WorldWideScience

Sample records for single late giants

  1. Giant magnetoresistance through a single molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaus, Stefan; Bagrets, Alexei; Nahas, Yasmine; Yamada, Toyo K; Bork, Annika; Bowen, Martin; Beaurepaire, Eric; Evers, Ferdinand; Wulfhekel, Wulf

    2011-03-01

    Magnetoresistance is a change in the resistance of a material system caused by an applied magnetic field. Giant magnetoresistance occurs in structures containing ferromagnetic contacts separated by a metallic non-magnetic spacer, and is now the basis of read heads for hard drives and for new forms of random access memory. Using an insulator (for example, a molecular thin film) rather than a metal as the spacer gives rise to tunnelling magnetoresistance, which typically produces a larger change in resistance for a given magnetic field strength, but also yields higher resistances, which are a disadvantage for real device operation. Here, we demonstrate giant magnetoresistance across a single, non-magnetic hydrogen phthalocyanine molecule contacted by the ferromagnetic tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope. We measure the magnetoresistance to be 60% and the conductance to be 0.26G(0), where G(0) is the quantum of conductance. Theoretical analysis identifies spin-dependent hybridization of molecular and electrode orbitals as the cause of the large magnetoresistance.

  2. AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE SHOULDER OF GIANTS: JOVIAN PLANETS AROUND LATE K DWARF STARS AND THE TREND WITH STELLAR MASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaidos, Eric [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mann, Andrew W.; Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Analyses of exoplanet statistics suggest a trend of giant planet occurrence with host star mass, a clue to how planets like Jupiter form. One missing piece of the puzzle is the occurrence around late K dwarf stars (masses of 0.5-0.75 M{sub Sun} and effective temperatures of 3900-4800 K). We analyzed four years of Doppler radial velocity (RVs) data for 110 late K dwarfs, one of which hosts two previously reported giant planets. We estimate that 4.0% {+-} 2.3% of these stars have Saturn-mass or larger planets with orbital periods <245 days, depending on the planet mass distribution and RV variability of stars without giant planets. We also estimate that 0.7% {+-} 0.5% of similar stars observed by Kepler have giant planets. This Kepler rate is significantly (99% confidence) lower than that derived from our Doppler survey, but the difference vanishes if only the single Doppler system (HIP 57274) with completely resolved orbits is considered. The difference could also be explained by the exclusion of close binaries (without giant planets) from the Doppler but not Kepler surveys, the effect of long-period companions and stellar noise on the Doppler data, or an intrinsic difference between the two populations. Our estimates for late K dwarfs bridge those for solar-type stars and M dwarfs, and support a positive trend with stellar mass. Small sample size precludes statements about finer structure, e.g., a ''shoulder'' in the distribution of giant planets with stellar mass. Future surveys such as the Next Generation Transit Survey and the Transiting Exoplanet Satellite Survey will ameliorate this deficiency.

  3. Nuclear isovector giant resonances excited by pion single charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.H.

    1993-07-01

    This thesis is an experimental study of isovector giant resonances in light nuclei excited by pion single charge exchange reactions. Giant dipole resonances in light nuclei are known to be highly structured. For the mass 9 and 13 giant dipole resonances, isospin considerations were found to be very important to understanding this structure. by comparing the excitation functions from cross section measurements of the (π + , π 0 ) and (π, π 0 ) inclusive reactions, the authors determined the dominant isospin structure of the analog IVGR's. The comparison was made after decomposing the cross section into resonant and non-resonant components. This decomposition is made in the framework of strong absorption and quasi-free scattering. Measurements in the region of the isovector giant dipole resonances (IVGDR) were made to cover the inclusive angular distributions out to the second minimum. Study of the giant resonance decay process provides further understanding of the resonances. This study was carried out by observing the (π + , π 0 p) coincident reactions involving the resonances of 9 B and 13 N excited from 9 Be and 13 C nuclei. These measurements determined the spectra of the decay protons. This method also permitted a decomposition of the giant resonances into their isospin components. The multipolarities of the resonances were revealed by the decay proton angular correlations which, for dipoles, are of the form 1 + A 2 P 2 (cos θ)

  4. Late Onset Achromatic Melanoma Arising in a Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman, with a lifelong history of a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in the occipital region with secondary development of giant melanoma is presented. Surgical excision was performed, and the histopathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of Giant Malignant Melanoma (GMM with a maximum tumour thickness of 16 mm. Nowadays, there is tremendous uncertainty regarding how giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN should be treated. The standard approach to patients with late onset giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN is based on two main considerations: (1 obtain an acceptable cosmetic results with the purpose to decrease the psychosocial inconvenience to each patient, and (2 to attempt to minimise the risk of development of malignant transformation. Unfortunately complete surgical removal of the GCMN is usually difficult and very often impossible without subsequent functional or cosmetic mutilations.

  5. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in late third trimester | Moukit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant fibroadenomas (GFs) occurring during pregnancy are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. The authors report a new case of GF in a 29‑year‑old pregnant woman with a family history of breast cancer.

  6. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in late third trimester

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Giant fibroadenomas (GFs) occurring during pregnancy are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. The authors report a new case of GF in a 29-year-old pregnant woman with a family history of ...

  7. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in late third trimester

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant fibroadenomas (GFs) occurring during pregnancy are extremely rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. The authors report a new case of GF in a 29-year-old pregnant woman with a family history of breast cancer.

  8. Bilateral fractures through "giant" patellar tendon ossicles: a late sequela of Osgood-Schlatter disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsens, R M; Seitz, W H

    1988-08-01

    Osgood-Schlatter disease is a common condition which affects many adolescents. It is generally a self-limiting process with a finite clinical course and late sequelae are notably uncommon. In this paper we present a unique case of bilateral fractures through "giant" patellar tendon ossicles in an adult with a history of Osgood-Schlatter disease.

  9. Giant electrical power factor in single-walled chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.

    2001-10-01

    Using the semiclassical approach we studied the thermoelectrical properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We predict a giant electrical power factor and hence proposed the use of carbon nanotubes as thermoelements for refrigeration. (author)

  10. Perinate and eggs of a giant caenagnathid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Hanyong; Zelenitsky, Darla K.; Lü, Junchang; Currie, Philip J.; Carpenter, Kenneth; Xu, Li; Koppelhus, Eva B.; Jia, Songhai; Xiao, Le; Chuang, Huali; Li, Tianran; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of dinosaur eggs in Upper Cretaceous strata of Henan Province, China led to the collection and export of countless such fossils. One of these specimens, recently repatriated to China, is a partial clutch of large dinosaur eggs (Macroelongatoolithus) with a closely associated small theropod skeleton. Here we identify the specimen as an embryo and eggs of a new, large caenagnathid oviraptorosaur, Beibeilong sinensis. This specimen is the first known association between skeletal remains and eggs of caenagnathids. Caenagnathids and oviraptorids share similarities in their eggs and clutches, although the eggs of Beibeilong are significantly larger than those of oviraptorids and indicate an adult body size comparable to a gigantic caenagnathid. An abundance of Macroelongatoolithus eggs reported from Asia and North America contrasts with the dearth of giant caenagnathid skeletal remains. Regardless, the large caenagnathid-Macroelongatoolithus association revealed here suggests these dinosaurs were relatively common during the early Late Cretaceous. PMID:28486442

  11. Trophic interactions between larger crocodylians and giant tortoises on Aldabra Atoll, Western Indian Ocean, during the Late Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Delfino, Massimo; Klein, Nicole; Bunbury, Nancy; Fleischer-Dogley, Frauke; Hansen, Dennis M

    2018-01-01

    Today, the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Aldabra Atoll is home to about 100 000 giant tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea , whose fossil record goes back to the Late Pleistocene. New Late Pleistocene fossils (age ca . 90-125 000 years) from the atoll revealed some appendicular bones and numerous shell fragments of giant tortoises and cranial and postcranial elements of crocodylians. Several tortoise bones show circular holes, pits and scratch marks that are interpreted as bite marks of crocodylians. The presence of a Late Pleistocene crocodylian species, Aldabrachampsus dilophus , has been known for some time, but the recently found crocodylian remains presented herein are distinctly larger than those previously described. This indicates the presence of at least some larger crocodylians, either of the same or of a different species, on the atoll. These larger crocodylians, likely the apex predators in the Aldabra ecosystem at the time, were well capable of inflicting damage on even very large giant tortoises. We thus propose an extinct predator-prey interaction between crocodylians and giant tortoises during the Late Pleistocene, when both groups were living sympatrically on Aldabra, and we discuss scenarios for the crocodylians directly attacking the tortoises or scavenging on recently deceased animals.

  12. Fast accretion of the Earth with a late Moon-forming giant impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2011-01-01

    Constraints on the formation history of the Earth are critical for understanding of planet formation processes. 182Hf-182W chronometry of terrestrial rocks points to accretion of Earth in approximately 30 Myr after the formation of the solar system, immediately followed by the Moon-forming giant impact (MGI). Nevertheless, some N-body simulations and 182Hf-182W and 87Rb-87Sr chronology of some lunar rocks have been used to argue for a later formation of the Moon at 52 to > 100 Myr. This discrepancy is often explained by metal-silicate disequilibrium during giant impacts. Here we describe a model of the 182W isotopic evolution of the accreting Earth, including constraints from partitioning of refractory siderophile elements (Ni, Co, W, V, and Nb) during core formation, which can explain the discrepancy. Our modeling shows that the concentrations of the siderophile elements of the mantle are consistent with high-pressure metal-silicate equilibration in a terrestrial magma ocean. Our analysis shows that the timing of the MGI is inversely correlated with the time scale of the main accretion stage of the Earth. Specifically, the earliest time the MGI could have taken place right at approximately 30 Myr, corresponds to the end of main-stage accretion at approximately 30 Myr. A late MGI (> 52 Myr) requires the main stage of the Earth’s accretion to be completed rapidly in < 10.7 ± 2.5 Myr. These are the two end member solutions and a continuum of solutions exists in between these extremes. PMID:22006299

  13. Fast accretion of the earth with a late moon-forming giant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gang; Jacobsen, Stein B

    2011-10-25

    Constraints on the formation history of the Earth are critical for understanding of planet formation processes. (182)Hf-(182)W chronometry of terrestrial rocks points to accretion of Earth in approximately 30 Myr after the formation of the solar system, immediately followed by the Moon-forming giant impact (MGI). Nevertheless, some N-body simulations and (182)Hf-(182)W and (87)Rb-(87)Sr chronology of some lunar rocks have been used to argue for a later formation of the Moon at 52 to > 100 Myr. This discrepancy is often explained by metal-silicate disequilibrium during giant impacts. Here we describe a model of the (182)W isotopic evolution of the accreting Earth, including constraints from partitioning of refractory siderophile elements (Ni, Co, W, V, and Nb) during core formation, which can explain the discrepancy. Our modeling shows that the concentrations of the siderophile elements of the mantle are consistent with high-pressure metal-silicate equilibration in a terrestrial magma ocean. Our analysis shows that the timing of the MGI is inversely correlated with the time scale of the main accretion stage of the Earth. Specifically, the earliest time the MGI could have taken place right at approximately 30 Myr, corresponds to the end of main-stage accretion at approximately 30 Myr. A late MGI (> 52 Myr) requires the main stage of the Earth's accretion to be completed rapidly in < 10.7 ± 2.5 Myr. These are the two end member solutions and a continuum of solutions exists in between these extremes.

  14. Observed departures from LTE ionization equilibrium in late-type giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    Photoelectric scans of the Ca I line at 6572 A and the forbidden Ca II transition at 7323 A are studied in the K giant α Tau, the M supergiant α Ori, and the M giants β And, α Cet, μ Gem, and β Peg. The relative strengths of these lines are shown to be indicative of the ratio of the relative number densities of the neutral and ionized species in the photosphere. The analysis indicates an overionization relative to LTE in qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations of Auman and Woodrow for the K and M giants. The M supergiant α Ori exhibits a large over-ionization relative to LTE

  15. The giant acoustic atom - a single quantum system with a deterministic time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lingzhen; Grimsmo, Arne; Frisk Kockum, Anton; Pletyukhov, Mikhail; Johansson, Göran

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a single transmon qubit coupled to surface acoustic waves (SAWs) via two distant connection points. Since the acoustic speed is five orders of magnitude slower than the speed of light, the travelling time between the two connection points needs to be taken into account. Therefore, we treat the transmon qubit as a giant atom with a deterministic time delay. We find that the spontaneous emission of the system, formed by the giant atom and the SAWs between its connection points, initially follows a polynomial decay law instead of an exponential one, as would be the case for a small atom. We obtain exact analytical results for the scattering properties of the giant atom up to two-phonon processes by using a diagrammatic approach. The time delay gives rise to novel features in the reflection, transmission, power spectra, and second-order correlation functions of the system. Furthermore, we find the short-time dynamics of the giant atom for arbitrary drive strength by a numerically exact method for open quantum systems with a finite-time-delay feedback loop. L. G. acknowledges financial support from Carl-Zeiss Stiftung (0563-2.8/508/2).

  16. Deposition of a saline giant in the Mississippian Windsor Group, Nova Scotia, and the nascent Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Laura A.; Pufahl, Peir K.; James, Noel P.

    2018-01-01

    Saline giants are vast marine evaporite deposits that currently have no modern analogues and remain one of the most enigmatic of chemical sedimentary rocks. The Mississippian Windsor Group (ca. 345 Ma), Maritimes Basin, Atlantic Canada is a saline giant that consists of two evaporite-rich sedimentary sequences that are subdivided into five subzones. Sequence 1 is composed almost entirely of thick halite belonging to Subzone A (Osagean). Sequence 2 is in unconformable contact and comprised of stacked carbonate-evaporite peritidal cycles of Subzones B through E (Meramecian). Subzone B, the focus of research herein, documents the transition from wholly evaporitic to open marine conditions and thus, preserves an exceptional window into the processes forming saline giants. Lithofacies stacking patterns in Subzone B reveal that higher-order fluctuations in relative sea level produced nine stacked parasequences interpreted to reflect high frequency glacioeustatic oscillations during the onset of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Each parasequence reflects progradation of intertidal and sabkha sediments over subtidal carbonate and evaporite deposits. Dissimilarities in cycle composition between sub-basins imply the development of contrasting brine chemistries from differing recharge rates with the open ocean. What the Windsor Group shows is that evaporite type is ostensibly linked to the amplitude and frequency of sea level rise and fall during deposition. True saline giants, like the basinwide evaporites of Sequence 1, apparently require low amplitude, long frequency changes in sea level to promote the development of stable brine pools that are only periodically recharged with seawater. By contrast, the high amplitude, short frequency glacioeustatic variability in sea level that controlled the accumulation of peritidal evaporites in Subzone B produce smaller, subeconomic deposits with more complex facies relationships.

  17. Quantum chaos in nuclear single-particle motion and damping of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Santanu; Mukhopadhyay, Tapan

    1995-01-01

    The spectral statistics of single particle motion in deformed cavities with axial symmetry are presented. The single particle motion in the cavities considered are non-integrable and the systematics of the fluctuation measures of the spectra reveal a transition from regular to chaotic regime in the corresponding classical systems. Quantitative estimate of the degree of chaos enables us to introduce a correction factor to the one-body wall formula for the damping widths of isoscalar giant resonances. The damping widths calculated with this correction factor give much better agreement with experimental values than earlier calculations of one-body damping widths. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs

  18. Spontaneous ICA rupture: a severe late complication after giant nasopharyngeal angiofibroma resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Gisolo, M; Crosetti, E; Bergui, M; Danesi, G

    2013-04-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a benign vascular tumor occurring in young males. Surgery for giant JNA is a complex procedure, with a high risk of major complications. We report a rare case of massive epistaxis in a 15-year-old boy resulting from spontaneous rupture of the intracavernous tract of the internal carotid artery 20 days after resection of a giant JNA by midface degloving. The event was managed by an emergency arteriography with coils selectively deployed to occlude the vessel and to stop hemorrhage. This treatment has been shown to be effective in producing immediate hemostasis and stable long-term occlusion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-incision trocar-less endoscopic management of giant liver hydatid cyst in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Himanshu; Agrawal, Vikesh; Tiwari, Abhishek; Sharma, Dhananjaya

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic management of giant hydatid cyst has limitations such as spillage, poor control, difficulties in suctioning the contents through special ports which are not easily available, difficulty in the obliteration of residual cavity and recurrence. We describe single-incision trocar-less endoscopic (SITE) technique which simplifies enucleation and management of residual cavity. Method: Inclusion criteria for these cases were patients having single uncomplicated giant hydatid cyst >5 cm present at the surface of the liver and palpable on clinical examination. The cysts which were <5 cm, multiple, deep-seated and impalpable were excluded from the study. Technique: An incision of 1 cm is marked over the site of the maximum bulge and deepened to open peritoneum, cyst is held with two stay sutures, injection of scolicidal agent and aspiration is done and suction of the cyst content is done. After suction of the contents, 5 mm telescope is inserted, and the cyst cavity is inspected, clearance and cyst procedure is done. Results: In 6 years, 62 cases of giant hydatid cyst fulfilling the inclusion criteria and were taken for SITE technique. SITE was successful in all patients and none needed a conversion. Twenty-nine (46.77%) underwent omentopexy and three (4.83%) underwent SITE capitonnage. There was post-operative biliary leak in one (0.016%) patient who underwent capitonnage, which was managed by prolonged drainage which resolved in 10 days. Mean operative duration was 52 min (30 min to 85 min). Mean follow-up was for 18 months (12–36 months). One (0.016%) patient had cyst recurrence. Discussion: SITE has advantages of endoscopic clearance and does not require special ports which are expensive, technically difficult to use and often unavailable. It allows controlled handling, effective suction and easier management of bile communication. SITE can be a preferred procedure for endoscopic management of giant liver hydatid cysts. Conclusion: SITE

  20. Magnetization tunneling in high-symmetry single-molecule magnets: Limitations of the giant spin approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Lawrence, J.; Yang, E.-C.; Nakano, M.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Hill, S.

    2006-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies of a Ni4 single-molecule magnet (SMM) yield the zero-field-splitting (ZFS) parameters D , B40 , and B44 , based on the giant spin approximation (GSA) with S=4 ; B44 is responsible for the magnetization tunneling in this SMM. Experiments on an isostructural Ni-doped Zn4 crystal establish the NiII ion ZFS parameters. The fourth-order ZFS parameters in the GSA arise from the interplay between the Heisenberg interaction Jŝ1•ŝ2 and the second-order single-ion anisotropy, giving rise to mixing of higher-lying S≠4 states into the S=4 state. Consequently, J directly influences the ZFS in the ground state, enabling its determination by EPR.

  1. A giant chelonioid turtle from the late Cretaceous of Morocco with a suction feeding apparatus unique among tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Nathalie; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; de Lapparent de Broin, France; Germain, Damien; Lambert, Olivier; Amaghzaz, Mbarek

    2013-01-01

    Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250-65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further

  2. A giant chelonioid turtle from the late Cretaceous of Morocco with a suction feeding apparatus unique among tetrapods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bardet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250-65 Myr marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils. The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws. This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to

  3. A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Nathalie; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; de Lapparent de Broin, France; Germain, Damien; Lambert, Olivier; Amaghzaz, Mbarek

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. Principal Findings A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. Conclusion/Significance The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late

  4. Antisolar differential rotation with surface lithium enrichment on the single K-giant V1192 Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kővári, Zs.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T. A.; Oláh, K.; Kriskovics, L.; Kővári, E.; Kovács, O.; Vida, K.; Granzer, T.; Weber, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Stars with about 1-2 solar masses at the red giant branch (RGB) represent an intriguing period of stellar evolution, I.e. when the convective envelope interacts with the fast-rotating core. During these mixing episodes freshly synthesized lithium can come up to the stellar surface along with high angular momentum material. This high angular momentum may alter the surface rotation pattern. Aims: The single rapidly rotating K-giant V1192 Ori is revisited to determine its surface differential rotation, lithium abundance, and basic stellar properties such as a precise rotation period. The aim is to independently verify the antisolar differential rotation of the star and possibly find a connection to the surface lithium abundance. Methods: We applied time-series Doppler imaging to a new multi-epoch data set. Altogether we reconstructed 11 Doppler images from spectroscopic data collected with the STELLA robotic telescope between 2007-2016. We used our inversion code iMap to reconstruct all stellar surface maps. We extracted the differential rotation from these images by tracing systematic spot migration as a function of stellar latitude from consecutive image cross-correlations. Results: The position of V1192 Ori in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram suggests that the star is in the helium core-burning phase just leaving the RGB bump. We measure A(Li)NLTE = 1.27, I.e. a value close to the anticipated transition value of 1.5 from Li-normal to Li-rich giants. Doppler images reveal extended dark areas arranged quasi-evenly along an equatorial belt. No cool polar spot is found during the investigated epoch. Spot displacements clearly suggest antisolar surface differential rotation with α = - 0.11 ± 0.02 shear coefficient. Conclusions: The surface Li enrichment and the peculiar surface rotation pattern may indicate a common origin. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic observatory in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC.

  5. Giant Magnetoresistance in Carbon Nanotubes with Single-Molecule Magnets TbPc2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainov, Igor V; Klier, Janina; Dmitriev, Alexander P; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Ruben, Mario; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Gornyi, Igor V

    2017-07-25

    We present experimental results and a theoretical model for the gate-controlled spin-valve effect in carbon nanotubes with side-attached single-molecule magnets TbPc 2 (Terbium(III) bis-phthalocyanine). These structures show a giant magnetoresistance up to 1000% in experiments on single-wall nanotubes that are tunnel-coupled to the leads. The proposed theoretical model combines the spin-dependent Fano effect with Coulomb blockade and predicts a spin-spin interaction between the TbPc 2 molecules, mediated by conducting electrons via the charging effect. This gate-tuned interaction is responsible for the stable magnetic ordering of the inner spins of the molecules in the absence of magnetic field. In the case of antiferromagnetic arrangement, electrons with either spin experience the scattering by the molecules, which results in blocking the linear transport. In strong magnetic fields, the Zeeman energy exceeds the effective antiferromagnetic coupling and one species of electrons is not scattered by molecules, which leads to a much lower total resistance at the resonant values of gate voltage, and hence to a supramolecular spin-valve effect.

  6. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  7. Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa in male and female specimens of an ostracod Cypria ophtalmica (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Late Glacial lacustrine sediments of Southern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepure, Sanda; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Valdecasas, Antonio G.; Magyari, Enikö K.

    2012-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa observed between abundant decalcified carapace valves of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) were found in Late Glacial to Holocene (14,400 to 10,000 cal years bp) lacustrine sediments in the southern Romanian Carpathians. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed good preservation of the appendages enabling specific identification as Cypria ophtalmica (Candonidae) and indication of the presence of both female and male specimens based on the sexual dimorphism of the second antenna. This record represents the oldest and richest direct evidence of virtually morphologically unaltered animal spermatozoa preserved in females after mating.

  8. Redshifts of high-temperature emission lines in the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars. II - New, precise measurements of dwarfs and giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Jensen, Eberhard; Engvold, Oddbjorn

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from an IUE SWP camera investigation of the occurrence of gasdynamic flows, analogous to the downdrafts of 10 to the 5th K material observed over magnetic active regions of the sun, among stars of late spectral type. The SWP calibration spectra study conducted documents the existence of local, small, persistent distortions of the echelle wavelength scales that are of unknown origin. Attention is given to the enormous widths of the stellar high-excitation emission lines in both the dwarfs and the giants, with respect to the comparatively small, subsonic Doppler shifts; the widths are typically an order of magnitude greater than the redshifts.

  9. Effect of giant plasmon excitations in single and double ionization of C60 in fast heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhane, Umesh; Kelkar, A.; Misra, D.; Kumar, Ajay; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2007-04-01

    Single and multiple ionization of C60 in collisions with highly charged fast oxygen ions have been studied using the recoil-ion time-of-flight technique. The dependence of multiple-ionization cross sections on projectile charge state (qp) was found to be drastically different from those for an atomic target, such as Ne. A model based on the giant dipole plasmon resonance explains quite well the observed qp dependence for the single- and-double-ionization cross sections. But the same model deviates for triple and quadruple ionizations.

  10. A young Moon-forming giant impact at 70-110 million years accompanied by late-stage mixing, core formation and degassing of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Alex N

    2008-11-28

    New W isotope data for lunar metals demonstrate that the Moon formed late in isotopic equilibrium with the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). On this basis, lunar Sr isotope data are used to define the former composition of the Earth and hence the Rb-Sr age of the Moon, which is 4.48+/-0.02Ga, or 70-110Ma (million years) after the start of the Solar System. This age is significantly later than had been deduced from W isotopes based on model assumptions or isotopic effects now known to be cosmogenic. The Sr age is in excellent agreement with earlier estimates based on the time of lunar Pb loss and the age of the early lunar crust (4.46+/-0.04Ga). Similar ages for the BSE are recorded by xenon and lead-lead, providing evidence of catastrophic terrestrial degassing, atmospheric blow-off and significant late core formation accompanying the ca 100Ma giant impact. Agreement between the age of the Moon based on the Earth's Rb/Sr and the lead-lead age of the Moon is consistent with no major losses of moderately volatile elements from the Earth during the giant impact. The W isotopic composition of the BSE can be explained by end member models of (i) gradual accretion with a mean life of roughly 35Ma or (ii) rapid growth with a mean life of roughly 10Ma, followed by a significant hiatus prior to the giant impact. The former assumes that approximately 60 per cent of the incoming metal from impactors is added directly to the core during accretion. The latter includes complete mixing of all the impactor material into the BSE during accretion. The identical W isotopic composition of the Moon and the BSE limits the amount of material that can be added as a late veneer to the Earth after the giant impact to less than 0.3+/-0.3 per cent of ordinary chondrite or less than 0.5+/-0.6 per cent CI carbonaceous chondrite based on their known W isotopic compositions. Neither of these on their own is sufficient to explain the inventories of both refractory siderophiles such as platinum group

  11. High-resolution Spectroscopic Observations of Single Red Giants in Three Open Clusters: NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Suárez, V. J.; Sales Silva, J. V.; Katime Santrich, O. J.; Drake, N. A.; Pereira, C. B.

    2018-02-01

    Single stars in open clusters with known distances are important targets in constraining the nucleosynthesis process since their ages and luminosities are also known. In this work, we analyze a sample of 29 single red giants of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 using high-resolution spectroscopy. We obtained atmospheric parameters, abundances of the elements C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, and Nd, as well as radial and rotational velocities. We employed the local thermodynamic equilibrium atmospheric models of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code MOOG. Rotational velocities and light-element abundances were derived using spectral synthesis. Based on our analysis of the single red giants in these three open clusters, we could compare, for the first time, their abundance pattern with that of the binary stars of the same clusters previously studied. Our results show that the abundances of both single and binary stars of the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 do not have significant differences. For the elements created by the s-process, we observed that the open clusters NGC 2360, NGC 3680, and NGC 5822 also follow the trend already raised in the literature that young clusters have higher s-process element abundances than older clusters. Finally, we observed that the three clusters of our sample exhibit a trend in the [Y/Mg]-age relation, which may indicate the ability of the [Y/Mg] ratio to be used as a clock for the giants. Based on the observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under an agreement with Observatório Nacional and under an agreement between Observatório Nacional and Max-Planck Institute für Astronomie.

