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Sample records for single low-income african

  1. Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccreary, Linda L.; Dancy, Barbara L.

    2004-01-01

    Family functioning is influenced by socio-economic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was…

  2. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  3. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  4. "Broken windows": Relationship between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Kim, Dong Ha

    2018-03-01

    This study explored the association between neighborhood conditions and behavioral health among African American youth. Cross-sectional data were collected from 683 African American youth from low-income communities. Measures for demographics, neighborhood conditions (i.e. broken windows index), mental health, delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors were assessed. Major findings indicated that participants who reported poorer neighborhood conditions compared to those who lived in better living conditions were more likely to report higher rates of mental health problems, delinquency, substance use, and unsafe sexual behaviors. Environmental factors need to be considered when addressing the behavioral health of low-income African American youth.

  5. Gender Distrust and Intimate Unions among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacion, Angela; Cherlin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates levels of generalized distrust of men among low-income non-Hispanic African American, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican and non-Hispanic White women in a three-city survey. The results reveal substantial variation. Hispanics' overall levels of distrust are found to be higher than levels for either African Americans or…

  6. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  7. Testing three pathways to substance use and delinquency among low-income African American adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Phillip L.; Voisin, Dexter R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Mounting literature suggests that parental monitoring, risky peer norms, and future orientation correlate with illicit drug use and delinquency. However, few studies have investigated these constructs simultaneously in a single statistical model with low income African American youth. This study examined parental monitoring, peer norms and future orientation as primary pathways to drug use and delinquent behaviors in a large sample of African American urban adolescents. Methods A path model tested direct paths from peer norms, parental monitoring, and future orientation to drug use and delinquency outcomes after adjusting for potential confounders such as age, socioeconomic, and sexual orientation in a sample of 541 African American youth. Results Greater scores on measures of risky peer norms were associated with heightened risk of delinquency with an effect size that was twice in magnitude compared to the protective effects of future orientation. Regarding substance use, greater perceived risky peer norms correlated with the increased likelihood of substance use with a standardized effect size 3.33 times in magnitude compared to the protective effects of parental monitoring. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that interventions targeting risky peer norms among adolescent African American youth may correlate with a greater impact on reductions in substance use and delinquency than exclusively targeting parental monitoring or future orientation. PMID:28974824

  8. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

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    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  9. Smoking Attitudes and Practices among Low-Income African Americans: Qualitative Assessment of Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Bettina M.; Scarinci, Isabel C.

    2003-01-01

    Qualitatively examined sociocultural factors associated with smoking attitudes and practices among low-income, African American young adults smokers and nonsmokers. Focus group data indicated that specific contextual and familial factors contributed to smoking initiation, maintenance, and cessation (e.g., strong parental discipline, limited…

  10. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  11. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  12. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation among Low-Income Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. On the basis of the longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the Three-City Welfare Study, results…

  13. The Relationship between Media Influence and Ethnic Identity Development among Low-Income African American and White Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Kenycia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between media influence and ethnic identity among low-income African American and White adolescent girls. According to the U.S. Census (2008), 98% of Americans have a television in their home. Prior research suggests that low-income African American adolescents are exposed to more media…

  14. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-income African American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronnie Faye Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  15. Stakeholder perspectives on barriers for healthy living for low-income african american families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Williams, Joel E; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85) and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Child and parent focus group analysis revealed 11 barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities. Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  16. Perceptions of low-income African-American mothers about excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Henry, Tasmia Q; Klotz, Alicia A; Foster, Gary D; Whitaker, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    A rising number of low-income African-American mothers gain more weight in pregnancy than is recommended, placing them at risk for poor maternal and fetal health outcomes. Little is known about the perceptions of mothers in this population that may influence excessive gestational weight gain. In 2010-2011, we conducted 4 focus groups with 31 low-income, pregnant African-Americans in Philadelphia. Two readers independently coded the focus group transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 9 themes around perceptions that encouraged or discouraged high gestational weight gain. Mothers attributed high weight gain to eating more in pregnancy, which was the result of being hungrier and the belief that consuming more calories while pregnant was essential for babies' health. Family members, especially participants own mothers, strongly reinforced the need to "eat for two" to make a healthy baby. Mothers and their families recognized the link between poor fetal outcomes and low weight gains but not higher gains, and thus, most had a greater pre-occupation with too little food intake and weight gain rather than too much. Having physical symptoms from overeating and weight retention after previous pregnancies were factors that discouraged higher gains. Overall, low-income African-American mothers had more perceptions encouraging high gestational weight gain than discouraging it. Interventions to prevent excessive weight gain need to be sensitive to these perceptions. Messages that link guideline recommended weight gain to optimal infant outcomes and mothers' physical symptoms may be most effective for weight control.

  17. Risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Sabrina; Salihu, Hamisu M; Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Jeffers, Dee; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Mishkit, Vanessa R

    2009-11-01

    Data on risk factors for major antenatal depression among African American women are scant. In this study, we seek to determine the prevalence and risk factors for major antenatal depression among low-income African American women receiving prenatal services through the Central Hillsborough Healthy Start (CHHS). Women were screened using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff of > or =13 as positive for risk of major antenatal depression. In total, 546 African American women were included in the analysis. We used logistic regression to identify risk factors for major antenatal depression. The prevalence of depressive symptomatology consistent with major antenatal depression was 25%. Maternal age was identified as the main risk factor for major antenatal depression. The association between maternal age and risk for major antenatal depression was biphasic, with a linear trend component lasting until age 30, at which point the slope changed markedly tracing a more pronounced likelihood for major depression with advancing age. Women aged > or =30 were about 5 times as likely to suffer from symptoms of major antenatal depression as teen mothers (OR = 4.62, 95% CI 2.23-9.95). The risk for major antenatal depression increases about 5-fold among low-income African American women from age 30 as compared to teen mothers. The results are consistent with the weathering effect resulting from years of cumulative stress burden due to socioeconomic marginalization and discrimination. Older African American mothers may benefit from routine antenatal depression screening for early diagnosis and intervention.

  18. Parenting Practices among Low-Income Parents/Guardians of Academically Successful Fifth Grade African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Sanders, Tiffany; Mehta, Sejal; Behar-Horenstein, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between parenting and academic achievement has provided conflicting results, particularly for low-income, culturally-diverse parents. Using resilience theory, the researchers conducted a case study with five low-income African American mothers. Findings suggest that educators can benefit from partnering with…

  19. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  20. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  1. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2004-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  2. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...

  3. Weight Status and High Blood Pressure Among Low-Income African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A.; Beech, Bettina M.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Sims, Mario; Scarinci, Isabel; Whitfield, Keith E.; Gilbert, Keon; Crook, Errol D.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a biological risk factor or comorbidity that has not received much attention from scientists studying hypertension among African American men. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between weight status and high blood pressure among African American men with few economic resources. The authors used surveillance data collected from low-income adults attending community- and faith-based primary care clinics in West Tennessee to estimate pooled and group-specific regression models of high blood pressure. The results from group-specific logistic regression models indicate that the factors associated with hypertension varied considerably by weight status. This study provides a glimpse into the complex relationship between weight status and high blood pressure status among African American men. Additional research is needed to identify mechanisms through which excess weight affects the development and progression of high blood pressure. PMID:20937738

  4. Locus of control and self-esteem in depressed, low-income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S H; Cooley, E L; Sewell, D R; Leavitt, N

    1994-06-01

    Depressed, schizophrenic, and well low-income, African-American women were studied in an effort to extend previous hypotheses of the association between depression and the two personality constructs of low self-esteem and externality to this population. Subjects were 113 low income African-American women including 26 who had been diagnosed as depressed, 54 diagnosed as schizophrenic, and 33 well women. Locus of control was measured with the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974). Self-esteem was measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Contrary to predictions, a diagnosis of schizophrenia, but not depression, was associated with more external locus of control. For self-esteem, severity of disturbance, rather than diagnosis, seemed to be of primary importance. Also, lower self-esteem scores were correlated significantly with higher levels of externality for both depressed and schizophrenic women but not for well controls. The present study indicates that self-esteem and locus of control are related to depression differently in low socio-economic status (SES) African-American women than in previously studied middle SES depressed whites. The findings emphasize the need for more normative studies to clarify the complex relations among SES, race, emotional disturbance, self-esteem, and locus of control.

  5. Lives in isolation: stories and struggles of low-income African American women with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael; Mills, Terry L; Deleon, Jessica M; Hartzema, Abraham G; Haddad, Judella

    2009-01-01

    Research evidence points to the existence of racial-ethnic disparities in both access to and quality of mental health services for African Americans with panic disorder. Current panic disorder evaluation and treatment paradigms are not responsive to the needs of many African Americans. The primary individual, social, and health-care system factors that limit African Americans' access to care and response to treatment are not well understood. Low-income African American women with panic disorder participated in a series of focus-group sessions designed to elicit (1) their perspectives regarding access and treatment barriers and (2) their recommendations for designing a culturally consistent panic treatment program. Fear of confiding to others about panic symptoms, fear of social stigma, and lack of information about panic disorder were major individual barriers. Within their social networks, stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness and the mentally ill, discouragement about the use of psychiatric medication, and perceptions that symptoms were the result of personal or spiritual weakness had all interfered with the participants' treatment seeking efforts and contributed to a common experience of severe social isolation. None of the focus-group members had developed fully effective therapeutic relationships with either medical or mental health providers. They described an unmet need for more interactive and culturally authentic relationships with treatment providers. Although the focus-group sessions were not intended to be therapeutic, the women reported that participation in the meetings had been an emotionally powerful and beneficial experience. They expressed a strong preference for the utilization of female-only, panic disorder peer-support groups as an initial step in the treatment/recovery process. Peer-support groups for low-income African American women with panic disorder could address many of the identified access and treatment barriers.

  6. Patterns of Violence Exposure and Sexual Risk in Low-Income, Urban African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W.; Woods, Briana A.; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the relationship between violence exposure and sexual risk-taking among low-income, urban African American (AA) adolescent girls, considering overlap among different types and characteristics of violence. Methods AA adolescent girls were originally recruited from outpatient mental health clinics serving urban, mostly low-SES communities in Chicago, IL as part of a two-year longitudinal investigation of HIV-risk behavior. A subsequent follow-up was completed to assess lifetime history of trauma and violence exposure. The current study (N=177) included violence exposure and sexual risk behavior reported at the most recent interview (ages 14-22). Multiple regression was used to examine combined and unique contributions of different types, ages, settings, and perpetrators or victims of violence to variance in sexual risk. Results More extensive violence exposure and cumulative exposure to different kinds of violence were associated with overall unsafe sex, more partners, and inconsistent condom use. The most significant unique predictors, accounting for overlap among different forms of violence, were physical victimization, adolescent exposure, neighborhood violence, and violence involving dating partners. Conclusions These findings put sexual risk in the context of broad traumatic experiences but also suggest that the type and characteristics of violence exposure matter in terms of sexual health outcomes. Violence exposure should be addressed in efforts to reduce STIs among low-income, urban African American girls. PMID:24563808

  7. Life After Welfare Reform: Low-Income Single Parent Families, Pre- and Post-TANF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janice; Song, Xue; Jones-DeWeever, Avis

    This study used data from the first and last waves of the 1996 U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation to compare the characteristics and wellbeing of low-income, single parent families before and after passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), noting the characteristics and…

  8. Maternal Perceptions Related to Eating and Obesity Risk Among Low-Income African American Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lauren; Shriver, Lenka H; Ramsay, Samantha

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Health disparities are prevalent in the U.S., with low-income African American children suffering from high rates of obesity and related conditions. Better understanding of parental attitudes and barriers related to healthy eating and obesity risk is needed to suggest more effective intervention foci for this at-risk population. Methods African American caregivers of 3-5 year old children were recruited for focus groups and a questionnaire completion from two Head Start programs in a southeastern state of the U.S. The Social Cognitive Theory was utilized to develop a focus group guide. Focus group recordings were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the comparative content analysis. Results Eight focus groups (all participants were mothers) yielded the following main themes: (1) general nutrition knowledge but common misconceptions about foods/beverages; (2) beliefs that meals have to include meat and starch and be home-cooked to be healthy; (3) desire to feed children better than their own parents; (4) lack of family support and child pickiness perceived as the greatest barriers to healthy eating; (5) awareness of family history of diseases; and (6) low concern about children's current diet and weight status. Over 25 % of mothers underestimated their child weight status. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of understanding maternal perspectives related to food, eating, and weight among low-income African American mothers of preschoolers. Nutrition educators should be aware of misconceptions and recognize that mothers might not perceive diet quality in early childhood as having strong impact on the child's future health and/or obesity risks.

  9. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing One's Symptoms: A Qualitative Study of Low-Income African Americans With Advanced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Katherine A; Sterk, Claire E; Quest, Tammie E; DiIorio, Colleen; Vena, Catherine; Bauer-Wu, Susan

    2016-01-01

    African Americans endure disproportionately high advanced cancer rates and also are disproportionately represented in the lower socioeconomic strata. These individuals work to manage symptoms in order to function and have a satisfactory quality of life. The purpose of this study was to discover what low-income African American adults with advanced cancer do on a day-to-day basis to relieve and manage symptoms. This study viewed the individuals as experts and asked them not what they are told to do, but rather what they actually do. A purposive sample of 27 individuals participated in semistructured interviews conducted by 2 research interviewers. This qualitative descriptive approach used content analysis to develop themes to describe symptom self-management. Participants described 2 approaches: making continual adjustments and finding stability through spirituality. In seeking comfort from the distress of their symptoms, they were constantly altering their activities and fine-tuning strategies. They adjusted medical regimens and changed the speed and selection of daily activities, including comfort measures and diet modifications. In contrast, their spirituality was a consistent presence in their lives that provided balance to their unstable symptom experience. This study illustrates that people with advanced cancer actively engage in multiple complex self-management strategies in response to symptoms. As providers assess how individuals manage their symptoms, they must find ways to support those efforts. Providers then will recognize the challenges faced by advanced cancer patients in obtaining the best quality of life while managing multiple symptoms, activities, and family responsibilities.

  11. Perceptions of Mindfulness in a Low-income, Primarily African American Treatment-Seeking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Bamatter, Wendy P; Barrueco, Sandra; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Perskaudas, Rokas

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample. Eight focus groups were conducted with 32 adults (16 men and 16 women) currently receiving services at a community mental health center. Most participants (91%) were African American. Focus group data were transcribed and analyzed using NVivo 10. A team of coders reviewed the transcripts to identify salient themes. Relevant themes included beliefs that mindfulness practice might improve mental health (e.g., managing stress and anger more effectively) and physical health (e.g., improving sleep and chronic pain, promoting healthier behaviors). Participants also discussed ways in which mindfulness might be consistent with, and even enhance, their religious and spiritual practices. Results could be helpful in tailoring mindfulness-based treatments to optimize feasibility and effectiveness for low-SES adults receiving mental health services.

  12. Contemporary Work and Family Issues Affecting Marriage and Cohabitation Among Low-Income Single Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Pamela; Quane, James M; Cherlin, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we advance and test an integrative model of the effects of employment status, nonstandard work schedules, male employment, and women's perceptions of economic instability on union formation among low-income single mothers. Based on longitudinal data from 1,299 low-income mothers from the 3-city Welfare Study, results indicate that employment status alone is not significantly associated with whether women marry or cohabit. We find that nonemployed mothers and mothers working nonstandard schedules were less likely to marry compared to those working standard schedules. Mothers' perceptions of economic well-being were associated with marriage at Wave 2. In contrast, cohabitation outcomes were not explained by economic factors, but were related to the perception of child care support. The policy implications of these results are discussed, in particular, as they relate to welfare reform's work and family goals.

  13. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Practitioners' Perceptions of Culturally Responsive School-Based Mental Health Services for Low-Income African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Erin; Kruger, Ann Cale; Hamilton, Chela; Meyers, Joel; Truscott, Stephen D.; Varjas, Kris

    2016-01-01

    School-based mental health practitioners are positioned to address low-income urban African American girls' mental health needs through culturally responsive services. Despite the importance of culturally reflective practice, it is understudied. We asked school-based mental health practitioners (N = 7) to reflect on barriers and facilitators to…

  15. Correlates and Consequences of Spanking and Verbal Punishment for Low-Income White, African American, and Mexican American Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Ispa, Jean M.; Fine, Mark A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Brady-Smith, Christy; Ayoub, Catherine; Bai, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of spanking and verbal punishment in 2,573 low-income White, African American, and Mexican American toddlers at ages 1, 2, and 3. Both spanking and verbal punishment varied by maternal race/ethnicity. Child fussiness at age 1 predicted spanking and verbal punishment at all 3 ages.…

  16. Suicidal Behavior among Low-Income, African American Female Victims of Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Janel M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined risk of suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women (N = 369) in three types of male intimate relationships--intimate terrorism (IT) (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control), situational couple violence (SCV; i.e., episodic physical violence that is not part of a general pattern…

  17. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…

  18. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  19. A Preliminary Study of Low-Income African American Fathers' Play Interactions with Their Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    1996-01-01

    Examined play interactions of 33 low-income African American fathers with their preschool-age children in relation to the fathers' psychological characteristics, love for the child's mother, employment status, education, and coresidence with the child. The fathers' self-esteem was the best predictor of play interactions. Coresidence with the child…

  20. “YOU GET ANGRY INSIDE YOURSELF”: LOW-INCOME ADOLESCENT SOUTH AFRICAN GIRLS’ SUBJECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer, Karin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the feminist social constructionist approach this study aimed at exploring the subjective experiences of depression of low-income South African adolescent girls. Participants in this study (girls between the ages of 12 and 14 live in a semi-rural low-income coloured community in the Western Cape. Participants were familiar with the concept of depression, but it seemed that for them the central emotion associated with depression was anger, which often manifested in destructive behaviours. Furthermore, participants seemed to construct depression as a relational problem, suggesting that psychotherapy may be indicated as an important intervention strategy.

  1. Prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders among low-income African Americans at a clinic on Chicago's south side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Carl C; Chimata, Radhika

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the point prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders among predominantly low-income, African-American psychiatric patients at Jackson Park Hospital's Family Medicine Clinic on Chicago's South Side. Using active case ascertainment methodology, the authors assessed the records of 611 psychiatric patients visiting the clinic between May 23, 2013, and January 14, 2014, to identify those with DSM-5 neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 297 patients (49%) met criteria for a neurodevelopmental disorder during childhood. Moreover, 237 (39%) had clinical profiles consistent with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, and 53 (9%) had other neurodevelopmental disorders. The authors disagreed on the specific type of neurodevelopmental disorder of seven (1% of 611) of the 297 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. A high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders was found among low-income predominantly African-American psychiatric patients on Chicago's South Side. If replicated, these findings should bring about substantial changes in medical practice with African-American patients.

  2. Low-income, pregnant, African American women's views on physical activity and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant, African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within-group and between-group levels to identify themes. Two themes that related to physical activity during pregnancy were identified: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: 1) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior; 2) I'll decide for myself what to eat; and 3) eating out is a way of life. Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated that their levels of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women's being "in tune with and listening to" their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  3. Relationships between psychosocial factors and abusive parenting attitudes in low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, Melanie

    2002-01-01

    Linkages among family violence, maternal mental health, and parenting attitudes are not clearly understood. To investigate the relationships of abuse (childhood and/or partner), everyday stressors, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and anger with abusive parenting attitudes. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in interviews with 53 low-income, single mothers from wave two of a 3-wave study. A conceptual framework and bivariate correlations guided a series of multiple regressions to identify the best predictors for each variable. A high prevalence of abuse, depressive symptoms, and abusive parenting attitudes was found. Few women had ever received mental health treatment. Abuse (partner and childhood physical) predicted higher everyday stressors which in turn predicted lower self-esteem. Childhood abuse and lower self-esteem predicted more depressive symptoms. More depressive symptoms were related to higher levels of state anger. More everyday stressors and more depressive symptoms predicted higher levels of trait anger. Higher levels of anger expression were associated with higher everyday stressors and lower self-esteem. The presence of partner abuse best predicted higher levels of overall abusive parenting attitudes and more parent-child role reversal. Less parental empathy was associated with higher levels of state anger. This study partially explains the relationships of maternal abuse history and mental health status with parenting attitudes. Other predictors of parenting attitudes remain to be identified. The findings underscore the need for healthcare providers to consider the mental health status and abuse histories of low-income, single mothers. The potential disturbance in the parenting process of single mothers in abusive relationships warrants further investigation.

  4. Mealtime television viewing and dietary quality in low-income African American and Caucasian mother-toddler dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Stommel, Manfred; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Weatherspoon, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    To examine maternal demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms as predictors of TV viewing during mealtimes, and to investigate how mealtime TV viewing predicts mothers' and toddlers' food consumption. A prospective, cross-sectional survey design was employed with 199 African American and 200 Caucasian, low-income, mother-toddler dyads enrolled in eight Early Head Start programs in a Midwestern state. Mothers completed the Toddler-Parent Mealtime Behavior Questionnaire to assess toddler mealtime behavior. Data were analyzed using a three-step multiple regression: (a) step one was to determine what characteristics predicted family TV viewing during mealtime; (b) step two was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted maternal food consumption, and (c) step three was to determine whether TV viewing during mealtime predicted toddler food consumption. Direct and indirect effects of TV watching were explored via path models. Maternal race, education, and depressive symptoms predicted 8% of the variance in TV viewing during mealtime (P < or = 0.001). African American mothers and mothers who had fewer years of schooling and exhibited more depressive symptoms tended to watch more TV during mealtime. More TV viewing during mealtime predicted mothers' intake of 'more' unhealthy foods. Mothers' food consumption was the single best predictor of toddlers' food consumption, while TV viewing during mealtime had an indirect effect through mothers' TV viewing. TV viewing practices affect mothers' food consumption and mealtime behaviors; this, in turn, impacts toddlers' food consumption. Practical interventions are needed to positively influence the nutritional habits of lower-income mothers. Reducing mothers' "unhealthy" food consumption while watching TV may offer one effective strategy.

  5. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Acheampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.

  6. Do Single-Sex Schools Improve the Education of Low-Income and Minority Students? An Investigation of California's Public Single-Gender Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Lea; Datnow, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Single-sex public schools are seen as a vehicle for improving the educational experiences of low-income and minority students. Our two-year ethnographic study of low-income and minority students who attended experimental single-sex academies in California indicates that improving achievement involves more than separating students by gender. Using…

  7. African-American homeless and low-income housed mothers: comparison of parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, S A; Morgan, K M; Anderson, E A

    1997-01-01

    The child-rearing practices of homeless and low-income housed mothers of preschool children in Head Start were compared. Overall, homeless mothers provided less learning and academic stimulation, less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and a less positive physical environment for their children than did housed mothers. Mothers in both living arrangements provided more language stimulation to daughters than to sons. Implications of the findings for working with homeless families are discussed.

  8. Factors Distinguishing Positive Deviance Among Low-Income African American Women: A Qualitative Study on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cecilia E; Masho, Saba W; Carlyle, Kellie E; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2017-05-01

    Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice. Positive deviants, who had breastfed for 4 months or more, were compared with formula-feeding participants who had only formula fed their babies and short-term breastfeeding participants who had breastfed for 3 months or less. Positive deviant women had more schooling, higher income, breastfeeding intention, positive breastfeeding and unfavorable formula-feeding attitudes, higher self-efficacy, positive hospital and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children experiences, more exclusive breastfeeding, and greater comfort breastfeeding in public. Short-term breastfeeding women varied in breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy, seemed to receive insufficient professional breastfeeding support, and supplemented breastfeeding with formula. Some showed ambivalence, concern with unhealthy behaviors, and discomfort with breastfeeding in public. Formula-feeding women intended to formula feed, feared breastfeeding, thought their behaviors were incompatible with breastfeeding, were comfortable with and found formula convenient, and received strong support to formula feed. Tapping into the strengths of positive deviants; tailoring interventions to levels of general and breastfeeding self-efficacy; increasing social, institutional, and community supports; and removing inappropriate formula promotion may offer promising strategies to increase breastfeeding among low-income African American women.

  9. Portion size effects on daily energy intake in low-income Hispanic and African American children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Arreola, Angeles; Birch, Leann L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-12-01

    Portion size influences children's energy intakes at meals, but effects on daily intake are unknown. Effects of large portions on daily energy intake were tested in 5-y-old Hispanic and African American children from low-income families. Maternal food intake data were collected to evaluate familial susceptibility to portion size. A within-subjects experimental design with reference and large portion sizes was used in a study of 59 low-income Hispanic and African American preschool-aged children and their mothers. The portion size of 3 entrées (lunch, dinner, and breakfast) and an afternoon snack served during a 24-h period were of a reference size in one condition and doubled in the other condition. Portion sizes of other foods and beverages did not vary across conditions. Weighed food intake, anthropometric measures, and self-reported data were obtained. Doubling the portion size of several entrées and a snack served during a 24-h period increased energy intake from those foods by 23% (180 kcal) among children (P kcal) among mothers (P daily intakes among Hispanic and African American children.

  10. Modeling condom-use stage of change in low-income, single, urban women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P; Lewis, Brian P

    2002-04-01

    This study was undertaken to identify and test a model of the cognitive antecedents to condom use stage of change in low-income, single, urban women. A convenience sample of 537 women (M=30 years old) attending two urban primary health care settings in western New York State anonymously completed questionnaires based primarily on two leading social-cognitive models, the transtheoretical model and the information-motivation-behavioral skills model. We used structural equation modeling to examine the direct and indirect effects of HIV-related knowledge, social norms of discussing HIV risk and prevention, familiarity with HIV-infected persons, general readiness to change sexual behaviors, perceived vulnerability to HIV, and pros and cons of condom use on condom-use stage of change. The results indicated two models that differ by partner type. Condom-use stage of change in women with steady main partners was influenced most by social norms and the pros of condom use. Condom-use stage of change in women with "other" types (multiple, casual, or new) of sexual partners was influenced by HIV-related knowledge, general readiness to change sexual behaviors, and the pros of condom use. These findings suggest implications for developing gender-relevant HIV-prevention interventions. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  12. Determinants of electricity demand for newly electrified low-income African households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louw, Kate; Conradie, Beatrice; Howells, Mark; Dekenah, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Access to clean, affordable and appropriate energy is an important enabler of development. Energy allows households to meet their most basic subsistence needs; it is a central feature of all the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, while a lack of access to energy may not be a cause of poverty, addressing the energy needs of the impoverished lets them access services which in turn address the causes of poverty. While much is known about the factors affecting the decisions made when choosing between fuel types within a household, few quantitative studies have been carried out in South Africa to determine the extent to which these factors affect energy choice decisions. It is assumed that the factors traditionally included in economic demand such as price and income of the household affect choice; tastes and preferences as well as external factors such as distance to fuel suppliers are expected to influence preferences. This study follows two typical low-income rural sites in South Africa, Antioch and Garagapola, where the Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) was piloted in 2002. The EBSST is set at 50 kWh/month per household for low domestic consumers; this is worth approximately R20 (±US$3). This subsidy is a lifeline tariff, where households receive the set amount of units per month, free of charge irrespective of whether more units are purchased. These data (collected in 2001 and 2002), recently collated with detailed electricity consumption data, allow us to determine the drivers of electricity consumption within these households. The sample analysed is taken from the initial phase of the study, when no FBE had been introduced to the households. This enabled the study presented here to make use of the well-populated datasets to assess what affects the electricity use decision in these households. This paper attempts to assess which factors affected the decision-making process for electricity consumption within these households. A brief history

  13. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  14. Performance of African American Preschool Children from Low-Income Families on Expressive Language Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Cathy H.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Marley, Scott C.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine (a) the ability of two spontaneous language measures, mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and number of different words (NDW), to identify African American preschool children at low and high levels of language ability; (b) whether child chronological age was related to the performance of either…

  15. Assessing the Relationship between Parental Influences and Wellbeing among Low Income African American Adolescents in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Harty, Justin; Kim, Dong Ha; Elsaesser, Caitlin; Takahashi, Lois M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: African American youth in urban centers often reside in poorly resourced communities and face structural disadvantage, which can result in higher rates of poor behavioral health factors such as mental health problems, juvenile justice system involvement, substance use, risky sex and lower school engagement. While parental monitoring…

  16. Evaluation of the Factor Structure of the Obstacles to Engagement Scale with Low-income African American Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Winders Davis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parenting anticipatory guidance is one way to promote optimal child health and development and minimize disparities between children from lower socio-economic status families and their higher income peers. However, low rates of attendance at and completion of parenting programs has been demonstrated. Understanding barriers to participation has important implications. The Obstacles to Engagement Scale (OES has been used in some populations, but it has not been evaluated for use with low-income African American samples. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the factor structure of the OES with a sample of low-income, African American parents.Method: Parents or legal guardians with children aged 3-8 years completed a survey in the waiting room of a primary care pediatric academic practice in an urban location in the southern United States of America (N = 114. Almost 87% had < 12th grade education and 93% of the children received Medicaid services. The OES was one measure from a larger study and only participants with complete data on the OES were included in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA.Results: The EFA did not support the previous 4-factor solution (intervention demands, personal or family stressors or obstacles, relevance of or trust in intervention, and time and scheduling demands. Instead, a 3-factor statistical solution emerged, but not all items held together conceptually.Conclusions: The current study supports the necessity for evaluating study instruments for use with specific populations. Larger samples are needed to disentangle the effects of educational and poverty status from race and ethnicity and to develop and validate instruments that are appropriate for the study population.

  17. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  19. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  20. A qualitative investigation of perceptions of violence risk factors in low-income African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, L E; Vera, E M; Thompson, K; Reyes, R

    2001-06-01

    Conducted a qualitative investigation to identify the perceptions of risk factors for violence in a sample of inner-city African American youth. Using ethnographic analyses, themes emerging from these data included concerns about the reciprocity between drugs and violence, familial quality of life issues, gender differences in the experience of violence and risk for violence, community safety concerns, and fears about managing peer relationships specific to violence. These data are interpreted relative to the risk factors the violence prevention literature has identified among youth residing in urban environments. Findings are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to generating hypotheses for the development of theory and effective violence prevention practice.

  1. Infant feeding practices of low-income, African-American, adolescent mothers: an ecological, multigenerational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M; Gavin, L; Black, M M; Teti, L

    1999-10-01

    The early introduction of non-milk foods among African-American infants has been well documented. Several studies report the addition of semi-solids as early as 1-2 weeks of age. This study investigated, through ethnographic, repeat indepth interviews with teen mothers and grandmothers of infants, the determinants of such feeding practices and the inter-generational factors involved in infant feeding decision-making. Nineteen adolescent mothers were recruited from Baltimore City WIC programs. The teen mothers were interviewed in their homes during four separate visits and the grandmothers at least twice. Ethnographic field guides focused on questions about what, why and how infants were fed and on the 'ethnotheories' of parenting and infant care in this population. All interviews were taped and transcripts were analyzed using text retrieval software. Results confirmed that it is the cultural norm to feed cereal in the bottle and to feed other semi-solid foods within the first month of life. Most grandmothers played the dominant role in deciding what the infant should eat and the timing of the introduction of solids. This pattern occurred both because grandmothers had extensive physical access to their grandchildren and because teen mothers were dependent upon grandmothers. The use of qualitative research methods, with an ecological, multi-generational focus, provides a rich description of the context within which infant feeding decisions are made.

  2. "We Keep the Education Goin' at Home All the Time": Family Literacy in Low-Income African American Families of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L.; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have examined the impact of family on child literacy among low-income African American families and preschoolers considered to be at risk for not being ready for kindergarten. Quantitative studies identify family-parental variables associated with poorer literacy outcomes, whereas qualitative studies detail family practices that…

  3. Responding to Hard Times in the "Big Easy": Meeting the Vocational Needs of Low-Income African American New Orleans Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heather Z.

    2011-01-01

    The already limited vocational prospects of low-income African Americans in New Orleans were further devastated by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill added to the devastation, highlighting the continued vulnerability of New Orleanians seeking employment. As a result, opportunities persist for vocational practitioners…

  4. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Low-Income, Predominantly African American Women with PTSD and a History of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…

  5. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today’s Health (PATH) trial. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Results Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the “5 Ps” to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents’ homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Conclusions Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers. PMID:23497164

  6. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers: The HEALTH-KIDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers. Methods Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago in Fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, and logistic regression models. Results Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal weight- than overweight or obese mothers. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (p<0.05). Conclusions Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association. PMID:19103323

  7. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008).

  8. Qualitative developmental research among low income African American adults to inform a social marketing campaign for walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dawn K; St George, Sara M; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N; Coulon, Sandra M; Griffin, Sarah F; Wandersman, Abe; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney; Brown, Porschia V

    2013-03-05

    This study describes the development of a social marketing campaign for increasing walking in a low income, high crime community as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial. Focus groups were conducted with 52 African American adults (ages 18 to 65 yrs), from two underserved communities to develop themes for a social marketing campaign to promote walking. Participants responded to questions concerning social marketing principles related to product, price, place, promotion, and positioning for increasing neighbourhood walking. Focus group data informed the development of the campaign objectives that were derived from the "5 Ps" to promote physical and mental health, social connectedness, safety, and confidence in walking regularly. Focus group themes indicated that physical and mental health benefits of walking were important motivators. Walking for social reasons was also important for overcoming barriers to walking. Police support from trusted officers while walking was also essential to promoting safety for walking. Print materials were developed by the steering committee, with a 12-month calendar and door hangers delivered to residents' homes to invite them to walk. Pride Stride walks empowered community walkers to serve as peer leaders for special walking events to engage new walkers. Essential elements for developing culturally tailored social marketing interventions for promoting walking in underserved communities are outlined for future researchers.

  9. Psychometric assessment of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory in a sample of low-income single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M

    2001-01-01

    The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) is a 32-item inventory widely used to identify adolescents and adults at risk for inadequate parenting behaviors. It includes four subscales representing the most frequent patterns associated with abusive parenting: (a) Inappropriate Expectations; (b) Lack of Empathy; (c) Parental Value of Corporal Punishment; and (d) Parent-Child Role Reversal. Although it has been used in a variety of samples, the psychometric properties of the AAPI have not been examined in low-income single mothers. The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the reliability and validity of the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) in a sample of 206 low-income single mothers; (b) assess the mother's risk for inadequate parenting by comparing their AAPI subscale scores with normative subscale scores on the AAPI; (c) assess the construct validity of the AAPI by testing the hypothesis that mothers with lower AAPI scores have a higher level of depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in comparison to mothers with higher AAPI scores; and (d) determine whether the 4-factor structure proposed by Bavolek (1984) could be replicated. AAPI scores indicated these mothers were at high risk for child abuse when compared with normative data for parents with no known history of abuse. Higher risk for abusive parenting was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, less education, and unemployment. The subscales, Inappropriate Expectations and Parental Value of Corporal Punishment demonstrated poor internal consistency with Cronbach's alphas of .40 and .54, respectively. Hypothesis testing supported the construct validity of the AAPI. Bavolek's 4-factor structure was not supported. A 19-item modified version of the AAPI with three dimensions was identified. This modified version of the AAPI may provide a more efficacious tool for use with low-income single mothers.

  10. A qualitative study of motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy for low-income, overweight, African-American mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Naomi R; Klotz, Alicia A; Herring, Sharon J

    2013-09-01

    Poor diet quality is common among low-income, overweight, African-American mothers, placing them at high risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to better understand the contextual factors that may influence low-income African-American mothers' diet quality during pregnancy. In 2011, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 overweight/obese, pregnant African Americans in Philadelphia, PA, all of whom received Medicaid and were eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Two readers independently coded the interview transcripts to identify recurrent themes. We identified 10 themes around motivators and barriers to healthy eating in pregnancy. Mothers believed that consuming healthy foods, like fruits and vegetables, would lead to healthy babies and limit the physical discomforts of pregnancy. However, more often than not, mothers chose foods that were high in fats and sugars because of taste, cost, and convenience. In addition, mothers had several misconceptions about the definition of healthy (eg, "juice is good for baby"), which led to overconsumption. Many mothers feared they might "starve" their babies if they did not get enough to eat, promoting persistent snacking and larger portions. Living in multigenerational households and sharing resources also limited the mothers' control over food choices and made consuming healthy foods especially difficult. Despite the good intentions of low-income African-American mothers to improve diet quality during pregnancy, multiple factors worked together as barriers to healthy eating. Interventions that emphasize tasty and affordable healthy food substitutes, address misconceptions, and counsel mothers about true energy needs in pregnancy may improve low-income, African-American, overweight/obese mothers' diet quality. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Social and Linguistic Input in Low-Income African American Mother-Child Dyads from 1 Month through 2 Years: Relations to Vocabulary Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Priya M.; Fedewa, Alicia; Hans, Sydney

    2012-01-01

    The relation of social and linguistic input measures to early vocabulary development was examined in 30 low-income African American mother-infant pairs. Observations were conducted when the child was 0 years, 1 month (0;1), 0;4, 0;8, 1;0, 1;6, and 2;0. Maternal input was coded for word types and tokens, contingent responsiveness, and…

  12. Family Support Center Village: A Unique Approach for Low-Income Single Women with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Helen V.; Wolfe, Jayne L.

