Masking in Computer Game Promotes Visual Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Morey, Jim; Tjoe, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Can learning of mental imagery skills for visualizing shapes be accelerated with feature masking? Chemistry, physics fine arts, military tactics, and laparoscopic surgery often depend on mentally visualizing shapes in their absence. Does working with "spatial feature-masks" (skeletal shapes, missing key identifying portions) encourage people to…

  18. The Sheppard Oxygen Mask: Efficient oxygen enrichment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Discussion. Advantages of the SOM: • Light, disposable, inexpensive. • Can be used with a facemask or endotracheal tube/larygeal mask. • Movement of the reservoir bag enables PACU staff to detect breathing. (A better-fitting mask is now supplied). • Manually-controlled ventilation is possible. • FiO2 can be controlled by ...

  19. The 2002 to 2010 mask survey trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Greg; Chan, David

    2011-03-01

    Microelectronics industry leaders consistently cite the cost and cycle time of mask technology and mask supply as top critical issues. A survey was designed with input from semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers and support from SEMATECH to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. This year's assessment was the ninth in the current series of annual reports. Its data were presented in detail at BACUS, and the detailed trend analysis is presented at EMLC. With continued industry support, the report can be used as a baseline to gain perspective on the technical and business status of the mask and microelectronics industries. The report will continue to serve as a valuable reference to identify the strengths and opportunities of the mask industry. Results will be used to guide future investments in critical path issues. This year's survey is basically the same as the 2005 through 2010 surveys. Questions are grouped into six categories: General Business Profile Information, Data Processing, Yields and Yield Loss Mechanisms, Delivery Times, Returns, and Services. Within each category are multiple questions that ultimately create a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the critical mask industry.

  20. Migration from full-head mask to "open-face" mask for immobilization of patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Lovelock, D Michael; Mechalakos, James; Rao, Shyam; Della-Biancia, Cesar; Amols, Howard; Lee, Nancy

    2013-09-06

    To provide an alternative device for immobilization of the head while easing claustrophobia and improving comfort, an "open-face" thermoplastic mask was evaluated using video-based optical surface imaging (OSI) and kilovoltage (kV) X-ray radiography. A three-point thermoplastic head mask with a precut opening and reinforced strips was developed. After molding, it provided sufficient visible facial area as the region of interest for OSI. Using real-time OSI, the head motion of ten volunteers in the new mask was evaluated during mask locking and 15minutes lying on the treatment couch. Using a nose mark with reference to room lasers, forced head movement in open-face and full-head masks (with a nose hole) was compared. Five patients with claustrophobia were immobilized with open-face masks, set up using OSI and kV, and treated in 121 fractions, in which 61 fractions were monitored during treatment using real-time OSI. With the open-face mask, head motion was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in volunteers during the experiment, and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in patients during treatment. These agree with patient motion calculated from pre-/post-treatment OSI and kV data using different anatomical landmarks. In volunteers, the head shift induced by mask-locking was 2.3 ± 1.7 mm and 1.8° ± 0.6°, and the range of forced movements in the open-face and full-head masks were found to be similar. Most (80%) of the volunteers preferred the open-face mask to the full-head mask, while claustrophobic patients could only tolerate the open-face mask. The open-face mask is characterized for its immobilization capability and can immobilize patients sufficiently (< 2 mm) during radiotherapy. It provides a clinical solution to the immobilization of patients with head and neck (HN) cancer undergoing radiotherapy, and is particularly beneficial for claustrophobic patients. This new open-face mask is readily adopted in radiotherapy clinic as a superior alternative to

  1. X-ray face mask and chest shield device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moti, S.

    1981-01-01

    A protective face mask is designed to shield an x-ray technician or machine operator primarily from random secondary or scatter x-rays deflected towards his face, head and neck by the table, walls, equipment and other reflecting elements in an x-ray room or chamber. The face mask and chest shield device can be mounted on a patient's shoulders in reverse attitude to protect the back of a patient's head and neck from the x-ray beam. The face mask is relatively or substantially transparent and contains lead in combination with a plastic ionomer or comonomer, which to a degree absorbs or resists penetration of the random deflected secondary or scatter x-rays or the x-ray beam through the mask. The face mask is removably attachable to the chest shield for easy application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of the technician or the patient. (author)

  2. MODELING SPECTRAL AND TEMPORAL MASKING IN THE HUMAN AUDITORY SYSTEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Ewert, Stephan D.

    2007-01-01

    An auditory signal processing model is presented that simulates psychoacoustical data from a large variety of experimental conditions related to spectral and temporal masking. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905 (1997)] but inclu......An auditory signal processing model is presented that simulates psychoacoustical data from a large variety of experimental conditions related to spectral and temporal masking. The model is based on the modulation filterbank model by Dau et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905 (1997...... was tested in conditions of tone-in-noise masking, intensity discrimination, spectral masking with tones and narrowband noises, forward masking with (on- and off-frequency) noise- and pure-tone maskers, and amplitude modulation detection using different noise carrier bandwidths. One of the key properties...

  3. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slope be utilized in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However, comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of the masking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated...... with the same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be the audio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise. Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noise maskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths are fixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure tone probes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker. Modulation frequencies between 6 and 20 Hz were used with a modulation depth of 0...

  4. Comparing the Laryngeal Mask Airway, Cobra Perilaryngeal Airway and Face Mask in Children Airway Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Beyza; Hatipoğlu, Zehra; Türktan, Mediha; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2016-04-01

    We compared the effects of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), face mask and Cobra perilaryngeal airway (PLA) in the airway management of spontaneously breathing paediatric patients undergoing elective inguinal surgery. In this study, 90 cases of 1-14-year-old children undergoing elective inguinal surgery were scheduled. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. Anaesthesia was provided with sevoflurane and 50%-50% nitrous oxide and oxygen. After providing an adequate depth of anaesthesia, supraglottic airway devices were inserted in the group I and II patients. The duration and number of insertion, haemodynamic parameters, plateau and peak inspiratory pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure of the patients were recorded preoperatively, after induction and at 5, 10, 15 and 30 min peroperatively. There were no statistical differences between the groups in terms of haemodynamic parameters (p>0.05). In group II, instrumentation success was higher and instrumentation time was shorter than group II. The positive end-expiratory pressure and plateau and peak inspiratory pressure values were statistically lower in group II (pairway safety and to avoid possible complications, LMA and Cobra PLA could be alternatives to face mask and that the Cobra PLA provided lower airway pressure and had a faster and more easy placement than LMA.

  5. Performance characterization of a phase-induced amplitude apodization complex focal plane mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, K.; Belikov, R.; Guyon, O.

    2017-11-01

    The direct imaging of extrasolar planets is a prominent goal for modern astrophysics. Direct imaging is a technique which can detect some planets that are inherently not compatible with the transit or radial velocity techniques. Direct imaging can also make it possible to measure the spectrum of planet light, which can help to characterize the planet atmosphere. A coronagraph is a telescope instrument with the purpose of enabling direct detection of extrasolar planets and performing exoplanet science. A coronagraph operates by nulling the light from a single on-axis star so that the faint light of a nearby exoplanet can be observed. A typical coronagraph creates a focus of the starlight in the focal plane, and has an element known as a focal plane mask to block or manipulate the starlight. Another element in the pupil plane, known as the Lyot mask, is used to control diffraction from the blocked starlight.

  6. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  7. Development of computer program ENMASK for prediction of residual environmental masking-noise spectra, from any three independent environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y.-S.; Liebich, R. E.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    Residual environmental sound can mask intrusive4 (unwanted) sound. It is a factor that can affect noise impacts and must be considered both in noise-impact studies and in noise-mitigation designs. Models for quantitative prediction of sensation level (audibility) and psychological effects of intrusive noise require an input with 1/3 octave-band spectral resolution of environmental masking noise. However, the majority of published residual environmental masking-noise data are given with either octave-band frequency resolution or only single A-weighted decibel values. A model has been developed that enables estimation of 1/3 octave-band residual environmental masking-noise spectra and relates certain environmental parameters to A-weighted sound level. This model provides a correlation among three environmental conditions: measured residual A-weighted sound-pressure level, proximity to a major roadway, and population density. Cited field-study data were used to compute the most probable 1/3 octave-band sound-pressure spectrum corresponding to any selected one of these three inputs. In turn, such spectra can be used as an input to models for prediction of noise impacts. This paper discusses specific algorithms included in the newly developed computer program ENMASK. In addition, the relative audibility of the environmental masking-noise spectra at different A-weighted sound levels is discussed, which is determined by using the methodology of program ENAUDIBL.

  8. ON-SKY DEMONSTRATION OF A LINEAR BAND-LIMITED MASK WITH APPLICATION TO VISUAL BINARY STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepp, J.; Ge, J.; Kravchenko, I.; Serabyn, E.; Carson, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and built the first band-limited coronagraphic mask used for ground-based high-contrast imaging observations. The mask resides in the focal plane of the near-infrared camera PHARO at the Palomar Hale telescope and receives a well-corrected beam from an extreme adaptive optics system. Its performance on-sky with single stars is comparable to current state-of-the-art instruments: contrast levels of ∼10 -5 or better at 0.''8 in K s after post-processing, depending on how well non-common-path errors are calibrated. However, given the mask's linear geometry, we are able to conduct additional unique science observations. Since the mask does not suffer from pointing errors down its long axis, it can suppress the light from two different stars simultaneously, such as the individual components of a spatially resolved binary star system, and search for faint tertiary companions. In this paper, we present the design of the mask, the science motivation for targeting binary stars, and our preliminary results, including the detection of a candidate M-dwarf tertiary companion orbiting the visual binary star HIP 48337, which we are continuing to monitor with astrometry to determine its association.

  9. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L.

    2013-01-01

    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound...... in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners...... who participated in the psychoacoustical experiment. The data indicate differences in N1 and P2 between stimuli with and without interaural phase disparities. However, differences for stimuli with and without coherent masker modulation were only found for P2, i.e., only P2 is sensitive to the increase...

  10. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack

    2012-11-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  11. Fixed mask assembly research for APS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Fixed Mask Assembly (FMA) is the first component to interact with the photon beam. Two sets of a pair of FMA channels, vertically and horizontally disposed, contain the beam rather than define it. They are subject to very large heat fluxes during containment. In current practice, the FMA channels are made of heavy, seamless copper, have rectangular cross-sections, and are cooled internally with water. Channels are set at grazing angles ranging from I to 6 degrees with respect to the beam, depending on the type of insertion device. APS insertion devices will impose higher heat fluxes on FMAS. Therefore, a need exists to improve the FMA engineering, keeping in mind the current design criteria and philosophy of FMAS. Preliminary analysis of current heat transfer practice indicates that the major resistance to heat transfer is on the coolant side. Therefore, FMA cooling would benefit from enhanced heat transfer on the coolant side. With this principle in mind, an experimental program has been undertaken to explore the feasibility of using high-performance copper tube configurations which are expected to yield heat transfer coefficients, open-quotes hclose quotes, in single phase flow systems 2 to 5(?) times higher than equivalent plain tubes. In this report, the experimental scope and a preliminary analysis of high-performance copper tube configurations are described

  12. MASKED AREAS IN SHEAR PEAK STATISTICS: A FORWARD MODELING APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bard, D. [KIPAC, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kratochvil, J. M. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Dawson, W., E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    The statistics of shear peaks have been shown to provide valuable cosmological information beyond the power spectrum, and will be an important constraint of models of cosmology in forthcoming astronomical surveys. Surveys include masked areas due to bright stars, bad pixels etc., which must be accounted for in producing constraints on cosmology from shear maps. We advocate a forward-modeling approach, where the impacts of masking and other survey artifacts are accounted for in the theoretical prediction of cosmological parameters, rather than correcting survey data to remove them. We use masks based on the Deep Lens Survey, and explore the impact of up to 37% of the survey area being masked on LSST and DES-scale surveys. By reconstructing maps of aperture mass the masking effect is smoothed out, resulting in up to 14% smaller statistical uncertainties compared to simply reducing the survey area by the masked area. We show that, even in the presence of large survey masks, the bias in cosmological parameter estimation produced in the forward-modeling process is ≈1%, dominated by bias caused by limited simulation volume. We also explore how this potential bias scales with survey area and evaluate how much small survey areas are impacted by the differences in cosmological structure in the data and simulated volumes, due to cosmic variance.

  13. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  14. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  15. New method of contour-based mask-shape compiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Onizawa, Akira; Sato, Hidetoshi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2007-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, it is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method for a DFM solution in which two dimensional data are extracted for an error free practical simulation by precise reproduction of a real mask shape in addition to the mask data simulation. The flow centering around the design data is fully automated and provides an environment where optimization and verification for fully automated model calibration with much less error is available. It also allows complete consolidation of input and output functions with an EDA system by constructing a design data oriented system structure. This method therefore is regarded as a strategic DFM approach in the semiconductor metrology.

  16. Aperture Mask for Unambiguous Parity Determination in Long Wavelength Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent

    2011-01-01

    A document discusses a new parity pupil mask design that allows users to unambiguously determine the image space coordinate system of all the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) science instruments by using two out-of-focus images. This is an improvement over existing mask designs that could not completely eliminate the coordinate system parity ambiguity at a wavelength of 5.6 microns. To mitigate the problem of how the presence of diffraction artifacts can obscure the pupil mask detail, this innovation has been created with specifically designed edge features so that the image space coordinate system parity can be determined in the presence of diffraction, even at long wavelengths.

  17. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  18. Addressing terrain masking in orbital reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sharad; Cico, Luke

    2012-06-01

    During aerial orbital reconnaissance, a sensor system is mounted on an airborne platform for imaging a region on the ground. The latency between the image acquisition and delivery of information to the end-user is critical and must be minimized. Due to fine ground pixel resolution and a large field-of-view for wide-area surveillance applications, a massive volume of data is gathered and imagery products are formed using a real-time multi-processor system. The images are taken at oblique angles, stabilized and ortho-rectified. The line-of-sight of the sensor to the ground is often interrupted by terrain features such as mountains or tall structures as depicted in Figure1. The ortho-rectification process renders the areas hidden from the line-of sight of the sensor with spurious information. This paper discusses an approach for addressing terrain masking in size, weight, and power (SWaP) and memory-restricted onboard processing systems.

  19. Optimized furosemide taste masked orally disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abbas Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimized orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs containing furosemide (FUR were prepared by direct compression method. Two factors, three levels (32 full factorial design was used to optimize the effect of taste masking agent (Eudragit E100; X1 and superdisintegarant; croscarmellose sodium (CCS; X2 on tablet properties. A composite was prepared by mixing ethanolic solution of FUR and Eudragit E100 with mannitol prior to mixing with other tablet ingredients. The prepared ODTs were characterized for their FUR content, hardness, friability and wetting time. The optimized ODT formulation (F1 was evaluated in term of palatability parameters and the in vivo disintegration. The manufactured ODTs were complying with the pharmacopeia guidelines regarding hardness, friability, weight variation and content. Eudragit E100 had a very slightly enhancing effect on tablets disintegration. However, the effects of both Eudragit E100 (X1 and CCS (X2 on ODTs disintegration time (Y1 were insignificant (p > 0.05. Moreover, X1 exhibited antagonistic effect on the dissolution after 5 and 30 min (D5 and D30, respectively, but only its effect on D30 is significant (p = 0.0004. Furthermore, the optimized ODTs formula showed good to acceptable taste in term of palatability, and in vivo disintegration time of this formula was about 10 s.

  20. The Emergence of Visual Awareness: Temporal Dynamics in Relation to Task and Mask Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Markus; Kammer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    also indicated that the emergence of awareness of single features is variable and might be influenced by the continuity of the feature dimensions. The present work thus suggests that the emergence of awareness is neither purely gradual nor dichotomous, but highly dynamic depending on the task and mask type. PMID:28316583

  1. [Comparison of efficacy for laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) versus common laryngeal mask airway in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Wang-ning; You, Shan; He, Wei; DI, Mei-qin; Xu, Jian; Li, Jun; Lian, Qing-quan

    2013-11-19

    To compare the efficacy of laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) versus common laryngeal mask airway in children with general anesthesia. With local research ethics committee's approval and written informed parental consent, 100 children were randomly divided into groups L (size 2.0 common laryngeal mask airway) and S (size 2.0 laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM)) according to random number (n = 50 each). After anesthesia induction, a common laryngeal mask airway or laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) was inserted and mechanically ventilated. Time and ease for insertion, insertion success rate, airway leak pressure, success rate and ease of disposal sputum collecting tube insertion in group S, quality of airway during anesthetic maintenance, abdominal circumference changes and complications within 24 h post-operation were measured. Compared with group L, abdominal circumference increased less in group S (0.90 ± 0.35 vs 0.43 ± 0.18 cm, n = 46, P children with mechanical ventilation, laryngeal mask airway-Supreme(TM) can be effectively applied to maintain a good airway. And the incidence of gastric insufflation is lower. It is particularly useful for those requiring evacuation of gastric contents during general anesthesia.

  2. Malang Mask Puppet Presentation Structure Arrangement of the Story Rabine Panji as Cultural Tourism Commodity in Malang Regency East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Wara Suprihatin Dyah Pratamawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the model of structure arrangement of Malang Mask Puppet traditional art performance as the tourism commodity. The research method used was single case study with holistic single-case study approach toward the event program done by the traditional art performance group in Malang. It is done as an effort to maintain the existence of tradition art through tourism art performance arrangement. The result was the performance structure of the story (lakon of Rabine Panji in Malang mask puppet performance. Malang mask puppet has been performed in shorter duration so that it became more interesting for the purpose of tourism.How to Cite: Pratamawati, E. W. S. D. (2016. Malang Mask Puppet Presentation Structure Arrangement of the Story Rabine Panji as Cultural Tourism Commodity in Malang Regency East Java. Harmonia: Journal of Arts Research And Education, 16(1, 66-74. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.15294/harmonia.v16i1.4561

  3. Binaural masking release in symmetric listening conditions with spectro-temporally modulated maskers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Stephan D; Schubotz, Wiebke; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2017-07-01

    Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) decrease as target and maskers are spatially separated (spatial release from masking, SRM). The current study systematically assessed how SRTs and SRM for a frontal target in a spatially symmetric masker configuration depend on spectro-temporal masker properties, the availability of short-time interaural level difference (ILD) and interaural time difference (ITD), and informational masking. Maskers ranged from stationary noise to single, interfering talkers and were modified by head-related transfer functions to provide: (i) different binaural cues (ILD, ITD, or both) and (ii) independent maskers in each ear ("infinite ILD"). Additionally, a condition was tested in which only information from short-time spectro-temporal segments of the ear with a favorable signal-to-noise ratio (better-ear glimpses) was presented. For noise-based maskers, ILD, ITD, and spectral changes related to masker location contributed similarly to SRM, while ILD cues played a larger role if temporal modulation was introduced. For speech maskers, glimpsing and perceived location contributed roughly equally and ITD contributed less. The "infinite ILD" condition might suggest better-ear glimpsing limitations resulting in a maximal SRM of 12 dB for maskers with low or absent informational masking. Comparison to binaural model predictions highlighted the importance of short-time processing and helped to clarify the contribution of the different binaural cues and mechanisms.

  4. Pop the Pills without Bitterness-Taste-Masking Technologies for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    masking; fluid bed coating; microencapsulation; complexation; solid dispersion. Author Affiliations. K Gowthamarajan1 Giriraj T Kulkarni M Narendra Kumar. Department of Pharmaceutics JSS College of Pharmacy, Rocklands Ootacamund 643 001, ...

  5. MISR radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or cloudy. A new parameter has...

  6. Defect printability and repair of alternating phase-shift masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Christoph M.; Verbeek, Martin; Mader, Leonhard; Crell, Christian; Pforr, Rainer; Griesinger, Uwe A.

    2000-02-01

    This paper will start with an overview of the different defect types which can occur on alternating phase shifting masks. A test mask with programmed defects of these different types was fabricated. The defect printability was investigated using an AIMS system. These results were correlated to first printing results in the wafer-fab. The results give an overview of the requirements for an inspection and repair system for alternating phase shifting masks. In order to get a better understanding of this printability behavior first simulations of defects using a 3D mask simulation tool were carried out and compared to the measurements. Several examples of quartz-repairs with different qualities are presented together with the influence on the aerial image.

  7. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  8. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this study we intend to fabricate partially transparent petal (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography on high-energy beam sensitive (HEBS) glass and evaluate its...

  9. Use of the Performance Assessment Battery to Determine Mask Wearability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caretti, David

    1997-01-01

    ...) to determine mask wearability. The PAB was customized to assess the psychological domains that most influence subjective comfort including a profile of mood state and measurements of sustained attention and reaction time...

  10. Thermal stress analysis of the SLAC moveable mask. Addendum 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray beams emerging from the new SLAC electron-positron storage ring (PEP) can impinge on the walls of tangential divertor channels. A moveable mask made of 6061-T6 aluminum is installed in the channel to limit wall heating. The mask is cooled with water flowing axially at 30 0 C. Beam strikes on the mask cause highly localized heating in the channel structure. Analyses were completed to determine the temperatures and thermally-induced stresses due to this heating. The current design and operating conditions should result in the entrance to the moveable mask operating at a peak temperature of 88 0 C with a peak thermal stress at 19% of the yield of 6061-T6 aluminum

  11. Kuldne Mask Tallinnasssssss! / Sergei Zhenovatsh ; interv. Hellar Bergmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zhenovatsh, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    Lavastaja Sergei Zhenovatsh oma Teatrikunsti Stuudiost, noortest näitlejatest, Eestist. Lavastaja on Eestis teatrifestivali "Kuldne mask Eestis" raames. 10.-11. okt. etendus Tallinnas, Salme Kultuurikeskuses Nikolai Gogoli näidend "Mängurid"

  12. X-ray face mask and bib device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forshee, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An x-ray protective face mask is made of a relatively transparent lead containing radiation shielding plastics material, and is removably attachable to a chest or bib shield for application of the device to and support upon the shoulders of a technician or a patient. Alternatively, the face mask is formed of a lens portion supported in a plastics frame, upon the lower portion of which is removably attached a bib shield that in turn is removably attachable to an apron. The frame of the face mask, bib shield and apron are preferably lined with lead sheets to protect the neck, face, chest and body of the technician from the random secondary or scatter x-ray beams. The face mask and bib shield can be formed of a moulded plastics material as a unitary device, the lens portion being attached to the frame therefor. (author)

  13. Comodulation masking release in bit-rate reduction systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Poulsen, Torben

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the level dependence of the upper masking slopebe utilised in perceptual models in bit-rate reduction systems. However,comodulation masking release (CMR) phenomena lead to a reduction of themasking effect when a masker and a probe signal are amplitude modulated withthe...... same frequency. In bit-rate reduction systems the masker would be theaudio signal and the probe signal would represent the quantization noise.Masking curves have been determined for sinusoids and 1-Bark-wide noisemaskers in order to investigate the risk of CMR, when quantizing depths arefixed...... in accordance with psycho-acoustical principles. Masker frequencies of500Hz, 1kHz and 2kHz have been investigated, and the masking of pure toneprobes has been determined in the first four 1/3 octaves above the masker.Modulation frequencies between 6Hz and 20Hz were used with a modulationdepth of 0.75. CMR of up...