  12. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  13. Osteology of the dorsal vertebrae of the giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur Dreadnoughtus schrani from the Late Cretaceous of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn K. Voegele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many titanosaurian dinosaurs are known only from fragmentary remains, making comparisons between taxa difficult because they often lack overlapping skeletal elements. This problem is particularly pronounced for the exceptionally large-bodied members of this sauropod clade. Dreadnoughtus schrani is a well-preserved giant titanosaurian from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian–Maastrichtian Cerro Fortaleza Formation of southern Patagonia, Argentina. Numerous skeletal elements are known for Dreadnoughtus, including seven nearly complete dorsal vertebrae and a partial dorsal neural arch that collectively represent most of the dorsal sequence. Here we build on our previous preliminary description of these skeletal elements by providing a detailed assessment of their serial positional assignments, as well as comparisons of the dorsal vertebrae of Dreadnoughtus with those of other exceptionally large-bodied titanosaurians. Although the dorsal elements of Dreadnoughtus probably belong to two individuals, they exhibit substantial morphological variation that suggests that there is minimal, if any, positional overlap among them. Dreadnoughtus therefore preserves the second-most complete dorsal vertebral series known for a giant titanosaurian that has been described in detail, behind only that of Futalognkosaurus. The dorsal sequence of Dreadnoughtus provides valuable insight into serial variation along the vertebral column of these enormous sauropods. Such variation includes the variable presence of divided spinodiapophyseal laminae and associated spinodiapophyseal fossae. Given that dorsal vertebrae are the only elements that overlap between known remains of most giant titanosaurian taxa, the dorsal series of Dreadnoughtus provides a means to directly compare the morphologies of these sauropods. The dorsal vertebrae of Dreadnoughtus and Futalognkosaurus have dorsoventrally narrow transverse processes, unlike the condition in Puertasaurus. Further

  14. Giant volume magnetostriction in the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S. A., E-mail: nikitin@phys.msu.ru; Pankratov, N. Yu.; Smarzhevskaya, A. I.; Politova, G. A. [Physics Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Pastushenkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yupast@mail.ru; Skokov, K. P. [Physics Faculty, Tver State University, 170100 Tver (Russian Federation); Moral, A. del [Laboratorio de Magnetismo de Slidos, Departamento de Fisica de Materia Condensada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragn, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza-C.S.I.C, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2015-05-21

    An investigation of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compound belonging to the class of intermetallic alloys of rare-earth and 3d-transition metals is presented. The magnetization, magnetostriction, and thermal expansion of the Y{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} single crystal were studied. The forced magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were investigated in the temperature range of the magnetic ordering close to the room temperature. The giant field induced volume magnetostriction was discovered in the room temperature region in the magnetic field up to 1.2 T. The contributions of both anisotropic single-ion and isotropic pair exchange interactions to the volume magnetostriction and magnetostriction constants were determined. The experimental results were interpreted within the framework of the Standard Theory of Magnetostriction and the Landau thermodynamic theory. It was found out that the giant values of the volume magnetostriction were caused by the strong dependence of the 3d-electron Coulomb charge repulsion on the deformations and width of the 3d-electron energy band.

  15. Single-dish and VLBI observations of Cygnus X-3 during the 2016 giant flare episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Giroletti, M.; Righini, S.; Stagni, M.; Orlati, A.; Migoni, C.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Barbas, L.; Buttaccio, S.; Cassaro, P.; De Vicente, P.; Gawroński, M. P.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.; Stanghellini, C.; Wolak, P.; Yang, J.; Navarrini, A.; Loru, S.; Pilia, M.; Bachetti, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Buttu, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Markoff, S.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Kalemci, E.; Belloni, T.; Grinberg, V.; Marongiu, M.; Vargiu, G. P.; Trois, A.

    2017-11-01

    In 2016 September, the microquasar Cygnus X-3 underwent a giant radio flare, which was monitored for 6 d with the Medicina Radio Astronomical Station and the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Long observations were performed in order to follow the evolution of the flare on an hourly scale, covering six frequency ranges from 1.5 to 25.6 GHz. The radio emission reached a maximum of 13.2 ± 0.7 Jy at 7.2 GHz and 10 ± 1 Jy at 18.6 GHz. Rapid flux variations were observed at high radio frequencies at the peak of the flare, together with rapid evolution of the spectral index: α steepened from 0.3 to 0.6 (with Sν ∝ ν-α) within 5 h. This is the first time that such fast variations are observed, giving support to the evolution from optically thick to optically thin plasmons in expansion moving outward from the core. Based on the Italian network (Noto, Medicina and SRT) and extended to the European antennas (Torun, Yebes, Onsala), very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations were triggered at 22 GHz on five different occasions, four times prior to the giant flare, and once during its decay phase. Flux variations of 2 h duration were recorded during the first session. They correspond to a mini-flare that occurred close to the core 10 d before the onset of the giant flare. From the latest VLBI observation we infer that 4 d after the flare peak the jet emission was extended over 30 mas.

  16. Single step modified ink staining for Tzanck test: quick detection of herpetic giant cells in Tzanck smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Hitoshi; Akeda, Tomoko; Yamanaka, Kei-Ichi; Isoda, Kenichi; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2012-02-01

    Tzanck test has been recently re-evaluated as a method for the diagnosis of herpes virus infection. Giemsa staining for the Tzanck test is time-consuming and laborious. There is a need to develop simple and quick staining methods for bedside diagnosis of this disease. We report a single step and quick method for staining herpes giant cells in Tzanck smears using routinely available inks and physiological saline. A keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was cultured on a slide glass and stained with various commercially available blue, blue-black and black inks serially diluted with physiological saline. Clinical smear samples from herpes lesions were also stained with these solutions without specific pretreatment. The nuclei of HaCaT were clearly stained showing high contrast with the cytoplasm using 5% Parker-Quink blue-black ink saline solution. Concentration of ink solution higher or lower than 5% resulted in less contrast. Blue or black inks or other manufacturers' inks can also be used, but staining of the cultured keratinocytes was less clear. Smear of clinical samples from herpes lesions were also stained with 5% ink solution. The nuclei of the multinucleated giant cells were clearly stained, and the sample could be immediately used for microscopic examination. One step staining of Tzanck smear using this diluted ink solution is an inexpensive and a convenient bedside diagnostic tool for the dermatologist. © 2011 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  17. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, A. H.; Kadhane, U.; Misra, D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2007-09-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Siq+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u Oq+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening.

  18. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C60 by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C

    2007-01-01

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C 60 molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si q+ (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O q+ (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C 60 are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening

  19. [Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization Therapy for Giant Cholangiocellular Carcinoma - A Single Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, Keita; Hori, Astushi; Yuki, Takeo; Ohira, Ryosuke; Hori, Shinichi

    2016-11-01

    Here, we report a case of cholangiocellular carcinoma that was successfully treated with chemotherapy using a selective intra-arterial infusion technique. A 65-year-old man presented to our hospital to obtain a second opinion regarding his disease. The patient was diagnosed with cholangiocellular carcinoma. The giant tumor was located in the porta hepatis. Some small nodules that were considered to be metastatic lesions were also observed in the surroundingarea. The tumor was judged by the primary physician to be too large for surgical treatment. Consequently, it was decided to treat the patient with trans-arterial chemoembolization(TACE)by selectingintra -arterial infusion of 5-FU, epirubicin(EPI), and mitomycin C prior to EPI-loaded HepaSphere(super-absorbent polymer microsphere)embolization, combined with concurrent systemic gemcitabine chemotherapy. After 5 sessions of the above treatment, the primary lesion reduced dramatically in size. In addition, the levels of CEA and CA19-9 decreased from 34.2 to 2.6 ng/mL and 1,540 to 149 U/mL, respectively. Although the patient's initial life expectancy was only 3 to 6 months, his life expectancy was extended to as longas 26 months followingthe initiation of TACE. This case suggests that treatment with TACE together with systemic chemotherapy can be a powerful therapeutic option for patients with inoperable cholangiocellular carcinoma.

  20. Giant seismites and megablock uplift in the East African Rift: evidence for Late Pleistocene large magnitude earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah Louise; Roberts, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. We document examples of the most highly deformed sediments in shallow, subsurface strata close to the regional capital of Mbeya, Tanzania. This includes a remarkable, clastic 'megablock complex' that preserves remobilized sediment below vertically displaced blocks of intact strata (megablocks), some in excess of 20 m-wide. Documentation of these seismites expands the database of seismogenic sedimentary structures, and attests to large magnitude, Late Pleistocene-Recent earthquakes along the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. Understanding how seismicity deforms near-surface sediments is critical for predicting and preparing for modern seismic hazards, especially along the East African Rift and other tectonically active, developing regions.

  1. Room-temperature superparamagnetism due to giant magnetic anisotropy in Mo S defected single-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A.; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature superparamagnetism due to a large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of a single atom magnet has always been a prerequisite for nanoscale magnetic devices. Realization of two dimensional (2D) materials such as single-layer (SL) MoS2, has provided new platforms for exploring magnetic effects, which is important for both fundamental research and for industrial applications. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) to show that the antisite defect (Mo S ) in SL MoS2 is magnetic in nature with a magnetic moment μ of  ∼2 μB and, remarkably, exhibits an exceptionally large atomic scale MAE =\\varepsilon\\parallel-\\varepsilon\\perp of  ∼500 meV. Our calculations reveal that this giant anisotropy is the joint effect of strong crystal field and significant spin–orbit coupling (SOC). In addition, the magnetic moment μ can be tuned between 1 μB and 3 μB by varying the Fermi energy \\varepsilonF , which can be achieved either by changing the gate voltage or by chemical doping. We also show that MAE can be raised to  ∼1 eV with n-type doping of the MoS2:Mo S sample. Our systematic investigations deepen our understanding of spin-related phenomena in SL MoS2 and could provide a route to nanoscale spintronic devices.

  2. ASEAN SINGLE AVIATION MARKET AND INDONESIA - WILL IT SURVIVE AGAINST THE GIANTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruwantissa Indranath Abeyratne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available  To say that Indonesia is an enigma in air transport is an understatement.  On the one hand,  the  demand for air transport in Indonesia is higher in proportion to its GDP per capita.  Its economy can be expected to grow 6% to 10% annually. A single aviation market could add another 6% to 10% growth in sheer demand.  It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world, being the 16th richest country currently, and, according to an Airbus forecast,   will be the 7th richest in 2030.  Yet its airports are badly in need of expansion, its infrastructure is bursting at its seems, and above all, its airlines are strongly resisting liberalization of air transport in the region for fear of being wiped out by stronger contenders in the region.  Against this backdrop, it is incontrovertible that Indonesia's civil aviation is intrinsically linked to regional and global considerations.  Indonesia's archipelagic topography makes its people heavily reliant on safe, regular and reliable air services that may connect them not only internally but also to the outside world.A single aviation market in the ASEAN region will bring both benefits to Indonesia and challengers to its air transport sector. This article discusses the economic and regulatory challenges that Indonesia faces with the coming into effect of the ASEAN Single Aviation market in 2015.

  3. Comparison of Magnetization Tunneling in the Giant-Spin and Multi-Spin Descriptions of Single-Molecule Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen

    2010-03-01

    We perform a mapping of the spectrum obtained for a triangular Mn3 single-molecule magnet (SMM) with idealized C3 symmetry via exact diagonalization of a multi-spin (MS) Hamiltonian onto that of a giant-spin (GS) model which assumes strong ferromagnetic coupling and a spin S = 6 ground state. Magnetic hysteresis measurements on this Mn3 SMM reveal clear evidence that the steps in magnetization due to magnetization tunneling obey the expected quantum mechanical selection rules [J. Henderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 017202 (2009)]. High-frequency EPR and magnetization data are first fit to the MS model. The tunnel splittings obtained via the two models are then compared in order to find a relationship between the sixth order transverse anisotropy term B6^6 in GS model and the exchange constant J coupling the Mn^III ions in the MS model. We also find that the fourth order transverse term B4^3 in the GS model is related to the orientation of JahnTeller axes of Mn^III ions, as well as J

  4. Attitudes towards family formation in cohabiting and single childless women in their mid- to late thirties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Lykke-Sylvest, Randi; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards family formation in single or cohabiting childless women of advanced age. The design comprised semi-structured qualitative interviews of 20 women aged 34–39 years attending the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen...... family formation was characterized by a fear of the consequences of choosing motherhood on one hand, and a ‘ticking biological clock’ and a wish to establish a nuclear family on the other. The women idealized the perception of perfect mothering in terms of uncompromising expectations of child rearing...... and showed an increasing awareness of solo motherhood as a possible solution to advanced age, the wish of a child and single status compared to earlier studies. Our study contributes to knowledge and understanding of personal considerations related to childbearing in nullipara women in their mid- to late 30s...

  5. Giant osmotic energy conversion measured in a single transmembrane boron nitride nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siria, Alessandro; Poncharal, Philippe; Biance, Anne-Laure; Fulcrand, Rémy; Blase, Xavier; Purcell, Stephen T; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2013-02-28

    New models of fluid transport are expected to emerge from the confinement of liquids at the nanoscale, with potential applications in ultrafiltration, desalination and energy conversion. Nevertheless, advancing our fundamental understanding of fluid transport on the smallest scales requires mass and ion dynamics to be ultimately characterized across an individual channel to avoid averaging over many pores. A major challenge for nanofluidics thus lies in building distinct and well-controlled nanochannels, amenable to the systematic exploration of their properties. Here we describe the fabrication and use of a hierarchical nanofluidic device made of a boron nitride nanotube that pierces an ultrathin membrane and connects two fluid reservoirs. Such a transmembrane geometry allows the detailed study of fluidic transport through a single nanotube under diverse forces, including electric fields, pressure drops and chemical gradients. Using this device, we discover very large, osmotically induced electric currents generated by salinity gradients, exceeding by two orders of magnitude their pressure-driven counterpart. We show that this result originates in the anomalously high surface charge carried by the nanotube's internal surface in water at large pH, which we independently quantify in conductance measurements. The nano-assembly route using nanostructures as building blocks opens the way to studying fluid, ionic and molecule transport on the nanoscale, and may lead to biomimetic functionalities. Our results furthermore suggest that boron nitride nanotubes could be used as membranes for osmotic power harvesting under salinity gradients.

  6. Characterization of a Messer – The late-Medieval single-edged sword of Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajfar, Peter; Medved, Jožef; Klančnik, Grega [Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lazar, Tomaž [National Museum of Slovenia, Prešernova cesta 20, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nečemer, Marijan [Jožef Stefan Institut, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mrvar, Primož, E-mail: primoz.mrvar@omm.ntf.uni-lj.si [Department of Materials and Metallurgy, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva cesta 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-12-15

    Metallurgical characterization of a sword blade fragments dating from the second half of the 15th century found in central Slovenia was performed in order to determine its chemical composition, microstructure, microhardness, and to obtain insight into the methods of manufacture of a late-medieval Messer sword. As the artefact was broken, examinations were limited to six very small fragments that were allowed to be removed from the cutting edge, core and the back of the blade. Light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, thermodynamics approach and Vickers micro-hardness tests were employed to analyze the microstructure and mechanical properties. The results show that the sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet. The surface of the sword was carburized. No evidence of quenching was found. The ferritic microstructure is concentrated in the core, and the pearlitic in the outer layer of the blade. All metal fragments contained non-metallic inclusions that were derived mostly from slag and some from hammer scale. - Highlights: • A metallurgical characterization of a medieval sword blade has been performed. • The carbon content decreased from the surface to the core of the blade. • The dominant microstructure in the outer layer is pearlite and in the core is ferrite. • The presence of lump shaped and elongated non-metallic inclusions was observed. • The sword was manufactured from a single wrought iron billet.

  7. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  8. Gasless laparoscopic surgery plus abdominal wall lifting for giant hiatal hernia-our single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiang-Hong; Wu, Ji-Xiang; Yu, Lei; Li, Jian-Ye

    2016-12-01

    Giant hiatal hernia (GHH) comprises 5% of hiatal hernia and is associated with significant complications. The traditional operative procedure, no matter transthoracic or transabdomen repair of giant hiatal hernia, is characteristic of more invasion and more complications. Although laparoscopic repair as a minimally invasive surgery is accepted, a part of patients can not tolerate pneumoperitoneum because of combination with cardiopulmonary diseases or severe posterior mediastinal and neck emphesema during operation. The aim of this article was to analyze our experience in gasless laparoscopic repair with abdominal wall lifting to treat the giant hiatal hernia. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing gasless laparoscopic repair of GHH with abdominal wall lifting from 2012 to 2015 at our institution. The GHH was defined as greater than one-third of the stomach in the chest. Gasless laparoscopic repair of GHH with abdominal wall lifting was attempted in 27 patients. Mean age was 67 years. The results showed that there were no conversions to open surgery and no intraoperative deaths. The mean duration of operation was 100 min (range: 90-130 min). One-side pleura was injured in 4 cases (14.8%). The mean postoperative length of stay was 4 days (range: 3-7 days). Median follow- up was 26 months (range: 6-38 months). Transient dysphagia for solid food occurred in three patients (11.1%), and this symptom disappeared within three months. There was one patient with recurrent hiatal hernia who was reoperated on. Two patients still complained of heartburn three months after surgery. Neither reoperation nor endoscopic treatment due to signs of postoperative esophageal stenosis was required in any patient. Totally, satisfactory outcome was reported in 88.9% patients. It was concluded that the gasless laparoscopic approach with abdominal wall lifting to the repair of GHH is feasible, safe, and effective for the patients who cannot tolerate the pneumoperitoneum.

  9. Clinical Outcomes After Immediate and Late Implant Loading for a Single Missing Tooth in the Anterior Maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Pnar; Zortuk, Mustafa; Kiliç, Erdem; Dinçel, Mehmet; Albayrak, Haydar

    2016-08-01

    This study compared the clinical outcomes of 1-year follow-up of immediate and late implant loading after implant restoration of a single tooth in the anterior maxilla. Thirty-three patients with missing teeth in the anterior maxilla were included in this study (18 immediate loading and 15 late loading). Standard periapical radiographs were obtained to evaluate the vertical bone loss around the implant. For both implant groups, periimplant parameters (probing depth, gingival bleeding index, gingival index (GI), modified plaque index, width of keratinized gingiva) were evaluated. There were no significant differences in bone loss, the widths of keratinized gingiva, the GI, and modified plaque index between the immediate implant loading and late implant loading groups (P > 0.05). A significant difference in the probing depth was observed between these groups at the initial and 1-month evaluations (P replacement of a missing tooth in anterior maxilla.

  10. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Yagnik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroadenomas are benign solid tumor associated with aberration of normal lobular development. Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is usually single and >5 cm in size /or >500 gms in weight. Important differential diagnoses are: phyllodes tumor and juvenile gigantomastia. Simple excision is the treatment of choice.

  11. Evolution and history of Giant Sequoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Thomas Harvey

    1986-01-01

    Ancient ancestors of the giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) were widespread throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere during the late Mesozoic Period. Climatic conditions changed, forcing the more recent ancestors of present giant sequoia into the southwestern United States. The native range is now restricted to the west slope of the Sierra...

  12. Giant plasmon excitation in single and double ionization of C{sub 60} by fast highly charged Si and O ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, A H; Kadhane, U; Misra, D; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Colaba, Mumbai-5 (India)

    2007-09-15

    Se have investigated single and double ionization of C{sub 60} molecule in collisions with 2.33 MeV/u Si{sup q+} (q=6-14) and 3.125 MeV/u O{sup q+} (q=5-8) projectiles. The projectile charge state dependence of the single and double ionization yields of C{sub 60} are then compared to those for an ion-atom collision system using Ne gas as a target. A large difference between the gas and the cluster target behaviour was partially explained in terms of a model based on collective excitation namely the giant dipole plasmon resonance (GDPR). The qualitative agreement between the data and GDPR model prediction for single and double ionization signifies the importance of single and double plasmon excitations in the ionization process. A large deviation of the GDPR model for triple and quadruple ionization from the experimental data imply the importance of the other low impact parameter processes such as evaporation, fragmentation and a possible solid-like dynamical screening.

  13. Late effects of treatment in survivors of childhood cancers: A single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rachna; Singh, Amitabh; Seth, Sandeep; Sapra, Savita

    2017-08-01

    With improved survival of childhood cancer patients, the number of long-term cancer survivors is increasing. Some studies have assessed the long-term morbidity after childhood cancer treatment in the developing countries. This study was conducted to assess the spectrum of late effects of cancer treatment in paediatric cancer survivors. Evaluation of the first 300 patients who completed five years of follow up in the after treatment completion clinic was done. Details of primary diagnosis, treatment received and current clinical status were noted. The spectrum of late effects was ascertained by appropriate investigations. Haematological malignancies comprised 25 per cent of total cases. Most common primary diagnosis comprised acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, retinoblastoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. The median age at evaluation and follow up was 14 and 8.5 yr, respectively. Twenty three per cent (69) of the survivors had a minimal disability (growth retardation or underweight), 13 per cent (39) had moderate disabilities needing medical attention (hepatitis B surface antigen positive, myocardial dysfunction, azoospermia and hypothyroidism), while two per cent had major/life-threatening disabilities (mental retardation, liver disease and mortality). Eleven patients relapsed on follow up, of those five patients expired. Two second malignancies were recorded during the period of follow up. Late effects were of concern; however, severe disability (Grade 3-5) was seen in only two per cent survivors. Lifelong follow up of childhood cancer survivors is required to assess cancer-related morbidity, occurrence of a secondary neoplasm, to facilitate timely diagnosis and to implement remedial or preventive interventions to optimize health outcomes. Awareness towards the existence of late effects of cancer therapy is required among parents, patients and health professionals.

  14. Method to estimate the effective temperatures of late-type giants using line-depth ratios in the wavelength range 0.97-1.32 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Naoto; Fukue, Kei; Hamano, Satoshi; Ikeda, Yuji; Kawakita, Hideyo; Kondo, Sohei; Sameshima, Hiroaki; Yasui, Chikako

    2018-02-01

    The effective temperature, one of the most fundamental atmospheric parameters of a star, can be estimated using various methods; here, we focus on a method using line-depth ratios (LDRs). This method combines low- and high-excitation lines and makes use of relations between LDRs of these line pairs and the effective temperature. It has an advantage, for example, of being minimally affected by interstellar reddening, which changes stellar colours. We report 81 relations between LDRs and effective temperature established with high-resolution, λ/Δλ ∼ 28 000, spectra of nine G- to M-type giants in the Y and J bands. Our analysis gives the first comprehensive set of LDR relations for this wavelength range. The combination of all these relations can be used to determine the effective temperatures of stars that have 3700 < Teff < 5400 K and -0.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.3 dex, to a precision of ±10 K in the best cases.

  15. Giant Magnetoresistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 4. Giant Magnetoresistance - Nobel Prize in Physics 2007. Debakanta Samal P S Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 13 Issue 4 April 2008 pp 343-354. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Multiple forms of metaplasticity at a single hippocampal synapse during late postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. McHail

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metaplasticity refers to adjustment in the requirements for induction of synaptic plasticity based on the prior history of activity. Numerous forms of developmental metaplasticity are observed at Schaffer collateral synapses in the rat hippocampus at the end of the third postnatal week. Emergence of spatial learning and memory at this developmental stage suggests possible involvement of metaplasticity in the final maturation of the hippocampus. Three distinct metaplastic phenomena are apparent. (1 As transmitter release probability increases with increasing age, presynaptic potentiation is reduced. (2 Alterations in the composition and channel conductance properties of AMPARs facilitate the induction of postsynaptic potentiation with increasing age. (3 Low frequency stimulation inhibits subsequent induction of potentiation in animals older but not younger than 3 weeks of age. Thus, many forms of plasticity expressed at SC-CA1 synapses are different in rats younger and older than 3 weeks of age, illustrating the complex orchestration of physiological modifications that underlie the maturation of hippocampal excitatory synaptic transmission. This review paper describes three late postnatal modifications to synaptic plasticity induction in the hippocampus and attempts to relate these metaplastic changes to developmental alterations in hippocampal network activity and the maturation of contextual learning.

  17. Single cotton wool spot as a late manifestation of head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Mohsen; Soleimani, Ali Reza; Manaviat, Masoud Reza; Shojaei, Ahmad

    2014-04-01

    To report a patient with a single cotton wool spot (CWS) following head trauma. A 37-year-old male electrician presented with painless paracentral blurred vision in his left eye of one month duration together with three transient episodes of obscuration of vision in the same eye lasting for 10 minutes. He reported blunt head trauma due to a fall 40 days before referral. Fundus examination at presentation was normal but after 4 months, revealed the appearance of a white spot along the superotemporal arcade in the absence of other fundus lesions. A comprehensive systemic workup was performed revealing no specific findings. Ophthalmoscopic examination after 6 weeks disclosed resolution of the CWS with no intervention. The patient's complaint of paracentral visual field defect improved and subsequent optical coherence tomography showed retinal thinning in that area. Herein, we report a patient with a single CWS near the optic disc four months after head trauma along with normal systemic and paraclinical evaluations. Head trauma may thus be considered as a cause of CWS.

  18. Single Cotton Wool Spot as a Late Manifestation of Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Gohari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a patient with a single cotton wool spot (CWS following head trauma. Case Report: A 37-year-old male electrician presented with painless paracentral blurred vision in his left eye of one month duration together with three transient episodes of obscuration of vision in the same eye lasting for 10 minutes. He reported blunt head trauma due to a fall 40 days before referral. Fundus examination at presentation was normal but after 4 months, revealed the appearance of a white spot along the superotemporal arcade in the absence of other fundus lesions. A comprehensive systemic workup was performed revealing no specific findings. Ophthalmoscopic examination after 6 weeks disclosed resolution of the CWS with no intervention. The patient′s complaint of paracentral visual field defect improved and subsequent optical coherence tomography showed retinal thinning in that area. Conclusion: Herein, we report a patient with a single CWS near the optic disc four months after head trauma along with normal systemic and paraclinical evaluations. Head trauma may thus be considered as a cause of CWS.

  19. 3D Late Gadolinium Enhancement in a Single Prolonged Breath-hold using Supplemental Oxygenation and Hyperventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roujol, Sébastien; Basha, Tamer A.; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Foppa, Murilo; Chan, Raymond H.; Kissinger, Kraig V.; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Manning, Warren J.; Nezafat, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of 3D single breath-hold late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) of the left ventricle (LV) using supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation and compressed-sensing acceleration. Methods: Breath-hold metrics (breath-hold duration, diaphragmatic/LV position drift, and maximum variation of RR interval) without and with supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation were assessed in healthy adult subjects using a real time single shot acquisition. Ten healthy subjects and 13 patients then underwent assessment of the proposed 3D breath-hold LGE acquisition (FOV=320×320×100 mm3, resolution=1.6×1.6×5.0 mm3, acceleration rate of 4) and a free breathing acquisition with right hemidiaphragm navigator (NAV) respiratory gating. Semi-quantitative grading of overall image quality, motion artifact, myocardial nulling, and diagnostic value was performed by consensus of two blinded observers. Results: Supplemental oxygenation and hyperventilation increased the breath-hold duration (35±11 s to 58±21 s, p0.01). LGE images were of similar quality when compared to free breathing acquisitions but with reduced total scan time (85±22 s to 35±6 s, pbreath-holding and enable single breath-hold 3D accelerated LGE with similar image quality as free breathing with NAV. PMID:24186772

  20. A new mathematical model for single machine batch scheduling problem for minimizing maximum lateness with deteriorating jobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zeraatkar Moghaddam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model for the problem of minimizing the maximum lateness on a single machine when the deteriorated jobs are delivered to each customer in various size batches. In reality, this issue may happen within a supply chain in which delivering goods to customers entails cost. Under such situation, keeping completed jobs to deliver in batches may result in reducing delivery costs. In literature review of batch scheduling, minimizing the maximum lateness is known as NP-Hard problem; therefore the present issue aiming at minimizing the costs of delivering, in addition to the aforementioned objective function, remains an NP-Hard problem. In order to solve the proposed model, a Simulation annealing meta-heuristic is used, where the parameters are calibrated by Taguchi approach and the results are compared to the global optimal values generated by Lingo 10 software. Furthermore, in order to check the efficiency of proposed method to solve larger scales of problem, a lower bound is generated. The results are also analyzed based on the effective factors of the problem. Computational study validates the efficiency and the accuracy of the presented model.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and unacceptable late toxicity in breast cancer adjuvant radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazzari G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grazia Lazzari,1 Maria Iole Natalicchio,2 Angela Terlizzi,3 Francesco Perri,4 Giovanni Silvano1 1Radiation Oncology Unit, San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, Taranto, 2Molecular Biology Laboratory, Pathological Anatomy Department, Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia, 3Medical Physic Unit, San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, 4Medical Oncology Unit, Presidio Ospedaliero Centrale - Santissima Annunziata, Taranto, Italy Background: There has recently been a strong interest in the inter-individual variation in normal tissue and tumor response to radiotherapy (RT, because tissue radiosensitivity seems to be under genetic control. Evidence is accumulating on the role of polymorphic genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that could influence normal tissue response after radiation. The most studied SNPs include those in genes involved in DNA repair (single- and double-strand breaks, and base excision and those active in the response to oxidative stress.Case report: We present the case report of a 60-year-old woman with early breast cancer who underwent adjuvant hormone therapy and conventional radiotherapy, and subsequently developed unacceptable cosmetic toxicities of the irradiated breast requiring a genetic test of genes involved in DNA repair mechanisms. The patient was found to be heterozygous for G28152A (T/C and C18067T (A/G mutations in X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1 and 3 (XRCC3, respectively, homozygous for A313G (G/G mutation in glutathione S transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1, and wild-type for A4541G (A/A in XRCC3 and G135C (G/G in RAD51 recombinase.Conclusion: The role of SNPs should be taken into account when a severe phenomenon appears in normal tissues after radiation treatment, because understanding the molecular basis of individual radiosensitivity may be useful for identifying moderately or extremely radiosensitive patients who may need tailored therapeutic strategies. Keywords: radiosensitivity, SNPs, fibrosis, DNA repair

  2. Syn-depositional deformation of the late Zechstein evaporites on the Friesland Platform capturing the early life of a salt giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    It is often thought that the deposition of the Zechstein of NE Netherlands took place in a tectonically quiet environment and experienced complex deformation later. While early deformation structures were mostly overprinted by later salt flow, we focused on the Friesland platform, which was only weakly affected by later salt tectonics. In this study, we analyzed the present structures and deformation history with the help of 3D seismic and well data. Results show that the ZIII AC stringer contains (i) a regional network of thicker zones (TZ), and (ii) a network of zones where the stringers are absent, interpreted as ruptures formed by salt flow. These ruptures in many cases mark a clear vertical shift of the sub-horizontal stringer. Mapping of the base salt and top salt reflectors shows that the ruptures often coincide with faults at base Zechstein level, and that the thickness of the post-stringer rock salt layers is thicker where the stringers are lower, while the total salt thickness is relatively constant. We interpret these structures as evidence for movement on the faults at base salt, during Zechstein times, suggesting that late Zechstein deposition was syn-tectonic. Spatial correlation of TZ and these syn-depositional depressions also indicate syn-depositional or very early development of thickening in the ZIII-AC stringer. They are interpreted to reflect the interaction of anhydrite dewatering pathways and dissolution of salt below fracture systems in the stringer localized by the active shear zones in the salt.