    2004-01-01

    The Family Support Center, recognizing the need for single women with children to maintain stability, has developed a program referred to as the Family Support Center Village, which incorporates a service enriched co-housing model. The "Village" will be the catalyst for these mothers' self-sufficiency and will provide opportunities to develop…

  13. The effects of maternal psychosocial factors on parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutenbacher, M; Hall, L A

    1998-01-01

    Although recent evidence implies linkages among depression or depressive symptoms, self-esteem, history of childhood abuse, and parenting attitudes, the evidence does not clearly elucidate the relationships among these variables. To investigate the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors (history of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms) and parenting attitudes of low-income, single mothers who have young children. Secondary analyses of data from in-home interviews with 206 low-income, single mothers from a southeastern United States urban area were conducted. A variety of scales, including the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI), were used to measure maternal psychosocial factors. Using the AAPI, a Modified Parenting Attitudes Measure (MPAM), and subscales, a three-stage regression procedure was used to test the model. For stages 1 and 2, everyday stressors were the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Childhood sexual abuse, everyday stressors, low self-esteem, and control variables accounted for 58% of variance in depressive symptoms. In the third stage for the AAPI, only control variables were retained except in the Lack of Empathy subscale, where depressive symptoms and control variables accounted for 16% of the variance. The third stage for the MPAM yielded, by subscale: Only control variables predicted Corporal Punishment Beliefs; depressive symptoms were the strongest predictor for the total MPAM (19% of variance) and of the Inappropriate Emotional Expectations subscale (17%); and childhood physical abuse was the only predictor of Role Reversal. Depressive symptoms mediated the effects of childhood abuse, everyday stressors, and self-esteem and provided the linkage between these variables and at-risk parenting attitudes. Self-esteem decreased as everyday stressors increased but did not directly affect parenting attitudes. A relationship was not found between childhood abuse and low self-esteem. This study

  14. Effects of Parent Implemented Visual Schedule Routines for African American Children with ASD in Low-Income Home Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Samantha E.; Glover, Carrie A.; Lloyd, Blair P.; Barton, Erin E.; Mello, Maria P.

    2018-01-01

    Low-income, minority families are underrepresented in the literature on parent training for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although the use of visual supports, such as visual schedules, is considered to be an evidence-based practice for children with ASD in school, it is not known whether this strategy is effective for…

  15. Gender Differences in Monitoring and Deviant Peers as Predictors of Delinquent Behavior among Low-Income Urban African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…

  16. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income Single Family Buildings in Wisconsin: Summary Report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternes, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    During the winter of 1985-86, a retrofit field test was performed in 66 occupied, low-income, single-family homes in Madison, Wisconsin. The primary objectives of the field test were to (1) determine the measured energy savings and the relative benefits of a combination of envelope and mechanical equipment retrofits that were selected following a new audit-directed retrofit procedure, (2) determine the energy savings and benefits due to performing infiltration reduction work following a recently developed infiltration reduction procedure, and (3) study general occupant behavior and house thermal characteristics and their possible change following retrofit installation. This report provides an overview of the project and summarizes the findings which will be presented in detail in separate reports. Major findings from the field test include: (1) The audit-directed retrofit procedure produced an average savings of 207 therms/year/house. The procedure also more than doubled the overall cost-effectiveness of the low-income weatherization assistance program as compared with the priority system formerly used in Wisconsin. Wall insulation and condensing furnaces were the major retrofits (predicted annual energy savings greater than 100 therms/year) most often selected under the procedure. The respective average energy savings of the houses receiving wall insulation and condensing furnace. s was 14.6 and 14.3 therms/year for each$100 spent on them under the program. (2) The blower-door-guided infiltration reduction procedure reduced expenditures for infiltration reduction to about one-fourth of previous program costs (from$570/house to$106/house). The procedure also reduced the average air leakage rate in the treated houses by 16%, whereas, in a previous study, no significant reduction was found following the installation of typical infiltration reduction measures. (3) Twenty to 60% of the deviation between predicted and measured savings can be attributed to incorrect

  17. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  18. Why is patient safety so hard in low-income countries? A qualitative study of healthcare workers' views in two African hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Kayonga, Yvette; Nega, Ansha; Dixon-Woods, Mary

    2015-02-25

    The views of practitioners at the sharp end of health care provision are now recognised as a valuable source of intelligence that can inform efforts to improve patient safety in high-income countries. Yet despite growing policy emphasis on patient safety in low-income countries, little research examines the views of practitioners in these settings. We aimed to give voice to how healthcare workers in two East African hospitals identify and explain the major obstacles to ensuring the safety of patients in their care. We conducted in-depth, face to face interviews with healthcare workers in two East African hospitals. Our sample included a total of 57 hospital staff, including nurses, physicians, technicians, clinical services staff, administrative staff and hospital managers. Hospital staff in low-income settings offered broadly encompassing and aspirational definitions of patient safety. They identified obstacles to patient safety across three major themes: material context, staffing issues and inter-professional working relationships. Participants distinguished between the proximal influences on patient safety that posed an immediate threat to patient care, and the distal influences that generated the contexts for such hazards. These included contexts of severe material deprivation, but also the impact of relational factors such as teamwork and professional hierarchies. Structures of authority, governance and control that were not optimally aligned with achieving patient safety were widely reported. As in high-income countries, the accounts of healthcare workers in low-income countries provide sophisticated and valuable insights into the challenges of patient safety. Though the impact of resource constraints and weak governance structures are particularly marked in low-income countries, the congruence between accounts of health workers in diverse settings suggest that the origins and solutions to patient safety problems are likely to be similar everywhere and are

  19. Perspectives of Low-Income African-American Women Non-adherent to Mammography Screening: the Importance of Information, Behavioral Skills, and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Anjanette A; Shon, En-Jung; McGowan, Kelly; James, Aimee

    2017-06-01

    Although information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) adherence model has been successfully used in many illness domains and with other populations, it has not been used in understanding mammogram screening among low-income African-American women. Thus, a qualitative examination is needed to theoretically and collectively understand the barriers to screening, given the disparities in breast cancer mortality rates among this population. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 28 low-income uninsured and underinsured African-American women, 40 to 70 years, who had not had a mammogram within the past 12 months. Women were recruited from 21 hair and nail salons and Laundromats within the five North St. Louis city zip codes with the highest breast cancer mortality rates. Transcripts were analyzed and rooted in grounded theory. This study found that the individual relevancy of information, behavioral skills-both procedural and systematic-and motivation seemed to affect screening adherence; (the results suggest the importance of reordering traditional IMB components into the following sequential order: information, behavioral skills, and motivation (IBM)). Future analyses should include a larger, more representative sample of unscreened women, in which quantitative statistical analyses could be conducted to assist in strengthening assertions about information, behavioral skills, and motivational aspects and their relationship to screening.

  20. Tipping the balance: use of advergames to promote consumption of nutritious foods and beverages by low-income African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, Tiffany A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2009-07-01

    To examine how advergames, which are online computer games developed to market a product, affect consumption of healthier and less healthy snacks by low-income African American children. Cross-sectional, between-subjects examination of an advergame in which children were rewarded for having their computer character consume healthier or less healthy foods and beverages. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 conditions: (1) the healthier advergame condition, (2) the less healthy advergame condition, or (3) the control condition. Urban public elementary schools. Thirty low-income, African American children aged 9 to 10 years. Main Exposure Children in the treatment conditions played a less healthy or a healthier version of an advergame 2 times before choosing and eating a snack and completing the experimental measures. Children in the control group chose and ate a snack before playing the game and completing the measures. The number of healthier snack items children selected and ate and how much children liked the game. Children who played the healthier version of the advergame selected and ate significantly more healthy snacks than did those who played the less healthy version. Children reported liking the advergame. Findings suggest that concerns about online advergames that market unhealthy foods are justified. However, advergames may also be used to promote healthier foods and beverages. This kind of social marketing approach could tip the scales toward the selection of higher-quality snacks, thereby helping to curb the obesity epidemic.

  1. Making daddies into fathers: community-based fatherhood programs and the construction of masculinities for low-income African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kevin M; Dyson, Omari

    2010-03-01

    In this analysis, we explore how low-income African American fathers build understandings of successful manhood in the context of community-based responsible fatherhood programs. Drawing on life history interviews with 75 men in Illinois and Indiana, we explore men's attempts to fulfill normative expectations of fatherhood while living in communities with limited resources. We examine the efforts of community-based fatherhood programs to shape alternative African American masculinities through facilitation of personal turning points and "breaks with the past," use of social support and institutional interventions, and the reframing of provision as a priority of successful fatherhood. We refer to Connell's hegemonic masculinity framework (Connell in Masculinities, Polity Press, Cambridge, 1995) and discuss how both men and programs borrow from hegemonic and street masculinities to develop alternative approaches to paternal involvement for marginalized men.

  2. Permeability of public and private spaces in reproductive healthcare seeking: barriers to uptake of services among low income African American women in a smaller urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Annis G

    2014-05-01

    This study was undertaken in partnership with a publicly funded reproductive healthcare organization to better understand barriers to utilization of its services as perceived by low income African American women in its community and how those barriers might be managed. The study uses a place-based, ecological perspective to theorize privacy challenges across different levels of the communication ecology. Analysis of participant observation, interviews, and focus group data identified three key public-private problematics in African American women's experience of reproductive healthcare seeking in a smaller urban setting: a public-private problematic of organizational identity, of organizational regions, and of organizational members. Potential strategies are identified for managing these problematics by the organization and community members. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The relationship between environment, efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement of low-income African American children in special education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.

  4. Factors Affecting African American Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Programs: A Qualitative Study of Uninsured Low Income Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Frances

    2002-01-01

    .... During Year 02, we conducted technical analyses of completed Phase 1 interviews that were obtained from African American women who were eligible to receive, but who chose to decline, free screening mammograms...

  5. The Meaning of Incontinence and Impotence for Low Income African-American and Latino Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maliski, Sally L; Litwin, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    .... Preliminary common categories between the Latino and African American men included erectile dysfunction and incontinence were the price that had to be paid to cure cancer, trusting God as a means...

  6. The Meaning of Incontinence and Impotence for Low Income African-American and Latino Men with Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maliski, Sally L; Litwin, Mark S

    2005-01-01

    .... Preliminary common categories between the Latino and African American men included erectile dysfunction and incontinence were the price that had to be paid to cure cancer, trusting God as a means...

  7. Evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention program to decrease blood pressure in low-income African-American older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Page, G; Piferi, R L; Gill, J M; Hayat, M J; Connolly, A B; Szanton, S L

    2012-04-01

    Hypertension affects a large proportion of urban African-American older adults.While there have been great strides in drug development, many older adults do not have access to such medicines or do not take them. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)has been shown to decrease blood pressure in some populations. This has not been tested in low-income, urban African-American older adults. Therefore, the primary purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based program for low income, minority older adults provided in residence. The secondary purpose was to learn if the mindfulness-based program produced differences in blood pressure between the intervention and control groups. Participants were at least 62 years old and residents of a low-income senior residence. All participants were African-American, and one was male.Twenty participants were randomized to the mindfulness-based intervention or a social support control group of the same duration and dose. Blood pressure was measured with the Omron automatic blood pressure machine at baseline and at the end of the 8-week intervention. A multivariate regression analysis was performed on the difference in scores between baseline and post-intervention blood pressure measurements, controlling for age,education, smoking status, and anti-hypertensive medication use. Effect sizes were calculated to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between participation in the mindfulness-based intervention and the outcome variable, blood pressure. Attendance remained 980%in all 8 weeks of both the intervention and the control groups. The average systolic blood pressure decreased for both groups post-intervention. Individuals in the intervention group exhibited a 21.92-mmHg lower systolic blood pressure compared to the social support control group post-intervention and this value was statistically significant(p=0.020). The average diastolic blood pressure decreased in the

  8. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, pfinancial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  9. Health behavior and behavioral economics: economic preferences and physical activity stages of change in a low-income African-American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. A cross-sectional, community-based study. A low-income, urban, African-American neighborhood. One hundred sixty-nine adults. Self-reported physical activity stages of change-precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured body mass index and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, p < .05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR = 1.68, p < .01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g., from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each one-unit increase in financial risk tolerance or one-unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples.

  10. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…

  11. How Do Low-Income Urban African Americans and Latinos Feel about Telemedicine? A Diffusion of Innovation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheba George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Telemedicine is promoted as a means to increase access to specialty medical care among the urban underserved, yet little is known about its acceptability among these populations. We used components of a diffusion of innovation conceptual framework to analyze preexperience perceptions about telemedicine to assess its appeal among urban underserved African Americans and Latinos. Methods. Ten focus groups were conducted with African American (=43 and Latino participants (=44 in both English and Spanish and analyzed for key themes. Results. Both groups perceived increased and immediate access to multiple medical opinions and reduced wait time as relative advantages of telemedicine. However, African Americans expressed more concerns than Latinos about confidentiality, privacy, and the physical absence of the specialist. This difference may reflect lower levels of trust in new health care innovations among African Americans resulting from a legacy of past abuses in the US medical system as compared to immigrant Latinos who do not have this particular historical backdrop. Conclusions. These findings have implications for important issues such as adoption of telemedicine, patient satisfaction, doctor-patient interactions, and the development and tailoring of strategies targeted to each of these populations for the introduction, marketing, and implementation of telemedicine.

  12. Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: associations with food-related perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Gabriela M; Surkan, Pamela J; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Han, Eunkyung; Trude, Angela Cb; Kharmats, Anna Y; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-06-01

    To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviours among low-income African-American families. Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socio-economic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programmes, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations. Fourteen low-income, predominantly African-American neighbourhoods in Baltimore City, MD, USA. Two hundred and ninety-eight adult caregiver-child (10-14 years old) dyads. Of households, 41·6 % had some level of food insecurity and 12·4 % experienced some level of hunger. Food-insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obesity) among adults and children (82·8 % and 37·9 % among food insecure without hunger, 89·2 % and 45·9 % among food insecure with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by food security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight. In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food-insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption.

  13. Food insecurity, overweight and obesity among low-income African-American families in Baltimore City: Associations with food-related perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Gabriela M.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Han, Eunkyung; Trude, Angela C.B.; Kharmats, Anna Y.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between food insecurity, excess body weight, psychosocial factors and food behaviors among low-income African-American (AA) families. Design Cross-sectional survey of participants in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) obesity prevention trial. We collected data on socioeconomic factors, food source destinations, acquiring food, preparation methods, psychosocial factors, beliefs and attitudes, participation in food assistance programs, anthropometry and food security. We used principal component analysis to identify patterns of food source destinations and logistic regression to examine associations. Setting Fourteen low-income, predominantly AA neighborhoods in Baltimore City. Subjects 298 adult caregiver-child (10–14 years old) dyads. Results 41.6% of households had some level of food insecurity, and 12.4% experienced some level of hunger. Food insecure participants with hunger were significantly more likely to be unemployed and to have lower incomes. We found high rates of excess body weight (overweight and obese) among adults and children (82.8% and 37.9% food insecure without hunger; 89.2% and 45.9% with hunger, respectively), although there were no significant differences by security status. Food source usage patterns, food acquisition, preparation, knowledge, self-efficacy and intentions did not differ by food security. Food security was associated with perceptions that healthy foods are affordable and convenient. Greater caregiver body satisfaction was associated with food insecurity and excess body weight. Conclusions In this setting, obesity and food insecurity are major problems. For many food insecure families, perceptions of healthy foods may serve as additional barriers to their purchase and consumption. PMID:26441159

  14. Perceptions of Parenting Practices as Predictors of Aggression in a Low-Income, Urban, Predominately African American Middle School Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers' support and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers' exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed.

  15. Sexualized and Dangerous Relationships: Listening to the Voices of Low-Income African American Girls Placed at Risk for Sexual Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kruger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe.1 The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12-14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Methods: Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls’ own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development.Results: The girls’ language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity.Conclusion: Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the

  16. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  17. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles and the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behavior are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls, and anthropometry collected from 3 to 18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet, and weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding, and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids, whereas restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding, and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Perceived Physician-informed Weight Status Predicts Accurate Weight Self-Perception and Weight Self-Regulation in Low-income, African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Charlie L; Strayhorn, Gregory; Moore, Sandra; Goldman, Brian; Martin, Michelle Y

    2016-01-01

    Obese African American women under-appraise their body mass index (BMI) classification and report fewer weight loss attempts than women who accurately appraise their weight status. This cross-sectional study examined whether physician-informed weight status could predict weight self-perception and weight self-regulation strategies in obese women. A convenience sample of 118 low-income women completed a survey assessing demographic characteristics, comorbidities, weight self-perception, and weight self-regulation strategies. BMI was calculated during nurse triage. Binary logistic regression models were performed to test hypotheses. The odds of obese accurate appraisers having been informed about their weight status were six times greater than those of under-appraisers. The odds of those using an "approach" self-regulation strategy having been physician-informed were four times greater compared with those using an "avoidance" strategy. Physicians are uniquely positioned to influence accurate weight self-perception and adaptive weight self-regulation strategies in underserved women, reducing their risk for obesity-related morbidity.

  19. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-08-24

    Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable

  20. Household, psychosocial, and individual-level factors associated with fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake among low-income urban African American youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more

  1. Diet quality is inversely associated with C-reactive protein levels in urban, low-income African-American and white adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Mason, Marc A; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2013-12-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, is influenced by many factors, including socioeconomic position, genetics, and diet. The inverse association between diet and CRP is biologically feasible because micronutrients with antioxidative properties may enable the body to manage the balance between production and accumulation of reactive species that cause oxidative stress. To determine the quality of the diet consumed by urban, low-income African-American and white adults aged 30 to 64 years, and association of diet quality with CRP. Data from a cross-sectional study were used to evaluate diet quality assessed by mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Two 24-hour recalls were collected by trained interviewers using the US Department of Agriculture automated multiple pass method. The sample consisted of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span baseline study participants, 2004-2009, who completed both recalls (n=2,017). MAR equaled the average of the ratio of intakes to Recommended Dietary Allowance for 15 vitamins and minerals. CRP levels were assessed by the nephelometric method utilizing latex particles coated with CRP monoclonal antibodies. Linear ordinary least square regression and generalized linear models were performed to determine the association of MAR (independent variable) with CRP (dependent variable) while adjusting for potential confounders. MAR scores ranged from 74.3 to 82.2. Intakes of magnesium and vitamins A, C, and E were the most inadequate compared with Estimated Average Requirements. CRP levels were significantly associated with MAR, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured body fat, and hypertension. A 10% increase in MAR was associated with a 4% decrease in CRP. The MAR was independently and significantly inversely associated with CRP, suggesting diet is associated with the regulation of inflammation. Interventions to assist people make better food choices may not only improve diet quality but also their health

  2. Low income product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Sobral

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available At affluent markets, the literature on product development management tells us to aggregate value and technology, to differentiate products and to launch fast. And at the low-income markets? This exploratory research defines a popular product, characterizes and measures their markets in Brazil, and identifies innovation strategies for them. The results suggest that the effective strategic orientation differs from affluent markets. It includes: to enhance the auto service component; to identify and service the key functionalities to the targeted public; to standardize products and increase the production scale; to extend the product life cycle; to use convenient distribution and marketing channels; to build product images that have appeal in the popular market; to offer longer financing horizons with befittingly lower installments. Data came from market researches and general demographic census. General media published stories were used to identify companies and their strategies. And a few case studies allowed the authors a deeper exploration of the relevant themes.

  3. "Why Wait Years to Become Something?" Low-Income African American Youth and the Costly Career Search in For-Profit Trade Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Megan M.; DeLuca, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of low-income and minority youth are now pursuing shorter-duration sub-baccalaureate credentials at for-profit trade and technical schools. However, many students drop out of these schools, leaving with large debts and few job prospects. Despite these dismal outcomes, we know very little about students' experiences in for-profit…

  4. The Effect of Child-Centered Play Therapy on the Externalizing Behaviors of Low Income Male Preschoolers during Group Instructional Time and Center Time: A Single-Case Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Christa Brown

    2017-01-01

    Low income male preschoolers with externalizing behaviors have continued behavior issues throughout elementary school, middle school, high school, and into adulthood and create stress for their teachers. Because of this, it is important to detect externalizing behaviors early and implement an appropriate intervention. A single subject reversal…

  5. Perpetuating the cycle of violence in South African low-income communities: attraction to violence in young men exposed to continuous threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Hinsberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life in the low-income urban communities of South Africa is imprinted by a cycle of violence in which young males predominantly are in the roles of both victim and perpetrator. There is some evidence that adolescents who show an attraction to cruelty can display high levels of psychosocial functioning despite the presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, the role of appetitive aggression in the context of ongoing threats and daily hassles is not yet fully understood. Objective: In this study, we examine the role of attraction to violence in areas of continuous traumatic stress exposure and its effect on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD severity and violence perpetration. Method: A sample of 290 young males from two low-income Cape Town communities was surveyed. We assessed appetitive aggression with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS, PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview, the number of witnessed and self-experienced traumatic event types with an adaptation of the Child Exposure to Community Violence questionnaire, and the number of perpetrated violence event types with an adapted offence checklist from the AAS. Results: Appetitive aggression scores were predicted by witnessed as well as self-experienced traumatic events. Higher appetitive aggression scores resulted in higher levels of PTSD severity and perpetrated violence. Conclusions: Young males living in the low-income areas of South Africa may develop an attraction to cruelty in response to exposure to violence. Their willingness to fight in turn can increase the likelihood of continued violent behaviour. In contrast to previous research from postconflict areas, appetitive aggression and engagement in violence do not prevent the development of PTSD, but are instead associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress. PTSD symptoms such as avoidance and hyperarousal, as well as an attraction to cruelty and thus the willingness to fight, might

  6. Perpetuating the cycle of violence in South African low-income communities: attraction to violence in young men exposed to continuous threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsberger, Martina; Sommer, Jessica; Kaminer, Debra; Holtzhausen, Leon; Weierstall, Roland; Seedat, Soraya; Madikane, Solomon; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Life in the low-income urban communities of South Africa is imprinted by a cycle of violence in which young males predominantly are in the roles of both victim and perpetrator. There is some evidence that adolescents who show an attraction to cruelty can display high levels of psychosocial functioning despite the presence of posttraumatic stress symptoms. However, the role of appetitive aggression in the context of ongoing threats and daily hassles is not yet fully understood. In this study, we examine the role of attraction to violence in areas of continuous traumatic stress exposure and its effect on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity and violence perpetration. A sample of 290 young males from two low-income Cape Town communities was surveyed. We assessed appetitive aggression with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS), PTSD symptoms with the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview, the number of witnessed and self-experienced traumatic event types with an adaptation of the Child Exposure to Community Violence questionnaire, and the number of perpetrated violence event types with an adapted offence checklist from the AAS. Appetitive aggression scores were predicted by witnessed as well as self-experienced traumatic events. Higher appetitive aggression scores resulted in higher levels of PTSD severity and perpetrated violence. Young males living in the low-income areas of South Africa may develop an attraction to cruelty in response to exposure to violence. Their willingness to fight in turn can increase the likelihood of continued violent behaviour. In contrast to previous research from postconflict areas, appetitive aggression and engagement in violence do not prevent the development of PTSD, but are instead associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress. PTSD symptoms such as avoidance and hyperarousal, as well as an attraction to cruelty and thus the willingness to fight, might support survival in areas of ongoing conflict, but at the same time they

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among low-income, African American women with a history of intimate partner violence and suicidal behaviors: self-esteem, social support, and religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Rebekah; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2005-12-01

    There is a dearth of research on risk/protective factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV), presenting for suicidal behavior or routine medical care in a large, urban hospital. We examined self-esteem, social support, and religious coping as mediators between experiences of child maltreatment (CM) and IPV and symptoms of PTSD in a sample (N = 134) of low-income African American women. Instruments used included the Index of Spouse Abuse, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Taylor Self-Esteem Inventory, the Multidimensional Profile of Social Support, the Brief Religious Coping Activities Scale, and the Davidson Trauma Scale. Both CM and IPV related positively to PTSD symptoms. Risk and resilience individual difference factors accounted for 18% of the variance in PTSD symptoms over and above IPV and CM, with self-esteem and negative religious coping making unique contributions. Both variables mediated the abuse-PTSD symptom link. In addition, we tested an alternate model in which PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between abuse and both self-esteem and negative religious coping.

  8. Stigma, explanatory models and unmet needs of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in a low-income African country: a cross-sectional facility-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Dejene; Hanlon, Charlotte; Fekadu, Abebaw; Tekola, Bethlehem; Baheretibeb, Yonas; Hoekstra, Rosa A

    2016-04-27

    Understanding the perspectives of caregivers of children with developmental disorders living in low-income countries is important to inform intervention programmes. The purpose of this study was to examine the stigma experiences, explanatory models, unmet needs, preferred interventions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of children with developmental disorders in Ethiopia. Participants comprised caregivers (n = 102) of children with developmental disorders attending two child mental health clinics in Addis Ababa. The majority (66.7%; n = 68) had a diagnosis of intellectual disability (ID); 34 children (33.3%) had autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as their primary diagnosis. All caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire via a face-to-face interview, which included an adaptation of the Family Interview Schedule, closed questions about socio-demographic characteristics, explanatory models of illness, type of interventions used or desired and coping strategies, and an open ended question regarding the family's unmet needs. Most caregivers reported experience of stigma: 43.1% worried about being treated differently, 45.1% felt ashamed about their child's condition and 26.7% made an effort to keep their child's condition secret. Stigma did not depend on the type of developmental disorder, the child's age or gender, or on the age or level of education of the caregiver (all p > 0.05). Reported stigma was significantly higher in caregivers who had sought traditional help (p child's condition (p = .02) and in caregivers of Orthodox Christian faith (p = .03). Caregivers gave a mixture of biomedical explanations (e.g. head injury (30.4%) or birth complications (25.5%)) and supernatural explanations (e.g. spirit possession (40.2%) or sinful act (27.5%)) for their child's condition. The biggest reported unmet need was educational provision for their child (74.5%), followed by treatment by a health professional (47.1%), financial support (30.4%) and expert help to

  9. Corporate social investment and a company’s image: A case of a CSI initiative in a South African low income community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Francois Muzindutsi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of corporate social investment (CSI is to ensure that a company becomes a responsible entity which acts as a conscientious citizen within a society. CSI plays an important role in enhancing how a company is perceived within the community it operates in. This paper used a combination of qualitative and quantitative research designs to investigate the effect of a specific CSI initiative on a company’s image within a low income community in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews and survey questionnaire were used to collect data from community members in the township of Bophelong, South Africa. Results show that, if adequately managed, CSI initiatives tend to enhance company’s image as well as its relations with the community it operates in. However, if not adequately managed CSI can created unreachable expectations that can negatively affect a company’s image. Thus, companies better manage their CSI initiatives have an increased opportunity to enhance their reputation within the community they operate in.

  10. Surviving oppression under the Rock: The intersection of New York’s drug, welfare, and educational polices in the lived experiences of low-income African-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use and/or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants’ experiences with oppression and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities. PMID:23216440

  11. Surviving oppression under the rock: the intersection of New York's drug, welfare, and educational polices in the lived experiences of low-income African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws and educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple disadvantages that impoverished African American families struggling with substance use or sale experience. These disadvantages accumulated intergenerationally, in a snowball effect, making it difficult for participants to maintain stable lives. Findings explored the tension between participants' lived experiences and the multiple ways they either assimilated or resisted their oppression. New sensitive policies informed by standpoint, intersectionality, and Afrocentric perspectives must be developed to increase the availability of meaningful employment and strengthening impoverished African American communities.

  12. The Interdependence of Adult Relationship Quality and Parenting Behaviours among African American and European Couples in Rural, Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, Bharathi J.; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Heilbron, Nicole; Clincy, Amanda; Cox, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends the spillover and crossover hypotheses to more carefully model the potential interdependence between parent-parent interaction quality and parent-child interaction quality in family systems. Using propensity score matching, the present study attempted to isolate family processes that are unique across African American and…

  13. The Role of Stigma in Parental Help-Seeking for Perceived Child Behavior Problems in Urban, Low-Income African American Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth

    2015-12-01

    Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families.

  14. African American and Latino low income families' food shopping behaviors: promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and use of alternative healthy food options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Caitlin A; Brown, Jonisha R; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-04-01

    Minority families often reside in neighborhoods with few supermarkets or alternative healthy food options (e.g., farmers markets, community gardens), making fresh produce difficult to obtain. This qualitative study identified factors influencing fruit and vegetable shopping and use of alternative healthy food options. Forty-eight minority women with children completed interviews regarding food shopping habits and use of and attitudes toward alternative healthy food options. Interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Produce shopping was motivated by costs and family preferences. For African American women, poor cooking skills restricted the variety of fruits and vegetables purchased. Latinas were receptive to alternative healthy food options, but did not use them because these sources were inconvenient. African American women were not receptive to them. Improving cooking skills and perceptions of acceptable foods may be as important as increased access to promote greater consumption of fruits and vegetables.

  15. Surviving oppression under the Rock: The intersection of New York’s drug, welfare, and educational polices in the lived experiences of low-income African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Dunlap, Eloise; Armour, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on standpoint and intersectionality theories, this study explores the degree to which interactions among New York State’s Rockefeller Drug Laws, educational and welfare policies have contributed to the maintenance of a culture of surveillance in which the lives of impoverished African Americans are overseen and influenced by oppressive policies and governmental institutions. Qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal ethnographic data was conducted. Findings demonstrate multiple d...

  16. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA, has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations.We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86 for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94 for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95 for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88 for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend 0.50. Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95

  17. The impact of conventional dietary intake data coding methods on foods typically consumed by low-income African-American and White urban populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marc A; Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2015-08-01

    Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized. Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods. Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177). Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls. Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet-health relationships.

  18. Social support buffering of the relation between low income and elevated blood pressure in at-risk African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, S M; Wilson, D K

    2015-10-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP), and the purpose of this study was to assess whether interpersonal social supports buffer these adverse relations in African-American adults. In three communities matched demographically, a subsample of participants (N = 204) of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial provided measures of perceived social support, annual household income, and BP. Multiple regression analyses with cross-product interactions were conducted using follow-up data. The sample had a mean age of 52.8 years (SD = 15.1), and was predominantly female (66 %) with a high body mass index (M = 33.5, SD = 14.7). Results indicated an inverse relation between social support and diastolic BP (B = -.178, p = .005), and also an interaction with income (p = .046), such that higher social support related to lower diastolic BP in the lowest-income individuals (B = -1.05). The same direct (B = -.141, p = .025) and interacting (B = -1.42, p = .040) social support effects were present for systolic BP, however the omnibus model for systolic BP was not significant, F(6, 196) = 1.80, p = .09. The hypothesized buffering effect of social support on the adverse relation of income to BP was partially supported in at-risk African-American adults. Future prevention efforts for reducing the impact of socioeconomic stress on BP may aim to increase perceptions of social support.

  19. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  20. High prevalence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections among human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women in a low-income South African community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudau, Maanda; Peters, Remco P; De Vos, Lindsey; Olivier, Dawie H; J Davey, Dvora; Mkwanazi, Edwin S; McIntyre, James A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Medina-Marino, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of evidence on the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected pregnant women in two healthcare facilities in a South African township to determine the prevalence of CT, NG and TV. HIV-infected pregnant women were recruited during the first antenatal care visit for their current pregnancy and requested to self-collect vulvovaginal swab specimens. Specimens were tested for CT, NG and TV using the Xpert® assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Of 247 tested for CT, NG and TV, 47.8% tested positive for at least one organism; CT = 36.8%, TV = 23.9%, NG = 6.9%. Forty three (17.4%) had multiple infections, of which 42 included CT as one of the infecting organisms. Of the 118 participants who tested positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI), 23.7% reported STI-like symptoms. Among women who tested positive for CT, 29.7% reported symptoms while 47.1 and 27.1% of those who tested positive for NG and TV, respectively, reported symptoms. The high STI prevalence coupled with the low symptom prevalence among infected individuals justifies the use of diagnostic screening approaches rather than syndromic management of STIs in this setting.

  1. The Willingness to Prevent Obesity via Text Messaging among Low-Income African Americans Living in Single-Family Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Racial and ethnic minority populations are disproportionally affected by obesity. Text messaging is a major feature of mobile phones and is popular because it allows people to receive information effectively, unobtrusively, and privately. However, the willingness to exercise and eat healthy to prevent obesity by receiving…

  2. "I'm Happy with My Mommy": Low-Income Preschoolers' Causal Attributions for Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined low-income African American and European American preschoolers' socioemotional causal attributions. Results indicate that younger preschoolers, particularly young African Americans, may need help articulating emotions. Adults can support children's emotional reasoning through scaffolding. (Author)

  3. Sedentary and physically active behavior patterns among low-income African-American and white adults living in the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah S Cohen

    Full Text Available Increased sedentary behavior and lack of physical activity are associated with increased risk for many chronic diseases. Differences in leisure-time physical activity between African American and white adults have been suggested to partially explain racial disparities in chronic disease outcomes, but expanding the definition of physical activity to include household and occupational activities may reduce or even eliminate racial differences in total physical activity. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of active and sedentary behaviors in black and white adults and to examine these behaviors across demographic measures. Sedentary and physically active behaviors were obtained from a validated physical activity questionnaire in 23,021 black men, 9,899 white men, 32,214 black women, and 15,425 white women (age 40-79 at enrollment into the Southern Community Cohort Study. Descriptive statistics for sedentary time; light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity; sports/exercise; total activity; and meeting current physical activity recommendations via sports/exercise were examined for each race-sex group. Adjusted means were calculated using multiple linear regression models across demographic measures. Study participants spent approximately 60% of waking time in sedentary behaviors. Blacks reported more television viewing time than whites (45 minutes for females, 15 minutes for males, but when sitting time was expressed as a proportion of overall awake time, minimal racial differences were found. Patterns of light, moderate, and vigorous household/occupational activity were similar in all race/sex groups. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were followed by 16% of women and 25% of men independent of race. Overall, black and white men and women in this study spent the majority of their daily time in sedentary behaviors and less than one-fourth followed current guidelines for physical activity. These

  4. A model for the roll-out of comprehensive adult male circumcision services in African low-income settings of high HIV incidence: the ANRS 12126 Bophelo Pele Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissouba, Pascale; Taljaard, Dirk; Rech, Dino; Doyle, Sean; Shabangu, Daniel; Nhlapo, Cynthia; Otchere-Darko, Josephine; Mashigo, Thabo; Matson, Caitlin; Lewis, David; Billy, Scott; Auvert, Bertran

    2010-07-20

    World Health Organization (WHO)/Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) has recommended adult male circumcision (AMC) for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men from communities where HIV is hyperendemic and AMC prevalence is low. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the roll-out of medicalized AMC according to UNAIDS/WHO operational guidelines in a targeted African setting. The ANRS 12126 "Bophelo Pele" project was implemented in 2008 in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa). It became functional in 5 mo once local and ethical authorizations were obtained. Project activities involved community mobilization and outreach, as well as communication approaches aimed at both men and women incorporating broader HIV prevention strategies and promoting sexual health. Free medicalized AMC was offered to male residents aged 15 y and over at the project's main center, which had been designed for low-income settings. Through the establishment of an innovative surgical organization, up to 150 AMCs under local anesthesia, with sterilized circumcision disposable kits and electrocautery, could be performed per day by three task-sharing teams of one medical circumciser and five nurses. Community support for the project was high. As of November 2009, 14,011 men had been circumcised, averaging 740 per month in the past 12 mo, and 27.5% of project participants agreed to be tested for HIV. The rate of adverse events, none of which resulted in permanent damage or death, was 1.8%. Most of the men surveyed (92%) rated the services provided positively. An estimated 39.1% of adult uncircumcised male residents have undergone surgery and uptake is steadily increasing. This study demonstrates that a quality AMC roll-out adapted to African low-income settings is feasible and can be implemented quickly and safely according to international guidelines. The project can be a model for the scale-up of comprehensive AMC services, which

  5. A model for the roll-out of comprehensive adult male circumcision services in African low-income settings of high HIV incidence: the ANRS 12126 Bophelo Pele Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Lissouba

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO/Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS has recommended adult male circumcision (AMC for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men from communities where HIV is hyperendemic and AMC prevalence is low. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the roll-out of medicalized AMC according to UNAIDS/WHO operational guidelines in a targeted African setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The ANRS 12126 "Bophelo Pele" project was implemented in 2008 in the township of Orange Farm (South Africa. It became functional in 5 mo once local and ethical authorizations were obtained. Project activities involved community mobilization and outreach, as well as communication approaches aimed at both men and women incorporating broader HIV prevention strategies and promoting sexual health. Free medicalized AMC was offered to male residents aged 15 y and over at the project's main center, which had been designed for low-income settings. Through the establishment of an innovative surgical organization, up to 150 AMCs under local anesthesia, with sterilized circumcision disposable kits and electrocautery, could be performed per day by three task-sharing teams of one medical circumciser and five nurses. Community support for the project was high. As of November 2009, 14,011 men had been circumcised, averaging 740 per month in the past 12 mo, and 27.5% of project participants agreed to be tested for HIV. The rate of adverse events, none of which resulted in permanent damage or death, was 1.8%. Most of the men surveyed (92% rated the services provided positively. An estimated 39.1% of adult uncircumcised male residents have undergone surgery and uptake is steadily increasing. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that a quality AMC roll-out adapted to African low-income settings is feasible and can be implemented quickly and safely according to international guidelines. The project can be

  6. Parenting perceptions of low-income mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jenny; Morris, Melanie Hall; Thomas, Sandra P; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain understanding of perceptions of low-income pregnant women and mothers about parenting. Participants were 65 low-income, primarily African American, women in their 20s and 30s who were recruited from a faith-based social service center in Memphis, Tennessee. Interviews were conducted by nursing, social work, and psychology students. The existential phenomenological method was used to analyze verbatim responses of participants to vignettes depicting parenting behaviors of hypothetical mothers. Five global themes were identified: (a) Focus on baby's development: "Because I'm the Mother, I'm the First Teacher"; (b) Focus on baby's safety/security: "The Baby Could Be Hurt"; (c) Focus on conveying love: "She Just Wants the Baby to Feel Her Love"; (d) Focus on learning the rules of good childcare: "It's Important to Know the Do's and Don'ts"; and (e) Focus on doing it differently (better) than parents did: "When You Know Better, You Do Better." Findings suggest that these mothers care deeply about providing a better life for their children than the life they have had. They desire to learn about being the best parents they can be. As nurses, we can help to provide educational opportunities for mothers through a variety of evidence-based interventions delivered across the childbearing years.

  7. Resemblance in dietary intakes between urban low-income African-American adolescents and their mothers: the healthy eating and active lifestyles from school to home for kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African-American adolescents and their mothers. Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago during fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, as well as logistic regression models. Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal-weight mothers than in mothers with overweight or obesity. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (P<0.05). Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association.

  8. How Low-Income Children Use the Internet at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2005-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine home Internet use by low-income families in the United States. Participants were 140 children, mostly African American, whose Internet use was continuously and automatically recorded for one year. This article focuses on relationships between children's main computer activities, academic…

  9. Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Cancer Outcomes in Low-Income Elders, Is There An Advantage to Being on Medicaid Because of reduced financial barriers, dual Medicare-Medicaid enrollment of...