  14. Investigation and modeling of CPL mask profiles using OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Chen; Lin, Ren-Hao; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Huang, Cheng-Hsuan; Lien, Ta-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Jen; Lee, Gaston; Lee, Hsin-Chang; Yen, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    Mask profile of chromeless phase-shifting lithography (CPL) defined by OCD has been investigated. In CPL masks, unbalanced bombardments caused by different ion accelerations lead to the formation of micro-notch structures. A better understanding of micro-notch structures is essential for quality gating of mask processes to improve of CPL mask profiles. By measuring 12 of 16 elements of Mueller matrix, we are able to set up a model to simulate the depth of micro-notch structure profile which shows good correlation with TEM images. Moreover, values of CD, quartz etching depth and side wall angle acquired by OCD are presented and compared with those obtained by SEM, TEM and AFM, respectively.

  15. ISLSCP II Land and Water Masks with Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the ISLSCP II fixed land/water masks and percentages of land or water in each cell. There are seven zip data files: four produced from a 1-km...

  16. Spatial Attention Enhances Perceptual Processing of Single-Element Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, William; Johnston, James C.; Remington, Roger W.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Shiu and Pashler (1993) reported that precueing masked, single-element displays had negligible effects on identification accuracy. They argued that spatial attention does not actually enhance stimulus perceptibility, but only reduces decision noise. Alternatively, such negative results may arise if cues are sub-optimal, or if masks place an insufficient premium on timely deployment of attention. We report results showing that valid cueing enhances processing of even single-element displays. Spatial attention does indeed enhance perceptual processes.

  17. A comparative study of Laryngeal Mask Airway size 1 vs. i-gel size 1 in infants undergoing daycare procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepanjali; Koul, Archna; Sharma, Bimla; Sood, Jayashree

    2015-04-01

    The i-gel size 1 is a relatively new, single use, second generation supraglottic airway device. This prospective, randomized, observational study compares the suitability of the i-gel size 1 with the classical Laryngeal Mask Airway (cLaryngeal Mask Airway) size 1 in pediatric patients undergoing elective daycare procedures. Forty ASA I and II children (2-5 kg body weight) were randomized to two groups of 20 each, to receive either the i-gel or the cLaryngeal Mask Airway as an airway device. The primary outcome variable was oropharyngeal seal pressure (OSP). We also assessed ease of insertion, number of insertion attempts, time taken for successful insertion and any intra-operative complications. Demographic data did not differ between the two groups. The OSP with the i-gel was 22.30 ± 4.72 cm H2O as compared to 18.05 ± 1.95 cm H2O with the cLaryngeal Mask Airway and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). Displacement of the airway device following change of position was reported less often with the i-gel as compared to the cLaryngeal Mask Airway [n = 1 (5%) vs. n = 5 (35%), P = 0.04]. There were no major complications with either device and rest of all the variables were comparable with both the devices. The OSP of the i-gel size 1 was higher than that of the cLaryngeal Mask Airway. This was statistically significant, although may not be of clinical significance. The i-gel size 1 is less prone to displacement during position changes. However, being a preliminary study carried out on a small number of patients, further trials are warranted to come to any definite conclusion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Masking responses to light in period mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-10-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1(-/-) and Per2(-/-) mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator.

  19. Taste masked thin films printed by jet dispensing

    OpenAIRE

    Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Snowden, Martin; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Taste masking of bitter active substances is an emerging area in the pharmaceutical industry especially for paediatric/geriatric medications. In this study we introduce the use of jet – dispensing as a taste masking technology by printing mucosal thin films of three model bitter substances, Cetirizine HCl, Diphenylhydramine HCl and Ibuprofen. The process was used to dispense aqueous drugs/polymer solutions at very high speed where eventually the drugs were embedded in the polymer matrix. The ...

  20. Masked hypertension: evaluation, prognosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Fabio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2010-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) may be high during usual daily life in one out of 7-8 individuals with normal BP in the clinic or doctor's office. This condition is usually defined as masked hypertension (MH). Prevalence of MH varied across different studies depending on patient characteristics, populations studied, and different definitions of MH. Self-measured BP and ambulatory BP (ABP) have been widely used to identify subjects with MH. Various factors have been identified as possible determinants of MH. Cigarette smoking, alcohol, physical activity, job, and psychological stress may increase BP out of the clinical environment in otherwise normotensive individuals, leading to MH. In most studies, target organ damage was comparable in subjects with MH and those with sustained hypertension, and greater than in those with true normotension. Subjects with MH showed a 1.5- to 3-fold higher risk of major cardiovascular (CV) disease than those with normotension, and their risk was not different from that of patients with sustained hypertension. In an overview of literature, we found that the risk of major CV disease was higher in subjects with MH than in the normotensive subjects regardless of the definition of MH based on self-measured BP (hazard ratio (HR) 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-3.35; P = 0.001) or 24-h ABP (HR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.54-2.60; P who appear to be more likely to have this condition. Antihypertensive treatment is envisaged in these subjects, although the associated outcome benefits are still undetermined.

  1. Taste-masked tacrolimus-phospholipid nanodispersions: dissolution enhancement, taste masking and reduced gastric complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ahmed S

    2017-03-01

    Through the integration of orthogonal central composite design and desirability function, this work aimed to explore the potential of quality by design in understanding the formulation of phospholipid-stabilized tacrolimus nanodispersions by microfluidization. The influence of homogenization pressure, microfluidization time and phospholipid concentration (X1-X3) on nanodispersion performance was studied. Nanodispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. Moreover, masking the unpalatable taste of tacrolimus and reducing the gastric complications were also evaluated. FTIR analysis indicated its interaction with phospholipid. DSC and XRD analysis revealed the amorphous transformation of tacrolimus within nanodispersions. The dissolution was enhanced by 35 folds and 15 folds after 0.5 and 2 h, respectively. Maximum tacrolimus content, yield, polydispersity index, percentages dissolved after 0.5 and 2 h of 99.3%, 100%, 0.864, 39.7% and 95.3%, respectively, with particle size of 160 nm were obtained at X1, X2 and X3 values of 20 000 psi, 6 min and 30%, respectively. The Euclidean distance values demonstrated masking the unpalatable taste and taste perversion to stimuli of tacrolimus in its optimized nanodispersion. Moreover, the ulcerative indices following raw tacrolimus and its optimized nanodispersion oral administration were 6.73 and 2.45, respectively, to indicate that nanodispersion was significantly less irritating to the gastric mucosa.

  2. GLEBUS SAINCIUC’S PAPIER-MÂCHÉ PORTRAIT MASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN ANA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The portrait masks created by Glebus Sainciuc (1919-2012 portray painters, sculptors, musicians, writers, actors, playwrights,filmmakers etc., and they are a proof of the fact that the individual contribution of these persons to the artistic development of our country has not been forgotten. Morphologically, the papier-mâché portrait masks of master Glebus Sainciuc are situated at the limit of painting, graphic drawing and sculpture; the masks were created by the master using the papier-mâché techniques. We should mention that the author’s predilection for the fauvist and naïve techniques in portrait representation, together with the style of his caricatures and small size drawings, infl uenced the caricatures style of his masks. The first portrait masks were created by Glebus Sainciuc in 1957, and by the end of his artistic activity his collection consisted of 350 masks – all depicting different persons, but all sharing the same portrait techniques and showing the inner charm of these persons.

  3. Method of Designing Phase-Shifting Masks Utilizing a Compactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Kazuko; Koyama, Kiyomi; Kiryu, Masakazu

    1994-12-01

    A new method is proposed for designing Levenson-type phase-shifting masks. In this method, phases are assigned in an intermediate layout, and then the intermediate layout is converted to a final layout. In practice, the intermediate layout is a symbolic layout, and the symbolic layout is converted to a mask layout by a compactor. According to the strategy, no conflict spots arise during the operation, which greatly improves design efficiency. This design method is applicable to random patterns in a memory peripheral circuit and in microcomputer chips. As a result of application to the peripheral circuit of dynamic random access memory (DRAM), about 16% shrinkage of the mask area was obtained, compared with a conventional mask. As for a microcomputer chip, 12% shrinkage of mask area was obtained under the condition of 50% shrinkage of aluminum-wire spacing. Together with the interactive method reported before, which is applicable to a memory core circuit, the design of the Levenson-type masks for standard LSIs is totally covered.

  4. Source Separation via Spectral Masking for Speech Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fernandes Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an insight into the use of spectral masking techniques in time-frequency domain, as a preprocessing step for the speech signal recognition. Speech recognition systems have their performance negatively affected in noisy environments or in the presence of other speech signals. The limits of these masking techniques for different levels of the signal-to-noise ratio are discussed. We show the robustness of the spectral masking techniques against four types of noise: white, pink, brown and human speech noise (bubble noise. The main contribution of this work is to analyze the performance limits of recognition systems  using spectral masking. We obtain an increase of 18% on the speech hit rate, when the speech signals were corrupted by other speech signals or bubble noise, with different signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 1, 10 and 20 dB. On the other hand, applying the ideal binary masks to mixtures corrupted by white, pink and brown noise, results an average growth of 9% on the speech hit rate, with the same different signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental results suggest that the masking spectral techniques are more suitable for the case when it is applied a bubble noise, which is produced by human speech, than for the case of applying white, pink and brown noise.

  5. Mask design and fabrication in coded aperture imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shutler, Paul M.E.; Springham, Stuart V.; Talebitaher, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the new concept of a row-spaced mask, where a number of blank rows are interposed between every pair of adjacent rows of holes of a conventional cyclic difference set based coded mask. At the cost of a small loss in signal-to-noise ratio, this can substantially reduce the number of holes required to image extended sources, at the same time increasing mask strength uniformly across the aperture, as well as making the mask automatically self-supporting. We also show that the Finger and Prince construction can be used to wrap any cyclic difference set onto a two-dimensional mask, regardless of the number of its pixels. We use this construction to validate by means of numerical simulations not only the performance of row-spaced masks, but also the pixel padding technique introduced by in ’t Zand. Finally, we provide a computer program CDSGEN.EXE which, on a fast modern computer and for any Singer set of practical size and open fraction, generates the corresponding pattern of holes in seconds

  6. Face mask ventilation--the dos and don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fiona E; Morley, Colin J

    2013-12-01

    Face mask ventilation provides respiratory support to newly born or sick infants. It is a challenging technique and difficult to ensure that an appropriate tidal volume is delivered because large and variable leaks occur between the mask and face; airway obstruction may also occur. Technique is more important than the mask shape although the size must appropriately fit the face. The essence of the technique is to roll the mask on to the face from the chin while avoiding the eyes, with a finger and thumb apply a strong even downward pressure to the top of the mask, away from the stem and sloped sides or skirt of the mask, place the other fingers under the jaw and apply a similar upward pressure. Preterm infants require continuous end-expiratory pressure to facilitate lung aeration and maintain lung volume. This is best done with a T-piece device, not a self-inflating or flow-inflating bag. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A pattern-based method to automate mask inspection files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Baharin, Ezni Aznida Binti; Muhsain, Mohamad Fahmi Bin; Ahmad Ibrahim, Muhamad Asraf Bin; Ahmad Noorhani, Ahmad Nurul Ihsan Bin; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Hurat, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    Mask inspection is a critical step in the mask manufacturing process in order to ensure all dimensions printed are within the needed tolerances. This becomes even more challenging as the device nodes shrink and the complexity of the tapeout increases. Thus, the amount of measurement points and their critical dimension (CD) types are increasing to ensure the quality of the mask. In addition to the mask quality, there is a significant amount of manpower needed when the preparation and debugging of this process are not automated. By utilizing a novel pattern search technology with the ability to measure and report match region scan-line (edge) measurements, we can create a flow to find, measure and mark all metrology locations of interest and provide this automated report to the mask shop for inspection. A digital library is created based on the technology product and node which contains the test patterns to be measured. This paper will discuss how these digital libraries will be generated and then utilized. As a time-critical part of the manufacturing process, this can also reduce the data preparation cycle time, minimize the amount of manual/human error in naming and measuring the various locations, reduce the risk of wrong/missing CD locations, and reduce the amount of manpower needed overall. We will also review an example pattern and how the reporting structure to the mask shop can be processed. This entire process can now be fully automated.

  8. 42 CFR 84.118 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and... OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.118 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and...

  9. Individual SnO2 nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO 2 nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO 2 nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10 6 and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  10. Processing different kinds of semantic relations in picture-word interference with non-masked and masked distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Markus F; Spalek, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Spoken production requires lexical selection, guided by the conceptual representation of the to-be-named target. Currently, the question whether lexical selection is subject to competition is hotly debated. In the picture-word interference task, manipulating the visibility of written distractor words provides important insights: clearly visible categorically related distractors cause interference whereas masked distractors induce facilitation (Finkbeiner and Caramazza, 2006). Now you see it, now you don't: On turning semantic interference into facilitation in a Stoop-like task. We explored the effect of distractor masking in more depth by investigating its interplay with different types of semantic overlap. Specifically, we contrasted categorical with associatively based relatedness. For the former, we replicated the polarity reversal in semantic effects dependent on whether distractors were masked or not. Post-experimental visibility tests showed that weak semantic facilitation with masked distractors did not depend on individual variability in participants' ability to perceive the distractors. Associatively related distractors showed facilitation with non-masked presentation, but little effect when masked. Overall, the results suggest that it is primarily distractor activation strength which determines whether semantic effects are facilitatory or interfering in PWI tasks.

  11. Processing different kinds of semantic relations in picture-word interference with non-masked and masked distractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus F Damian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spoken production requires lexical selection, guided by the conceptual representation of the to-be-named target. Currently, the question whether lexical selection is subject to competition is hotly debated. In the picture-word interference task, manipulating the visibility of written distractor words provides important insights: clearly visible categorically related distractors cause interference whereas masked distractors induce facilitation (Finkbeiner, M., & Caramazza, A., 2006. Now you see it, now you don’t: On turning semantic interference into facilitation in a Stoop-like task. Cortex. We explored the effect of distractor masking in more depth by investigating its interplay with different types of semantic overlap. Specifically, we contrasted categorical with associatively based relatedness. For the former, we replicated the polarity reversal in semantic effects dependent on whether distractors were masked or not. Post-experimental visibility tests showed that weak semantic facilitation with masked distractors did not depend on individual variability in participants’ ability to perceive the distractors. Associatively related distractors showed facilitation with non-masked presentation, but little effect when masked. Overall, the results suggest that it is primarily distractor activation strength which determines whether semantic effects are facilitatory or interfering in PWI tasks.

  12. Masking with faces in central visual field under a variety of temporal schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Marwan; Wilson, Hugh R

    2015-11-01

    With a few exceptions, previous studies have explored masking using either a backward mask or a common onset trailing mask, but not both. In a series of experiments, we demonstrate the use of faces in central visual field as a viable method to study the relationship between these two types of mask schedule. We tested observers in a two alternative forced choice face identification task, where both target and mask comprised synthetic faces, and show that a simple model can successfully predict masking across a variety of masking schedules ranging from a backward mask to a common onset trailing mask and a number of intermediate variations. Our data are well accounted for by a window of sensitivity to mask interference that is centered at around 100 ms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nasal masks or binasal prongs for delivering continuous positive airway pressure in preterm neonates-a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Aparna; Thukral, Anu; Jeeva Sankar, M; Agarwal, Ramesh; Paul, Vinod K; Deorari, Ashok K

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) delivered using nasal masks with binasal prongs. We randomly allocated 72 neonates between 26 and 32 weeks gestation to receive bubble CPAP by either nasal mask (n = 37) or short binasal prongs (n = 35). Primary outcome was mean FiO 2 requirement at 6, 12 and 24 h of CPAP initiation and the area under curve (AUC) of FiO 2 against time during the first 24 h (FiO 2 AUC 0-24 ). Secondary outcomes were the incidence of CPAP failure and nasal trauma. FiO 2 requirement at 6, 12 and 24 h (mean (SD); 25 (5.8) vs. 27.9 (8); 23.8 (4.5) vs. 25.4 (6.8) and 22.6 (6.8) vs. 22.7 (3.3)) as well as FiO 2 AUC 0-24 (584.0 (117.8) vs. 610.6 (123.6)) were similar between the groups. There was no difference in the incidence of CPAP failure (14 vs. 20%; relative risk 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.24-1.93). Incidence of severe nasal trauma was lower with the use of nasal masks (0 vs. 31%; p Nasal masks appear to be as efficacious as binasal prongs in providing CPAP. Masks are associated with lower risk of severe nasal trauma. CTRI2012/08/002868 What is Known? • Binasal prongs are better than single nasal and nasopharyngeal prongs for delivering continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preventing need for re-intubation. • It is unclear if they are superior to newer generation nasal masks in preterm neonates requiring CPAP. What is New? • Oxygen requirement during the first 24 h of CPAP delivery is comparable with use of nasal masks and binasal prongs. • Use of nasal masks is, however, associated with significantly lower risk of severe grades of nasal injury.

  14. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H.

    2014-01-01

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal registered or Open Face registered mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast registered -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  15. Correction: Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2011-11-30

    ABSTRACT: Following the publication of our article [Inferior alveolar nerve injury with laryngeal mask airway: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports 2011, 5:122] it was brought to our attention that we inadvertently used the registered trademark of the Laryngeal Mask Company Limited (LMA) as the abbreviation for laryngeal mask airway. A Portex(R) Soft Seal(R) Laryngeal Mask was used and not a device manufactured by the Laryngeal Mask Company.

  16. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) - Joint Strike Fighter (JSF): Speech Intelligibility Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    iv LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. F-35 Gen II HMD with JSF O2 Mask (above) and without JSF O2 Mask (below...2015-3673. Figure 1. F-35 Gen II HMD with JSF O2 Mask (above) and without JSF O2 Mask (below) The JSAM-JSF will be worn in...measurements. For all configurations, the talker wore the Gen II HMD with JSF O2 mask and the earplug for that configuration. The listener wore all

  17. Measurements from preterm infants to guide face mask size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Joyce E; Thio, Marta; Owen, Louise S; Wong, Connie; Dawson, Jennifer A; Davis, Peter G

    2016-07-01

    International guidelines recommend that an appropriately sized face mask for providing positive pressure ventilation should cover the mouth and nose but not the eyes and should not overlap the chin. This study aimed to measure the dimensions of preterm infants' faces and compare these with the size of the most commonly available face masks (external diameter 50 mm) and the smallest masks available (external diameters 35 and 42 mm). Infants 24-33 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) were photographed in a standardised manner. Images were analysed using ImageJ software (National Institute of Health, USA) to calculate the distance from the nasofrontal groove to the mental protuberance. This facial measurement corresponds to the external diameter of an optimally fitting mask. A cohort of 107 infants between 24 and 33 weeks' gestational age, including at least 10 infants per week of gestation, was photographed within 72 h after birth and weekly until 33 weeks' PMA. 347 photographs were analysed. Infants of 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32 weeks' PMA had mean (SD) facial measurements of 32 (2), 36 (3), 38 (4), 41 (2) and 43 (4) mm, respectively. There were no significant differences when examined by gender or when small for gestational age infants were excluded. The smallest size of some brands of mask is too large for many preterm infants. Masks of 35 mm diameter are suitable for infants Masks of 42 mm diameter are suitable for infants 27-33 weeks' PMA or 750-2500 g. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Masking in reports of "most serious" events: bias in estimators of sports injury incidence in Canadian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveys that collect information on injuries often focus on the single "most serious" event to help limit recall error and reduce survey length. However, this can mask less serious injuries and result in biased incidence estimates for specific injury subcategories. Methods: Data from the 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey and from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP were used to compare estimates of sports injury incidence in Canadian children. Results: HBSC data indicate that 6.7% of children report sustaining a sports injury that required an emergency department (ED visit. However, details were only collected on a child's "most serious" injury, so children who had multiple injuries requiring an ED visit may have had sports injuries that went unreported. The rate of 6.7% can be seen to be an underestimate by as much as 4.3%. Corresponding CHIRPP surveillance data indicate an incidence of 9.9%. Potential masking bias is also highlighted in our analysis of injuries attended by other health care providers. Conclusion: The "one most serious injury" line of questioning induces potentially substantial masking bias in the estimation of sports injury incidence, which limits researchers' ability to quantify the burden of sports injury. Longer survey recall periods naturally lead to greater masking. The design of future surveys should take these issues into account. In order to accurately inform policy decisions and the direction of future research, researchers must be aware of these limitations.

  19. Comparison of Aerosol Delivery by Face Mask and Tracheostomy Collar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugis, Alaa A; Sheard, Meryl M; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert J; Ari, Arzu

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a tracheostomy collar, Wright mask, and aerosol mask attached to a jet nebulizer in facilitating aerosolized medication delivery to the lungs. We also compared albuterol delivery with open versus closed fenestration and determined the effect of inspiratory-expiratory ratio (I:E) on aerosol delivery. Albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered to an in vitro model consisting of an adult teaching mannequin extrathoracic and upper airway with stoma intubated with an 8-mm fenestrated tracheostomy tube. The cuff was deflated. A collecting filter at the level of the bronchi was connected to a breathing simulator at a tidal volume of 400 mL, breathing frequency of 20 breaths/min, and I:E of 2:1 and 1:2. A jet nebulizer was operated with O2 at 8 L/min. Each interface was tested in triplicate. The flow was discontinued at the end of nebulization. For each test, the nebulizer was attached to a tracheostomy collar with the fenestration open or closed, a Wright mask, or an aerosol mask. Drug was analyzed by spectrophotometry (276 nm). A paired t test and analysis of variance were performed (P tracheostomy collar with a closed fenestration (9.4 ± 1.5%) compared with an open fenestration (7.0 ± 0.8%). The doses delivered with the Wright mask (4.1 ± 0.6%) and aerosol mask (3.5 ± 0.04%) were both less than with the tracheostomy collar under either condition (P tracheostomy collar with an open fenestration (11.6 ± 1.4%), Wright mask (7.2 ± 0.6%), and aerosol mask (6.1 ± 0.5%). In an adult tracheostomy model, the tracheostomy collar delivered more aerosol to the bronchi than the Wright or aerosol mask. An I:E of 2:1 caused greater aerosol deposition compared with an I:E of 1:2. During aerosol administration via a tracheostomy collar, closing the fenestration improved aerosol delivery. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Getting the Cocktail Party Started: Masking Effects in Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel; McGettigan, Carolyn; Agnew, Zarinah K; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K

    2016-03-01

    Spoken conversations typically take place in noisy environments, and different kinds of masking sounds place differing demands on cognitive resources. Previous studies, examining the modulation of neural activity associated with the properties of competing sounds, have shown that additional speech streams engage the superior temporal gyrus. However, the absence of a condition in which target speech was heard without additional masking made it difficult to identify brain networks specific to masking and to ascertain the extent to which competing speech was processed equivalently to target speech. In this study, we scanned young healthy adults with continuous fMRI, while they listened to stories masked by sounds that differed in their similarity to speech. We show that auditory attention and control networks are activated during attentive listening to masked speech in the absence of an overt behavioral task. We demonstrate that competing speech is processed predominantly in the left hemisphere within the same pathway as target speech but is not treated equivalently within that stream and that individuals who perform better in speech in noise tasks activate the left mid-posterior superior temporal gyrus more. Finally, we identify neural responses associated with the onset of sounds in the auditory environment; activity was found within right lateralized frontal regions consistent with a phasic alerting response. Taken together, these results provide a comprehensive account of the neural processes involved in listening in noise.

  1. Metal oxide multilayer hard mask system for 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmei; Salmi, Emma; Vehkamäki, Marko; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the preparation and exploitation of multilayer metal oxide hard masks for lithography and 3D nanofabrication. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) technologies are applied for mask deposition and mask patterning, respectively. A combination of ALD and FIB was used and a patterning procedure was developed to avoid the ion beam defects commonly met when using FIB alone for microfabrication. ALD grown Al2O3/Ta2O5/Al2O3 thin film stacks were FIB milled with 30 keV gallium ions and chemically etched in 5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide at 50 °C. With metal evaporation, multilayers consisting of amorphous oxides Al2O3 and Ta2O5 can be tailored for use in 2D lift-off processing, in preparation of embedded sub-100 nm metal lines and for multilevel electrical contacts. Good pattern transfer was achieved by lift-off process from the 2D hard mask for micro- and nano-scaled fabrication. As a demonstration of the applicability of this method to 3D structures, self-supporting 3D Ta2O5 masks were made from a film stack on gold particles. Finally, thin film resistors were fabricated by utilizing controlled stiction of suspended Ta2O5 structures.