  3. Single-cell duplex RT-LATE-PCR reveals Oct4 and Xist RNA gradients in 8-cell embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartung Odelya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of two distinctive cell lineages in preimplantation mouse embryos is characterized by differential gene expression. The cells of the inner cell mass are pluripotent and express high levels of Oct4 mRNA, which is down-regulated in the surrounding trophectoderm. In contrast, the trophectoderm of female embryos contains Xist mRNA, which is absent from cells of the inner mass. Prior to blastocyst formation, all blastomeres of female embryos still express both of these RNAs. We, thus, postulated that simultaneous quantification of Oct4 and Xist transcripts in individual blastomeres at the 8-cell stage could be informative as to their subsequent fate. Testing this hypothesis, however, presented numerous technical challenges. We overcame these difficulties by combining PurAmp, a single-tube method for RNA preparation and quantification, with LATE-PCR, an advanced form of asymmetric PCR. Results We constructed a duplex RT-LATE-PCR assay for real-time measurement of Oct4 and Xist templates and confirmed its specificity and quantitative accuracy with different methods. We then undertook analysis of sets of blastomeres isolated from embryos at the 8-cell stage. At this stage, all cells in the embryo are still pluripotent and morphologically equivalent. Our results demonstrate, however, that both Oct4 and Xist RNA levels vary in individual blastomeres comprising the same embryo, with some cells having particularly elevated levels of either transcript. Analysis of multiple embryos also shows that Xist and Oct4 expression levels are not correlated at the 8-cell stage, although transcription of both genes is up-regulated at this time in development. In addition, comparison of data from males and females allowed us to determine that the efficiency of the Oct4/Xist assay is unaffected by sex-related differences in gene expression. Conclusion This paper describes the first example of multiplex RT-LATE-PCR and its utility, when

  4. Exploration of deleterious single nucleotide polymorphisms in late-onset Alzheimer disease susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Tariq Ahmad; Al Shammari, Sulaiman A; Al-Muammar, May N; Alhamdan, Adel A; Talluri, Venkateswar Rao

    2013-01-10

    Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) are considered as biomarkers to disease susceptibility. In the present study, nsSNPs in CLU, PICALM and BIN1 genes were screened for their functional impact on concerned proteins and their plausible role in Alzheimer disease (AD) susceptibility. Initially, SNPs were retrieved from dbSNP database, followed by identification of potentially deleterious nsSNPs and prediction of their effect on proteins by PolyPhen and SIFT. Protein stability and the probability of mutation occurrence were predicted using I-Mutant and PANTHER respectively. SNPs3D and FASTSNP were used for the functional analysis of nsSNPs. The functional impact on the 3D structure of proteins was evaluated by SWISSPDB viewer and NOMAD-Ref server. On analysis, 3 nsSNPs with IDs rs12800974 (T158P) of PICALM and rs11554585 (R397C) and rs11554585 (N106D) of BIN1 were predicted to be functionally significant with higher scores of I-Mutant, SIFT, PolyPhen, PANTHER, FASTSNP and SNPs3D. The mutant models of these nsSNPs also showed very high energies and RMSD values compared to their native structures. Current study proposes that the three nsSNPs identified in this study constitute a unique resource of potential genetic factors for AD susceptibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A single test of antimullerian hormone in late reproductive-aged women is a good predictor of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the capability of a single measurement of antimullerian hormone (AMH) to predict menopause status in late reproductive-aged women. A group of 147 women, naturally fertile, aged 40 to 50 years with regular menstrual cycles were selected from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study cohort. Participants were assessed three times at 3-year intervals (T1-T3), and their blood levels of AMH were measured. The World Health Organization classification was used to define menopause status. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated to assess the ability of AMH at T1 to discriminate between women who have reached menopause status and those who have not. Cutoff points and their relevant sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Of 147 women, menopause occurred in 60. With use of the AMH level at T1, the probability of an accurate prediction of not reaching menopause status within the next 6 years for women aged 40 to 50 years was 88% (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83-0.94; P menopause status within the next 6 years. A single AMH measurement is a good predictor for the onset of menopause.

  6. Patient with Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy and Two Giant Stones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare; very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. Multiple giant bladder stones are extremely rare; no single case report has been found documenting this occasion. This report presents a patient of benign prostatic hypertrophy with two giant ...

  7. Very late complications of cervical arthroplasty: results of 2 controlled randomized prospective studies from a single investigator site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Francis M; Babcock, Rebecca M; Hacker, Robert J

    2013-12-15

    Prospective, single-site, randomized, Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational device exemption clinical trials of 2 cervical arthroplasty (CA) devices. To evaluate complications with CA occurring more than 4 years after the surgical procedure in Food and Drug Administration clinical trials of the Bryan and Prestige LP arthroplasty devices. Reports of several randomized clinical studies have shown CA to be a safe and effective alternative to anterior cervical fusion in the treatment of degenerative cervical disc disorders. A majority include follow-up intervals of 4 years or less. Between 2002 and 2006, 94 patients were enrolled in Food and Drug Administration studies of the Bryan and Prestige LP cervical disc devices. Charts, imaging studies, and hospital records were reviewed for those who underwent arthroplasty and returned more than 4 years after their surgical procedure with neck-related pain or dysfunction. Excluding adjacent segment disease that occurred with a similar rate for patients who underwent fusion and arthroplasty, 5 patients, all treated with arthroplasty, returned for evaluation of neck and arm symptoms between 48 and 72 months after surgery. Four patients had peridevice vertebral body bone loss. One patient had posterior device migration and presented with myelopathy. Three required revision surgery and 2 were observed. Four patients maintained follow-up and reported stabilization or improvement in symptoms. Despite their similarities, CA and fusion are not equivalent procedures in this study in regard to very late complications. Similar to large joint arthroplasty, delayed device-related complications may occur with CA. These complications commenced well beyond the time frame for complications associated with more traditional cervical spine procedures. Both patients and surgeons should be aware of the potential for very late device-related complications occurring with CA and the need for revision surgery. 1.

  8. Cyanobacterial symbionts diverged in the late Cretaceous towards lineage-specific nitrogen fixation factories in single-celled phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Cabello, Ana M; Salazar, Guillem; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Hingamp, Pascal; Alberti, Adriana; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Bork, Peer; de Vargas, Colomban; Raes, Jeroen; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Zehr, Jonathan P; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon; Acinas, Silvia G

    2016-03-22

    The unicellular cyanobacterium UCYN-A, one of the major contributors to nitrogen fixation in the open ocean, lives in symbiosis with single-celled phytoplankton. UCYN-A includes several closely related lineages whose partner fidelity, genome-wide expression and time of evolutionary divergence remain to be resolved. Here we detect and distinguish UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 lineages in symbiosis with two distinct prymnesiophyte partners in the South Atlantic Ocean. Both symbiotic systems are lineage specific and differ in the number of UCYN-A cells involved. Our analyses infer a streamlined genome expression towards nitrogen fixation in both UCYN-A lineages. Comparative genomics reveal a strong purifying selection in UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 with a diversification process ∼91 Myr ago, in the late Cretaceous, after the low-nutrient regime period occurred during the Jurassic. These findings suggest that UCYN-A diversified in a co-evolutionary process, wherein their prymnesiophyte partners acted as a barrier driving an allopatric speciation of extant UCYN-A lineages.

  9. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  10. Giant Cell Arteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  11. Giant congenital nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nevus; Giant hairy nevus; Giant pigmented nevus; Bathing trunk nevus; Congenital melanocytic nevus - large ... the spine) Involvement of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord when the nevus affects a ...

  12. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  13. Giant Magnetoresistance in Nanogranular Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    We study the giant magnetoresistance of nanogranular magnets in the presence of an external magnetic field and finite temperature. We show that the magnetization of arrays of nanogranular magnets has hysteretic behaviour at low temperatures leading to a double peak in the magnetoresistance which coalesces at high temperatures into a single peak. We numerically calculate the magnetization of magnetic domains and the motion of domain walls in this system using a combined mean-field approach and...

  14. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenomas with hemihypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantrige, Priyan Maleuwe; Hassanally, Delilah

    2011-01-01

    Giant juvenile fibroadenomas in patients with hemihypertrophy are exceptionally rare. We present a very interesting case of a 13 year old girl with hemihypertrophy of the left side presenting with recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the left breast. The giant fibroadenomas occurred twice in the left breast over two years. The first had a diameter of 12 cm and was excised through an inframammary incision. The second occurred a year later, had a diameter of 11 cm, and was associated with three smaller fibroadenomas. These lesions were removed through a single periareolar incision. The procedures were complicated by keloid scarring but the results were improved with steroid impregnated tape dressing and local methylprednisolone injection. This report adds to our experience in managing patients with recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenomas complicated by hemihypertrophy and raises awareness to anticipate keloid scarring.

  15. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Following the prediction, during the last couple of years we have investigated the effect of giant permittivity in one-dimensional systems of conventional metals and conjugated polymer chains. In this article, we have tried to summarize the works on giant permittivity and finally the fabrication of nanocapacitor using metal ...

  16. Single-cell expression analyses during cellular reprogramming reveal an early stochastic and a late hierarchic phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buganim, Y.; Faddah, D.A.; Cheng, A.W.; Itskovich, E.; Markoulaki, S.; Ganz, K.; Klemm, S.L.; van Oudenaarden, A.; Jaenisch, R.

    2012-01-01

    During cellular reprogramming, only a small fraction of cells become induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Previous analyses of gene expression during reprogramming were based on populations of cells, impeding single-cell level identification of reprogramming events. We utilized two gene

  17. Early and late preterm delivery rates - a comparison of differing tocolytic policies in a single urban population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hehir, Mark P

    2012-11-01

    Preterm delivery results in neonatal morbidity and mortality. We set out to estimate the difference in rates of preterm delivery in two institutions, serving a single population, with differing policies regarding use of tocolytic drugs for the prevention of preterm delivery.

  18. Giant pediatric cervicofacial lymphatic malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzou, Salma; Boulaadas, Malik; Essakalli, Leila

    2013-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are benign lesions. Most of them are found in head and neck regions as asymptomatic mass, but giant lymphangiomas may affect breathing or swallowing and constitute a major therapeutic challenge. A retrospective analysis of giant head and neck LMs with impairment of respiration or swallow for the past 11 years was performed in the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and ENT of the Avicenne Medical University Center. Seven patients with large and extensive LMs of the head and neck were identified. There were 3 males and 4 females with a mean age of 6 years. The predominant reason for referral was airway compromise necessitating tracheostomy (57%) and dysphagia (43%). Three patients had macrocystic lesions; others were considered mixed or microcystic. All the patients underwent surgical excision as a primary treatment modality. Complete surgical resection was realized in 4 patients, and subtotal resection in 3 patients. Of 7 patients, 4 patients had complications including nerve damage and recurrence of the disease. The majority of the patients underwent only a single surgical procedure. Cervicofacial LMs in children should be managed in multidisciplinary setting. Surgery remains the first treatment for managing giant, life-threatening lesions.

  19. A single low dose of valproic acid in late prenatal life alters postnatal behavior and glutamic acid decarboxylase levels in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ran; Li, Qi; Lam, Sylvia; Leung, Jana; Cheung, Charlton; Zhang, Xiaofan; Sham, Pak Chung; Chua, Siew Eng; McAlonan, Grainne Mary

    2016-11-01

    Rodents exposed to valproic acid (VPA) in prenatal life exhibit post-natal characteristics analogous to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many previous studies used relatively high doses of VPA during early pregnancy, potentially confounding interpretation because the offspring are the 'survivors' of a toxic insult. Low dose or late gestation exposure has not been widely studied. We examined the behavioral sequelae of late gestation exposure to low dose VPA in the mouse. We also examined postnatal levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 and GAD67) as markers for GABA neurons, because GABA pathology and subsequent excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is strongly implicated in ASD. Pregnant C57BL/6N mice received a single subcutaneous injection of 100 or 200mg/kg on gestation day 17. The control group received a saline injection on the same day. The offspring were tested in a battery of behavioral tests in adolescence and adulthood. Six brain regions were harvested and GAD65 and GAD67 were measured by western blotting. Compared to saline-exposed controls, adult mice exposed to prenatal VPA had impaired novel object exploration and fear conditioning anomalies. GAD67 was decreased in midbrain, olfactory bulb, prefrontal cortex and increased in cerebellum, hippocampus and striatum; GAD65 was decreased in all 6 regions. Our results suggest that a low dose of VPA in late pregnancy has persistent effects on brain development, and in particular the GABA system, which may be relevant to ASD. Further attention to the impact of gestation time and dose of exposure in VPA-induced ASD models is encouraged. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Analysis of giant electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok

    2013-07-15

    The yield stress dependence on electric field strength for giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric fields was examined using Seo's scaling function which incorporated both the polarization and the conductivity models. If a proper scaling was applied to the yield stress data to collapse them onto a single curve, the Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions, even at very high electric field strengths. The model predictions were also compared with recently proposed Choi et al.'s model to allow a consideration of the universal framework of ER fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Steroid-sparing effect and toxicity of dapsone treatment in giant cell arteritis: A single-center, retrospective study of 70 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kim Heang; Dalmay, François; Gondran, Guillaume; Palat, Sylvain; Bezanahary, Holy; Cypierre, Anne; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Liozon, Eric

    2016-10-01

    Although a glucocorticoid (GC)-sparing strategy is needed for patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) suffering from refractory disease or serious treatment-related complications, evidence of efficacy in this setting of immunosuppressive drugs and biotherapies is lacking. Herein, we evaluated the GC-sparing effects and tolerability of addition of dapsone (DDS) to prednisone therapy in patients with GCA. We retrospectively assessed data on 18 GCA patients who received DDS as a first-line treatment (DDS-1 group) and 52 patients who received it as a second- or third-line treatment for refractory GCA, with or without excessive GC-related toxicity (DDS-2 group). Of these 70 patients, 63 belonged to an inception cohort of 478 patients, whereas the remaining 7 were referred to our department for resistant GCA. In all, 52 patients were assessable for DDS efficacy. The baseline characteristics of the DDS-1 patients were similar to those of 395 GCA patients (control group) who received prednisone alone. DDS-1 patients had a more sustained decrease in GC dose with a lower mean prednisone dose at 12 months, and they comprised higher proportions who achieved GC withdrawal within the first year, who stopped prednisone treatment, and who recovered from GCA (P < 0.001 for each variable). Patients in the DDS-2 group achieved a mean rate of prednisone reduction of 65% and a prednisone dose reduction of 16.9 ± 13.3 mg/d. The monthly decreases in the prednisone dose were 2.4 and 1.25 mg in DDS-1 and DDS-2 patients, respectively. DDS-induced side effects were recorded in 44 (64%) assessable patients. These side effects led to lowering of the DDS dose by 25 mg/d in 11 (16%) patients and permanent cessation of DDS in 14 patients (20%), due to allergic skin rash in 7, agranulocytosis in 2, icteric hepatitis in 2, and excessive hemolysis in 2 patients. DDS is a potent GC-sparing agent in GCA that should be evaluated in prospective studies. However, DDS use should be

  2. Creation of giant two-dimensional crystal of zinc oxide nanodisk by method of single-particle layer of organo-modified inorganic fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Honda, Nanami; Uchida, Saki; Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Shibata, Hirobumi; Fujimori, Atsuhiro

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the formation and structure of a single-particle layer of organo-zinc oxide are investigated using surface-pressure-area (π-A) isotherms, out-of-plane X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further, techniques for achieving the solubilization of inorganic fine particles in general solvents have been proposed, and a single-particle layer has been formed using such an inorganic solution as a "spreading solution" for an interfacial film. Surface modification of ZnO is performed using a long-chain carboxylic acid. Accordingly, a regular arrangement of ZnO can be easily achieved in order to overcome the relatively weak van der Walls interactions between inorganic materials. A condensed Langmuir monolayer of these particles is also formed. A multiparticle layered structure is constructed by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Out-of-plane XRD measurement results for a single-particle layer of organo-ZnO clearly show a sharp peak at 42 Å. This peak is attributed to the distance between ZnO layers. The AFM image of this single-particle layer of organo-ZnO shows a particle assembly with a uniform height of 60 nm. These aggregated particles form large two-dimensional crystals. In other words, a regular periodic structure along the c-axis and a condensed single-particle layer had been fabricated using Langmuir and LB techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of giant resonances with pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results on giant resonances obtained with pion-inelastic scattering and with single- and double-charge-exchange scattering are reviewed. The states discussed are isobaric analog states, double-isobaric analog states, and isovector L = 0, 1, and 2 collective states. 36 references

  4. Growth and yield of Giant Sequoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Dulitz

    1986-01-01

    Very little information exists concerning growth and yield of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz). For old-growth trees, diameter growth is the single factor adding increment since maximum height has been obtained. Diameter growth averages 0.04 inches per year in normal old-growth trees but will fluctuate with changes in the...

  5. Late veneer and late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Werner, S. C.; Matsumura, S.; Ida, S.

    2016-12-01

    It is generally accepted that silicate-metal ('rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. Outcomes from a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation lead us to four key conclusions about the nature of this early epoch. First, matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires either that the late veneer on Earth consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga, or that it originated from the impact that created the Moon. An added complication is that analysis of lunar samples indicates the Moon does not preserve convincing evidence for a late veneer like Earth. Second, the expected chondritic veneer component on Mars is 0.06 weight percent. Third, the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low (≲10-6 M⊕ Myr-1) to avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga, and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins. This conclusion leads to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. Last, after the terrestrial planets had fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ∼10-3 M⊕, lower by at least an order of magnitude than most previous models suggest. Our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  6. Silvics of Giant Sequoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Phillip Weatherspoon

    1986-01-01

    Ecological relationships-including habitat and life history---of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) in natural stands are summarized. Such silvical information provides an important foundation for sound management of the species.

  7. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Giant Earlobe Epidermoid Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín; Scilletta, Alessandra; Cabrera-Sánchez, Emilio; Rioja, Luis F; Perrotta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation. PMID:22557855

  9. Giant earlobe epidermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Pérez-Guisado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts represent the most common cutaneous cysts. They are usually small and benign; however, sometimes they can grow to giant epidermoid cists, and occasionally malignancies develop. Giant epidermoid cysts at the earlobe have never been described but in other locations. We describe a case of a giant epidermoid cyst at the earlobe, a location where such a large cyst has never been reported before. The mass was completely resected and the wound of the pedunculated base was sutured with four stitches of nylon 5/0. Histopathology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst. Six months after the resection, the patient did not have any relapse of the epidermoid cyst. The earlobe is a potential location for giant epidermoid cysts. Although the clinical diagnosis could be enough, due to the possibility of malignancy and to ensure appropriate diagnosis, we consider that all cysts should be sent to the anatomic pathology laboratory for histological evaluation.

  10. Giant distal humeral geode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, M.M.; Kennedy, J.; Hynes, D.; Murray, J.G.; O'Connell, D.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the imaging features of a giant geode of the distal humerus in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, which presented initially as a pathological fracture. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing this diagnosis is emphasized. (orig.)

  11. Thrombolytics for late superior caval vein thrombus in a patient with tricuspid atresia and single-lung Glenn anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnel, Alexander R; Paruchuri, Vijayapraveena; Franklin, Wayne J

    2016-01-01

    Those with cyanotic heart disease have an elevated bleeding risk but also are hypercoaguable. Treating haemodynamically significant thrombi in this unique cohort poses a monumental challenge. Case A 29-year-old women with tricuspid atresia and left pulmonary artery atresia presented with superior caval vein syndrome. She had a right modified Blalock-Taussig shunt as a neonate. A left modified Blalock-Taussig shunt performed later failed to establish flow to her left lung. At age 5, she had a Fontan procedure to the right lung but could not tolerate the physiology and had a low cardiac output syndrome. The Fontan was taken down and she was left with a Glenn anastamosis to the right pulmonary artery. She did well for years until she had dyspnea, upper extremity oedema and "facial fullness". On examination she was tachycardic, hypotensive, and more desaturated than baseline. She also had facial plethora. Decision-making Echocardiogram showed a large 9 × 3 mm nearly occlusive thrombus in the superior caval vein at the bifurcation of the left and right innominate veins. An emergent venogram confirmed the location and size of the thrombus. Given the thrombus burden and potential for distal embolisation through the Glenn to the single functional lung, we chose to treat the patient with thrombolytics. She had uncomplicated ICU course and was sent home on warfarin. Follow-up echocardiogram showed complete resolution of clot. This case shows the importance of history and physical exam in caring for this complex cohort of adult patients with CHD.

  12. Bilateral Giant Juvenile Fibroadenoma of Breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Nikhil; Singh, Sumitoj; Paul, Surinder; Sandhu, Mandeep Singh; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-06-01

    Fibroadenomas are benign lesions of breast commonly found in young age group. These focal tumours contain both mesenchymal and glandular tissue. Giant juvenile fibroma of breast is rare variant of fibroadenoma found usually in less than 20 years of age. They present with rapid enlargement of single or multiple, discrete, painless large nodule of breast. A 14-years-old premenarche girl presented with large bilateral breast lumps for two months. FNAC showed features of juvenile fibroadenoma. Breast conserving surgical excision of lumps was performed and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of juvenile fibroadenoma. Giant juvenile fibroadenomas are characterised by rapid enlargement of encapsulated mass. The aetiology is unknown, although end-organ hypersensitivity to normal level of estrogen is postulated. We present a case of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenoma for its rarity.

  13. Asteroseismology of Red Giants and Galactic Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekker, Saskia

    From the oscillations in red-giant stars measured in time-series data it is possible to derive more accurate stellar parameters (e.g., mass, radius and age) as can be done using only single-epoch spectroscopy or photometry. These stellar parameters combined with chemical composition and the position, distance and velocity of the stars play an important role in studying the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. In this chapter we discuss some key physical phenomena that are at play in (red-giant) stars as well as some important phases in red-giant evolution. Subsequently, oscillation characteristics that are of importance for the determination of stellar parameters (as indicated above) of red-giant stars are introduced followed by a description of the main components of the Milky Way. Finally, the role red giants can play in creating a detailed observational picture of the Milky Way and deciphering the formation and evolution of the Milky Way is discussed.

  14. Important population viability analysis parameters for giant pandas (Aliuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Minghao; Song, Yanling; Yang, Zhisong; Lin, Chen

    2012-06-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool to evaluate the risk of extinction for endangered species and aid conservation decision-making. The quality of PVA output is dependent on parameters related to population dynamics and life-history; however, it has been difficult to collect this information for the giant panda (Aliuropoda melanoleuca), a rare and endangered mammal native to China, confined to some 30 fragmented habitat patches. Since giant pandas are long-lived, mature late, have lower reproductive rates, and show little sexual dimorphism, obtaining data to perform adequate PVA has been difficult. Here, we develop a parameter sensitivity index by modeling the dynamics of six giant panda populations in the Minshan Mountains, in order to determine the parameters most influential to giant panda populations. Our data shows that the giant panda populations are most sensitive to changes in four female parameters: initial breeding age, reproductive rate, mortality rate between age 0 and 1, and mortality rate of adults. The parameter sensitivity index strongly correlated with initial population size, as smaller populations were more sensitive to changes in these four variables. This model suggests that demographic parameters of females have more influence on the results of PVA, indicating that females may play a more important role in giant panda population dynamics than males. Consequently, reintroduction of female individuals to a small giant panda population should be a high priority for conservation efforts. Our findings form a technical basis for the coming program of giant panda reintroduction, and inform which parameters are crucial to successfully and feasibly monitoring wild giant panda populations.

  15. Large Mn25 single-molecule magnet with spin S = 51/2: magnetic and high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic characterization of a giant spin state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesu, Muralee; Takahashi, Susumu; Wilson, Anthony; Abboud, Khalil A; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Hill, Stephen; Christou, George

    2008-10-20

    The synthesis and structural, spectroscopic, and magnetic characterization of a Mn25 coordination cluster with a large ground-state spin of S = 51/2 are reported. Reaction of MnCl2 with pyridine-2,6-dimethanol (pdmH2) and NaN3 in MeCN/MeOH gives the mixed valence cluster [Mn25O18(OH)2(N3)12(pdm)6(pdmH)6]Cl2 (1; 6Mn(II), 18Mn(III), Mn(IV)), which has a barrel-like cage structure. Variable temperature direct current (dc) magnetic susceptibility data were collected in the 1.8-300 K temperature range in a 0.1 T field. Variable-temperature and -field magnetization (M) data were collected in the 1.8-4.0 K and 0.1-7 T ranges and fit by matrix diagonalization assuming only the ground state is occupied at these temperatures. The fit parameters were S = 51/2, D = -0.020(2) cm(-1), and g = 1.87(3), where D is the axial zero-field splitting parameter. Alternating current (ac) susceptibility measurements in the 1.8-8.0 K range and a 3.5 G ac field oscillating at frequencies in the 50-1500 Hz range revealed a frequency-dependent out-of-phase (chi(M)'') signal below 3 K, suggesting 1 to be a single-molecule magnet (SMM). This was confirmed by magnetization vs dc field sweeps, which exhibited hysteresis loops but with no clear steps characteristic of resonant quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). However, magnetization decay data below 1 K were collected and used to construct an Arrhenius plot, and the fit of the thermally activated region above approximately 0.5 K gave U(eff)/k = 12 K, where U(eff) is the effective relaxation barrier. The g value and the magnitude and sign of the D value were independently confirmed by detailed high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy on polycrystalline samples. The combined studies confirm both the high ground-state spin S = 51/2 of complex 1 and that it is a SMM that, in addition, exhibits QTM.

  16. Congenital giant melanocytic nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Khan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nevi are common skin tumors caused by abnormal overgrowth of cells from the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin. Most nevi are benign, but some pre-cancerous nevi must be monitored or removed. The giant congenital nevus is greater than 10 cm in size, pigmented and often hairy. Between 4% and 6% of these lesions will develop into a malignant melanoma. Since approximately 50% of the melanoma develop by the age of two, and 80% by the age of seven, early removal is recommended. The objective of this paper is to present a unique case of giant nevi and their surgical management.

  17. Multifocal tenosynovial giant cell tumors in a child with Noonan syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Arthur B.; Awomolo, Agboola O.; Szabo, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder with variable expression of distinctive facial features, webbed neck, chest deformity, short stature, cryptorchidism and congenital heart disease. The association of Noonan syndrome and giant cell granulomas of the mandible is widely reported. However, Noonan syndrome may also be associated with single or multifocal tenosynovial giant cell tumors, also referred to as pigmented villonodular synovitis. We report a child with Noonan syndrome, giant cell granulomas of the mandible and synovial and tenosynovial giant cell tumors involving multiple joints and tendon sheaths who was initially misdiagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is important for radiologists to be aware of the association of Noonan syndrome and multifocal giant cell lesions, which can range from the more commonly described giant cell granulomas of the mandible to isolated or multifocal intra- or extra-articular tenosynovial giant cell tumors or a combination of all of these lesions. (orig.)