  10. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a survey of assistance programs that public utility commissions have approved in most states to assist the low-income customers of utilities within their states. Surveys find that there is no single model of low-income assistance; rather, each state has adopted a program that meets its particular circumstances. However, while the details of programs vary considerably, they all fall within four broad categories: (1) Affordability programs, which provide direct assistance in paying energy bills; (2) Consumer protections, such as collection practices and installment billing requirements, which make it easier to pay energy bills on time; (3) Education programs, which teach consumers about prudent energy use and counsel them about budgeting; and (4) Efficiency and weatherization programs, which make investments to help consumers control their energy bills by reducing their need for energy. Programs usually include more than one of these components. All programs also include outreach and evaluation components. This report describes these options, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the economic and other benefits of utility assistance programs for low-income customers. Low-income programs help participants by lowering the fraction of their incomes devoted to energy bills (the energy burden) from a very high level. In the United States, the median household devotes only 3.8 percent of its income to electricity while a family depending on a minimum-wage earner must devote 12.1 percent to energy while facing housing cost increases all over the nation. Low-income families unable to keep up with these pressures find themselves forced to go without power at times, to move, or to forgo other necessities such as food or medicine in order to pay their electricity bills

  11. Empowering low-income black families of handicapped children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanpur, M; Rao, S S

    1991-10-01

    A qualitative study of four black, low-income, single mothers used in-depth interviews and participant observation to evaluate their interactions with outreach agency professionals. Three perceived aspects (disrespect, focus on deficits, and discounting parenting style differences) were associated with exclusionary (unempowering) relationships. A reciprocal and supportive approach was associated with collaborative (empowering) relationships. Implications of these findings for professionals serving minority families are discussed.

  12. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  13. Childhood asthma in low income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Marianne Stubbe; Nantanda, Rebecca; Tumwine, James K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia has hitherto been considered the key cause of the high respiratory morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age (under-5s) in low-income countries, while asthma has not been stated as a significant reason. This paper explores the definitions and concepts...... of pneumonia and asthma/wheezing/bronchiolitis and examines whether asthma in under-5s may be confused with pneumonia. Over-diagnosing of bacterial pneumonia can be suspected from the limited association between clinical pneumonia and confirmatory test results such as chest x-ray and microbiological findings...... and poor treatment results using antibiotics. Moreover, children diagnosed with recurrent pneumonia in infancy were often later diagnosed with asthma. Recent studies showed a 10-15% prevalence of preschool asthma in low-income countries, although under-5s with long-term cough and difficulty breathing...

  14. Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Shea, Judy A; Rubin, David; Wood, Joanne

    2014-07-01

    Current assessments of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may not adequately encompass the breadth of adversity to which low-income urban children are exposed. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the range of adverse childhood experiences faced by young adults who grew up in a low-income urban area. Focus groups were conducted with young adults who grew up in low-income Philadelphia neighborhoods. Using the nominal group technique, participants generated a list of adverse childhood experiences and then identified the 5 most stressful experiences on the group list. The most stressful experiences identified by participants were grouped into a ranked list of domains and subdomains. Participants identified a range of experiences, grouped into 10 domains: family relationships, community stressors, personal victimization, economic hardship, peer relationships, discrimination, school, health, child welfare/juvenile justice, and media/technology. Included in these domains were many but not all of the experiences from the initial ACEs studies; parental divorce/separation and mental illness were absent. Additional experiences not included in the initial ACEs but endorsed by our participants included single-parent homes; exposure to violence, adult themes, and criminal behavior; personal victimization; bullying; economic hardship; and discrimination. Gathering youth perspectives on childhood adversity broadens our understanding of the experience of stress and trauma in childhood. Future work is needed to determine the significance of this broader set of adverse experiences in predisposing children to poor health outcomes as adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Coping with low incomes and cold homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Will; White, Vicki; Finney, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of low-income households in Great Britain which explored households’ strategies for coping both with limited financial resources in the winter months, when demand for domestic energy increases, and, in some cases, with cold homes. The study combined a national survey of 699 households with an income below 60 per cent of national median income with in-depth interviews with a subsample of 50 households. The primary strategy adopted by low-income households to cope with financial constraint was to reduce spending, including spending on essentials such as food and fuel, and thereby keep up with core financial commitments. While spending on food was usually reduced by cutting the range and quality of food purchased, spending on energy was usually reduced by cutting consumption. Sixty-three per cent of low-income households had cut their energy consumption in the previous winter and 47 per cent had experienced cold homes. Improvements to the thermal performance of homes reduced but did not eliminate the risk of going cold as any heating cost could be a burden to households on the lowest incomes. Householders’ attitudes were central to their coping strategies, with most expressing a determination to ‘get by’ come what may.

  16. Preconception Health Behaviors of Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoola, Adejoke B; Sneller, Krista; Ebeye, Tega D; Dykstra, Megan Jongekrijg; Ellens, Victoria L; Lee, HaEun Grace; Zandee, Gail L

    2016-01-01

    Preconception behaviors have a significant impact on birth outcomes, particularly among low-income minority groups, and women with unplanned pregnancies. This study examined women's perceived health status and behaviors such as drinking, smoking, exercise, and use of multivitamins and folic acid. This was a descriptive study based on a convenience sample of women living in urban underserved neighborhoods. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted using STATA 13. The sample consisted of 123 women ages 18 to 51 years (mean = 30.57); 51.22% were Hispanic, 36.59% African American, and 12.2% Caucasian. Over 70% had a household income of less than $20,000, 57.72% had no health insurance in the last year, and 58.54% were not married. These women were below the Healthy People 2020 goals for drinking, smoking, and multivitamin use, especially those who were planning to get pregnant in the next 6 months or not sure of their pregnancy planning status. There were no significant differences on any of the preconception health behavior variables based on pregnancy intention. Nurses and healthcare providers should emphasize importance of practicing healthy behaviors during the preconception period among low-income ethnic minority women specifically those living in urban medically underserved areas who are unsure of their pregnancy planning status or are at risk of unintended pregnancy.

  17. Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use among Low-Income Urban Black Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Judith B.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…

  18. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children's Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle-class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families ("n" = 444), ordinary least squares regression…

  19. Social Support and Low-Income, Urban Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Roche, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of engaged parenting in explaining longitudinal associations between maternal perceptions of social network support and whether youth engage in delinquent behaviors during the transition into adolescence. The sample included 432 low-income, African American and Latino youth (49% female) and their mothers…

  20. Parenting and Preschool Child Development: Examination of Three Low-Income U.S. Cultural Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impact of parenting behaviors on preschool children's social development in low-income families from three cultural groups: European American (n = 286), African American (n = 399), and Hispanic American (n = 164) using Spanish as the primary language in the home. Observed parenting behaviors of stimulation, responsivity, and…

  1. Effects of low income on infant health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Louise; Xu, Qian; Potvin, Louise; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria; Frohlich, Katherine L

    2003-06-10

    Few population-based studies have analyzed the link between poverty and infant morbidity. In this study, we wanted to determine whether inadequate income itself has an impact on infant health. We interviewed 2223 mothers of 5-month-old children participating in the 1998 phase of the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development to determine their infant's health and the sociodemographic characteristics of the household (including household income, breast-feeding and the smoking habits of the mother). Data on the health of the infants at birth were taken from medical records. We examined the effects of household income using Statistics Canada definitions of sufficient (above the low-income threshold), moderately inadequate (between 60% and 99% of the low-income threshold) and inadequate (below 60% of the low-income threshold) income on the mother's assessment of her child's overall health, her report of her infant's chronic health problems and her report of the number of times, if any, her child had been admitted to hospital since birth. In the analysis, we controlled for factors known to affect infant health: infant characteristics and neonatal health problems, the mother's level of education, the presence or absence of a partner, the duration of breast-feeding and the mother's smoking status. Compared with infants in households with sufficient incomes, those in households with lower incomes were more likely to be judged by their mothers to be in less than excellent health (moderately inadequate incomes: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.1; very inadequate incomes: adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.6). Infants in households with moderately inadequate incomes were more likely to have been admitted to hospital (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.6) than those in households with sufficient incomes, but the same was not true of infants in households with very inadequate incomes (adjusted OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.2). Household income did not

  2. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482

  3. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Duque

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898, we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers. Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  4. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  5. 77 FR 65139 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ...-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY... amend its low-income credit unions regulation by extending the time credit unions have to accept a low- income designation. Under the current rule, an FCU that has received notification from NCUA that it...

  6. 78 FR 4030 - Designation of Low-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...-Income Status; Acceptance of Secondary Capital Accounts by Low-Income Designated Credit Unions AGENCY... amending its low-income credit unions regulation by extending the time period in which a federal credit union (FCU) may accept a low-income designation. Under the current rule, an FCU that receives notice...

  7. Supporting and including children from low income families

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, FD

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores: • What we mean by low income and poverty and how poverty is defined • The families living on low income in the UK today and the impact of low income and poverty on children’s well-being, development and learning • Supporting children from low income families • The attainment gap between children from low income backgrounds and their peers • The pupil premium and how schools have used the extra funding to raise attainment • Key aspects of good practice and what schools c...

  8. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Relation to Respiratory Disease and Social Behaviors In Low-Income Infants in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1993-01-01

    Examined a sample of 177 infants (age 9 through 12 months) with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) from low-income French, African, and North African Muslim families in Paris. Found a higher than normal incidence of otitis media and respiratory diseases such as bronchitis among the infants. Also examined the relationship between infant IDA and child…

  9. Air Quality, Energy Budget, and Offset Policy in South Africa's Low-Income Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Piketh, S.; Burger, R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban and exurban residential populations in South Africa reside primarily in low-income settlements, including many townships remaining from Apartheid. Over 3 million free government homes have been built in the last 20 years, but the number of people living in informal settlements is the same as at the end of Apartheid in 1994 - a consequence of rapid urbanization. Despite availability of electricity to the vast majority of South Africans, ~80% of electrified homes in low-income areas also burn coal and/or wood as supplementary fuels for cooking and heating. These domestic burning activities represent 70-85% of total PM10mass during winter in South Africa's low-income settlements. Here we analyze data from observations of human-atmosphere systems in: 1) 19 ground monitoring sites in Gauteng Province (Johannesburg and Pretoria), and 2) an intensive sampling campaign in a township in Mpumalanga Province (Industrial Highveld). From ground monitoring, we quantitatively describe seasonal and diurnal trends in PM10 and PM2.5 typical in low-income settlements as compared with industrial and developed suburban areas, and demonstrate the impact of low-income settlements on regional air quality. We also explore the implications of economic development in townships (increased household income, expanded commercialization and widespread electricity usage) on local and regional air quality. Data from the intensive township sampling study provides a seasonal energy budget for domestic burning in low-income settlements and suggests that indoor and ambient air quality are independent systems requiring unique interventions. We conclude with a preview of innovative strategies being developed by industry, government, and academic stakeholders for a not-like-for-like emissions offset policy in South Africa, focused on investments directly into low-income settlements that are aimed at reducing PM exposure.

  10. Nation's Capital to cover low-income women's abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-15

    Sharon Pratt Kelly, the mayor of the District of Columbia, has announced that, effective May 1, 1994, the city will use its Medical Charities Fund to pay for "medically appropriate" abortions for women with annual incomes of US$13,200 who do not have health insurance that covers abortions. This income level represents 185% of the federal poverty level for single women. The determination as to whether an abortion is "appropriate" will be made by the woman's physician. From 1989-93, there was a ban on the use of District of Columbia tax monies to cover abortions for local women. In 1988, however, approximately 4000 District women received funding for their abortions. The US$1 million Medical Charities Fund was originally set up to cover emergency room bills for low-income District residents who did not qualify for Medicaid. $650,000 is expected to be added to the fund; in addition, the District's 1995 budget will allocate funding earmarked for abortion coverage for low-income women.

  11. How children with special health care needs affect the employment decisions of low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprest, Pamela; Davidoff, Amy

    2004-09-01

    To better understand the impact of having a child with special health care needs (CSHCN), on low-income parents' employment decisions. Using data from the 1999 and 2000 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we estimate multivariate statistical regressions (logit and tobit models) to estimate the relationship between having a CSHCN and the likelihood of employment and hours of employment for a sample-of low-income single parents. Controlling for differences in demographic and family characteristics, we find no significant association between having a CSHCN and the probability of work or the number of hours worked among low-income single-parent families. Separate analysis of different dimensions of special health care needs shows that parents of children with activity limitations are significantly less likely to work and work fewer hours. This result does not hold true for the group of children defined based on elevated or special service use, or for the group of children with specific chronic conditions. These results indicate that only a specific subset of children with special needs present difficulties for low-income parents' work. This suggests that policies to help low-income single parents of children with disabilities move into work should target this specific subset of children with special health care needs.

  12. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  13. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  14. 75 FR 8392 - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-11] Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... Lists the Following Information Title Of Proposal: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database. Omb...

  15. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  16. 42 CFR 457.310 - Targeted low-income child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... family income at or below 200 percent of the Federal poverty line for a family of the size involved; (ii... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Targeted low-income child. 457.310 Section 457.310... Requirements: Eligibility, Screening, Applications, and Enrollment § 457.310 Targeted low-income child. (a...

  17. Poject Managment Approach to Public Low Income Housing. | Ogbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research assesses the impacts of project management (PM) variables on the socio-economic formation of public low-income housing (LIH) users in Abia and ... socio-economic impact of public low income housing (LIH) and the PM variables: project scope control (PS), project planning (PPC), project cost control (PC), ...

  18. Health-related quality-of-life in low-income, uninsured men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupski, Tracey L; Fink, Arlene; Kwan, Lorna; Maliski, Sally; Connor, Sarah E; Clerkin, Barbara; Litwin, Mark S

    2005-05-01

    The objective was to describe health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) in low-income men with prostate cancer. Subjects were drawn from a statewide public assistance prostate cancer program. Telephone and mail surveys included the RAND 12-item Health Survey and UCLA Prostate Cancer Index Short Form and were compared with normative age-matched men without cancer from the general population reported on in the literature. Of 286 eligible men, 233 (81%) agreed to participate and completed the necessary items. The sample consisted of 51% Hispanics, 23% non-Hispanic whites, and 17% African Americans. The low-income men had worse scores in every domain of prostate-specific and general HRQOL than had the age-matched general population controls. The degree of disparity indicated substantial clinical differences in almost every domain of physical and emotional functioning between the sample group and the control group. Linear regression modeling determined that among the low-income men, Hispanic race, and income level were predictive of worse physical functioning, whereas only comorbidities predicted mental health. Low-income patients with prostate cancer appear to have quality-of-life profiles that are meaningfully worse than age-matched men from the general population without cancer reported on in the literature.

  19. Employment and the Risk of Domestic Abuse among Low-Income Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.; Magnuson, Katherine; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Duncan, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses data from 2 randomized evaluations of welfare-to-work programs--the Minnesota Family Investment Program and the National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work Strategies--to estimate the effect of employment on domestic abuse among low-income single mothers. Unique to our analysis is the application of a 2-stage least squares method, in…

  20. Designing Low-Income Housing Using Local Architectural Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumansyahjaya, K.; Tatura, L. S.

    2018-02-01

    The provision of houses for low-income people who do not have a home worthy of being one of the major problems in the city of Gorontalo, because the community in establishing the house only pay attention to their wants and needs in creating a healthy environment, the beauty of the city and the planning of the home environment in accordance with the culture of the people of Gorontalo. In relation to the condition, the focus of this research is the design of housing based on local architecture as residential house so that it can be reached by a group of low income people with house and environment form determined based on family development, social and economic development of society and environment which take into account the local culture. Stages of this research includes five (5) stages, including the identification phase characteristics Gorontalo people of low income, the characteristics of the identification phase house inhabited by low-income people, the stage of identification preference low-income households, the phase formation house prototype and the environment, as well as the stage of formation model home for low-income people. Analysis of the model homes for low-income people using descriptive analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, and discrimination analysis to produce a prototype of the house and its surroundings. The prototype is then reanalyzed to obtain the model home for low-income people in the city of Gorontalo. The shape of a model home can be used as a reference for developers of housing intended for low-income people so that housing is provided to achieve the goals and the desired target group.

  1. Pre-Hurricane Perceived Social Support Protects against Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Analysis of Low-Income Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R.; Chan, Christian S.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8%) was African American; 10.4%…

  2. Urban Elementary Single-Sex Math Classrooms: Mitigating Stereotype Threat for African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowe, Anica G.; Desjardins, Christopher D.; Covington Clarkson, Lesa M.; Lawrenz, Frances

    2017-01-01

    This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to holistically examine single-sex and coeducational urban elementary mathematics classes through situated cognitive theory. Participants came from two urban low-income Midwestern elementary schools with a high representation of minority students (n = 77 sixth graders, n = 4 teachers, n = 2 principals).…

  3. Breast-feeding intentions among low-income pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gina Jarman; Arnett, Dennis B; Mauk, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Provide a better understanding of the process used by low-income pregnant/postpartum women when deciding whether to breast-feed or not. Pregnant/postpartum women admitted to an obstetrics floor completed a survey to determine breast-feeding intention (n=88). Subjects were primarily Hispanic and African American women. Beliefs and referent other were related positively to attitude and subjective norm, respectively. Subjective norm was related positively to intention to breast-feed. Breast-feeding knowledge was low. Others' opinions clearly influence feeding intentions among this population of low-income women. Inclusion of these significant others, family, and friends within the breast-feeding education process is warranted.

  4. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments can provide benefits to low-income communities by investing in energy efficiency. Use the Program Finder table to identify those programs that reach the sectors and audiences of interest in your organization.

  5. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  6. achieving improved financing for low-income producers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Approaches, Improved Access, Finance, Low-income, Producers. INTRODUCTION .... either by setting up a dual-purpose financial institution, or by making ..... management information systems (Braverman and. Huppi, 1991).

  7. A Portrait of Low-Income Migrants in Contemporary Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    GARDNER, ANDREW; GARDNER, ANDREW; PESSOA, SILVIA; DIOP, ABDOULAYE; AL-GHANIM, KALTHAM; LE TRUNG, KIEN; HARKNESS, LAURA

    2013-01-01

    Though transnational labor migration in the Gulf States has increasingly been of scholarly interest, that scholarship has to date relied largely on qualitative ethnographic methodologies or small non-representative sampling strategies. This paper presents the findings of a large representative sample of low-income migrant laborers in Qatar. The data describe the basic characteristics of the low-income migrant population in Qatar, the process by which migrants obtain employment, the frequency ...

  8. Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom

    • Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....

  9. Extension of the behavioral model of healthcare utilization with ethnically diverse, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Lisa A; Marshall, Linda L; Eve, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Psychosocial vulnerabilities were added to a model of healthcare utilization. This extension was tested among low-income women with ethnicity addressed as a moderator. Structured interviews were conducted at 2 points in time, approximately 1 year apart. The constructs of psychosocial vulnerability, demographic predisposing, barriers, and illness were measured by multiple indicators to allow use of Structural Equation Modeling to analyze results. The models were tested separately for each ethnic group. Community office. African-American (N = 266), Euro-American (N = 200), and Mexican-American (N = 210) women were recruited from the Dallas Metropolitan area to participate in Project Health Outcomes of Women, a multi-year, multi-wave study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with this sample. Participants had been in heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year, were between 20 and 49 years of age, and had incomes less than 200% of the national poverty level. Healthcare utilization, defined as physician visits and general healthcare visits. Illness mediated the effect of psychosocial vulnerability on healthcare utilization for African Americans and Euro-Americans. The model for Mexican Americans was the most complex. Psychosocial vulnerability on illness was partially mediated by barriers, which also directly affected utilization. Psychosocial vulnerabilities were significant utilization predictors for healthcare use for all low-income women in this study. The final models for the 2 minority groups, African Americans and Mexican Americans, were quite different. Hence, women of color should not be considered a homogeneous group in comparison to Euro-Americans.

  10. Low-income DSM Programs: Methodological approach to determining the cost-effectiveness of coordinated partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Hill, L.J.

    1994-05-01

    As governments at all levels become increasingly budget-conscious, expenditures on low-income, demand-side management (DSM) programs are being evaluated more on the basis of efficiency at the expense of equity considerations. Budgetary pressures have also caused government agencies to emphasize resource leveraging and coordination with electric and gas utilities as a means of sharing the expenses of low-income programs. The increased involvement of electric and gas utilities in coordinated low-income DSM programs, in turn, has resulted in greater emphasis on estimating program cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study is to develop a methodological approach to estimate the cost- effectiveness of coordinated low-income DSM programs, given the special features that distinguish these programs from other utility-operated DSM programs. The general approach used in this study was to (1) select six coordinated low-income DSM programs from among those currently operating across the United States, (2) examine the main features of these programs, and (3) determine the conceptual and pragmatic problems associated with estimating their cost-effectiveness. Three types of coordination between government and utility cosponsors were identified. At one extreme, local agencies operate {open_quotes}parallel{close_quotes} programs, each of which is fully funded by a single sponsor (e.g., one funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the other by a utility). At the other extreme are highly {open_quotes}coupled{close_quotes} programs that capitalize on the unique capabilities and resources offered by each cosponsor. In these programs, agencies employ a combination of utility and government funds to deliver weatherization services as part of an integrated effort. In between are {open_quotes}supplemental{close_quotes} programs that utilize resources to supplement the agency`s government-funded weatherization, with no changes to the operation of that program.

  11. CROWDING AND SHOPPING VALUE IN LOW-INCOME RETAIL CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Quezado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the great potential of low-income consumption, this research is based on the scales developed by Babin, Darden and Griffin (1994 and by Machleit, Kellaris and Eroglu (1994, aiming to investigate hedonic and utilitarian consumer behavior and its relation with low-income perception of crowding. A research was performed with 404 consumers in real store environment and the results showed that consumers revealed being prone to utilitarian behavior in both centers. About crowding phenomenon, the consumers felt more uncomfortable by crowding at the commercial center with less infrastructure. There were indices that this discomfort was less intense in hedonic consumers.

  12. "So Many Books They Don't Even All Fit on the Bookshelf": An Examination of Low-Income Mothers' Home Literacy Practices, Beliefs and Influencing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Cycyk, Lauren M.; Sandilos, Lia E.; Hammer, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    Given the need to enhance the academic language and early literacy skills of young children from low-income homes and the importance of the home literacy environment in supporting children's development, the purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the home literacy environment of low-income African-American and Latino mothers of…

  13. Institutional Variation in Enrollment of Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James

    2018-01-01

    Socioeconomic diversity in tertiary education has come under heightened scrutiny in the past few years. This paper estimates the relationship between prices (both sticker price and net price), financial aid policies, and selectivity on the variation of low-income students across postsecondary institutions. All three factors are significant in…

  14. Concept of innovation in low-income market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Koki da Costa Nogami

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Investigate the concept and the adoption of innovation in the low-income market. Design/methodology/approach – Four different studies were conducted. First, a Delphi study with 126 Marketing and Innovation professors from graduate programs. Second, interviews with 13 professionals, technical assistance professionals and retail managers. Third, two focus groups with low-income consumers. Fourth, survey with 390 respondents. Findings – The results indicate that innovations in the low-income markets are mainly characterized by adaptations and adjustments in products, with emphasis on incremental innovations, not radical. In addition, the adoption of innovation in this context is characterized as late, not initial. Originality/value – In terms of theoretical contributions, the present study reveals how the concept of innovation is built in the low-income market. From a perspective collectively constructed with information from different market agents (industry, retail and consumers, research findings become robust to understanding a phenomenon. Moreover, in addition to different market agents, different methods of data collection and analysis were also used, further enriching the results. This collective contribution, based theoretically on a literature of social construction, interviewing different market agents and using different methodological approaches, synergistically potentiated the development of this paper

  15. Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

  16. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.

  17. Positive Reading Attitudes of Low-Income Bilingual Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussert-webb, Kathy M.; Zhang, Zhidong

    2018-01-01

    Many assume low-income, emergent bilingual Latinos have poor reading attitudes. To investigate this issue, we surveyed 1,503 Texas public high school students through stratified cluster sampling to determine their reading attitudes. Most represented Latinos and mixed-race Latinos/Whites who heard Spanish at home and whose mother tongue was…

  18. Financial Arrangements and Relationship Quality in Low-Income Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R.; Sassler, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the association between household financial arrangements and relationship quality using a representative sample of low-income couples with children. We detailed the banking arrangements couples utilize, assessed which factors relate to holding a joint account versus joint and separate, only separate, or no account, and analyzed…

  19. Harsh, Firm, and Permissive Parenting in Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumow, Lee; Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Posner, Jill K.

    1998-01-01

    Parents' reports of their child-rearing expectations and intentions were measured for 184 low-income urban families when children were in the third and fifth grades. Parenting strategies were stable over time. Parenting strategies were related to measures of adjustment at school, behavior problems in the home, academic achievement, and…

  20. Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning from Low Income Market-driven Innovations and Social Entrepreneurship in India. A social enterprise is one that uses innovation, finance and business acumen in a business setting to produce social outcomes such as poverty alleviation, health benefits or social inclusion. Social enterprises generate products and ...

  1. Successful schools and risky behaviors among low-income adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mitchell D; Coller, Karen M; Dudovitz, Rebecca N; Kennedy, David P; Buddin, Richard; Shapiro, Martin F; Kataoka, Sheryl H; Brown, Arleen F; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Bergman, Peter; Chung, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether exposure to high-performing schools reduces the rates of risky health behaviors among low-income minority adolescents and whether this is due to better academic performance, peer influence, or other factors. By using a natural experimental study design, we used the random admissions lottery into high-performing public charter high schools in low-income Los Angeles neighborhoods to determine whether exposure to successful school environments leads to fewer risky (eg, alcohol, tobacco, drug use, unprotected sex) and very risky health behaviors (e.g., binge drinking, substance use at school, risky sex, gang participation). We surveyed 521 ninth- through twelfth-grade students who were offered admission through a random lottery (intervention group) and 409 students who were not offered admission (control group) about their health behaviors and obtained their state-standardized test scores. The intervention and control groups had similar demographic characteristics and eighth-grade test scores. Being offered admission to a high-performing school (intervention effect) led to improved math (P performance of public schools in low-income communities may be a powerful mechanism to decrease very risky health behaviors among low-income adolescents and to decrease health disparities across the life span. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Camouflage: The Experiences of Low-Income Business College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton de Dutton, Scarlett

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study shares the complex stories of two low-income business students who attend a flagship, public university as out-of-state students with the purpose of understanding, describing, giving voice to, and discovering insight from their experiences. Throughout U.S. Higher Education history, there is a pattern of limited participation…

  3. Alienation: A Concept for Understanding Low-Income, Urban Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    The author examines the concept of alienation and how it can be used to understand low-income, urban clients. A description is presented of 4 dimensions of alienation: powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, and social isolation. Case illustrations are provided, and recommendations are made for counseling alienated clients. This article…

  4. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-03-07

    Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped at dinner in their homes. Mothers were chosen from a larger study to create a 2 X 2 X 2 design: maternal ethnicity (African American vs. Latina) by child gender by child weight status (healthy weight vs. overweight/obese). Observers coded videotapes for a range of maternal feeding strategies and other behaviors. Many mothers spent considerable time encouraging eating--often in spite of the child's insistence that he or she was finished. Mothers talked little about food characteristics, rarely referred to feelings of hunger and fullness, and made more attempts to enforce table manners than to teach eating skills. Latina mothers showed higher levels of teaching eating skills and encouraging their children to eat; African American mothers showed higher levels of enforcing table manners and getting children to clear their plates. Mothers of boys used more unelaborated commands and less questions/suggestions than mothers of girls. Finally, compared to mothers of overweight/obese children, mothers of healthy weight children showed higher levels of encouraging eating and lower levels of discouraging eating. Most of the mothers in this study did not engage in feeding practices that are consistent with current recommendations. They did this, despite the fact that they knew they were being observed. These results should be used to inform future research about the motivations behind mothers' feeding practices and the development of interventions by helping identify areas in greatest need of change.

  5. Sexual Intimacy Constructions of Heterosexual Couples Living in a Low-Income, "Colored," Farmworker Community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Elmien; Adams, Arlene R

    2016-01-01

    This study has been motivated by the scarcity of research that adopts an unproblematic focus on sexuality in South African Black and Colored low-income communities. We explored the sexual intimacy constructions of 15 Colored married/cohabiting couples who live in a low-income, historical South African farmworker community. Using a social constructionist thematic analysis method, we identified four themes: (a) metaphoric and indirect sexual language; (b) the use of a romantic discourse to talk about sexual experiences; (c) male-centered sexual relationships; and (d) lack of privacy brings both restriction and pleasure. We consider how these themes may be linked to the participants' community context and colonial and apartheid history. Finally, we emphasize the need for research that also explores positive sex functions and experiences rather than focuses narrowly on problematic sexual behavior.

  6. Gender Differences in Caregiver Emotion Socialization of Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers'…

  7. Energy-microfinance intervention for low income households in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P. Sharath Chandra

    In India, limited energy access and energy inequity hamper the lives of low income households. Traditional fuels such as firewood and dung cake account for 84 percent and 32 percent of the rural and urban household cooking energy (NSSO, 2007). With 412 million people without access to electricity in 2005, India hosts the world's largest such population (IEA, 2007). But, low income households still spend 9 - 11.7 percent1 of their incomes on inefficient forms of energy while wealthy households spend less than 5 percent on better energy products (Saghir, 2005). Renewable energy technologies coupled with innovative financial products can address the energy access problem facing the low income households in India (MacLean & Siegel, 2007; REEEP, 2009). Nevertheless, the low income households continue to face low access to mainstream finance for purchasing renewable energy technology at terms that meet their monthly energy related expenditure (ESMAP, 2004a; SEEP, 2008a) and low or no access to energy services (Ailawadi & Bhattacharyya, 2006; Modi et. al., 2006). The lack of energy-finance options has left the marginalized population with little means to break the dependence on traditional fuels. This dissertation proposes an energy microfinance intervention to address the present situation. It designed a loan product dedicated to the purchase of renewable energy technologies while taking into account the low and irregular cash flows of the low income households. The arguments presented in this dissertation are based on a six-month pilot project using this product designed and developed by the author in conjunction with a microfinance institution and its low income clients and Energy Service Companies in the state of Karnataka. Finding the right stakeholders and establishing a joint agreement, obtaining grant money for conducting the technology dissemination workshops and forming a clear procedure for commissioning the project, are the key lessons learnt from this study

  8. Occupational Engagement in Low-Income Latina Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleight, Alix G

    This qualitative study examined the experience of occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors and suggests the potential for occupational therapy practitioners to improve health outcomes in this vulnerable and underserved population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 participants. Inductive analysis was used to code for themes and patterns related to occupational engagement and quality of life (QOL). Lack of occupational engagement negatively affected QOL, but participation in occupations such as religious activity and caregiving promoted well-being. Financial concerns and communication barriers decreased QOL. Breast cancer can have a negative impact on occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors; however, some occupations may increase QOL. Socioeconomic status and cultural values influence occupational engagement and QOL. Occupational therapy practitioners can improve health outcomes in this population through awareness of relevant sociocultural factors and attention to appropriate patient communication. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Castro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999. Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  10. Income inequality and adolescent fertility in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ruben; Fajnzylber, Eduardo

    2017-09-28

    : The well-known socioeconomic gradient in health does not imply that income inequality by itself has any effect on well-being. However, there is evidence of a positive association between income inequality and adolescent fertility across countries. Nevertheless, this key finding is not focused on low-income countries. This study applies a multilevel logistic regression of country-level adolescent fertility on country-level income inequality plus individual-level income and controls to the Demographic and Health Surveys data. A negative association between income inequality and adolescent fertility was found among low-income countries, controlling for income (OR = 0.981; 95%CI: 0.963-0.999). Different measures and different subsamples of countries show the same results. Therefore, the international association between income inequality and adolescent fertility seems more complex than previously thought.

  11. Estimating the Impact of Low-Income Universal Service Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel A. Ackerberg; David R. DeRemer; Michael H. Riordan; Gregory L. Rosston; Bradley S. Wimmer

    2013-01-01

    This policy study uses U.S. Census microdata to evaluate how subsidies for universal telephone service vary in their impact across low-income racial groups, gender, age, and home ownership. Our demand specification includes both the subsidized monthly price (Lifeline program) and the subsidized initial connection price (Linkup program) for local telephone service. Our quasi-maximum likelihood estimation controls for location differences and instruments for price endogeneity. The microdata all...

  12. Interconnected microbiomes and resistomes in low-income human habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Pehrsson, Erica C.; Tsukayama, Pablo; Patel, Sanket; Mej?a-Bautista, Melissa; Sosa-Soto, Giordano; Navarrete, Karla M.; Calderon, Maritza; Cabrera, Lilia; Hoyos-Arango, William; Bertoli, M. Teresita; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Dantas, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antibiotic-resistant infections annually claim hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. This problem is exacerbated by resistance gene exchange between pathogens and benign microbes from diverse habitats. Mapping resistance gene dissemination between humans and their environment is a public health priority. We characterized the bacterial community structure and resistance exchange networks of hundreds of interconnected human fecal and environmental samples from two low-income Latin A...

  13. Surviving spinal cord injury in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Øderud

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to explore life expectancy (life expectancy is the average remaining years of life of an individual and the situation of persons living with SCI in low income settings. Method: Literature studies and qualitative methods were used. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 23 informants from four study sites in Zimbabwe representing persons with SCI, their relatives and rehabilitation professionals. Results: There are few publications available about life expectancy and the daily life of persons with SCI in low income countries. Those few publications identified and the study findings confirm that individuals with SCI are experiencing a high occurrence of pressure sores and urinary tract infections leading to unnecessary suffering, often causing premature death. Pain and depression are frequently reported and stigma and negative attitudes are experienced in society. Lack of appropriate wheelchairs and services, limited knowledge about SCI amongst health care staff, limited access to health care and rehabilitation services, loss of employment and lack of financial resources worsen the daily challenges. Conclusion: The study indicates that life expectancy for individuals with SCI in low income settings is shorter than for the average population and also with respect to individuals with SCI in high income countries. Poverty worsened the situation for individuals with SCI, creating barriers that increase the risk of contracting harmful pressure sores and infections leading to premature death. Further explorations on mortality and how individuals with SCI and their families in low income settings are coping in their daily life are required to provide comprehensive evidences.

  14. Low Income Consumer Utility Issues: A National Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-03-26

    This report has been prepared to provide low-income advocates and other stakeholders information on the energy burden faced by low-income customers and programs designed to alleviate that burden in various states. The report describes programs designed to lower payments, manage arrearages, weatherize and provide other energy efficiency measures, educate consumers, increase outreach to the target It discusses the costs and benefits of the population, and evaluate the programs. various options--to the degree this information is available--and describes attempts to quantify benefits that have heretofore not been quantified. The purpose of this report is to enable the low-income advocates and others to assess the options and design program most suitable for the citizens of their states or jurisdictions. It is not the authors' intent to recommend a particular course of action but, based on our broad experience in the field, to provide the information necessary for others to do so. We would be happy to answer any questions or provide further documentation on any of the material presented herein. The original edition of this report was prepared for the Utah Committee on Consumer Services, pursuant to a contract with the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC), to provide information to the Utah Low-Income Task Force established by the Utah Public Service, Commission. Attachment 1 is drawn from NCLC's 1998 Supplement to its Access to Utility Services; NCLC plans to update this list in 2001, and it will be available then from NCLC. This report has been updated by the authors for this edition.

  15. Bringing Bike Share to a Low-Income Community

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-14

    This podcast is an interview with Sarah Kretman Stewart, MPH, MEd, Healthy Living Minneapolis Project Specialist at the Minneapolis Health Department. In this program, Sarah talks about the impact a bike share program had on the low-income town of Near North, Minnesota.  Created: 8/14/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/14/2013.

  16. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C.

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD's experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD's minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency open-quote in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock

  17. Upgrade energy building standards and develop rating system for existing low-income housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, D.; Norville, C. [Memphis and Shelby County Div. of Planning and Development, TN (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The city of Memphis Division of Housing and Community Development (HCD) receives grant funding each year from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to provide local housing assistance to low-income residents. Through the years, HCD has found that many of the program recipients have had difficulty in managing their households, particularly in meeting monthly financial obligations. One of the major operating costs to low-income households is the utility bill. Furthermore, HCD`s experience has revealed that many low-income residents are simply unaware of ways to reduce their utility bill. Most of the HCD funds are distributed to low-income persons as grants or no/low interest loans for the construction or rehabilitation of single-family dwellings. With these funds, HCD builds 80 to 100 new houses and renovates about 500 homes each year. Houses constructed or renovated by HCD must meet HUD`s minimum energy efficiency standards. While these minimum standards are more than adequate to meet local building codes, they are not as aggressive as the energy efficiency standards being promoted by the national utility organizations and the home building industry. Memphis Light, Gas and Water (MLGW), a city-owned utility, has developed an award-winning program named Comfort Plus which promotes energy efficiency{open_quote} in new residential construction. Under Comfort Plus, MLGW models house plans on computer for a fee and recommends cost-effective alterations which improve the energy efficiency of the house. If the builder agrees to include these recommendations, MLGW will certify the house and guarantee a maximum annual heating/cooling bill for two years. While the Comfort Plus program has received recognition in the new construction market, it does not address the existing housing stock.