  2. Can office blood pressure readings predict masked hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsnefes, Mark M; Pierce, Chris; Flynn, Joseph; Samuels, Joshua; Dionne, Janis; Furth, Susan; Warady, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Studies in children with chronic kidney disease indicate a high prevalence of masked hypertension detected by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). However, it is not well known if the frequency of masked hypertension is related to the level of normal casual blood pressure (BP). We hypothesized that lower levels of normal casual BP are associated with a lower prevalence of masked hypertension. Data from the chronic kidney disease (CKiD) cohort were analyzed cross-sectionally across multiple visits. The majority of children with normal casual BP also had normal wake and sleep ABP (60 %), even at the highest percentiles of casual BP. The frequency of masked hypertension was lower in children with casual BP ≤25th percentile versus those with casual BP in 26-50th percentile and casual BP in 51-90th percentile during both wake and sleep periods. In children with the lowest normal casual BP levels (≤25th percentile), the frequency of abnormal mean wake or sleep ABP was 2-7 %, and of abnormal BP load was 6-16 %. These data suggest that masked hypertension is unlikely if the casual BP is found to be in the low normal range.

  3. Pattern inspection of etched multilayer extreme ultraviolet mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Susumu; Hirano, Ryoichi; Amano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2016-04-01

    Patterned mask inspection for an etched multilayer (ML) extreme ultraviolet mask was investigated. In order to optimize the mask structure from the standpoint of a pattern inspection the mask structure not only from the standpoint of a pattern inspection by using a projection electron microscope but also by using a projection electron microscope but also by considering the other fabrication processes using electron beam techniques such as critical dimension metrology and mask repair, we employed a conductive layer between the ML and substrate. By measuring the secondary electron emission coefficients of the candidate materials for the conductive layer, we evaluated the image contrast and the influence of the charging effect. In the cases of 40-pair ML, 16-nm-sized extrusion and intrusion defects were found to be detectable more than 10 sigma in half pitch 44, 40, and 32 nm line-and-space patterns. Reducing 40-pair ML to 20-pair ML degraded the image contrast and the defect detectability. However, by selecting B4C as a conductive layer, 16-nm-sized defects and etching residues remained detectable. The 16-nm-sized defects were also detected after the etched part was refilled with Si. A double-layer structure with 2.5-nm-thick B4C on metal film used as a conductive layer was found to have sufficient conductivity and also was found to be free from the surface charging effect and influence of native oxide.

  4. A spatial domain optimization method to generate plane dependent masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yifeng

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic screening technique uses a fixed threshold array to generate halftoned images. When this technique is applied to color images, an important problem is how to generate the masks for different color planes. Ideally, a set of plane dependent color masks should have the following characteristics: a) when total ink coverage is less than 100%, no dots in different colors should overlap from each other. b) for each individual mask, dot distribution should be uniform, c) no visual artifact should be visible due to the low frequency patterns. In this paper, we propose a novel color mask generation method in which the optimal dot placement is searched directly in spatial domain. The advantage of using the spatial domain approach is that we can control directly the dot uniformity during the optimization, and we can also cope with the color plane-dependency by introducing some inter-plane constraints. We will show that using this method, we can generate plane dependent color masks with the characteristics mentioned above.

  5. Bacterial cellulose skin masks-Properties and sensory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Guilherme; de Mello, Carolina Véspoli; Chiari-Andréo, Bruna Galdorfini; Isaac, Vera Lucia Borges; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; Pecoraro, Édison; Trovatti, Eliane

    2017-09-29

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a versatile material produced by microorganisms in the form of a membranous hydrogel, totally biocompatible, and endowed with high mechanical strength. Its high water-holding capacity based on its highly porous nanofibrillar structure allows BC to incorporate and to release substances very fast, thus being suitable for the preparation of skincare masks. The preparation and characterization of cosmetic masks based on BC membranes and active cosmetics. The masks were prepared by the simple incorporation of the cosmetic actives into BC membranes, used as a swelling matrix. The masks were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sensory tests, and skin moisture tests on volunteers. The results of sensory tests revealed the good performance of BC, being considered effective by the panel of volunteers, specially for adhesion to the skin (7.7 at the score scale), and improvement of the skin moisture (the hydration effect increased 76% in 75% of the volunteers that used vegetable extract mask formulation [VEM]), or a decrease in skin hydration (80% of the volunteers showed 32.6% decrease on skin hydration using propolis extract formulation [PEM] treatment), indicating the BC nanofiber membranes can be used to skincare applications. The results demonstrate the BC can be used as an alternative support for cosmetic actives for skin treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Automatic pattern localization across layout database and photolithography mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Philippe; Brault, Frederic; Beisser, Eric; Ache, Oliver; Röth, Klaus-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Advanced process photolithography masks require more and more controls for registration versus design and critical dimension uniformity (CDU). The distribution of the measurement points should be distributed all over the whole mask and may be denser in areas critical to wafer overlay requirements. This means that some, if not many, of theses controls should be made inside the customer die and may use non-dedicated patterns. It is then mandatory to access the original layout database to select patterns for the metrology process. Finding hundreds of relevant patterns in a database containing billions of polygons may be possible, but in addition, it is mandatory to create the complete metrology job fast and reliable. Combining, on one hand, a software expertise in mask databases processing and, on the other hand, advanced skills in control and registration equipment, we have developed a Mask Dataprep Station able to select an appropriate number of measurement targets and their positions in a huge database and automatically create measurement jobs on the corresponding area on the mask for the registration metrology system. In addition, the required design clips are generated from the database in order to perform the rendering procedure on the metrology system. This new methodology has been validated on real production line for the most advanced process. This paper presents the main challenges that we have faced, as well as some results on the global performances.

  7. Switching dual layer display with dynamic LCD mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Reichow, Mark

    2013-03-01

    The Switching Dual Layer Display with a Dynamic LCD Mask is a multi-layer three-dimensional display capable of independent layer content and occlusion between layers. The display consists of a spaced stack of transparent LCD panel and LCD monitor synchronously switching between content, mask, and backlight states. In the first state, the back layer displays white and the front layer displays its content. The back layer acts as a backlight for the front layer, making the front layer content visible. In the second state, the back layer displays content and the front layer displays a mask. The back layer content is occluded by the front layer mask. Rapidly alternating between states, the viewer perceives opaque high-contrast foreground content occluding the background. Besides multi-plane imagery, depth-blending using opacity allows for smooth 3D volumetric imagery at the cost of reduced field of view. The addition of a relay mirror and a phantom mask allows solid appearing front layer content to optically float above and occlude the back layer. The floating front layer is non-physical, so both display layers are accessible for interactive applications.

  8. Cycle time reduction by Html report in mask checking flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Cheng; Lu, Min-Ying; Fang, Xiang; Shen, Ming-Feng; Ma, Shou-Yuan; Yang, Chuen-Huei; Tsai, Joe; Lee, Rachel; Deng, Erwin; Lin, Ling-Chieh; Liao, Hung-Yueh; Tsai, Jenny; Bowhill, Amanda; Vu, Hien; Russell, Gordon

    2017-07-01

    The Mask Data Correctness Check (MDCC) is a reticle-level, multi-layer DRC-like check evolved from mask rule check (MRC). The MDCC uses extended job deck (EJB) to achieve mask composition and to perform a detailed check for positioning and integrity of each component of the reticle. Different design patterns on the mask will be mapped to different layers. Therefore, users may be able to review the whole reticle and check the interactions between different designs before the final mask pattern file is available. However, many types of MDCC check results, such as errors from overlapping patterns usually have very large and complex-shaped highlighted areas covering the boundary of the design. Users have to load the result OASIS file and overlap it to the original database that was assembled in MDCC process on a layout viewer, then search for the details of the check results. We introduce a quick result-reviewing method based on an html format report generated by Calibre® RVE. In the report generation process, we analyze and extract the essential part of result OASIS file to a result database (RDB) file by standard verification rule format (SVRF) commands. Calibre® RVE automatically loads the assembled reticle pattern and generates screen shots of these check results. All the processes are automatically triggered just after the MDCC process finishes. Users just have to open the html report to get the information they need: for example, check summary, captured images of results and their coordinates.

  9. Objective measures of binaural masking level differences and comodulation masking release based on late auditory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Bastian; Yasin, Ifat; Verhey, Jesko L

    2013-12-01

    The audibility of important sounds is often hampered due to the presence of other masking sounds. The present study investigates if a correlate of the audibility of a tone masked by noise is found in late auditory evoked potentials measured from human listeners. The audibility of the target sound at a fixed physical intensity is varied by introducing auditory cues of (i) interaural target signal phase disparity and (ii) coherent masker level fluctuations in different frequency regions. In agreement with previous studies, psychoacoustical experiments showed that both stimulus manipulations result in a masking release (i: binaural masking level difference; ii: comodulation masking release) compared to a condition where those cues are not present. Late auditory evoked potentials (N1, P2) were recorded for the stimuli at a constant masker level, but different signal levels within the same set of listeners who participated in the psychoacoustical experiment. The data indicate differences in N1 and P2 between stimuli with and without interaural phase disparities. However, differences for stimuli with and without coherent masker modulation were only found for P2, i.e., only P2 is sensitive to the increase in audibility, irrespective of the cue that caused the masking release. The amplitude of P2 is consistent with the psychoacoustical finding of an addition of the masking releases when both cues are present. Even though it cannot be concluded where along the auditory pathway the audibility is represented, the P2 component of auditory evoked potentials is a candidate for an objective measure of audibility in the human auditory system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Selective-area growth of GaN nanowires on SiO{sub 2}-masked Si (111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, J. E.; Doundoulakis, G. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Lymperakis, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Eftychis, S.; Georgakilas, A., E-mail: alexandr@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Konstantinidis, G. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology–Hellas, N. Plastira 100, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Olziersky, A.; Dimitrakis, P.; Ioannou-Sougleridis, V.; Normand, P. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou and Neapoleos 27, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Koukoula, T.; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2016-06-14

    We analyze a method to selectively grow straight, vertical gallium nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) at sites specified by a silicon oxide mask, which is thermally grown on silicon (111) substrates and patterned by electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching. The investigated method requires only one single molecular beam epitaxy MBE growth process, i.e., the SiO{sub 2} mask is formed on silicon instead of on a previously grown GaN or AlN buffer layer. We present a systematic and analytical study involving various mask patterns, characterization by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, as well as numerical simulations, to evaluate how the dimensions (window diameter and spacing) of the mask affect the distribution of the nanowires, their morphology, and alignment, as well as their photonic properties. Capabilities and limitations for this method of selective-area growth of nanowires have been identified. A window diameter less than 50 nm and a window spacing larger than 500 nm can provide single nanowire nucleation in nearly all mask windows. The results are consistent with a Ga diffusion length on the silicon dioxide surface in the order of approximately 1 μm.

  11. Modified N95 mask delivers high inspired oxygen concentrations while effectively filtering aerosolized microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardimae, Alexandra; Slessarev, Marat; Han, Jay; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sasano, Nobuko; Azami, Takafumi; Fedorko, Ludwik; Savage, Tim; Fowler, Rob; Fisher, Joseph A

    2006-10-01

    In a pandemic, hypoxic patients will require an effective oxygen (O2) delivery mask that protects them from inhaling aerosolized particles produced by others, as well as protecting the health care provider from exposure from the patient. We modified an existing N95 mask to optimize O2 supplementation while maintaining respiratory isolation. An N95 mask was modified to deliver O2 by inserting a plastic manifold consisting of a 1-way inspiratory valve, an O2 inlet and a gas reservoir. In a prospective repeated-measures study, we studied 10 healthy volunteers in each of 3 phases, investigating (1) the fractional inspiratory concentrations of O2 (F(I)O2) delivered by the N95 O2 mask, the Hi-Ox80 O2 mask, and the nonrebreathing mask during resting ventilation and hyperventilation, each at 3 O2 flow rates; (2) the ability of the N95 mask, the N95 O2 mask, and the nonrebreathing mask to filter microparticles from ambient air; and (3) to contain microparticles generated inside the mask. The F(I)O2s (median [range]) delivered by the Hi-Ox80 O2 mask, the N95 O2 mask, and the nonrebreathing mask during resting ventilation, at 8 L/minute O2 flow, were 0.90 (0.79 to 0.96), 0.68 (0.60 to 0.85), and 0.59 (0.52 to 0.68), respectively. During hyperventilation, the FiO2s of all 3 masks were clinically equivalent. The N95 O2 mask, but not the nonrebreathing mask, provided the same efficiency of filtration of internal and external particles as the original N95, regardless of O2 flow into the mask. An N95 mask can be modified to administer a clinically equivalent FiO2 to a nonrebreathing mask while maintaining its filtration and isolation capabilities.

  12. Complex Pupil Masks for Aberrated Imaging of Closely Spaced Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A. N. K.; Sagar, D. K.; Khonina, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Current approach demonstrates the suppression of optical side-lobes and the contraction of the main lobe in the composite image of two object points of the optical system under the influence of defocusing effect when an asymmetric phase edges are imposed over the apodized circular aperture. The resolution of two point sources having different intensity ratio is discussed in terms of the modified Sparrow criterion, functions of the degree of coherence of the illumination, the intensity difference and the degree of asymmetric phase masking. Here we have introduced and explored the effects of focus aberration (defect-of-focus) on the two-point resolution of the optical systems. Results on the aberrated composite image of closely spaced objects with amplitude mask and asymmetric phase masks forms a significant contribution in astronomical and microscopic observations.

  13. Taste masked thin films printed by jet dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoutaris, Nikolaos; Snowden, Martin; Douroumis, Dennis

    2015-10-30

    Taste masking of bitter active substances is an emerging area in the pharmaceutical industry especially for paediatric/geriatric medications. In this study we introduce the use of jet dispensing as a taste masking technology by printing mucosal thin films of three model bitter substances, Cetirizine HCl, Diphenylhydramine HCl and Ibuprofen. The process was used to dispense aqueous drugs/polymer solutions at very high speed where eventually the drugs were embedded in the polymer matrix. The in vivo evaluation of jet-dispensed mucosal films showed excellent taste masking for drug loadings from 20 to 40%. Jet dispensing was proved to make uniform, accurate and reproducible thin films with excellent content uniformity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigeldinger, Georg [Livermore, CA; Skala, Dawn M [Fremont, CA; Griffiths, Stewart K [Livermore, CA; Talin, Albert Alec [Livermore, CA; Losey, Matthew W [Livermore, CA; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter [Dublin, CA

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  15. Influence of binary mask estimation errors on robust speaker identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Missing-data strategies have been developed to improve the noise-robustness of automatic speech recognition systems in adverse acoustic conditions. This is achieved by classifying time-frequency (T-F) units into reliable and unreliable components, as indicated by a so-called binary mask. Different...... approaches have been proposed to handle unreliable feature components, each with distinct advantages. The direct masking (DM) approach attenuates unreliable T-F units in the spectral domain, which allows the extraction of conventionally used mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). Instead of attenuating....... Since each of these approaches utilizes the knowledge about reliable and unreliable feature components in a different way, they will respond differently to estimation errors in the binary mask. The goal of this study was to identify the most effective strategy to exploit knowledge about reliable...

  16. Clay facial masks: physicochemical stability at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zague, Vivian; de Almeida Silva, Diego; Baby, André Rolim; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles

    2007-01-01

    Clay facial masks--formulations that contain a high percentage of solids dispersed in a liquid vehicle--have become of special interest due to specific properties presented by clays, such as particle size, cooling index, high adsorption capacity, and plasticity. Although most of the physicochemical properties of clay dispersions have been studied, specific aspects concerning the physicochemical stability of clay mask products remain unclear. This work aimed at investigating the accelerated physicochemical stability of clay mask formulations stored at different temperatures. Formulations were subjected to centrifuge testing and to thermal treatment for 15 days, during which temperature was varied from -5.0 degrees to 45.0 degrees C. The apparent viscosity and visual aspect (homogeneity) of all formulations were affected by temperature variation, whereas color, odor, and pH value remained unaltered. These results, besides the estimation of physicochemical stability under aging, can be useful in determining the best storage conditions for clay-based formulations.

  17. Classification and printability of EUV mask defects from SEM images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonil; Price, Daniel; Morgan, Paul A.; Rost, Daniel; Satake, Masaki; Tolani, Vikram L.

    2017-10-01

    Classification and Printability of EUV Mask Defects from SEM images EUV lithography is starting to show more promise for patterning some critical layers at 5nm technology node and beyond. However, there still are many key technical obstacles to overcome before bringing EUV Lithography into high volume manufacturing (HVM). One of the greatest obstacles is manufacturing defect-free masks. For pattern defect inspections in the mask-shop, cutting-edge 193nm optical inspection tools have been used so far due to lacking any e-beam mask inspection (EBMI) or EUV actinic pattern inspection (API) tools. The main issue with current 193nm inspection tools is the limited resolution for mask dimensions targeted for EUV patterning. The theoretical resolution limit for 193nm mask inspection tools is about 60nm HP on masks, which means that main feature sizes on EUV masks will be well beyond the practical resolution of 193nm inspection tools. Nevertheless, 193nm inspection tools with various illumination conditions that maximize defect sensitivity and/or main-pattern modulation are being explored for initial EUV defect detection. Due to the generally low signal-to-noise in the 193nm inspection imaging at EUV patterning dimensions, these inspections often result in hundreds and thousands of defects which then need to be accurately reviewed and dispositioned. Manually reviewing each defect is difficult due to poor resolution. In addition, the lack of a reliable aerial dispositioning system makes it very challenging to disposition for printability. In this paper, we present the use of SEM images of EUV masks for higher resolution review and disposition of defects. In this approach, most of the defects detected by the 193nm inspection tools are first imaged on a mask SEM tool. These images together with the corresponding post-OPC design clips are provided to KLA-Tencor's Reticle Decision Center (RDC) platform which provides ADC (Automated Defect Classification) and S2A (SEM

  18. Development of movable mask system to cope with high beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Sanami, T.; Kageyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The KEK B factory (KEKB), a high current electron-positron collider, has a movable mask (or collimator) system to reduce the background noise in the BELLE detector coming from spent particles. The early movable masks, however, had severe problems of heating, arcing, and vacuum leaks over the stored beam current of several hundred mA. The cause is intense trapped higher order modes (HOMs) excited at the mask head, where the cross section of the beam chamber changed drastically. The mask head, made of copper-tungsten alloy or pure copper, was frequently damaged by hitting of the high energy beam at the same time. Since the problems of the mask were revealed, several kinds of improved masks have been designed employing rf technologies in dealing with the HOM and installed to the ring step by step. Much progress has come from adopting a trapped-mode free structure, where the mask was a bent chamber itself. Recently the further improved mask with a reduced HOM design or HOM dampers was developed to suppress the heating of vacuum components near the mask due to the HOM traveling from the mask. To avoid damage to the mask head, on the other hand, a titanium mask head was tried. The latest masks are working as expected now at the stored beam current of 1.5 A. Presented are the problems and experiences on the movable mask system for the KEKB, which are characteristic of and common in a high intensity accelerator

  19. Low-defect reflective mask blanks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, S C; Cerjarn, C; Kearney, P; Mirkarimi, P; Ray-Chaudhuri, A; Walton, C.

    1999-01-01

    Extreme Ultraviolet Lithgraphy (EUVL) is an emerging technology for fabrication of sub-100 nm feature sizes on silicon, following the SIA road map well into the 21st century. The specific EUVL system described is a scanned, projection lithography system with a 4:1 reduction, using a laser plasma EUV source. The mask and all of the system optics are reflective, multilayer mirrors which function in the extreme ultraviolet at 13.4 nm wavelength. Since the masks are imaged to the wafer exposure plane, mask defects greater than 80% of the exposure plane CD (for 4:1 reduction) will in many cases render the mask useless, whereas intervening optics can have defects which are not a printing problem. For the 100 nm node, we must reduce defects to less than 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; at sign 80nm or larger to obtain acceptable mask production yields. We have succeeded in reducing the defects to less than 0.1/cm ampersand sup2; for defects larger than 130 nm detected by visible light inspection tools, however our program goal is to achieve 0.01/cm ampersand sup2; in the near future. More importantly though, we plan to have a detailed understanding of defect origination and the effect on multilayer growth in order to mitigate defects below the 10 -2 /cm ampersand sup2; level on the next generation of mask blank deposition systems. In this paper we will discuss issues and results from the ion-beam multilayer deposition tool, details of the defect detection and characterization facility, and progress on defect printability modeling

  20. Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Rizwan; Anderson, Marlene L; Hollnagel, Jan-Oliver; Worschech, Franziska; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azahr; Behrens, Christoph J; Heinemann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R appearance and modulation by 5-HT. Although stimulation in presence of 5-HT permitted LTP induction, SPW-Rs were "masked"--but appeared after 5-HT wash-out. This SPW-R masking was dose dependent with 100 nM 5-HT being sufficient--if the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor citalopram was present. Fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, could also mask SPW-Rs. Masking was due to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor activation. Neither membrane potential nor membrane conductance changes in pyramidal cells caused SPW-R blockade since both remained unaffected by combining 5-HT and citalopram. Moreover, 10 and 30 μM 5-HT mediated SPW-R masking preceded neuronal hyperpolarization and involved reduced presynaptic transmitter release. 5-HT, as well as a 5-HT1A agonist, augmented paired pulse facilitation and affected the coefficient of variance. Spontaneous SPW-Rs in mice hippocampal slices were also masked by 5-HT and fenfluramine. While neuronal ensembles can acquire long lasting LTP during higher 5-HT levels, lower 5-HT levels enable neural ensembles to replay previously stored information and thereby permit memory consolidation memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Etch bias inversion during EUV mask ARC etch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajn, Alexander; Rolff, Haiko; Wistrom, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The introduction of EUV lithography to high volume manufacturing is now within reach for 7nm technology node and beyond (1), at least for some steps. The scheduling is in transition from long to mid-term. Thus, all contributors need to focus their efforts on the production requirements. For the photo mask industry, these requirements include the control of defectivity, CD performance and lifetime of their masks. The mask CD performance including CD uniformity, CD targeting, and CD linearity/ resolution, is predominantly determined by the photo resist performance and by the litho and etch processes. State-of-the-art chemically amplified resists exhibit an asymmetric resolution for directly and indirectly written features, which usually results in a similarly asymmetric resolution performance on the mask. This resolution gap may reach as high as multiple tens of nanometers on the mask level in dependence of the chosen processes. Depending on the printing requirements of the wafer process, a reduction or even an increase of this gap may be required. A potential way of tuning via the etch process, is to control the lateral CD contribution during etch. Aside from process tuning knobs like pressure, RF powers and gases, which usually also affect CD linearity and CD uniformity, the simplest knob is the etch time itself. An increased over etch time results in an increased CD contribution in the normal case. , We found that the etch CD contribution of ARC layer etch on EUV photo masks is reduced by longer over etch times. Moreover, this effect can be demonstrated to be present for different etch chambers and photo resists.