  18. Multifocal tenosynovial giant cell tumors in a child with Noonan syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Arthur B. [Children' s Hospital of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Nemours Children' s Health System/Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States); Awomolo, Agboola O. [Children' s Hospital of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Szabo, Sara [Medical College of Wisconsin and Children' s Hospital of Wisconsin, Department of Pathology, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Noonan syndrome is a genetic disorder with variable expression of distinctive facial features, webbed neck, chest deformity, short stature, cryptorchidism and congenital heart disease. The association of Noonan syndrome and giant cell granulomas of the mandible is widely reported. However, Noonan syndrome may also be associated with single or multifocal tenosynovial giant cell tumors, also referred to as pigmented villonodular synovitis. We report a child with Noonan syndrome, giant cell granulomas of the mandible and synovial and tenosynovial giant cell tumors involving multiple joints and tendon sheaths who was initially misdiagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is important for radiologists to be aware of the association of Noonan syndrome and multifocal giant cell lesions, which can range from the more commonly described giant cell granulomas of the mandible to isolated or multifocal intra- or extra-articular tenosynovial giant cell tumors or a combination of all of these lesions. (orig.)

  19. Peripheral synapses and giant neurons in whip spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foelix, Rainer; Troyer, David; Igelmund, Peter

    2002-08-15

    Among invertebrates the synapses between neurons are generally restricted to ganglia, i.e., to the central nervous system (CNS). As an exception, synapses occur in the sensory nerves of arachnid legs, indicating that some nervous integration is already taking place far out in the periphery. In the antenniform legs of whip spiders (Amblypygi), a very special synaptic circuit is present. These highly modified legs contain several large interneurons (giant neurons) that receive mechanosensory input from 700-1,500 tarsal bristles. Some of the sensory cell axons contact a giant neuron at its short, branched dendrite, a few at the soma, but most synapse onto the long giant axon. The fine structure of these synapses resembles that of typical chemical synapses in other arthropods. Although thousands of sensory fibers converge on a single giant neuron, there is no reduction in the actual number of sensory fibers, because these afferent fibers continue their course to the CNS after having made several en passant synapses onto the giant neuron. Touching a single tarsal bristle is sufficient to elicit action potentials in a giant neuron. Owing to the large diameter of the giant axon (10-20 microm), the action potentials reach the CNS within 55 ms, at conduction velocities of up to 7 m/s. However, mechanical stimulation of the tarsal bristles does not elicit a fast escape response, in contrast to giant fiber systems in earthworms, certain insects, and crayfishes. A quick escape is observed in whip spiders, but only after stimulation of the filiform hairs (trichobothria) on the regular walking legs. Although the giant fiber system in the antenniform legs undoubtedly provides a fast sensory pathway, its biological significance is not clearly understood at the moment. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Waking the Sleeping Giant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollenburger, Mary H.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Crane, Todd A.; Sanogo, Ousmane M.; Giller, Ken E.

    2016-01-01

    The World Bank argued that West Africa's Guinea Savannah zone forms part of “Africa's Sleeping Giant,” where increases in agricultural production could be an engine of economic growth, through expansion of cultivated land in sparsely populated areas. The district of Bougouni, in southern Mali,

  1. from the Giant Panda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... RPS28 is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS28 gene, which is specific to eukaryotes. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS28 were cloned successfully from the Giant. Panda using RT-PCR technology and Touchdown-PCR, respectively. Both sequences were ...

  2. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  3. Nanodielectrics with giant permittivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    But the main limitation of the composite materials is its use in nanodevices. Therefore, few efforts have been ... an enormously high permittivity value of a sufficiently minute metal particle having discrete energy levels ... the present article is to assemble works on nanodielectrics with giant permittivity value, which have been ...

  4. Giant vesical calculus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant vesical calculus. A case report. H. H. LAUBSCHER. Summary. An exceptional case of bladder stone is presented. The case is unusual as regards the size of the stone and the fact that the patient did··not seek medical assistance much earlier, as this was readily avail- able. Furthermore, recovery after removal of the.

  5. Graphenes–Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Graphenes - Aromatic Giants. Ivan Gutman Boris Furtula. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1238-1245. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/12/1238-1245. Keywords. Graphenes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; polyphenyls; condensed benzenes.

  6. Giant peritoneal loose bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-27

    Mar 27, 2015 ... Giant peritoneal loose bodies are rare lesions, originating from auto-amputated appendices epiploicae. They may cause urinary or gastrointestinal obstruction and, should the radiologist not be familiar with the entity, can potentially be confused with malignant or parasitic lesions. Familiarity with their ...

  7. Giant resonances in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, O.

    1980-01-01

    The giant resonances: electric dipolar E1, T=1, isoscalar electric quadrupolar E2, T=0 and isoscalar electric monopolar E0, T=0 are presented. The experimental facts are reviewed and some examples are given of the kind of information supplied by experimental data [fr

  8. Idiopathic giant oesophageal ulcer and leucopoenia after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekel, G A J; Volbeda, M; van den Hoogen, M W F; Hilbrands, L B; Berden, J H M

    2012-10-01

    A 45-year-old male recipient of a renal allograft was admitted because of a giant oesophageal ulcer coinciding with leucopoenia. An extensive workup revealed no explanation for the ulcer and leucopoenia. Our final diagnosis by exclusion was an idiopathic giant oesophageal ulcer and late-onset neutropenia as consequences of rituximab induction therapy given during the transplant procedure. The patient fully recovered after treatment with prednisone. However, after four months, the ulcer and leucopoenia recurred and again successfully responded to treatment with prednisone.

  9. Comparison of late effects of single x-ray exposure, chronic tritiated water ingestion, and chronic cesium-137 gamma exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is concern over the possible late effects resulting from chronic exposure to tritiated water, a primary by-product of power reactors. We are comparing the genetic and somatic effects of tritiated water ingestion to acute x-ray or chronic cesium-137 gamma-ray exposures. Eight week old mice were maintaned on tritiated water in concentrations of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 μCi/ml. Identical animals received cesium-137 gamma exposures equivalent to that from the tritiated water. At 4 week intervals, animals were sacrificed and the hematopoietic stem cell content and cellularity of the bone marrow determined. For comparison of acute and chronic effects, one group of mice received a single whole-body x-ray exposure of 525 rads. The x-irradiated animals showed an immediate sharp decrease in marrow cellularity followed by gradual return to normal levels, with a lifelong reduction in number of marrow stem cells. Animals exposed to the two higher concentrations of tritiated water showed only slight reductions in marrow cellularity, with a lifelong reduction in hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Comparison of the external gamma exposures to chronic tritiated water ingestion indicates similar patterns. Maintenance of normal cellularity with a reduced number of stem cells in x-rayed animals was shown by tritiated thymidine cytocide to be due to the reduction in number of stem cells in the resting G/sub O/ stage. At this time it is not possible to determine whether there is a significant difference in relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water compared to cesium-137 gamma rays; however, indications are that they are similar

  10. Charting the Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    .g. the WMAP satellite). In fact, the new REFLEX study is very complementary to the above-mentioned methods. The REFLEX team concludes that the mean density of the Universe is in the range 0.27 to 0.43 times the "critical density", providing the strongest constraint on this value up to now. When combined with the latest supernovae study, the REFLEX result implies that, whatever the nature of the dark energy is, it closely mimics a Universe with Einstein's cosmological constant. A giant puzzle The REFLEX catalogue will also serve many other useful purposes. With it, astronomers will be able to better understand the detailed processes that contribute to the heating of the gas in these clusters. It will also be possible to study the effect of the environment of the cluster on each individual galaxy. Moreover, the catalogue is a good starting point to look for giant gravitational lenses, in which a cluster acts as a giant magnifying lens, effectively allowing observations of the faintest and remotest objects that would otherwise escape detection with present-day telescopes. But, as Hans Böhringer says: "Perhaps the most important advantage of this catalogue is that the properties of each single cluster can be compared to the entire sample. This is the main goal of surveys: assembling the pieces of a gigantic puzzle to build the grander view, where every single piece then gains a new, more comprehensive meaning." More information The results presented in this Press Release will appear in the research journal Astronomy and Astrophysics ("The ROSAT-ESO Flux Limited X-ray (REFLEX) Galaxy Cluster Survey. V. The cluster catalogue" by H. Böhringer et al.; astro-ph/0405546). See also the REFLEX website.

  11. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the orbit associated with cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Ramon L; Blanco, Gonzalo; Soparkar, Charles N; Patrinely, James R; Ostrowski, Mary L

    2003-09-01

    To report a case of cherubism with extensive, bilateral orbital involvement occurring in a 27-year-old woman who had the diagnosis established at the age of 4 years. Single interventional case report. Ophthalmologic examination and computed tomography were performed. The patient underwent multiple surgical excisions using a bicoronal and transorbital approach. The excised orbital tissues were studied histopathologically. Computed tomography showed bilateral inferior lateral masses involving the orbital floors and producing marked superior displacement of the orbital contents. The intrinsic expansile bone lesions involved the inferior and lateral orbital walls with apical compression of the optic nerves. Histopathologic examination of the masses revealed scattered giant cells in a fibroblastic stroma containing small vascular channels. The lesion was interpreted as giant cell reparative granuloma. Giant cell reparative granuloma is an uncommon bone lesion that might involve the orbit. Cherubism should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions that show the histopathologic features of giant cell reparative granuloma.

  12. Constraints on the pre-impact orbits of Solar system giant impactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan P.; Gabriel, Travis S. J.; Asphaug, Erik I.

    2018-03-01

    We provide a fast method for computing constraints on impactor pre-impact orbits, applying this to the late giant impacts in the Solar system. These constraints can be used to make quick, broad comparisons of different collision scenarios, identifying some immediately as low-probability events, and narrowing the parameter space in which to target follow-up studies with expensive N-body simulations. We benchmark our parameter space predictions, finding good agreement with existing N-body studies for the Moon. We suggest that high-velocity impact scenarios in the inner Solar system, including all currently proposed single impact scenarios for the formation of Mercury, should be disfavoured. This leaves a multiple hit-and-run scenario as the most probable currently proposed for the formation of Mercury.

  13. Giant Otters in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk C.; Staib E.

    1992-01-01

    We are in the second year of fieldwork surveying for Giant Otters in the southeastern rainforest of Peru, in three areas with differing levels of legal protection. While there is some illegal hunting still happening outside the protected areas, the main threat to the otters is badly-conducted tourism. Well-organised tourism can be a promising argument for establishing protected areas like national parks.

  14. Intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of intraoral giant condyloma acuminatum is reported in a 50- year- old Indian. He did not respond to topical application of podophyllin 20% but responded partially to electric cauterisation. Surgical excision was done to get rid of the warty growh completely. Since there were no skin or genital lesions and no history of marital or extramarital sexual contact the lesion was probably acquired from environmental sources. Nonsexual transmission should be considered especially when the lesions are extragenital.

  15. Giant prolactinomas in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delgrange, Etienne; Raverot, Gerald; Bex, Marie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg/l and id......OBJECTIVE: To characterise distinctive clinical features of giant prolactinomas in women. DESIGN: A multicentre, retrospective case series and literature review. METHODS: We collected data from 15 female patients with a pituitary tumour larger than 4 cm and prolactin levels above 1000 μg....../l and identified 19 similar cases from the literature; a gender-based comparison of the frequency and age distribution was obtained from a literature review. RESULTS: The initial PubMed search using the term 'giant prolactinomas' identified 125 patients (13 women) responding to the inclusion criteria. The female......:male ratio was 1:9. Another six female patients were found by extending the literature search, while our own series added 15 patients. The median age at diagnosis was 44 years in women compared with 35 years in men (Pwomen (n=34), we...

  16. Mars’ Growth Stunted by an Early Giant Planet Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew; Kaib, Nathan A.; Raymond, Sean N.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2017-10-01

    Many dynamical aspects of the solar system can be explained by the outer planets experiencing a period of orbital instability. Though often correlated with a perceived delayed spike in the lunar cratering record known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), recent work suggests that this event may have occurred during the epoch of terrestrial planet formation. Though current simulations of terrestrial accretion can reproduce many observed qualities of the solar system, replicating the small mass of Mars requires modification to standard planet formation models. Here we use direct numerical simulations to show that an early instability in the outer solar system regularly yields properly sized Mars analogues. In 80% of simulations, we produce a Mars of the appropriate mass. Our most successful outcomes occur when the terrestrial planets evolve 10 million years (Myr), and accrete several Mars sized embryos in the Mars forming region before the instability takes place. Mars is left behind as a stranded embryo, while the remainder of these bodies are either ejected from the system or scattered towards the inner solar system where they deliver water to Earth. An early giant planet instability can thus replicate both the inner and outer solar system in a single model.

  17. From Gauss graphs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Koch, Robert; Nkumane, Lwazi

    2018-02-01

    We identify the operators in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory that correspond to 1/8 -BPS giant gravitons in AdS5 × S 5. Our evidence for the identification comes from (1) counting these operators and showing agreement with independent counts of the number of giant graviton states, and (2) by demonstrating a correspondence between correlation functions of the super Yang-Mills operators and overlaps of the giant graviton wave functions.

  18. Giant oilfields and civil conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hsiang Lei; Guy Michaels

    2012-01-01

    We use new data to examine the effects of giant oilfield discoveries around the world since 1946. On average, these discoveries increase per capita oil production and oil exports by up to 50 percent. But these giant oilfield discoveries also have a dark side: they increase the incidence of internal armed conflict by about 5-8 percentage points. This increased incidence of conflict due to giant oilfield discoveries is especially high for countries that had already experienced armed conflicts o...

  19. Dobutamine stress thallium-201 single-photon emission tomography versus echocardiography for evaluation of the extent and location of coronary artery disease late after myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhendy, A.; Bax, J.J.; Domburg, R.T. van; Cornel, J.H.; Roelandt, J.R.T.C.; Valkema, R.; Reijs, A.E.M.; Krenning, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Dobutamine stress echocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy are clinically useful methods for the evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the relative merits of these imaging modalities in the evaluation of the extent of CAD after myocardial infarction have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography and simultaneous 201 Tl single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging for the diagnosis and localization of CAD late after acute myocardial infarction. Dobutamine (up to 40 μg kg -1 min -1 )-atropine (up to 1 mg) stress echocardiography in conjunction with stress-reinjection 201 Tl SPET was performed for the evaluation of myocardial ischaemia in 90 patients with previous myocardial infarction who underwent coronary angiography. Significant CAD was predicted on bases of myocardial ischemia (new or worsening wall motion abnormalities on echocardiography and reversible perfusion defects on 201 Tl SPET). Significant CAD (≥ 50% luminal diameter stenosis) was detected in 73 (81%) patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of echocardiography in detecting remote ischaemia for the diagnosis of remote CAD (present in 53 patients) were, respectively, 79% (CI 70%-88%), 85% (CI 77%-93%) and 81% (CI 73%-90%), while the corresponding figures for 201 Tl SPET were 75% (CI 66%-85%), 78% (CI 69%-87%) and 76% (CI 67%-86%) respectively (P = NS vs echocardiography). The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of echocardiography in detecting peri-infarction ischaemia for the diagnosis of infarct-related artery stenosis (present in 70 patients) were, rspectively, 77% (CI 68%-86%), 85% (CI 78%-92%) and 79% (CI 70%-87%) while the corresponding figures for 201 Tl SPET were 73% (CI 64%-82%), 85% (CI 78%-92%) and 76% (CI 67%-84%) respectively (P = NS vs echocardiography). The agreement between the two methods for the diagnosis of peri-infarction and remote ischaemia was 70

  20. From red giants to planetary nebulae: Asymmetries, dust, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to investigate the development of aspherical planetary nebulae, polarimetry was obtained for a group of planetary nebulae and for objects that will evolve into planetary nebulae, i.e., red giants, late asymptotic giant branch (AGB) objects, proto-planetary nebulae, and young planetary nebulae. To study the dust around the objects in our sample, we also used data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) mission. The youngest objects in our survey, red giants, had the hottest dust temperatures while planetary nebulae had the coolest. Most of the objects were intrinsically polarized, including the red giants. This indicated that the circumstellar dust shells of these objects were aspherical. Both carbon- and oxygen-rich objects could be intrinsically polarized. The intrinsic polarizations of a sample of our objects were modeled using an ellipsoidal circumstellar dust shell. The findings of this study suggest that the asphericities that lead to an aspherical planetary nebula originate when a red giant begins to undergo mass loss. The polarization and thus the asphericity as the star evolves, with both reaching a maximum during the proto-planetary nebula stage. The circumstellar dust shell will dissipate after the proto-planetary nebulae stage since no new material is being added. The polarization of planetary nebulae will thus be low. In the most evolved planetary nebulae, the dust has either been destroyed or dissipated into the interstellar medium. In these objects no polarization was observed

  1. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenendijk, Jessica; Hajek, Frank; Johnson, Paul J; Macdonald, David W; Calvimontes, Jorge; Staib, Elke; Schenck, Christof

    2014-01-01

    The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03) and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1) physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2) a high degree of reproductive skew, (3) small litters produced only once a year, and (4) a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males). Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs.) and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime); the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11), with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River.

  2. Demography of the giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis in Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Groenendijk

    Full Text Available The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis is an endangered semi-aquatic carnivore of South America. We present findings on the demography of a population inhabiting the floodplain of Manu National Park, south-eastern Peru, arising from 14 annual dry season censuses over a 16 year period. The breeding system of territorial groups, including only a single breeding female with non-reproductive adult 'helpers', resulted in a low intrinsic rate of increase (0.03 and a slow recovery from decades of hunting for the pelt trade. This is explained by a combination of factors: (1 physiological traits such as late age at first reproduction and long generation time, (2 a high degree of reproductive skew, (3 small litters produced only once a year, and (4 a 50% mortality between den emergence and age of dispersal, as well as high mortality amongst dispersers (especially males. Female and male giant otters show similar traits with respect to average reproductive life-spans (female 5.4 yrs., male 5.2 yrs. and average cub productivity (female 6.9, male 6.7 cubs per lifetime; the longest reproductive life spans were 11 and 13 years respectively. Individual reproductive success varied substantially and depended mainly on the duration of dominance tenure in the territory. When breeding females died, the reproductive position in the group was usually occupied by sisters or daughters (n = 11, with immigrant male partners. Male philopatry was not observed. The vulnerability of the Manu giant otter population to anthropogenic disturbance emphasises the importance of effective protection of core lake habitats in particular. Riverine forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the Department of Madre de Dios due to the concentration of gold mining, logging and agricultural activities in floodplains, highlighting the need for a giant otter habitat conservation corridor along the Madre de Dios River.

  3. Giant paraganglioma in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Gupta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine catecholamine producing tumour in childhood which arises outside the adrenal medulla. We present a 12 year old girl with giant paraganglioma with severe hypertension and end organ damage. Diagnosis was confirmed with 24 h urinary Vanillymandelic Acid (VMA and CT scan. Preoperative blood pressure was controlled with intravenous nitroprusside, and oral prazosin, amlodepine, labetalol and metoprolol. General anaesthesia with epidural analgesia was given. Intra operative blood pressure rise was managed with infusion of nitriglycerine (NTG, esmolol, nitroprusside and propofol.

  4. GIANT INTRACANALICULAR FIBROADENOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clyn; Parsons, Robert J.; Bogart, William M.

    1951-01-01

    Five cases of giant intracanalicular fibroadenoma (“cystosarcoma phylloides”) were observed at one hospital in a period of three years. In a search of the literature, additional reports of breast tumors of this kind, not included in previous reviews, were noted. As there is record of 229 cases, it would appear that this rapidly growing benign tumor should be kept in mind in the diagnosis of masses in the breast. If removal is incomplete, there may be recurrence. Simple mastectomy is the treatment of choice. Radical mastectomy should be avoided. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2.Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:14848732

  5. Giant Ulcerative Dermatofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Karlidag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma is a slowly growing common benign cutaneous tumor characterized by hard papules and nodules. The rarely seen erosions and ulcerations may cause difficulties in the diagnosis. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, which is clinically and histopathologically of malignant character, displays difficulties in the diagnosis since it has similarities with basal cell carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, and sarcomas. Head and neck involvement is very rare. In this study, a giant dermatofibroma case, which is histopathologically, ulcerative dermatofibroma, the biggest lesion of the head and neck region and seen rarely in the literature that has characteristics similar to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, has been presented.

  6. GIANT PROSTHETIC VALVE THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical prosthetic valves are predisposed to bleeding, thrombosis & thromboembolic complications. Overall incidence of thromboembolic complications is 1% per year who are on oral anticoagulants, whereas bleeding complications incidence is 0.5% to 6.6% per year. 1, 2 Minimization of Scylla of thromboembolic & Charybdis of bleeding complication needs a balancing act of optimal antithrombotic therapy. We are reporting a case of middle aged male patient with prosthetic mitral valve presenting in heart failure. Patient had discontinued anticoagulants, as he had subdural hematoma in the past. He presented to our institute with a giant prosthetic valve thrombus.

  7. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  8. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Nevus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Sonnich; Henriksen, Trine Foged; Kølle, Stig-Frederik Trojahn

    2015-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) occur in 1:20,000 livebirths and are associated with increased risk of malignant transformation. The treatment of GCMN from 1981 to 2010 in a tertiary referral center was reviewed evaluating the modalities used, cosmetic results, associated complications......% versus 44% required unplanned additional surgery, respectively. Complications were noted in 25% and 67% of the patients, respectively. Cosmetic result was satisfying in 76% of patients without difference between the groups. No malignant transformation was found during a mean follow-up of 11 years....... Curettage is a gentle alternative to excision with a lower complication rate and good cosmetic outcome....

  9. Is the modern koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) a derived dwarf of a Pleistocene giant? Implications for testing megafauna extinction hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.

    2008-12-01

    The modern Australian koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) is commonly regarded as a dwarf descendent of a Late Pleistocene giant koala ( Ph. stirtoni). The implication of that hypothesis is that the giant koala survived the Late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction "event", albeit as a smaller body-sized form. It is important to be able to constrain rates of Late Pleistocene faunal turnover, an aspect reliant on having accurate taxonomic information of extinct species. The koala dwarfing hypothesis is tested here by using a temporally-constrained biogeographical record of fossil koalas, and a morphological character analysis. The contemporary occurrence of both taxa in pre-Late Pleistocene deposits and significant differences in dental morphologies between those forms suggests that the modern koala is not a derived dwarf of the Pleistocene giant koala. Thus, the giant-form was among a number of other giant mammals, lizards and birds that suffered extinction sometime during the Late Pleistocene. The potential phenomenon of dwarfing of other Late Pleistocene and Recent faunas, such as grey kangaroos, is commonly used as a test for or against various megafaunal extinction hypotheses. However, the results of this study also demonstrate that the dwarfing hypothesis has not been adequately tested for a suite of other taxa. Thus, until the dwarfing hypothesis can be more fully tested, a clear understanding of the fate of Late Pleistocene faunas that apparently survived the extinction "event", and the origins of many extant forms will remain elusive.

  10. Early and late outcome after single step dilatational tracheostomy versus the guide wire dilating forceps technique: a prospective randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkers, B.G.; Staatsen, M; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Percutaneous tracheostomy is frequently performed in long-term ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Unfortunately, despite many years of experience, the optimal technique is still unknown, especially considering the occurrence of late complications. The purpose of this

  11. Late recurrence and second primary malignancy among 139 patients with germ cell tumors. Long-term outcome of the disease in a single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Sasai, Masamichi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Masumori, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies. This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005. We reviewed late recurrence that occurred at least 2 years after the initial disease-free status and secondary malignancies as well as oncological outcomes. In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively. Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status. Second primary hematological neoplasms occurred in three (2.2%), although they had a long-term free of the primary disease. All died of the second primary disease. Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible. Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence. In addition, care should be taken to watch for the development of life-threatening second primary malignant disease during long-term follow-up. (author)

  12. The late administration of surfactant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HMD and 4 as having congenital pneumonia. Overall there was a significant and sustained improvement ... 3 infants weighing> 2 400 g with congenital pneumonia responded to a single delayed dose of SRT. Late SRT is ..... pneumonia and meconium aspiration syndrome.' It does not appear that late SRT compromised the ...

  13. Analysis of the equilibrium trip cost accounting for the fuel cost in a single-lane traffic system without late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Wang, Tao; Chen, Liang; Huang, Hai-Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the fuel cost into each commuter's trip cost, define a new trip cost without late arrival and its corresponding equilibrium state, and use a car-following model to explore the impacts of the fuel cost on each commuter's departure time, departure interval, arrival time, arrival interval, traveling time, early arrival time and trip cost at the above equilibrium state. The numerical results show that considering the fuel cost in each commuter's trip cost has positive impacts on his trip cost and fuel cost, and the traffic situation in the system without late arrival, i.e., each commuter should explicitly consider the fuel cost in his trip cost.

  14. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  15. Late effects after treatment of twenty children with soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck. Experience at a single institution with a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, M.; Littman, P.; Raney, R.B.; Nelson, L.; Handler, S.; Diamond, G.; Stanley, C.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty children with soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck, treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania from 1972 to 1981, were evaluated for the late deleterious effects of treatment. All patients received radiation therapy and combination chemotherapy with vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide; certain patients also received Adriamycin (doxorubicin). All had ophthalmologic, otologic, growth, and cosmetic evaluations; 15 also had dental and maxillofacial examinations. The median age at diagnosis was 6 years (range, 7 months-13 years). Median follow-up from time of diagnosis was 5.5 years with a minimum of 3 years in all but four patients. The major problems encountered were related to the eyes (xerophthalmia and cataracts), ears (hearing loss), teeth (maleruption and caries), glandular structures (xerostomia, hypopituitarism), and development (craniofacial deformity). It is concluded that children treated for soft tissue sarcomas of the head and neck with combined modality therapy, including radiation enhancers, may show a variety of late treatment-related adversities. These children require close multidisciplinary follow-up for detection of late effects in order that appropriate prophylactic or symptomatic treatment can be instituted to minimize their consequences

  16. Endoscopically removed giant submucosal lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.

  17. Giant fibroadenoma of one breast : Immediate bilateral reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolmans, Guido H. C. G.; Hoogbergen, Maarten M.; van Rappard, Julien H. A.

    2007-01-01

    A rare case of giant fibroadenoma of the left breast is presented. We performed a nipple sparing subcutaneous mastectomy of the left breast. Since the patient desired larger breasts, a contralateral augmentation mammaplasty was carried out in a single stage operation. A satisfactory result was

  18. Reproductive characterization of three species of Giant African land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duration of reproductive activities (courtship latency, courtship and mating) were studied in three (3) species of Giant African land snails (GALs) namely, Achatina fulica, Archachatina marginata and Achatina achatina using mature snails gathered from rural Nigeria. The snails were housed singly for 90 days to acclimatize; ...

  19. Current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance and tunneling magnetoresistance treated with unified model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, PAE

    2002-01-01

    The conceptual similarity between current perpendicular to plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) is exploited by utilizing a unified single-particle model accounting for both types of magnetoresistance. By defining structures composed of ferromagnetic,

  20. Recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. King

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast masses in children, though rare, present a difficult clinical challenge as they can represent a wide variety of entities from benign fibroadenomas to phyllodes tumors. Rapidly growing or recurrent masses can be particularly concerning to patients, families and physicians alike. Clinical examination and conventional imaging modalities are not efficacious in distinguishing between different tumor types and surgical excision is often recommended for both final diagnosis and for treatment of large or rapidly growing masses. While surgical excision can result in significant long-term deformity of the breast there are some surgical techniques that can be used to limit deformity and/or aid in future reconstruction. Here we present a case of recurrent giant juvenile fibroadenoma with a review of the clinical presentation, diagnostic tools and treatment options.

  1. A giant testicular teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangana, Abdulqadir M.; Razak, Awodan B.

    2007-01-01

    We report a giant testicular in a 36-year-old farmer man, of 18-month duration admitted to the Surgical Department Erbil Teaching Hospital, Iraq. The tumor was invading the penis and lower part of abdominal wall including bilateral groin lymph nodes. Histological examination revealed mature and immature teratoma. Further investigations showed no evidence of any metastatic lesions apart from a solitary pulmonary nodule on the right side of the chest which proved by ultra sonic guide fine needle aspiration biopsy. Radical excisions of the tumor including the shaft of the penis, combined with bilateral block dissection of the inguinal nodes and resection of the lower anterior abdominal wall was performed. Six weeks later after a course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient underwent resection of metastatic lung lesion. (author)

  2. A Lithium-Rich Red Giant Below the Clump in the Kepler Cluster, NGC 6819

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Rich, Evan; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    WIYN/HYDRA spectra in the Li 6708 Angstrom region have been obtained for 332 probable members of the old open cluster, NGC 6819. Preliminary analysis shows a pattern of Li depletion from the top of the turnoff to the base of the giant branch. Starting one magnitude below the level of the clump, all brighter giants have A(Li) below 1.0, with most having upper limits below 0.5. Star W007017, located BELOW the first-ascent red giant bump is Li-rich with A(Li) = 2.3. As a highly probable single-s...