  18. "Sex is sweet": women from low-income contexts in Uganda talk about sexual desire and pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhanguzi, Florence Kyoheirwe

    2015-11-01

    In many patriarchal societies in Africa, heterosexuality is privileged as the single legitimate form of sexual interaction; other sexualities are marginalised because they are perceived as un-African, abnormal, sinful and are repressed. Female sexuality too is subordinated and controlled with it being reduced to women's conventional mothering roles that are conflated with their reproductive capacities. However, there is evidence that women in heterosexual relations have the opportunity to assert themselves and to define pleasurable sex. Drawing on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with married women in heterosexual unions the article examines the extent to which women from low-income contexts in Uganda express their sexual agency. The findings show that within heterosexual relations, these women are able to express their sexual desires freely and negotiate diverse options for pleasurable sexual experiences. The evidence indicates the need for acknowledging variations within heterosexual experiences and the possibility of positive heterosexual relationships that resist hegemonic masculinity and subordinated femininity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A framework for understanding grocery purchasing in a low-income urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachary, Drew A; Palmer, Anne M; Beckham, Sarah W; Surkan, Pamela J

    2013-05-01

    Research demonstrates that food desert environments limit low-income shoppers' ability to purchase healthy foods, thereby increasing their likelihood of diet-related illnesses. We sought to understand how individuals in an urban American food desert make grocery-purchasing decisions, and specifically why unhealthy purchases arise. Analysis is based on ethnographic data from participant observation, 37 in-depth interviews, and three focus groups with low-income, primarily African American shoppers with children. We found participants had detailed knowledge of and preference for healthy foods, but the obligation to consistently provide food for their families required them to apply specific decision criteria which, combined with structural qualities of the supermarket environment, increased unhealthy purchases and decreased healthy purchases. Applying situated cognition theory, we constructed an emic model explaining this widely shared grocery-purchasing decision process and its implications. This context-specific understanding of behavior suggests that multifaceted, system-level approaches to intervention are needed to increase healthy purchasing in food deserts.

  20. High Resolution Population Maps for Low Income Nations: Combining Land Cover and Census in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J.; Noor, Abdisalan M.; von Hagen, Craig; Di Gregorio, Antonio; Hay, Simon I.

    2007-01-01

    Background Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. Methodology/Principal Findings We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania) and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. Conclusions We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk) and are freely available. PMID:18074022

  1. Family Resources as Protective Factors for Low-Income Youth Exposed to Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, Cecily R; Sterrett-Hong, Emma; Larkby, Cynthia A; Cornelius, Marie D

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to community violence is a risk factor for internalizing and externalizing problems; however, resources within the family can decrease the likelihood that adolescents will experience internalizing and externalizing problems as a result of such exposure. This study investigates the potential moderating effects of kinship support (i.e., emotional and tangible support from extended family) and parental involvement on the relation between exposure to community violence (i.e., witnessing violence and violent victimization) and socioemotional adjustment (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems) in low-income adolescents. The sample included 312 (50 % female; 71 % African American and 29 % White) low-income youth who participated in a longitudinal investigation when adolescents were age 14 (M age = 14.49 years) and again when they were 16 (M age = 16.49 years). Exposure to community violence at age 14 was related to more internalizing and externalizing problems at age 16. High levels of kinship support and parental involvement appeared to function as protective factors, weakening the association between exposure to violence and externalizing problems. Contrary to prediction, none of the hypothesized protective factors moderated the association between exposure to violence and internalizing problems. The results from this study suggest that both kinship support and parental involvement help buffer adolescents from externalizing problems that are associated with exposure to community violence.

  2. Why do low-income minority parents choose human papillomavirus vaccination for their daughters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Rebecca B; Pierre-Joseph, Natalie; Marquez, Cecilia; Iloka, Sandra; Clark, Jack A

    2010-10-01

    To explore low-income minority parents' attitudes, intentions, and actions with regard to human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for their daughters. Semistructured interviews were conducted in English and Spanish with parents of girls aged 11-18 who were attending clinic visits in an urban medical center and a community health center. We assessed intention with formal scales, probed parents' attitudes regarding vaccination with open-ended questions, and reviewed medical records to determine vaccination rates. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative methods. Seventy-six parents participated (43% African American, 28% Latino, and 26% Caucasian). Most were mothers, had completed high school, and described themselves as religious; nearly one-half were immigrants. Intention correlated highly with receipt of the vaccine; 91% of parents intended to vaccinate their daughters against HPV, and 89% of the girls received vaccination within 12 months of the interview. Qualitative analysis revealed that most parents focused on the vaccine's potential to prevent cervical cancer. Some parents expressed concerns about unknown side effects and promotion of unsafe sexual practices, but these concerns did not hinder acceptance in most cases. The majority of the low-income minority parents surveyed viewed HPV vaccination as a way to protect their daughters from cancer, and thus chose to vaccinate their daughters. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas.We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps.We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  4. Environmental Impacts and Embodied Energy of Construction Methods and Materials in Low-Income Tropical Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Hashemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the current conditions of Ugandan low-income tropical housing with a focus on construction methods and materials in order to identify the key areas for improvement. Literature review, site visits and photographic surveys are carried out to collect relevant information on prevailing construction methods/materials and on their environmental impacts in rural areas. Low quality, high waste, and energy intensive production methods, as well as excessive soil extraction and deforestation, are identified as the main environmental damage of the current construction methods and materials. The embodied energy is highlighted as the key area which should be addressed to reduce the CO2 emissions of low-income tropical housing. The results indicate that the embodied energy of fired bricks in Uganda is up to 5.7 times more than general clay bricks. Concrete walling is identified as a much more environmentally friendly construction method compared to brick walling in East African countries. Improving fuel efficiency and moulding systems, increasing access to renewable energy sources, raising public awareness, educating local manufacturers and artisans, and gradual long-term introduction of innovative construction methods and materials which are adapted to local needs and conditions are some of the recommended actions to improve the current conditions.

  5. Views of Low-Income Women of Color at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Anderson, Emily; Tejada, Silvia; B Warnecke, Richard; Hoskins, Kent

    2018-01-01

    Individual risk assessment (IRA) for breast cancer may increase adherence to risk-appropriate screening and prevention measures. However, knowledge gaps exist regarding how best to communicate IRA results and support women at increased risk in future health care decisions, in part because patients conceptualize and make meaning of risk differently from the medical community. Better understanding the views of low-income women of color identified as being at increased risk for breast cancer can inform efforts to conduct IRA in an ethical and respectful manner. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 low-income African American and Latina women who receive care at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) and had recently learned of their increased risk for breast cancer. These interviews explored their experience of the IRA process, their interpretation of what being at increased risk means, and their reactions to provider recommendations. Eight key themes were identified. We conclude with recommendations for the implementation of IRA for breast cancer in underserved primary care settings.

  6. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    This study simultaneously tests the effect of county, organizational, workplace, and individual level variables on depressive disorders among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. A total of 482 observations are used from two waves of survey data collection, with an average two-year interval between initial and follow-up surveys. The overall response rate was 62 percent. The hierarchically structured data was analyzed using multilevel modeling to account for cross-classifications across levels of data. Nursing assistants working in nursing homes covered by a single union in three states were asked about aspects of their working conditions, job stress, physical and mental health status, individual and family health-care needs, household economics and household strain. The 241 nursing assistants who participated in this study were employed in 34 nursing homes and lived in 49 counties of West Virginia, Ohio and Kentucky. The study finds that emotional strain, related to providing direct care to elderly and disabled clients, is associated with depressive disorder, as is nursing home ownership type (for-profit versus not-for-profit). However, when controlling for county level socioeconomic variables (Gini index and proportion of African Americans living in the county), neither workplace nor organizational level variables were found to be statistically significant associated with depressive disorder. This study supports previous findings that emotional demand in health-care environments is an important correlate of mental health. It also adds empirical evidence to support a link between financial strain and depression in US women. While this study does not find that lack of a seniority wage benefits--a factor that can conceivably exacerbate financial strain over time--is associated with depressive disorder among low-income health-care workers, it does find county level measures of poverty to be statistically significant predictors of depressive

  7. Overcoming Adversity: High-Achieving African American Youth's Perspectives on Educational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph M.; Bryan, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multicase research study identified the home, school, and community factors and processes that contributed to the academic success of 8 urban, African American high school graduates from low-income, single-parent families. Ten main themes emerged: school-related parenting practices, personal stories of hardship, positive…

  8. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  9. Financial management of low-income urban families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnittgrund, K.P. (Univ. of California, Riverside); Baker, G.

    1983-09-01

    The major focus of this research was the difference in financial-management practices used by low-income urban white, black, and Mexican-American families. A random sample of 199 interviews was completed during the spring of 1980 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. The sample consisted of 69 white, 70 black, and 60 Mexican-American families. Differences in financial behavior did occur for each race. In addition, they were optimistic regarding their own ability to handle money and resolve financial problems but generally negative toward the ability of other families to manage money, use credit, and plan purchases. 20 references, 3 tables.

  10. PROMISES THEY CAN KEEP: LOW-INCOME WOMEN’S ATTITUDES TOWARD MOTHERHOOD, MARRIAGE, AND DIVORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew; Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Burton, Linda M.; Garrett-Peters, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Using survey data on low-income mothers in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio (n = 1,722) supplemented with ethnographic data, we test 3 propositions regarding mothers’ attitudes toward childbearing, marriage, and divorce. These are drawn from Edin & Kefalas (2005) but have also arisen in other recent studies. We find strong support for the proposition that childbearing outside of marriage carries little stigma, limited support for the proposition that women prefer to have children well before marrying, and almost no support for the proposition that women hesitate to marry because they fear divorce. We suggest that mothers’ attitudes and preferences in these 3 domains do not support the long delay between childbearing and marriage that has been noted in the literature. Throughout, we are able to study attitudes among several Hispanic groups as well as among African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. PMID:19885381

  11. Health financing to promote access in low income settings-how much do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Natasha; Mueller, Dirk H; Gilson, Lucy; Mills, Anne; Haines, Andy

    In this article we outline research since 1995 on the impact of various financing strategies on access to health services or health outcomes in low income countries. The limited evidence available suggests, in general, that user fees deterred utilisation. Prepayment or insurance schemes offered potential for improving access, but are very limited in scope. Conditional cash payments showed promise for improving uptake of interventions, but could also create a perverse incentive. The largely African origin of the reports of user fees, and the evidence from Latin America on conditional cash transfers, demonstrate the importance of the context in which studies are done. There is a need for improved quality of research in this area. Larger scale, upfront funding for evaluation of health financing initiatives is necessary to ensure an evidence base that corresponds to the importance of this issue for achieving development goals.

  12. Composite measures of women's empowerment and their association with maternal mortality in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Tavrow, Paula

    2017-11-08

    Maternal mortality has declined significantly since 1990. While better access to emergency obstetrical care is partially responsible, women's empowerment might also be a contributing factor. Gender equality composite measures generally include various dimensions of women's advancement, including educational parity, formal employment, and political participation. In this paper, we compare several composite measures to assess which, if any, are associated with maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) in low-income countries, after controlling for other macro-level and direct determinants. Using data from 44 low-income countries (half in Africa), we assessed the correlation of three composite measures - the Gender Gap Index, the Gender Equity Index (GEI), and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) - with MMRs. We also examined two recognized contributors to reduce maternal mortality (skilled birth attendance (SBA) and total fertility rate (TFR)) as well as several economic and political variables (such as the Corruption Index) to see which tracked most closely with MMRs. We examined the countries altogether, and disaggregated by region. We then performed multivariate analysis to determine which measures were predictive. Two gender measures (GEI and SIGI) and GDP per capita were significantly correlated with MMRs for all countries. For African countries, the SIGI, TFR, and Corruption Index were significant, whereas the GEI, SBA, and TFR were significant in non-African countries. After controlling for all measures, SBA emerged as a predictor of log MMR for non-African countries (β = -0.04, P = 0.01). However, for African countries, only the Corruption Index was a predictor (β = -0.04, P = 0.04). No gender measure was significant. In African countries, corruption is undermining the quality of maternal care, the availability of critical drugs and equipment, and pregnant women's motivation to deliver in a hospital setting. Improving gender equality and

  13. Social marketing nutrition education for low-income population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagues, Rachel; Stotz, Sarah; Childers, Austin; Phua, Joe; Hibbs, Judy; Murray, Deborah; Lee, Jung Sun

    2018-01-01

    As access to healthy food (or lack thereof) could be considered a social justice issue, social workers should be concerned about this issue and willing to collaborate with colleagues of various disciplines to address it. This study was a formative evaluation conducted to understand best practices, recommendations, and feasibility of a social-marketing-based nutrition education program tailored to the needs of adults with limited income. The authors report findings from focus groups conducted with Cooperative Extension Agents (CEAs) and region coordinators (n = 45) and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) (n = 69) eligible participants to inform the development of a social marketing nutrition intervention for SNAP-Ed in Georgia. Barriers to healthy eating included cultural preferences, costs of healthy food, lack of time, and lack of availability. Social marketing has a potential to deliver effective and efficient SNAP-Ed targeted to large, limited-resource Georgians. Segmenting the low-income population based on geographical location as well as best methods for outreach can allow tailored messages to meet identified needs, lifestyles, and other variables that make these individuals most likely to respond to the program. Food security and nutrition education are topics of concern for all health care professionals interested in addressing complex health issues of many low-income adults.

  14. Outpatient case management in low-income epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, William O; Al-Saadi, Sam; Orth, Thomas L

    2008-12-01

    Case management (CM) has been shown to improve the medical care of patients in several paradigms of general medicine. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of CM on low-income patients with epilepsy. From 2002 to 2003, 737 epilepsy patients had CM provided by a non-profit, state-supported, epilepsy service subserving a four county region in southeastern Florida. Standardized survey forms distributed by the Florida Department of Health were completed by 159 consecutive patients at program admission. Follow-up information regarding seizure frequency, antiepileptic drugs, and quality of life self-rating was performed after 1 year of CM. The patients evaluated were composed of 58.5% men, with a mean age of 41.0 years. After CM, an increase in self-reported seizure control was seen in 40.2% of patients (preduction of ED visits per patient from 1.83 per patient per year before CM to 0.14 per patient per year after CM (p<0.0001, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). Following CM, fewer patients reported difficulty with friends, employers, problems socializing, and feelings of anger (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test). CM of low-income patients with epilepsy resulted in self-reported improvement in seizure control, QoL, and significantly reduced ED visitation. CM in epilepsy is feasible and represents a cost-effective improvement in outpatient epilepsy management.

  15. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined in...

  16. 77 FR 25787 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2013 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the IRS, or inform individuals for...

  17. Low-Income Urban High School Students' Use of the Internet to Access Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Kristan M.

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the Web-based resources available to low-income students as they build their perceptions, make their decisions, and engage in financial aid activities. Data are gathered from the results of six focus groups with low-income high school students attending urban high schools. Findings suggest that low-income students do have…

  18. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  19. Sustainable performance of microinsurance in low-income markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Last Mazambani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable performance in microinsurance offering in low-income markets is important to ensure that the service simultaneously achieves corporate profitability and poverty alleviation. Sustainable performance requires a balanced integration of supply and demand factors in the offering of the service. Microinsurance is still supply driven thereby creating a lopsided mismatch between demand and supply that leads to oversupply and low uptake. On the basis of extant literature, the paper aims to propose and discuss factors critical to demand and supply of microinsurance. A conceptual framework for sustainable microinsurance is presented with individual metrics that can be addressed as managerial tools for driving and controlling sustained superior performance. While this is a theoretical paper, microinsurance practitioners may benefit from the application of the presented theory

  20. Determinants of disciplinary practices in low-income black mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M L; Power, T G; Wimbush, D D

    1992-06-01

    Disciplinary attitudes and practices of low-income black mothers were examined. Mothers were interviewed about their parenting attitudes and control practices, and their responses were coded in terms of the degree to which they took a parent-versus a child-oriented approach to discipline. Mothers in the sample varied widely in their attitudes toward physical punishment, and mothers who used power-assertive techniques were as likely to take the child's perspective and give input into the socialization process as those who did not. Factors associated with maternal disciplinary styles included: maternal education, father absence, maternal age, and self-reported religious beliefs. Findings are discussed in terms of the variability in disciplinary practices in this population, as well as the factors contributing to these individual differences.

  1. How motivation influences breastfeeding duration among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Frick, Kevin D; Strobino, Donna; Carpenter, Laura M; Milligan, Renee; Pugh, Linda C

    2009-05-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 low-income breastfeeding women to explore the incentives and disincentives to breastfeeding experienced within 6 months postpartum. Using an individual net benefit maximization (INBM) framework based on economic theory, we assessed women's motivations, incentives, and disincentives for breastfeeding. Based on the framework and their experience breastfeeding, women fell into 3 groups: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, and successfully experienced with both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Successfully experienced women were most likely to breastfeed to 6 months. Intrinsically motivated women valued breastfeeding but often required information and instruction to reach breastfeeding goals. Extrinsically motivated women were least likely to continue breastfeeding even with support and instruction. Providers can screen women to determine their experience and motivation then tailor interventions accordingly. Intrinsically motivated women may need support and instruction, extrinsically motivated women may benefit from motivational interviewing, and successfully experienced women may need only minimal breastfeeding counseling.

  2. Recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J; Azocar, F; Organista, K C; Muñoz, R F; Lieberman, A

    1996-10-01

    This article offers suggestions for recruiting and retaining low-income Latinos in treatment studies. Because Latinos underuse traditional mental health services, places such as medical centers or churches with large Latino constituents are suggested as useful alternative sources. To keep Latinos in research protocols, providing culturally sensitive treatments are necessary. Culturally sensitive treatments should incorporate families as part of recruitment efforts, particularly older men in the family. In addition, showing respect is an important aspect of traditional Latino culture that includes using formal titles and taking time to listen carefully. Finally, traditional Latinos tend to like interactions with others that are more warm and personal than is generally part of a research atmosphere.

  3. Race, homelessness, and other environmental factors associated with the food-purchasing behavior of low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    Observance of the hunger-obesity paradox in urban Minnesota has ignited interest in the quality of low-income households' food purchases. This cross-sectional study investigated low-income, urban Minnesotan women's past-month food purchases and their associations with race, homelessness, and aspects of the food system, including food shelf (ie, food pantry) and food store usage, factors believed to influence food choice and grocery shopping behavior. The survey included demographics, the US Department of Agriculture's 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and grocery shopping questions related to food purchases and food stores visited in the past month. Participants were a convenience sample of 448 low-income, urban Minnesotan women, and data were collected from February through May 2008. The sample was 44% African American, 35% American Indian, 10% white, and 11% other/mixed race; 37% were homeless. Rates of "less healthy" food group purchases were higher compared to "healthy" food group purchases. Significant racial differences were found with respect to purchasing healthy protein food groups (Pfood groups, regardless of nutrient density (PFood shelf and food store usage mainly increased the odds of purchasing "less healthy" food groups (Pfood resources within their local food system. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Sharp, Carla; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of young children. The aim of this study was to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles in low-income families. Questionnaires were completed by 290 African-American and Hispanic parents residing in a large urban city in the southwestern United States. Twenty-six percent of the parents reported depressive symptoms above the clinical cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine how depressive symptoms and parenting stress might influence the nature of parent feeding styles. After adjusting for potential confounding variables (e.g., ethnicity, education, age), parents with an uninvolved feeding style reported less positive affect and more parenting stress than parents showing the other three feeding styles - authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent. Because feeding styles tend to be associated with child obesity in low income samples, the results of this study provide important information regarding the parent-child eating dynamic that may promote less optimal child eating behaviors and the development of childhood obesity. This information could be useful for prevention studies aimed at changing parent behaviors that negatively impact the socialization of child eating behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Motivators of and Barriers to Engaging in Physical Activity: Perspectives of Low-Income Culturally Diverse Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Marie A; Tucker, Carolyn M; Kaye, Lily B; Desmond, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    Obesity rates are rising in the United States, especially among low-income and racial/ethnic minority individuals. Exploring motivators and barriers relative to engaging in physical activity is imperative. The purpose of this study was to identify motivators and barriers relative to engagement in physical activity as reported by culturally diverse low-income adolescents and adults. A total of 91 adolescent (11 to 15 years of age) and adult (18 years of age or older) participants who self-identified as African American, Hispanic, or non-Hispanic White engaged in age group-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-concordant focus groups. Qualitative data analysis indicated that the motivators and barriers most commonly identified among the adolescent and adult focus groups were: social influence; time and priorities; physical environment; fun and enjoyment; inherently physical activities; weight concerns; fatigue, physical discomfort and current fitness level; and immediate positive feelings. Findings were generally similar across age group, gender and race/ethnicity. Age group-specific, gender-specific and race/ethnicity-specific motivators and barriers were related to how commonly the motivators and barriers were identified among each group. Implications for increasing physical activity among low-income culturally diverse adolescents and adults are discussed.

  6. Examining mindfulness-based stress reduction: Perceptions from minority older adults residing in a low-income housing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly Amy B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR programs are becoming increasingly common, but have not been studied in low income minority older populations. We sought to understand which parts of MBSR were most important to practicing MBSR members of this population, and to understand whether they apply their training to daily challenges. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 13 current members of an MBSR program. Participants were African American women over the age of 60 in a low-income housing residence. We tape recorded each session and subsequently used inductive content analysis to identify primary themes. Results and discussion Analysis of the focus group responses revealed three primary themes stress management, applying mindfulness, and the social support of the group meditation. The stressors they cited using MBSR with included growing older with physical pain, medical tests, financial strain, and having grandchildren with significant mental, physical, financial or legal hardships. We found that participants particularly used their MBSR training for coping with medical procedures, and managing both depression and anger. Conclusion A reflective stationary intervention delivered in-residence could be an ideal mechanism to decrease stress in low-income older adult's lives and improve their health.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening, perceived discrimination, and low-income and trust in doctors: a survey of minority patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Shelley B

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Completion of colorectal cancer (CRC screening testing is lower among low-income and minority groups than the population as a whole. Given the multiple cancer screening health disparities known to exist within the U.S., this study investigated the relationship between perceived discrimination, trust in most doctors, and completion of Fecal Occult Blood Testing (FOBT among a low-income, minority primary care population in an urban setting. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of adults over age 40 (n = 282 from a federally qualified community health center (70% African American. Participants completed a survey which included measures of trust in most doctors, perceived discrimination, demographics and report of cancer screening. Results Participants reported high levels of trust in most doctors, regardless of sex, race, education or income. High trust was associated with low perceived discrimination (p Conclusion Perceived discrimination was related to income, but not race, suggesting that discrimination is not unique to minorities, but common to those in poverty. Since trust in most doctors trended toward being related to age, FOBT screening could be negatively influenced by low trust and perceived discrimination in health care settings. A failure to address these issues in middle-aged, low income individuals could exacerbate future disparities in CRC screening.

  8. Pre-hurricane perceived social support protects against psychological distress: A longitudinal analysis of low-income mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, SR; Chan, CS; Rhodes, JE

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we examined the influence of pre-disaster perceived social support on post-disaster psychological distress among survivors of Hurricane Katrina. Method: Participants (N = 386) were low-income mothers between 18 and 34 years of age at baseline (M = 26.4, SD = 4.43). The majority (84.8) was African American; 10.4 identified as Caucasian, 3.2 identified as Hispanic, and 1.8 identified as other. Participants were enrolled in an educational intervention study in 2004 and ...

  9. Incidence of Obesity Among Young US Children Living in Low-Income Families, 2008–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liping; May, Ashleigh L.; Wethington, Holly; Dalenius, Karen; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the incidence and reverse of obesity among young low-income children and variations across population subgroups. METHODS We included 1.2 million participants in federally funded child health and nutrition programs who were 0 to 23 months old in 2008 and were followed up 24 to 35 months later in 2010–2011. Weight and height were measured. Obesity at baseline was defined as gender-specific weight-for-length ≥95th percentile on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. Obesity at follow-up was defined as gender-specific BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile. We used a multivariable log-binomial model to estimate relative risk of obesity adjusting for gender, baseline age, race/ethnicity, duration of follow-up, and baseline weight-for-length percentile. RESULTS The incidence of obesity was 11.0% after the follow-up period. The incidence was significantly higher among boys versus girls and higher among children aged 0 to 11 months at baseline versus those older. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, the risk of obesity was 35% higher among Hispanics and 49% higher among American Indians (AIs)/Alaska Natives (ANs), but 8% lower among non-Hispanic African Americans. Among children who were obese at baseline, 36.5% remained obese and 63.5% were nonobese at follow-up. The proportion of reversing of obesity was significantly lower among Hispanics and AIs/ANs than that among other racial/ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence underscores the importance of early-life obesity prevention in multiple settings for low-income children and their families. The variations within population subgroups suggest that culturally appropriate intervention efforts should be focused on Hispanics and AIs/ANs. PMID:24276843

  10. Delivering colonoscopy screening for low-income populations in Suffolk County: strategies, outcomes, and benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Dorothy S; Messina, Catherine R; Cavanagh, Mary F; Anderson, Joseph C

    2013-08-01

    Current and pending legislation provides colorectal cancer screening reimbursement for previously uninsured populations. Colonoscopy is currently the screening method most frequently recommended by physicians for insured patients. The experience of the SCOPE (Suffolk County Preventive Endoscopy) demonstration project (Project SCOPE) at Stony Brook University Medical Center provides a model for delivering colonoscopy screening to low-income populations to meet anticipated increasing demands. Project SCOPE, based in the Department of Preventive Medicine, featured internal collaboration with the academic medical center's large gastroenterology practice and external collaboration with the Suffolk County Department of Health Services' network of community health centers. Colonoscopies were performed by faculty gastroenterologists or supervised fellows. Measures of colonoscopy performance were compared with quality indicators and differences between faculty and supervised fellows were identified. During a 40-month screening period, 800 initial colonoscopies were performed. Approximately 21% of women screened were found to have adenomatous polyps compared with 36% of men. Five cancers were detected. The majority of the population screened (70%) were members of minority populations. African American individuals had a higher percentage of proximally located adenomas (78%) compared with white individuals (65%) and Hispanics (49%), based on the location of the most advanced lesion. Hispanic individuals had a 36% lower risk of adenomas compared with white individuals. Performance measures including the percentage of procedures with adequate bowel preparation, cecum reached, scope withdrawal time, and adenoma detection rate met quality benchmarks when performed by either faculty or supervised fellows. Project SCOPE's operational strategies demonstrated a feasible method for an academic medical center to provide high-quality screening colonoscopy for low-income populations.

  11. Physical and mental health correlates of adverse childhood experiences among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    The present study used secondary data gathered from a statewide random sample of 1,073 adult women enrolled in Utah's single-parent cash assistance program and logistic regression to examine associations between self-reported physical, emotional, and sexual abuse during childhood and later life physical and mental health indicators. Results demonstrated significant associations between low-income women's self-reports of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse in childhood, and current and lifetime anxiety disorder, domestic violence, current posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, physical health or mental health issues, and any mental health diagnosis. These results build on previous research to paint a fuller picture of the associations between childhood abuse and physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Consistent with research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, findings suggest the applicability of conceptualizing childhood abuse as a public health issue. Social workers can play an integral role in promoting and implementing broader screening practices, connecting affected individuals with long-term interventions, and applying research findings to the design and provision of services within a public health model.

  12. CDM pilot project to stimulate market for family-hydro for low-income households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Over 100,000 low-income households living in rural, rice-farming regions of Vietnam and China rely upon family-hydro (between 100 and 200W) as the only affordable means of obtaining electricity. These systems are used for domestic lighting, radio and, in some cases, televisions. The units are small, cheap and are usually installed and owned by a single family. Funding from the CDM could be utilised in order to reduce the cost of good quality equipment to provide low-income households living in isolated off-grid locations with an affordable and sustainable electricity supply which can meet their needs for lighting, educational, productive and recreational uses. Therefore research was needed to determine the level of carbon emission reductions resulting from their use. The successful acceptance by the Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) of the methodology of establishing the benchmark developed during this project could then be used as a precedent by other project developers in the future, thus being of long-term support to the emerging family-hydro industry. (author)

  13. Perceptions of breastfeeding and planned return to work or school among low-income pregnant women in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojjanasrirat, Wilaiporn; Sousa, Valmi D

    2010-07-01

    To describe the perceptions of breastfeeding in low-income pregnant women to understand their needs better as they plan to return to work or school. Maternal employment has a negative impact on breastfeeding duration. Yet there is insufficient research on challenges and facilitators regarding breastfeeding and employment issue among low-income women in the USA. Knowing the perceptions of breastfeeding among low-income pregnant women and their plan to return to work or school may have implications for nurses and midwives in providing quality care. Qualitative study using focus group interviews. The research setting consisted of three Women, Infants and Children clinics (WIC) in a midwestern city of the USA. Seventeen pregnant women (aged 19-35) participated in focus group interviews. Data were coded and analysed for themes and patterns using the QSR software - NVivo 6. Eleven participants were single. Ten women were primigravida, and seven were multipara. The following five themes were identified: (1) perceived benefits of breastfeeding; (2) general perceptions of breastfeeding; (3) maternal concerns; (4) having the right support; and (5) anticipated challenges of combining breastfeeding and work. Conclusions.  Low-income women anticipated substantial barriers for breastfeeding when they planned to combine breastfeeding and work or school. The results of this study have many implications for public health practice, research and policy. Educating employers and the public at large about the health and economic benefits derived from long-term breastfeeding could help promote breastfeeding awareness. Strategies supporting breastfeeding among low-income working women must be provided at multiple levels to help overcome the barriers they concern. Health care providers should help women gain confidence by minimising their uncertainties and fears about breastfeeding to prepare them to continue breastfeeding successfully after returning to work. © 2010 Blackwell

  14. The moderating role of brands for low income luxury consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Santino Bizarrias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The value of luxury is a multidimensional construct that assesses how consumers consider the various dimensions of luxury in their consumption relations. The consumption of luxury is not a trivial activity for most people, but brings a certain fascination and is part of the imaginary of the lower classes in emerging markets. The social identity of these consumers is changing because they aspire a new social position. But luxury consumption hurts the standards of this consumer profile. At the same time the self esteem is observed as an important element of people self-confirmation. For consumers, specifically, self-esteem is an important antecedent of consumption decisions. A sample of low income students was analyzed in this study to describe their relationship with luxury, and its influence on self-esteem when moderated by brand expressiveness. Through structural equation modeling this study found that the expression of the brand moderates the relationship of the value of luxury with self-esteem, allowing consumers of lower classes to observe a significant role of luxury in their lives.

  15. CFD Simulations to Improve Ventilation in Low-Income Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Rosemond; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Quality of housing plays an important role in public health. In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the leading causes of death include tuberculosis, lower respiratory infections, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, so improving home ventilation could potentially mitigate these negative health effects. The goal of this project is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict the relative effectiveness of different ventilation strategies for Dhaka homes. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD model of a standard Dhaka home with apertures of different sizes and locations was developed to predict air exchange rates. Our initial focus is on simulating ventilation driven by buoyancy-alone conditions, which is often considered the limiting case in natural ventilation design. We explore the relationship between ventilation rate and aperture area to determine the most promising configurations for optimal ventilation solutions. Future research will include the modeling of wind-driven conditions, and extensive uncertainty quantification studies to investigate the effect of variability in the layout of homes and neighborhoods, and in local wind and temperature conditions. The ultimate objective is to formulate robust design recommendations that can reduce risks of respiratory illness in low-income housing.

  16. Xerostomia Among Older Adults With Low Income: Nuisance or Warning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Moreno, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of xerostomia and related factors among low-income older adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional, population-based study. Using data from the Home Healthcare Service Project, a population-based interview survey with home healthcare service, a total of 9,840 adults 65 years of age and older were assessed for the presence of xerostomia in association with aspects of health lifestyles, chronic disease, oral conditions, and oral function. Overall, 40% of participants reported experiencing xerostomia. Multivariate regression analysis indicated xerostomia was more likely to be reported by women having symptoms of gingival bleeding/pain, having difficulty swallowing liquid or chewing solid food, and having multiple chronic diseases. Interestingly, older adults who live alone and drink alcohol (two or more times per week) reported fewer problems with xerostomia. Increased focus on the detrimental health consequences of xerostomia would make treatment a higher priority. Improved assessment of at-risk populations, particularly among the elderly, could lead to earlier preventative interventions, lessening the negative impact on quality of life. Health professionals along with the general public need increased knowledge about the detrimental effects of xerostomia on overall health. There is a need for earlier assessment and treatment to facilitate optimal health promotion and disease prevention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Maternal concerns about children overeating among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Rizk, Monika; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-04-01

    Addressing overeating is essential to obesity treatment and prevention. The objectives of this study were to investigate maternal concern for child overeating, to identify associated participant characteristics and to determine if concern for child overeating is associated with maternal feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N=289) of children (mean age 70.8months) participated in a semi-structured interview. Themes of maternal concern for child overeating were identified and a coding scheme was reliably applied. Maternal feeding practices were measured by questionnaire and videotaped eating interactions. Logistic regressions were used to test the associations of participant characteristics with the presence of each theme, and bivariate analyses were used to test the associations of the presence of each theme with feeding practices. Three themes were identified: 1) mothers worry that their child does overeat, 2) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because they manage their child's eating behavior, and 3) mothers acknowledge that their child may overeat but indicate that it is not problematic because of characteristics inherent to the child. Child obesity predicted the themes; mothers of obese and overweight children are more likely to be concerned about overeating. Themes were associated with lower levels of observed pressure to eat. Only Theme 2 was associated with greater restrictive feeding practices. Interventions that provide parents' practical, healthy ways to prevent child overeating may be helpful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Prenatal and postnatal depression among low income Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Da-Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal depression is a significant problem affecting 10-15% of mothers in many countries and has been the subject of an increasing number of publications. Prenatal depression has been studied less. The aims of the present investigation were: 1 to obtain information on the prevalence of prenatal and postnatal depression in low income Brazilian women by using an instrument already employed in several countries, i.e., the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; 2 to evaluate the risk factors involved in prenatal and postnatal depression in Brazil. The study groups included 33 pregnant women interviewed at home during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, and once a month during the first six months after delivery. Questions on life events and the mother's relationship with the baby were posed during each visit. Depressed pregnant women received less support from their partners than non-depressed pregnant women (36.4 vs 72.2%, P<0.05; Fisher exact test. Black women predominated among pre- and postnatally depressed subjects. Postnatal depression was associated with lower parity (0.4 ± 0.5 vs 1.1 ± 1.0, P<0.05; Student t-test. Thus, the period of pregnancy may be susceptible to socio-environmental factors that induce depression, such as the lack of affective support from the partner. The prevalence rate of 12% observed for depression in the third month postpartum is comparable to that of studies from other countries.

  19. Should low-income countries invest in breast cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Shimokata, Tomoya; Honda, Kazunori; Tsukuura, Hiroaki; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    With the increase in incidence and mortality of breast cancer in low-income countries (LICs), the question of whether LICs should promote breast cancer screening for early detection has gained tremendous importance. Because LICs have limited financial resources, the value of screening must be carefully considered before integrating screening programs into national healthcare system. Mammography-the most commonly used screening tool in developed countries-reduces breast cancer-specific mortality among women of age group 50-69, but the evidence is not so clear for younger women. Further, it does not reduce the overall mortality. Because the women in LICs tend to get breast cancer at younger age and are faced with various competing causes of mortality, LICs need to seriously evaluate whether mammographic screening presents a good value for the investment. Instead, we suggest a special module of clinical breast examination that could provide similar benefits at a very low cost. Nevertheless, we believe that LICs would obtain a much greater value for their investment if they promote primary prevention by tobacco cessation, healthier food and healthier lifestyle campaigns instead.

  20. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  1. Low-Income Community Solar: Utility Return Considerations for Electric Cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, Alexandra Y [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagne, Douglas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this short report is to identify project structures that make low-income community solar projects more cost-effective, replicable, and scalable, for electric cooperative and municipal utilities. This report explores the tradeoffs between providing energy bill savings for low-income subscribers and utility project returns, as well as some of the key lessons learned from existing successful low-income community solar pilot projects.

  2. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Ward; Fiona Verity; Patricia Carter; George Tsourtos; John Coveney; Kwan Chui Wong

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy ...

  3. Feeding practices of low-income mothers: how do they compare to current recommendations?

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goodell, L Suzanne; Johnson, Susan L; Duran, J Andrea Jaramillo; Williams, Kimberly; Beck, Ashley D; Frankel, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a growing consensus on the feeding practices associated with healthy eating patterns, few observational studies of maternal feeding practices with young children have been conducted, especially in low-income populations. The aim of this study was to provide such data on a low income sample to determine the degree to which observed maternal feeding practices compare with current recommendations. Methods Eighty low-income mothers and their preschool children were videotaped a...

  4. 24 CFR 1000.142 - What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and low-income homebuyer housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Activities § 1000.142 What is the “useful life” during which low-income rental housing and low-income... recipient shall describe in its IHP its determination of the useful life of each assisted housing unit in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the âuseful lifeâ during...