  2. Maximizing noise energy for noise-masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Étienne, Cédric; Arleo, Angelo; Allard, Rémy

    2017-08-01

    Noise-masking experiments are widely used to investigate visual functions. To be useful, noise generally needs to be strong enough to noticeably impair performance, but under some conditions, noise does not impair performance even when its contrast approaches the maximal displayable limit of 100 %. To extend the usefulness of noise-masking paradigms over a wider range of conditions, the present study developed a noise with great masking strength. There are two typical ways of increasing masking strength without exceeding the limited contrast range: use binary noise instead of Gaussian noise or filter out frequencies that are not relevant to the task (i.e., which can be removed without affecting performance). The present study combined these two approaches to further increase masking strength. We show that binarizing the noise after the filtering process substantially increases the energy at frequencies within the pass-band of the filter given equated total contrast ranges. A validation experiment showed that similar performances were obtained using binarized-filtered noise and filtered noise (given equated noise energy at the frequencies within the pass-band) suggesting that the binarization operation, which substantially reduced the contrast range, had no significant impact on performance. We conclude that binarized-filtered noise (and more generally, truncated-filtered noise) can substantially increase the energy of the noise at frequencies within the pass-band. Thus, given a limited contrast range, binarized-filtered noise can display higher energy levels than Gaussian noise and thereby widen the range of conditions over which noise-masking paradigms can be useful.

  3. Flexible fabrication of multi-scale integrated 3D periodic nanostructures with phase mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang Leon

    designed with isotropic properties attractive for generating a complete photonic band gap (PBG). An isolation layer was used between adjacent polymer layers to offer a reversal coating for sample preparation of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and top surface planarization. Electron beam lithography has been employed to fabricate a multi-level nano-grating phase mask that produces a diamond-like 3D nanostructure via phase mask lithography, promising for creating photonic crystal (PC) templates that can be inverted with high-index materials and form a complete PBG at telecommunication wavelengths. A laser scanning holographic method for 3D exposure in thick photoresist is introduced that combines the unique advantages of large area 3D holographic interference lithography (HIL) with the flexible patterning of laser direct writing to form both micro- and nano-structures in a single exposure step. Phase mask interference patterns accumulated over multiple overlapping scans are shown to stitch seamlessly and form highly uniform 3D nanostructure with beam size scaled to small 200 microm diameter. Further direct-write holography demonstrates monolithical writing of multi-scale lab-on-a-chip with multiple functionalities including on-chip integrated fluorescence. Various 3D periodic nanostructures are demonstrated over a 15 mmx15 mm area, through full 40 microm photoresist thickness and with uniform structural and optical properties revealed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, SEM imaging and stopband measures. The lateral and axial periods scale from respective 1500 nm to 570 nm and 9.2 microm to 1.2 microm to offer a Gamma-Z stopband at 1.5 microm. Overall, laser scanning is presented as a facile means to embed 3D PC nanostructure within microfluidic channels for integration into an optofluidic lab-on-chip, demonstrating a new laser HIL writing approach for creating multi-scale integrated microsystems.

  4. Computational techniques for determining printability of real defects in EUV mask pilot line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Li, Ying; Peng, Daniel; Chen, Dongxue; Hu, Peter; Corcoran, Noel; Son, Donghwan; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram

    2014-04-01

    With EUV lithography on the ITRS roadmap for sub-2X half-pitch patterning, it has become increasingly essential to ramp up efforts in being able to manufacture defect-free reticles or at least ones with minimal defects initially. For this purpose, much of the focus in recent years has been in finding ways to adequately detect, characterize, and reduce defects on both EUV blanks and patterned masks. For detection purposes, the current high-resolution DUV or e-beam inspection platforms are being extended to inspect EUV blanks and patterned masks but being non-actinic, make it very challenging to assess the real impact of the detected defects on EUV plane. Even with the realization of the EUV beta AIMS™ aerial-image based metrology in 2014-2015, the exact nature of each critical defect needs to be determined in order to be able to come up with an appropriate repair strategy. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of computational techniques to non-actinic supplemental metrology data collected on EUV mask defects to effectively determine the nature and also predict printability of these defects. The fundamental EUV simulation engine used in this approach is the EUV Defect Printability Simulator (DPS), which uses simulation and modeling methods designed specifically for the individual EUV mask components, and achieves runtimes several orders of magnitude faster than rigorous FDTD and RCWA methods while maintaining adequate accuracy. The EUV DPS simulator is then coupled with supplemental inspection and metrology measurements of real defects to effectively predict wafer printability of these defects. Several sources of such supplementary data are explored here, and may sometimes be dependent on the actual nature of defect. These sources include AFM height-profile data, SEM top-down images, and 193nm high-NA inspection images of single or multiple focus plane capture. From each of these supplemental data sources, the mask pattern and defect information is first

  5. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) Extended Wear Comfort Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    oxygen mask for pressure breathing under G ( PBG ) aircraft and the MBU-23/P for non-pressure breathing under G (non- PBG ) aircraft. It also provides...Services Aircrew Mask/hood (JSAM) – PBG variant or non- PBG variant HGU-55/P helmet with NVG mount JSAM corrective eye spectacle frame (as prescribed for...incorporating the positive pressure-breathing ( PBG ) variant of JSAM. The third member of the F/A group was fitted for the US Navy JSAM ensemble incorporating a

  6. Power spectrum model of visual masking: simulations and empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio; Sierra-Vázquez, Vicente; Derrington, Andrew M

    2013-06-01

    In the study of the spatial characteristics of the visual channels, the power spectrum model of visual masking is one of the most widely used. When the task is to detect a signal masked by visual noise, this classical model assumes that the signal and the noise are previously processed by a bank of linear channels and that the power of the signal at threshold is proportional to the power of the noise passing through the visual channel that mediates detection. The model also assumes that this visual channel will have the highest ratio of signal power to noise power at its output. According to this, there are masking conditions where the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) occurs in a channel centered in a spatial frequency different from the spatial frequency of the signal (off-frequency looking). Under these conditions the channel mediating detection could vary with the type of noise used in the masking experiment and this could affect the estimation of the shape and the bandwidth of the visual channels. It is generally believed that notched noise, white noise and double bandpass noise prevent off-frequency looking, and high-pass, low-pass and bandpass noises can promote it independently of the channel's shape. In this study, by means of a procedure that finds the channel that maximizes the SNR at its output, we performed numerical simulations using the power spectrum model to study the characteristics of masking caused by six types of one-dimensional noise (white, high-pass, low-pass, bandpass, notched, and double bandpass) for two types of channel's shape (symmetric and asymmetric). Our simulations confirm that (1) high-pass, low-pass, and bandpass noises do not prevent the off-frequency looking, (2) white noise satisfactorily prevents the off-frequency looking independently of the shape and bandwidth of the visual channel, and interestingly we proved for the first time that (3) notched and double bandpass noises prevent off-frequency looking only when the noise

  7. "Perplex't paths": youth and authority in Milton's Mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Blaine

    2009-01-01

    This essay argues that John Milton's "A Mask Presented at Ludlow Castle" (1634) is influenced by early modern concepts of childhood in a way that critics have not recognized. Childhood was a problematic concept in contemporary religious, pedagogical, and legal discourses. Children were depicted as models of submission, but prone to impetuous indiscretion, and their path to adult agency was strewn with pitfalls, especially in the liminal period of youth. "A Mask" engages with and transforms these discourses. It rejects the political quietism routinely associated with childhood and shows that the child's unique sensitivity may offer a route to a particularly powerful kind of voice.

  8. Masking Responses to Light in Period Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1−/− and Per2−/− mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice. Furthermore, Per1−/−/Per2−/− mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1−/−/Per2−/− SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator. PMID:21793695

  9. Spectrographic mask for digital registration of bright source spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Xavier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present schematic diagrams for the construction of a spectrographic mask attachable to a camera objective in order to capture spectra using simple CD or DVD gratings. The mask is made of two parts: an adapter ring and elbow-shaped blockage for suitable registration of spectra in the lab and outdoors. By using a free software, we analyze and discuss the calibration of the wavelength scale of the solar spectrum, which allows us to identify many chemical elements in it. In the conclusion, we further discuss some interesting projects to be carried out by students using the idea.

  10. Matching profiles of masked perpetrators: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Bojesen, Sophie; Kuhlman, Michael Bilde

    2010-01-01

    . However, even though we were often correct in judging the best fit, we often had several possible matches for each case, which means that comparing profiles is not very selective. As such, using superimposition to compare the profile of a masked perpetrator with lateral photos of one or more suspects may...... indicate the possible matches, and perhaps even the best match, which may be helpful in police investigations, but it would not carry enough weight to be used as evidence per se. This study only focused on the profile. Future studies will use surface laser scans to analyse congruence between masked...

  11. [Comparison of sevoflurane concentration for insertion of proseal laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation in children (correlation with BIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudakanagoudar, Mahantesh S; Santhosh, M C B

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is an inhalational agent of choice in paediatric anaesthesia. For management of airways in children a suitable alternative to ETT is a paediatric proseal laryngeal mask airway (benchmark second generation SAD). Various studies have shown that less sevoflurane concentration is required for LMA insertion in comparison to TI. BIS is a useful monitor of depth of anaesthesia. To compare concentration of sevoflurane (end tidal and MAC value) required for proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and tracheal intubation in correlation with BIS index. The prospective randomised single blind study was done in children between 2 and 9 years of ASA I and II and they were randomly allocated to Group P (proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion) and Group TI (tracheal intubation). No sedative premedication was given. Induction was done with 8% sevoflurane and then predetermined concentration was maintained for 10min. Airway was secured either by proseal laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube without using muscle relaxant. End tidal sevoflurane concentration, MAC, BIS, and other vital parameters were monitored every minute till insertion of an airway device. Insertion conditions were observed. Statistical analysis was done by Anova and Student's t test. Difference between ETLMI (2.49±0.44) and ETTI (2.81±0.65) as well as MACLMI (1.67±0.13) and MACTI (1.77±0.43) was statistically very significant, while BISLMI (49.05±10.76) and BISTI (41.25±3.25) was significant. Insertion conditions were comparable in both the groups. We can conclude that in children airway can be secured safely with proseal laryngeal mask airway using less sevoflurane concentration in comparison to tracheal intubation and this was supported by BIS index. Copyright © 2014. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Comparison of sevoflurane concentration for insertion of proseal laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation in children (correlation with BIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahantesh S. Mudakanagoudar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is an inhalational agent of choice in paediatric anaesthesia. For management of airways in children a suitable alternative to ETT is a paediatric proseal laryngeal mask airway (benchmark second generation SAD. Various studies have shown that less sevoflurane concentration is required for LMA insertion in comparison to TI. BIS is a useful monitor of depth of anaesthesia. AIMS: To compare concentration of sevoflurane (end tidal and MAC value required for proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and tracheal intubation in correlation with BIS index. METHOD: The prospective randomised single blind study was done in children between 2 and 9 years of ASA I and II and they were randomly allocated to Group P (proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and Group TI (tracheal intubation. No sedative premedication was given. Induction was done with 8% sevoflurane and then predetermined concentration was maintained for 10 min. Airway was secured either by proseal laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube without using muscle relaxant. End tidal sevoflurane concentration, MAC, BIS, and other vital parameters were monitored every minute till insertion of an airway device. Insertion conditions were observed. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Students t test. RESULTS: Difference between ETLMI (2.49 ± 0.44 and ETTI (2.81 ± 0.65 as well as MACLMI (1.67 ± 0.13 and MACTI (1.77 ± 0.43 was statistically very significant, while BISLMI (49.05 ± 10.76 and BISTI (41.25 ± 3.25 was significant. Insertion conditions were comparable in both the groups. CONCLUSION: We can conclude that in children airway can be secured safely with proseal laryngeal mask airway using less sevoflurane concentration in comparison to tracheal intubation and this was supported by BIS index.

  13. Comparison of sevoflurane concentration for insertion of proseal laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation in children (correlation with BIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudakanagoudar, Mahantesh S; Santhosh, M C B

    2016-01-01

    Sevoflurane is an inhalational agent of choice in paediatric anaesthesia. For management of airways in children a suitable alternative to ETT is a paediatric proseal laryngeal mask airway (benchmark second generation SAD). Various studies have shown that less sevoflurane concentration is required for LMA insertion in comparison to TI. BIS is a useful monitor of depth of anaesthesia. To compare concentration of sevoflurane (end tidal and MAC value) required for proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion and tracheal intubation in correlation with BIS index. The prospective randomised single blind study was done in children between 2 and 9 years of ASA I and II and they were randomly allocated to Group P (proseal laryngeal mask airway insertion) and Group TI (tracheal intubation). No sedative premedication was given. Induction was done with 8% sevoflurane and then predetermined concentration was maintained for 10 min. Airway was secured either by proseal laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube without using muscle relaxant. End tidal sevoflurane concentration, MAC, BIS, and other vital parameters were monitored every minute till insertion of an airway device. Insertion conditions were observed. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA and Students t test. Difference between ETLMI (2.49 ± 0.44) and ETTI (2.81 ± 0.65) as well as MACLMI (1.67 ± 0.13) and MACTI (1.77 ± 0.43) was statistically very significant, while BISLMI (49.05 ± 10.76) and BISTI (41.25 ± 3.25) was significant. Insertion conditions were comparable in both the groups. We can conclude that in children airway can be secured safely with proseal laryngeal mask airway using less sevoflurane concentration in comparison to tracheal intubation and this was supported by BIS index. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. High altitude hypoxia, a mask and a Street. Donation of an aviation BLB oxygen mask apparatus from World War 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M G; Street, N E

    2017-03-01

    The history of hypoxia prevention is closely inter-related with high altitude mountain and aviation physiology. One pioneering attempt to overcome low inspired oxygen partial pressures in aviation was the BLB mask-named after the three designers-Walter M Boothby, W Randolph Lovelace II and Arthur H Bulbulian. This mask and its variations originated just prior to World War 2 when aircraft were able to fly higher than 10,000 feet and pilot hypoxia affecting performance was an increasing problem. We give a brief description of the mask and its designers and discuss the donation of a model used by the British War Office in October 1940 and donated to the Harry Daly Museum at the Australian Society of Anaesthetists by the family of Dr Fred Street. Dr Street was a pioneering paediatric surgeon in Australia and served as a doctor in the Middle East and New Guinea in World War 2. He received the Military Cross.

  15. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiek, Richard [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-06-20

    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  16. Adhesive Systems as an Alternative Material for Color Masking of White Spot Lesions: Do They Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Ana Júlia Farias; da Silva Ávila, Daniele Mara; Borges, Alessandra Buhler; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the color masking effect of infiltration treatment of artificial white spot lesions (AWSL) using a dedicated resin in comparison to different adhesive systems. Enamel/dentin specimens were obtained from bovine incisors and baseline color was assessed using a reflectance spectrophotometer, according to the CIE L*a*b* system. AWSL were produced using a buffered acid solution and a new color evaluation was performed. The specimens were divided into 8 groups: control: artificial saliva changed daily for 7 days; IC: infiltrating resin Icon; EC: EquiaCoat; FU: Futurabond U; SBU: Single Bond U; SBMP: Scotchbond MP; OB: OptibondFL; BF: Bioforty. After the treatments, the color was evaluated again and the values for the parameters ΔL (change in lightness), Δa (change in chroma), Δb (change in hue), and ΔE (general color difference) were calculated in relation to baseline. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. After treatment, ANOVA showed significant differences for all parameters (p = 0.001). Tukey's test showed the greatest lightness reduction (ΔL) for the IC group, followed by EC, FU, and SBU. The SBMP, OB, and BF groups were similar to the control. For Δb values, all groups showed differences in relation to the control, with no differences between them. In relation to ΔE, all groups showed differences in relation to the control (ΔE = 5.24), with no significant differences between them. ΔE values after application of all resinous materials were lower than the threshold of 3.7, indicating effective color masking. The Icon infiltrant produced a greater lightness reduction of white lesions (ΔL). For general color difference (ΔE), all the resinous materials tested were able to color mask artificial AWSL.

  17. Scalable Failure Masking for Stencil Computations using Ghost Region Expansion and Cell to Rank Remapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamell, Marc; Kolla, Hemanth; Mayo, Jackson; Heroux, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve exascale systems, application resilience needs to be addressed. Some programming models, such as task-DAG (directed acyclic graphs) architectures, currently embed resilience features whereas traditional SPMD (single program, multiple data) and message-passing models do not. Since a large part of the community's code base follows the latter models, it is still required to take advantage of application characteristics to minimize the overheads of fault tolerance. To that end, this paper explores how recovering from hard process/node failures in a local manner is a natural approach for certain applications to obtain resilience at lower costs in faulty environments. In particular, this paper targets enabling online, semitransparent local recovery for stencil computations on current leadership-class systems as well as presents programming support and scalable runtime mechanisms. Also described and demonstrated in this paper is the effect of failure masking, which allows the effective reduction of impact on total time to solution due to multiple failures. Furthermore, we discuss, implement, and evaluate ghost region expansion and cell-to-rank remapping to increase the probability of failure masking. To conclude, this paper shows the integration of all aforementioned mechanisms with the S3D combustion simulation through an experimental demonstration (using the Titan system) of the ability to tolerate high failure rates (i.e., node failures every five seconds) with low overhead while sustaining performance at large scales. In addition, this demonstration also displays the failure masking probability increase resulting from the combination of both ghost region expansion and cell-to-rank remapping.

  18. A conceptual approach to the masking effect of measures of disproportionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maignen, Francois; Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric; Holle, Lionel Van; Dogne, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Masking is a statistical issue by which true signals of disproportionate reporting are hidden by the presence of other products in the database. Masking is currently not perfectly understood. There is no algorithm to identify the potential masking drugs to remove them for subsequent analyses of disproportionality. The primary objective of our study is to develop a mathematical framework for assessing the extent and impact of the masking effect of measures of disproportionality. We have developed a masking ratio that quantifies the masking effect of a given product. We have conducted a simulation study to validate our algorithm. The masking ratio is a measure of the strength of the masking effect whether the analysis is performed at the report or event level, and the manner in which reports are allocated to cells in the contingency table significantly impact the masking mechanisms. The reports containing both the product of interest and the masking product need to be handled appropriately. The proposed algorithm can use simplified masking provided that underlying assumptions (in particular the size of the database) are verified. For any event, the strongest masking effect is associated with the drug with the highest number of records (reports excluding the product of interest). Our study provides significant insights with practical implications for real-world pharmacovigilance that are supported by both real and simulated data. The public health impact of masking is still unknown. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Building Creative Art Product in Jombang Regency by Conserving Mask Puppet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyo Yanuartuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Building creative industry is one the effort chose to keep up with the ongoing of era development. Traditional art is one of the resource to produce creative art products. Gate Duwur Mask Puppet is a mask performance in Jombang Regency East Java that contains local wisdom. The local wisdom was one of the creativity sources to develop creative art products in Jombang Regency because maintaining Jati Duwur Mask Puppet performance was hard in the middle of the fast society development. The transformation of the source culture (mask puppet to become the current target culture is one of the efforts made to build creative art. The research on mask dance conservation on mask puppet performance in Jombang was needed. The research method used was an art development through conservation. There were three products of mask dance created as a result of this research. The dances were Gladhen dancers – a couple dance, Mbanmban mask dance – a theatrical group dance, Maduretno-citralanggenan dance – a dance fragment. These mask dance products were a creative realization of a mask performance originated from mask puppet. The community and mask, puppet performer agreed to the development of mask dance to become a more creative art product that could be enjoyed by the young generation.

  20. Feasibility study of the usefulness of SRS thermoplastic mask for head and neck cancer in tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong Jin; Kim, Chul Jong; Kwon, Dong Yeol; Kim, Jong Sik [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Sam Sung Seoul hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    When head and neck cancer radiation therapy, thermoplastic mask is applied for patients with fixed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate usefulness of thermoplastic mask for SRS in tomotherapy by conparison with the conventional mask. Typical mask(conventional mask, C-mask) and mask for SRS are used to fix body phantom(rando phantom) on the same iso centerline, then simulation is performed. Tomotherapy plan for orbit and salivary glands is made by treatment planning system(TPS). A thick portion and a thin portion located near the treatment target relative to the mask S-mask are defined as region of interest for surface dose dosimetry. Surface dose variation depending on the type of mask was analyzed by measuring the TPS and EBT film. Surface dose variation due to the type of mask from the TPS is showed in orbit and salivary glands 0.65-2.53 Gy, 0.85-1.84 Gy, respectively. In case of EBT film, -0.2-3.46 Gy, 1.04-3.02 Gy. When applied to the S-mask, in TPS and Gafchromic EBT3 film, substrantially 4.26%, 5.82% showed maximum changing trend, respectively. To apply S-mask for tomotherapy, surface dose is changed, but the amount is insignificant and be useful when treatment target is close critical organs because decrease inter and intra fractional variation.

  1. High reading skills mask dyslexia in gifted children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Viersen, S.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; Slot, E.M.; de Bree, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with

  2. How important is lateral masking in visual search?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, AH; Hooge, ITC; Krikke, K; Johnson, A

    Five experiments are presented, providing empirical support of the hypothesis that the sensory phenomenon of lateral masking may explain many well-known visual search phenomena that are commonly assumed to be governed by cognitive attentional mechanisms. Experiment I showed that when the same visual

  3. Clustering Binary Data in the Presence of Masking Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A number of important applications require the clustering of binary data sets. Traditional nonhierarchical cluster analysis techniques, such as the popular K-means algorithm, can often be successfully applied to these data sets. However, the presence of masking variables in a data set can impede the ability of the K-means algorithm to recover the…

  4. The Masking Breakdown Point of Multivariate Outlier Identification Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Claudia; Gather, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider one-step outlier identifiation rules for multivariate data, generalizing the concept of so-called alpha outlier identifiers, as presented in Davies and Gather (1993) for the case of univariate samples. We investigate, how the finite-sample breakdown points of estimators used in these identification rules influence the masking behaviour of the rules.

  5. Vector wave diffraction pattern of slits masked by polarizing devices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This calls for a systematic study of diffraction properties of different apertures using polarization-sensitive devices. In the present paper, we have studied the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of slits masked by different kinds of polarizing devices which introduce a phase difference between the two orthogonal components of the ...

  6. Immunologically-based methods for detecting masked mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masked mycotoxins are generally described as including unknown mycotoxins, non-extractable forms of known mycotoxins, or untargeted forms of known mycotoxins. Immunoassays can be developed with either broad cross-reaction to mycotoxin congeners or with high selectivity for a particular toxin. The re...

  7. Evaluation of the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) as an intubation conduit in patients with a cervical collar simulating fixed cervical spine. The page number in the footer is not for bibliographic referencing .... their use in patients with suspected cervical spine injury.1. Removal of the front portion of the collar before ...

  8. Multiaperture spectroscopy with rapid mask fabrication and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, B.; Mellier, Y.; Picat, J.P.; Lelievre, G.; Rio, Y.

    1986-03-01

    A multiaperture spectroscopy device has been installed on the focal reducer at the Cassegrain focus of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. The mask processing and positioning operations are described. Emphasis is placed on the speed and reliability of a fully automatic method controlled by a computer routine. Spectra obtained during the first observations at C.F.H.T. are shown as illustration

  9. A coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmore, A.P.; Skinner, G.K.; Eyles, C.J.; Ramsey, B.

    1984-01-01

    A dual coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission is now in the final stages of preparation at Birmingham University. It is due for launch in late 1984/early 1985 and will be by far the largest and most sophisticated such instrument to be flown in this time-frame. The design and capabilities of the telescope will be described. (orig.)

  10. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-17

    Aug 17, 2013 ... patient trauma. • Effective laryngeal mask airway (LMA) placement in the prone position may suggest a rescue airway in the event of endotracheal .... Facet infiltrations. • Rhizotomy. • Spinal decompression. • Spinal fusion. • Pilonidal sinus. • Melanoma excision on the back. • Bone marrow aspiration.