  3. Full-dose intraoperative radiotherapy with electrons in breast cancer. First report on late toxicity and cosmetic results from a single-institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussari, S.; Busana, L.; Vanoni, V.; Tomio, L.; Sala, W.S. della; Eccher, C.; Zani, B.; Menegotti, L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate the feasibility of applying exclusive intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) after conservative surgery in limited-stage breast carcinoma and to evaluate late effects and cosmetic results after this new conservative treatment. Patients and methods: from October 2000 to November 2002, 47 consecutive patients with unifocal breast carcinoma up to a diameter of 2 cm received conservative surgery followed by IORT with electrons as the sole adjuvant local therapy. Three different dose levels were used: 20 Gy (seven patients), 22 Gy (20 patients), and 24 Gy (20 patients). Patients were evaluated using RTOG/EORTC scale to assess the incidence of late complications. During follow-up, a radiologic assessment with mammography and sonography was periodically performed and any breast-imaging alterations were reported. Results: after a follow-up ranging from 36 to 63 months (median, 48 months), 15 patients developed breast fibrosis (grade 2 in 14 patients, grade 3 in one patient), two patients presented with grade 3 skin changes, one patient developed a clinically relevant fat necrosis, and one patient showed breast edema and pain. Two patients developed contralateral breast cancer and one distant metastases; no local relapses occurred. Asymptomatic findings of fat necrosis were observed at mammography in twelve patients (25.5%), while an hypoechoic area was revealed by sonography in ten patients (21.5%). In four patients (8%), mammographic and sonographic findings suggested malignant lesions and required a rebiopsy to confirm the benign nature of the lesion. Conclusion: IORT in breast carcinoma is still an experimental treatment option for select patients with breast cancer and its application should be restricted to prospective trials. Although preliminary data on local control are encouraging, a longer follow-up is needed to confirm the efficacy of IORT in breast cancer and to exclude that severe late complications compromise the cosmetic results or

  4. GIANT: a computer code for General Interactive ANalysis of Trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, J.; Lee, M.; Servranckx, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1985-04-01

    Many model-driven diagnostic and correction procedures have been developed at SLAC for the on-line computer controlled operation of SPEAR, PEP, the LINAC, and the Electron Damping Ring. In order to facilitate future applications and enhancements, these procedures are being collected into a single program, GIANT. The program allows interactive diagnosis as well as performance optimization of any beam transport line or circular machine. The test systems for GIANT are those of the SLC project. The organization of this program and some of the recent applications of the procedures will be described in this paper

  5. Oxygen-induced giant grain growth in Ag films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, A. J.; Thompson, C. V.; Steuben, J. C.; Iliopoulos, A. P.; Michopoulos, J. G.

    2017-10-01

    Thin film crystallites typically exhibit normal or abnormal growth with maximum grain size limited by energetic and geometric constraints. Although epitaxial methods have been used to produce large single crystal regions, they impose limitations that preclude some compelling applications. The generation of giant grain thin film materials has broad implications for fundamental property analysis and applications. This work details the production of giant grains in Ag films (2.5 μm-thick), ranging in size from ≈50 μm to 1 mm, on silicon nitride films upon silicon substrates. The presence of oxygen during film deposition plays a critical role in controlling grain size and orientation.

  6. Rediscovering the Giant Low Surface Brightness Spiral Galaxy Malin 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaz, Gaspar

    2018-01-01

    I summarize the latest discoveries regarding this ramarkable diffuse and giant galaxy, the largest single spiral in the universe so far. I describe how the latest discoveries could have been done easily 20 years ago, but an incredible summation of facts and some astronomical sociology, keeped many of them undisclosed. I present the most conspicuous features of the giant spiral arms of Malin 1, including stellar density, colors, stellar populations and some modeling describing their past evolution to the current state. I conclude with pending issues regarding stellar formation in Malin 1, and the efforts to detect its elusive molecular gas.

  7. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    OpenAIRE

    David I. Groves; Richard J. Goldfarb; M. Santosh

    2016-01-01

    It is quite evident that it is not anomalous metal transport, nor unique depositional conditions, nor any single factor at the deposit scale, that dictates whether a mineral deposit becomes a giant or not. A hierarchical approach thus is required to progressively examine controlling parameters at successively decreasing scales in the total mineral system to understand the location of giant gold deposits in non-arc environments. For giant orogenic, intrusion-related gold systems (IRGS) and Car...

  8. Giant high occipital encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Encephaloceles are rare embryological mesenchymal developmental anomalies resulting from inappropriate ossification in skull through with herniation of intracranial contents of the sac. Encephaloceles are classified based on location of the osseous defect and contents of sac. Convexity encephalocele with osseous defect in occipital bone is called occipital encephalocele. Giant occipital encephaloceles can be sometimes larger than the size of baby skull itself and they pose a great surgical challenge. Occipital encephaloceles (OE are further classified as high OE when defect is only in occipital bone above the foramen magnum, low OE when involving occipital bone and foramen magnum and occipito-cervical when there involvement of occipital bone, foramen magnum and posterior upper neural arches. Chiari III malformation can be associated with high or low occipital encephaloceles. Pre-operatively, it is essential to know the size of the sac, contents of the sac, relation to the adjacent structures, presence or absence of venous sinuses/vascular structures and osseous defect size. Sometimes it becomes imperative to perform both CT and MRI for the necessary information. Volume rendered CT images can depict the relation of osseous defect to foramen magnum and provide information about upper neural arches which is necessary in classifying these lesions.

  9. Bringing Low the Giants

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Their work goes on unseen, because they a hundred metres beneath your feet. But while the race against the clock to build the LHC has begun on the surface, teams underground are feverishly engaged to dismantle LEP and its experiments. Four months after the start of dismantling, the technical coordinators of the different experiments discuss the progress of work. Little men attack the giant ALEPH. The barrel and its two endcaps have been removed to the end of the cavern and stripped of their cables. The breaking up of the detector can now begin. At ALEPH, counting rooms removed all in one go Jean-Paul Fabre, technical coordinator at ALEPH:'After making safe the structure, the first step was to remove the wiring and cables. Some 210 cubic metres were brought out. Then the counting rooms all round the detector were taken out. They were brought up from the cavern all in one go, up through the shaft, which is 10 metres wide and 150 metres deep. They made it with 15 centimetres to spare. They have been emptied of...

  10. Giant necrotic pituitary apoplexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanous, Andrew A; Quigley, Edward P; Chin, Steven S; Couldwell, William T

    2013-10-01

    Apoplexy of the pituitary gland is a rare complication of pituitary adenomas, involving hemorrhage with or without necrosis within the tumor. This condition may be either asymptomatic or may present with severe headache, visual impairment, ophthalmoplegia, and pituitary failure. Transsphenoidal surgery is the treatment of choice, and early intervention is usually required to ensure reversal of visual impairment. Reports of pituitary apoplectic lesions exceeding 60.0mm in diameter are very rare. A 39-year-old man with long-standing history of nasal congestion, decreased libido and infertility presented with a sudden onset of severe headache and diplopia. MRI of the head demonstrated a massive skull base lesion of 70.0 × 60.0 × 25.0mm, compatible with a giant pituitary macroadenoma. The lesion failed to enhance after administration of a contrast agent, suggesting complete necrotic apoplexy. Urgent surgical decompression was performed, and the lesion was resected via a transnasal transsphenoidal approach. Pathological analysis revealed evidence of necrotic pituitary apoplexy. At the 2 month follow-up, the patient had near-complete to complete resolution of his visual impairment. To the authors' knowledge, this report is unique as the patient demonstrated complete necrotic apoplexy and it underlines the diagnostic dilemma in such a case. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of the giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  12. From red giant to planetary nebula - Dust, asymmetry, and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Jones, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The polarization characteristics of stars in the stages of evolution from red giant to planetary nebula are investigated. Polarization is found to be a characteristic of the majority of these stars. The maximum observed polarization increases with age as the star evolves up the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebula phase, where the polarization reaches a maximum. The polarization then decreases as the star further evolves into a planetary nebula. These results indicate that aspherical mass loss is likely to be a continual feature of the late stages of stellar evolution, maintaining a clear continuity throughout the life of a star from the moment it first develops a measurable dust shell. The aspherical morphology seen in planetary nebulae has its origin in an intrinsic property of the star that is present at least as early as its arrival at the base of the AGB. 77 refs

  13. Evaluation of Endocrine Late Complications in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Survivors: A Report of a Single-Center Experience and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Bayram

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improvement in long-term survival in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in childhood has led to the need for monitorization of treatment-related morbidity and mortality. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate endocrine side effects of treatment in ALL survivors who were in remission for at least 2 years. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed with ALL, who were in remission for at least 2 years, were cross-sectionally evaluated for long-term endocrine complications. Results: The median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis, at the time of chemotherapy completion, and at the time of the study was 5 years (minimum-maximum: 1.7-13, 8 years (minimummaximum: 4.25-16, and 11.7 years (minimum-maximum: 7-22, respectively, and median follow-up time was 4 years (minimummaximum: 2-10.1. At least one complication was observed in 81.6% of patients. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency (46.6%, overweight/ obesity (33.3%, and dyslipidemia (23.3% were the three most frequent endocrine complications. Other complications seen in our patients were hyperparathyroidism secondary to vitamin D deficiency (15%, insulin resistance (11.7%, hypertension (8.3%, short stature (6.7%, thyroid function abnormality (5%, precocious puberty (3.3%, and decreased bone mineral density (1.7%. There were no statistically significant correlations between endocrine complications and age, sex, and radiotherapy, except vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, which was significantly more frequent in pubertal ALL survivors compared to prepubertal ALL survivors (57.5% and 25%, respectively, p=0.011. Conclusion: A high frequency of endocrine complications was observed in the current study. The high frequency of late effects necessitates long-term surveillance of this population to better understand the incidence of late-occurring events and the defining of high-risk features that can facilitate developing intervention strategies for early detection and

  14. Formation of giant planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perri, F.

    1975-01-01

    When a planetary core composed of condensed matter is accumulated in the primitive solar nebula, the gas of the nebula becomes gravitationally concentrated as an envelope surrounding the planetary core. Models of such gaseous envelopes have been constructed subject to the assumption that the gas everywhere is on the same adiabat as that in the surrounding nebula. The gaseous envelope extends from the surface of the core to the distance at which the gravitational attraction of core plus envelope becomes equal to the gradient of the gravitational potential in the solar nebula; at this point the pressure and temperature of the gas in the envelope are required to attain the background values characteristic of the solar nebula. In general, as the mass of the condensed core increases, increasing amounts of gas became concentrated in the envelope, and these envelopes are stable against hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the core mass then goes through a maximum and starts to decrease. In most of the models tested the envelopes were hydrodynamically unstable beyond the peak in the core mass. An unstable situation was always created if it was insisted that the core mass contain a larger amount of matter than given by these solutions. For an initial adiabat characterized by a temperature of 450 0 K and a pressure of 5 x 10 -6 atmospheres, the maximum core mass at which instability occurs is approximately 115 earth masses. It is concluded that the giant planets obtained their large amounts of hydrogen and helium by a hydrodynamic collapse process in the solar nebula only after the nebula had been subjected to a considerable period of cooling

  15. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givnish Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution.

  16. Sizing Up Red Giants Using Bayes’ Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenberg, Jason P.; Parsotan, Tyler

    2014-06-01

    Using the general-purpose stellar atmosphere code PHOENIX, we have constructed a grid of spherical stellar atmosphere models for comparison to cool giant star spectral energy distributions(SEDs). The models are not only parametrized by effective temperature (3500 Kto 3700 K) and surface gravity (log(g) = -0.5 to 1.0), but also by mass (7 Msun to 21 Msun), a required parameter for spherical model atmospheres. The shapes of the synthetic spectral energy distributions are sensitive to a change in mass at fixed values for the effective temperature and surface gravity. At our lowest surface gravity, differences in mass of a factor of two can yield up to 20% flux differences in the shape of the SED between 400 nm and 900 nm.Also, for a fixed mass, differences in the surface gravity of a factor of 10 can yield up to 100% flux differences in the shape of the SED below 450 nm. We are investigating whether the mass-dependence of the model SED shape may be used to constrain single star masses. One of our target stars is the supergiant Betelgeuse which has a poorly constrained mass: published estimates differ by a factor of two. To aid in our analysis, we have developed a method to extract Bayesian posterior distributions for four model parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, mass, and angular size) from thecomparison of the synthetic SED grid to individual observed SEDs of red giants.

  17. Giant fields in southwest Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    According to Petroleos Mexicanos southeastern Mexico's Isthmus Saline basin holds five new giant fields - Tonala-El Burro, El Plan, Cinco Presidentes, Oraggio, and Magallanes - producing oil and gas from Tertiary sandstones. Numerous normal faults resulting from salt intrusion have given rise to multiple blocks, each with its own reservoir conditions. Previously discovered basins in the area include the Macuspana, which holds three giant gas- and condensate-producing fields: Jose Colomo, Chilapilla, and Hormiquero. The 3100-mi/sup 2/ Campeche marine platform, extending offshore nearby, contains the Cantarell complex, Mexico's most productive hydrocarbon province.

  18. Percolation with multiple giant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2005-01-01

    We study mean-field percolation with freezing. Specifically, we consider cluster formation via two competing processes: irreversible aggregation and freezing. We find that when the freezing rate exceeds a certain threshold, the percolation transition is suppressed. Below this threshold, the system undergoes a series of percolation transitions with multiple giant clusters ('gels') formed. Giant clusters are not self-averaging as their total number and their sizes fluctuate from realization to realization. The size distribution F k , of frozen clusters of size k, has a universal tail, F k ∼ k -3 . We propose freezing as a practical mechanism for controlling the gel size. (letter to the editor)

  19. Giant resonances: reaction theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de; Foglia, G.A.

    1989-09-01

    The study of giant resonances through the use of reaction theory approach is presented and discussed. Measurements of cross-sections to the many available decay channels following excitation of giant multipole resonances (GMR) led one to view these phenomena as complicated dynamical syndromes so that theoretical requirements for their study must be extended beyond the traditional bounds of nuclear structure models. The spectra of decay products following GMR excitation in heavy nuclei are well described by statistical model (Hauser-Feshback, HF) predictions indicated that spreading of the collective modes plays a major role in shaping exclusive cross-sections. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  20. Awakening a sleeping coal giant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.

    2007-08-15

    Botswana, a southern African country that in the 1980s could not economically land a tonne of coal at the closest export terminal and even today mines no more than 1 million tpa, is to increase production to beyond 30 million tpa. A first ever coal conference in Gaborone called it the awakening of a coal giant. The alarm call for the coal giant is the realisation that without more generating capacity than its power utility Eskom can itself build in time, South Africa will in four to five years face a severe shortage of power. 1 ref., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Temporal overlap of humans and giant lizards (Varanidae; Squamata) in Pleistocene Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Cramb, Jonathan; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin; Hocknull, Scott A.; Webb, Gregory E.; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    An obvious but key prerequisite to testing hypotheses concerning the role of humans in the extinction of late Quaternary 'megafauna' is demonstrating that humans and the extinct taxa overlapped, both temporally and spatially. In many regions, a paucity of reliably dated fossil occurrences of megafauna makes it challenging, if not impossible, to test many of the leading extinction hypotheses. The giant monitor lizards of Australia are a case in point. Despite commonly being argued to have suffered extinction at the hands of the first human colonisers (who arrived by 50 ka), it has never been reliably demonstrated that giant monitors and humans temporally overlapped in Australia. Here we present the results of an integrated U-Th and 14C dating study of a late Pleistocene fossil deposit that has yielded the youngest dated remains of giant monitor lizards in Australia. The site, Colosseum Chamber, is a cave deposit in the Mt Etna region, central eastern Australia. Sixteen new dates were generated and demonstrate that the bulk of the material in the deposit accumulated since ca. 50 ka. The new monitor fossil is, minimally, 30 ky younger than the previous youngest reliably dated record for giant lizards in Australia and for the first time, demonstrates that on a continental scale, humans and giant lizards overlapped in time. The new record brings the existing geochronological dataset for Australian giant monitor lizards to seven dated occurrences. With such sparse data, we are hesitant to argue that our new date represents the time of their extinction from the continent. Rather, we suspect that future fossil collecting will yield new samples both older and younger than 50 ka. Nevertheless, we unequivocally demonstrate that humans and giant monitor lizards overlapped temporally in Australia, and thus, humans can only now be considered potential drivers for their extinction.

  2. A novel polyomavirus from the nasal cavity of a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Dunwu; Shan, Tongling; Liu, Zhijian; Deng, Xutao; Zhang, Zhihe; Bi, Wenlei; Owens, Jacob Robert; Feng, Feifei; Zheng, Lisong; Huang, Feng; Delwart, Eric; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Wen

    2017-10-27

    Polyomaviruses infect a wide variety of mammalian and avian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. Viral metagenomics and general PCR methods were used to detected viral nucleic acid in the samples from a diseased and healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus, the giant panda polyomavirus 1 (GPPyV1) from the nasal cavity of a dead giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) was characterized. The GPPyV1 genome is 5144 bp in size and reveals five putative open-reading frames coding for the classic small and large T antigens in the early region, and the VP1, VP2 and VP3 capsid proteins in the late region. Phylogenetic analyses of the large T antigen of the GPPyV1 indicated GPPyV1 belonged to a putative new species within genus Deltapolyomavirus, clustering with four human polyomavirus species. The GPPyV1 VP1 and VP2 clustered with genus Alphapolyomavirus. Our epidemiologic study indicated that this novel polyomavirus was also detected in nasal swabs and fecal samples collected from captive healthy giant pandas. A novel polyomavirus was detected in giant pandas and its complete genome was characterized, which may cause latency infection in giant pandas.

  3. Graphenes – Aromatic Giants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    process of coke, and is produced in millions of tons annually. The molecules of PAH consist of condensed ... dant, then the polyphenyl is transformed into a graphene in a single chemical reaction. This reaction ... almost perfectly planar, that is all atoms of the graphene molecule lie in the same plane. In Figure 5 is shown ...

  4. Giant gravitons-with strings attached (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the free field theory limit of operators dual to giant gravitons with open strings attached, are studied. We introduce a graphical notation, which employs Young diagrams, for these operators. The computation of two point correlation functions is reduced to the application of three simple rules, written as graphical operations performed on the Young diagram labels of the operators. Using this technology, we have studied gravitational radiation by giant gravitons and bound states of giant gravitons, transitions between excited giant graviton states and joining of open strings attached to the giant

  5. Pathogenesis of giant colonic diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhletaler, C.A.; Berger, J.L.; Robinette, C.L. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings of 3 patients with giant colonic diverticula are presented. Although several theories have been proposed for the formation of these diverticula, they have not been fully documented. One of our cases illustrates the evolution of this disorder following typical colonic diverticulitis. The pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of this unusual entity are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Giant resonances on excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besold, W.; Reinhard, P.G.; Toepffer, C.

    1984-01-01

    We derive modified RPA equations for small vibrations about excited states. The temperature dependence of collective excitations is examined. The formalism is applied to the ground state and the first excited state of 90 Zr in order to confirm a hypothesis which states that not only the ground state but every excited state of a nucleus has a giant resonance built upon it. (orig.)

  7. Michigan has a sleeping giant

    CERN Multimedia

    Brock, Raymond; Nichols, Sue

    2007-01-01

    "That giant is 750 miles of fiber optic cable that lassoes its three biggest research universities and Van Andel Institute to the future. Its mission: to uncover the nature of the Big Bang by connecton U.S. physicists to their huge experiment ATLAS in Geneva.." (4 pages)

  8. A Giant or a Dwarf?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Herman

    2005-01-01

    EU may appear to be a giant when it can act on behalf of a united Europe, but usually it is hampered by conflicting member state interests. The EU economic and administrative resources for foreign and trade policy are quite small (on level with one of its major member states) and the hopes in man...

  9. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  10. Giant Piezoelectricity on Si for Hyperactive MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S. H.; Park, J.; Kim, D. M.; Aksyuk, V. A.; Das, R. R.; Bu, S. D.; Felker, D. A.; Lettieri, J.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.; Chen, Y. B.; Sun, H. P.; Folkman, C. M.; Jang, H. W.; Kreft, D. J.; Streiffer, S. K.; Ramesh, R.; Pan, X. Q.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Schlom, D. G.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Blick, R. H.; Eom, C. B.

    2011-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO3 template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  11. Giant piezoelectricity on Si for hyperactive MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S H; Park, J; Kim, D M; Aksyuk, V A; Das, R R; Bu, S D; Felker, D A; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Bharadwaja, S S N; Bassiri-Gharb, N; Chen, Y B; Sun, H P; Folkman, C M; Jang, H W; Kreft, D J; Streiffer, S K; Ramesh, R; Pan, X Q; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Schlom, D G; Rzchowski, M S; Blick, R H; Eom, C B

    2011-11-18

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO(3) template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e(31,f) = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  12. Giant Pulse Studies of Ordinary and Recycled Pulsars with NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Natalia; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Enoto, Teruaki; Harding, Alice; Lommen, Andrea; Ray, Paul S.; Deneva, Julia; Kerr, Matthew; Ransom, Scott M.; NICER Team

    2018-01-01

    Radio Giant Pulses are one of the earliest discovered form of anomalous single pulse emission from pulsars. Known for their non-periodical occurrence, restriction to certain phase ranges, power-law intensity distributions, pulse widths ranging from microseconds to nanoseconds and very high brightness temperatures, they stand out as an individual form of pulsar radio emission.Discovered originally in the case of the Crab pulsar, several other pulsars have been observed to emit radio giant pulses, the most promising being the recycled pulsar PSR B1937+21 and also the Vela pulsar.Although radio giant pulses are apparently the result of a coherent emission mechanism, recent studies of the Crab pulsar led to the discovery of an additional incoherent component at optical wavelengths. No such component has been identified for recycled pulsars, or Vela yet.To provide constraints on possible emission regions in their magnetospheres and to search for differences between giant pulses from ordinary and recycled pulsars, we present the progress of the correlation study of PSR B1937+21 and the Vela pulsar carried out with NICER and several radio observatories.

  13. Quantized TDHF for isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.

    1988-01-01

    The time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory supplemented with the regularity and single-valuedness quantization condition for the gauge invariant component of the wavefunction is applied to the description of the centroid energy and escape width of isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 16 O, 40 Ca and 110 Zr. Calculations are performed using the Skyrme SIII effective interaction. An important role of the finite oscillation amplitude in the mean-field dynamics is emphasized. (orig.)

  14. Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, M. D.; Finn, J.; Tregenza, T.

    1999-01-01

    Out of all the animals, cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of larger males. At a mass breeding aggregation in South Australia, we repeatedly observed single small males accompanying mating pairs. While...

  15. Late thrombosis after double versus single drug-eluting stent in the treatment of coronary bifurcations: a meta-analysis of randomized and observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimarino, Marco; Corazzini, Alessandro; Ricci, Fabrizio; Di Nicola, Marta; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2013-07-01

    This study sought to hypothesize that the higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) documented after a routine double drug-eluting stent (DES) strategy (DDS) compared with a single DES strategy (SDS) with provisional stenting in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) of bifurcation lesions is driven by an increased rate of DES thrombosis. The results of currently available randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) were inconclusive in the choice between SDS and DDS. Meta-analyses have shown an increased risk of MI in the DDS group, without identifying the underlying mechanism(s). We performed a meta-analysis of 12 major (>100 patients) studies of bifurcation DES PCI: 5 RCTs and 7 nonrandomized observational studies, for a total of 6,961 patients. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary risk ratios (RRs). As a primary endpoint, we assessed the RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of definite DES thrombosis; death, MI, and target vessel revascularization (TVR) were evaluated as secondary endpoints. Compared with SDS, DDS had an increased risk of DES thrombosis (RR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.33 to 4.03) and MI (RR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.34 to 2.60). Mortality (RR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.85 to 1.65) and TVR (RR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.30) were similar. The RRs of MI and DES thrombosis were associated (p = 0.040). In PCI of coronary bifurcations, SDS should be the preferred approach, as DDS is associated with an increased risk of MI, likely driven by DES thrombosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Liposarcoma retroperitoneal gigante. Reporte de caso (Giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Reyna-Villasmil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas represent less than 1% of all human neoplasms. One-third of malignant tumors that arise in the retroperitoneum are sarcomas and liposarcoma is the most common retroperitoneal sarcoma and is known to grow to giant sizes, slow progress and few late symptoms. We report the case of a 40 year old woman with a giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma. A laparotomy was performed and a multilobulated tumor of 20 centimeters of diameter arising from retroperitoneum. The histological features were suggestive of pleomorphic liposarcoma weighing 8.5 Kilograms

  17. Late accretion to the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Ramon; Mojzsis, Stephen; Werner, Stephanie; Matsumura, Soko; Ida, Shigeru

    2017-10-01

    IntroductionIt is generally accepted that silicate-metal (`rocky') planet formation relies on coagulation from a mixture of sub-Mars sized planetary embryos and (smaller) planetesimals that dynamically emerge from the evolving circum-solar disc in the first few million years of our Solar System. Once the planets have, for the most part, assembled after a giant impact phase, they continue to be bombarded by a multitude of planetesimals left over from accretion. Here we place limits on the mass and evolution of these planetesimals based on constraints from the highly siderophile element (HSE) budget of the Moon. The terrestrial and lunar HSE budgets indicate that Earth’s and Moon’s additions through late accretion were 0.7 wt% and 0.02 wt% respectively. The disproportionate high accretion between the Earth and Moon could be explained by stochastic accretion of a few remaining Ceres-sized bodies that preferentially targeted the Earth.ResultsFrom a combination of N-body and Monte Carlo simulations of planet formation we conclude:1) matching the terrestrial to lunar HSE ratio requires that late accretion on Earth mostly consisted of a single lunar-size impactor striking the Earth before 4.45 Ga2) the flux of terrestrial impactors must have been low avoid wholesale melting of Earth's crust after 4.4 Ga[6], and to simultaneously match the number of observed lunar basins3) after the terrestrial planets have fully formed, the mass in remnant planetesimals was ~0.001 Earth mass, lower than most previous models suggest.4) Mars' HSE budget also requires a colossal impact with a Ceres-sized object before 4.43 Ga, whose visible remnant could be the hemispherical dichotomy.These conclusions lead to an Hadean eon which is more clement than assumed previously. In addition, our dynamically and geochemically self-consistent scenario requires that future N-body simulations of rocky planet formation either directly incorporate collisional grinding or rely on pebble accretion.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of giant kelp determine benthic community structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkema, Katie K; Reed, Daniel C; Schroeter, Stephen C

    2009-11-01

    Indirect facilitation can occur when a species positively affects another via the suppression of a shared competitor. In giant kelp forests, shade from the canopy of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, negatively affects understory algae, which compete with sessile invertebrates for space. This raises the possibility that giant kelp indirectly facilitates sessile invertebrates, via suppression of understory algae. We evaluated the effect of giant kelp on the relative abundance of algae and invertebrates by experimentally manipulating kelp abundance on large artificial reefs located off San Clemente, California, USA. The experiments revealed a negative effect of giant kelp on both light availability and understory algal abundance and a positive effect on the abundance of sessile invertebrates, which was consistent with an indirect effect mediated by shade from the kelp canopy. The importance of these processes to temporal variability in benthic community structure was evaluated at 16 locations on natural reefs off Santa Barbara, California, over an eight-year period. Interannual variability in the abundance of understory algae and in the abundance of sessile invertebrates was significantly and positively related to interannual variability in the abundance of giant kelp. Analysis of these observational data using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that the magnitude of the indirect effect of giant kelp on invertebrates was six times larger than the direct effect on invertebrates. Results suggest that the dynamics of this system are driven by variability in the abundance of a single structure-forming species that has indirect positive, as well as direct negative, effects on associated species.

  19. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-25

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Using a PCR approach, we amplified and sequenced the 18S rRNA gene from 322 giant pandas fecal samples (122 from 122 captive individuals and 200 collected from four habitats) in Sichuan province, China. The Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified via a BLAST comparison against published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank followed by phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that both captive and wild giant pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni, at a prevalence of 15.6% (19/122) and 0.5% (1/200) in captive and wild giant pandas, respectively. The present study revealed the existence of C. andersoni in both captive and wild giant panda fecal samples for the first time, and also provided useful fundamental data for further research on the molecular epidemiology and control of Cryptosporidium infection in giant pandas.