  5. Food Choices of Minority and Low-Income Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Barraclough, Susan J.; Thorndike, Anne N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective strategies are needed to address obesity, particularly among minority and low-income individuals. Purpose To test whether a two-phase point-of-purchase intervention improved food choices across racial, socioeconomic (job type) groups. Design A 9-month longitudinal study from 2009 to 2010 assessing person-level changes in purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods following sequentially introduced interventions. Data were analyzed in 2011. Setting/participants Participants were 4642 employees of a large hospital in Boston MA who were regular cafeteria patrons. Interventions The first intervention was a traffic light–style color-coded labeling system encouraging patrons to purchase healthy items (labeled green) and avoid unhealthy items (labeled red). The second intervention manipulated “choice architecture” by physically rearranging certain cafeteria items, making green-labeled items more accessible, red-labeled items less accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of green- (or red-) labeled items purchased by an employee. Subanalyses tracked beverage purchases, including calories and price per beverage. Results Employees self-identified as white (73%), black (10%), Latino (7%), and Asian (10%). Compared to white employees, Latino and black employees purchased a higher proportion of red items at baseline (18%, 28%, and 33%, respectively, p0.05 for interaction between race or job type and intervention). Mean calories per beverage decreased similarly over the study period for all racial groups and job types, with no increase in per-beverage spending. Conclusions Despite baseline differences in healthy food purchases, a simple color-coded labeling and choice architecture intervention improved food and beverage choices among employees from all racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:22898116

  6. Does Maternal Employment Following Childbirth Support or Inhibit Low-Income Children’s Long-Term Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed whether previous findings linking early maternal employment to lower cognitive and behavioral skills among middle class and White children generalized to other groups. Using a representative sample of urban, low-income, predominantly African American and Hispanic families (n = 444), OLS regression and propensity score matching models assessed links between maternal employment in the two years after childbearing and children’s functioning at age 7. Children whose mothers were employed early, particularly in their first 8 months, showed enhanced socio-emotional functioning compared to peers whose mother remained nonemployed. Protective associations emerged for both part time and full time employment, and were driven by African American children, with neutral effects for Hispanics. Informal home-based child care also heightened positive links. PMID:22931466

  7. Prevalence and knowledge of urinary incontinence and possibilities of treatment among low-income working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amabily Carolline Zago

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI can affect women's lives in all areas, including in the occupational context, due to an uncomfortable workplace, incorrect positions for long periods of time and the handling of heavy items. Another worrying aspect is that the knowledge about urinary incontinence, in the health area, and its forms of treatment is still small among the low-income population. Objective: To verify the prevalence and knowledge about urinary incontinence and treatment possibilities among low-income working women. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out on working women of a poultry processing plant. Results: The study included 136 women with an average age of 33.7 ± 9.7 years; body mass index of 26.6 ± 5.6 kg/m2; parity of 2.1 ± 1.1 children; monthly income of 2.3 ± 1 minimum wages. Of those interviewed, 63.9% were white; 44.8% had incomplete primary education; 52.9% were single; 53.6% underwent cesarean section delivery; and of those who underwent normal labor delivery, 86.6% underwent episiotomy. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was found to be 2.9%, and among the women affected, two reported that UI led to sexual, social, water and occupational restriction, and one of them believes that UI interferes with her concentration and productivity in the workplace. Regarding health knowledge, 46.3% had never heard of urinary incontinence before, and more than half (66.1% did not know about the existence of medical treatment. All women interviewed (100% were unaware of the existence of physiotherapeutic treatment. Conclusion: The prevalence of urinary incontinence was among those interviewed was small, however, the knowledge about the symptoms and possibilities of medical, and mainly physiotherapeutic treatment. is scarce among these women. This study allows to alert and to guide the health professionals and the society about the importance of actions that promote health education in the low income population

  8. Family obligation values as a protective and vulnerability factor among low-income adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents' beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls.

  9. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  10. Promoting parent academic expectations predicts improved school outcomes for low-income children entering kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin-Presnal, John E; Bierman, Karen L

    2017-06-01

    This study explored patterns of change in the REDI (Research-based Developmentally Informed) Parent program (REDI-P), designed to help parents support child learning at the transition into kindergarten. Participants were 200 prekindergarten children attending Head Start (55% European-American, 26% African American, 19% Latino, 56% male, M age =4.45years, SD=0.29) and their primary caregivers, who were randomized to a 16-session home-visiting intervention (REDI-P) or a control group. Extending beyond a prior study documenting intervention effects on parenting behaviors and child kindergarten outcomes, this study assessed the impact of REDI-P on parent academic expectations, and then explored the degree to which intervention gains in three areas of parenting (parent-child interactive reading, parent-child conversations, parent academic expectations) predicted child outcomes in kindergarten (controlling for baseline values and a set of child and family characteristics). Results showed that REDI-P promoted significant gains in parent academic expectations, which in turn mediated intervention gains in child emergent literacy skills and self-directed learning. Results suggest a need to attend to the beliefs parents hold about their child's academic potential, as well as their behavioral support for child learning, when designing interventions to enhance the school success of children in low-income families. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Building and Using a Social Network: Nurture for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…

  12. The role of urban agriculture for food security in low income areas in Nairobi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, which is based on research carried out among 210 households in Nairobi (Kenya) in 1994, examines the role of urban agriculture in household food security among low-income urban households. It determines the different strategies the low-income population of Nairobi deploys in order to

  13. Improving Readability of an Evaluation Tool for Low-Income Clients Using Visual Information Processing Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Marilyn S.; Sylva, Kathryn; Martin, Anna; Metz, Diane; Wooten-Swanson, Patti

    2008-01-01

    Literacy is an issue for many low-income audiences. Using visual information processing theories, the goal was improving readability of a food behavior checklist and ultimately improving its ability to accurately capture existing changes in dietary behaviors. Using group interviews, low-income clients (n = 18) evaluated 4 visual styles. The text…

  14. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  15. 42 CFR 436.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 436.229... Options for Coverage as Categorically Needy Options for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant Women § 436.229 Optional targeted low-income children...

  16. 76 FR 36976 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... low-income designation using the geo-coding software the agency has developed for that purpose to...

  17. 75 FR 80364 - Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... 701 RIN 3133-AD76 Sample Income Data To Meet the Low-Income Definition AGENCY: National Credit Union... (FCUs) that do not qualify for a low-income designation using the geo-coding software the NCUA has developed for that purpose to submit an analysis of a statistically valid sample of their member income data...

  18. Critical Components of a Summer Enrichment Program for Urban Low-Income Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Corina R.; Johnsen, Susan K.; Witte, Mary M.; Saxon, Terrill F.

    2015-01-01

    Effective program models are needed for low-income youth. This article describes one successful summer enrichment program, University for Young People's Project Promise, and outlines three key components of a Partnership for Promoting Potential in Low-Income Gifted Students (Partnership Model), which is based on Lee, Olszewski-Kubilius, and…

  19. Arts Enrichment and Preschool Emotions for Low-Income Children at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eleanor D.; Sax, Kacey L.

    2013-01-01

    No studies to date examine the impact of arts-integrated preschool programming on the emotional functioning of low-income children at risk for school problems. The present study examines observed emotion expression and teacher-rated emotion regulation for low-income children attending Settlement Music School's Kaleidoscope Preschool Arts…

  20. 13 CFR 108.710 - Requirement to finance Low-Income Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Financing of Small Businesses by NMVC Companies Determining the... of your Portfolio Concerns must be Low-Income Enterprises in which you have an Equity Capital... total dollars) in Equity Capital Investments in Low-Income Enterprises. (b) Non-compliance with this...

  1. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  2. 78 FR 33154 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2014 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Package and Guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income... nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax disputes with the IRS, or educate individuals for whom... Grant Application Package and Guidelines, IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2013), can be downloaded from the...

  3. 76 FR 34297 - Low Income Taxpayer Clinic Grant Program; Availability of 2012 Grant Application Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... guidelines (Publication 3319) for organizations interested in applying for a Low Income Taxpayer Clinic (LITC... representation for free or for a nominal fee to low income taxpayers involved in tax controversies with the IRS..., IRS Publication 3319 (Rev. 5-2011), can be downloaded from the IRS Internet site at http://www.irs.gov...

  4. Developmental Trends in Self-Regulation among Low-Income Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, H. Abigail; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Raikes, Helen H.; Ayoub, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    The attainment of self-regulatory skills during the toddler years is an understudied issue, especially among low-income children. The present study used growth modeling to examine the change over time and the final status in children's abilities to self-regulate, in a sample of 2,441 low-income children aged 14 to 36 months. Positive growth in…

  5. Federally Funded Education and Job Training Programs for Low-Income Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworsky, Amy

    2011-01-01

    With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…

  6. The Experience of Low-Income College Students at a Selective University: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paula Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Low-income students at selective institutions report feeling a sense of isolation, alienation, and marginalization. However, it is essential that the voices of low-income students that have successfully navigated the college experience be part of the conversation. Rather than approach the study from a deficit perspective, this Interpretative…

  7. Qualitative Assessment of Smoke-Free Policy Implementation in Low-Income Housing: Enhancing Resident Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jodi; Goldman, Roberta; Rees, Vaughan W; Frounfelker, Rochelle L; Davine, Jessica; Keske, Robyn R; Brooks, Daniel R; Geller, Alan C

    2018-01-01

    As public housing agencies and other low-income housing providers adopt smoke-free policies, data are needed to inform implementation approaches that support compliance. Focused ethnography used including qualitative interviews with staff, focus groups with residents, and property observations. Four low-income housing properties in Massachusetts, 12 months postpolicy adoption. Individual interviews (n = 17) with property staff (managers, resident service coordinators, maintenance, security, and administrators) and focus groups with resident smokers (n = 28) and nonsmokers (n = 47). Informed by the social-ecological model: intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, and community factors relating to compliance were assessed. Utilized MAXQDA in a theory-driven immersion/crystallization analytic process with cycles of raw data examination and pattern identification until no new themes emerged. Self-reported secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) was reduced but not eliminated. Challenges included relying on ambivalent maintenance staff and residents to report violations, staff serving as both enforcers and smoking cessation counsellors, and inability to enforce on nights and weekends. Erroneous knowledge of the policy, perception that SHSe is not harmful to neighbors, as well as believing that smokers were losing their autonomy and being unfairly singled out when other resident violations were being unaddressed, hindered policy acceptance among resident smokers. The greatest challenge to compliance was the lack of allowable outdoor smoking areas that may have reduced the burden of the policy on smokers. Smoke-free policy implementation to support compliance could be enhanced with information about SHSe for smokers and nonsmokers, cessation support from external community partners, discussion forums for maintenance staff, resident inclusion in decision-making, and framing the policy as part of a broader wellness initiative.

  8. Low-income mothers' patterns of partnership instability and adolescents' socioemotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Heather J; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated the association of family structure and maternal partnership instability patterns with adolescents' behavioral and emotional well-being among urban low-income families. Analyses employed data from the Three-City Study to track maternal partnerships over the youth's life span, linking longitudinal family structure and transition patterns to adolescent well-being (N = 2305). Families were classified into nine mutually exclusive longitudinal partnership groups based on current status at wave 3 (single, married, or cohabiting) and the longevity of that status: always (since adolescent's birth with no transitions), stable (lasting two years or more, preceded by transitions), or new (transpiring in the past 2 years). Adolescents in the always married group displayed less delinquency and externalizing problems, according to both youth and mother reports, than peers in always single-parent or newly married households. In contrast, youth in always cohabiting households had higher maternal ratings of internalizing problems and youth with newly cohabiting mothers reported higher psychological distress than peers in similar stability groups with single or married mothers. Overall, several potential explanatory processes for the family structure and stability patterns surfaced: married parent families reported less economic hardship, more family routines and father involvement, and less maternal psychological distress and parenting stress than their single and cohabiting counterparts. Policy implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating ... keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. .... ease of use and adoption, considering the different types of users (touch ... guage pride, challenge negative language perceptions and build a ... 3.2 Revisiting orthographies.

  10. Creating a single South African keyboard layout to promote language

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ...

  11. Closing the mental health gap in low-income settings by building research capacity: perspectives from Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetland, Annika C; Oquendo, Maria A; Sidat, Mohsin; Santos, Palmira F; Vermund, Sten H; Duarte, Cristiane S; Arbuckle, Melissa; Wainberg, Milton L

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are the leading cause of disability worldwide, accounting for 22.7% of all years lived with disability. Despite this global burden, fewer than 25% of affected individuals ever access mental health treatment; in low-income settings, access is much lower, although nonallopathic interventions through traditional healers are common in many venues. Three main barriers to reducing the gap between individuals who need mental health treatment and those who have access to it include stigma and lack of awareness, limited material and human resources, and insufficient research capacity. We argue that investment in dissemination and implementation research is critical to face these barriers. Dissemination and implementation research can improve mental health care in low-income settings by facilitating the adaptation of effective treatment interventions to new settings, particularly when adapting specialist-led interventions developed in high-resource countries to settings with few, if any, mental health professionals. Emerging evidence from other low-income settings suggests that lay providers can be trained to detect mental disorders and deliver basic psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacological interventions when supervised by an expert. We describe a new North-South and South-South research partnership between Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (Mozambique), Columbia University (United States), Vanderbilt University (United States), and Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Brazil), to build research capacity in Mozambique and other Portuguese-speaking African countries. Mozambique has both the political commitment and available resources for mental health, but inadequate research capacity and workforce limits the country's ability to assess local needs, adapt and test interventions, and identify implementation strategies that can be used to effectively bring evidence-based mental health interventions to scale within the public sector. Global training and

  12. Excess mortality in women of reproductive age from low-income countries: a Swedish national register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esscher, Annika; Haglund, Bengt; Högberg, Ulf; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-04-01

    Cause-of-death statistics is widely used to monitor the health of a population. African immigrants have, in several European studies, shown to be at an increased risk of maternal death, but few studies have investigated cause-specific mortality rates in female immigrants. In this national study, based on the Swedish Cause of Death Register, we studied 27,957 women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years) who died between 1988 and 2007. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100,000 person years and relative risks for death and underlying causes of death, grouped according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, were calculated and compared between women born in Sweden and in low-, middle- and high-income countries. The total age-standardized mortality rate per 100,000 person years was significantly higher for women born in low-income (84.4) and high-income countries (83.7), but lower for women born in middle-income countries (57.5), as compared with Swedish-born women (68.1). The relative risk of dying from infectious disease was 15.0 (95% confidence interval 10.8-20.7) and diseases related to pregnancy was 6.6 (95% confidence interval 2.6-16.5) for women born in low-income countries, as compared to Swedish-born women. Women born in low-income countries are at the highest risk of dying during reproductive age in Sweden, with the largest discrepancy in mortality rates seen for infectious diseases and diseases related to pregnancy, a cause of death pattern similar to the one in their countries of birth. The World Bank classification of economies may be a useful tool in migration research.

  13. Beyond Passivity: Constructions of Femininities in a Single-Sex South African School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Pillay, Nalini

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the calamitous effects of gender violence on the experience of schooling for South African girls, single-sex schools have been advanced as a strategy to protect girls from violence. In this paper, the experiences of a selected group of girls in a single-sex school in Durban, South Africa are illustrated to provide a counter…

  14. Coparenting experiences in African American families: an examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin

    2014-03-01

    African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  15. Assessing the Digital Divide Among Low-Income Perinatal Women: Opportunities for Provision of Health Information and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavita, Shauna P; Krummel, Debra A; Talks, Alexandra; Cobb, Alexandra; McClure, Erin

    2018-04-30

    Technology-based health interventions may provide a means to reach low-income perinatal women and improve outcomes for both mother and infant, yet little is known about technology access and interest among this population. This study explored interest, attitudes, and concerns regarding technology to deliver health information and interventions. Between May and October 2014, a cross-sectional study of 161 low-income pregnant and/or postpartum mothers (up to 1 year) was conducted, assessing attitudes and behaviors regarding the current use of devices and receptivity to interventions delivered through devices. Participants (ages 18-41) were pregnant or postpartum and able to read and comprehend English. Women were recruited from waiting areas at two urban clinics affiliated with the local health department in a Midwestern city in the United States. Surveys included 46 questions and were completed at the time of invitation. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t test, or chi-square for independence tests were completed using SPSS (version 23). Participants from this sample were mostly African American (60%) and had a mean age of 26 years. Most were postpartum (67%). The majority of the sample used mobile phones (most being smartphones), with less access and use of computers and tablets. A moderate level of interest in utilizing technology for health-related information and interventions was found, with concerns related to privacy and time.

  16. Body mass index and the risk of dementia among Louisiana low income diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu

    Full Text Available The association between obesity and dementia risk remains debatable and no studies have assessed this association among diabetic patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI and dementia risk among middle and low income diabetic patients.The sample included 44,660 diabetic patients (19,618 white and 25,042 African American 30 to 96 years of age without a history of dementia in the Louisiana State University Hospital-Based Longitudinal Study. During a mean follow-up period of 3.9 years, 388 subjects developed incident dementia. The age- and sex-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs for incident dementia at different levels of BMI (≤ 25, 25-26.9, 27-29.9, 30-34.9, and ≥ 35 kg/m(2 were 1.00, 0.53 (95% CI 0.34-0.83, 0.29 (0.18-0.45, 0.37 (0.25-0.56, and 0.31 (0.21-0.48 (P(trend<0.001 in white diabetic patients, and 1.00, 1.00 (95% CI 0.62-1.63, 0.62 (0.39-0.98, 0.56 (0.36-0.86, and 0.65 (0.43-1.01 (P(trend = 0.029 in African American diabetic patients. Further adjustment for other confounding factors affected the results only slightly. There was a significant interaction between race and BMI on dementia risk (χ(2 = 5.52, 1df, p<0.025, such that the association was stronger in white patients. In stratified analyses, the multivariate-adjusted inverse association between BMI and risk of dementia was present in subjects aged 55-64 years, 65-74 years, and ≥ 75 years, in men and women, in non-smokers and smokers, and in subjects with different types of health insurance.Higher baseline BMI was associated with a lower risk of dementia among diabetic patients, and this association was stronger among white than among African American diabetic patients.

  17. Electronic Payment Adoption in the Banking Sector of Low-Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Teshome Alemu; Tridib Bandyopadhyay; Solomon Negash

    2015-01-01

    Banks in low-income countries are launching e-banking services such as Internet banking, SMS banking, ATM banking, card banking, point of sales (PoS) and mobile banking. Among these planned services, ATM is the most matured service in many private and state owned banks in Ethiopia. ATM is a recent phenomenon in low-income countries (; ), and is still being introduced in financial sectors in low-income countries (Angeli, 2008; ) making investigation of factors of ICT technology adoption in low...

  18. Using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroever, Stephanie J; Mackert, Michael S; McAlister, Alfred L; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the value of using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents. We evaluated qualitative data obtained through focus groups with low-income, predominantly Hispanic parents. Results were mixed; lack of time and credibility were the primary objections parents cited in using social media to obtain information about their children's health. Social media has value as part of an overall communication strategy, but more work is needed to determine the most effective way to use this channel in low-income populations.

  19. Food insecurity is associated with cost-related medication non-adherence in community-dwelling, low-income older adults in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengle, Rebecca; Sinnett, Stephanie; Johnson, Tommy; Johnson, Mary Ann; Brown, Arvine; Lee, Jung Sun

    2010-04-01

    Low-income older adults are at increased risk of cutting back on basic needs, including food and medication. This study examined the relationship between food insecurity and cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN) in low-income Georgian older adults. The study sample includes new Older Americans Act Nutrition Program participants and waitlisted people assessed by a self-administered mail survey (N = 1000, mean age 75.0 + so - 9.1 years, 68.4% women, 25.8% African American). About 49.7% of participants were food insecure, while 44.4% reported practicing CRN. Those who were food insecure and/or who practiced CRN were more likely to be African American, low-income, younger, less educated, and to report poorer self-reported health status. Food insecure participants were 2.9 (95% CI 2.2, 4.0) times more likely to practice CRN behaviors than their counterparts after controlling for potential confounders. Improving food security is important inorder to promote adherence to recommended prescription regimens.

  20. Dissecting the role of amygdala reactivity in antisocial behavior in a sample of young, low-income, urban men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Murray, Laura; Gard, Arianna; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has suggested that amygdala reactivity to emotional facial expressions is associated with antisocial behavior (AB), particularly among those high on callous-unemotional (CU) traits. To investigate this association and potential moderators of this relationship, including task/stimuli effects, subregional anatomy of the amygdala, and participant race, we used fMRI in a sample of 167 racially diverse, 20 year-old men from low-income families. We found that AB, but not CU traits, was negatively related to amygdala reactivity to fearful faces. This result was specific to fearful faces and strongest in the centro-medial subregion of the amygdala. Arrest record was positively related to basolateral amygdala reactivity to fearful and angry faces. Results were strongest among those identified as African American and not present in those identified as European American. Our findings suggest substantial complexity in the relationship between amygdala function and AB reflecting moderating effects of task stimulus, subregional anatomy, and race. PMID:27429865

  1. 26 CFR 1.42-1T - Limitation on low-income housing credit allowed with respect to qualified low-income buildings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... credit agencies for exclusive use in making housing credit allocations to buildings that are part of... housing credit allocations in excess of an agency's aggregate housing credit dollar amount. In the event... not perform an independent investigation of the qualified low-income building in order to certify on...

  2. Positive Impacts of a Vegetable Cooking Skills Program among Low-Income Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Francine; Ritter, Allison; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the impact of a vegetable-focused cooking skills and nutrition program on parent and child psychosocial measures, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Baseline and postcourse surveys collected 1-week after the course. Low-income communities in Minneapolis-St Paul. Parent-child dyads (n = 89; one third each Hispanic, African American, and white) with complete pre-post course data; flyer and e-mail recruitment. Six 2-hour-weekly sessions including demonstration, food preparation, nutrition education lessons, and a meal. Parental cooking confidence and barriers, food preparation/resource management, child self-efficacy and cooking attitudes, vegetable liking, vegetable variety, and vegetable home availability. Pre-post changes analyzed with paired t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results were significant at P cooking confidence (4.0 to 4.4/5.0), healthy food preparation (3.6 to 3.9/5.0), child self-efficacy (14.8 to 12.4; lower score = greater self-efficacy), parent liking of vegetables used in the course (7.8 to 8.1/10.0), vegetable variety (30 to 32/37 for parent, 22 to 24/37 for child), and home vegetable availability (16 to 18/35) (all P cooking and nutrition program for parents and children showed improvements in psychosocial factors, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Utilizing a diabetic registry to manage diabetes in a low-income Asian American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Winnie; Turner, Barbara S; Champagne, Mary T; Liu, Lynn

    2012-08-01

    Racial and income disparities persist in diabetes management in America. One third of African and Hispanic Americans with diabetes receive the recommended diabetes services (hemoglobin A1c [A1c] testing, retinal and foot examinations) shown to reduce diabetes complications and mortality, compared to half of whites with diabetes. National data for Asian Americans are limited, but studies suggest that those with language and cultural barriers have difficulty accessing health services. A diabetic registry has been shown to improve process and clinical outcomes in a population with diabetes. This study examined whether a community center that serves primarily low-income Asian American immigrants in Santa Clara County, California, could improve diabetes care and outcomes by implementing a diabetic registry. The registry was built using the Access 2007 software program. A total of 580 patients with diabetes were identified by reviewing charts, the appointment database, and reimbursement records from Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance companies. Utilizing the registry, medical assistants contacted patients for follow-up appointments, and medical providers checked and tracked the patients' A1c results. Among the 431 patients who returned for treatment, the mean A1c was reduced from 7.27% to 6.97% over 8 months (P<0.001). Although 10.8% of the patients changed from controlled to uncontrolled diabetes post intervention, 32.6% of patients with uncontrolled diabetes converted to controlled diabetes (P<0.001). The diabetes control rate improved from 47% to 59% at the end of the study. This study demonstrated that a diabetic registry is an effective tool to manage an underserved population with diabetes, thereby reducing disparities in diabetes management.

  4. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  5. The conceptual mismatch: transportation stressors and experiences for low-income adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Physical access to jobs has long been identified as a barrier to employment and earnings, with prior : research identifying the spatial mismatch between suburban entry-level jobs and low-income workers. : However, existing transportation resear...

  6. The Effects of Low Income Housing Tax Credit Developments on Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Marion, Justin

    2009-06-01

    This paper evaluates the impacts of new housing developments funded with the Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC), the largest federal project based housing program in the U.S., on the neighborhoods in which they are built. A discontinuity in the formula determining the magnitude of tax credits as a function of neighborhood characteristics generates pseudo-random assignment in the number of low income housing units built in similar sets of census tracts. Tracts where projects are awarded 30 percent higher tax credits receive approximately six more low income housing units on a base of seven units per tract. These additional new low income developments cause homeowner turnover to rise, raise property values in declining areas and reduce incomes in gentrifying areas in neighborhoods near the 30th percentile of the income distribution. LIHTC units significantly crowd out nearby new rental construction in gentrifying areas but do not displace new construction in stable or declining areas.

  7. Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tract (QCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — It allows to generate tables for Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Qualified Census Tracts (QCT) and for Difficult Development Areas (DDA). LIHTC Qualified...

  8. Low-Income Demand for Local Telephone Service: Effects of Lifeline and Linkup

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ackerberg; Michael Riordan; Gregory Rosston; Bradley Wimmer

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive data set on local telephone service prices is used to evaluate the effect of Lifeline and Linkup programs on the telephone penetration rates of low-income households in the United States. Lifeline and Linkup programs respectively subsidize the monthly subscription and initial installation charges of eligible low-income households. Telephone penetration rates are explained by an estimated nonlinear function of local service characteristics (including subsidized prices) and the ...

  9. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    OpenAIRE

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and ...

  10. Legislated changes to federal pension income in Canada will adversely affect low income seniors' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, J C Herbert; Fleisch, Valerie C; McIntyre, Lynn

    2013-12-01

    This study uses a population health intervention modeling approach to project the impact of recent legislated increases in age eligibility for Canadian federally-funded pension benefits on low income seniors' health, using food insecurity as a health indicator. Food insecurity prevalence and income source were assessed for unattached low income (seniors aged 65-69 years (population weighted n=151,485) using public use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 4.1 (2007-2008). Seniors' benefits through federal public pension plans constituted the main source of income for the majority (79.4%) of low income seniors aged 65-69 years, in contrast to low income seniors aged 60-64 years who reported their main income from employment, employment insurance, Workers' Compensation, or welfare. The increase in income provided by federal pension benefits for low income Canadians 65 and over coincided with a pronounced (50%) decrease in food insecurity prevalence (11.6% for seniors ≥65 years versus 22.8% for seniors seniors' benefits in Canada from 65 to 67 years will negatively impact low income seniors' health, relegating those who are food insecure to continued hardship. © 2013.

  11. Does a low-income urban population practise healthy dietary habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizan, Nurul Ain; Thangiah, Nithiah; Su, Tin Tin; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the unhealthy dietary habits and practices in a low-income community in an urban area and determine the associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low-income housing area in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data were collected using a questionnaire via face-to-face interviews by trained enumerators in order to obtain details on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary practices. Descriptive statistics showed that 86.7% of the respondents in the low-income community consumed fruit and vegetables less than five times per day, 11.7% consumed carbonated and sweetened drinks more than twice per day and about 25% consumed fast food more than four times per month. In total, 65.2% (n=945) did not have healthy dietary practices. Binary logistic regression showed that age, education and ethnicity were significant predictors of unhealthy dietary practices among the low-income community. Those in the 30-59 years age group had higher odds (odds ratio 1.65, p=0.04) of practising an unhealthy diet as compared with those older than 60 years of age. Unhealthy dietary practices were found to be common among the low-income group living in an urban area. Healthy lifestyle intervention should be highlighted so that it can be adopted in the low-income group.

  12. A single origin of extreme matrotrophy in African mabuyine skinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Margarita; Karin, Benjamin R.; Conradie, Werner; Wagner, Philipp; Schmitz, Andreas; Jackman, Todd R.; Bauer, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Most mammals and approximately 20% of squamates (lizards and snakes) are viviparous, whereas all crocodilians, birds and turtles are oviparous. Viviparity evolved greater than 100 times in squamates, including multiple times in Mabuyinae (Reptilia: Scincidae), making this group ideal for studying the evolution of nutritional patterns associated with viviparity. Previous studies suggest that extreme matrotrophy, the support of virtually all of embryonic development by maternal nutrients, evolved as many as three times in Mabuyinae: in Neotropical Mabuyinae (63 species), Eumecia (2 species; Africa) and Trachylepis ivensii (Africa). However, no explicit phylogenetic hypotheses exist for understanding the evolution of extreme matrotrophy. Using multilocus DNA data, we inferred a species tree for Mabuyinae that implies that T. ivensii (here assigned to the resurrected genus Lubuya) is sister to Eumecia, suggesting that extreme matrotrophy evolved only once in African mabuyine skinks. PMID:27555650

  13. Creating a Single South African Keyboard Layout to Promote Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwayne Bailey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: In this case study, a description is given of a keyboard layout designed to address the input needs of South African languages, specifically Venda, a language which would otherwise be impossible to type on a computer. In creating this keyboard, the designer, Translate.org.za, uses a practical intervention that transforms technology from a means harming a language into one ensuring the creation and preservation of good language resources for minority languages. The study first looks at the implications and consequences of this missing keyboard, and then follows the process from conception, strategy, research and design to the final user response. Not only are problems such as researching the orthographies, key placement and keyboard input options examined, but strategic objectives such as ensuring its wide adoption and creating a multilingual keyboard for all South African languages are also discussed. The result is a keyboard that furthers multilingualism and ensures the capturing of good data for future research. Finally it is a tool helping to boost and bolster the vitality of a language.

    Keywords: KEYBOARD, MULTILINGUALISM, VENDA, AFRIKAANS, TSWANA, NORTH-ERN SOTHO, ZULU, SOURCE, FREE SOFTWARE, LAYOUT

    Opsomming: Die skep van 'n enkelvoudige Suid-Afrikaanse toetsborduit-leg om taal te bevorder. In hierdie gevallestudie word 'n beskrywing gegee van die ontwerp van 'n sleutelborduitleg vir die hantering van die insetbehoeftes van Suid-Afrikaanse tale, veral Venda, 'n taal wat andersins onmoontlik op 'n rekenaar getik sou kon word. Deur die skep van hierdie sleutelbord gebruik die ontwerper, Translate.org.za, 'n praktiese ingryp wat tegnologie verander van 'n middel wat 'n taal benadeel tot een wat die skep en bewaring van nuttige taal-hulpbronne vir minderheidstale verseker. Die studie kyk eers na die implikasies en gevolge van hierdie ontbrekende sleutelbord, en volg dan die proses van konsepsie, strategie, navorsing en

  14. Maternal Resources, Parenting Practices, and Child Competence in Rural, Single-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Flor, Douglas L.

    1998-01-01

    Tested a model linking maternal/family characteristics to child cognitive and psychosocial competence in African-American 6- to 9-year olds in rural single-mother-headed households. Found that maternal education, religiosity, and financial resources were linked with parenting style, mother-child relationship, and maternal school involvement.…

  15. Positive youth development among African American adolescents: examining single parents as a factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shani R; Lewis, Rhonda K; Carmack, Chakema

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades researchers have begun to examine the importance of understanding positive youth development and the many contexts in which youth find themselves. The social contexts in which adolescent development occurs are varied and complex, particularly the development among African American youth. African American youth are faced with a number of challenges including living in single-parent homes, high teen pregnancy rates, and poor neighborhoods, yet many of these youth continue to thrive. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family structure (single-parenting) and adolescent outcomes such as educational aspirations and sexual activity among African American adolescent youth aged 12-17. Approximately 462 African American youth were surveyed. A number of positive results emerged; for instance, there was a negative correlation between family structure and educational aspirations. The number of parents in the home did not interfere with youth wanting to complete high school and go on to college (r = - .218, r² = .04, p educational aspirations increased, the number of sexual partners decreased (r = - .141, meaning that the more adolescents reported a desire to complete high school, they were less likely to report having sexual intercourse. These positive results should be promoted among African American youth so that those faced with these challenges will note that others have overcome and accomplished their goals. In this population educational aspirations were important. Limitations and future research are discussed.

  16. Effects of simplifying outreach materials for energy conservation programs that target low-income consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Canfield, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Critics have speculated that the limited success of energy conservation programs among low-income consumers may partly be due to recipients having insufficient literacy to understand the outreach materials. Indeed, we found outreach materials for low-income consumers to require relatively high levels of reading comprehension. We therefore improved the Flesch–Kincaid readability statistics for two outreach brochures, by using shorter words and shorter sentences to describe their content. We examined the effect of that simplification on low-income consumers′ responses. Participants from low-income communities in the greater Pittsburgh area, who varied in literacy, were randomly assigned to either original communications about energy conservation programs or our simplified versions. Our findings suggest that lowering readability statistics successfully simplified only the more straightforward brochure in our set of two, likely because its content lent itself better to simplification. Findings for this brochure showed that simplification improved understanding of its content among both low-literacy and high-literacy recipients, without adversely affecting their evaluation of the materials, or their intention to enroll in the advertised programs. We discuss strategies for improving communication materials that aim to reach out to low-income populations. - Highlights: • Brochures about energy programs for low-income consumers can be too hard to read. • We made brochures easier to read by using shorter words and shorter sentences. • Simplifying a straightforward brochure improved the understanding of all recipients. • However, simplifying a complex brochure had no effect on understanding. • We suggest strategies for improving outreach to low-income consumers

  17. Contributions of nonmaternal caregivers to infant feeding in a low-income African-American sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Wasser, Heather M; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2018-04-25

    Infant feeding is a well-established topic of interest in obesity research, yet few studies have focused on contributions of nonmaternal caregivers (NMCs)-such as fathers, grandparents, and daycare providers-to infant feeding. Data from the Infant Care, Feeding and Risk of Obesity Project in North Carolina were used to investigate (a) which factors were associated with NMC feeding styles and (b) how NMCs' and mothers' feeding styles compared. Multivariate regression models utilizing random effects were used to analyse data from 108 NMCs who were identified by mothers as being heavily involved in infant feeding. Feeding styles were measured using the Infant Feeding Style Questionnaire. Several individual characteristics were important. Higher laissez faire-attention scores were reported by men and NMCs who lived in the same household as infant. Men reported higher indulgent-coax and indulgent-pamper scores. Perceptions of fussier infants, older infant age, and higher infant weight-for-length z-scores were also important. Mothers' and NMCs' feeding styles differed. Compared with mothers, grandparents reported lower laissez faire and indulgent-permissive scores. Fathers reported higher pressure-soothe and indulgent scores. Daycare providers reported higher restriction-diet quality and responsive satiety. Feeding styles were also predicted to change over time for all caregiver types. These findings highlight the importance of helping all caregivers develop skills that will promote optimal infant feeding outcomes. Given the paucity of research in this area, it is important to improve our understanding of what influences caregivers' feeding styles, especially among diverse populations, and how exposure to different feeding styles may shape children's obesity risk. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Future-proofing the environmental performance of low-income housing: a South African case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, NL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available on stabilised fill ? Superstructure: Modular, hollow concrete blocks; and precast concrete window frames (applied to four out of seven windows to minimise thermal bridging). ? Finishes: Insulated ceiling board; and thermal plaster to external walls Three... performance of CH: ? Appropriate north-south orientation; ? Appropriate roof overhang combined with north-facing windows; ? Cavity walls (modular, hollow concrete blocks); ? Insulated ceiling; and ? Insulated external walls (thermal plaster). The study...

  19. Applying the Consensual Method of Estimating Poverty in a Low Income African Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Shailen; Pomati, Marco

    We present the first study of multidimensional poverty in Benin using the consensual or socially perceived necessities approach. There is a remarkable level consensus about what constitutes the necessities of life and an adequate standard of living. Following Townsend's concept of relative deprivation, we show how social consensus provides the basis for a reliable and valid index of multiple deprivation, which can be used to reflect multidimensional poverty. We discuss the issue of adaptive preferences, which has previously been used to criticise the consensual approach, and provide evidence to contest the claim that the poor adjust their aspirations downwards.

  20. Improving the location of low income housing delivery in South African urban areas.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Biermann, SM

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This finding suggests the need for a range of different housing typologies, with 'higher cost / higher potential benefit' housing typologies on scarce well-located land allocated to those with the best chance of exploiting those potential benefits...

  1. Dietary Intake Patterns of Low-Income Urban African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Youfa; Jahns, Lisa; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa; Xie, Bin; Rockett, Helaine; Liang, Huifang; Johnson, LuAnn

    2010-01-01

    Studies have indicated that family meals may be a protective factor for childhood obesity; however, limited evidence is available in children with different racial, socioeconomic, and individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine family meal frequency (FMF) as a protective factor for obesity in a US-based sample of non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic children aged 6 to 11, and to identify individual, familial, and socioeconomic factors that moderate thi...

  2. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.I.; Alfstad, T.; Victor, D.G.; Goldstein, G.; Remme, U.

    2005-01-01

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  3. Implementation strategies for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Tomas; Opiyo, Newton; Lewin, Simon; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Ciapponi, Agustín; Wiysonge, Charles S; Herrera, Cristian A; Rada, Gabriel; Peñaloza, Blanca; Dudley, Lilian; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Garcia Marti, Sebastian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Background A key function of health systems is implementing interventions to improve health, but coverage of essential health interventions remains low in low-income countries. Implementing interventions can be challenging, particularly if it entails complex changes in clinical routines; in collaborative patterns among different healthcare providers and disciplines; in the behaviour of providers, patients or other stakeholders; or in the organisation of care. Decision-makers may use a range of strategies to implement health interventions, and these choices should be based on evidence of the strategies' effectiveness. Objectives To provide an overview of the available evidence from up-to-date systematic reviews about the effects of implementation strategies for health systems in low-income countries. Secondary objectives include identifying needs and priorities for future evaluations and systematic reviews on alternative implementation strategies and informing refinements of the framework for implementation strategies presented in the overview. Methods We searched Health Systems Evidence in November 2010 and PDQ-Evidence up to December 2016 for systematic reviews. We did not apply any date, language or publication status limitations in the searches. We included well-conducted systematic reviews of studies that assessed the effects of implementation strategies on professional practice and patient outcomes and that were published after April 2005. We excluded reviews with limitations important enough to compromise the reliability of the review findings. Two overview authors independently screened reviews, extracted data and assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We prepared SUPPORT Summaries for eligible reviews, including key messages, 'Summary of findings' tables (using GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence) and assessments of the relevance of findings to low-income countries. Main results We identified 7272 systematic reviews and included 39 of

  4. Population density, distance to public transportation, and health of women in low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Merwin, Elizabeth I; Bourguignon, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of two neighborhood walkability (the extent to which the built environment is pedestrian friendly) metrics on health outcomes of women living in low-income urban neighborhoods, both before and after accounting for individual and neighborhood factors. A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used. The sample of 1800 low-income women was drawn from Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study (a study of low-income women from three U.S. cities). Using multilevel modeling and geographic information systems, the study sought to determine the effect of distance to public transportation and residential density on health status, mental health symptoms, and health-related limitations. No significant relationship was found between the two walkability metrics and health outcomes. Instead, neighborhood problems that affect crime and safety impacted health status and mental health symptoms. As cities make changes to the built environment with the hope of affecting residents' health outcomes, public health nurses need to be aware that changing walkability characteristics in a neighborhood may not affect the health of residents of high crime, low-income neighborhoods. Without first addressing neighborhood crime, efforts to improve walkability in low-income neighborhoods may fail. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An optimization algorithm for simulation-based planning of low-income housing projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Construction of low-income housing projects is a replicated process and is associated with uncertainties that arise from the unavailability of resources. Government agencies and/or contractors have to select a construction system that meets low-income housing projects constraints including project conditions, technical, financial and time constraints. This research presents a framework, using computer simulation, which aids government authorities and contractors in the planning of low-income housing projects. The proposed framework estimates the time and cost required for the construction of low-income housing using pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls. Five main components constitute the proposed framework: a network builder module, a construction alternative selection module, a simulation module, an optimization module and a reporting module. An optimization module utilizing a genetic algorithm enables the defining of different options and ranges of parameters associated with low-income housing projects that influence the duration and total cost of the pre-cast hollow core with hollow blocks bearing walls method. A computer prototype, named LIHouse_Sim, was developed in MS Visual Basic 6.0 as proof of concept for the proposed framework. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the use of the developed framework and to illustrate its essential features.