  11. Optical synchrotron radiation beam imaging with a digital mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hao [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Fiorito, Ralph [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Corbett, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Shkvarunets, Anatoly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tian, Kai [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fisher, Alan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wilson, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mok, W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Mitsuhashi, T. [KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392nC). Each injection pulse contains only 40-80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during User operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by re-imaging visible synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera makes it is possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  12. Optimized qualification protocol on particle cleanliness for EUV mask infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donck, J.C.J. van der; Stortelder, J.K.; Derksen, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    With the market introduction of the NXE:3100, Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography (EUVL) enters a new stage. Now infrastructure in the wafer fabs must be prepared for new processes and new materials. Especially the infrastructure for masks poses a challenge. Because of the absence of a pellicle reticle

  13. Modeling comodulation masking release using an equalization cancellation mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias; Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    of the study investigates the relation between CMR and envelope-based binaural masking level differences (BMLD), using narrowband noise maskers and classical across-channel configurations (like N0Spi, N0Sm). In the second part, a model is presented that explicitly simulates CMR whereby the EC mechanism...

  14. High Reading Skills Mask Dyslexia in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Viersen, Sietske; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Slot, Esther M.; de Bree, Elise H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how gifted children with dyslexia might be able to mask literacy problems and the role of possible compensatory mechanisms. The sample consisted of 121 Dutch primary school children that were divided over four groups (typically developing [TD] children, children with dyslexia, gifted children, gifted children with…

  15. "Kuldne mask" - hea vene teater Eestis / Laur Kaunissaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaunissaare, Laur, 1982-

    2009-01-01

    6.-13. okt. Tallinnas ja Jõhvis toimuvast Venemaa rahvuslikust teatrifestivalist "Kuldne mask Eestis". Festivali lavastustest - Temur Tšheidze "Onukese unenägu", Declan Donnellan "Kaheteistkümnes öö", Lev Erenburgi "Äike" ja Alvis Hermanise "Šukšini jutustused"

  16. The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) as an alternative to airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To evaluate the possibility of airway management using a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) during dental procedures on mentally retarded (MR) patients and patients with genetic diseases. Design: A prospective pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Methods: A pilot study was designed to induce general ...

  17. Prognostic importance of white coat and masked hypertention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsen, Pia; Hansen, Tine

    2009-01-01

    The growing use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has led to an increased awareness of the two types of discrepancy between office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure, called white coat hypertension (WCH) and masked hypertension (MH). Based on several longitudinal studies, WCH...

  18. Generalization of Supervised Learning for Binary Mask Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Gerkmann, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of speech segregation by es- timating the ideal binary mask (IBM) from noisy speech. Two methods will be compared, one supervised learning approach that incorporates a priori knowledge about the feature distri- bution observed during training. The second method...

  19. Masked Translation Priming with Semantic Categorization: Testing the Sense Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Forster, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    Four experiments are reported which were designed to test hypotheses concerning the asymmetry of masked translation priming. Experiment 1 confirmed the presence of L2-L1 priming with a semantic categorization task and demonstrated that this effect was restricted to exemplars. Experiment 2 showed that the translation priming effect was not due to…

  20. Performance of the large-reservoir oxygen mask (Ventimask).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H A; Turner, S L; Hughes, J M

    1984-06-30

    The performance of large-reservoir Venturi masks ('Ventimask') giving nominal inspired oxygen (O2) concentrations ranging from 24% to 60% was assessed in a face model, in six normal subjects, and in ten patients with severe chronic airflow obstruction at the O2 flow rates recommended. Instantaneous oxygen concentrations were measured with a mass spectrometer ('Centronics MGA200') and volume-weighted to give mean inspired concentrations (FiO2). In human studies volume-weighting was achieved by simultaneous measurement of tidal volume from chest and abdominal motion by the use of a respiratory inductance plethysmograph ('Respitrace'). Reinspiration of dead space from the mask was assessed by measuring FiCO2, which varied from 0.2 to 0.4% (normals) and was 0.6 +/- 0.4% in patients. In normal subjects and patients breathing at rest the FiO2% in 24, 28, 35, and 40% ventimasks was within 1.9% absolute of nominal (range-1.2 to +1.9%) but the 60% mask read low (50.3%). Various factors can make FiO2 less than nominal but the human and model studies indicated that reinspiration of dead space from the mask was more important than hyperventilation. In tachypnoeic patients (frequency greater than 30/min), the O2 flow should be increased to 50% above recommended.

  1. Constructing optimized binary masks for reservoir computing with delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appeltant, Lennert; van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Fischer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a novel bio-inspired computing method, capable of solving complex tasks in a computationally efficient way. It has recently been successfully implemented using delayed feedback systems, allowing to reduce the hardware complexity of brain-inspired computers drastically. In this approach, the pre-processing procedure relies on the definition of a temporal mask which serves as a scaled time-mutiplexing of the input. Originally, random masks had been chosen, motivated by the random connectivity in reservoirs. This random generation can sometimes fail. Moreover, for hardware implementations random generation is not ideal due to its complexity and the requirement for trial and error. We outline a procedure to reliably construct an optimal mask pattern in terms of multipurpose performance, derived from the concept of maximum length sequences. Not only does this ensure the creation of the shortest possible mask that leads to maximum variability in the reservoir states for the given reservoir, it also allows for an interpretation of the statistical significance of the provided training samples for the task at hand.

  2. Thermal Management in Nanofiber-Based Face Mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ankun; Cai, Lili; Zhang, Rufan; Wang, Jiangyan; Hsu, Po-Chun; Wang, Hongxia; Zhou, Guangmin; Xu, Jinwei; Cui, Yi

    2017-06-14

    Face masks are widely used to filter airborne pollutants, especially when particulate matter (PM) pollution has become a serious concern to public health. Here, the concept of thermal management is introduced into face masks for the first time to enhance the thermal comfort of the user. A system of nanofiber on nanoporous polyethylene (fiber/nanoPE) is developed where the nanofibers with strong PM adhesion ensure high PM capture efficiency (99.6% for PM 2.5 ) with low pressure drop and the nanoPE substrate with high-infrared (IR) transparency (92.1%, weighted based on human body radiation) results in effective radiative cooling. We further demonstrate that by coating nanoPE with a layer of Ag, the fiber/Ag/nanoPE mask shows a high IR reflectance (87.0%) and can be used for warming purposes. These multifunctional face mask designs can be explored for both outdoor and indoor applications to protect people from PM pollutants and simultaneously achieve personal thermal comfort.

  3. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pc

    We compared heart rate and blood pressure changes to intubation produced by conventional laryngoscopic-guided intubation to those produced by blind intubation through the intubating laryngeal mask (ILM) in normotensive adults with normal airways. Forty paralysed, anaesthetised adults undergoing elective surgery ...

  4. The potentiality of leather as alternative material for sustaining mask ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the viability of the Ghanaian indigenous vegetable tanned leather for the production of aesthetic masks for ornamental purposes. The study was basically experimental, and all processes were observed and recorded carefully for analysis. Modeling technique was principally used in three experiments to ...

  5. Prone surgery and laryngeal mask airways: an overview of recent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinicians tend to avoid the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in the prone position, but several trials demonstrate its low rate of complication if patient selection is performed properly. Obesity is also demonstrated not to be a contraindication to this anaesthetic technique. Patients are more haemodynamically stable if ...

  6. The role of executive attention in object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmer, Hannah L; Wells-Peris, Roxanne; Dux, Paul E

    2017-05-01

    It was long thought that a key characteristic of object substitution masking (OSM) was the requirement for spatial attention to be dispersed for the mask to impact visual sensitivity. However, recent studies have provided evidence questioning whether spatial attention interacts with OSM magnitude, suggesting that the previous reports reflect the impact of performance being at ceiling for the low attention load conditions. Another technique that has been employed to modulate attention in OSM paradigms involves presenting the target stimulus foveally, but with another demanding task shown immediately prior, and thus taxing executive/temporal attention. Under such conditions, when the two tasks occur in close temporal proximity relatively to greater temporal separation, masking is increased. However this effect could also be influenced by performance being at ceiling in some conditions. Here, we manipulated executive attention for a foveated target using a dual-task paradigm. Critically, ceiling performance was avoided by thresholding the target stimulus prior to it being presented under OSM conditions. We found no evidence for an interaction between executive attention load and masking. Collectively, along with the previous findings, our results provide compelling evidence that OSM as a phenomenon occurs independently of attention.

  7. Benchmarking EUV mask inspection beyond 0.25 NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Anderson, Erik H.; Rekawa, Seno B.; Kemp, Charles D.; Huh, S.; Han, H.-S.; Naulleau, P.; Gunion, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is an EUV-wavelength mask inspection microscope designed for direct aerial image measurements, and pre-commercial EUV mask research. Operating on a synchrotron bending magnet beamline, the AIT uses an off-axis Fresnel zoneplate lens to project a high-magnification EUV image directly onto a CCD camera. We present the results of recent system upgrades that have improved the imaging resolution, illumination uniformity, and partial coherence. Benchmarking tests show image contrast above 75% for 100-nm mask features, and significant improvements and across the full range of measured sizes. The zoneplate lens has been replaced by an array of user-selectable zoneplates with higher magnification and NA values up to 0.0875, emulating the spatial resolution of a 0.35-NA 4 x EUV stepper. Illumination uniformity is above 90% for mask areas 2-(micro)m-wide and smaller. An angle-scanning mirror reduces the high coherence of the synchrotron beamline light source giving measured σ values of approximately 0.125 at 0.0875 NA

  8. 3-color photometry of a sunspot using speckle masking techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehr, E.; Sütterlin, P.

    1998-01-01

    A three-colour photometry is used to deduce the temperature of sunspot fine-structures. Using the Speckle-Masking method for image restoration, the resulting images (one per colour and burst) have a spatial resolution only limited by the telescope's aperture, i.e. 95km (blue), 145 km (red) and

  9. The intubating laryngeal mask produces less heart rate response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blind intubation through the ILM using a straight silicone tracheal tube manufactured for specific use with the ILM; 2. Intubation with a size 3 macintosh laryngoscope ... such as in patients with ischaemic heart disease. Key Words: Equipment:intubating laryngeal mask airway; Airway,complications: haemodynamic response ...

  10. On the Optimality of Ideal Binary Time-Frequency Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    masks using a technique introduced by Weintraub [26] (also see [25]). Since the resynthesis procedure is an integrated part of the gammatone...gains according to instrument combinations. Four instruments, a clarinet (CL), a flute (FL), a violin (VN), and a trumpet (TR) are used to synthesize

  11. Incidence and predictors of difficult mask ventilation and intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Prerana N; Sundaram, Vimal

    2012-10-01

    This study is aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of difficult and impossible mask ventilation. Information like age, snoring history, obstructive sleep apnea, dental and mandibular abnormalities, macroglossia, grading like SLUX, Mallampatti, Cormack Lehanne, atlantooccipital extension, presence of beard or moustache, mouth opening were collected. During mask ventilation, the information related to the ventilation and intubation was collected. All variables found to be significant in univariate analysis were subjected to the multivariate logistic regression model to identify independent predictors of measured outcome. Difficult mask ventilation (DMV) was observed in 30 male patients and 9 female patients. Of the 40 patients who had difficult intubation (DI), 7 patients had both DMV and intubation and 1 patient was of impossible mask ventilation/ intubation. Snoring was the lone significant risk factor for DMV. The risk factors identified for DI were snoring, retrognathia, micrognathia, macroglossia, short thick neck, Mallampatti grade [III/IV], abnormal SLUX grade, Cormack Lehanne grade [II,III/IV], abnormal atlantooccipital extension grading, flexion/extension deformity of neck, protuberant teeth, cervical spine abnormality, mouth opening 26 kg/m(2). BMI > 26 kg/m(2) and atlantooccipital extension grade > 3 were independent risk factors for DI and the presence of two of the variables made the sensitivity and specificity of 43% and 99% respectively with a positive predictive value of 74%. The predictive score may lead to a better anticipation of difficult airway management, potentially deceasing the morbidity and mortality resulting from hypoxia or anoxia with failed ventilation.

  12. Multi-shaped e-beam technology for mask writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramss, Juergen; Stoeckel, Arnd; Weidenmueller, Ulf; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Bloecker, Martin; Sczyrba, Martin; Finken, Michael; Wandel, Timo; Melzer, Detlef

    2010-09-01

    Photomask lithography for the 22nm technology node and beyond requires new approaches in equipment as well as mask design. Multi Shaped Beam technology (MSB) for photomask patterning using a matrix of small beamlets instead of just one shaped beam, is a very effective and evolutionary enhancement of the well established Variable Shaped Beam (VSB) technique. Its technical feasibility has been successfully demonstrated [2]. One advantage of MSB is the productivity gain over VSB with decreasing critical dimensions (CDs) and increasing levels of optical proximity correction (OPC) or for inverse lithography technology (ILT) and source mask optimization (SMO) solutions. This makes MSB an attractive alternative to VSB for photomask lithography at future technology nodes. The present paper describes in detail the working principles and advantages of MSB over VSB for photomask applications. MSB integrates the electron optical column, x/y stage and data path into an operational electron beam lithography system. Multi e-beam mask writer specific requirements concerning the computational lithography and their implementation are outlined here. Data preparation of aggressive OPC layouts, shot count reductions over VSB, data path architecture, write time simulation and several aspects of the exposure process sequence are also discussed. Analysis results of both the MSB processing and the write time of full 32nm and 22nm node critical layer mask layouts are presented as an example.

  13. HIGH PERFORMANCE PIAA CORONAGRAPHY WITH COMPLEX AMPLITUDE FOCAL PLANE MASKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Belikov, Ruslan; Soummer, Remi

    2010-01-01

    We describe a coronagraph approach where the performance of a Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph is improved by using a partially transmissive phase-shifting focal plane mask and a Lyot stop. This approach combines the low inner working angle offered by phase mask coronagraphy, the full throughput and uncompromized angular resolution of the PIAA approach, and the design flexibility of Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraph. A PIAA complex mask coronagraph (PIAACMC) is fully described by the focal plane mask size, or, equivalently, its complex transmission which ranges from 0 (opaque) to -1 (phase shifting). For all values of the transmission, the PIAACMC theoretically offers full on-axis extinction and 100% throughput at large angular separations. With a pure phase focal plane mask (complex transmission = -1), the PIAACMC offers 50% throughput at 0.64 λ/D while providing total extinction of an on-axis point source. This performance is very close to the 'fundamental performance limit' of coronagraphy derived from first principles. For very high contrast level, imaging performance with PIAACMC is in practice limited by the angular size of the on-axis target (usually a star). We show that this fundamental limitation must be taken into account when choosing the optimal value of the focal plane mask size in the PIAACMC design. We show that the PIAACMC enables visible imaging of Jupiter-like planets at ∼1.2 λ/D from the host star, and can therefore offer almost three times more targets than a PIAA coronagraph optimized for this type of observation. We find that for visible imaging of Earth-like planets, the PIAACMC gain over a PIAA is probably much smaller, as coronagraphic performance is then strongly constrained by stellar angular size. For observations at 'low' contrast (below ∼ 10 8 ), the PIAACMC offers significant performance enhancement over PIAA. This is especially relevant for ground-based high contrast imaging systems in the near-IR, where

  14. Mask characterization for CDU budget breakdown in advanced EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Peter; Strolenberg, Chris; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nooitgedacht, Tjitte; Davydova, Natalia; Yang, Greg; Lee, Shawn; Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Yeo, Jeong-Ho

    2012-11-01

    As the ITRS Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification shrinks, semiconductor companies need to maintain a high yield of good wafers per day and a high performance (and hence market value) of finished products. This cannot be achieved without continuous analysis and improvement of on-product CDU as one of the main drivers for process control and optimization with better understanding of main contributors from the litho cluster: mask, process, metrology and scanner. In this paper we will demonstrate a study of mask CDU characterization and its impact on CDU Budget Breakdown (CDU BB) performed for an advanced EUV lithography with 1D and 2D feature cases. We will show that this CDU contributor is one of the main differentiators between well-known ArFi and new EUV CDU budgeting principles. We found that reticle contribution to intrafield CDU should be characterized in a specific way: mask absorber thickness fingerprints play a role comparable with reticle CDU in the total reticle part of the CDU budget. Wafer CD fingerprints, introduced by this contributor, may or may not compensate variations of mask CD's and hence influence on total mask impact on intrafield CDU at the wafer level. This will be shown on 1D and 2D feature examples in this paper. Also mask stack reflectivity variations should be taken into account: these fingerprints have visible impact on intrafield CDs at the wafer level and should be considered as another contributor to the reticle part of EUV CDU budget. We observed also MEEF-through-field fingerprints in the studied EUV cases. Variations of MEEF may also play a role for the total intrafield CDU and may be taken into account for EUV Lithography. We characterized MEEF-through-field for the reviewed features, the results to be discussed in our paper, but further analysis of this phenomenon is required. This comprehensive approach to characterization of the mask part of EUV CDU characterization delivers an accurate and integral CDU Budget

  15. Health care workers' influenza vaccination: motivations and mandatory mask policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorribo, V; Lazor-Blanchet, C; Hugli, O; Zanetti, G

    2015-12-01

    Vaccination of health care workers (HCW) against seasonal influenza (SI) is recommended but vaccination rate rarely reach >30%. Vaccination coverage against 2009 pandemic influenza (PI) was 52% in our hospital, whilst a new policy requiring unvaccinated HCW to wear a mask during patient care duties was enforced. To investigate the determinants of this higher vaccination acceptance for PI and to look for an association with the new mask-wearing policy. A retrospective cohort study, involving HCW of three critical departments of a 1023-bed, tertiary-care university hospital in Switzerland. Self-reported 2009-10 SI and 2009 PI vaccination statuses, reasons and demographic data were collected through a literature-based questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, uni- and multivariate analyses were then performed. There were 472 respondents with a response rate of 54%. Self-reported vaccination acceptance was 64% for PI and 53% for SI. PI vaccination acceptance was associated with being vaccinated against SI (OR 9.5; 95% CI 5.5-16.4), being a physician (OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.1-19.1) and feeling uncomfortable wearing a mask (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Main motives for refusing vaccination were: preference for wearing a surgical mask (80% for PI, not applicable for SI) and concerns about vaccine safety (64%, 50%) and efficacy (44%, 35%). The new mask-wearing policy was a motivation for vaccination but also offered an alternative to non-compliant HCW. Concerns about vaccine safety and efficiency and self-interest of health care workers are still main determinants for influenza vaccination acceptance. Better incentives are needed to encourage vaccination amongst non-physician HCW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Neonatal mannequin comparison of the Upright self-inflating bag and snap-fit mask versus standard resuscitators and masks: leak, applied load and tidal volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anthony Richard; Johnson, Lucy; Davis, Peter G; Dawson, Jennifer Anne; Thio, Marta; Owen, Louise S

    2017-11-30

    Neonatal mask ventilation is a difficult skill to acquire and maintain. Mask leak is common and can lead to ineffective ventilation. The aim of this study was to determine whether newly available neonatal self-inflating bags and masks could reduce mask leak without additional load being applied to the face. Forty operators delivered 1 min episodes of mask ventilation to a mannequin using the Laerdal Upright Resuscitator, a standard Laerdal infant resuscitator (Laerdal Medical) and a T-Piece Resuscitator (Neopuff), using both the Laerdal snap-fit face mask and the standard Laerdal size 0/1 face mask (equivalent sizes). Participants were asked to use pressure sufficient to achieve 'appropriate' chest rise. Leak, applied load, airway pressure and tidal volume were measured continuously. Participants were unaware that load was being recorded. There was no difference in mask leak between resuscitation devices. Leak was significantly lower when the snap-fit mask was used with all resuscitation devices, compared with the standard mask (14% vs 37% leak, Pmask was preferred by 83% of participants. The device-mask combinations had no significant effect on applied load. The Laerdal Upright Resuscitator resulted in similar leak to the other resuscitation devices studied, and did not exert additional load to the face and head. The snap-fit mask significantly reduced overall leak with all resuscitation devices and was the mask preferred by participants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on composite resin substrate shades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Tabatabaian

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the tested zirconia ceramic could not thoroughly mask different shades of the composite resin substrates. Moreover, color masking of zirconia depends on the shade of substrate.

  18. "Slit Mask Design for the Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darius; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Prochaska, Travis; DePoy, Darren L.

    2018-01-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope Multi-object Astronomical and Cosmological Spectrograph (GMACS) is currently in development for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMACS will employ slit masks with a usable diameter of approximately 0.450 m for the purpose of multi-slit spectroscopy. Of significant importance are the design constraints and parameters of the multi-object slit masks themselves as well as the means for mapping astronomical targets to physical mask locations. Analytical methods are utilized to quantify deformation effects on a potential slit mask due to thermal expansion and vignetting of target light cones. Finite element analysis (FEA) is utilized to simulate mask flexure in changing gravity vectors. The alpha version of the mask creation program for GMACS, GMACS Mask Simulator (GMS), a derivative of the OSMOS Mask Simulator (OMS), is introduced.

  19. Airway obstruction and gas leak during mask ventilation of preterm infants in the delivery room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-07-01

    Preterm infants with inadequate breathing receive positive pressure ventilation (PPV) by mask with variable success. The authors examined recordings of PPV given to preterm infants in the delivery room for prevalence of mask leak and airway obstruction.

  20. FAST COMMUNICATION: A PDE Based Two Level Model of the Masking Property of the Human Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Jack; Qi, Yingyong

    2003-01-01

    Human ear has the masking property that certain audible sound becomes inaudible in the presence of another sound. Masking is quantified by the raised threshold from the absolute hearing threshold in quiet. It is of scientific and practical importance to compute masking thresholds. Empirical models on masking have applications in low bit rate digital music compression. A first principle based two level model is developed with partial differential equation (PDE) at the periphe...

  1. Selective spatial attention modulates bottom-up informational masking of speech

    OpenAIRE

    Carlile, Simon; Corkhill, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    To hear out a conversation against other talkers listeners overcome energetic and informational masking. Largely attributed to top-down processes, information masking has also been demonstrated using unintelligible speech and amplitude-modulated maskers suggesting bottom-up processes. We examined the role of speech-like amplitude modulations in information masking using a spatial masking release paradigm. Separating a target talker from two masker talkers produced a 20?dB improvement in speec...

  2. Masking effects of speech and music: does the masker's hierarchical structure matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng; Law, Yvonne

    2010-04-01

    Speech and music are time-varying signals organized by parallel hierarchical rules. Through a series of four experiments, this study compared the masking effects of single-talker speech and instrumental music on speech perception while manipulating the complexity of hierarchical and temporal structures of the maskers. Listeners' word recognition was found to be similar between hierarchically intact and disrupted speech or classical music maskers (Experiment 1). When sentences served as the signal, significantly greater masking effects were observed with disrupted than intact speech or classical music maskers (Experiment 2), although not with jazz or serial music maskers, which differed from the classical music masker in their hierarchical structures (Experiment 3). Removing the classical music masker's temporal dynamics or partially restoring it affected listeners' sentence recognition; yet, differences in performance between intact and disrupted maskers remained robust (Experiment 4). Hence, the effect of structural expectancy was largely present across maskers when comparing them before and after their hierarchical structure was purposefully disrupted. This effect seemed to lend support to the auditory stream segregation theory.