  20. Lunar tungsten isotopic evidence for the late veneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijer, Thomas S; Kleine, Thorsten; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Sprung, Peter

    2015-04-23

    According to the most widely accepted theory of lunar origin, a giant impact on the Earth led to the formation of the Moon, and also initiated the final stage of the formation of the Earth's core. Core formation should have removed the highly siderophile elements (HSE) from Earth's primitive mantle (that is, the bulk silicate Earth), yet HSE abundances are higher than expected. One explanation for this overabundance is that a 'late veneer' of primitive material was added to the bulk silicate Earth after the core formed. To test this hypothesis, tungsten isotopes are useful for two reasons: first, because the late veneer material had a different (182)W/(184)W ratio to that of the bulk silicate Earth, and second, proportionally more material was added to the Earth than to the Moon. Thus, if a late veneer did occur, the bulk silicate Earth and the Moon must have different (182)W/(184)W ratios. Moreover, the Moon-forming impact would also have created (182)W differences because the mantle and core material of the impactor with distinct (182)W/(184)W would have mixed with the proto-Earth during the giant impact. However the (182)W/(184)W of the Moon has not been determined precisely enough to identify signatures of a late veneer or the giant impact. Here, using more-precise measurement techniques, we show that the Moon exhibits a (182)W excess of 27 ± 4 parts per million over the present-day bulk silicate Earth. This excess is consistent with the expected (182)W difference resulting from a late veneer with a total mass and composition inferred from HSE systematics. Thus, our data independently show that HSE abundances in the bulk silicate Earth were established after the giant impact and core formation, as predicted by the late veneer hypothesis. But, unexpectedly, we find that before the late veneer, no (182)W anomaly existed between the bulk silicate Earth and the Moon, even though one should have arisen through the giant impact. The origin of the homogeneous (182

  1. A LITHIUM-RICH RED GIANT BELOW THE CLUMP IN THE KEPLER CLUSTER, NGC 6819

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Rich, Evan; Twarog, Bruce A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Deliyannis, Constantine P., E-mail: bjat@ku.edu, E-mail: evan66210@gmail.com, E-mail: btwarog@ku.edu, E-mail: con@astro.indiana.edu [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405-7105 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    WIYN/HYDRA spectra in the Li 6708 A region have been obtained for 332 probable members of the old open cluster, NGC 6819. Preliminary analysis shows a pattern of Li depletion from the top of the turnoff to the base of the giant branch. Starting 1 mag below the level of the clump, all brighter giants have A(Li) below 1.0, with most having upper limits below 0.5. Star W007017, located below the first-ascent red giant bump is Li-rich with A(Li) = 2.3. As a highly probable single-star astrometric and radial-velocity cluster member, its discrepant asteroseismic membership could be a by-product of the processes that triggered Li enhancement. Its color-magnitude diagram location is consistent with only one proposed enhanced mixing process among first-ascent red giants.

  2. Giant first-forbidden resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krmpotic, F.; Nakayama, K.; Sao Paulo Univ.; Pio Galeao, A.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    1983-01-01

    Recent experimental data on first-forbidden charge-exchange resonances are discussed in the framework of a schematic model. We also evaluate the screening of the weak coupling constants induced by both the giant resonances and the δ-isobar. It is shown that the last effect does not depend on the multipolarity of the one-particle moment. Due to the same reason, the fraction of the reaction strength pushed up into the δ-resonance region is always the same regardless of the quantum numbers carried by the excitation. Simple expressions are derived for the dependence of the excitation energies of the first-forbidden giant resonances on the mass number and isospin of the target. The model reproduces consistently both the Gamow-Teller and the first-forbidden resonances. (orig.)

  3. Spinal cord giant arteriovenous fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymard, A.; Reizine, D.; Marciano, S.; Cervigon, E.G.; Gelbert, F.; Merland, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Giant extramedullary arteriovenous fistulas fed by spinal arteries are a rare type of spinal cord arteriovenous malformation. Among 11 patient (mean age, 20 years) with spinal hemorrhage in childhood, progressive paraplegia, and myelographic and angiographic diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the precised extramedulary location and complications (thrombosis 1). Angiography showed dilated spinal arteries feeding giant, high flow fistulas with much venous drainage. Endovascular treatment was performed in 11 cases, with balloons in seven, particulate embolization in three, and polymerizing agents in one. Complete closures of the shunt with clinical improvement was achieved in seven cases and partial closure with partial clinical recovery in two; there was one case each of paraplegia due to involuntary venous blockage by the balloon, and fatal bulbomedullary stroke in particulate embolization of cervical location. Careful endovascular techniques represent a valuable treatment in this severe pathology

  4. Giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ramiz Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, A 23 year old married woman who was diagnosed as a case of giant condyloma acuminatum of vulva measuring about 15 x 8 x 3 cm, irregular surface with multiple projections, oval in shape, firm to hard in consistency, mildly tender, exophytic, cauliflower like growth involving the whole vulva (lower part of mons pubis, labia, vestibule, clitoris, around vaginal opening. Another multiple small lesions were present at perineal region but there was no inguinal lymphadenopathy. She underwent a combined electro cauterization and cryotherapy for small to moderate size multiple primary and recurrent warty lesions and wide surgical excision with fasciocutaneous advancement flaps procedure for a giant lesions in the vulva. Excisional biopsies were performed to detect potential malignancy but malignancy was not found histologically. The patient was advised to first follow-up 1 month after operation when multiple small warty lesions were developed and treated and the subsequent follow-ups for 3 months.

  5. Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Jefferson; Castro, Matthieu; Petit, Pascal; do Nascimento, José-Dias, Jr.

    2015-08-01

    It is know that lithium is element easily destroyed in stellar interior, the existence of lithium rich stars means a great challenge in stellar evolution. In this context our observations ravels the serendipitous discovery of an unusually high lithium abundance star. This is a K0III HD 150050, which has strong deepening on lithium line (6707.8 Å) this means lithium abundance of 2.81 0.2 dex, therefore this star belong a rare group called super Li-Rich stars. A possible source of the non-standard episodes required to produce Li-rich stars were identified in magneto-thermohaline mixing accounted by models of extra-mixing induced by magnetic buoyancy. However to better understand this is necessary more observational data. In last three decades several studies has showed that late type red giant stars presents a remarkable modifications in these outer atmosphere layers when they become late type star in HR diagram. These changes are founded through X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Chromospheric activity analyses, and then we can establish the called “Dividing lines”. We made spectropalarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS@CFHT to achieve two main objectives: analyze the influence of magnetic field in the Li-rich giant stars, and understand how works the magnetic field in late type giants and supergiants across the “dividing line”.

  6. Giant thermoelectric effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, D.; Dragoman, M.

    2007-11-01

    The paper predicts a giant thermoelectric coefficient in a nanostructure consisting of metallic electrodes periodically patterned over graphene, which is deposited on a silicon dioxide substrate. The Seebeck coefficient in this device attains 30mV/K, this value being among the largest reported ever. The calculations are based on a transfer matrix approach that takes a particular form for graphene-based devices. The results are important for future nanogenerators with applications in the area of sensors, energy harvesting, and scavenging.

  7. The activation pattern of macrophages in giant cell (temporal) arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Bernhard; Bergmann, Markus; Brück, Wolfgang; Probst-Cousin, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    To determine if the pattern of macrophage activation reflects differences in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system, specimens of 10 patients with giant cell arteritis and five with primary angiitis of the central nervous system were immunohistochemically studied and the expression of the macrophage activation markers 27E10, MRP14, MRP8 and 25F9 was determined in the vasculitic infiltrates. Thus, a partly different expression pattern of macrophage activation markers in giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system was observed. The group comparison revealed that giant cell arteritis cases had significantly higher numbers of acute activated MRP14-positive macrophages, whereas primary angiitis of the central nervous system is characterized by a tendency toward more MRP8-positive intermediate/late activated macrophages. Furthermore, in giant cell arteritis comparably fewer CD8-positive lymphocytes were observed. These observations suggest, that despite their histopathological similarities, giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system appear to represent either distinct entities within the spectrum of granulomatous vasculitides or different stages of similar disease processes. Their discrete clinical presentation is reflected by different activation patterns of macrophages, which may characterize giant cell arteritis as a more acute process and primary angiitis of the central nervous system as a more advanced inflammatory process. © 2013 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  8. Guiding the Giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    New ESO Survey Provides Targets for the VLT Giant astronomical telescopes like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) must be used efficiently. Observing time is expensive and there are long waiting lines of excellent research programmes. Thus the work at the telescope must be very well prepared and optimized as much as possible - mistakes should be avoided and no time lost! Astronomers working with the new 8-m class optical/infrared telescopes must base their observations on detailed lists of suitable target objects if they want to perform cutting-edge science. This is particularly true for research programmes that depend on observations of large samples of comparatively rare, distant objects. This type of work requires that extensive catalogues of such objects must be prepared in advance. One such major catalogue - that will serve as a very useful basis for future VLT observations - has just become available from the new ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). The Need for Sky Surveys Astronomers have since long recognized the need to carry out preparatory observations with other telescopes in order to "guide" large telescopes. To this end, surveys of smaller or larger parts of the sky have been performed by wide-field telescopes, paving the way for subsequent work at the limits of the largest available ground-based telescopes. For instance, a complete photographic survey of the sourthern sky (declination project is known as the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). It is supervised by a Working Group with members from the European astronomical community ( [1]) that has been responsible for defining the survey strategy and for monitoring the progress. It has been a major challenge to carry out such a public survey in the very short time available. The work by the EIS Team has involved the survey observations at the NTT, development of a pipeline to process the raw data, advanced data reduction, identification of large samples of astronomically "interesting" targets and, not least, the

  9. Giant Planets: Good Neighbors for Habitable Worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Eggl, Siegfried; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-04-01

    The presence of giant planets influences potentially habitable worlds in numerous ways. Massive celestial neighbors can facilitate the formation of planetary cores and modify the influx of asteroids and comets toward Earth analogs later on. Furthermore, giant planets can indirectly change the climate of terrestrial worlds by gravitationally altering their orbits. Investigating 147 well-characterized exoplanetary systems known to date that host a main-sequence star and a giant planet, we show that the presence of “giant neighbors” can reduce a terrestrial planet’s chances to remain habitable, even if both planets have stable orbits. In a small fraction of systems, however, giant planets slightly increase the extent of habitable zones provided that the terrestrial world has a high climate inertia. In providing constraints on where giant planets cease to affect the habitable zone size in a detrimental fashion, we identify prime targets in the search for habitable worlds.

  10. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, David Kamanda; Miyake, Sou; Cahill, Matt; Vinu, Manikandan; Hackmann, Timothy J; Blom, Jochen; Tietbohl, Matthew D; Berumen, Michael L; Stingl, Ulrich

    2017-09-05

    Herbivorous surgeonfishes are an ecologically successful group of reef fish that rely on marine algae as their principal food source. Here, we elucidated the significance of giant enteric symbionts colonizing these fishes regarding their roles in the digestive processes of hosts feeding predominantly on polysiphonous red algae and brown Turbinaria algae, which contain different polysaccharide constituents. Using metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and metatranscriptomic analyses, we provide evidence of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial herbivores. Over 90% of the enzymes for deconstructing algal polysaccharides emanate from members of a single bacterial lineage, " Candidatus Epulopiscium" and related giant bacteria. These symbionts lack cellulases but encode a distinctive and lineage-specific array of mostly intracellular carbohydrases concurrent with the unique and tractable dietary resources of their hosts. Importantly, enzymes initiating the breakdown of the abundant and complex algal polysaccharides also originate from these symbionts. These are also highly transcribed and peak according to the diel lifestyle of their host, further supporting their importance and host-symbiont cospeciation. Because of their distinctive genomic blueprint, we propose the classification of these giant bacteria into three candidate genera. Collectively, our findings show that the acquisition of metabolically distinct " Epulopiscium " symbionts in hosts feeding on compositionally varied algal diets is a key niche-partitioning driver in the nutritional ecology of herbivorous surgeonfishes.

  11. Solitary ulcerated congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yuen Ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-month-old female patient with a giant ulcerated nodule over the back since birth was diagnosed as congenital giant juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG based on clinical and histopathological examination. Congenital giant JXG with ulceration at birth is a rare presentation of JXG and commonly misdiagnosed. This case emphasizes the importance of being aware of the myriad presentations of JXG in order to make a correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations or treatment.

  12. Rare giant frontal sinus osteoma mimicking fibrous dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, R P; Markey, A; Rutherford, S; Bhalla, R K

    2015-03-01

    To present the first report of a giant frontal sinus osteoma treated by excision and single-stage reconstruction with custom-made titanium cranioplasty and left orbital roof prostheses. A 31-year-old man with a history of chronic frontal sinusitis presented with a deforming, painless, midline forehead swelling of 11 years' duration, which had been treated unsuccessfully in Nigeria. Differential diagnosis included both benign and malignant bony tumours. Computerised tomography revealed a giant bony frontal sinus tumour extending beyond the sinus roof and breaching the left orbit, consistent with fibrous dysplasia. Given the extent of the tumour, open craniectomy was performed for surgical extirpation. Histological analysis identified multiple osteomas. This surgical approach achieved excellent cosmesis, with no evidence of recurrence at 12-month follow up. Forehead swelling may pose diagnostic and management dilemmas for the ENT surgeon; however, effective management is facilitated by a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Ulcerative giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp: a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep Chowdhry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Trichoepithelioma is a trichogenic tumor which arises from the inferior segment of hair follicle epithelium as hamartoma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST has been defined as a solitary trichoepithelioma with a diameter greater than 2 cm. A 49-year-old female presented with a slow growing skin coloured swelling on the scalp of 8 years duration with recent history of ulceration and occasional bleeding. The local examination revealed a single well defined nodular swelling which was irregular in shape measuring approximately 2 × 2.5 cm. Histopathology from biopsy specimen revealed dark basaloid cells with scanty cytoplasm and darkly stained nucleus arranged in nests with horn cysts lacking high-grade atypia and mitosis, which was consistent with features of trichoepithelioma. Giant solitary trichoepithelioma of scalp is itself a rare entity and the present case is being reported with the additional component of ulceration in the lesion.

  14. A natural resource condition assessment for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks: Appendix 11a: giant sequoias

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Robert A.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Meyer, Marc; Hanna, Steve; Tadashi, Moody; Caprio, Anthony C.; Battles, John J.

    2013-01-01

    For natural resource managers in the southern Sierra Nevada, giant sequoia requires very little introduction. It receives great attention as an icon of western forests and as a common namesake with the areas where it occurs. While it is a single component of a very complex system, its attention in this assessment and in general is well deserved. Giant sequoia is one of the few "destination species" that attracts a wide swath of the public by nature of it simply being present. It draws people, who otherwise may not travel, to a natural environment. The result is an expansion of the public’s sense of natural resource stewardship. Because park managers could not achieve their mission without public support, this fostering role of giant sequoia is critical for park natural resources and is important for natural resources in general. Despite its social relevance and physical size, we re-emphasize here that the giant sequoia resource is a relatively small component of the ecosystems of the southern Sierra Nevada. As is the case with all of the resources assessed in the NRCA, we focus on giant sequoia with the understanding that other resources will be considered simultaneously when evaluating management decisions that impact giant sequoia. While we attempt to explicitly address the interaction of giant sequoia with other resources and stressors, we also realize that ultimately managers will integrate much more information than is presented here when making decisions that influence giant sequoia. The autecology and management issues surrounding giant sequoia have been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Harvey et al. 1980, Aune 1994, Stephenson 1996). Stephenson (1996), in particular, should be reviewed when considering any management decisions that potentially impact giant sequoia. For those who may not be familiar with giant sequoia ecology, a summary of basic information is provided in a table below. In some parts of this assessment, we reproduce text from Stephenson

  15. Giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    Giant resonances built on an excited state of the nucleus at a finite temperature T are studied. The following questions are investigated: how long such collective effects occur in a nucleus when T increases. How the properties of the giant resonances vary when the temperature increases. How the study of giant resonances in hot nuclei can give information on the structure of the nucleus in a highly excited state. The special case of the giant dipole resonance is studied. Some of the experimental results are reviewed and in their theoretical interpretation is discussed. (K.A.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., the oldest member of the giant panda clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Abella

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic position of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca (Carnivora: Ursidae: Ailuropodinae, has been one of the most hotly debated topics by mammalian biologists and paleontologists during the last century. Based on molecular data, it is currently recognized as a true ursid, sister-taxon of the remaining extant bears, from which it would have diverged by the Early Miocene. However, from a paleobiogeographic and chronological perspective, the origin of the giant panda lineage has remained elusive due to the scarcity of the available Miocene fossil record. Until recently, the genus Ailurarctos from the Late Miocene of China (ca. 8-7 mya was recognized as the oldest undoubted member of the Ailuropodinae, suggesting that the panda lineage might have originated from an Ursavus ancestor. The role of the purported ailuropodine Agriarctos, from the Miocene of Europe, in the origins of this clade has been generally dismissed due to the paucity of the available material. Here, we describe a new ailuropodine genus, Kretzoiarctos gen. nov., based on remains from two Middle Miocene (ca. 12-11 Ma Spanish localities. A cladistic analysis of fossil and extant members of the Ursoidea confirms the inclusion of the new genus into the Ailuropodinae. Moreover, Kretzoiarctos precedes in time the previously-known, Late Miocene members of the giant panda clade from Eurasia (Agriarctos and Ailurarctos. The former can be therefore considered the oldest recorded member of the giant panda lineage, which has significant implications for understanding the origins of this clade from a paleobiogeographic viewpoint.

  17. HST images of dark giants as dark matter: Part.I The black cocoon stars of Carina Nebula region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celis, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    In an evolutionary scenario, the existence of isolated dark giant objects known as Post M latest spectral type stars (1) (or black cocoon stars) are in the last stage of their life and, as extremely advanced old age objects, they cease to be stars. The photographic images of Carina nebula taken by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have been used to detect the post M-Iatest stars as dark silhouettes. The luminosity attenuation equation of M late stars (1), A = αS 3 , points out the baryonic dark matter envelopes the oldest red giants that produce earlier dark giants. This equation says that when the red giant star finishes to produce baryonic dark matter, the central star is extinguishing and transforms into dark giants and dusty globules that disperse cool gaseous matter into the interstellar space. These old dark objects have a size from 400 to 600 astronomical units (AU). The advanced dark giants, the dusty dark giants, might not contain a star within the molecular cloud that envelops it. In this case, the dark giants might produce the smaller and less massive dark globules of the Thackeray's globules type (less than 4 solar masses) where, Reupurth et al. (2) found that these globules are now in an advanced stage of disintegration and they found no evidence of star formation in any of these objects. The high-resolution of the Hubble images allows: The observation of isolated dark giants, dusty globules with central dark giants, the observation of partial eclipses or transiting of giant stars and the estimation of linear and angular diameters (ionised cocoons) of giant stellar objects. The dark giants of the image are identified them as objects with observed angular diameter. The large quantity of dark giants in a small sector of the sky suggests that they are densely populated (population stars III) and ubiquitous in the galactic disc. They can be located in isolated form or associated in dense Conglomerations of dark giants. At the same time, conglomerates of

  18. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David I.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Santosh, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is quite evident that it is not anomalous metal transport, nor unique depositional conditions, nor any single factor at the deposit scale, that dictates whether a mineral deposit becomes a giant or not. A hierarchical approach thus is required to progressively examine controlling parameters at successively decreasing scales in the total mineral system to understand the location of giant gold deposits in non-arc environments. For giant orogenic, intrusion-related gold systems (IRGS) and Carlin-type gold deposits and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, there are common factors among all of these at the lithospheric to crustal scale. All are sited in giant gold provinces controlled by complex fundamental fault or shear zones that follow craton margins or, in the case of most Phanerozoic orogenic giants, define the primary suture zones between tectonic terranes. Giant provinces of IRGS, IOCG, and Carlin-type deposits require melting of metasomatized lithosphere beneath craton margins with ascent of hybrid lamprophyric to granitic magmas and associated heat flux to generate the giant province. The IRGS and IOCG deposits require direct exsolution of volatile-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, whereas the association of such melts with Carlin-type ores is more indirect and enigmatic. Giant orogenic gold provinces show no direct relationship to such magmatism, forming from metamorphic fluids, but show an indirect relationship to lamprophyres that reflect the mantle connectivity of controlling first-order structures.

  19. Excitation and photon decay of giant multipole resonances - the role and future of medium-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.; Horen, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented

  20. WATER/ICY SUPER-EARTHS: GIANT IMPACTS AND MAXIMUM WATER CONTENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Hernquist, Lars; Stewart, Sarah T.

    2010-01-01

    Water-rich super-Earth exoplanets are expected to be common. We explore the effect of late giant impacts on the final bulk abundance of water in such planets. We present the results from smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of impacts between differentiated water(ice)-rock planets with masses between 0.5 and 5 M + and projectile to target mass ratios from 1:1 to 1:4. We find that giant impacts between bodies of similar composition never decrease the bulk density of the target planet. If the commonly assumed maximum water fraction of 75 wt% for bodies forming beyond the snow line is correct, giant impacts between similar composition bodies cannot serve as a mechanism for increasing the water fraction. Target planets either accrete materials in the same proportion, leaving the water fraction unchanged, or lose material from the water mantle, decreasing the water fraction. The criteria for catastrophic disruption of water-rock planets are similar to those found in previous work on super-Earths of terrestrial composition. Changes in bulk composition for giant impacts onto differentiated bodies of any composition (water rock or rock iron) are described by the same equations. These general laws can be incorporated into future N-body calculations of planet formation to track changes in composition from giant impacts.

  1. Multinucleated Giant Cancer Cells Produced in Response to Ionizing Radiation Retain Viability and Replicate Their Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmik Mirzayans

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Loss of wild-type p53 function is widely accepted to be permissive for the development of multinucleated giant cells. However, whether therapy-induced multinucleation is associated with cancer cell death or survival remains controversial. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure of p53-deficient or p21WAF1 (p21-deficient solid tumor-derived cell lines to ionizing radiation (between 2 and 8 Gy results in the development of multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent to the culture dish for long times post-irradiation. Somewhat surprisingly, single-cell observations revealed that virtually all multinucleated giant cells that remain adherent for the duration of the experiments (up to three weeks post-irradiation retain viability and metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT, and the majority (>60% exhibit DNA synthesis. We further report that treatment of multinucleated giant cells with pharmacological activators of apoptosis (e.g., sodium salicylate triggers their demise. Our observations reinforce the notion that radiation-induced multinucleation may reflect a survival mechanism for p53/p21-deficient cancer cells. With respect to evaluating radiosensitivity, our observations underscore the importance of single-cell experimental approaches (e.g., single-cell MTT as the creation of viable multinucleated giant cells complicates the interpretation of the experimental data obtained by commonly-used multi-well plate colorimetric assays.

  2. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  3. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  4. Giant Cell Tumor of the Infratemporal Fossa

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Kevin; Singh, Anand; Kuriakose, M. Abraham; Loree, Thom R.; Harris, Kenneth; Rubenfeld, Ari; Goodloe, Samuel; Hicks, Wesley L.

    2000-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are an uncommon neoplasm; most are found in the long bones, formed by endochondral ossification. This article presents a case of giant cell tumor of the infratemporal fossa, which by radiographic and clinical examination appears to have originated in the squamous portion of the temporal bone.

  5. Giant Cell Tumor of the Infratemporal Fossa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Kevin; Singh, Anand; Kuriakose, M. Abraham; Loree, Thom R.; Harris, Kenneth; Rubenfeld, Ari; Goodloe, Samuel; Hicks, Wesley L.

    2000-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are an uncommon neoplasm; most are found in the long bones, formed by endochondral ossification. This article presents a case of giant cell tumor of the infratemporal fossa, which by radiographic and clinical examination appears to have originated in the squamous portion of the temporal bone. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:17171141

  6. Giant bladder diverticulum in a boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ozcakir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the bladder diverticula in children are seen commonly which is association with infravesical obstruction or neurogenic bladder function, the case of giant congenital bladder diverticula are rare. In this paper, an 11 years old boy with giant bladder diverticula presenting urinary infections is evaluated in terms of diagnosis and management by current literature.

  7. Nutritional evaluation of the giant grassropper (Zonocerus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological value of giant grasshopper protein (Zonocerus variegatus) was evaluated by comparing the weight gained, food efficiency ratio (FER), protein efficiency ratio (PER) of rats fed standard laboratory chow with that of rats fed giant grasshopper, Soyabean(Glycine max) and crayfish. The effect of high fibre content ...

  8. Giant lower oesophageal ulcer Bushman baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-26

    Feb 26, 1983 ... Giant lower oesophageal ulcer. Bushman baby. A case report. J. J. HEYDENRYCH, A. D. KEET. •. ID a. Summary. The case of a giant, penetrating lower oesophageal ulcer in a 14-month-old Bushman baby is reported. ... crying precluded a thorough systematic examination. Food was immediately rejected.

  9. Giant geode at the olecranon in the rheumatoid elbow--two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Natsuko; Abe, Shuji; Saegusa, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Imura, Shigeaki; Nishibayashi, Yasuro; Yoshiya, Sinichi

    2004-08-01

    A single giant geode at the olecranon in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is relatively rare, and may cause diagnostic difficulties or cause a spontaneous pathological fracture owing to weakness of the cortical bone associated with osteoporosis. We report two cases of patients presenting with single giant geodes at the olecranon. In one case we performed an open reduction and internal fixation with bone grafting for a pathological fracture due to the geode. In the other case we performed curettage of the geode with bone grafting to prevent a pathological fracture, and a synovectomy of the elbow. We suggest that the presence of a giant geode at the olecranon may necessitate surgical intervention to prevent the occurrence of a spontaneous pathological fracture.

  10. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  11. Columnar Liquid Crystals from a Giant Macrocycle Mesogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Shin-Ichiro; Kato, Masahiro; Soumiya, Shinya; Nakaya, Masato; Onoe, Jun; Tanaka, Kentaro

    2018-01-02

    Columnar liquid crystals composed of a giant macrocyclic mesogen were prepared. The giant macrocyclic mesogen has a square hollow with a 2.5 nm diagonal, which was bounded by diindolo[3,2-b:2',3'-h]carbazole (diindolocarbazole) moieties as the edges and bis(salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine (salphen) moieties as the corners. The shape and size of the macrocycle were directly observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Each side of the bright square in the STM image corresponds to a diindolocarbazole moiety, and the length of the sides was consistent with the result of the single crystal analysis of diindolocarbazole. Finally, we successfully obtained a giant macrocycle with long and branched side chains, which exhibited a rectangular columnar LC phase over a wide temperature range. To the best of our knowledge, it contained the largest discrete inner space of any thermotropic columnar liquid crystal composed of macrocyclic mesogens. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Crystal engineering of giant molecules based on perylene diimide conjugated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane nano-atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He

    . In such "bottom-up" approach, the precise fabrication of 2 nm 100 nm nanostructures, is of great research interest. In this thesis, crystal engineering of giant molecules based on PDI conjugated POSS Nano-Atom (PDI-BPOSS) nano-atoms via self-assembly is performed and studied. Herein, three different giant molecules were synthesized: shape amphiphile, m-phenyl-(PDI-BPOSS)2 (S1) and tetrahedron, R-(PDI-BPOSS)4 (S2) and S-(PDI-BPOSS)4 (S3). Single crystals were grown for S1 and S2, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed, and crystal structures of these samples were determined, while hexagonal superlattice without crystal order can be observed for S3 to exhibit crystal-like morphology.