  6. How Medicaid Expansion Affected Out-of-Pocket Health Care Spending for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.

  7. Food Stress in Adelaide: The Relationship between Low Income and the Affordability of Healthy Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a “Healthy Food Basket” methodology, this study costed a week’s supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability. It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing “food stress.” Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  8. Perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Louise; Lanumata, Tolotea; Robinson, Jo-Ani; Tavila, Aliitasi; Wilton, Jenny; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2008-07-01

    In New Zealand the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples. Nutrition labels have the potential to promote healthy food choices and eating behaviours. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of research among indigenous peoples, ethnic minorities and low-income populations regarding their perceptions, use and understanding of nutrition labels. Our aim was to evaluate perceptions of New Zealand nutrition labels by Māori, Pacific and low-income peoples and to explore improvements or alternatives to current labelling systems. Māori, Samoan and Tongan researchers recruited participants who were regular food shoppers. Six focus groups were conducted which involved 158 people in total: one Māori group, one Samoan, one Tongan, and three low-income groups. Māori, Pacific and low-income New Zealanders rarely use nutrition labels to assist them with their food purchases for a number of reasons, including lack of time to read labels, lack of understanding, shopping habits and relative absence of simple nutrition labels on the low-cost foods they purchase. Current New Zealand nutrition labels are not meeting the needs of those who need them most. Possible improvements include targeted social marketing and education campaigns, increasing the number of low-cost foods with voluntary nutrition labels, a reduction in the price of 'healthy' food, and consideration of an alternative mandatory nutrition labelling system that uses simple imagery like traffic lights.

  9. Opportunities for Prevention: Assessing Where Low-Income Patients Seek Care for Preventable Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiman, Tamar A; Valdmanis, Vivian G; Bernet, Patrick; Moises, James

    2015-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act has many aspects that are aimed at improving health care for all Americans, including mandated insurance coverage for individuals, as well as required community health needs assessments (CHNAs), and reporting of investments in community benefit by nonprofit hospitals in order to maintain tax exemptions. Although millions of Americans have gained access to health insurance, many--often the most vulnerable--remain uninsured, and will continue to depend on hospital community benefits for care. Understanding where patients go for care can assist hospitals and communities to develop their CHNA and implementation plans in order to focus resources where the need for prevention is greatest. This study evaluated patient care-seeking behavior among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) in Florida in 2008--analyzed in 2013--to assess whether low-income patients accessed specific safety net hospitals for treatment or received care from hospitals that were geographically closer to their residence. This study found evidence that low-income patients went to hospitals that treated more low-income patients, regardless of where they lived. The findings demonstrate that hospitals-especially public safety net hospitals with a tradition of treating low-income patients suffering from CAD-should focus prevention activities where low-income patients reside.

  10. Travel patterns and characteristics of low-income subpopulation in New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuscher, Tim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, Hyeonsup [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Studies have shown that people residing in poverty face more mobility challenges in their daily travels as compared to those living in higher income households. In many cities, the lack of a public transportation systems and investments in low-income areas are making it difficult for those living in poverty to access jobs, goods, and services (schools, groceries, health cares, etc. In this study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was tasked by the New York State (NYS) Department of Transportation to conduct a detailed examination of the travel behaviors and identify patterns and trends of the low-income residents within NYS. The 2009 National Household Travel Survey data was used as the primary information source to analyze subjects associated with poverty and mobility, as well as to address questions such as are there differences in traveler demographics between the low-income population and those of others who live in various NYS regions (e.g., New York City, other urban areas of NYS)? How do they compare with the population at large (e.g., rest of the country) or with findings from previous years (i.e., trend)? Are there any regional differences (e.g., urban versus rural)? Do any unique travel characteristics or patterns exist within the low-income group? Through this study, various key findings on low-income population sizes, household characteristics, travel patterns, and mobility limitations were identified and summarized in this report.

  11. Wanting better: a qualitative study of low-income parents about their children's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlotte W; Linsenmayer, Kristi A; Williams, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, the purpose of this study was to understand low-income parents' experiences and how these influenced their oral health-related behavior toward their children. Twenty-eight parents were recruited from 7 sites that serve low-income families. Interviews, which were audiotaped and transcribed, were comprised of mostly open-ended questions. Transcripts were analyzed for common themes. Parents' experiences influenced their oral health-related beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Finding dentists who accept Medicaid was the greatest barrier to realizing intended preventive dental care. Physicians appeared to have relatively little impact on these families' oral health care, even though parents believed that oral health is part of overall health care. WIC (the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) played an important role in facilitating oral health knowledge and access to dental care. Most low-income parents had received little attention to their own oral health, yet wanted better for their children. This motivated the high value placed on their children's preventive oral health. Parents faced challenges finding dental care for their children. Difficulty finding a regular source of dental care for low-income adults, however, was nearly universal. The authors identified strategies, which emerged from their interviews, to improve the oral health knowledge and dental care access for these low-income families.

  12. Food stress in Adelaide: the relationship between low income and the affordability of healthy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Verity, Fiona; Carter, Patricia; Tsourtos, George; Coveney, John; Wong, Kwan Chui

    2013-01-01

    Healthy food is becoming increasingly expensive, and families on low incomes face a difficult financial struggle to afford healthy food. When food costs are considered, families on low incomes often face circumstances of poverty. Housing, utilities, health care, and transport are somewhat fixed in cost; however food is more flexible in cost and therefore is often compromised with less healthy, cheaper food, presenting an opportunity for families on low incomes to cut costs. Using a "Healthy Food Basket" methodology, this study costed a week's supply of healthy food for a range of family types. It found that low-income families would have to spend approximately 30% of household income on eating healthily, whereas high-income households needed to spend about 10%. The differential is explained by the cost of the food basket relative to household income (i.e., affordability). It is argued that families that spend more than 30% of household income on food could be experiencing "food stress." Moreover the high cost of healthy foods leaves low-income households vulnerable to diet-related health problems because they often have to rely on cheaper foods which are high in fat, sugar, and salt.

  13. Cigarette smoking and food insecurity among low-income families in the United States, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Pitts, M Melinda; Lee, Chung-Won

    2008-01-01

    To quantify the association between food insecurity and smoking among low-income families. A retrospective study using data from the 2001 Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), a longitudinal study of a representative sample of U.S. men, women, and children and the family units in which they reside. Low-income families. Family income was linked with U.S. poverty thresholds to identify 2099 families living near or below 200% of the federal poverty level. Food insecurity (i.e., having insufficient funds to purchase enough food to maintain an active and healthy lifestyle) was calculated from the 18-core-item food security module of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Current smoking status was determined. Smoking prevalence was higher among low-income families who were food insecure compared with low-income families who were food secure (43.6% vs. 31.9%; p < .01). Multivariate analysis revealed that smoking was associated with an increase in food insecurity of approximately six percentage points (p < .01). Given our finding that families near the federal poverty level spend a large share of their income on cigarettes, perhaps it would be prudent for food-assistance and tobacco-control programs to work together to help low-income people quit smoking.

  14. Trends and inequities in where women delivered their babies in 25 low-income countries: evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limwattananon, Supon; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sirilak, Supakit

    2011-05-01

    In low-income countries, the coverage of institutional births is low. Using data from the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (1995-2001 and 2001-2006) for 25 low-income countries, this study examined trends in where women delivered their babies--public or private facilities or non-institutional settings. More than half of deliveries were in institutional settings in ten countries, mostly public facilities. In the other 15 countries, the majority of births were in women's homes, which was often their only option. Between the two survey periods, all five Asian countries studied (except Bangladesh) had an increase of 10-20 percentage points in institutional coverage, whereas none of the 19 sub-Saharan African countries saw an increase of more than 10 percentage points. More urban women and more in the richest (least poor) quintile gave birth in public or private facilities than rural and poorest quintile women. The rich-poor gap of institutional births was wider than the urban-rural gap. Inadequate public investment in health system infrastructure in rural areas and lack of skilled health professionals are major obstacles in reducing maternal mortality. Governments in low-income countries must invest more, especially in rural maternity services. Strengthening private, for-profit providers is not a policy choice for poor, rural communities. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Community Engagement Compared With Technical Assistance to Disseminate Depression Care Among Low-Income, Minority Women: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbourne, Cathy; Chung, Bowen; Tang, Lingqi; Wright, Aziza L.; Whittington, Yolanda; Wells, Kenneth; Miranda, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of a (CEP) versus a technical assistance approach (Resources for Services, or RS) to disseminate depression care for low-income ethnic minority women. Methods. We conducted secondary analyses of intervention effects for largely low-income, minority women subsample (n = 595; 45.1% Latino and 45.4% African American) in a matched, clustered, randomized control trial conducted in 2 low-resource communities in Los Angeles, California, between 2010 and 2012. Outcomes assessed included mental health, socioeconomic factors, and service use at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results. Although we found no intervention difference for depressive symptoms, there were statistically significant effects for mental health quality of life, resiliency, homelessness risk, and financial difficulties at 6 months, as well as missed work days, self-efficacy, and care barriers at 12 months favoring CEP relative to RS. CEP increased use of outpatient substance abuse services and faith-based depression visits at 6 months. Conclusions. Engaging health care and social community programs may offer modest improvements on key functional and socioeconomic outcomes, reduce care barriers, and increase engagement in alternative depression services for low-income, predominantly ethnic minority women. PMID:27552274

  16. Parental supervision and discomfort with children walking to school in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Abigail; Koekemoer, Karin; Niekerk, Ashley van; Govender, Rajen

    2018-05-19

    likely to be supervised by an adult. Many South African schoolchildren have to navigate the roads without adult supervision from a young age. Caregivers, especially in low-income settings, often have limited options with regard to getting their child to school safely. Regardless of the child's age and gender, the time that they spend on the roads is an important factor for parents in terms of pedestrian safety.

  17. Breakfast Consumption Frequency and Its Relationships to Overall Diet Quality, Using Healthy Eating Index 2010, and Body Mass Index among Adolescents in a Low-Income Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Sattler, Melissa; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the relationship of breakfast frequency to diet quality and BMI among low-income, predominantly African American adolescents aged 9-15 (n = 239). Mean frequency of breakfast consumption was 5.0 ± 0.15 times per week. A significant, positive relationship was seen between HEI scores and frequency of breakfast consumption (p = .01). Dairy (p = .02) and whole grains (p diet quality in this population.

  18. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Tailoring science education graduate programs to the needs of science educators in low-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; van den Berg, Euwe

    Science education graduate programs in high-income countries frequently enroll students from low-income countries. Upon admission these students have profiles of knowledge, skills, and experiences which can be quite different from those of students from the host high-income countries. Upon graduation, they will normally return to work in education systems with conditions which differ greatly from those in high-income countries. This article attempts to clarify some of the differences and similarities between such students. It offers suggestions for making graduate programs more responsive to the special needs of students from low-income countries and to the opportunities they offer for enhancing cross-cultural sensitivity. Many of the suggestions can be incorporated within existing programs through choices of elective courses and topics for papers, projects, and research. Many references are provided to relevant literature on cultural issues and on science education in low-income countries.

  20. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2017-09-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Bucking the trend? Health care expenditures in low-income countries 1990-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, M

    1999-01-01

    Health care expenditures in low-income countries are analysed for the years 1990 and 1995 using four key indicators. Key findings include a substantial reduction in public spending per capita across low-income countries between 1990-95; a significant shift towards private expenditures, which appears increasingly to be substituting rather than supplementing public expenditures; a fall in total and public health spending in many countries despite growth in national income, contradicting the relationship found in other studies. Two possible explanations are put forward. First that the patterns found are a direct result of the structural adjustment policies adopted by many low-income countries, which aim to control and often cut public financing, whilst promoting private health expenditures. Secondly, that following the wave of privatization of state industries, many governments are finding problems adapting to their new role as a tax collector, and are thus not benefiting from economic growth to the extent that might be expected.

  2. Social Policy Trends- Housing Affordability for Families with Low Incomes Across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita (Gres Wilkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available HOUSING AFFORDABILITY FOR FAMILIES WITH LOW INCOMES ACROSS CANADA Percentage of income devoted to paying lowest-priced rent in a city, by low-income family type, select years, 1990-2015 Much public attention has been directed towards the issue of a Canada-wide housing crisis. The focus has typically been on the cost of housing for an average income Canadian family. Less attention has been paid to families with incomes much lower than those of the average Canadian household, for which the housing crisis is far more severe. Households and individuals with particularly low incomes are at the highest risk of experiencing the worst effects of a lack of housing affordability, including homelessness.

  3. The Role of Educational Aspirations and Expectations in the Discontinuity of Intergenerational Low-Income Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill,, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated one potential mechanism mediating continuity and discontinuity in low-income status across generations: children's educational aspirations and expectations. Data were drawn from a community sample of 808 participants who were followed from age 10 to 30. Four trajectory groups of children's educational aspirations and expectations were identified from ages 10 to 18 (grades five through 12): “stable-high” group, “stable-low” group, “increaser” group, and “decreaser” group. Among participants from low-income families, those in the stable-high group and the increaser group were equally likely to graduate from high school. High school graduation was positively associated with level of total household income at age 30. Findings suggest that social work efforts that support the development of high educational aspirations and expectations in children might serve to reduce the intergenerational continuity of low-income status. PMID:24385713

  4. Economics, Marketing and Low Income Individuals: interest after a history of indifference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Wilcox Hemais

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the early years of marketing, researchers used theories and concepts from economics as base for the development of their own theories and concepts. This similarity can be seen in the way marketing viewed the low income individual and his relationship with consumption, in the first studies of the subject. Like the economists, researchers in marketing described these individuals as dependents of society and governments to better their lives. This view changes when Prahalad defends a new perspective, through which individuals in this context are seen as consumers, with desires to consume products of diverse nature. The objective of this article, therefore, is to analyze the paths trailed by economics and two moments in marketing about the low income individual. Initially, the view economics has on low income individuals is discussed, so that, afterwards, two perspectives of marketing about this segment can be presented.

  5. Access to and use of paid sick leave among low-income families with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Perry, Cynthia D; Kenney, Genevieve M; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Pantell, Matthew S

    2008-08-01

    The ability of employed parents to meet the health needs of their children may depend on their access to sick leave, especially for low-income workers, who may be afforded less flexibility in their work schedules to accommodate these needs yet also more likely to have children in poor health. Our goal was to provide rates of access to paid sick leave and paid vacation leave among low-income families with children and to assess whether access to these benefits is associated with parents' leave taking to care for themselves or others. We used a sample of low-income families (paid leave and characteristics of children, families, and parents' employer. Access to paid leave was lower among children in low-income families than among those in families with higher income. Within low-income families, children without >or=1 full-time worker in the household were especially likely to lack access to this benefit, as were children whose parents work for small employers. Among children whose parents had access to paid sick leave, parents were more likely to take time away from work to care for themselves or others. This relationship is even more pronounced among families with the highest need, such as children in fair or poor health and children with all parents in full-time employment. Legislation mandating paid sick leave could dramatically increase access to this benefit among low-income families. It would likely diminish gaps in parents' leave taking to care for others between families with and without the benefit. However, until the health-related consequences are better understood, the full impact of such legislation remains unknown.

  6. The Effectiveness Of Rental Housing Finance For Low-Income Households In Sombo Rental Flats Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Nur Ramadhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fullfilment for the needs of housing is a priority that cannot be suspended especially in urban areas of developing country whose population continues to increase because of the rapid urbanization. Indonesia as the developing country still has a fairly high backlog approximately at 7.6 millions unit house in 2014 most of them are low income people. The Government has several plan in striving for the scarcity of housing. One of them is the development of rental flats which have goals for the social housing fulfillment for low income people and increase their housing affordability by lowering the rental rates. The intention is to assist the low income people save their money to buy their own homes. But in facts there are several constraints related to this rental flats finance such as late payment by the residents uncontroled right transfer and the tariff adjusted to the ability of the inhabitants can not cover the cost of the physical building management and maintanance. This study aims to evaluate Sombo rental flat finance for for low income people in which the data are collected through in depth interview observation and documentation. The results of several qualitatively descriptive analysis show that the effectiveness of rental flat financing in the aspect of the purpose and goal to facilitating low income community needs of housing is quiet accomplished. Beside that the organization is also well structured and have the efficient human resources. But Sombo rental flats effectivenes is relatively low in the aspect of profit ability rental financing program and in the enforcement of rules and regulation. The main problem is in the arrears of residents rental payment and the deficiency for maintanance cost so it has to depend on the city government subsidies. The rental finance constraint are caused by several factors which are historic factors residents factors and the vision and commitment of the city government to facilitate housing for low

  7. Approaches to Electric Utility Energy Efficiency for Low Income Customers in a Changing Regulatory Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, N.

    2001-05-21

    As the electric industry goes through a transformation to a more market-driven model, traditional grounds for utility energy efficiency have come under fire, undermining the existing mechanisms to fund and deliver such services. The challenge, then, is to understand why the electric industry should sustain investments in helping low-income Americans use electricity efficiently, how such investments should be made, and how these policies can become part of the new electric industry structure. This report analyzes the opportunities and barriers to leveraging electric utility energy efficiency assistance to low-income customers during the transition of the electric industry to greater competition.

  8. Pioneering Annual Colorectal Cancer Screening and Treatment Targeting Low Income Communities in Malaysia (20102015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Christina Ng Van; Fitzgerald, Henry; Qureshi, Akhtar; Tan, Huck Joo; Low, May Lee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the rate of uptake of a customised annual Colorectal Cancer Awareness, Screening and Treatment Project (CCASTP) using faecal immunohistochemical test (FIT) kits in low income communities in Malaysia. The immediate objectives were (1) to evaluate the level of adherence of CRC screening among lowincome groups, (2) to assess the knowledge and awareness of the screened population and (3) to assess the accuracy of FIT kits. A total of 1,581 FIT kits were distributed between years 2010 to 2015 to healthy asymptomatic participants of the annual CCASTP organized by Empowered the Cancer Advocacy Society of Malaysia. Data for sociodemographic characteristics, critical health and lifestyle information of the registered subjects were collected. Findings for use of the FIT kits were collected when they were returned for stool analyses. Those testingd positive were invited to undergo a colonoscopy examination. A total of 1,436 (90.8%) of the subjects retuned the FITkits, showing high compliance. Among the 129 subjects with positive FIT results, 92 (71.3%) underwent colonoscopy. Six cases (6.5%) of CRC were found. Based on the data collected, the level of awareness of stool examination and knowledge about CRC was poor amongst the participants. Gender, age group, ethnicity and risk factors (i.e. smoking, lack of exercise and low consumption of fresh fruits) were associated with positive FITkit results. In conclusion, CRC screening can be performed in the community with a single FITkit. Although CRC knowledge and awareness is poor in lowincome communities, the average return rate of the FIT kits and rate of colonoscopy examination were 91.2% and 70.3%, respectively.

  9. Fluralaner as a single dose oral treatment for Caparinia tripilis in a pygmy African hedgehog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Camilo; Sheinberg Waisburd, Galia; Pineda, Jocelyn; Heredia, Rafael; Yarto, Enrique; Cordero, Alberto M

    2017-12-01

    African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) are popular pets belonging to the Erinaceidae family of spined mammals. Amongst the most common skin diseases occurring in this species is infestation caused by the mite Caparinia spp. Due to their skin anatomy and spiny coat, detection of skin lesions in these hedgehogs can be difficult. This may result in delays in seeking medical care, which may lead to secondary bacterial infection and self-inflicted trauma. Multiple therapies have been used in the treatment of this skin condition including ivermectin, amitraz, fipronil and selamectin. A drug which could be administered as a single oral dose would be advantageous to these pets and their owners. To evaluate the effect of a single oral dose (15 mg/kg) of fluralaner on Caparinia tripilis infestation in the African pygmy hedgehog. A 10-month-old African pygmy hedgehog weighing 184 g. Response to treatment was monitored by dermatological examination and superficial skin scrapings repeated at 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90 and 120 days following fluralaner administration. On Day 7 after treatment, adult mites were observed exhibiting normal movement. On Day 14, only dead mites were observed. No life stages of the mites were found after Day 21. A single oral dose at 15 mg/kg of fluralaner was effective within 21 days after treatment for capariniasis in this case. Further studies are required to evaluate the drug's safety and toxicology in hedgehogs, and to confirm efficacy. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies: A Compendium of Program Ideas for Serving Low-Income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition, Washington, DC.

    The Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies survey conducted in spring 1985 drew responses from over 1,500 programs active in maternal and child health efforts directed toward low-income women and their families. The executive summary of this report identifies the major goals, common strategies, and needs of program respondents. Chapter 1 summarizes a…

  11. A Mixed Methods Study on Developing Low-Income Kindergarten Students' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kara J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine how the effects of kindergarten teachers' evidence-based literacy instructional practices impact the development of low-income kindergarten students' intrinsic reading motivation. The research questions are: (a) What are kindergarten teachers' perceptions of students' intrinsic reading…

  12. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  13. Understanding Barriers and Solutions Affecting Preschool Attendance in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman-Stillman, Amy; Englund, Michelle M.; Storm, Karen J.; Bailey, Ann E.

    2018-01-01

    Preschool attendance problems negatively impact children's school readiness skills and future school attendance. Parents are critical to preschoolers' attendance. This study explored parental barriers and solutions to preschool attendance in low-income families. School-district administrative data from a racially/ethnically diverse sample of…

  14. Playing Linear Numerical Board Games Promotes Low-Income Children's Numerical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.; Ramani, Geetha B.

    2008-01-01

    The numerical knowledge of children from low-income backgrounds trails behind that of peers from middle-income backgrounds even before the children enter school. This gap may reflect differing prior experience with informal numerical activities, such as numerical board games. Experiment 1 indicated that the numerical magnitude knowledge of…

  15. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  16. Family and Cultural Influences on Low-Income Latino Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = 0.66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77%…

  17. Children's Effects on Parenting Stress in a Low Income, Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, R. Debra; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relationships between parenting stress and other maternal and child characteristics were investigated with 66 low income mothers and their five- to eight-year-old children at risk for educational disabilities. Child characteristics (self esteem, behavior conduct, and spelling achievement) and maternal characteristics (self esteem and crowding…

  18. Healthy and comfortable dwellings for the low-income settlements in Surakarta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsandrie, Y.; Bokel, R.M.J.; Van der Linden, A.C.; Kurvers, S.R.; Cauberg, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Technology for the low-income group of people should be as simple as their daily life. Giving recommendations for simple dwelling design and changing people’s behaviour for a better living are the concerns of this research. A field-survey was conducted in November-December 2010 involving 426

  19. Prenatal Care Initiation in Low-Income Hispanic Women: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…

  20. Prospera Digital Phase II: Financial inclusion for low-income women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Prospera Digital Phase II: Financial inclusion for low-income women in Mexico ... a research network in Latin America, to identify barriers and opportunities to scale up ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  1. Process Evaluation of a Parenting Program for Low-Income Families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jamie M.; Kelly, Jane; Cluver, Lucie; Ward, Catherine L.; Hutchings, Judy; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This mixed-methods process evaluation examined the feasibility of a parenting program delivered by community facilitators to reduce the risk of child maltreatment in low-income families with children aged 3-8 years in Cape Town, South Africa (N = 68). Method: Quantitative measures included attendance registers, fidelity checklists,…

  2. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  3. Multidisciplinary Perspectives towards the Education of Young Low-Income Immigrant Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep; Demir-Dagdas, Tuba; Cakmakci, Huzeyfe; Cava-Tadik, Yasemin; Intepe-Tingir, Seyma

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the issues surrounding low-income immigrants in the U.S. and the ways they shape the educational experiences of their young children. Using a multidisciplinary lens including sociology, family studies, education, and mental health, the authors analyse multiple perspectives towards the educational experiences of children in…

  4. After-School Multifamily Groups: A Randomized Controlled Trial Involving Low-Income, Urban, Latino Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lynn; Moberg, D. Paul; Brown, Roger; Rodriguez-Espiricueta, Ismael; Flores, Nydia I.; Burke, Melissa P.; Coover, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluated a culturally representative parent engagement strategy with Latino parents of elementary school children. Ten urban schools serving low-income children from mixed cultural backgrounds participated in a large study. Classrooms were randomly assigned either either to an after-school, multifamily support…

  5. 76 FR 64882 - Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...] Inquiry Into Disbursement Process for the Universal Service Fund Low Income Program AGENCY: Federal... payments would replace the current administrative process, under which the Universal Service Administrative... Wireline Competition Bureau (WCB) seeks comment on a proposal for disbursing Universal Service Fund low...

  6. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  7. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  8. Experiential Cooking Programs for Low-Income Adults: Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Karen; Vineyard, Michelle; Olson, Ann; Peterson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Experiential cooking classes for low-income adults can help improve healthy nutrition behaviors. However, nutrition educators and Extension professionals can face challenges in successful implementation of these programs such as difficulties recruiting and retaining participants. Drawing upon lessons learned from a cooking intervention with…

  9. Preschool Interactive Peer Play Mediates Problem Behavior and Learning for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Romero, Sandy L.; Carter, Tracy M.

    2012-01-01

    The study employed a developmental, ecological, and resiliency framework to examine whether interactive peer play competencies mediated associations between teacher reported problem behavior and learning outcomes for a representative sample of urban low-income children (N = 507 across 46 Head Start classrooms). Structural equation models provided…

  10. Elaboration and Autonomy Support in Low-Income Mothers' Reminiscing: Links to Children's Autobiographical Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Diana; Reese, Elaine; Grolnick, Wendy; Price, Carrie

    2008-01-01

    Maternal elaboration and autonomy support during reminiscing facilitate middle-class children's autobiographical narrative skills. In this study, low-income Hispanic, White, and Black mothers' elaboration and autonomy support in reminiscing were examined in relation to children's joint and independent autobiographical narratives and engagement.…

  11. Parental Mathematics Homework Involvement of Low-Income Families with Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Robyn Hackford; Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between methods of parental assistance (i.e., provision of structure, direct assistance, and autonomy support) with mathematics homework for high-achieving and low-achieving students and children's achievement in mathematics in low-income families and examines the impact of parental efficacy on these…

  12. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  13. Understanding the Gender Gap in School Performance among Low-Income Children: A Developmental Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, Danielle; Serbin, Lisa A.; Stack, Dale M.

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, girls outperform boys in overall school performance. The gender gap is particularly large among those in at-risk groups, such as children from families at economic disadvantage. This study modeled the academic trajectories of a low-income sample of boys and girls from the Concordia Longitudinal Risk Project across the full course…

  14. Management of severe acute malnutrition in low-income and middle-income countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwashiorkor and marasmus, collectively termed severe acute malnutrition (SAM), account for at least 10% of all deaths among children under 5 years of age worldwide, virtually all of them in low-income and middle-income countries. A number of risk factors, including seasonal food insecurity, environm...

  15. The feasibility of a Paleolithic diet for low-income consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metzgar, Matthew; Rideout, Todd C.; Fontes-Villalba, Maelan; Kuipers, Remko S.

    Many low-income consumers face a limited budget for food purchases. The United States Department of Agriculture developed the Thrifty Food Plan to address this problem of consuming a healthy diet given a budget constraint. This dietary optimization program uses common food choices to build a

  16. Factors Influencing the General Well-Being of Low-Income Korean Immigrant Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Yoon, Dong Pil

    2011-01-01

    This study explores factors that influence the general well-being (anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health) of low-income Korean immigrant elders by interviewing 206 older adults living in Los Angeles County and Orange County, California. Ordinary least squares regression results reveal that lack of…

  17. Evaluation of DOE's Partnership in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Lee, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    In July 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded competitive grants to five states to conduct pilot projects to establish partnerships and use resource leveraging to stimulate support for low-income residential energy retrofits. The projects were conducted under DOE's Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. These projects have been monitored and analyzed through a concurrent process evaluation conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This study reports the findings of that evaluation. The overriding goal of the PILIRR Program was to determine whether the states could stimulate support for low-income residential energy improvements from non-federal sources. The goal for the process evaluation was to conduct an assessment of the processes used by the states and the extent to which they successfully established partnerships and leveraged resources. Five states were selected to participate in the program: Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington. Each state proposed a different approach to promote non-federal support for low-income residential weatherization. Three of the five states--Florida, Iowa, and Washington--established partnerships that led to retrofits during the monitoring period (October 1986--October 1988). Kentucky established its partnership during the monitoring period, but did not accomplish its retrofits until after monitoring was complete. Oklahoma completed development of its marketing program and had begun marketing efforts by the end of the monitoring period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Social Competence among Low-Income Preschoolers: Emotion Socialization Practices and Social Cognitive Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between emotion socialization variables, social cognitive knowledge, and children's social competence in preschoolers from low-income families. Found that mothers' self-reported emotion socialization practices were related to children's emotional knowledge and sibling caregiving behavior. (MDM)

  19. Low-Income Parental Profiles of Coping, Resource Adequacy, and Public Assistance Receipt: Links to Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Angela N.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Schiffman, Rachel F.; Bocknek, Erika L.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in perceptions of resources and in coping strategies among low-income parents likely influences parenting. The purposes of this study were to identify differences in parental profiles, as indicated by receipt of public assistance, perceptions of adequacy of resources, and coping strategies, and to examine these profiles relative to…

  20. Low-Income Mothers' Food Practices with Young Children: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Dickson, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Young children living in socioeconomically deprived areas of Scotland have an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. To enhance understanding of the wider contexts within which family food practices are developed, this study examined the experiences of low-income mothers with young children. Design: Qualitative longitudinal…

  1. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  2. Educator Perceptions of Low-Income Elementary Students and Their Effects on Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…

  3. Associations of Low-Income Working Mothers' Daily Interactions with Supervisors and Mother-Child Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated associations of low-income working mothers' daily interactions with supervisors and their interactions with children. Sixty-one mothers of preschool-aged children were asked to report on their interactions with their supervisors at work and their interactions with children for 2 weeks (N = 520 workdays). Results show…

  4. Student Success for All: Support for Low-Income Students at an Urban Public University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Although federal financial aid has increased in recent years, the costs of college tuition and living expenses have increased even more, leaving larger numbers of students with unmet need. Restructuring of financial aid, however, is insufficient to address the problem of diverging attainment gaps between low-income students and their more…

  5. The Impact of GEAR UP on College Readiness for Students in Low Income Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausmith, Jennifer Merriman; France, Megan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Program (GEAR UP) on college readiness outcomes using a quasi-experimental design. GEAR UP is designed to increase the number of low-income students who are prepared to enter and succeed in postsecondary education by providing 6-year…

  6. A Phenomenological Study to Discover Low-Income Adults' Perceptions and Expectations Regarding Financial Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Brigid Ann

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perceptions and expectations of low income adults regarding financial literacy to discover ways to increase attendance in financial literacy programs designs for this cohort. The study utilized interviews with closed-ended questions to establish the participants' backgrounds, then opened-ended questions to…

  7. Feminist Relational Advocacy: Processes and Outcomes from the Perspective of Low-Income Women with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Lisa A.; Glenn, Catherine; Bohlig, Amanda; Banyard, Victoria; Borges, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study of how low-income women who are struggling with symptoms of depression experience feminist relational advocacy, a new model that is informed by feminist, multicultural, and community psychology theories. Using qualitative content analysis of participant interviews, the authors describe the processes and…

  8. Reducing the Incidence of Low Birth Weight in Low-Income Countries Has Substantial Economic Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.

    2006-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of low birth weight not only lowers infant mortality rates but also has multiple benefits over the life cycle. This study estimates the economic benefits of reducing the incidence of low birth weight in low-income countries, both through lower mortality rates and medical costs and through increased learning and productivity. The estimated economic benefits, under pla...

  9. Occupational and Educational Goals of Low Income Children in Kentucky, 1969 and 1975. RS-49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Anne V.; Coleman, A. Lee

    Changes in the occupational and educational aspirations and expectations of fifth and sixth grade children over a 6-year period were studied. In 1969, a questionnaire was administered to 355 students from 4 rural mountain schools and 3 urban schools in low-income areas in 3 Kentucky counties. In 1975, 199 students from the same rural mountain…

  10. Family Investments in Low-Income Children's Achievement and Socioemotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesca; McPherran Lombardi, Caitlin; Dearing, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Family processes and parenting practices help explain developmental differences between children in low- versus higher-income households. There are, however, few studies addressing the question of: what are the key family processes and parenting practices for promoting low-income children's growth? We address this question in the present study,…

  11. Childbirth attendance strategies and their impact on maternal mortality and morbidity in low-income settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyone, Thidar; Sorensen, Bjarke Lund; Tellier, Siri

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To review quantitative evidence of the effect on maternal health of different childbirth attendance strategies in low-income settings. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Studies using quantitative methods, referring to the period 1987-2011, written in English and reporting the impact ...

  12. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  13. Personal Empowerment in the Study of Home Internet Use by Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Melinda; Gallo, Michael; Nucklos, Eddy; Sherblom, Stephen; Pennick, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a United States Department of Commerce (National Telecommunications and Information Administrations, NTIA, 1995) study of home Internet use by Low-income families. The study investigated the barriers, benefits (empowerment), and perceived worth of the Internet and concluded that home Internet access enabled powerful emotional and…

  14. Variations in Classroom Language Environments of Preschool Children Who Are Low Income and Linguistically Diverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook; Atkins-Burnett, Sally; Sandilos, Lia; Scheffner Hammer, Carol; Lopez, Lisa; Blair, Clancy

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study aimed to (a) provide an in-depth description of the frequency and type of language interactions that children who are low income and/or dual language learners (DLLs) experience in their classrooms and (b) examine whether differences exist in children's language experiences based on children's DLL status and level of…

  15. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  16. Is the Feeling Mutual? Examining Parent-Teacher Relationships in Low-Income, Predominantly Latino Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hannah; Robinson, Michelle; Valentine, Jessa Lewis; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Strong parent-teacher relationships are critical to students' academic success. Mismatches in parents' and teachers' perceptions of each other may negatively affect children's outcomes. Using survey data collected from parents and teachers in 52 low-income, predominantly Latino schools, we explore subgroup variation in parents' and teachers'…

  17. Characterizing Air Pollution in Two Low-Income Neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of urban population growth in the world, with a large number of urban residents living in low-income “slum” neighborhoods. We conducted a study for an initial assessment of the levels and spatial and/or temporal patterns of multiple polluta...

  18. Fruit and vegetable attitudes, norms, and intake in low-income youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable (FV) attitudes and norms have been shown to influence intake in youth; yet research with low-income youth and studies supplementing self-report with objective measures of intake are lacking. Cross-sectional survey data on self-rated FV intake, FV attitudes, and FV norms were coll...

  19. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  20. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  1. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM. Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model revealed that 20.5% (21.8% and 38.46% (38.9% of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  2. Fostering Community and Civic Engagement in Low-Income Multicultural Schools through Transformative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Barbara; Horman, Judith; Lapointe, Claire

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examine how transformative leadership enables students from a low-income and multicultural neighbourhood to learn about democracy, responsible citizenship, and community engagement at school. As part of a graduate seminar on critical pedagogy and cultural studies in education, in-depth group interviews were conducted with…

  3. Promoting health and advancing development through improved housing in low-income settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, A.; Bruce, N.; Cairncross, S.; Davies, M.; Greenland, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Lindsay, S.; Lindsay, T.; Satterthwaite, D.; Wilkinson, P.

    2013-01-01

    There is major untapped potential to improve health in low-income communities through improved housing design, fittings, materials and construction. Adverse effects on health from inadequate housing can occur through a range of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, including as a result of extreme

  4. Household Food Security and Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Low-Income Fourth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutzmacher, Stephanie; Gross, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between household food security and children's and parents' fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption and fruit and vegetable availability. Design: Cross-sectional study using matched parent-child surveys. Setting: Title I elementary schools in Maryland. Participants: Ninety-two low-income parent-child…

  5. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  6. Poverty Levels and Debt Indicators among Low-Income Households before and after the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…

  7. A Talent for Tinkering: Developing Talents in Children from Low-Income Households through Engineering Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ann; Adelson, Jill L.; Kidd, Kristy A.; Cunningham, Christine M.

    2018-01-01

    Guided by the theoretical framework of curriculum as a platform for talent development, this quasi-experimental field study investigated an intervention focused on engineering curriculum and curriculum based on a biography of a scientist through a comparative design implemented in low-income schools. Student outcome measures included science…

  8. Modeling exposures to organophosphates and pyrethroids for children living in an urban low-income environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide exposure in urban low-income residential environments may be elevated as a result of persistent application due to severe pest infestation. Children living in this environment may be a sensitive subpopulation for these non-dietary exposures, due to their physiological a...

  9. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Purchases in an Urban Supermarket by Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J.; Stites, Shana D.; Wallace, Samantha L.; Braitman, Leonard E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictors of fresh fruit and vegetable purchases in a low-income population and identify subgroups in which interventions to increase such purchases might prove useful. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 209 shopping transactions from 30 households. Individual and household characteristics obtained from primary…

  10. Millennial Learners and Net-Savvy Teens? Examining Internet Use among Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhow, Christine; Walker, J. D.; Kim, Seongdok

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses access and use of information and communication technologies among urban high school students from low-income families, a topic of great interest to teacher educators, educational policymakers, and others concerned with digital literacy instruction. Recent reports from national digital learning initiatives have portrayed…

  11. Does Home Internet Use Influence the Academic Performance of Low-Income Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A.; von Eye, Alexander; Biocca, Frank A.; Barbatsis, Gretchen; Zhao, Yong; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.