  3. Blind Separation of Acoustic Signals Combining SIMO-Model-Based Independent Component Analysis and Binary Masking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiekata Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new two-stage blind source separation (BSS method for convolutive mixtures of speech is proposed, in which a single-input multiple-output (SIMO-model-based independent component analysis (ICA and a new SIMO-model-based binary masking are combined. SIMO-model-based ICA enables us to separate the mixed signals, not into monaural source signals but into SIMO-model-based signals from independent sources in their original form at the microphones. Thus, the separated signals of SIMO-model-based ICA can maintain the spatial qualities of each sound source. Owing to this attractive property, our novel SIMO-model-based binary masking can be applied to efficiently remove the residual interference components after SIMO-model-based ICA. The experimental results reveal that the separation performance can be considerably improved by the proposed method compared with that achieved by conventional BSS methods. In addition, the real-time implementation of the proposed BSS is illustrated.

  4. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  5. The flexibility of nonconsciously deployed cognitive processes: evidence from masked congruence priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Finkbeiner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well accepted in the subliminal priming literature that task-level properties modulate nonconscious processes. For example, in tasks with a limited number of targets, subliminal priming effects are limited to primes that are physically similar to the targets. In contrast, when a large number of targets are used, subliminal priming effects are observed for primes that share a semantic (but not necessarily physical relationship with the target. Findings such as these have led researchers to conclude that task-level properties can direct nonconscious processes to be deployed exclusively over central (semantic or peripheral (physically specified representations. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find distinct patterns of masked priming for "novel" and "repeated" primes within a single task context. Novel primes never appear as targets and thus are not seen consciously in the experiment. Repeated primes do appear as targets, thereby lending themselves to the establishment of peripheral stimulus-response mappings. If the source of the masked priming effect were exclusively central or peripheral, then both novel and repeated primes should yield similar patterns of priming. In contrast, we find that both novel and repeated primes produce robust, yet distinct, patterns of priming. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that nonconsciously elicited cognitive processes can be flexibly deployed over both central and peripheral representations within a single task context. While we agree that task-level properties can influence nonconscious processes, our findings sharply constrain the extent of this influence. Specifically, our findings are inconsistent with extant accounts which hold that the influence of task-level properties is strong enough to restrict the deployment of nonconsciously elicited cognitive processes to a single type of representation (i.e. central or peripheral.

  6. 37 CFR 211.2 - Recordation of documents pertaining to mask works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pertaining to mask works. 211.2 Section 211.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.2 Recordation of documents pertaining to mask works. The conditions prescribed in § 201.4 of this chapter for recordation of transfers...

  7. Structure and thermal analysis of the water cooling mask at NSRL front end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Feiyun; Xu Chaoyin; Wang Qiuping; Wang Naxiu

    2003-01-01

    A water cooling mask is an important part of the front end, usually used for absorbing high power density synchrotron radiation to protect the apparatus from being destroyed by heat load. This paper presents the structure of the water cooling mask and the thermal analysis results of the mask block at NSRL using Program ANSYS5.5

  8. 76 FR 9984 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ..., Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part Numbers 174006-(), 174080-(), 174085-(), 174095... manufacturer and part number of the oxygen mask assemblies installed, an inspection to determine the manufacturing date and modification status if certain oxygen mask assemblies are installed, and corrective...

  9. Evaluation of protection provided by air purifying half and full-face masks as worn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1979-01-01

    For selecting good-performing masks and estimating the protection provided by the masks, the leakage has been measured for six types of half mask and three types of full-face mask as worn. The cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was generated within a test hood in which the subject wore his mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. The leakage was measured under four simulated working conditions such as normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. The measured protection factors (defined as the ratio of the concentration of the test cloud outside the mask to that inside the mask) widely distributed from 10 to 3,300 for the half masks and from 100 to 3,300 for the full-face masks, depending on the persons and the working conditions. The values characterising the distribution of the protection factor for each mask are summarized. Based on these values, the performance of each mask and the effects of working conditions on the protection are discussed. (author)

  10. 76 FR 41669 - Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Airworthiness Directives; B/E Aerospace, Continuous Flow Passenger Oxygen Mask Assembly, Part Numbers 174006... manufacturer and part number of the oxygen mask assemblies installed, an inspection to determine the manufacturing date and modification status if certain oxygen mask assemblies are installed, and corrective...

  11. 37 CFR 211.6 - Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... placement of mask work notice. 211.6 Section 211.6 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES MASK WORK PROTECTION § 211.6 Methods of affixation and placement of mask work notice. (a) General. (1) This section specifies methods of affixation and placement...

  12. 42 CFR 84.75 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.75 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be...

  13. Modulating the Masked Congruence Priming Effect with the Hands and the Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Matthew; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The authors report a series of experiments in which they use the masked congruence priming paradigm to investigate the processing of masked primes in the manual and verbal response modalities. In the manual response modality, they found that masked incongruent primes produced interference relative to both congruent and neutral primes. This…

  14. A new suction mask to reduce leak during neonatal resuscitation: a manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Maxfield, Dominic A; Dawson, Jennifer A; Kamlin, C Omar F; McGrory, Lorraine; Thio, Marta; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2016-09-01

    Leak around the face mask is a common problem during neonatal resuscitation. A newly designed face mask using a suction system to enhance contact between the mask and the infant's face might reduce leak and improve neonatal resuscitation. The aim of the study is to determine whether leak is reduced using the suction mask (Resusi-sure mask) compared with a conventional mask (Laerdal Silicone mask) in a manikin model. Sixty participants from different professional categories (neonatal consultants, fellows, registrars, nurses, midwives and students) used each face mask in a random order to deliver 2 min of positive pressure ventilation to a manikin. Delivered airway pressures were measured using a pressure line. Inspiratory and expiratory flows were measured using a flow sensor, and expiratory tidal volumes and mask leaks were derived from these values. A median (IQR) leak of 12.1 (0.6-39.0)% was found with the conventional mask compared with 0.7 (0.2-4.6)% using the suction mask (p=0.002). 50% of the participants preferred to use the suction mask and 38% preferred to use the conventional mask. There was no correlation between leak and operator experience. A new neonatal face mask based on the suction system reduced leak in a manikin model. Clinical studies to test the safety and effectiveness of this mask are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Activation of Dihydrogen by Masked Doubly Bonded Aluminum Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koichi; Murosaki, Takahiro; Agou, Tomohiro; Sasamori, Takahiro; Matsuo, Tsukasa; Tokitoh, Norihiro

    2016-10-04

    Activation of dihydrogen by masked dialumenes (Al=Al doubly bonded species) is reported. Reactions of barrelene-type dialumanes, which have the reactivity as masked equivalents of 1,2-diaryldialumenes ArAl=AlAr, with H2 afforded dihydroalumanes ArAlH2 at room temperature (Ar: bulky aryl groups). These dihydroalumanes form hydrogen-bridged dimers [ArHAl(μ-H)]2 in the crystalline state, while a monomer-dimer equilibrium was suggested in solution. The 1,2-diaryldialumenes generated from the barrelene-type dialumanes are the putative active species in the cleavage of H2 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The JWST/NIRCam Coronagraph: Mask Design and Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista, John E.; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatha; Beichman, Charles A.; Echternach, Pierre M.; Green, Joseph J.; Liewer, Kurt M.; Muller, Richard E.; Serabyn, Eugene; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Trauger, John T.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The NIRCam instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope will provide coronagraphic imaging from lambda =1-5 microns of high contrast sources such as extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks. A Lyot coronagraph with a variety of circular and wedge-shaped occulting masks and matching Lyot pupil stops will be implemented. The occulters approximate grayscale transmission profiles using halftone binary patterns comprising wavelength-sized metal dots on anti-reflection coated sapphire substrates. The mask patterns are being created in the Micro Devices Laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory using electron beam lithography. Samples of these occulters have been successfully evaluated in a coronagraphic testbed. In a separate process, the complex apertures that form the Lyot stops will be deposited onto optical wedges. The NIRCam coronagraph flight components are expected to be completed this year.

  17. Scenes of shame, social Roles, and the play with masks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article explores various scenes of shame, raising the questions of what shame discloses about the self and how this self-disclosure takes place. Thereby, the common idea that shame discloses the self’s debasement will be challenged. The dramatic dialectics of showing and hiding display a much...... more ambiguous, dynamic self-image as result of an interactive evaluation of oneself by oneself and others. Seeing oneself seen contributes to the sense of who one becomes. From being absorbed in what one does, one might suddenly become self-aware, shift viewpoints and feel pressed to put on masks....... In putting on a mask, one relates to oneself in distancing oneself from oneself. In being at once a moral agent and a performing actor with an audience and norms in mind, one embodies and transcends the social roles one takes. In addition to the feeling of shame, in which the self finds itself passively...

  18. Speckle reduction in digital holography with resampling ring masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhui; Cao, Liangcai; Jin, Guofan

    2018-01-01

    One-shot digital holographic imaging has the advantages of high stability and low temporal cost. However, the reconstruction is affected by the speckle noise. Resampling ring-mask method in spectrum domain is proposed for speckle reduction. The useful spectrum of one hologram is divided into several sub-spectra by ring masks. In the reconstruction, angular spectrum transform is applied to guarantee the calculation accuracy which has no approximation. N reconstructed amplitude images are calculated from the corresponding sub-spectra. Thanks to speckle's random distribution, superimposing these N uncorrelated amplitude images would lead to a final reconstructed image with lower speckle noise. Normalized relative standard deviation values of the reconstructed image are used to evaluate the reduction of speckle. Effect of the method on the spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is also quantitatively evaluated. Experimental and simulation results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Gingival mask: A case report on enhancing smiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashritha Shenava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal attachment loss in the maxillary anterior region can often lead to esthetic and functional clinical problems including disproportional and elongated clinical crowns and visible interdental embrasures. Gingival replacement prosthesis has historically been used to replace lost tissue. A gingival mask is an easily constructed and practical device to optimize the esthetic and functional outcome in these special situations while permitting cleansibility of the prosthesis and supporting tissues. This is a case report of a young female patient treated using silicon gingival veneer with a 2-year follow-up. The silicon gingival mask has enabled the patient to regain her lost smile and face people with newly found confidence also enhancing the esthetic appearance. Virtually, no problem was encountered during the 2 years of usage of the veneer and the patient continues to use it comfortably.

  20. [Detection and documentation of masked blood stains with infrared technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Chesne, A; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    1993-01-01

    On dark textiles the visualization of blood stains with the naked eye is either difficult or impossible. In experimental stains and in case work stains we have applied an infrared (IR) video camera in combination with a video printer. As an alternative, an IR goggle was used which could also be connected with a video printer. The results obtained on a variety of different stains and stain carriers are encouraging. Stains showing poor contrast usually become more contrasted. Stains which are partly masked can become complete. Masked stains can become visible. The system is not effective in all combinations of stains and carriers. But it solves a great proportion of formerly problematic cases. Documentation of results is quite easy if a videoprinter is used.

  1. Study of a coronagraphic mask using evanescent waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisset, Christophe; Rabbia, Yves; Lepine, Thierry; Alagao, Mary-Angelie; Ducrot, Elsa; Poshyachinda, Saran; Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2017-04-03

    The evanescent wave coronagraph (EvWaCo) is a specific kind of band-limited coronagraph using the frustrated total internal reflection phenomenon to produce the coronagraphic effect (removing starlight from the image plane in order to make the stellar environment detectable). In this paper, we present a theoretical and experimental study of the EvWaCo coronagraphic mask. First, we calculate the theoretical transmission and we show that this mask is partially achromatic. Then, we present the experimental results obtained in unpolarized light at the wavelength λ≈900 nm and relative spectral bandwidth Δλ/λ≈6%. In particular, we show that the coronagraph provides a contrast down to a few 10-6 at an angular distance of about ten Airy radii.

  2. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitzen, C; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T; Garbe, S; Lütter, C; Müdder, T; Simon, B; Schild, H H; Schüller, H

    2014-04-01

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal® or Open Face® mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast®-HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): - 0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); - 0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): - 1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); - 0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); - 1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35° (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0° (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02° (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5° (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning.

  3. Fabless company mask technology approach: fabless but not fab-careless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamura, Toshiyuki; Wu, Xin

    2009-10-01

    There are two different foundry-fabless working models in the aspect of mask. Some foundries have in-house mask facility while others contract with merchant mask vendors. Significant progress has been made in both kinds of situations. Xilinx as one of the pioneers of fabless semiconductor companies has been continually working very closely with both merchant mask vendors and mask facilities of foundries in past many years, contributed well in both technology development and benefited from corporations. Our involvement in manufacturing is driven by the following three elements: The first element is to understand the new fabrication and mask technologies and then find a suitable design / layout style to better utilize these new technologies and avoid potential risks. Because Xilinx has always been involved in early stage of advanced technology nodes, this early understanding and adoption is especially important. The second element is time to market. Reduction in mask and wafer manufacturing cycle-time can ensure faster time to market. The third element is quality. Commitment to quality is our highest priority for our customers. We have enough visibility on any manufacturing issues affecting the device functionality. Good correlation has consistently been observed between FPGA speed uniformity and the poly mask Critical Dimension (CD) uniformity performance. To achieve FPGA speed uniformity requirement, the manufacturing process as well as the mask and wafer CD uniformity has to be monitored. Xilinx works closely with the wafer foundries and mask suppliers to improve productivity and the yield from initial development stage of mask making operations. As an example, defect density reduction is one of the biggest challenges for mask supplier in development stage to meet the yield target satisfying the mask cost and mask turn-around-time (TAT) requirement. Historically, masks were considered to be defect free but at these advanced process nodes, that assumption no longer

  4. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hee; Choi, Goeun; Oh, Yeon-Ji; Park, Je Won; Choy, Young Bin; Park, Mung Chul; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Chang, Hee Chul; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT), for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN). To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN–MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA). Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN–MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%), suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2) and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN–MMT and Viagra®, an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN–MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra®. However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN–MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra®. For the AEA-coated SDN–MMT, the area under the plasma concentration– time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC0-∞) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 78.8 ± 2.32 μg · hour/mL and 12.4 ± 0.673 μg/mL, respectively, both of which were larger than those obtained with Viagra® (AUC0-∞ = 69.2 ± 3.19 μg · hour/mL; Cmax = 10.5 ± 0.641 μg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the MMT-based nanohybrid is a promising delivery system for taste masking of SDN with possibly improved drug exposure. PMID:22619517

  5. Data Shuffling--A New Masking Approach for Numerical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurty Muralidhar; Rathindra Sarathy

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses a new procedure for masking confidential numerical data--a procedure called data shuffling--in which the values of the confidential variables are "shuffled" among observations. The shuffled data provides a high level of data utility and minimizes the risk of disclosure. From a practical perspective, data shuffling overcomes reservations about using perturbed or modified confidential data because it retains all the desirable properties of perturbation methods and performs ...

  6. The effect of masking in the attentional dwell time paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    A temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets has been identified in numerous studies of temporal visual attention. This effect is known as attentional dwell time and is maximal 200 to 500 ms after presentation of the first target (e.g. Duncan, Ward, Shapiro...... an impairment of the second target. Hence, the attentional dwell time may be a combined effect arising from attending to both the first target and its mask....

  7. Shadow-mask evaporation through monolayer-modified nanostencils

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbel, M; Tjerkstra, RW; Brugger, J; van Rijn, CJM; Nijdam, W; Huskens, J; Reinhoudt, DN

    2002-01-01

    Gradual clogging of the apertures of nanostencils used as miniature shadow masks in metal evaporations can be reduced by coating the stencil with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). This is quantified by the dimensions (height and volume) of gold features obtained by nanostencil evaporation as measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An increase in material deposition through the apertures by more than 100% can be achieved with SAM-coated stencils, which ...

  8. The Sheppard Oxygen Mask: Efficient oxygen enrichment in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    63 Patients were studied in the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) and divided into three groups. Group-V received-oxygen enriched air via standard venturi masks at 8L/min fresh gas flow (FGF);. Groups S4 and S8 breathed via SOM's at FGF of 4 and 8L/min. Inspired (Fi) and expired (FE) gases, as well as blood gas ten-.

  9. Photodeposited diffractive optical elements of computer generated masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchin, N.; Peled, A.; Baal-Zedaka, I.; Margolin, R.; Zagon, M.; Lapsker, I.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.

    2005-01-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) were synthesized on plastic substrates using the photodeposition (PD) technique by depositing amorphous selenium (a-Se) films with argon lasers and UV spectra light. The thin films were deposited typically onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates at room temperature. Scanned beam and contact mask modes were employed using computer-designed DOE lenses. Optical and electron micrographs characterize the surface details. The films were typically 200 nm thick

  10. Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Godoi, M. N.; Čapek, Miroslav; Pivatto, M. A. C.; Literák, I.; Kokeš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2011), s. 428-433 ISSN 0103-5657 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Tityra semifasciata * Masked Tityra * new records * Mato Grosso do Sul * South America Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.134, year: 2011 http://www.ararajuba.org.br/sbo/ararajuba/artigos/Volume193/ccount/click.php?id=19

  11. Volume Phase Masks in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    producing three tines in the fork. ....................................................................... 51 Figure 3.10: Diagram of a plano ...shown in Fig. 3.1 and a 100 mm plano - convex lens with a diameter of 50.4 mm was used as the collimating lens for the lamp. The mask and sample were...produce such elements, several plano -convex lenses are considered here. To simulate a Fresnel lens first consider a collimated beam incident on a

  12. A developed unsharp masking method for images contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaafouri, A.; Sayadi, M.; Fnaiech, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a developed unsharp masking process for contrast image enhancement. The main idea here is to enhance the dark and bright area in the same way which matches the response of human visual system well. Then in order to reduce the noise effect, a mean weighted high pass filter is used for edge extraction. The proposed method gives satisfactory results for wide range of low contrast images compared with others known approaches.

  13. Photodeposited diffractive optical elements of computer generated masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirchin, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel)]. E-mail: mirchin@hait.ac.il; Peled, A. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Baal-Zedaka, I. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Margolin, R. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Zagon, M. [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Lapsker, I. [Physics Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Verdyan, A. [Physics Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel); Azoulay, J. [Physics Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb Street, Holon 58102 (Israel)

    2005-07-30

    Diffractive optical elements (DOE) were synthesized on plastic substrates using the photodeposition (PD) technique by depositing amorphous selenium (a-Se) films with argon lasers and UV spectra light. The thin films were deposited typically onto polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates at room temperature. Scanned beam and contact mask modes were employed using computer-designed DOE lenses. Optical and electron micrographs characterize the surface details. The films were typically 200 nm thick.

  14. Image Enhancement by Unsharp Masking the Depth Buffer

    OpenAIRE

    Luft, Thomas; Colditz, Carsten; Deussen, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple and efficient method to enhance the perceptual quality of images that contain depth information. Similar to an unsharp mask, the difference between the original depth buffer content and a low-pass filtered copy is utilized to determine information about spatially important areas in a scene. Based on this information we locally enhance the contrast, color, and other parameters of the image. Our technique aims at improving the perception of complex scenes by introducing addi...

  15. Temporal limitations in the effective binding of attended target attributes in the mutual masking of visual objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommuk, Karita; Bachmann, Talis

    2009-06-01

    The problem of feature binding has been examined under conditions of distributed attention or with spatially dispersed stimuli. We studied binding by asking whether selective attention to a feature of a masked object enables perceptual access to the other features of that object using conditions in which spatial attention was directed at a single location where all objects appeared. In an identification condition, the task required reporting the same property of each object. High rates of identification showed good perceptual availability. In a search condition, the task required reporting the property (e.g., shape) that was associated with a specific value of the searched property (e.g., surface texture) of the same object. Focusing of attention on a target's searched property value did not result in a high rate of identifying the target's other property, and strong object masking was found. Backward masking between spatially superimposed visual objects appears to be primarily due to a difficulty in feature binding of a target object rather than to a substitution of an integrated object by the following stimulus. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Design of a multistep phase mask for high-energy THz pulse generation in ZnTe crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Yuri H.; Makaryan, Armen; Tadevosyan, Vahe

    2017-08-01

    A new scheme for generating high-energy terahertz (THz) pulses by optical rectification of tilted pulse front (TPF) femtosecond laser pulses in ZnTe crystal is proposed and analyzed. The TPF laser pulses are originated due to propagation through a multistep phase mask (MSPM) attached to the entrance surface of the nonlinear crystal. Similar to the case of contacting optical grating the necessity of the imaging optics is avoided. In addition, introduction of large amounts of angular dispersion is also eliminated. The operation principle is based on the fact that the MSPM splits a single input beam into many smaller time-delayed "beamlets", which together form a discretely TPF in the nonlinear crystal. The dimensions of the mask's steps required for high-energy THz-pulse generation in ZnTe and widely used lithium niobate (LN) crystals are calculated. The optimal number of steps is estimated taking into account individual beamlet's spatial broadening and problems related to the mask fabrication. The THz field in no pump depletion approximation is analytically calculated using radiating antenna model. The analysis shows that application of ZnTe crystal allows obtaining higher THz-pulse energy than that of LN crystal, especially when long-wavelength pump sources are used. The proposed method is a promising way to develop high-energy, monolithic, and alignment-free THzpulse source.

  17. Individual SnO{sub 2} nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, and State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082 (China)], E-mail: wanqing7686@hotmail.com

    2009-06-24

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO{sub 2} nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO{sub 2} nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10{sup 6} and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  18. Impulse attack-free four random phase mask encryption based on a 4-f optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2009-04-20

    Optical encryption methods based on double random phase encryption (DRPE) have been shown to be vulnerable to different types of attacks. The Fourier plane random phase mask (RPM), which is the most important key, can be cracked with a single impulse function attack. Such an attack is viable because the Fourier transform of a delta function is a unity function. Formation of a unity function can be avoided if RPMs are placed in front of both lenses in a 4-f optical setup, thereby protecting the DRPE from an impulse attack. We have performed numerical simulations to verify the proposed scheme. Resistance of this scheme is checked against the brute force and the impulse function attacks. The experimental results validate the feasibility of the scheme.

  19. Trial manufacture of round mask for TV fluoroscopic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Shoji; Matsumoto, Yukio

    1977-01-01

    Demands for revision of existing medical law were described together with an introduction of TV fluoroscopic unit. Round mask, which does not always press out the bottom face of used x-ray beam from the effective primary fluorescent face of photomultiplier inspite of shifting of a spot in time of TV fluoroscopy, was manufactured for trial, and it was furnished with already established fluoroscopic stand. It is used in daily examination without any trouble. Round mask was divided into two parts, and opened upward and downward quickly by lod motor in time of photographing. Multiple iris was operated in order to fit to film size, and round mask was closed at the same time of the finishment of photographing and fluoroscopy was performed again. Item 3 of Para 2 of Art 30 of the existing medical low states that it is good not to press out, the distance between x-ray focus and fluorescent screen, and used x-ray beam from fluorescent screen. However, a regulation, which states that x-ray beam should not be pressed out from effective primary fluorescent face in x-ray fluoroscopy using photomultiplier, must be added. Improvement of the existing unit is expected, and decrease of unnecessary exposure even in small amount is proposed. (Tsunoda, M.)