  13. Electromagnetic decay of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beene, J.R.; Bertrand, F.E.; Halbert, M.L.; Auble, R.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Horen, D.J.; Robinson, R.L.; Sayer, R.O.; Sjoreen, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    Coincidence experiments were done to investigate the photon and neutron emission from the giant resonance regions of 208 Pb and 90 Zr using the ORNL Spin Spectrometer, a 72-segment NaI detector system. We have determined the total gamma-decay probability, the ground-state gamma branching ratio, and the branching ratios to a number of low-lying states as a function of excitation energy in 208 Pb to approx.15 MeV. Similar data were also obtained on 90 Zr. The total yield of ground-state E2 gamma radiation in 208 Pb and the comparative absence of such radiation in 90 Zr can only be understood if decay of compound (damped) states is considered. Other observations in 208 Pb include the absence of a significant branch from the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) to the 3 - state at 2.6 MeV, a strong branch to a 3 - state at 4.97 MeV from the same region, and transitions to various 1 - states between 5 to 7 MeV from the E* approx. 14 MeV region (EO resonance)

  14. The rs5934505 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with low testosterone and late-onset hypogonadism, but the rs10822184 SNP is associated with overweight and obesity in a Chinese Han population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-P; Nie, L-L; Li, H-G; Liu, T-H; Fang, F; Zhao, K; Yang, R-F; Ma, X-L; Kong, X-B; Zhang, H-P; Guan, H-T; Xia, W; Hong, W-X; Duan, S; Zeng, X-C; Shang, X-J; Zhou, Y-Z; Gu, Y-Q; Wu, W-X; Xiong, C-L

    2016-01-01

    Low testosterone is associated with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) and obesity. Recently, studies have shown that four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs12150660, rs727428, rs5934505, and rs10822184, are associated with testosterone levels in populations of European descent. Therefore, we investigated whether the SNP loci are related to low testosterone, LOH, or obesity in a Chinese Han population. Ruling out co-morbidities, DNA was prepared from 409 men (aged 40-65 years) with low serum testosterone (defined as total testosterone testosterone and calculated free testosterone (CFT) levels (p = 0.045 and p = 0.021). rs5934505 (C>T) was associated with an increased risk of low total testosterone, low CFT, and LOH and adjusted for other factors, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.01 (1.34-3.01), 2.14 (1.42-3.20), and 1.64 (1.04-2.58). rs10822184 was significantly correlated with weight and BMI (p = 0.035 and p = 0.027). rs10822184 (T>C) was associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. We adjusted for other factors, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.94 (1.36-2.78) and 1.56 (1.00-2.43). In summary, our study provided convincing evidence that rs5934505 (C>T) was associated with the risk of low testosterone and LOH in Chinese populations. We were the first to find that rs10822184 (T>C) was significantly correlated with the risk of overweight and obesity in Chinese populations. However, further large and functional studies are warranted to confirm our findings. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Origin and Formation of Giant Mounds in Lake Ladoga (Russia) from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Lebas, E.; Krastel, S.; Averes, T.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.; Fedorov, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of the German-Russian project `PLOT - Paleolimnological Transect' (for an overview of the project see Gromig et al., this meeting), a pilot seismic survey was carried out in Lake Ladoga (Russia) in late summer 2013. In total, 1500 km of seismic reflection profiles have been acquired using a mini-GI gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer. The high-resolution of the seismic data allows us to document in detail the sedimentary processes that occurred in the lake during the preglacial and postglacial history. The seismic stratigraphic architecture of the lake shows, from top to bottom, acoustically well-stratified Holocene muds overlaying rather transparent postglacial varves. These sediment successions are usually bordered by a hard reflector underneath, which may represent coarse-grained sediments or a till. The nature of the material composing the uppermost units have been tied to coring information from core Co1309, which was retrieved during the same survey. Of particular interest, are the single to composite, giant (kilometer-scale) mounds directly overlying the hard reflector. Internal architecture of the mounds reveals a complex formation history, with mound types showing significant structural deformation of different degrees; and other mound types showing a central deformation area, which strongly contrasts with the titled reflections or undisturbed stratification visible at the edges. The deepest seismic unit underlying the mounds is characterized by well-bedded, tilted reflectors in the southeastern part of the lake, while clear synclines are identified in the northwestern part of the lake. An erosional truncation separates the deepest unit from the overlying ones. In the work presented here, we focus on the understanding of the origin and the formation of the giant mounds with respect to the glacial history of Lake Ladoga.

  16. Formation of Ice Giant Satellites During Thommes Model Mirgration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Christopher; Spiegelberg, Josephine

    2018-01-01

    Inconsistencies between ice giant planet characteristics and classic planet formation theories have led to a re-evaluation of the formation of the outer Solar system. Thommes model migration delivers proto-Uranus and Neptune from orbits interior to Saturn to their current locations. The Thommes model has also been able to reproduce the large Galilean and Saturnian moons via interactions between the proto-ice giants and the gas giant moon disks.As part of a series of investigations examining the effects of Thommes model migration on the formation of moons, N-body simulations of the formation of the Uranian and Neptunian satellite systems were performed. Previous research has yielded conflicting results as to whether satellite systems are stable during planetary migration. Some studies, such as Beaugé (2002) concluded that the system was not stable over the proposed duration of migration. Conversely, Fuse and Neville (2011) and Yokoyama et al. (2011) found that moons were retained, though the nature of the resulting system was heavily influenced by interactions with planetesimals and other large objects. The results of the current study indicate that in situ simulations of the Uranus and Neptune systems can produce stable moons. Whether with current orbital parameters or located at pre-migration, inner Solar system semi-major axes, the simulations end with 5.8 ± 0.15 or 5.9 ± 0.7 regular satellites around Uranus and Neptune, respectively. Preliminary simulations of a proto-moon disk around a single planet migrating via the Thommes model have failed to retain moons. Furthermore, simulations of ejection of the current Uranian satellite system retained at most one moon. Thus, for the Thommes model to be valid, it is likely that moon formation did not begin until after migration ended. Future work will examine the formation of gas and ice giant moons through other migration theories, such as the Nice model (Tsiganis et al. 2006).

  17. Volume changes of extremely large and giant intracranial aneurysms after treatment with flow diverter stents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Angelo; Byrne, James V. [ohn Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford Neurovascular and Neuroradiology Research Unit, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Rane, Neil; Kueker, Wilhelm; Cellerini, Martino; Corkill, Rufus [John Radcliffe Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    This study assessed volume changes of unruptured large and giant aneurysms (greatest diameter >20 mm) after treatment with flow diverter (FD) stents. Clinical audit of the cases treated in a single institution, over a 5-year period. Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the hospital records. Aneurysm volumes were measured by manual outlining at sequential slices using computerised tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography data. The audit included eight patients (seven females) with eight aneurysms. Four aneurysms involved the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA), three the supraclinoid ICA and one the basilar artery. Seven patients presented with signs and symptoms of mass effect and one with seizures. All but one aneurysm was treated with a single FD stent; six aneurysms were also coiled (either before or simultaneously with FD placement). Minimum follow-up time was 6 months (mean 20 months). At follow-up, three aneurysms decreased in size, three were unchanged and two increased. Both aneurysms that increased in size showed persistent endosaccular flow at follow-up MR; in one case, failure was attributed to suboptimal position of the stent; in the other case, it was attributed to persistence of a side branch originating from the aneurysm (similar to the endoleak phenomenon of aortic aneurysms). At follow-up, five aneurysms were completely occluded; none of these increased in volume. Complete occlusion of the aneurysms leads, in most cases, to its shrinkage. In cases of late aneurysm growth or regrowth, consideration should be given to possible endoleak as the cause. (orig.)

  18. On the observational characteristics of lithium-enhanced giant stars in comparison with normal red giants†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Tajitsu, Akito

    2017-08-01

    While lithium is generally deficient in the atmosphere of evolved giant stars because of the efficient mixing-induced dilution, a small fraction of red giants show unusually strong Li lines indicative of conspicuous abundance excess. With the aim of shedding light on the origin of these peculiar stars, we carried out a spectroscopic study on the observational characteristics of 20 selected bright giants already known to be Li-rich from past studies, in comparison with the reference sample of a large number of normal late G-early K giants. Special attention was paid to clarifying any difference between the two samples from a comprehensive point of view (i.e., with respect to stellar parameters, rotation, activity, kinematic properties, 6Li/7Li ratio, and the abundances of Li, Be, C, O, Na, S, and Zn). Our sample stars are roughly divided into a “bump/clump group” and a “luminous group” according to their positions on the HR diagram. Regarding the former group [1.5 ≲ log (L/L⊙) ≲ 2 and M ∼ 1.5-3 M⊙], Li-enriched giants and normal giants appear practically similar in almost all respects except for Li, suggesting that surface Li enhancement in this group may be a transient episode which normal giants undergo at certain evolutionary stages in their lifetime. Meanwhile, those Li-rich giants belonging to the latter group [log (L/L⊙) ∼ 3 and M ∼ 3-5 M⊙] appear more anomalous in the sense that they tend to show higher rotation as well as higher activity, and that their elemental abundances (especially those derived from high-excitation lines) are apt to show apparent overabundances, though this might be due to a spurious effect reflecting the difficulty of abundance derivation in stars of higher rotation and activity. Our analysis confirmed considerable Be deficiency as well as absence of 6Li as the general characteristics of Li-rich giants under study, which implies that engulfment of planets is rather unlikely for the origin of Li-enrichment.

  19. Giant crystals inside mitochondria of equine chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, S; Rentenberger, C; Thiel, K; Schädl, B; Grunwald, I; Ponomarev, I; Marlovits, St; Meyer, Ch; Barnewitz, D

    2017-05-01

    The present study reports for the first time the presence of giant crystals in mitochondria of equine chondrocytes. These structures show dark contrast in TEM images as well as a granular substructure of regularly aligned 1-2 nm small units. Different zone axes of the crystalline structure were analysed by means of Fourier transformation of lattice-resolution TEM images proving the crystalline nature of the structure. Elemental analysis reveals a high content of nitrogen referring to protein. The outer shape of the crystals is geometrical with an up to hexagonal profile in cross sections. It is elongated, spanning a length of several micrometres through the whole cell. In some chondrocytes, several crystals were found, sometimes combined in a single mitochondrion. Crystals were preferentially aligned along the long axis of the cells, thus appearing in the same orientation as the chondrocytes in the tissue. Although no similar structures have been found in the cartilage of any other species investigated, they have been found in cartilage repair tissue formed within a mechanically stimulated equine chondrocyte construct. Crystals were mainly located in superficial regions of cartilage, especially in joint regions of well-developed superficial layers, more often in yearlings than in adult horses. These results indicate that intramitochondrial crystals are related to the high mechanical stress in the horse joint and potentially also to the increased metabolic activity of immature individuals.

  20. Giant deep-sea protist produces bilaterian-like traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Mikhail V; Frank, Tamara M; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A; Johnsen, Sönke

    2008-12-09

    One of the strongest paleontological arguments in favor of the origin of bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) prior to their obvious and explosive appearance in the fossil record in the early Cambrian, 542 million years ago, is the occurrence of trace fossils shaped like elongated sinuous grooves or furrows in the Precambrian. Being restricted to the seafloor surface, these traces are relatively rare and of limited diversity, and they do not show any evidence of the use of hard appendages. They are commonly attributed to the activity of the early nonskeletonized bilaterians or, alternatively, large cnidarians such as sea anemones or sea pens. Here we describe macroscopic groove-like traces produced by a living giant protist and show that these traces bear a remarkable resemblance to the Precambrian trace fossils, including those as old as 1.8 billion years. This is the first evidence that organisms other than multicellular animals can produce such traces, and it prompts re-evaluation of the significance of Precambrian trace fossils as evidence of the early diversification of Bilateria. Our observations also render indirect support to the highly controversial interpretation of the enigmatic Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian as giant protists.

  1. Giant urethral stone in a patient using clean intermittant catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Gedik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urethral stone is a rare entity in clinical practice. Primary urethral stone happening directly in urethra is even rare, and it usually occurs as a result frequent urinary infection, urethral stricture and trauma.While the application of clear intermittant catheterization reliably protects bladder function, in long term use, it may cause various complications.In this case, we discussed giant urethral stone in a patient who has been acting clean intermittent catheterization regularly and without problem fort he last five years and who has had total loss of sensation in this lower extremity as a result of falling from height. Considering that the urethral calibration, in the patient acting clean intermittent catheterization is interesting, the giant urethra stone as much as examined such a case has not been presented in literature.In the patient acting clean intermittent catheterization and having loss of urethral sensation and with neurogenic bladder, we call attention to urethral pathologies the symptoms of which were seeing late

  2. THE PROPERTIES OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN GIANT PLANET ENVELOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubiran, François; Militzer, Burkhard [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The core-accretion model for giant planet formation suggests a two-layer picture for the initial structure of Jovian planets, with heavy elements in a dense core and a thick H–He envelope. Late planetesimal accretion and core erosion could potentially enrich the H–He envelope in heavy elements, which is supported by the threefold solar metallicity that was measured in Jupiter’s atmosphere by the Galileo entry probe. In order to reproduce the observed gravitational moments of Jupiter and Saturn, models for their interiors include heavy elements, Z , in various proportions. However, their effect on the equation of state of the hydrogen–helium mixtures has not been investigated beyond the ideal mixing approximation. In this article, we report results from ab initio simulations of fully interacting H–He– Z mixtures in order to characterize their equation of state and to analyze possible consequences for the interior structure and evolution of giant planets. Considering C, N, O, Si, Fe, MgO, and SiO{sub 2}, we show that the behavior of heavy elements in H–He mixtures may still be represented by an ideal mixture if the effective volumes and internal energies are chosen appropriately. In the case of oxygen, we also compute the effect on the entropy. We find the resulting changes in the temperature–pressure profile to be small. A homogeneous distribution of 2% oxygen by mass changes the temperature in Jupiter’s interior by only 80 K.

  3. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A

    2006-09-01

    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  4. Analysis of the static yield stress for giant electrorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngwook P.; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Seo, Yongsok

    2017-08-01

    Cheng et al. (2010)'s experimental results for the static yield stress of giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric field strengths were reanalyzed by applying Seo's scaling function which could include both the polarization and the conductivity models. The Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions behavior after if a proper normalization of the yield stress data was taken which collapse them onto a single curve. The model predictions were also contrasted with recently proposed Choi et al.'s scaling function to rouse the attention for a proper consideration of the GER fluid mechanisms.

  5. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Cosentino; Jae-Won Lee; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a perennial, rhizomatous lignocellulosic grass with dilute oxalic acid. The effects of temperature (170-190 ºC), acid loading (2-10% w/w) and reaction time (15-40 min) were handled as a single...

  6. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to motivate a program of research on late globalization, a program that could eventually lead to one or more significant theories of late globalization. The paper explores the phenomenon of late globalization as well as the idea of “late” by drawing on sparse...

  7. The evolution of giant flightless birds and novel phylogenetic relationships for extinct fowl (Aves, Galloanseres)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Trevor H.; Degrange, Federico J.; Handley, Warren D.; Lee, Michael S. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The extinct dromornithids, gastornithids and phorusrhacids are among the most spectacular birds to have ever lived, with some giants exceeding 500 kg. The affinities and evolution of these and other related extinct birds remain contentious, with previous phylogenetic analyses being affected by widespread convergence and limited taxon sampling. We address these problems using both parsimony and tip-dated Bayesian approaches on an expansive taxon set that includes all key extinct flightless and flighted (e.g. Vegavis and lithornithids) forms, an extensive array of extant fowl (Galloanseres), representative Neoaves and palaeognaths. The Paleogene volant Lithornithidae are recovered as stem palaeognaths in the Bayesian analyses. The Galloanseres comprise four clades inferred to have diverged in the Late Cretaceous on Gondwana. In addition to Anseriformes and Galliformes, we recognize a robust new clade (Gastornithiformes) for the giant flightless Dromornithidae (Australia) and Gastornithidae (Eurasia, North America). This clade exhibits parallels to ratite palaeognaths in that flight presumably was lost and giant size attained multiple times. A fourth clade is represented by the Cretaceous Vegavis (Antarctica), which was strongly excluded from Anseriformes; thus, a crucial molecular calibration point needs to be reconsidered. The presbyornithids Wilaru (Australia) and Presbyornis (Northern Hemisphere) are robustly found to be the sister group to Anatoidea (Anseranatidae + Anatidae), a relatively more basal position than hitherto recognized. South America's largest bird, Brontornis, is not a galloansere, but a member of Neoaves related to Cariamiformes; therefore, giant Galloanseres remain unknown from this continent. Trait analyses showed that while gigantism and flightlessness evolved repeatedly in groups, diet is constrained by phylogeny: all giant Galloanseres and palaeognaths are herbivores or mainly herbivorous, and giant neoavians are zoophagous or omnivorous.

  8. Identification of the giant impactor Theia in lunar rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Pack, Andreas; Friedrichs, Bjarne; Bischoff, Addi

    2014-06-06

    The Moon was probably formed by a catastrophic collision of the proto-Earth with a planetesimal named Theia. Most numerical models of this collision imply a higher portion of Theia in the Moon than in Earth. Because of the isotope heterogeneity among solar system bodies, the isotopic composition of Earth and the Moon should thus be distinct. So far, however, all attempts to identify the isotopic component of Theia in lunar rocks have failed. Our triple oxygen isotope data reveal a 12 ± 3 parts per million difference in Δ(17)O between Earth and the Moon, which supports the giant impact hypothesis of Moon formation. We also show that enstatite chondrites and Earth have different Δ(17)O values, and we speculate on an enstatite chondrite-like composition of Theia. The observed small compositional difference could alternatively be explained by a carbonaceous chondrite-dominated late veneer. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Giant Leiomyoma of the Oesophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dhamodaran; Kannan, Sujatha; Samuel, Vasundaran

    2017-01-01

    Leiomyomas are rare benign tumours of the oesophagus that remain silent in more than 50% of the cases. Giant leiomyomas measuring more than 5 cm are very rare. A 47-year-old female presented with chest pain, cough and dysphagia for two months. Imaging studies were indicative of a 12.1x11.9 cm mass lesion in the distal oesophagus, CT guided biopsy confirmed leiomyoma. The patient being taken up for surgery was found to have a 20x19x17 cm irregular lobulated and encapsulated mass lesion arising from distal oesophagus encapsulating submucosally. En bloc resection of the tumour along with distal oesophagus with a clearance of 4 cm above and below the oesophagogastric junction was done followed by gastro-oesophageal anastomosis. Histopathologically, leiomyoma was confirmed. The patient had a smooth postoperative recovery. PMID:28571208

  10. Giant trichobezoar mimicking gastric tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.; Soomro, A.G.; Jarwar, M.; Memon, A.S.; Siddiqui, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of giant gastric trichobezoar retrieved through a long gastrotomy in a 40 years old married women from rural Sindh with unreported psychological disturbance. Trichobezoar almost exclusively occur in females with an underlying psychiatric disorder. It has an insidious development of symptoms which accounts for its delayed presentation and large size at the time of diagnosis. They are associated with trichophagia (habit of compulsive hair eating) and are usually diagnosed on CT Scans or upper GI Endoscopy. They can give rise to complications like gastro-duodenal ulceration, haemorrhage, perforation, peritonitis or obstruction with a high rate of mortality. The treatment is endoscopic, laparoscopic or surgical removal and usually followed by psychiatric opinion. (author)

  11. Multipole giant resonances in highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Keding; Cai Yanhuang

    1989-01-01

    The isoscalar giant surface resonance and giant dipole resonance in highly excited nuclei are discussed. Excitation energies of the giant modes in 208 Pb are calculated in a simplified model, using the concept of energy wieghted sum rule (EWSR), and the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation at the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature is employed to describe the finite temperature equilibrium state. It is shown that EWSR and the energy of the resonance depend only weakly on temperature in the system. This weak dependence is analysed

  12. Revised Stroemgren metallicity calibration for red giants

    OpenAIRE

    Hilker, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A new calibration of the Stroemgren (b-y),m_1 diagram in terms of iron abundance of red giants is presented. This calibration is based on a homogeneous sample of giants in the globular clusters omega Centauri, M22, and M55 as well as field giants from the list of Anthony-Twarog & Twarog (1998). Towards high metallicities, the new calibration is connected to a previous calibration by Grebel & Richtler (1992), which was unsatisfactory for iron abudances lower than -1.0 dex. The revised calibrat...

  13. Giant flexoelectricity in polyvinylidene fluoride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskaran, Sivapalan; Ramachandran, Narayanan; He Xiangtong; Thiruvannamalai, Sankar; Lee, Ho Joon; Heo, Hyun [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Chen Qin [GE Global Research Center, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States); Fu, John Y., E-mail: youweifu@buffalo.ed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2011-05-16

    Recent studies have shown that giant flexoelectricity may exist in certain elastomers with bent-core molecular structures, which contradicts the previous theoretical estimation that the flexoelectric coupling is small in those materials. In this Letter, we report an analogous phenomenon, i.e., the giant direct flexoelectric effect, observed in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. Our experimental studies indicate that such an enhanced flexoelectric effect might be induced by the interaction between the energy couplings of the apolar and the polar molecular structures of the polymer film under elastic deformation. - Highlights: Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film with not fully crystallized {alpha}- and {beta}-phases. Flexoelectric measurement. Giant direct flexoelectric effect in PVDF.

  14. Characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents at time of diagnosis in a series of 98 patients with giant cell arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Thierry; Puget, Marie

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents at time of diagnosis in patients with giant cell arteritis. Retrospective data were collected from 98 patients at a single hospital with giant cell arteritis (according to the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) diagnosed between October 1999 and January 2012. Cerebrovascular accident was found at initial presentation in 6 patients (6.1 %, 95 % CIs 2.3-12.9). Most of them had other symptoms of giant cell arteritis when the disease began. Signs reflecting the involvement of vertebro-basilar territory were present in 3 cases. No other case of cerebrovascular accident was described during the follow-up of patient; particularly no case of cerebrovascular accident occurred once corticosteroid therapy for the treatment of giant cell arteritis had been initiated. No differences in the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features at the time of diagnosis between patients who had cerebrovascular accidents and the rest of the giant cell arteritis patients were observed. Prognosis was good in our survey. However, there was no case of bilateral vertebral artery occlusion, a condition associated with poor prognosis. The present study confirms that cerebrovascular accidents may be the initial manifestation of giant cell arteritis, an argument in favor of a direct effect of the vasculitis in the development of cerebrovascular accidents rather than a complication of the corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis of giant cell arteritis should always be considered in an elderly patient with stroke and an unexplained elevation of inflammatory biomarkers.

  15. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possess...

  16. Spreading widths of giant resonances in spherical nuclei: Damped transient response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severyukhin, A. P.; Åberg, S.; Arsenyev, N. N.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.

    2017-06-01

    We propose a general approach to describe spreading widths of monopole, dipole, and quadrupole giant resonances in heavy and superheavy spherical nuclei. Our approach is based on the ideas of the random matrix distribution of the coupling between one-phonon and two-phonon states generated in the random-phase approximation. We use the Skyrme interaction SLy4 as our model Hamiltonian to create a single-particle spectrum and to analyze excited states of the doubly magic nuclei 132Sn, 208Pb, and 310126. Our results demonstrate that the approach enables to us to describe a gross structure of the spreading widths of the giant resonances considered.

  17. A STAR IN THE M31 GIANT STREAM: THE HIGHEST NEGATIVE STELLAR VELOCITY KNOWN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Kenyon, Scott J.; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Schiavon, Ricardo; Rose, James A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a single star, B030D, observed as part of a large survey of objects in M31, which has the unusual radial velocity of -780 km s -1 . Based on details of its spectrum, we find that the star is an F supergiant, with a circumstellar shell. The evolutionary status of the star could be one of a post-main-sequence close binary, a symbiotic nova, or less likely, a post-asymptotic giant branch star, which additional observations could help sort out. Membership of the star in the Andromeda Giant Stream can explain its highly negative velocity.

  18. Water Delivery and Giant Impacts in the 'Grand Tack' Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, David P.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Raymond, Sean N.; Mandell, Avi M.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for terrestrial planet formation has explored accretion in a truncated protoplanetary disk, and found that such a configuration is able to reproduce the distribution of mass among the planets in the Solar System, especially the Earth/Mars mass ratio, which earlier simulations have generally not been able to match. Walsh et al. tested a possible mechanism to truncate the disk-a two-stage, inward-then-outward migration of Jupiter and Saturn, as found in numerous hydrodynamical simulations of giant planet formation. In addition to truncating the disk and producing a more realistic Earth/Mars mass ratio, the migration of the giant planets also populates the asteroid belt with two distinct populations of bodies-the inner belt is filled by bodies originating inside of 3 AU, and the outer belt is filled with bodies originating from between and beyond the giant planets (which are hereafter referred to as 'primitive' bodies). One implication of the truncation mechanism proposed in Walsh et al. is the scattering of primitive planetesimals onto planet-crossing orbits during the formation of the planets. We find here that the planets will accrete on order 1-2% of their total mass from these bodies. For an assumed value of 10% for the water mass fraction of the primitive planetesimals, this model delivers a total amount of water comparable to that estimated to be on the Earth today. The radial distribution of the planetary masses and the dynamical excitation of their orbits are a good match to the observed system. However, we find that a truncated disk leads to formation timescales more rapid than suggested by radiometric chronometers. In particular, the last giant impact is typically earlier than 20 Myr, and a substantial amount of mass is accreted after that event. This is at odds with the dating of the Moon-forming impact and the estimated amount of mass accreted by Earth following that event. However, 5 of the 27 planets larger than half an Earth mass formed in

  19. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 111; Issue 4. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time: Response to Sheth's comments and some additional thoughts. Gautam Sen. Volume 111 Issue 4 December 2002 pp 487-488 ...

  20. Giant Omental Lipoma in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Narula, Mahender Kaur; Anand, Rama; Gupta, Isha; Kaur, Gurmeen; Kalra, Kanika

    2011-01-01

    Omental lipomas are extremely rare tumors of childhood. We report a case of solitary giant lipoma of the omentum in a child, successfully managed by complete excision, without any recurrence on follow-up study

  1. AFSC/ABL: Female Giant Grenadier maturity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Giant grenadiers Albatrossia pectoralis are caught as bycatch in deep-sea commercial fisheries in relatively large numbers. The population appears to be stable,...

  2. Enhanced recovery after giant ventral hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Brøndum, T L; Harling, H.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Giant ventral hernia repair is associated with a high risk of postoperative morbidity and prolonged length of stay (LOS). Enhanced recovery (ERAS) measures have proved to lead to decreased morbidity and LOS after various surgical procedures, but never after giant hernia repair. The current...... study prospectively examined the results of implementation of an ERAS pathway including high-dose preoperative glucocorticoid, and compared the outcome with patients previously treated according to standard care (SC). METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent giant ventral hernia repair were included......-dose glucocorticoid may lead to low scores of pain, fatigue and nausea after giant ventral hernia repair with reduced LOS compared with patients treated according to SC....

  3. Red giants as precursors of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Planetary Nebulae are produced by asymptotic giant-branch stars. Therefore, several properties of planetary nebulae are discussed in the framework of the current theory of stellar evolution. (Auth.)

  4. Blood Lead Levels in Captive Giant Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Nathan J P; Martin-Wintle, Meghan S; Zhou, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hemin

    2018-01-01

    Fifteen giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from the Chinese Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Bifengxia, Sichuan, China were analyzed for blood lead concentrations (Pb-B) during the 2017 breeding season. Thirteen of the 15 bears showed Pb-B below the method detection limit (MDL) of 3.3 µg/dL. The two remaining bears, although above the MDL, contained very low concentrations of lead of 3.9 and 4.5 µg/dL. All 15 giant pandas in this analysis had Pb-B concentrations that were within normal background concentrations for mammals in uncontaminated environments. For a threatened species, whose native country is plagued by reports of extremely high air pollution, our findings suggest that giant pandas at the CCRCGP are not absorbing lead at concentrations that would adversely affect their health.

  5. Innate predator recognition in giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiping; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Hemin; Li, Desheng; Yang, Bo; Wei, Ming; Zhou, Yingmin; Liu, Yang

    2012-02-01

    Innate predator recognition confers a survival advantage to prey animals. We investigate whether giant pandas exhibit innate predator recognition. We analyzed behavioral responses of 56 naive adult captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), to urine from predators and non-predators and water control. Giant pandas performed more chemosensory investigation and displayed flehmen behaviors more frequently in response to predator urine compared to both non-predator urine and water control. Subjects also displayed certain defensive behaviors, as indicated by vigilance, and in certain cases, fleeing behaviors. Our results suggest that there is an innate component to predator recognition in captive giant pandas, although such recognition was only slight to moderate. These results have implications that may be applicable to the conservation and reintroduction of this endangered species.

  6. The cytology of giant solitary trichoepithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurthy Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. An 80-year-old man was diagnosed to have giant solitary trichoepithelioma on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The cytological findings represented the histological features. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors - clinically, cytologically and histologically.

  7. Giant Planet Interior Structure and Thermal Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Militzer, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the interior structure and composition of giant planets, and how this structure changes as these planets cool and contract over time. Here we define giant planets as those that have an observable hydrogen-helium envelope, which includes Jupiter-like planets, which are predominantly H/He gas, and Neptune-like planets which are predominantly composed of elements heavier than H/He. We describe the equations of state of planetary materials and the construction of static structural mode...

  8. Giant rhinophyma: Excision with coblation assisted surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 83-year-old man presented with an unusually severe case of rhinophyma. Giant rhinopyhma is very rare in literature. The giant lesion was widely excised using sharp surgical incision and coblation assisted surgery. Using direct coblation to the nasal dorsum may cause edema in the surrounding tissue. There was minimal edema in surrounding tissue using this technique. A full thickness-skin graft was applied after excision. Cosmetic and functional postoperative results were satisfactory.