    2006-01-01

    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study designed to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families http://www.HomeNetToo.org). The study was done between December 2000 and June 2002. Among the consequences considered was children's academic performance. Participants were 140 children, mostly African…

  12. Influence of a Supervised Mentoring Program on the Achievement of Low-Income South Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sumi; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supervised mentoring program designed to improve the academic achievement of 834 low-income elementary and secondary school students in Seoul, South Korea. When compared to the control group, both elementary and middle school students exposed to the mentoring program improved in mathematic and reading…

  13. Growth in Means-Tested Programs and Tax Credits for Low-Income Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William; Dahl, Molly; Falk, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The federal government devotes roughly one-sixth of its spending to 10 major means-tested programs and tax credits, which provide cash payments or assistance in obtaining health care, food, housing, or education to people with relatively low income or few assets. Those programs and credits consist of the following: (1) Medicaid; (2) the low-income…

  14. ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW INCOME FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRESSMAN, HARVEY

    A PROPOSAL FOR AN ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR ACADEMICALLY TALENTED JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS FROM LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN CERTAIN AREAS OF BOSTON IS PRESENTED. BASIC ASSUMPTIONS ARE THAT THERE IS AND OBVIOUS AND PRESSING NEED TO GIVE EXTRA HELP TO THE ABLE STUDENT FROM A DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUND, AND THAT A RELATIVELY BRIEF ENRICHMENT EXPERIENCE FOR…

  15. Contraceptive use among low-income urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manisha; Meena, Jyoti; Sharma, Sumedha; Poddar, Anju; Dhalliwal, Vikas; Modi-Satish Chander Modi, S C; Singh, Kamlesh

    2011-02-01

    The reports of a rise in contraceptive practices have not been matched by a similar decrease in population, so there is a need to look into the causes of this discrepancy. To obtain information from low-income urban married women regarding their contraceptive knowledge, practices, and utilization of the services. Percentage of low-income urban married women using contraception, different types of contraception used, influence of education on choice of contraception. All nonpregnant married women between the ages of 18 and 45 years, belonging to low-income groups were selected for study. Statistical analysis was done using EPI Info ver-5.0. Chi square test was used to test the significance of data. Contraceptive use among these women was 52%; the most common method was tubal ligation. Educated women used spacing methods more often than uneducated women. Women had adequate awareness regarding type of contraceptives available but had no idea about the timing of starting contraception after delivery and about emergency contraception. The low-income urban population is aware of the importance of limiting the family size and has family planning facilities yet has less contraceptive usage because of low level of education, increased rate of discontinuation, and lack of proper knowledge of the use of contraception. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. 78 FR 63993 - ``Low-Income Levels'' Used for Various Health Professions and Nursing Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... changes in the Consumer Price Index. The Secretary annually adjusts the low-income levels based on the... applicable programs. The income figures below have been updated to reflect increases in the Consumer Price... recognition of same-sex spouses and same-sex marriages, was unconstitutional. In light of this decision...

  17. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  18. Voluntary, Randomized, Student Drug-Testing: Impact in a Rural, Low-Income, Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Kyle D.

    2008-01-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student …

  19. A Postsecondary Transition Model for Low-Income, Minority Youth in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexis Tolbert

    2016-01-01

    School administrators are in the best position, but often lack the knowledge, to help low-income, minority youth transition to college. Consequently, some youth are not meeting their full potential and there are long-term, deleterious consequences on local economies as wage earning potential stagnates. Using Aslanargun's, Farmer-Hinton's, and…

  20. Coping with Family Conflict: What's Helpful and What's Not for Low-Income Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…

  1. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  2. Reading and Comprehension Levels in a Sample of Urban, Low-Income Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cheryl; Weitzel, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Because health literacy is related to healthcare outcomes, this study looked at reading and comprehension levels in a sample of urban, low-income persons. Design: This was a descriptive exploration of reading comprehension levels, controlled for medical problems that could impact on vision and therefore ability to read. Setting: Ninety…

  3. Are College Faculty and First-Generation, Low-Income Students Ready for Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.; Thompson, Maris R.

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing current research on college readiness as well as the role of cultural agents as a conceptual framework, this qualitative study investigates student and faculty beliefs about readiness and the pedagogical practices that allow instructors to effectively serve as cultural agents for first-generation, low-income students. Three major…

  4. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries: A literature review of attraction and retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieleman Marjolein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced health systems is the difficulty they face in producing, recruiting, and retaining health professionals, particularly in remote areas. Low wages, poor working conditions, lack of supervision, lack of equipment and infrastructure as well as HIV and AIDS, all contribute to the flight of health care personnel from remote areas. In this global context of accelerating inequities health service policy makers and managers are searching for ways to improve the attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. But the development of appropriate strategies first requires an understanding of the factors which influence decisions to accept and/or stay in a remote post, particularly in the context of mid and low income countries (MLICS, and which strategies to improve attraction and retention are therefore likely to be successful. It is the aim of this review article to explore the links between attraction and retention factors and strategies, with a particular focus on the organisational diversity and location of decision-making. Methods This is a narrative literature review which took an iterative approach to finding relevant literature. It focused on English-language material published between 1997 and 2007. The authors conducted Pubmed searches using a range of different search terms relating to attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. Furthermore, a number of relevant journals as well as unpublished literature were systematically searched. While the initial search included articles from high- middle- and low-income countries, the review focuses on middle- and low-income

  5. Cell Phone Ownership and Service Plans Among Low-Income Smokers: The Hidden Cost of Quitlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June-Marie; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Quitlines (QLs) are free, effective sources of treatment for tobacco dependence. Although the QL number is toll-free, the use of cell phones as the sole source of telephony may impose an unintended cost, in terms of cell minutes. To quantify the use of cell-only telephony among self-pay or Medicaid smokers, assess their calling plans, and estimate the impact of a typical course of QL counseling. A survey of smokers age at least 18 years visiting an American urban emergency department from April to July, 2013. Seven-hundred seventy-three smokers were surveyed, of whom 563 (72.8%) were low-income, defined as having Medicaid or no insurance. All low-income smokers had at least one phone: 48 (8.5%) reported land-lines only, 159 (28.2%) land-lines and cells, and 356 (63.2%) cells only. Of the cell phone owners, monthly calling plans provided unlimited minutes for 339/515 (65.8%), at most 250 minutes for 124 (24.1%), and more than 250 minutes for 52 (10.0%). Another recent trial found that QL users make a median of 1 call lasting 28 minutes, with the 75th and 90th percentiles of calls and minutes at 3 and 4 calls, and 48 and 73.6 minutes, respectively. Thus, robust use of QL services could consume 11%-29% of a low-income smoker's typical 250 monthly cell minutes. Among low-income smokers, cell phones are often the sole telephone. Robust use of the QL may impose a substantial burden on low-income smokers' calling plans, and therefore deter use of the QL. Exempting calls to QLs from counting against smokers' plans may help promote QL utilization. Low-income individuals have high rates of smoking, and are more likely to own only cell phones, not landlines, for telephone access. Because cell phone calling plans often have limited numbers of monthly minutes, cell-only individuals may have to spend a substantial proportion of their monthly minutes on QL services. This may act as a deterrent to using an otherwise free, effective means of treatment for tobacco dependence

  6. Postpartum Health Information Seeking Using Mobile Phones: Experiences of Low-Income Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Christie, Vanessa M; Prabhakar, Annu; Harris, Asia L; Siek, Katie A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers. 10 low-income mothers were recruited from survey participants to complete in-depth interviews regarding postpartum information needs, information seeking, and technology use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by three researchers independently. Narratives were analyzed along predetermined (etic) and emergent (emic) categories. Results Establishing breastfeeding and solving breastfeeding problems were central postpartum concerns leading to information seeking. Interviewees reported almost exclusive use of mobile phones to access the Internet. Mobile applications were widely used during pregnancy, but were not valuable postpartum. Face-to-face information from medical professionals was found to be repetitive. Online information seeking was mediated by default mobile phone search engines, and occurred over short, fragmented time periods. College graduates reported searching for authoritative knowledge sources; non-graduates preferred forums. Conclusions for Practice Low-income postpartum women rely on their smartphones to find online infant care and self-care health information. Websites replace pregnancy-related mobile applications and complement face-to-face information. Changes in searching behavior and multitasking mean information must be easily accessible and readily understood. Knowledge of page-rank systems and use of current and emergent social media will allow health-related organizations to better engage with low-income mothers online and

  7. Medicaid Coverage Expansions and Cigarette Smoking Cessation Among Low-income Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Jonathan W; Donohue, Julie M; Barry, Colleen L; Huskamp, Haiden A; Jarlenski, Marian

    2017-12-01

    Expanding Medicaid coverage to low-income adults may have increased smoking cessation through improved access to evidence-based treatments. Our study sought to determine if states' decisions to expand Medicaid increased recent smoking cessation. Using pooled cross-sectional data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for the years 2011-2015, we examined the association between state Medicaid coverage and the probability of recent smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children who were current or former smokers (n=36,083). We used difference-in-differences estimation to examine the effects of Medicaid coverage on smoking cessation, comparing low-income adult smokers in states with Medicaid coverage to comparable adults in states without Medicaid coverage, with ages 18-64 years to those ages 65 years and above. Analyses were conducted for the full sample and stratified by sex. Residence in a state with Medicaid coverage among low-income adult smokers ages 18-64 years was associated with an increase in recent smoking cessation of 2.1 percentage points (95% confidence interval, 0.25-3.9). In the comparison group of individuals ages 65 years and above, residence in a state with Medicaid coverage expansion was not associated with a change in recent smoking cessation (-0.1 percentage point, 95% confidence interval, -2.1 to 1.8). Similar increases in smoking cessation among those ages 18-64 years were estimated for females and males (1.9 and 2.2 percentage point, respectively). Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that Medicaid coverage expansions may have increased smoking cessation among low-income adults without dependent children via greater access to preventive health care services, including evidence-based smoking cessation services.

  8. A review of low income energy assistance measures adopted in other jurisdictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Low-income energy assistance programs (LIEPs) have been established and implemented in many jurisdictions to help make electricity and natural gas more affordable. Low-income programs also serve many other public interest goals, such as safeguarding and protecting the public health and welfare of the citizens; augmenting incomes or standards of living for the lowest income energy customers; encouraging conservation and more efficient use of energy resources; reducing customer care costs for utilities; reducing uncollectible accounts and bad debt expense for utilities; and reducing carbon emissions and greenhouse gas levels. This report contained a summary of the policies, programs, and measures that have been implemented, mandated, or allowed by regulators in other jurisdictions to assist low-income energy consumers with electricity and natural gas costs. The report categorized the differing low income policies and programs that have been implemented and examined the effectiveness of those policies and programs as measured by the costs and benefits, as well the level of customer participation. These categories included rate discounts or waivers; modified rate designs; alternative billing methods; customer rebates; conservation and demand side management programs; budget or equal billing; payment plans for past due accounts; waivers of late payment charges; waivers or reductions of customer security deposits; limits on disconnections; and reduced or waived fees for reconnections. The report covered regulatory jurisdictions, including those in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, France, Spain, and Finland. The report also discussed the role of regulators, utilities, charitable organizations, and other interested parties in developing and implementing low-income energy assistance programs that were cost-effective and efficient. It was concluded that, in addition to rate discounts or waivers of the fixed monthly service charge, many

  9. Systematic Review of Factors Influencing Farmers' Market Use Overall and among Low-Income Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Vaudrin, Nicole; Schneider, Christine; Trapl, Erika; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Taggart, Morgan; Ariel Cascio, M; Walsh, Colleen; Flocke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Recent evidence indicates a widening gap in fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption between high- and low-income Americans. This gap is related, in part, to decreased access to food retailers that sell fresh F/V in low-income communities. Farmers' markets are identified as a strategy for improving F/V consumption by increasing access to these foods. The aim of this systematic review was to examine literature published from 1994 to 2014 to identify facilitators and barriers of farmers' markets use, particularly among low-income consumers. Peer-reviewed literature was identified in Ebsco Host (Academic Search Complete). Inclusion criteria for abstract review was primary research focused on farmers' market use identifying 87 studies for full-text review. Full-text review identified articles focused on facilitators and/or barriers of farmers' market use resulting in 49 articles. At least two reviewers completed review of all articles. Of the 49 articles, 39% specified inclusion of low-income consumers and fewer than 15% focused on racial and ethnic minorities. Few studies were guided by theory and/or used standardized metrics. Results indicate farmers' market use is influenced by multiple economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal factors. Among studies that included low-income populations (n=19), key barriers to farmers' market use were perceptions that food assistance benefits were not accepted, belief that food variety at farmers' markets was limited, lack of access to transportation, lack of racial/ethnic diversity in the market space, and mismatch between markets and personal lifestyles. There is wide variation in study design and reporting standards and infrequent use of standardized measures limiting comparisons across studies. There is a need to establish valid and reliable metrics and reporting standards for evaluating farmers' markets. Findings may inform interventions, programs, and policies to promote farmers' market use. Copyright

  10. Facilitating Wellness in Urban-Dwelling, Low-Income Older Adults Through Community Mobility: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulry, Claire M; Papetti, Christina; De Martinis, Julian; Ravinsky, Mark

    Community participation is integral to wellness. This study examined the outcomes of Let's Go, a program designed to facilitate community participation of urban-dwelling, low-income older adults. Fifty-two older adults participated in a mixed-methods, single-group pretest-posttest study. The Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire, participant surveys, and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate self-reported participation in community-based occupations, confidence, isolation, frequency of community trips, autonomy outdoors, and satisfaction with social life and relationships. Significant improvement was found in participation, confidence, frequency of community trips, autonomy outdoors, and satisfaction with social life and relationships at 4 wk and 6 mo. Qualitative themes were decreased isolation, importance of peer and community support, increased knowledge of mobility options, and a shift from fear to confidence. Community mobility programming can facilitate the participation of marginalized older adults in community-based occupations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Does job stability mediate the relationship between intimate partner violence and mental health among low-income women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Adrienne E; Bybee, Deborah; Tolman, Richard M; Sullivan, Cris M; Kennedy, Angie C

    2013-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  12. Ectopic pregnancy morbidity and mortality in low-income women, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, D B; Cain, L; Dahlquist, I H; Lauderdale, D S

    2016-03-01

    Does the risk of adverse outcomes at the time of ectopic pregnancy vary by race/ethnicity among women receiving Medicaid, the public health insurance program for low-income people in the USA? Among Medicaid beneficiaries with ectopic pregnancy, 11% experienced at least one complication, and women from all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to experience complications. In this population of Medicaid recipients, African American women are significantly more likely than whites to experience ectopic pregnancy, but the risk of adverse outcomes has not previously been assessed. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of all women (n = 19 135 106) ages 15-44 enrolled in Medicaid for any amount of time during 2004-2008 who lived in one of the following 14 US states: Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; New York; and Texas. We analyzed Medicaid claims records for inpatient and outpatient encounters and identified ectopic pregnancies with a principal diagnosis code for ectopic pregnancy from 2004-2008. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy complication rate as the number of ectopic pregnancies with at least one complication (blood transfusion, hysterectomy, any sterilization, or length-of-stay (LOS) > 2 days) divided by the total number of ectopic pregnancies. We used Poisson regression to assess the risk of ectopic pregnancy complication by race/ethnicity. Secondary outcomes were each individual complication, and ectopic pregnancy-related death. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy mortality ratio as the number of deaths divided by live births. Ectopic pregnancy-associated complications occurred in 11% of cases. Controlling for age and state, the risk of any complication was significantly higher among women who were black (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.43-1.53, P American Indian/Alaskan Native (IRR 1.34 95% CI 1.16-1.55, P white

  13. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries : a literature review of attraction and retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Uta; Dieleman, Marjolein; Martineau, Tim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the

  14. 24 CFR 1000.110 - Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families participate in the program? 1000.110 Section 1000.110 Housing and Urban... ACTIVITIES Affordable Housing Activities § 1000.110 Under what conditions may non low-income Indian families...

  15. Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hisp...

  16. Access and Mobilization: How Social Capital Relates to Low-Income Youth's Postsecondary Educational (PSE) Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Mariam; Feliciano, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who "overcome the odds" and persist in higher education?…

  17. Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in Low-Income Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in Low-Income Minority Populations Share: © Photodisc ... in minority and low-income populations with chronic low-back pain. Researchers from Boston University School of Medicine, Boston ...

  18. "The Kids Still Come First": Creating Family Stability during Partnership Instability in Rural, Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yoshie; Manoogian, Margaret M.; Ontai, Lenna L.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the nature of partnerships among 28 rural low-income mothers who experienced partnership transitions across three waves of annual interviews. Guided by "lens of uncertainty" and "boundary ambiguity theory," the authors specifically explored (a) how low-income mothers in rural communities experience partnership…

  19. 78 FR 16277 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Proposed Information Collection to OMB: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Database AGENCY: Office of the Chief... codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each state agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to furnish HUD, not...

  20. 75 FR 9609 - Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Tenant Data Collection: Responses To Advance Solicitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... comment on methodology for the collection of data on low-income housing tax credit housing, as required by... 36 (to be codified as 42 U.S.C. 1437z-8) that requires each State agency administering tax credits under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (low-income housing tax credits or LIHTC) to...

  1. Performance Pay Improves Engagement, Progress, and Satisfaction in Computer-Based Job Skills Training of Low-Income Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Advancing the education of low-income adults could increase employment and income, but adult education programs have not successfully engaged low-income adults. Monetary reinforcement may be effective in promoting progress in adult education. This experiment evaluated the benefits of providing incentives for performance in a job-skills training…

  2. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ye

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. Methods A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Results Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day. Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%, compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P Conclusion The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  3. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  4. Smoking, cessation and expenditure in low income Chinese: cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Therese; Lu, Li; Jun, Ye Xue; Mei, Wang Hong

    2007-03-04

    This study was carried-out to explore smoking behaviour and smoking expenditure among low income workers in Eastern China to inform tobacco control policy. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to 1958 urban workers, 1909 rural workers and 3248 migrant workers in Zhejiang Province, Eastern China in 2004. Overall 54% of the men and 1.8% of all women were current smokers (at least 1 cigarette per day). Smoking was least common in migrant men (51%), compared with 58% of urban workers and 64% rural inhabitants (P opportunity costs, including in terms of healthcare access. The prevalence of smoking and successful quitting suggest that smoking prevalence in low income groups in Eastern China may have peaked. Tobacco control should focus on support for quitters, on workplace/public place smoking restrictions and should develop specific programmes in rural areas. Health education messages should emphasise the opportunity costs of smoking and the dangers of passive smoking.

  5. A number sense intervention for low-income kindergartners at risk for mathematics difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Nancy I; Jordan, Nancy C; Glutting, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Early number sense is a strong predictor of later success in school mathematics. A disproportionate number of children from low-income families come to first grade with weak number competencies, leaving them at risk for a cycle of failure. The present study examined the effects of an 8-week number sense intervention to develop number competencies of low-income kindergartners (N = 121). The intervention purposefully targeted whole number concepts related to counting, comparing, and manipulating sets. Children were randomly assigned to either a number sense intervention or a business as usual contrast group. The intervention was carried out in small-group, 30-min sessions, 3 days per week, for a total of 24 sessions. Controlling for number sense at pretest, the intervention group made meaningful gains relative to the control group at immediate as well delayed posttest on a measure of early numeracy. Intervention children also performed better than controls on a standardized test of mathematics calculation at immediate posttest.

  6. Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy-efficiency programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson; Campbell, Nina

    2011-06-15

    The International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency Unit (EEU) has begun a new programme of work on innovative energy-efficiency policies for mitigating fuel poverty. The IEA's current research focuses on the potential for low-income weatherisation programmes to address poor housing quality -- the main driver of fuel poverty -- as well as innovative methods for financing and evaluating such programmes. A common problem is that the energy-saving benefits accruing to fuel-poor households barely offset the investment required, suggesting a weak return on government spending. However, these investments have additional co-benefits for participants as well as for energy providers, property owners, local communities and society as a whole. This first IEA workshop focused on methods for incorporating the range of co-benefits into evaluation of low-income weatherisation programmes. The presentations given by top experts in the fuel poverty field are summarised in this report, along with conclusions and proposals for further research.

  7. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  8. Multilevel Perspectives on Female Sterilization in Low-Income Communities in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Marie A; Schensul, Stephen L; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Jadhav, Kalpita

    2016-09-01

    Surgical sterilization is the primary method of contraception among low-income women in India. This article, using qualitative analysis of key informant, in-depth interviews, and quantitative analyses, examines the antecedents, process, and outcomes of sterilization for women in a low-income area in Mumbai, India. Family planning policies, socioeconomic factors, and gender roles constrain women's reproductive choices. Procedures for sterilization rarely follow protocol, particularly during pre-procedure counseling and consent. Women who choose sterilization often marry early, begin conceiving soon after marriage, and reach or exceed ideal family size early due to problems in accessing reversible contraceptives. Despite these constraints, this study indicates that from the perspective of women, the decision to undergo sterilization is empowering, as they have fulfilled their reproductive duties and can effectively exercise control over their fertility and sexuality. This empowerment results in little post-sterilization regret, improved emotional health, and improved sexual relationships following sterilization. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Measuring the bias against low-income country research: an Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Matthew; Macinko, James; Jimenez, Geronimo; Mullachery, Pricila

    2017-11-06

    With an increasing array of innovations and research emerging from low-income countries there is a growing recognition that even high-income countries could learn from these contexts. It is well known that the source of a product influences perception of that product, but little research has examined whether this applies also in evidence-based medicine and decision-making. In order to examine likely barriers to learning from low-income countries, this study uses established methods in cognitive psychology to explore whether healthcare professionals and researchers implicitly associate good research with rich countries more so than with poor countries. Computer-based Implicit Association Test (IAT) distributed to healthcare professionals and researchers. Stimuli representing Rich Countries were chosen from OECD members in the top ten (>$36,000 per capita) World Bank rankings and Poor Countries were chosen from the bottom thirty (based medicine and diffusion of innovations.

  10. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  11. Empowering low-income community in Kampong settlement by exploring people's activities in surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Paulus; Sutanto, Haryati B.

    2017-11-01

    Urban Kampong is a spontaneous settlement growing in several big cities within developing countries including Indonesia. This settlement is developed by low-income people without any plan. Therefore there is no specific housing pattern in the settlement. The characteristics of the settlements is dominated by Javanese traditional roof typology and narrow path with minimal public open spaces. People's creativity in building their houses often uses second hand building materials that make their houses look specific. Besides, infrastructure facilities within Kampong Settlement are very poor. Because the poor living in Urban Kampong have to adjust their live with minimum infrastructure facilities available, they have to be creative in using all facilities available. Through the creativities of low-income people living in Urban Kampong the research will show how the inhabitants can be empowered by exploring inhabitant's creativities and consequently the environmental quality within Urban Kampong can be improved as well.

  12. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slater

    Full Text Available Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6-9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development.

  13. Adherence to hysterosalpingogram appointments following hysteroscopic sterilization among low income women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The few studies on post-Essure hysterosalpingogram (HSG) adherence rates show inconsistent results. This study examined associations between sociodemographic variables not examined in prior studies and HSG adherence among low income women. Study Design Medical records of 286 women who underwent sterilization between August 31, 2005 and September 30, 2011 were reviewed. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine variable associations with HSG adherence. Results The adherence rate for the first HSG was 85.0% (243/286). Variables associated with adherence were: lower education level (p=.01), not working outside the home (p=.04), being married (pEssure placement is feasible among low income populations. Furthermore, not speaking English or having to commute a far distance to the clinic do not appear to be barriers. This is encouraging considering the importance of this test to confirm tubal occlusion. PMID:24012097

  14. Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Vicente

    2008-09-01

    During recent months, another sign of the global fragility to sustain the increasing human demand for resources has appeared with merciless cruelty. Increasing food prices, paradoxically driven to a large extent by the rapid economic growth of vast regions of the emerging world, are affecting hundreds of millions of the poorest people in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As described in Science for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries, most of the poorest people in these low-income countries live in rural areas and are engaged in agriculture or related activities. Because many people in these areas are engaged in subsistence agriculture, they do not share in the added income derived from higher market prices for food.

  15. Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp: A Summer Approach to Prevent Obesity in Low-Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gretchen Lynn; Schneider, Constance; Kaiser, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of participation in a summer camp focused on nutrition and fitness among low-income youth. In 2011-2012, overweight and obese youth (n = 126) from Fresno, CA participated in a free 6-week summer program, Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp (HLFC), which included 3 h/wk of nutrition education provided by University of California CalFresh and 3 hours of daily physical activity through Fresno Parks and Recreation. The researchers used repeated-measures ANOVA to examine changes in weight, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) between HLFC and the comparison group (n = 29). Significant pre-post WHtR reductions were observed in HLFC: 0.64 to 0.61 (P obesity prevention among low-income youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal Care Utilization for Mothers from Low-Income Areas of New Mexico, 1989–1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Michael A.; Waitzkin, Howard; Carson, E. Ann; Romain, Sandra J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999. Methodology/Principal Findings Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:20862298

  17. Prenatal care utilization for mothers from low-income areas of New Mexico, 1989-1999.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Schillaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal care is considered to be an important component of primary health care. Our study compared prenatal care utilization and rates of adverse birth outcomes for mothers from low- and higher-income areas of New Mexico between 1989 and 1999.Prenatal care indicators included the number of prenatal care visits and the first month of prenatal care. Birth outcome indicators included low birth weight, premature birth, and births linked with death certificates. The results of our study indicated that mothers from low-income areas started their prenatal care significantly later in their pregnancies between 1989 and 1999, and had significantly fewer prenatal visits between 1989 and 1997. For the most part, there were not significant differences in birth outcome indicators between income groupings.These findings suggest that while mothers from low-income areas received lower levels of prenatal care, they did not experience a higher level of adverse birth outcomes.

  18. Longitudinal Effects of Group Music Instruction on Literacy Skills in Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Strait, Dana L.; Skoe, Erika; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds tend to fall progressively further behind their higher-income peers over the course of their academic careers. Music training has been associated with enhanced language and learning skills, suggesting that music programs could play a role in helping low-income children to stay on track academically. Using a controlled, longitudinal design, the impact of group music instruction on English reading ability was assessed in 42 low-income Spanish-English bilingual children aged 6–9 years in Los Angeles. After one year, children who received music training retained their age-normed level of reading performance while a matched control group's performance deteriorated, consistent with expected declines in this population. While the extent of change is modest, outcomes nonetheless provide evidence that music programs may have value in helping to counteract the negative effects of low-socioeconomic status on child literacy development. PMID:25409300

  19. Characteristics of prepared food sources in low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Rowan, Megan T; Powell, Lisa M; Newman, Sara; Klassen, Ann Carroll; Frick, Kevin D; Anderson, Jennifer; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2010-01-01

    The food environment is associated with obesity risk and diet-related chronic diseases. Despite extensive research conducted on retail food stores, little is known about prepared food sources(PFSs). We conducted an observational assessment of all PFSs(N = 92) in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore. The most common PFSs were carry-outs, which had the lowest availability of healthy food choices. Only a small proportion of these carry-outs offered healthy sides, whole wheat bread, or entrée salads (21.4%, 7.1%, and 33.9%, respectively). These findings suggest that carry-out-specific interventions are necessary to increase healthy food availability in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  20. High rates of bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia in a low-income, high-population-density community in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie S. Lennard

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young South African women, from resource-poor communities, face several sexual and reproductive health challenges. Here we describe the vaginal microbiota and sexually transmitted infection (STI prevalence of 102; 16–22-year-old, HIV-negative South African women from a low-income, high-population-density community in Cape Town (CPT. Vaginal microbiota were profiled using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing; bacterial vaginosis (BV status was established using Nugent scoring and STIs were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. STIs were common, with 55% of women having at least one STI; 41% were infected with high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV and a further 28% with low-risk HPV; 44% were infected with Chlamydia, 16% of whom had at least one additional STI. Similarly, BV rates were very high, with 55% of women classified as BV-positive (Nugent score ≥7, 7% as BV-intermediate (Nugent score 3–6 and 38% as BV-negative (Nugent 0–2. Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae, the leading cause of neonatal sepsis, was present in 25% of BV-positive women and 28% of BV-negative women, and was significantly more abundant among BV-negative women. Both Chlamydia infection and BV may adversely affect reproductive health and place these women at additional risk for HIV acquisition. The high abundance of Prevotella amnii, in particular, may increase HIV risk, given its inflammatory capacity. Laboratory-based testing for STIs (Chlamydia and Gonorrhoeae in particular appear to be warranted in this community, together with further monitoring or treatment of BV. Research correlation: This article is the original version, of which an Afrikaans translation was made available to provide access to a larger readership, available here: https://doi.org/10.4102/satnt.v36i1.1495

  1. Uncommon social trajectories: Chilean low-income adolescents with reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Ortiz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that students from low-income families are less successful at school, as indicated by theories of social reproduction. This article focuses on Chilean students that, in spite of their social background, have performed well in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2009. Using logistic regression analysis we identify factors associated with academic achievement in reading. Results show that student variables have a greater explanatory value than family and school variables.

  2. Feasibility of Internet-based Parent Training for Low-income Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoron, Lucy; Hvizdos, Erica; Bocknek, Erika L; Montgomery, Erica; Ondersma, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    Parent training programs promote positive parenting and benefit low-income children, but are rarely used. Internet-based delivery may help expand the reach of parent training programs, although feasibility among low-income populations is still unclear. We examined the feasibility of internet-based parent training, in terms of internet access/use and engagement, through two studies. In Study 1, 160 parents recruited from Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) centers completed a brief paper survey regarding internet access and use (all parents received government aid). We found high levels of access, openness, and comfort with the internet and internet-enabled devices. In Study 2, a pilot study, we assessed use of an online parenting program in a project with a sample of 89 predominately low-income parents (75% received government aid). Parents learned about a new, online parenting program (the "5-a-Day Parenting Program") and provided ratings of level of interest and program use 2-weeks and 4-weeks later. Local website traffic was also monitored. At baseline, parents were very interested in using the web-based program, and the majority of parents (69.6%) reported visiting the website at least once. However, in-depth use was rare (only 9% of parents reported frequent use of the online program). Results support the feasibility of internet-based parent training for low-income parents, as most parent were able to use the program and were interested in doing so. However, results also suggest the need to develop strategies to promote in-depth program use.

  3. Financial arrangements for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wiysonge, Charles S; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Lewin, Simon; Ciapponi, Agustín; Herrera, Cristian A; Opiyo, Newton; Pantoja, Tomas; Rada, Gabriel; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    Background One target of the Sustainable Development Goals is to achieve "universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all". A fundamental concern of governments in striving for this goal is how to finance such a health system. This concern is very relevant for low-income countries. Objectives To provide an overview of the evidence from...

  4. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  5. LOW-INCOME, MINORITY FATHERS’ CONTROL STRATEGIES AND THEIR CHILDREN'S REGULATORY SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Jenessa L.; Cabrera, Natasha J.; Karberg, Elizabeth; Aldoney, Daniela; Rowe, Meredith Lee

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the bidirectional association of children's individual characteristics, fathers' control strategies at 24-months and children's regulatory skills at pre-kindergarten (pre-K). Using a sample of low-income minority families with 2-year-olds from the Early Head Start Evaluation Research Program (n = 71) we assessed the association between child gender and vocabulary skills, fathers' control strategies at 24-months (e.g., regulatory behavior and regulatory language), an...

  6. Cohabitating Partners and Domestic Labor in Low-Income Black Families

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew; Vazan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the division of domestic labor in low-income cohabiting Black stepfamilies. We analyze survey data collected from 136 such families in order to understand how stepparent gender and relationship length impact the distribution of domestic labor. We hypothesize that women do more domestic work than men across all three family types, and that stepfathers are more involved in domestic labor in established relationships compared to new relationships. Findings indicate that coh...

  7. Financial Intermediation Costs in Low-Income Countries; The Role of Regulatory, Institutional, and Macroeconomic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Tigran Poghosyan

    2012-01-01

    We analyze factors driving persistently higher financial intermediation costs in low-income countries (LICs) relative to emerging market (EMs) country comparators. Using the net interest margin as a proxy for financial intermediation costs at the bank level, we find that within LICs a substantial part of the variation in interest margins can be explained by bank-specific factors: margins tend to increase with higher riskiness of credit portfolio, lower bank capitalization, and smaller bank si...

  8. LESS SPACE, MORE SPATIALITY FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING UNITS IN EGYPT: IDEAS FROM JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermine Abdel Gelil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Egyptian government launched a national housing project for low-income families. To minimize cost, it has progressively reduced units’ sizes. Numerous surveys indicate that unit specifications were based on political and economic criteria, rather than on users’ needs, which resulted in the recurrence of the persistent phenomenon of individual modifications. A number of scholars and architects concerned with this phenomenon are advocating the revival of the social design principles of traditional Cairene houses (16th –19th century after adapting them to contemporary needs. However, they provide no concrete solutions as to how to achieve this in small-scale units located in multi-storey buildings. During my research in Japan, I was introduced to traditional middle class urban houses. Their practical designs used to resolve issues of privacy, internal flexibility, storage, and family growth can be beneficially applied to housing units in Egypt. This paper first explains why relying solely on traditional housing designs to resolve social issues associated with low-income units in Egypt is both fanciful and incomplete, then discusses why ideas from Japanese homes can be beneficially applied to low-income housing units in Egypt. Third, this paper examines issues in these units and the resultant modifications by Egyptian households. Next, it analyzes concepts of spatial organization, modular systems, partitioning, and storage in traditional middle class urban houses in Japan. Finally, this paper formulates proposals for fulfilling the social needs of occupants in Egypt by integrating these ideas into low-income housing units.

  9. LOW INCOME CONSUMERS AND ONLINE SHOPPING: APPREHENSIONS IN CONSUMING THROUGH THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo da Silva Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in access of low income consumers to the internet has taken them to use the net in search of entertainment, education and relationships. However, consuming online is still an activity surrounded by distrust. The present study aims to discuss the reasons why low income consumers have apprehension in consuming through the internet. For this, in depth interviews were conducted with 23 low income consumers. The collected data shows that the internet is still seen by the interviewees as being, mainly, for leisure and entertainment. Online shopping still is a task they fear, because of different motives. Initially, one can point the preference to consume in physical stores, since the consumers can touch the desired product, enjoy the trip to the store as a moment of pleasure and the possibility of interacting with salesmen, who help them in their choice. The apprehensions in buying online are also influenced by the perception that sites are not safe, because they offer threats, such as viruses or theft of personal information. Furthermore, interviewees believe that online stores are not compromised with their customers, since they permit problems to occur in the delivery of merchandise, are not clear about the shopping process, and create difficulties in payment method. Another reason for them not to buy online is the perception that if a negative consuming episode of online shopping happened to someone they know, it is also bound to happen with them. Despite this reasoning, these consumers point the importance of help from a third party in their reference group as main incentive for them to face the obstacles to consuming through the internet. In conclusion, it is possible to consider that low income consumers have apprehensions that are similar to their higher income peers, but, also, show different feelings, which are seldom discussed in the literature about online shopping.

  10. Pediatric clinical drug trials in low-income countries: key ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, S M; Knoppert, D C; Stanton-Jean, M; Avard, D

    2015-02-01

    Potential child participants in clinical research trials in low-income countries are often vulnerable because of poverty, high morbidity and mortality, inadequate education, and varied local cultural norms. However, vulnerability by itself must not be accepted as an obstacle blocking children from the health benefits that may accrue as an outcome of sound clinical research. As greater emphasis is placed on evidence-based treatment of children, it should be anticipated that there will be a growing call for agreement on principles to guide clinical investigations in low-income countries. There is now general acceptance of the view that children must be protected from non-evidence-based interventions and from substandard treatments. The questions remaining relate to how best to stimulate clinical research activity that will serve the needs of infants, children, and youth in developing countries and how best to assign priority to ethically sound research that will meet their clinical requirements. In low-income countries, 39 % of citizens are 13 years of age or younger, and consequently it is certain that clinical investigations of some new therapeutic products will be conducted there more frequently. This review offers some suggestions for approaches that will help to achieve more effective ethical consideration, including (1) improving the quality of research ethics boards; (2) fostering collaborative partnerships among important stakeholders; (3) making concerted efforts to build capacity; (4) improving the quality of the consent and waiver process; and (5) developing improved governance for harmonized ethics platforms. Continuing support by international organizations is required to sustain the establishment and maintenance of stronger research ethics boards to protect children enrolled in clinical trials. This review underscores the importance of developing a culture of solidarity and true partnership between developed and low-income country organizations, which

  11. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  12. New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team, Office of Strategic Programs

    2017-11-01

    This fact sheet "New Haven, Connecticut: Targeting Low-Income Household Energy Savings" explains how the City of New Haven used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  13. Health Care Access and Use Among Low-Income Children on Subsidized Insurance Programs in California.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Trenholm; Anna Saltzman; Shanna Shulman; Michael Cousineau; Dana Hughes

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the CaliforniaKids and Healthy Kids programs—county-based insurance programs in California for low-income children. The study examined features of both programs, use of basic health care services by the children enrolled, and typical experiences accessing inpatient and other high-cost care. Children enrolled in the two programs made substantial use of outpatient health care, despite important variation in program features. The study concludes with recommendations on ho...

  14. Rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income settings: An evaluation of the test-negative design

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Victor, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The test-negative design (TND), an epidemiologic method currently used to measure rotavirus vaccine (RV) effectiveness, compares the vaccination status of rotavirus-positive cases and rotavirus-negative controls meeting a pre-defined case definition for acute gastroenteritis. Despite the use of this study design in low-income settings, the TND has not been evaluated to measure rotavirus vaccine effectiveness. Methods This study builds upon prior methods to evaluate the use of the T...

  15. An Investigation Into the Social Context of Low-Income, Urban Black and Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...