  20. Flashing a smile: Startle eyeblink modulation by masked affective faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Elizabeth R; Lovelace, Christopher T; Gimmestad, Katherine; Aarant, Justin; Filion, Diane L

    2018-04-01

    Affective faces are important stimuli with relevance to healthy and abnormal social and affective information processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of brief presentations of affective faces on attention and emotional state across the time course of stimulus processing, as indexed by startle eyeblink response modulation. Healthy adults were presented with happy, neutral, and disgusted male and female faces that were backward masked by neutral faces. Startle responses were elicited at 300, 800, and 3,500 ms following stimulus presentation to probe early and late startle eyeblink modulation, indicative of attention allocation and emotional state, respectively. Results revealed that, at 300 ms, both face expression and face gender modulated startle eyeblink response, suggesting that more attention was allocated to masked happy compared to disgusted female faces, and masked disgusted compared to neutral male faces. There were no effects of either face expression or face gender on startle modulation at 800 ms. At 3,500 ms, target face expression did not modulate startle, but male faces elicited larger startle responses than female faces, indicative of a more negative emotional state. These findings provide a systematic investigation of attention and emotion modulation by brief affective faces across the time course of stimulus processing. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Pixelated source and mask optimization for immersion lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Han, Chunying; Li, Yanqiu; Dong, Lisong; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2013-01-01

    Immersion lithography systems with hyper-numerical aperture (hyper-NA) (NA>1) have become indispensable in nanolithography for technology nodes of 45 nm and beyond. Source and mask optimization (SMO) has emerged as a key technique used to further improve the imaging performance of immersion lithography. Recently, a set of pixelated gradient-based SMO approaches were proposed under the scalar imaging models, which are inaccurate for hyper-NA settings. This paper focuses on developing pixelated gradient-based SMO algorithms based on a vector imaging model that is accurate for current immersion lithography. To achieve this goal, an integrative and analytic vector imaging model is first used to formulate the simultaneous SMO (SISMO) and sequential SMO (SESMO) frameworks. A gradient-based algorithm is then exploited to jointly optimize the source and mask. Subsequently, this paper studies and compares the performance of individual source optimization (SO), individual mask optimization (MO), SISMO, and SESMO. Finally, a hybrid SMO (HSMO) approach is proposed to take full advantage of SO, SISMO, and MO, consequently achieving superior performance.

  2. Preferred axis of CMB parity asymmetry in the masked maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhao, Wen, E-mail: wzhao7@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, Qing-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Santos, Larissa [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-06-10

    Both WMAP and Planck data show a significant odd-multipole preference in the large scales of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies. If this pattern originates from cosmological effects, then it can be considered a crucial clue for a violation in the cosmological principle. By defining various direction dependent statistics in the full-sky Planck 2015 maps (see, for instance, Naselsky et al. (2012); W. Zhao (2014)), we found that the CMB parity asymmetry has a preferred direction, which is independent of the choices of the statistics. In particular, this preferred axis is strongly aligned with those in the CMB quadrupole and octopole, as well as that in the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to their non-cosmological origin. In realistic observations, the foreground residuals are inevitable, and should be properly masked out in order to avoid possible misinterpretation of the results. In this paper, we extend our previous analyses to the masked Planck 2015 data. By defining a similar direction dependent statistic in the masked map, we find a preferred direction of the CMB parity asymmetry, in which the axis also coincides with that found in the full-sky analysis. Therefore, our conclusions on the CMB parity violation and its directional properties are confirmed.

  3. Neurofibromatosis: relinquishing the masks; a quest for quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, R; Smith, M N

    1986-07-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) or von Recklinghausen's disease is mankind's most common neurologic genetic disorder, occurring in one of every 3000 live births. While many individuals with NF suffer disfiguring, disabling, or life-threatening complications, NF is extremely variable in its symptoms, intensity, and progression. For many of its victims, NF is a pseudonym for uncertainty and physical and psychosocial havoc. John Merrick, 'The Elephant Man', endured one of the most severe cases of NF ever recorded. Merrick's rejection by post-Dickensian England forced him to become a sideshow circus attraction just to survive. The essence of nursing intervention with NF patients and their families engaged in the quest for quality of life is to restore them to optimal physical and psychosocial functioning, and, ideally, to help them utilize the experience for growth. Many individuals respond to the frustration of NF and society's reactions to the disorder by the wearing of psychological masks. Likewise, nurses may wear emotional masks as a defence against their own discomfort and fears concerning the disorders. Comprehensive nursing management of NF is realized only as nurses and patients relinquish their respective masks. This article examines the nurse's role in genetic disorders with special considerations presented by NF. Adaptation to NF involves coping with NF and its accompanying sequelae and coping with life as it is affected by NF. The concepts of 'chromosomal coping', 'genetophobia', 'genetic guilt, and 'genetic overload syndrome' are presented and analyzed utilizing the theoretical nursing frameworks of Imogene King and Sister Callista Roy.

  4. Understanding the ion beam in EUV mask blank production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Patrick; Jindal, Vibhu; Weaver, Alfred; Teora, Pat; Sporre, John; Ruzic, David; Goodwin, Frank

    2012-03-01

    One of the major technical hurdles to be overcome before EUV lithography can enter high volume manufacturing is the amount of defects in EUV mask blanks, many of which occur during the EUV reflector deposition process. The technology currently used to deposit this reflector is ion beam sputter deposition. Understanding the properties of the ion beam and the nature of the plasma in the deposition chamber is therefore critical to understanding defect production mechanisms and subsequently eliminating them. In this work, we have studied how the source parameters influence ion beam divergence, its footprint on the target, and the amount of beam that misses the target and hits the shielding. By optimizing the source parameters, we can modulate certain target- and shield-specific defect types. We have compared our data with models of source performance and found general agreement, enabling the theory to be fine-tuned based on the results of the measurements. Models are being developed to better describe actual source performance. We have also investigated the plasma conditions the ion beam creates in the tool, which is crucial to understanding the transport of defects from their source to the mask. A well characterized ion beam and plasma will lead to process and tool changes that will ultimately reduce defect levels in EUV mask blanks.

  5. Effects of temporal integration on the shape of visual backward masking functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory; Cho, Yang Seok

    2008-10-01

    Many studies of cognition and perception use a visual mask to explore the dynamics of information processing of a target. Especially important in these applications is the time between the target and mask stimuli. A plot of some measure of target visibility against stimulus onset asynchrony is called a masking function, which can sometimes be monotonic increasing but other times is U-shaped. Theories of backward masking have long hypothesized that temporal integration of the target and mask influences properties of masking but have not connected the influence of integration with the shape of the masking function. With two experiments that vary the spatial properties of the target and mask, the authors provide evidence that temporal integration of the stimuli plays a critical role in determining the shape of the masking function. The resulting data both challenge current theories of backward masking and indicate what changes to the theories are needed to account for the new data. The authors further discuss the implication of the findings for uses of backward masking to explore other aspects of cognition.

  6. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne van der Sande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Governments are preparing for a potential influenza pandemic. Therefore they need data to assess the possible impact of interventions. Face-masks worn by the general population could be an accessible and affordable intervention, if effective when worn under routine circumstances. METHODOLOGY: We assessed transmission reduction potential provided by personal respirators, surgical masks and home-made masks when worn during a variety of activities by healthy volunteers and a simulated patient. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All types of masks reduced aerosol exposure, relatively stable over time, unaffected by duration of wear or type of activity, but with a high degree of individual variation. Personal respirators were more efficient than surgical masks, which were more efficient than home-made masks. Regardless of mask type, children were less well protected. Outward protection (mask wearing by a mechanical head was less effective than inward protection (mask wearing by healthy volunteers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Any type of general mask use is likely to decrease viral exposure and infection risk on a population level, in spite of imperfect fit and imperfect adherence, personal respirators providing most protection. Masks worn by patients may not offer as great a degree of protection against aerosol transmission.

  7. Barriers to mask wearing for influenza-like illnesses among urban Hispanic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferng, Yu-hui; Wong-McLoughlin, Jennifer; Barrett, Angela; Currie, Leanne; Larson, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    To identify barriers to mask wearing and to examine the factors associated with the willingness to wear masks among households. We used data sources from a study assessing the impact of 3 nonpharmaceutical interventions on the rates of influenza: exit interviews; home visits with a subset of the mask group; and a focus group. Risk perception score, univariate analysis, and logistic regression were conducted to identify the characteristics and predictors of mask use. Thematic barriers to mask wearing were identified from qualitative data obtained at home visits and focus group. Respondents from the mask group, when compared with the nonmask group, demonstrated higher risk perception scores concerning influenza (maximum score: 60, means: 37.6 and 30.2, pmask wearing (maximum score: 10, means: 7.8 and 7.3, p=.043). There was no significant association between demographic, attitudinal, or knowledge variables and adherence to wearing masks. Thematic barriers were identified such as social acceptability of mask use, comfort and fit, and perception of the risk/need for masks. Face masks may not be an effective intervention for seasonal or pandemic influenza unless the risk perception of influenza is high. Dissemination of culturally appropriate mask use information by health authorities and providers must be emphasized when educating the public. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mask pressure effects on the nasal bridge during short-term noninvasive ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Anne-Kathrin; Pickersgill, Rachel; Moghal, Mohammad; Morrell, Mary J.; Simonds, Anita K.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different masks, ventilator settings and body positions on the pressure exerted on the nasal bridge by the mask and subjective comfort during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We measured the pressure over the nasal bridge in 20 healthy participants receiving NIV via four different NIV masks (three oronasal masks, one nasal mask) at three different ventilator settings and in the seated or supine position. Objective pressure measurements were obtained with an I-Scan pressure-mapping system. Subjective comfort of the mask fit was assessed with a visual analogue scale. The masks exerted mean pressures between 47.6±29 mmHg and 91.9±42.4 mmHg on the nasal bridge. In the supine position, the pressure was lower in all masks (57.1±31.9 mmHg supine, 63.9±37.3 mmHg seated; pmasks, a change of inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP) did not influence the objective pressure over the nasal bridge. Subjective discomfort was associated with higher IPAP and positively correlated with the pressure on the skin. Objective measurement of pressure on the skin during mask fitting might be helpful for mask selection. Mask fitting in the supine position should be considered in the clinical routine. PMID:29637077

  9. (EfFacing the Face of Nationalism: Wrestling Masks in Chicano and Mexican Performance Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Neustadt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Masks serve as particularly effective props in contemporary Mexican and Chicano performance art because of a number of deeply rooted traditions in Mexican culture. This essay explores the mask as code of honor in Mexican culture, and foregrounds the manner in which a number of contemporary Mexican and Chicano artists and performers strategically employ wrestling masks to (efface the mask-like image of Mexican or U.S. nationalism. I apply the label "performance artist" broadly, to include musicians and political figures that integrate an exaggerated sense of theatricality into their performances. Following the early work of Roland Barthes, I read performances as "texts" in which the wrestling masks function as immediately recognizable signs . I argue that by masking their identity and alluding to popular mask traditions, Chicano and Mexican performance artists make visible, and interrogate, the national face(s of power.

  10. Evaluation of the protection factor of half-masks with respirator fitting test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, M.; Ikezawa, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kokubu, M.

    1980-01-01

    A respirator fitting test apparatus has been developed to select half-masks of high performance and to estimate their protective ability. With the apparatus, the facepiece leakage was measured for six different half-masks worn by 40 volunteer subjects, under simulated working conditions of normal breathing, smiling, moving head, and talking. A cloud of submicron sodium chloride particles was fed into a test hood in which the subject wore a mask. The air sampled from inside the mask with a miniature pump was assessed by a flame photometer. It is hown that the protection factor (ratio of the concentration of test cloud outside the mask to that inside) for each mask varies widely with the subject and the working conditions, and that the protection factors roughly fit a lognormal distribution. The values characterizing the distributions of respective masks are given. (H.K.)

  11. Mechanically and electrically robust metal-mask design for organic CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Michihiro; Qin, Zhaoxing; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogasahara, Yasuhiro; Hiromoto, Masayuki; Sato, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    The design of metal masks for fabricating organic CMOS circuits requires the consideration of not only the electrical property of the circuits, but also the mechanical strength of the masks. In this paper, we propose a new design flow for metal masks that realizes coanalysis of the mechanical and electrical properties and enables design exploration considering the trade-off between the two properties. As a case study, we apply a “stitching technique” to the mask design of a ring oscillator and explore the best design. With this technique, mask patterns are divided into separate parts using multiple mask layers to improve the mechanical strength at the cost of high resistance of the vias. By a numerical experiment, the design trade-off of the stitching technique is quantitatively analyzed, and it is demonstrated that the proposed flow is useful for the exploration of the designs of metal masks.

  12. Design criteria for small coded aperture masks in gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembay, S.; Gehrels, N.

    1990-01-01

    Most theoretical work on coded aperture masks in X-ray and low-energy γ-ray astronomy has concentrated on masks with large numbers of elements. For γ-ray spectrometers in the MeV range, the detector plane usually has only a few discrete elements, so that masks with small numbers of elements are called for. For this case it is feasible to analyse by computer all the possible mask patterns of given dimension to find the ones that best satisfy the desired performance criteria. In this paper we develop a particular set of performance criteria for comparing the flux sensitivities, source positioning accuracies and transparencies of different mask patterns. We then present the results of such a computer analysis for masks up to dimension 5x5 unit cell and conclude that there is a great deal of flexibility in one's choice of mask pattern for each dimension. (orig.)

  13. Attention and the detection of masked radial frequency patterns: Data and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip L; Lee, Young-Eun; Wolfgang, Bradley J; Ratcliff, Roger

    2009-06-01

    A radial frequency (RF) stimulus is strongly masked by a second, surrounding RF stimulus that follows the first after a critical stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of around 100ms. We sought to determine whether a mask-dependent attentional cuing effect, like that found when detecting pattern-masked sinusoidal gratings, would be obtained with RF stimuli. Observers detected RF modulations in cued or miscued stimuli that were masked with a simultaneous (SIM) RF mask or a delayed (SUC) RF mask that followed it after 100ms. There were large cuing effects in the SUC condition and small cuing effects in the SIM condition, replicating previous findings. The data are well described by a model in which masks affect the informational persistence of stimuli and cues affect the rate at which stimulus information is transferred into visual short-term memory.

  14. Assessing the effects of temporal coherence on auditory stream formation through comodulation masking release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Simon Krogholt; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    , based on comodulation masking release (CMR), to assess the conditions under which a loss of temporal coherence across frequency can lead to auditory stream segregation. The measure relies on the assumption that the CMR, produced by flanking bands remote from the masker and target frequency, only occurs...... if the masking and flanking bands form part of the same perceptual stream. The masking and flanking bands consisted of sequences of narrowband noise bursts, and the temporal coherence between the masking and flanking bursts was manipulated in two ways: (a) By introducing a fixed temporal offset between...... the flanking and masking bands that varied from zero to 60 ms and (b) by presenting the flanking and masking bursts at different temporal rates, so that the asynchronies varied from burst to burst. The results showed reduced CMR in all conditions where the flanking and masking bands were temporally incoherent...

  15. A randomized equivalence trial comparing the i-gel and laryngeal mask airway Supreme in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Sommers, Katherine; Sohn, Lisa E; Sawardekar, Amod; Shah, Ravi D; Mukherji, Isabella I; Miller, Steven; Voronov, Polina; Seraphin, Sally

    2013-02-01

    The laryngeal mask airway Supreme (Supreme) is a new single-use supraglottic device with gastric access capability now available in all sizes for children. To compare the i-gel with the Supreme in children for routine airway maintenance. One hundred and seventy children, aged 3 months to 11 years, 5-50 kg in weight, were randomly assigned to receive either the i-gel or the Supreme. The primary outcome measured was airway leak pressure. Secondary outcomes included the following: ease and time for insertion, insertion success rate, fiberoptic grade of view, ease of gastric tube placement, number of airway manipulations, quality of airway during anesthetic maintenance, and complications. A total of 168 patients were assessed for the outcomes. The median (IQR [range]) airway leak pressure for the i-gel was higher than with the Supreme, 20 (18-25 [9-40]) cm H(2)O vs 17 (14-22 [10-40]) cm H(2)O, respectively (P = 0.001). There were no differences in the time for device insertion, fiberoptic grade of view, quality of airway, and complications. Median (IQR[range]) time of successful insertion of a gastric tube was faster with the Supreme, 12 (9.2-14.3 [5.2-44.2]) s than with the i-gel, 14 (11.9-19 [6.9-75]) s; P = 0.01. The number of airway manipulations during placement was higher with the i-gel than with the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (12 vs 13 patients), P = 0.02. In infants and children, when a single-use supraglottic device with gastric access capabilities is required, the i-gel demonstrated higher airway leak pressures and can be a useful alternative to the Supreme. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A randomized comparison of the laryngeal mask airway supreme™ and laryngeal mask airway unique™ in infants and children: does cuff pressure influence leak pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Narasimhan; Sohn, Lisa; Sommers, Katherine; Belvis, Dawn; Shah, Ravi D; Sawardekar, Amod; Eidem, Jami; Dagraca, Justin; Mukherji, Isabella

    2013-10-01

    The cuff pressure for optimal airway sealing with first-generation laryngeal mask airway has been shown to be 40 cm H(2)O in children. Currently, there are no data regarding the ideal intracuff pressure for the laryngeal mask airway Supreme (Supreme) in children. To compare the clinical performance of the laryngeal mask airway supreme with the laryngeal mask airway unique in infants and children. One hundred eighty children were assigned to receive either a Supreme or a laryngeal mask airway-U. We hypothesized higher airway leak pressure with the Supreme at both 40 cm H(2)O and 60 cm H(2)O, when compared with the laryngeal mask airway-U. Ease and time of insertion, insertion attempts, fiber optic examination, quality of airway, efficacy of mechanical ventilation, success of gastric tube placement (Supreme), incidence of gastric insufflation, and complications were also assessed. Airway leak pressure at an intracuff pressure of 60 cm H(2)O for the Supreme was 17.4 (5.2) vs laryngeal mask airway-U at 18.4 (6.6) cm H(2)O and did not differ when compared to an intracuff pressure of 40 cm H(2)O for both devices; Supreme at 17.2 (5) vs laryngeal mask airway-U at 17.7 (6) cm H(2)O. The laryngeal mask airway-U was associated with higher first-attempt success rates. The Supreme was associated with less gastric insufflation than the laryngeal mask airway-U. Intracuff pressures of 40 cm H(2)O may be sufficient for the Supreme in children, and there may be no added benefit of an intracuff pressure of 60 cm H(2)O, as leak pressures were similar. The Supreme may be preferred over the laryngeal mask airway-U for its lower rates of gastric insufflation and provision for gastric access when mechanical ventilation is utilized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Equivalence of nasal and oronasal masks during initial CPAP titration for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Ming; Amis, Terence; Lee, Sharon; Falland, Karina; Lambert, Stephen; Wheatley, John

    2011-07-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration studies are commonly performed using a nasal mask but some patients may prefer a full-face or oronasal mask. There is little evidence regarding the equivalence of different mask interfaces used to initiate treatment. We hypothesized that oronasal breathing when using an oronasal mask increases upper airway collapsibility and that a higher pressure may be required to maintain airway patency. We also assessed patient preferences for the 2 mask interfaces. Prospective, randomized, cross-over design with 2 consecutive CPAP titration nights. Accredited laboratory in a university hospital. Twenty-four treatment-naive subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and respiratory disturbance index of greater than 15 events per hour. CPAP titration was performed using an auto-titrating machine with randomization to a nasal or oronasal mask, followed by a second titration night using the alternate mask style. There was no significant difference in the mean pressures determined between nasal and oronasal masks, although 43% of subjects had nasal-to-oronasal mask-pressure differences of 2 cm H(2)O or more. Residual respiratory events, arousals, and measured leak were all greater with the oronasal mask. Seventy-nine percent of subjects preferred the nasal mask. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome can generally switch between nasal and oronasal masks without changing machine pressure, although there are individual differences that may be clinically significant. Measured leak is greater with the oronasal mask. Most patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome prefer a nasal mask as the interface for initiation of CPAP. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR). ACTRN: ACTRN12611000243910. URL: http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12611000243910.aspx

  18. RET masks for patterning 45nm node contact hole using ArF immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Michael; Chen, J. Fung; Van Den Broeke, Doug; En Tszng, Shih; Shieh, Jason; Hsu, Stephen; Shi, Xuelong

    2006-05-01

    Immersion exposure system with the numerical aperture (NA) greater than unity effectively extends the printing resolution limit without the need of shrinking the exposure wavelength. From the perspective of imaging contact hole mask, we are convinced that a mature ArF immersion exposure system will be able to meet 45nm node manufacturing requirement. However, from a full-chip mask data processing point of view, a more challenging question could be: how to ensure the intended RET mask to best achieve a production worthy solution? At 45nm, we are using one-fourth of the exposure wavelength for the patterning; there is very little room for error. For full-chip, especially for contact hole mask, we need a robust RET mask strategy to ensure sufficient CD control. A production-worthy RET mask technology should have good imaging performance with advanced exposure system; and, it should base on currently available mask blank material and be compatible with the existing mask making process. In this work, we propose a new type of contact hole RET masks that is capable of 45nm node full-chip manufacturing. Three types of potential RET masks are studied. The 1st type is the conventional 6% attenuated PSM (attPSM) with 0-phase Scattering Bars (SB). The 2nd type is to use CPL mask with both 0- and π-phase SB, and their relative placements are based on interference mapping lithography (IML) under optimized illumination. The 3rd type, here named as 6% CPL, can be thought of as a CPL mask type with 6% transmission on the background but with π-phase SB only. Of those three RET masks, 6% CPL mask has the best performance for printing 45nm contact and via masks. To implement 6% CPL for contact and via mask design, we study several critical process steps starting from the illumination optimization, model-based SB OPC, 3D mask effect, quartz etch depth optimization, side-lobe printability verification, and then to the mask making flow. Additionally, we investigate printability for

  19. A 3D-RBS study of irradiation-induced deformation and masking properties of ordered colloidal nanoparticulate masks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolnai, Z., E-mail: zolnai@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Deak, A.; Nagy, N.; Toth, A.L. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Kotai, E. [Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Battistig, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-01-01

    The 500 keV Xe{sup 2+} irradiation-induced anisotropic deformation of ordered colloidal silica nanoparticulate masks is followed using 2 MeV {sup 4}He{sup +} Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) with different measurement geometries and the improved data analysis capabilities of the RBS-MAST spectrum simulation code. The three-dimensional (3D) geometrical transformation from spherical to oblate ellipsoidal and polygonal shape and the decrease of the mask's hole size is described. The masking properties of the silica monolayer and the depth distribution of Xe in the underlying Si substrate vs. the irradiated Xe{sup 2+} fluence are discussed. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) is applied as complementary characterization tool. Our results give contribution to clarify the impact of ion-nanoparticle interactions on the potentials and limits of nanosphere lithography. We also show the capability of the conventional RBS technique to characterize laterally ordered submicron-sized three-dimensional structures.

  20. Complete separation of the tube from the mask of a reusable classic laryngeal mask airway: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shahriari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA is an important addition to the anesthetist's equipments. However, its usage may involve some complications. We have encountered an unusual and potentially serious complication using this equipment. A 45-year old man underwent cataract surgery under general anesthesia. After the induction of anesthesia, a size 4 of the reusable classic LMA was inserted without any difficulties and the cuff was inflated. After a little manipulation, the proximal tube of the LMA was separated from the distal part, leaving the distal mask inside the pharynx. The exit of the remaining portion of the LMA was very difficult and made the ventilation of the patient impossible. The patient’s oxygen saturation decreased to 40%. The remaining portion of the LMA was removed by a great clamp and with an extreme effort. Then, an endotracheal tube was inserted and the patient was ventilated with 100% oxygen. After 6 hours, the patient was discharged with no apparent complications. The autoclave was used several times for the sterilization of the LMA.

    KEY WORDS: Laryngeal mask airway, autoclave.

  1. Beyond a Mask and Against the Bottleneck: Retroactive Dual-Task Interference During Working Memory Consolidation of a Masked Visual Target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenstein, Mark; Wyble, Brad

    While studies on visual memory commonly assume that the consolidation of a visual stimulus into working memory is interrupted by a trailing mask, studies on dual-task interference suggest that the consolidation of a stimulus can continue for several hundred milliseconds after a mask. As a result,

  2. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods... Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1135 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces...