  16. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural elementary and middle schools in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findholt, Nancy E; Izumi, Betty T; Nguyen, Thuan; Pickus, Hayley; Chen, Zunqiu

    2014-08-01

    Food stores near schools are an important source of snacks for children. However, few studies have assessed availability of healthy snacks in these settings. The aim of this study was to assess availability of healthy snack foods and beverages in stores near schools and examine how availability of healthy items varied by poverty level of the school and rural-urban location. Food stores were selected based on their proximity to elementary/middle schools in three categories: high-income urban, low-income urban, and rural. Audits were conducted within the stores to assess the presence or absence of 48 items in single-serving sizes, including healthy beverages, healthy snacks, fresh fruits, and fresh vegetables. Overall, availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was low in all stores. However, there was significant cross-site variability in availability of several snack and fruit items, with stores near high-income urban schools having higher availability, compared to stores near low-income urban and/or rural schools. Stores near rural schools generally had the lowest availability, although several fruits were found more often in rural stores than in urban stores. There were no significant differences in availability of healthy beverages and fresh vegetables across sites. Availability of healthy snack foods and beverages was limited in stores near schools, but these limitations were more severe in stores proximal to rural and low-income schools. Given that children frequent these stores to purchase snacks, efforts to increase the availability of healthy products, especially in stores near rural and low-income schools, should be a priority.

  17. Water End-Uses in Low-Income Houses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kelly Marinoski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowing water consumption patterns in buildings is key information for water planning. This article aims to characterize the water consumption pattern and water end-uses in low-income houses in the region of Florianópolis, Southern Brazil. Data were collected by interviewing householders, as well as by measuring the flow rate of existing water fixtures and appliances. The results indicated that the shower was the fixture with the largest water consumption in households, i.e., about 30%–36% of total water consumption on average, followed by the toilet (18%–20%. The surveyed households consumed from 111 to 152 L/capita·day on average, based on different income ranges. No correlation was found between income and water consumption. The results of this study can be used to estimate the consumption of water for new buildings, as well as to develop integrated water management strategies in low-income developments, in Florianópolis, such as water-saving plumbing fixtures, rainwater harvesting, and greywater reuse. Likely, there would be a deferral of capital investments in new water assets for enhancing water and wastewater services by saving water in low-income houses.

  18. The association of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental comorbidities in low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ahmed A; Korgaonkar, Purva

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the relationship of childhood asthma with mental health and developmental indicators in low-income families. Parents/guardians of approximately 400 children, aged 2-14 years, were recruited from a charity hospital serving low income neighborhoods in the outskirts of Karachi, Pakistan. Mothers of children were interviewed in their local language by a trained nurse. Eight self-reported comorbidities were grouped into two constructs based on factor analysis and conveniently labeled as mental health (anxiety, attention and behavioral problems) and developmental problems (learning, developmental delay, hearing impairment, sleep and speech problems). Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, presence of older siblings, number of people in the household, child birth weight, presence of mold, and family history of asthma or hay fever. Children with asthma had 18 times greater odds of mental health problems (adjusted OR = 18.0, 95% CI: 9.2, 35.1) as compared to children without asthma. The odds of developmental problems were more than 14 times greater for children with asthma (adjusted OR = 14.3, 95% CI: 7.8, 26.1) as compared to children without asthma. This study found mental and developmental adverse consequences of childhood asthma in low-income families. Identifying and treating asthma at an early age could reduce the burden of comorbidities in this population.

  19. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Abbey B; Laz, Tabassum H; Pohlmeier, Ali M; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-09-01

    Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction.

  20. BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES IN DEVELOPING 'DO-IT-YOURSELF' (DIY PRODUCTS FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Lepre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct involvement of the user in the assembling process of his/her own products or even entire house is a reality among low-income populations in developing countries. Nevertheless, there are a limited number of products that have actually been designed from a do-it-yourself (DIY perspective, which results in several problems, such as poor user safety while the product is being assembled or inadequate results from an improvised assembling. Hence, the main goal of this paper is to analyse barriers to and opportunities for developing DIY products for low-income housing in developing countries. The research method utilises a case study of a DIY product consisting of a hybrid solution that acted as both a partition wall and a wardrobe. The identified opportunities included more systematic use of existing craft competencies among low-income families and the possibility of cost reduction through DIY concepts. Major barriers included the perception of the DIY product as inferior and the difficulty of communicating the DIY assembly process to users who quite often are illiterate.

  1. Digital Inequality and Developmental Trajectories of Low-income, Immigrant, and Minority Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Vikki S; Gonzalez, Carmen; Clark, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    Children growing up in the United States today are more ethnically and racially diverse than at any time in the nation's history. Because of rising income inequality, almost half of the 72 million children in the United States are also growing up in low-income families, with immigrant and children of color disproportionately likely to be within their ranks. Children in low-income households are more likely to face a number of social challenges, including constrained access to the Internet and devices that connect to it (ie, digital inequality), which can exacerbate other, more entrenched disparities between them and their more privileged counterparts. Although the American Academy of Pediatrics' new guidelines encourage clinicians to reduce children's overexposure to technology, we argue for a more nuanced approach that also considers how digital inequality can reduce low-income children's access to a range of social opportunities. We review previous research on how digital inequality affects children's learning and development and identify areas where more research is needed on how digital inequality relates to specific aspects of children's developmental trajectories, and to identify what interventions at the family, school, and community levels can mitigate the adverse effects of digital inequality as children move through their formal schooling. On the basis of the evidence to date, we conclude with guidelines for clinicians related to supporting digital connectivity and more equitable access to social opportunity for the increasingly diverse population of children growing up in the United States. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Low-Income Adolescents Under Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Naaila; Chaplin, Tara M; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C

    2016-06-01

    Gender roles in mainstream U.S. culture suggest that girls express more happiness, sadness, anxiety, and shame/embarrassment than boys, while boys express more anger and externalizing emotions, such as contempt. However, gender roles and emotion expression may be different in low-income and ethnically diverse families, as children and parents are often faced with greater environmental stressors and may have different gender expectations. This study examined gender differences in emotion expression in low-income adolescents, an understudied population. One hundred and seventy nine adolescents (aged 14-17) participated in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Trained coders rated adolescents' expressions of happiness, sadness, anxiety, shame/embarrassment, anger, and contempt during the TSST using a micro-analytic coding system. Analyses showed that, consistent with gender roles, girls expressed higher levels of happiness and shame than boys; however, contrary to traditional gender roles, girls showed higher levels of contempt than boys. Also, in contrast to cultural stereotypes, there were no differences in anger between boys and girls. Findings suggest gender-role inconsistent displays of externalizing emotions in low-income adolescents under acute stress, and may reflect different emotion socialization experiences in this group.

  3. Health outcomes in low-income children with current asthma in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, T; Dell, S; Tassoudji, M; Wang, C

    2009-01-01

    Data collected from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) in 1994/95 and 1996/97 were used to measure longitudinal health outcomes among children with asthma. Over 10 000 children aged 1 to 11 years with complete data on asthma status in both years were included. Outcomes included hospitalizations and health services use (HSU). Current asthma was defined as children diagnosed with asthma by a physician and who took prescribed inhalants regularly, had wheezing or an attack in the previous year, or had their activities limited by asthma. Children having asthma significantly increased their odds of hospitalization (OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 1.71, 3.70) and health services use (OR = 3.80; 95% CI: 2.69, 5.37). Low-income adequacy (LIA) in 1994/ 95 significantly predicts hospitalization and HSU in 1996/97 (OR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.29, 5.59 and OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.99, respectively). Our results confirmed that both having current asthma and living in low-income families had a significant impact on the health status of children in Canada. Programs seeking to decrease the economic burden of pediatric hospitalizations need to focus on asthma and low-income populations.

  4. Television viewing in low-income latino children: variation by ethnic subgroup and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.

  5. Complexity of food preparation and food security status in low-income young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.

  6. Policy options for the split incentive: Increasing energy efficiency for low-income renters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, Stephen; Hernández, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The split incentive problem concerns the lack of appropriate incentives to implement energy efficiency measures. In particular, low income tenants face a phenomenon of energy poverty in which they allocate significantly more of their household income to energy expenditures than other renters. This problem is substantial, affecting 1.89% of all United States' energy use. If effectively addressed, it would create a range of savings between 4 and 11 billion dollars per year for many of the nation's poorest residents. We argue that a carefully designed program of incentives for participants (including landlords) in conjunction with a unique type of utility-managed on-bill financing mechanism has significant potential to solve many of the complications. We focus on three kinds of split incentives, five concerns inherent to addressing split incentive problems (scale, endurance, incentives, savings, political disfavor), and provide a detailed policy proposal designed to surpass those problems, with a particular focus on low-income tenants in a U.S. context. - Highlights: ► We demonstrate the significant impact of the split incentive on low-income tenants. ► We discuss split incentive characteristics, and policy failures. ► We described an on-bill financing model with unique features. ► This policy has protections and incentives for tenants and landlords.

  7. Three models of community mental health services In low-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Silva Mary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare and contrast three models of community mental health services in low-income settings. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary and secondary data collected before, during, and after site visits to mental health programs in Nigeria, the Philippines, and India. Study Design Qualitative case study methodology. Data Collection Data were collected through interviews and observations during site visits to the programs, as well as from reviews of documentary evidence. Principal Findings A set of narrative topics and program indicators were used to compare and contrast three community mental health programs in low-income countries. This allowed us to identify a diversity of service delivery models, common challenges, and the strengths and weaknesses of each program. More definitive evaluations will require the establishment of data collection methods and information systems that provide data about the clinical and social outcomes of clients, as well as their use of services. Conclusions Community mental health programs in low-income countries face a number of challenges. Using a case study methodology developed for this purpose, it is possible to compare programs and begin to assess the effectiveness of diverse service delivery models.

  8. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P maternal control of child's eating routines (P maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. After-school programs for low-income children: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, R

    1999-01-01

    Children's out-of-school time, long a low-level source of public concern, has recently emerged as a major social issue. This, in turn, has heightened interest in the heterogeneous field of after-school programs. This article provides a profile of after-school programs for low-income children, focusing on supply and demand, program emphases, and program sponsors and support organizations. It also discusses the major challenges facing the field in the areas of facilities, staffing, and financing. Details and examples are drawn from the ongoing evaluation of a specific after-school program initiative called MOST (Making the Most of Out-of-School Time), which seeks to strengthen after-school programs in Boston, Chicago, and Seattle. Looking ahead, the article highlights the pros and cons of options for increasing coverage to reach more low-income children, strengthening programs, expanding funding, and articulating an appropriate role for after-school programs to fill in the lives of low-income children.

  11. Internet use among low-income persons recently diagnosed with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayben, J K; Giordano, T P

    2007-10-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet to obtain health-related information, communicate with providers and access research. Use of the Internet to obtain health-related information by low-income patients recently diagnosed with HIV infection has not been examined. In 2005, we surveyed 126 low-income patients diagnosed with HIV infection within the last three years. Eighty-five percent of the patients wereInternet to access information about HIV, 52% had never used the Internet, 28% had never used it to obtain health-related information and only 18% had done so at least monthly for the last six months. Two-thirds of the population studied would need instruction on how to use the Internet. In multivariable regression, 2004 income > or =$15,000 predicted monthly Internet use to obtain health-related information. Older age, heterosexual intercourse as HIV risk factor and inadequate health literacy were independent predictors of needing instruction. The low-income population with HIV infection lags behind the general population in Internet access and may not benefit from Internet-dependent advances in health communication, including HIV-related interventions.

  12. Low-income Euro-American mothers' perceptions of health and self-care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendias, Elnora P; Clark, Michele C; Guevara, Edilma B; Svrcek, Claire Y

    2011-01-01

    Health promotion activities may decrease preventable diseases and health system overuse. This study examined how low-income Euro-American mothers described their health/wellness, self-care practices (SCP), and SCP benefits, barriers, and interpersonal influences (norms, modeling, and social support) affecting their SCP. This descriptive qualitative study used a convenience sample of 10 low-income, English-speaking mothers, 25-43 years old, seeking women's/children's health services at a large urban Texas health clinic. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, using a standardized semistructured interview guide; data were analyzed using Miles and Huberman's qualitative research methods. All participants primarily described themselves positively and as mothers and workers. Most viewed health and wellness as distinct but typically included physical and emotional well-being. Mothers valued health and SCP for personal and family reasons. All identified SCP benefits. Most identified SCP barriers. Women viewed themselves as vital to family function and well-being, learned SCP primarily from parents during childhood, and described limited support for SCP. The results provide a better understanding of participants' self-care decision making and are useful in designing appropriate clinical health promotions. Reducing health inequities in low-income women requires further study of the underlying causes and development of effective policies and measures to address them. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  14. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela D. Liese

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as “food deserts.” It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI. We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc. with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m2. The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61% or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%. Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one’s primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m2 higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m2 lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should

  15. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D.; Ma, Xiaonan; Hutto, Brent; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Bell, Bethany A.; Wilcox, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as “food deserts.” It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m2. The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61%) or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%). Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one’s primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m2 higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m2 lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should consider assessing

  16. Food Shopping and Acquisition Behaviors in Relation to BMI among Residents of Low-Income Communities in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Ma, Xiaonan; Hutto, Brent; Sharpe, Patricia A; Bell, Bethany A; Wilcox, Sara

    2017-09-16

    Low-income areas in which residents have poor access to healthy foods have been referred to as "food deserts." It is thought that improving food access may help curb the obesity epidemic. Little is known about where residents of food deserts shop and if shopping habits are associated with body mass index (BMI). We evaluated the association of food shopping and acquisition (e.g., obtaining food from church, food pantries, etc.) with BMI among 459 residents of low-income communities from two South Carolina counties, 81% of whom lived in United States Department of Agriculture-designated food deserts. Participants were interviewed about food shopping and acquisition and perceptions of their food environment, and weight and height were measured. Distances to food retail outlets were determined. Multivariable linear regression analysis was employed. Our study sample comprising largely African-American women had an average BMI of 32.5 kg/m². The vast majority of study participants shopped at supermarkets (61%) or supercenters/warehouse clubs (27%). Shopping at a supercenter or warehouse club as one's primary store was significantly associated with a 2.6 kg/m² higher BMI compared to shopping at a supermarket, independent of demographics, socioeconomics, physical activity, and all other food shopping/acquisition behaviors. Persons who reported shopping at a small grocery store or a convenience or dollar store as their tertiary store had a 2.6 kg/m² lower BMI. Respondents who perceived lack of access to adequate food shopping in their neighborhoods as a problem had higher BMI. Living in a food desert census tract was not significantly associated with BMI. Other shopping attributes, including distance to utilized and nearest grocery stores, were not independently associated with BMI. These findings call into question the idea that poor spatial access to grocery stores is a key underlying factor affecting the obesity epidemic. Future research should consider assessing

  17. Low-income minority and homeless mothers' perceptions of their 9-13 year-old children's weight status, diet, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen Wiig; Smith, Chery; Richards, Rickelle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine low-income mothers' perceptions of their children's height and weight in relation to actual measures, and perceptions of dietary quality and health status. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary quality/health status data were collected during a multi-phase nutrition research project with low-income Minnesotans, and a sub-set of non-pregnant mother-child dyads (mothers ages ≥ 18 years, children ages 9-13 years) were analyzed (n = 257). Participants were Caucasian, African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Asian, or Other/mixed race, and most were homeless. Relationships between maternal perceptions of their child's height and weight and the actual measures, and maternal perceptions of dietary quality and health status for the dyad, were examined using independent and paired samples t-tests, ANOVA, and paired samples correlations. Comparisons were also made by maternal and child body mass index (BMI) status and living situation. Mothers significantly underestimated their child's height and weight (-4.8 ± 13.9 cm, P = 0.000; -5.3 ± 8.5 kg, P = 0.000); greatest misperceptions of weight were among mothers of overweight/obese children (P = 0.000). Mothers not reporting estimates of their child's height and weight (n = 53) had higher BMIs (P = 0.029), and their children were younger (P = 0.000) and lighter (P = 0.021) compared to mothers who provided estimates. Inability to objectify children's weight status may contribute to the obesity epidemic affecting low-income minority populations. Underestimation of weight status may be influenced by cultural perceptions of body image and socioeconomic status.

  18. Conditioned to eat while watching television? Low-income caregivers' perspectives on the role of snacking and television viewing among pre-schoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Blake, Christine E; Orloski, Alexandria; Younginer, Nicholas; Bruton, Yasmeen; Ganter, Claudia; Rimm, Eric B; Geller, Alan C; Davison, Kirsten K

    2016-06-01

    Although television (TV) viewing is frequently paired with snacking among young children, little is known about the environment in which caregivers promote this behaviour. We describe low-income pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing habits as reported by their primary caregivers, including social/physical snacking contexts, types of snacks and caregiver rationales for offering snacks. These findings may support the development of effective messages to promote healthy child snacking. Semi-structured interviews assessed caregiver conceptualizations of pre-schoolers' snacks, purpose of snacks, snack context and snack frequency. Interviews occurred in Boston, Massachusetts and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Forty-seven low-income multi-ethnic primary caregivers of children aged 3-5 years (92 % female, 32 % Hispanic/Latino, 34 % African American) described their child's snacking in the context of TV viewing. TV viewing and child snacking themes were described consistently across racial/ethnic groups. Caregivers described snacks offered during TV viewing as largely unhealthy. Labels for TV snacks indicated non-nutritive purposes, such as 'time out', 'enjoyment' or 'quiet.' Caregivers' primary reasons for providing snacks included child's expectations, behaviour management (e.g. to occupy child) and social time (e.g. family bonding). Some caregivers used TV to distract picky children to eat more food. Child snacking and TV viewing were contextually paired by providing child-sized furniture ('TV table') specifically for snacking. Low-income caregivers facilitate pre-schoolers' snacking and TV viewing, which are described as routine, positive and useful for non-nutritive purposes. Messages to caregivers should encourage 'snack-free' TV viewing, healthy snack options and guidance for managing children's behaviour without snacks or TV.

  19. Are the current recommendations for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease applicable in low-income countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noubiap JJ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jean Jacques N Noubiap,1,2 Jobert Richie N Nansseu3,41Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Medical Diagnostic Center, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 3Sickle Cell Disease Unit, Mother and Child Centre, Chantal BIYA Foundation, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 4Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: Although evidence has accumulated that long-term aspirin therapy is beneficial in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD, a lot of controversies persist regarding the benefit of aspirin use in primary prevention of CVD. In low-income countries (LIC specifically, the decision to prescribe aspirin for primary CVD prevention is more problematic, as there is a dearth of evidence in this regard. Aspirin has been shown to have relative beneficial effects in preventing a first myocardial infarction, but not stroke. However, as stroke is the prevailing CVD in many LIC, especially in Africa, the benefit of aspirin in these settings is therefore questionable. Indeed, there is no published trial that has evaluated the benefits and risks of continuous aspirin therapy in populations of LIC. Furthermore, though cardiovascular risk assessment is crucial in decision-making for the use of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD, there are no risk assessment tools that have been validated in African populations. Studies are urgently warranted, to determine the usefulness of aspirin in primary prevention of CVD in low-income settings where the drug is highly available and affordable, as CVD is becoming the leading cause of deaths in LIC.Keywords: aspirin, cardiovascular disease, primary prevention, low-income countries

  20. Similarities and differences between families who have frequent and infrequent family meals: A qualitative investigation of low-income and minority households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Draxten, Michelle; Trofholz, Amanda; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Justesen, Kathryn; Slattengren, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Numerous quantitative studies have examined the association between family meal frequency and child/adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. However, limited qualitative research has been conducted to identify mealtime characteristics (e.g., child behavior during meals, rules/expectations, family dynamics) that occur during family meals that may explain why some families engage in frequent family meals and others do not. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse households, as these demographic groups are at higher risk for weight-related problems. The current study aimed to identify similarities and differences in mealtime characteristics between households that have frequent and infrequent family meals within a low-income and minority population. This qualitative study included 118 parents who participated in Family Meals, LIVE!, a mixed-methods, cross-sectional study. Parents (90% female; mean age = 35) were racially/ethnically diverse (62% African American, 19% White, 4% Native American, 4% Asian, 11% Mixed/Other) and from low-income (73% eating, involving family members in meal preparation) between households having frequent and infrequent family meals. Additionally, several differences in mealtime characteristics were identified between households having frequent (i.e., importance of family meals, flexibility in the definition of family meals, family meal rules, no pressure-to-eat feeding practices) versus infrequent family meals (i.e., pressure-to-eat parent feeding practices, family meals are dinner meals only, and difficult meal time behaviors). Study findings may be useful for developing intervention targets for low-income and racially/ethnically diverse households so more families can benefit from the protective nature of family meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Health Equity Problem for Low Income Children: Diet Flexibility Requires Physician Authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D

    2015-09-01

    USDA programs, such as the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and/or National School Lunch Program (NSLP), enable child care centers and schools to provide free and reduced price meals, daily, to millions of low income children. Despite intention to equalize opportunity for every child to have a healthy diet, USDA program rules may be contributing to child obesity disparities and health inequity. USDA program rules require child care centers and schools to provide meals that include a specified number of servings of particular types of foods and beverages. The rules are designed for the average, healthy weight child to maintain weight and growth. They are not designed for the underweight child to gain weight, obese child to normalize weight, or pre-diabetic child to avoid incident diabetes. The rules allow for only one meal pattern and volume, as opposed to a flexible spectrum of meal patterns and portion sizes. Parents of children who participate in the CACFP, SBP, and/or NSLP do not have control over the amount or composition of the subsidized meals. Parents of overweight, obese, or diabetic children who participate in the subsidized meal programs can request dietary change, special meals or accommodations to address their child's health status, but child care providers and schools are not required to comply with the request unless a licensed physician signs a "Medical statement to request special meals and/or accommodations". Although physicians are the only group authorized to change the foods, beverages, and portion sizes served daily to low income children, they are not doing so. Over the past three years, despite an overweight and obesity prevalence of 30% in San Francisco child care centers serving low income children, zero medical statements were filed to request special meals or accommodations to alter daily meals in order to prevent obesity, treat obesity, or prevent postprandial hyperglycemia. Low income children

  2. Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posth, Cosimo; Renaud, Gabriel; Mittnik, Alissa; Drucker, Dorothée G; Rougier, Hélène; Cupillard, Christophe; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Furtwängler, Anja; Wißing, Christoph; Francken, Michael; Malina, Maria; Bolus, Michael; Lari, Martina; Gigli, Elena; Capecchi, Giulia; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Beauval, Cédric; Flas, Damien; Germonpré, Mietje; van der Plicht, Johannes; Cottiaux, Richard; Gély, Bernard; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigourescu, Dan; Svoboda, Jiří; Semal, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Bocherens, Hervé; Harvati, Katerina; Conard, Nicholas J; Haak, Wolfgang; Powell, Adam; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    How modern humans dispersed into Eurasia and Australasia, including the number of separate expansions and their timings, is highly debated [1, 2]. Two categories of models are proposed for the dispersal of non-Africans: (1) single dispersal, i.e., a single major diffusion of modern humans across

  3. Coparenting Experiences in African American Families: An Examination of Single Mothers and their Non-Marital Coparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2015-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their non-marital coparents who participated in a study of African American single mother families with an 11 to 16 year old child. Specifically, the study examines: 1) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; 2) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and 3) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. PMID:24479612

  4. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  5. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela C; Poirier, Lisa; Ross, Alexandra; Ruggiero, Cara; Schwendler, Teresa; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth

    2017-11-10

    The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment) multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level) community intervention. The B'more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) intervention worked at the wholesaler ( n = 3), corner store ( n = 50), carryout ( n = 30), recreation center ( n = 28), household ( n = 365) levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat) in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA), ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript). For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  6. The Impact of a Multi-Level Multi-Component Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention on Healthy Food Availability, Sales, and Purchasing in a Low-Income Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gittelsohn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The multifactorial causes of obesity require multilevel and multicomponent solutions, but such combined strategies have not been tested to improve the community food environment. We evaluated the impact of a multilevel (operating at different levels of the food environment multicomponent (interventions occurring at the same level community intervention. The B’more Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK intervention worked at the wholesaler (n = 3, corner store (n = 50, carryout (n = 30, recreation center (n = 28, household (n = 365 levels to improve availability, purchasing, and consumption of healthier foods and beverages (low-sugar, low-fat in low-income food desert predominantly African American zones in the city of Baltimore (MD, USA, ultimately intending to lead to decreased weight gain in children (not reported in this manuscript. For this paper, we focus on more proximal impacts on the food environment, and measure change in stocking, sales and purchase of promoted foods at the different levels of the food system in 14 intervention neighborhoods, as compared to 14 comparison neighborhoods. Sales of promoted products increased in wholesalers. Stocking of these products improved in corner stores, but not in carryouts, and we did not find any change in total sales. Children more exposed to the intervention increased their frequency of purchase of promoted products, although improvement was not seen for adult caregivers. A multilevel food environment intervention in a low-income urban setting improved aspects of the food system, leading to increased healthy food purchasing behavior in children.

  7. The views of low-income employees regarding mandated comprehensive employee benefits for the sake of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikes, Katherin A; Hull, Sara C; Danis, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors stand in the way of good health for low-income populations. We suggest that employee benefits might serve as a means of improving the health of low-wage earners. We convened groups of low-income earners to design hypothetical employee benefit packages. Qualitative analysis of group discussions regarding state-mandated benefits indicated that participants were interested in a great variety of benefits, beyond health care, that address socioeconomic determinants of health. Long-term financial and educational investments were of particular value. These results may facilitate the design of employee benefits that promote the health of low-income workers.

  8. The Views of Low-Income Employees Regarding Mandated Comprehensive Employee Benefits for the Sake of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikes, Katherin A.; Hull, Sara C.; Dams, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors stand in the way of good health for low-income populations. We suggest that employee benefits might serve as a means of improving the health of low-wage earners. We convened groups of low-income earners to design hypothetical employee benefit packages. Qualitative analysis of group discussions regarding state-mandated benefits indicated that participants were interested in a great variety of benefits, beyond health care, that address socioeconomic determinants of health. Long-term financial and educational investments were of particular value. These results may facilitate the design of employee benefits that promote the health of low-income workers. PMID:20391255

  9. Chemical exposures in recently renovated low-income housing: Influence of building materials and occupant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Udesky, Julia O; Colton, Meryl D; McCauley, Martha; Camann, David E; Yau, Alice Y; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2017-12-01

    Health disparities in low-income communities may be linked to residential exposures to chemicals infiltrating from the outdoors and characteristics of and sources in the home. Indoor sources comprise those introduced by the occupant as well as releases from building materials. To examine the impact of renovation on indoor pollutants levels and to classify chemicals by predominant indoor sources, we collected indoor air and surface wipes from newly renovated "green" low-income housing units in Boston before and after occupancy. We targeted nearly 100 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including phthalates, flame retardants, fragrance chemicals, pesticides, antimicrobials, petroleum chemicals, chlorinated solvents, and formaldehyde, as well as particulate matter. All homes had indoor air concentrations that exceeded available risk-based screening levels for at least one chemical. We categorized chemicals as primarily influenced by the occupant or as having building-related sources. While building-related chemicals observed in this study may be specific to the particular housing development, occupant-related findings might be generalizable to similar communities. Among 58 detected chemicals, we distinguished 25 as primarily occupant-related, including fragrance chemicals 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetralin (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB). The pre- to post-occupancy patterns of the remaining chemicals suggested important contributions from building materials for some, including dibutyl phthalate and xylene, whereas others, such as diethyl phthalate and formaldehyde, appeared to have both building and occupant sources. Chemical classification by source informs multi-level exposure reduction strategies in low-income housing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the implications of dental treatment costs for low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Patrick; McNally, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    Dental disease is concentrated among those with low socioeconomic status. Dental care is not publicly funded, and many Canadians must therefore make difficult financial choices when accessing dental care. Families who live in poverty have difficulty meeting even their most basic household needs, so dental treatment may not be affordable. The objective of this study was to understand how the cost of dental treatment affects the monthly budgets of families with low incomes. A chart review was conducted for a sample of 213 new patients examined at the Dalhousie University dental clinic over a 1-year period. Costs for proposed treatment plans were averaged. The patients" ability to pay for proposed treatment was examined in the context of various income scenarios. Two hundred and one patients were included in the final analysis. Dental treatment costs per patient averaged approximately $1600 for the year, with 42% of the planned treatment completed within the first year. The estimated monthly cost of completed treatment was $55. When the cost of a healthy diet was included in the monthly budget, it was determined that families in Nova Scotia with parents working for minimum wage and those receiving income assistance would experience a 100% shortfall for dental expenses. Low-income families in Nova Scotia were unable to afford both a nutritious diet and dental care. This is disturbing, given the links between a healthy diet and both overall health and dental health. An understanding of the significance of income shortfalls for those with low incomes, especially as they affect even basic nutritional needs, will help dental professionals to appreciate the seriousness of this issue and the difficulties that many Canadians face when trying to access basic dental care.

  11. Factors contributing to background television exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Background television (TV) exposure is harmful to young children, yet few studies have focused on predictors of exposure. This study’s objectives were to elucidate demographic, environmental, and behavioral correlates of background TV exposure in low-income Mexican American preschoolers and to explore caregiver beliefs about the impact of such exposure. Methods A convenience sample of low-income Mexican American female primary caregivers of preschoolers (3–5 years old, n=309), recruited in safety-net clinics, were surveyed by phone. Caregivers reported the frequency of their child’s exposure to background TV and responded to questions on the home media environment, TV use, and whether they had thought about background TV exposure and its impact on their child. Results Background TV exposure was common; 43% reported that their child was often, very often, or always exposed to background TV. More hours of TV viewing by the caregiver and greater frequency of TV viewing during meals were associated with an increased frequency of exposure to background TV. Only 49% of participants had ever thought about the impact of background TV. Believing that background TV is not harmful was associated with higher levels of background TV exposure. Conclusions Findings suggest that background TV exposure is frequent and caregiver awareness of its potential impact is low in low-income Mexican American families. Beliefs that background TV is not harmful may predict risk of exposure. Potential targets for interventions focused on reducing background TV exposure in this population include increasing caregiver awareness of the potential negative impact of such TV exposure. PMID:27007983

  12. Breastfeeding support - the importance of self-efficacy for low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Francesca; Kendall, Sally; Mead, Marianne

    2010-07-01

    Breastfeeding is a key determinant in promoting public health and reducing health inequality. Low-income women have a significantly lower level of breastfeeding. Midwives in the UK have been encouraged to implement the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund's Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, but to date, there has been no evaluation of the impact of the training initiative on the breastfeeding behaviours of low-income women. As part of a wider study, this qualitative component was designed to answer the question - what are the views and experiences of low-income women (defined by Jarman scores) in relation to their breastfeeding support received in the post-natal period? A sample of seven women was interviewed. The in-depth interviews were analysed using a qualitative, thematic approach based on the self-efficacy theory. The four themes that emerged from the data were the following: breastfeeding related to the woman's self-confidence, the social environment in which the woman lived, knowledge of breastfeeding and the influence of maternity services on breastfeeding outcomes. These themes were interpreted in relation to the self-efficacy theory. The findings suggest that the components that inform self-efficacy are consistent with the themes from the data, suggesting that midwives and other health professionals should take the psychosocial aspects of breastfeeding support into account. As this important feature of breastfeeding support is not explicitly part of the current Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding, we suggest that further research and debate could inform expansion of these minimum standards to include the psychosocial aspects.

  13. Financial hardship and self-rated health among low-income housing residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Harley, Amy E; Stoddard, Anne M; Sorensen, Glorian G

    2013-08-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) has been shown to be predictive of morbidity and mortality. Evidence also shows that SRH is socioeconomically patterned, although this association differs depending on the indicator of socioeconomic status used. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between SRH and financial hardship among residents of low-income housing. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Health in Common Study (N = 828), an observational study to investigate social and physical determinants of cancer risk-related behaviors among residents of low-income housing in three cities in the Boston metropolitan area. Modified Poisson regression models were used to obtain the relative risk of low SRH (fair or poor), adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Unadjusted models revealed that the respondents reporting financial hardship were 53% more likely to report low SRH compared with those not reporting financial hardship. After controlling for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, and psychological distress, the results showed that those reporting financial hardship were 44% more likely to report low SRH. Our results suggest that financial hardship is a robust predictor of SRH; and over and above the influence of demographic and traditional socioeconomic indicators, and even psychological distress, financial hardship remains strongly associated with low SRH. Additional research needs to be conducted to further elucidate this pathway and to better understand the determinants of variability in financial hardship among low-income housing residents to ensure the most appropriate policy levers (e.g., housing-related policy, food-related policy) are chosen to improve health outcomes in this population.

  14. Green Schoolyards in Low-Income Urban Neighborhoods: Natural Spaces for Positive Youth Development Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn R. Bates

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Children from low-income families are increasingly growing up in urban areas with limited access to nature. In these environments, strategies that promote access to natural outdoor spaces, such as green schoolyards, may enhance positive youth development outcomes by promoting physical activity (PA and prosocial behavior, as well as increasing perceptions of safety. The current study examines children’s PA and social interactions, as well as caregiver and teacher perceptions of safety, injuries, teasing/bullying, and gang activity on three newly renovated green schoolyards in low-income urban neighborhoods. A multi-method strategy, including behavioral mapping and caregiver- and teacher-reported surveys, was utilized at three time points to examine positive youth development outcomes and maintenance of effects over time. Analyses revealed that children evidenced a range of PA on the green schoolyards and demonstrated significant decreases in sedentary activity over time. The majority of children were engaged in social interactions with peers on the green schoolyards when observed. Less than 3% of interactions were negative and follow-up analyses found significant increases in positive interactions on the green schoolyards up to 24 months post-renovation. Caregivers and teachers reported increased perceptions of safety, fewer injuries, less teasing/bullying, and less gang-related activity on the renovated green schoolyards in comparison to the pre-renovation schoolyards, and these effects were maintained up to 32 months post-renovation. Overall, the study suggests that green schoolyards may promote positive development outcomes among youth living in urban, low-income neighborhoods by providing natural and safe spaces for PA and prosocial behavior.

  15. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal-Cury A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Faisal-Cury,1 Karen M Tabb,2 Guilherme Niciunovas,3 Carrie Cunningham,4 Paulo R Menezes,1 Hsiang Huang4,5 1Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2School of Social Work, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; 3School of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Psychopathology and Psychiatric Therapeutics (LIM-23, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168 completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23. Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, planned pregnancy, Brazil, low-income population, women

  16. [Coverage of nutritional and health programs in the low income strata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzat, M A; González, N; Mardones, F; Moenne, A M; Sánchez, H

    1982-06-01

    The extent and consequences of exclusion of low income strata from maternal and child health programs in Chile are analyzed using available data. Infant mortality has been shown by several studies to be closely associated with socioeconomic status in Chile. Babies of illiterate mothers showed the highest rate of mortality and the least improvement in rate between 1972-78. The effect of socioeconomic status on the mortality rate of infants in greatly influenced by birth weight; low birth weight infants of low income groups suffer significantly higher mortality than among higher income groups. Several national studies in Chile demonstrated a relationship between infant malnutrition and health program coverage. Infant malnutrition is greatest in groups benefiting least from health care. Based on the fact that 90.5% of births in 1980 were professionally attended, it is estimated that 9.5% of the low income population lacks access to health care. A recent survey showed that 9.9% of the population under 6 years, some 105,848 children, was not covered by the National Complementary Feeding Program. Another study showed that 12.3% of mothers had no prenatal medical attention prior to their most recent birth; mothers with little or no education, living in rural areas, and of high parity were most likely not to have received medical attention. Factors responsible for lack of access to health and nutrition programs appeared to include unsatisfactory relationships with the health workers, poor acceptability of foods offered, excessive distance and waiting times, and lack of interest or motivation on the part of the mothers.

  17. Neighborhood perceptions and hypertension among low-income black women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliyhah Al-Bayan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women’s perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Methods Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N’Vivo 10 software. Results Three major themes emerged: (1 social connectedness, (2 stress factors, and (3 availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Conclusions Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women’s risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise, in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in

  18. Knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Renata Evangelista; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Machado, Daniel Rodrigues; Braga, Vanessa Augusta; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women. an integrative review was conducted in February 2016 on the SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE databases, and in the SciELO journals directory. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected. the knowledge produced comprises two main themes: "health in face of economic adversities" and "reciprocity in social support between low-income older women and their social network". health professionals, especially nurses, should be attentive to aspects related to social determinants and the health of low-income older women, highlighting the fact that they are not always the recipients of care. identificar o conhecimento produzido sobre a saúde das mulheres idosas de baixa renda. revisão integrativa realizada em fevereiro de 2016, nas bases de dados SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE e no diretório de revistas SciELO. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 24 artigos. o conhecimento produzido congrega dois temas principais: "a saúde diante das adversidades econômicas" e "reciprocidade no apoio social entre as mulheres idosas de baixa renda e sua rede social". os profissionais de saúde, em especial o enfermeiro, devem atentar para aspectos relacionados aos determinantes sociais e de saúde de mulheres idosas de baixa renda, destacando-se que elas, nem sempre, são apenas receptoras de cuidado.

  19. The family context of low-income parents who restrict child screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that parents restrict child screen time to two hours per day, but many preschool-aged children exceed this viewing recommendation. Modifying children's viewing habits will require collaborating with parents, but little is known about the factors that influence parents' capacity for effective screen-related parenting. This study aimed to identify the demographic, family and community contextual factors associated with low-income parents' restriction of child screen time. Parents (N=146) of children (age 2-5 years) attending Head Start centers in the United States completed a self-report survey in 2010 assessing parent and child screen use (television, DVD, video, video games, and leisure-time computer use), parent restriction of child screen time, and family (parent stress, social support, and life pressures) and community (neighborhood safety and social capital) factors. Children were more likely to meet the American Academy of Pediatrics screen time recommendation if their parent reported high restriction of child screen time. Parent and child demographic characteristics were not associated with parents' restriction of child screen time. In multivariate analysis, less parent screen time, fewer parent life pressures, and greater social support were associated with parents' high restriction of screen time. Family contextual factors may play an important role in enabling low-income parents to restrict their children's screen time. When counseling low-income parents about the importance of restricting child screen time, practitioners should be sensitive to family contextual factors that may influence parents' capacity to implement this behavior change.

  20. Poor parents?: the realities of work-life balance in a low-income neighbourhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hartley Dean

    2007-01-01

    The article explores the work-life balance policy agenda as it has emerged in post-industrial societies, such as the UK, and it reports on a small-scale study of the experiences and expectations of work-life balance in a low-income inner-London neighbourhood. From the study certain general issues are identified relating to the inconsistency of employers' practices and the currently fragmented nature of childcare provision. And certain issues of particular relevance for low-earning parents are...