  3. Fabrication of Antireflective Sub-Wavelength Structures on Silicon Nitride Using Nano Cluster Mask for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Men-Ku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have developed a simple and scalable approach for fabricating sub-wavelength structures (SWS on silicon nitride by means of self-assembled nickel nanoparticle masks and inductively coupled plasma (ICP ion etching. Silicon nitride SWS surfaces with diameter of 160–200 nm and a height of 140–150 nm were obtained. A low reflectivity below 1% was observed over wavelength from 590 to 680 nm. Using the measured reflectivity data in PC1D, the solar cell characteristics has been compared for single layer anti-reflection (SLAR coatings and SWS and a 0.8% improvement in efficiency has been seen.

  4. Migration from full‐head mask to “open‐face” mask for immobilization of patients with head and neck cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, D. Michael; Mechalakos, James; Rao, Shyam; Della‐Biancia, Cesar; Amols, Howard; Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    To provide an alternative device for immobilization of the head while easing claustrophobia and improving comfort, an “open‐face” thermoplastic mask was evaluated using video‐based optical surface imaging (OSI) and kilovoltage (kV) X‐ray radiography. A three‐point thermoplastic head mask with a precut opening and reinforced strips was developed. After molding, it provided sufficient visible facial area as the region of interest for OSI. Using real‐time OSI, the head motion of ten volunteers in the new mask was evaluated during mask locking and 15 minutes lying on the treatment couch. Using a nose mark with reference to room lasers, forced head movement in open‐face and full‐head masks (with a nose hole) was compared. Five patients with claustrophobia were immobilized with open‐face masks, set up using OSI and kV, and treated in 121 fractions, in which 61 fractions were monitored during treatment using real‐time OSI. With the open‐face mask, head motion was found to be 1.0 ± 0.6 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in volunteers during the experiment, and 0.8 ± 0.3 mm and 0.4° ± 0.2° in patients during treatment. These agree with patient motion calculated from pre‐/post‐treatment OSI and kV data using different anatomical landmarks. In volunteers, the head shift induced by mask‐locking was 2.3 ± 1.7 mm and 1.8° ± 0.6°, and the range of forced movements in the open‐face and full‐head masks were found to be similar. Most (80%) of the volunteers preferred the open‐face mask to the full‐head mask, while claustrophobic patients could only tolerate the open‐face mask. The open‐face mask is characterized for its immobilization capability and can immobilize patients sufficiently (mask is readily adopted in radiotherapy clinic as a superior alternative to the standard full‐head mask. PACS numbers: 87.19.xj, 87.63.L‐, 87.59.‐e, 87.55.tg, 87.55.‐x PMID:24036878

  5. UNMASKING MASKED HYPERTENSION: PREVALENCE, CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS, DIAGNOSIS, CORRELATES, AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, James; Diaz, Keith M.; Viera, Anthony J.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Masked hypertension’ is defined as having non-elevated clinic blood pressure (BP) with elevated out-of-clinic average BP, typically determined by ambulatory BP monitoring. Approximately 15–30% of adults with non-elevated clinic BP have masked hypertension. Masked hypertension is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to sustained normotension (non-elevated clinic and ambulatory BP), which is similar to or approaching the risk associated with sustained hypertension (elevated clinic and ambulatory BP). The confluence of increased cardiovascular risk and a failure to be diagnosed by the conventional approach of clinic BP measurement makes masked hypertension a significant public health concern. However, many important questions remain. First, the definition of masked hypertension varies across studies. Further, the best approach in the clinical setting to exclude masked hypertension also remains unknown. It is unclear whether home BP monitoring is an adequate substitute for ambulatory BP monitoring in identifying masked hypertension. Few studies have examined the mechanistic pathways that may explain masked hypertension. Finally, scarce data are available on the best approach to treating individuals with masked hypertension. Herein, we review the current literature on masked hypertension including definition, prevalence, clinical implications, special patient populations, correlates, issues related to diagnosis, treatment, and areas for future research. PMID:24573133

  6. A survey of practice patterns in the use of laryngeal mask by pediatric anesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anuradha; Clark, Scott R; Schiffmiller, Moshe; Schoenberg, Catherine; Tewfik, George

    2015-11-01

    Laryngeal mask is frequently the airway device of choice in routine general anesthesia for many procedures in children. Several studies have described the use of laryngeal masks in unconventional situations. This survey was undertaken to assess how laryngeal masks are being used by pediatric anesthesiologists. The 40-question electronic survey using SurveyMonkey™ was sent to 2740 members of the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA). This survey assessed the age, work environment, types of practice, and training levels, as well as clinical situations in which the practitioners use laryngeal masks across different pediatric age groups. Seven hundred and forty-three (27.1%) responses were obtained. The use of laryngeal mask increased as the patient age increased in nearly every queried situation. The practitioners routinely utilize laryngeal masks in a variety of challenging scenarios, such as in patients with a recent upper respiratory infection, in the difficult airway, remote locations, and long-duration surgeries. A small percentage of pediatric anesthesiologists use laryngeal masks in laparoscopic surgery and prone position procedures. Pediatric anesthesiologists are using laryngeal masks in both routine and challenging/unconventional situations. Although many of the uses for laryngeal masks are not explicitly stated in the manufacturer guidelines, literature and current practice support the use of laryngeal masks in several of these scenarios. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Priming of Visual Search Facilitates Attention Shifts: Evidence From Object-Substitution Masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni

    2016-03-01

    Priming of visual search strongly affects visual function, releasing items from crowding and during free-choice primed targets are chosen over unprimed ones. Two accounts of priming have been proposed: attentional facilitation of primed features and postperceptual episodic memory retrieval that involves mapping responses to visual events. Here, well-known masking effects were used to assess the two accounts. Object-substitution masking has been considered to reflect attentional processing: It does not occur when a target is precued and is strengthened when distractors are present. Conversely, metacontrast masking has been connected to lower level processing where attention exerts little effect. If priming facilitates attention shifts, it should mitigate object-substitution masking, while lower level masking might not be similarly influenced. Observers searched for an odd-colored target among distractors. Unpredictably (on 20% of trials), object-substitution masks or metacontrast masks appeared around the target. Object-substitution masking was strongly mitigated for primed target colors, while metacontrast masking was mostly unaffected. This argues against episodic retrieval accounts of priming, placing the priming locus firmly within the realm of attentional processing. The results suggest that priming of visual search facilitates attention shifts to the target, which allows better spatiotemporal resolution that overcomes object-substitution masking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Cleaning of SCALPEL next-generation lithography masks using PLASMAX, a revolutionary dry cleaning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, John J.; Novembre, Anthony E.; Bennett, Darryl A.; Kasica, Richard J.; Bailey, Brad; Blakey, Myrtle I.

    1999-12-01

    Due to mechanical and exposure considerations, NGL mask technology lacks the ability to use a pellicle to prevent mask contamination. The PLASMAX (Plasma Mechanical Activation and Extraction of Particle Contamination) process represents a technology, which acts as the functional replacement of a pellicle for the NGL mask. This dry environmentally benign cleaning technology can be directly integrated into the exposure system and serves as an in-situ creative mask cleaning process. Unlike other, more conventional cleaning methods, PLASMAX lifts surface particles from the mask, then suspends, traps and channels these particles down the vacuum port, thus preventing particle redeposition on the mask surface. Originally demonstrated on wafers, this plasma/mechanical cleaning technology has demonstrated its ability to remove particles from the surface of NGL masks such as SCALPEL (Scattering with Angular Limitation in Projection Electron Beam Lithography) masks. PLASMAX uses the combined action of a gentle plasma with simultaneous vibration to clean the mask. Unlike all other methods of mask cleaning, PLASMAX uses no water or hazardous acids, thus reducing the cost of each cleaning step and eliminating the environmental impact of today's aqueous cleaning technologies. Initial work with SCALPEL masks showed them to be highly stable and robust in the PLASMAX environment while yielding cleaning efficiencies of 90% removal of polyester particles 0.8 micron and larger. The PlASMAX technology was proven to be effective in removing particles from the patterned front side and strutted backside of the mask. This paper focuses on the ongoing development of PLASMAX to enhance the cleaning efficiency of SCALPEL masks down to 0.25-micron particles. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of various particle materials will be studied. Sandia National Laboratories is providing software model simulations of the PLASMAX technology to assist in the development effort.

  9. Polymer masks for structured surface and plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital, Alexane; Vayer, Marylène; Sinturel, Christophe; Tillocher, Thomas; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Dussart, Rémi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sub-micrometric silicon structures were prepared by cryogenic plasma etching. • Polymer templates based on phase-separated films of PS/PLA were used. • Silica structured masks were prepared by filling the polymer templates. • Etching of underlying silicon through silica templates gave original structures. - Abstract: Silica and silicon structures have been prepared at the sub-micrometer length-scale, using laterally phase-separated thin films of poly(styrene) (PS) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) homopolymer blends. The selective removal of one polymer and the filling of the released space by silica precursor solution led, after calcination, to silica structures on silicon such as arrays of bowl-shape features or pillars, layers with through or non-through cylindrical holes, which has not been observed for some of them. The control of the morphology of the initial polymer film was a key point to achieve such type of structures. Particularly relevant was the use of solvent vapor annealing (vs thermal annealing) of the initial spin-coated films that favored and stabilized laterally phase-separated morphologies. Characteristic dimension of the domains were shown to be coupled with the thickness of the film, thinner films giving smaller domain sizes. Despite a relatively high incompatibility of the two polymers, a macro-phase separation was prevented in all the studied conditions. Sub-micrometric domains were formed, and for the thinner films, nanometric domains as small as 74 nm in size can be obtained. The silica structures formed by the infiltration of the polymer templates were used as hard masks for the cryogenic etching of underlying silicon. New structured surfaces, arrays of silicon pillars which can be plain or hollow at the upper part or arrays of cylindrical holes were formed. A selectivity as high as 21 was obtained using this type of mask for 1.5 μm deep holes having a typical diameter of 200 nm

  10. Astrometric Correction for WFC3/UVIS Lithographic-Mask Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Hammer, D.; Dencheva, N.; Hack, W.

    2013-07-01

    Observations of the central field in Cen taken with large dither patterns and over a large range of HST roll-angles exposed through F606W UVIS filter hav e been used to examine the lithographic-mask pattern imprinted on the WFC3/UVIS detec tor during the manufacturing process. This detector defect introduces fine-scale astrome tric errors at the level of about 0.2 pixel with a complicated spatial structure across the WFC3/ UVIS CCD chips. The fine-scale solution was utilized to construct a 2-D look-up table for co rrection of the WFC3/UVIS lithographic-mask pattern. The astrometric errors due to th is detector defect have been cor- rected down to the ~ 0.05 pixel level. The derived 2-D look-up table can be interpol ated at any point in the WFC3/UVIS image by ST software DrizzlePac / AstroDrizzle. The main results of these calibrations are: 1) new polynomial coefficien ts of geometric distortion for 14 calibrated UVIS filters in the form of Instrument Distortion Co rrection Table (IDCTAB file) were improved to account for the lithographic-mask pattern i n the WFC3/UVIS detector; 2) new derived look-up table in the form of a D2IMFILE, which sig nificantly improves (30-60%) the fine-scale structure in the WFC3/UVIS geometric distorti on; 3) geometric distortion cou- pled with the D2IMFILE and new improved IDCTAB can now be succ essfully corrected to the precision level of ~ 0.05 pixel (2 mas) for the UVIS detector.

  11. Edge placement error control and Mask3D effects in High-NA anamorphic EUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Setten, Eelco; Bottiglieri, Gerardo; de Winter, Laurens; McNamara, John; Rusu, Paul; Lubkoll, Jan; Rispens, Gijsbert; van Schoot, Jan; Neumann, Jens Timo; Roesch, Matthias; Kneer, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    To enable cost-effective shrink at the 3nm node and beyond, and to extend Moore's law into the next decade, ASML is developing a new high-NA EUV platform. The high-NA system is targeted to feature a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.55 to extend the single exposure resolution limit to 8nm half pitch. The system is being designed to achieve an on-product-overlay (OPO) performance well below 2nm, a high image contrast to drive down local CD errors and to obtain global CDU at sub-1nm level to be able to meet customer edge placement error (EPE) requirements for the devices of the future. EUV scanners employ reflective Bragg multi-layer mirrors in the mask and in the Projection Optics Box (POB) that is used to project the mask pattern into the photoresist on the silicon wafer. These MoSi multi-layer mirrors are tuned for maximum reflectivity, and thus productivity, at 13.5nm wavelength. The angular range of incident light for which a high reflectivity at the reticle can be obtained is limited to +/- 11o, exceeding the maximum angle occurring in current 0.33NA scanners at 4x demagnification. At 0.55NA the maximum angle at reticle level would extend up to 17o in the critical (scanning) direction and compromise the imaging performance of horizontal features severely. To circumvent this issue a novel anamorphic optics design has been introduced, which has a 4x demagnification in the X- (slit) direction and 8x demagnification in the Y- (scanning) direction as well as a central obscuration in the exit pupil. In this work we will show that the EUV high-NA anamorphic concept can successfully solve the angular reflectivity issues and provide good imaging performance in both directions. Several unique imaging challenges in comparison to the 0.33NA isomorphic baseline are being studied, such as the impact of the central obscuration in the POB and Mask-3D effects at increased NA that seem most pronounced for vertical features. These include M3D induced contrast loss and non

  12. Analysis by Neutron activation of the Calakmul jadeite mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemon A, E.; Herrera V, L.

    1998-01-01

    It is very important to know the elemental composition of archaeological materials with the purpose to find relations that allow to establish their origin standards. the origin and present localization of pre hispanic archaeological pieces can lead to the determination of commercial routes and of technology transfer among different ancient cultures. In the present work it has been realized a systematic analysis using the Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique of three samples obtained from Calakmul jadeite mask, tomb I, that in addition to give a composition of constituent and trace elements detected by this technique it has leaded to establish an applicable methodology to the routine analysis of ceramics of historical interest. (Author)

  13. A nanohybrid system for taste masking of sildenafil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hee; Choi, Goeun; Oh, Yeon-Ji; Park, Je Won; Choy, Young Bin; Park, Mung Chul; Yoon, Yeo Joon; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Chang, Hee Chul; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A nanohybrid was prepared with an inorganic clay material, montmorillonite (MMT), for taste masking of sildenafil (SDN). To further improve the taste-masking efficiency and enhance the drug-release rate, we coated the nanohybrid of SDN-MMT with a basic polymer, polyvinylacetal diethylaminoacetate (AEA). Powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared experiments showed that SDN was successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of MMT. The AEA-coated SDN-MMT nanohybrid showed drug release was much suppressed at neutral pH (release rate, 4.70 ± 0.53%), suggesting a potential for drug taste masking at the buccal cavity. We also performed in vitro drug release experiments in a simulated gastric fluid (pH = 1.2) and compared the drug-release profiles of AEA-coated SDN-MMT and Viagra(®), an approved dosage form of SDN. As a result, about 90% of SDN was released from the AEA-coated SDN-MMT during the first 2 hours while almost 100% of drug was released from Viagra(®). However, an in vivo experiment showed that the AEA-coated SDN-MMT exhibited higher drug exposure than Viagra(®). For the AEA-coated SDN-MMT, the area under the plasma concentration- time curve from 0 hours to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) and maximum concentration (C(max)) were 78.8 ± 2.32 μg · hour/mL and 12.4 ± 0.673 μg/mL, respectively, both of which were larger than those obtained with Viagra(®) (AUC(0-∞) = 69.2 ± 3.19 μg · hour/mL; C(max) = 10.5 ± 0.641 μg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the MMT-based nanohybrid is a promising delivery system for taste masking of SDN with possibly improved drug exposure.

  14. The floating face: Garbo, photography and death masks

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    A number of writers have noted the influence of Ernst Benkard’s 1927 book of death masks, Das Ewige Antlitz, on Modernist artists and writers of the inter-war period. This article links it specifically to the emergence in the late 1920s of a very particular way of photographing people, termed here “the floating face”, which is epitomised in publicity portraits of Greta Garbo. It is suggested that this photographic convention is linked to changing attitudes associated with war, to the techniqu...

  15. Mask locations in the SLC final focus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cence, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The location of four sets of masks needed to shield against background in the final focus region of the SLC is shown. The main point of this note is to update the results of Miller and Sens taking into account the recent changes that have been made in the optics of the SLC beams. For the latest beam design we use the TRANSPORT output dated 5-13-83. This design assumes that the final bends will form an S about the interaction point and that the final quadrupoles will be superconducting and will be placed about 8 feet from the interaction point

  16. Enhancing EUV mask blanks usability through smart shift and blank-design pairing optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Rakesh Kumar; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter; Thwaite, Peter

    2016-10-01

    EUV Defect avoidance techniques will play a vital role in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) photomask fabrication with the anticipation that defect free mask blanks won't be available and that cost effective techniques will not be available for defect repairing. In addition, mask shops may not have a large inventory of expensive EUV mask blanks. Given these facts, defect avoidance can be used as cost effective technique to optimize the mask blank and design data (mask data) pair selection across mask blank manufacturers and mask shops so that overall mask blank utilization can be enhanced. In previous work, it was determined that the pattern shift based solution increases the chance that a defective mask blank can be used that would otherwise be discarded [1]. In pattern shift, design data is shifted such that defects are either moved to isolated regions or hidden under the patterns that are written. However pattern shifts techniques don't perform well with masks with higher defect counts. Pattern shift techniques in this form assume all defects to be equally critical. In addition, a defect is critical or important only if it lands on the main pattern. A defect landing on fill, sub-resolution assist feature (SRAF) or fiducial areas may not be critical. In this paper we assess the performance of pattern shift techniques assuming defects that are not critical based upon size or type, as well as defects landing in non-critical areas (smart shift) can be ignored. In a production mask manufacturing environment it is necessary to co-optimize and prioritize blank-design pairing for multiple mask layouts in the queue with the available blanks. A blank-design pairing tool maximizes the utilization of blanks by finding the best pairing between blanks and design data so that the maximum number of mask blanks can be used. In this paper we also propose a novel process which would optimize the usage of costly EUV mask blanks across mask blank manufacturers and mask shops

  17. Study of shape evaluation for mask and silicon using large field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Shinichi; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2010-09-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The aim of this integration is evaluating the performance of the silicon corresponding to Hotspot on a mask. It can use the mask shape of a large field, besides. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. Currently, as semiconductor manufacture moves towards even smaller feature size, this necessitates more aggressive optical proximity correction (OPC) to drive the super-resolution technology (RET). In other words, there is a trade-off between highly precise RET and mask manufacture, and this has a big impact on the semiconductor market that centers on the mask business. As an optimal solution to these issues, we provide a DFM solution that extracts 2-dimensional data for a more realistic and error-free simulation by reproducing accurately the contour of the actual mask, in addition to the simulation results from the mask data. On the other hand, there is roughness in the silicon form made from a mass-production line. Moreover, there is variation in the silicon form. For this reason, quantification of silicon form is important, in order to estimate the performance of a pattern. In order to quantify, the same form is equalized in two dimensions. And the method of evaluating based on the form is popular. In this study, we conducted experiments for averaging method of the pattern (Measurement Based Contouring) as two-dimensional mask and silicon evaluation technique. That is, observation of the identical position of a mask and a silicon was considered. The result proved its detection accuracy and reliability of variability on two-dimensional pattern (mask and silicon) and is adaptable to following fields of mask quality management. •Discrimination of nuisance defects for fine pattern. •Determination of two-dimensional variability of

  18. Estimating individual listeners’ auditory-filter bandwidth in simultaneous and non-simultaneous masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholz, Jörg; Caminade, Sabine; Strelcyk, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Frequency selectivity in the human auditory system is often measured using simultaneous masking of tones presented in notched noise. Based on such masking data, the equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) of the auditory filters can be derived by applying the power spectrum model of masking....... Considering bandwidth estimates from previous studies based on forward masking, only average data across a number of subjects have been considered. The present study is concerned with bandwidth estimates in simultaneous and forward masking in individual normal-hearing subjects. In order to investigate...... the reliability of the individual estimates, a statistical resampling method is applied. It is demonstrated that a rather large set of experimental data is required to reliably estimate auditory filter bandwidth, particularly in the case of simultaneous masking. The poor overall reliability of the filter...

  19. Taste-masked quinine pamoate tablets for treatment of children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayitare, E; Vervaet, C; Mehuys, E; Kayumba, P C; Ntawukulilyayo, J D; Karema, C; Bortel, Van; Remon, J P

    2010-06-15

    Children with uncomplicated malaria are generally treated with oral medication, except those unable to take oral drugs. Even though quinine has shown to be effective in treatment of African children with uncomplicated malaria its high bitterness limited the paediatric use. This study aimed to develop taste-masked quinine tablets suitable for children and offering dosing flexibility to adjust the quinine dose in function of body weight. Insoluble quinine pamoate was used to formulate fast-disintegrating tablets, using a specific tablet design (rectangular tablet which can be divided into 8 subunits) to allow dosing flexibility. The physical properties of tablets were evaluated in vitro, as well as the quinine bioavailability in healthy adults (n=18) and the efficacy for treatment of children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (n=56) using a 7-day regimen of 8 mg quinine/kg. Quinine pamoate tablets complied with the pharmacopoeial requirements for mass uniformity, friability, content uniformity, breakability, disintegration and dissolution. The quinine pharmacokinetic parameters after single administration of a quinine pamoate tablet were similar to a commercially available quinine sulfate tablet. The fast decline in parasitemia (28.6%/24h), the reduction rate of fever (all children were apyretic after 72 h) and the steady state quinine plasma concentration (5.7-15.8 microg/ml) proved the efficacy of the quinine pamoate tablets against P. falciparum. Fast-dispersible and taste-masked quinine pamoate tablets improved dosing accuracy, allowed easy administration and resulted in a high efficacy during the treatment of children with uncomplicated malaria. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Mitigation and control of the overcuring effect in mask projection micro-stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Paul F.; Kent, Nigel; Brabazon, Dermot

    2017-10-01

    Mask Projection micro-Stereolithography (MPμSL) is an additive manufacturing technique capable of producing solid parts with micron-scale resolution from a vat of photocurable liquid polymer resin. Although the physical mechanism remains the same, the process differs from traditional laser-galvanometer based stereolithography (SL) in its use of a dynamic mask UV projector, or digital light processor (DLP), which cures each location within each 3D layer at the same time. One area where MPµSL has garnered considerable attention is in the field of microfluidics and Lab-on-a-Chip, where complex multistep microfabrication techniques adopted from the semiconductor industry are still widely used, and where MPµSL offers the ability to fabricate completely encapsulated fluidic channels in a single step and at low cost [1-3]. However, a significant obstacle exists in the prevention of channel blockage due to overcuring of the polymer resin [4, 5]. Overcuring can be attributed to the so-called `back side effect' [2] which occurs during the build process as light from successive layers penetrates into the resin to a depth greater than the layer thickness. This effect is most prevalent in channels or features oriented horizontally (in a parallel plane to that of the build platform). Currently there are two main approaches in controlling the cure depth; 1. the chemical approach, which involves doping the resin material with a chemical light absorber [6-8]; and 2. by improving the system's hardware and optical elements to improve the homogeneity of the light dosage and control the cure depth [9]. Here we investigate a third approach through modification of the 3D CAD file prior to printing to mitigate for UV light leakage from successive build layers. Although used here in conjunction with the MPμSL technique, this approach can be applied to a range of SL techniques to improve printer resolution and enable production of internal features with higher dimensional accuracy.