  9. Giant ovarian cyst masquerading as a massive ascites: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeika, Eugene Vernyuy; Efie, Derrick Tembi; Tolefac, Paul Nkemtendong; Fomengia, Joseph Nkeangu

    2017-12-19

    Giant ovarian cysts are tumours of the ovary presenting with diameters greater than 10 cm. Giant ovarian cysts have become rare in recent days as they are diagnosed and managed early due to the availability of good imaging modalities. The aim of this case report is to show how a huge cystic ovarian mass can mislead the diagnosis of ascites in a postmenopausal woman. Factors associated with late presentation of giant ovarian cysts in sub-Saharan Africa have also been discussed. We present the case of a 65-year-old grand multiparous woman who was referred to our centre with a grossly distended abdomen misdiagnosed as a massive ascites. Abdominopelvic ultrasound scan revealed a right giant multiloculated ovarian cyst. She benefited from a cystectomy with an uneventful postoperative stay. Histopathology revealed mucinous cystadenoma. Large cystic ovarian tumours can present masquerading as massive ascites and misleading diagnosis as in this case report. We report this case to increase the suspicion index of a large ovarian cyst in all women presenting with massive ascites.

  10. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  11. Macroscopic description of isoscalar giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of a simple macroscopic model, we calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance energy as a function of mass number and multipole degree. The restoring force is determined from the distortion of the Fermi surface, and the inertia is determined for the incompressible, irrotational flow of nucleons with unit effective mass. With no adjustable parameters, the resulting closed expression reproduces correctly the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole energy and the magnitude of the giant octupole energy for 208 Pb. We also calculate the isoscalar giant-resonance width as a function of mass number and multipole degree for various macroscopic damping mechanisms, including two-body viscosity, one-body dissipation, and modified one-body dissipation. None of these damping mechanisms reproduces correctly all features of the available experimental data, namely the magnitude and dependence upon mass number of the giant quadrupole width and the magnitude of the giant octupole width for 208 Pb

  12. Statistics of Long Period Gas Giant Planets in Known Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    The presence of a substantial population of volatile-rich planets on orbits interior to 1AU poses a challenge to models of planet formation and migration. There is currently an ongoing debate as to whether these planets could have formed in situ or instead migrated inward from a more distant formation location. While it has generally been assumed that gas giant planets formed out beyond the ice line and migrated inwards, more recent work has suggested that even these relatively massive planets may be able to form in situ. To constrain possible formation and migration scenarios, we searched for massive, long-period gas giant companions in known exoplanet systems by looking for long-term trends in the RV data. In addition to estimating the total occurrence rate of long-period gas giant companions in known exoplanet systems, we found that hot gas giants inside 1 AU are more likely to have an outer companion than cold gas giants. We also found that planets with an outer companion have higher than average eccentricities than their single counterparts, suggesting that dynamical interactions between planets may play an important role in these systems.

  13. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumour of rare sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype: Case study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Gustaw; Korcz, Wojciech; Kowalczyk, Emilia; Guzel, Tomasz; Radoch, Marcin; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract, but they represent less than 3% of all gastrointestinal tract malignancies. This is a detailed case study of a 52-year-old male patient treated for very uncommon histological subtype of gastric GIST with atypical clinical presentation, asymptomatic progress and late diagnosis. The resected tumour, giant in diameters, was confirmed to represent the most rare histopathologic subtype of GISTs - sarcomatoid epithelioid GIST. We report this case and review the literature with a special focus on pathomorphological evaluation, biological aggressiveness and prognostic factors. To our knowledge this is the first report of giant GIST of very uncommon sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype. It is concluded that clinicians should pay attention to the fact that initial diagnosis may be delayed due to mildly asymptomatic and non-specific clinical presentation. Asymptomatic tumours diagnosed at a late stage, which is often the case, can be large on presentation. Prognosis for patients diagnosed with GIST depend on tumour size, mitotic rate, histopathologic subtype and tumour location. That is why early diagnosis and R0 resection, which is usually feasible and safe even in giant gastric sarcomatoid epithelioid subtype of GISTs, are the key factors for further treatment and good prognosis. PMID:25805949

  14. Structure and direct decay of Giant Monopole Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avez, B.; Simenel, C.

    2013-01-01

    We study structure and direct decay of the Giant Monopole Resonance (GMR) at the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) level using the time-dependent energy density functional method in the linear response regime in a few doubly magic nuclei. A proper treatment of the continuum, through the use of large coordinate space, allows for a separation between the nucleus and its emitted nucleons. The microscopic structure of the GMR is investigated with the decomposition of the strength function into individual single-particle quantum numbers. A similar microscopic decomposition of the spectra of emitted nucleons by direct decay of the GMR is performed. In this harmonic picture of giant resonance, shifting every contribution by the initial single-particle energy allows to reconstruct the GMR strength function. The RPA residual interaction couples bound 1-particle 1-hole states to unbound ones, allowing for the total decay of the GMR. In this article, we then intend to get an understanding of the direct decay mechanism from coherent one-particle-one-hole superpositions, while neglecting more complex configurations. Time-dependent beyond mean-field approaches should be used, in the future, to extend this method. (orig.)

  15. Giant hepatocellular adenoma; case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitella, F.A.; Coutinho, A.M.N.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Costa, P.L.A.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Sapienza, M.T.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Hepatocellular adenoma is a benign hepatic tumor identified mainly in women during fertility age, with estimated incidence of 4/1000 inhabitants. It is usually unique, well circumscribed, with or without a capsule, size varying from 1 to 30 cm, with possible central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Case Report: A 37-year-old female patient presenting with no comorbities, use of hormonal birth control pills for 18 years, a condition of reduction in the consistency of feces, increase in number of daily defecations, abdominal cramps, and a stuffed sensation after meals for two years. A palpable abdominal mass extending from the right hypochondriac to the right iliac fossa was noticed four months ago. A computerized tomography (CT) showed an extensive hepatic mass on the right which was considered, within the diagnostic hypotheses, hepatic adenomatosis, without ruling out secondary lesions. A hepatic scintillography with {sup 99m}Tc-DISIDA showed an extensive exophytic area from segment V to the right iliac fossa with arterialized blood flow and hepatocytic activity, as well as a hepatic nodule in segment VII with hepatocytic activity consistent with the hepatic adenomas hypothesis. The biopsy confirmed the hepatic adenoma diagnosis and the patient was submitted to a partial hepatectomy and cholecystectomy with good clinical evolution. Conclusion: Nuclear Medicine may supplement the assessment of hepatic nodules, including giant masses, thus suggesting new hypotheses and direction to therapeutic conduct. (author)

  16. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  17. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., Io, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  18. Atmospheres of the Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    The giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are fluid objects. They have no solid surfaces because the light elements constituting them do not condense at solar-system temperatures. Instead, their deep atmospheres grade downward until the distinction between gas and liquid becomes meaningless. The preceding chapter delved into the hot, dark interiors of the Jovian planets. This one focuses on their atmospheres, especially the observable layers from the base of the clouds to the edge of space. These veneers arc only a few hundred kilometers thick, less than one percent of each planet's radius, but they exhibit an incredible variety of dynamic phenomena. The mixtures of elements in these outer layers resemble a cooled-down piece of the Sun. Clouds precipitate out of this gaseous soup in a variety of colors. The cloud patterns are organized by winds, which are powered by heat derived from sunlight (as on Earth) and by internal heat left over from planetary formation. Thus the atmospheres of the Jovian planets are distinctly different both compositionally and dynamically from those of the terrestrial planets. Such differences make them fascinating objects for study, providing clues about the origin and evolution of the planets and the formation of the solar system.

  19. Nebulin--a giant chameleon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelin, Katarina; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Nebulin is an enormous protein of the muscle sarcomere. It is a determinant of thin filament length, Z-disk structure and fiber contractility. The nebulin gene contains four regions of alternative splicing, providing a wealth of different isoforms of the protein. The precise function of these numerous isoforms in various types of muscle tissue remains to be elucidated, as does their role in the maintenance of normal muscle strength and activity. Understanding these basic mechanisms is a prerequisite for the development of specific therapies for the disorders caused by mutations in the nebulin gene. Such mutations are the main cause of autosomal recessive nemaline (rod) myopathy, especially of the typical form of this congenital myopathy. Further known disorders caused by nebulin mutations are several other subcategories of recessively inherited nemaline myopathy and a novel distal myopathy caused byhomozygous missense mutations in the nebulin gene. Because of the giant size of the gene, molecular genetic testing methods are difficult to design for routine diagnostic use.

  20. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., lo, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  1. A giant thunderstorm on Saturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Dyudina, U A; Ingersoll, A P; Ewald, S P; Porco, C C; Wesley, A; Go, C; Delcroix, M

    2011-07-06

    Lightning discharges in Saturn's atmosphere emit radio waves with intensities about 10,000 times stronger than those of their terrestrial counterparts. These radio waves are the characteristic features of lightning from thunderstorms on Saturn, which last for days to months. Convective storms about 2,000 kilometres in size have been observed in recent years at planetocentric latitude 35° south (corresponding to a planetographic latitude of 41° south). Here we report observations of a giant thunderstorm at planetocentric latitude 35° north that reached a latitudinal extension of 10,000 kilometres-comparable in size to a 'Great White Spot'-about three weeks after it started in early December 2010. The visible plume consists of high-altitude clouds that overshoot the outermost ammonia cloud layer owing to strong vertical convection, as is typical for thunderstorms. The flash rates of this storm are about an order of magnitude higher than previous ones, and peak rates larger than ten per second were recorded. This main storm developed an elongated eastward tail with additional but weaker storm cells that wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. Unlike storms on Earth, the total power of this storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power. The appearance of such storms in the northern hemisphere could be related to the change of seasons, given that Saturn experienced vernal equinox in August 2009. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  2. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorný, David

    2011-01-01

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ∼15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  3. Young Solar System's Fifth Giant Planet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David

    2011-12-01

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside ~15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  4. Stability of a giant connected component in a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Ganin, Alexander A.; Eisenberg, Daniel A.; Krapivsky, Pavel L.; Krioukov, Dmitri; Alderson, David L.; Linkov, Igor

    2018-01-01

    We analyze the stability of the network's giant connected component under impact of adverse events, which we model through the link percolation. Specifically, we quantify the extent to which the largest connected component of a network consists of the same nodes, regardless of the specific set of deactivated links. Our results are intuitive in the case of single-layered systems: the presence of large degree nodes in a single-layered network ensures both its robustness and stability. In contrast, we find that interdependent networks that are robust to adverse events have unstable connected components. Our results bring novel insights to the design of resilient network topologies and the reinforcement of existing networked systems.

  5. Genomic diversification of giant enteric symbionts reflects host dietary lifestyles

    KAUST Repository

    Ngugi, David

    2017-08-24

    Herbivorous surgeonfishes are an ecologically successful group of reef fish that rely on marine algae as their principal food source. Here, we elucidated the significance of giant enteric symbionts colonizing these fishes regarding their roles in the digestive processes of hosts feeding predominantly on polysiphonous red algae and brown Turbinaria algae, which contain different polysaccharide constituents. Using metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and metatranscriptomic analyses, we provide evidence of metabolic diversification of enteric microbiota involved in the degradation of algal biomass in these fishes. The enteric microbiota is also phylogenetically and functionally simple relative to the complex lignocellulose-degrading microbiota of terrestrial herbivores. Over 90% of the enzymes for deconstructing algal polysaccharides emanate from members of a single bacterial lineage,

  6. Giant elves: Lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses in giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque Estepa, Alejandro; Dubrovin, Daria; José Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco; Ebert, Ute; Parra-Rojas, Francisco Carlos; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    We currently have direct optical observations of atmospheric electricity in the two giant gaseous planets of our Solar System [1-5] as well as radio signatures that are possibly generated by lightning from the two icy planets Uranus and Neptune [6,7]. On Earth, the electrical activity of the troposphere is associated with secondary electrical phenomena called Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere. This led some researchers to ask if similar processes may also exist in other planets, focusing first on the quasi-static coupling mechanism [8], which on Earth is responsible for halos and sprites and then including also the induction field, which is negligible in our planet but dominant in Saturn [9]. However, one can show that, according to the best available estimation for lightning parameters, in giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter the effect of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) dominates the effect that a lightning discharge has on the lower ionosphere above it. Using a Finite-Differences, Time-Domain (FDTD) solver for the EMP we found [10] that electrically active storms may create a localized but long-lasting layer of enhanced ionization of up to 103 cm-3 free electrons below the ionosphere, thus extending the ionosphere downward. We also estimate that the electromagnetic pulse transports 107 J to 1010 J toward the ionosphere. There emissions of light of up to 108 J would create a transient luminous event analogous to a terrestrial elve. Although these emissions are about 10 times fainter than the emissions coming from the lightning itself, it may be possible to target them for detection by filtering the appropiate wavelengths. [1] Cook, A. F., II, T. C. Duxbury, and G. E. Hunt (1979), First results on Jovian lightning, Nature, 280, 794, doi:10.1038/280794a0. [2] Little, B., C. D. Anger, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Senske, H. H. Breneman, W. J. Borucki, and The Galileo SSI Team (1999), Galileo images of

  7. Giant Retinal Tear With Retinal Detachment in Regressed Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Treated by Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Parijat; Tewari, Ruchir; Salunkhe, Nitesh; Kumawat, Devesh; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-06-29

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after successfully regressed retinopathy of prematurity is a rare occurrence. Late onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment has been reported infrequently. The authors report a case of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity that underwent uneventful regression after laser photocoagulation and later developed an inoperable closed funnel retinal detachment due to a giant retinal tear. This case represents the earliest development of such complications in regressed aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity treated by laser. Development of a giant retinal tear has also not been previously reported after laser treatment. This case highlights that successful regression of severe retinopathy of prematurity does not safeguard against future complications and requires frequent long-term follow-up. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e34-e36.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. A LOW FREQUENCY SURVEY OF GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eftekhari, T.; Stovall, K.; Dowell, J.; Schinzel, F. K.; Taylor, G. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87106 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We present a large survey of giant pulses from the Crab Pulsar as observed with the first station of the Long Wavelength Array. Automated methods for detecting giant pulses at low frequencies where scattering becomes prevalent are also explored. More than 1400 pulses were detected across four frequency bands between 20 and 84 MHz over a seven-month period beginning in 2013, with additional followup observations in late 2014 and early 2015. A handful of these pulses were detected simultaneously across all four frequency bands. We examine pulse characteristics, including pulse broadening and power law indices for amplitude distributions. We find that the flux density increases toward shorter wavelengths, consistent with a spectral turnover at 100 MHz. Our observations uniquely span multiple scattering epochs, manifesting as a notable trend in the number of detections per observation. These results are characteristic of the variable interface between the synchrotron nebula and the surrounding interstellar medium.

  9. The bamboo-eating giant panda harbors a carnivore-like gut microbiota, with excessive seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Menghui; Fei, Lisong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Huang, He; Bridgewater, Laura C; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Zhao, Liping; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhihe

    2015-05-19

    The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears. It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes. To find out whether this endangered mammalian species, like other herbivores, has successfully developed a gut microbiota adapted to its fiber-rich diet, we conducted a 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling of the giant panda fecal microbiota. Forty-five captive individuals were sampled in spring, summer, and late autumn within 1 year. Significant intraindividual variations in the diversity and structure of gut microbiota across seasons were observed in this population, which were even greater than the variations between individuals. Compared with published data sets involving 124 gut microbiota profiles from 54 mammalian species, these giant pandas, together with 9 captive and 7 wild individuals investigated previously, showed extremely low gut microbiota diversity and an overall structure that diverged from those of nonpanda herbivores but converged with those of carnivorous and omnivorous bears. The giant panda did not harbor putative cellulose-degrading phylotypes such as Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides bacteria that are typically enriched in other herbivores, but instead, its microbiota was dominated by Escherichia/Shigella and Streptococcus bacteria. Members of the class Clostridia were common and abundant in the giant panda gut microbiota, but most of the members present were absent in other herbivores and were not phylogenetically related with known cellulolytic lineages. Therefore, the giant panda appears not to have evolved a gut microbiota compatible with its newly adopted diet, which may adversely influence the coevolutionary fitness of this herbivore. The giant panda, an endangered mammalian species endemic to western China, is well known for its unique bamboo diet. Unlike other herbivores that have successfully evolved

  10. THE LAST STAGES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION: DYNAMICAL FRICTION AND THE LATE VENEER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Warren, Paul H.; Yin Qingzhu

    2012-01-01

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation consists of the clean-up of residual planetesimals after the giant impact phase. Dynamically, a residual planetesimal population is needed to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets to circular and coplanar orbits after the giant impact stage. Geochemically, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance patterns inferred for the terrestrial planets and the Moon suggest that a total of about 0.01 M ⊕ of chondritic material was delivered as 'late veneer' by planetesimals to the terrestrial planets after the end of giant impacts. Here, we combine these two independent lines of evidence for a leftover population of planetesimals and show that: (1) a residual population of small planetesimals containing 0.01 M ⊕ is able to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets after giant impacts to their observed values. (2) At the same time, this planetesimal population can account for the observed relative amounts of late veneer added to the Earth, Moon, and Mars provided that the majority of the accreted late veneer was delivered by small planetesimals with radii ∼ ⊕ /ρ mars )(R ⊕ /R mars ) 4 ∼ 17, which agrees well with the mass accretion ratio inferred from HSEs of 12-23. For the Earth-Moon system, we find a mass accretion ratio of ∼200, which, as we show, is consistent with estimates of 150-700 derived from HSE abundances that include the lunar crust as well as the mantle component. We conclude that small residual planetesimals containing about ∼1% of the mass of the Earth could provide the dynamical friction needed to relax the terrestrial planet's eccentricities and inclinations after giant impacts, and also may have been the dominant source for the late veneer added to Earth, Moon, and Mars.

  11. A GIANT SAMPLE OF GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickaliger, M. B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Langston, G. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Bilous, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kondratiev, V. I. [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Lyutikov, M. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    We observed the Crab pulsar with the 43 m telescope in Green Bank, WV over a timespan of 15 months. In total we obtained 100 hr of data at 1.2 GHz and seven hours at 330 MHz, resulting in a sample of about 95,000 giant pulses (GPs). This is the largest sample, to date, of GPs from the Crab pulsar taken with the same telescope and backend and analyzed as one data set. We calculated power-law fits to amplitude distributions for main pulse (MP) and interpulse (IP) GPs, resulting in indices in the range of 2.1-3.1 for MP GPs at 1.2 GHz and in the range of 2.5-3.0 and 2.4-3.1 for MP and IP GPs at 330 MHz. We also correlated the GPs at 1.2 GHz with GPs from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), which were obtained simultaneously at a higher frequency (8.9 GHz) over a span of 26 hr. In total, 7933 GPs from the 43 m telescope at 1.2 GHz and 39,900 GPs from the GBT were recorded during these contemporaneous observations. At 1.2 GHz, 236 (3%) MP GPs and 23 (5%) IP GPs were detected at 8.9 GHz, both with zero chance probability. Another 15 (4%) low-frequency IP GPs were detected within one spin period of high-frequency IP GPs, with a chance probability of 9%. This indicates that the emission processes at high and low radio frequencies are related, despite significant pulse profile shape differences. The 43 m GPs were also correlated with Fermi {gamma}-ray photons to see if increased pair production in the magnetosphere is the mechanism responsible for GP emission. A total of 92,022 GPs and 393 {gamma}-ray photons were used in this correlation analysis. No significant correlations were found between GPs and {gamma}-ray photons. This indicates that increased pair production in the magnetosphere is likely not the dominant cause of GPs. Possible methods of GP production may be increased coherence of synchrotron emission or changes in beaming direction.

  12. A GIANT SAMPLE OF GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickaliger, M. B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N.; Langston, G. I.; Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Lyutikov, M.; Ransom, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    We observed the Crab pulsar with the 43 m telescope in Green Bank, WV over a timespan of 15 months. In total we obtained 100 hr of data at 1.2 GHz and seven hours at 330 MHz, resulting in a sample of about 95,000 giant pulses (GPs). This is the largest sample, to date, of GPs from the Crab pulsar taken with the same telescope and backend and analyzed as one data set. We calculated power-law fits to amplitude distributions for main pulse (MP) and interpulse (IP) GPs, resulting in indices in the range of 2.1-3.1 for MP GPs at 1.2 GHz and in the range of 2.5-3.0 and 2.4-3.1 for MP and IP GPs at 330 MHz. We also correlated the GPs at 1.2 GHz with GPs from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), which were obtained simultaneously at a higher frequency (8.9 GHz) over a span of 26 hr. In total, 7933 GPs from the 43 m telescope at 1.2 GHz and 39,900 GPs from the GBT were recorded during these contemporaneous observations. At 1.2 GHz, 236 (3%) MP GPs and 23 (5%) IP GPs were detected at 8.9 GHz, both with zero chance probability. Another 15 (4%) low-frequency IP GPs were detected within one spin period of high-frequency IP GPs, with a chance probability of 9%. This indicates that the emission processes at high and low radio frequencies are related, despite significant pulse profile shape differences. The 43 m GPs were also correlated with Fermi γ-ray photons to see if increased pair production in the magnetosphere is the mechanism responsible for GP emission. A total of 92,022 GPs and 393 γ-ray photons were used in this correlation analysis. No significant correlations were found between GPs and γ-ray photons. This indicates that increased pair production in the magnetosphere is likely not the dominant cause of GPs. Possible methods of GP production may be increased coherence of synchrotron emission or changes in beaming direction.

  13. Giant bladder lithiasis: case report and bibliographic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Vilar, Daniel; Beltran Persiva, José; Pérez Mestre, Mateo; Povo Martin, Iván José; Miralles Aguado, Jaume; Garau Perelló, Carmen; De Francia, Jose Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Urinary lithiasis is a very frequent urological disease but bladder lithiasis is very uncommon.Patients usually refer voiding symptoms and hematuria. The diagnosis is made after imaging tests. We report a clinical case describing a giant bladder stone and perform a bibliographic review. A 43 year old man with the diagnosis of giant bladder stone (more than 10 cm diameter). We searched Medline using the terms: giant bladder stone, giant bladder lithiasis, bladder lithiasis, giant bladder lithiasis. We made the diagnosis of giant bladder stone after a simple kidney, ureter and bladder (KUB) X Ray. The treatment for this patient was a cystolithotomy. We found more than 230 reports at Medline and chose the most referred ones and the last 10 years reports. Giant bladder lithiasis is a very rare pathology. The gold standard for diagnosis is cystoscopy but sometimes with a KUB Xray or an ultrasound is enough. Because of its size, cistolitotomy is the correct treatment for giant bladder stone.

  14. Giant pseudopolyps in the colon transversum in Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, W.; Fobbe, F.

    1986-01-01

    A case of giant pseudopolyps in the colon transversum in histologically verified Crohn's disease is presented. Giant pseudopolyps are a very rare manifestation in granulomatous colitis. Differential diagnosis espec. for polypous adenocarcinoma is discussed. (orig.) [de

  15. Hepatic Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Duerksen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR is a clinical syndrome of the elderly characterized by malaise, proximal muscle aching and stiffness, low grade fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rare and the frequent association with temporal giant cell arteritis. The authors describe a case of PMR associated with hepatic giant cell arteritis. This lesion has been described in two other clinical reports. The distribution of the arteritis may be patchy; in this report, diagnosis was made with a wedge biopsy performed after an initial nonspecific percutaneous liver biopsy. The authors review the spectrum of liver involvement in PMR and giant cell arteritis. Hepatic abnormalities respond to systemic corticosteroids, and patients with hepatic arteritis have a good prognosis.

  16. Giant flexoelectricity in polyvinylidene fluoride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, Sivapalan; Ramachandran, Narayanan; He Xiangtong; Thiruvannamalai, Sankar; Lee, Ho Joon; Heo, Hyun; Chen Qin; Fu, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that giant flexoelectricity may exist in certain elastomers with bent-core molecular structures, which contradicts the previous theoretical estimation that the flexoelectric coupling is small in those materials. In this Letter, we report an analogous phenomenon, i.e., the giant direct flexoelectric effect, observed in a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film. Our experimental studies indicate that such an enhanced flexoelectric effect might be induced by the interaction between the energy couplings of the apolar and the polar molecular structures of the polymer film under elastic deformation. - Highlights: → Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film with not fully crystallized α- and β-phases. → Flexoelectric measurement. → Giant direct flexoelectric effect in PVDF.

  17. Red-giant stars in eccentric binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck P. G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unparalleled photometric data obtained by NASA’s Kepler Space Telescope has led to improved understanding of red-giant stars and binary stars. We discuss the characterization of known eccentric system, containing a solar-like oscillating red-giant primary component. We also report several new binary systems that are candidates for hosting an oscillating companion. A powerful approach to study binary stars is to combine asteroseimic techniques with light curve fitting. Seismology allows us to deduce the properties of red giants. In addition, by modeling the ellipsoidal modulations we can constrain the parameters of the binary system. An valuable independent source are ground-bases, high-resolution spectrographs.

  18. Excitation of giant resonances through inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kailas, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years, exciting developments have taken place in the study of giant resonances (GR). In addition to the already well known gjant dipole resonance (GDR), the presence of at least two more new GRs viz. giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) and giant monopole resonance (GMR) has been experimentally established. The systematics covering these GRs is found to be consistent with the theoretical expectation. Though the existence of higher multipoles has been predjcted by theory, so far only some of these have been found to be excited experimentally. Various probe particles - electrons, protons (polarized and unpolarized), light and heavy ions and pions - at different bombarding energies have been used to excite the GR region, primarily through the inelastic scattering process. Detailed experiments, looking at the decay modes of GR region, have also been performed. These studies have contributed significantly to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nuclear collective excitation. In this report, the current status of 'GR' research is reviewed. (author)

  19. LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  20. Kepler Asteroseismology of Red-giant Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Kepler mission, launched in March 2009, has revolutionized asteroseismology, providing detailed observations of thousands of stars. This has allowed in-depth analyses of stars ranging from compact hot subdwarfs to red giants, and including the detection of solar-like oscillations in hundreds...... of stars on or near the main sequence. Here I mainly consider solar-like oscillations in red giants, where Kepler observations are yielding results of a perhaps unexpected richness. In addition to giving a brief overview of the observational and numerical results for these stars, I present a simple...

  1. Photon decay of giant multipole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of the excitation of giant multipole resonances via Coulomb excitation is given which emphasizes the very large cross sections that can be realized through this reaction for both isoscalar and isovector resonances. Discussion and results where available, are provided for the measurement of the photon decay of one and two phonon giant resonances. It is pointed out throughout the presentation that the use of E1 photons as a tag'' provides a means to observe weakly excited resonances that cannot be observed in the shingles spectra. 26 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  3. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  4. Giant Epidermoid Cyst of the Thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NH Mohamed Haflah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst is a common benign cutaneous swelling frequently encountered in surgical practice. It usually presents as a painless lump frequently occurring in hairbearing areas of the body particularly the scalp, scrotum, neck, shoulder and back. Giant epidermoid cysts commonly occur in hairy areas such as the scalp. We present here the case of a rare occurrence of a giant epidermoid cyst in the less hairy area of the right upper thigh mimicking a soft tissue sarcoma. Steps are highlighted for the management of this unusual cyst.

  5. Core Formation in Giant Gaseous Protoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Helled, Ravit; Schubert, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Sedimentation rates of silicate grains in gas giant protoplanets formed by disk instability are calculated for protoplanetary masses between 1 M_Saturn to 10 M_Jupiter. Giant protoplanets with masses of 5 M_Jupiter or larger are found to be too hot for grain sedimentation to form a silicate core. Smaller protoplanets are cold enough to allow grain settling and core formation. Grain sedimentation and core formation occur in the low mass protoplanets because of their slow contraction rate and l...

  6. Giant flexoelectric effect through interfacial strain relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daesu; Noh, Tae Won

    2012-10-28

    Interfacial strain gradients in oxide epitaxial thin films provide an interesting opportunity to study flexoelectric effects and their potential applications. Oxide epitaxial thin films can exhibit giant and tunable flexoelectric effects, which are six or seven orders of magnitude larger than those in conventional bulk solids. The strain gradient in an oxide epitaxial thin film can generate an electric field above 1 MV m(-1) by flexoelectricity, large enough to affect the physical properties of the film. Giant flexoelectric effects on ferroelectric properties are discussed in this overview of recent experimental observations.

  7. Probing giant magnetoresistance with THz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Tkach, Alexander; Casper, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA.......We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA....

  8. [Bilateral giant scrotal hydrocele in an adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masue, Naruyasu; Hasegawa, Yoshikazu

    2008-07-01

    Bilateral giant hydrocele in an adult is a rare clinical entity. A 31-year-old man presented with painless bilateral scrotal swelling that had appeared at age 13 years and had increased very slowly since. Computed tomography and ultrasonography revealed collection of fluid on both sides of the scrotum. Giant scrotal hydrocele were diagnosed, and surgical excision was performed. The fluid volume was 1,050 ml in right, 645 ml in left. No inguinal hernia was found. Pathologic examination of the resected portion of the tunica vaginalis testis revealed inflammatory changes, and fluid cytology was negative. Eight months has passed, and there has been no evidence of recurrence.

  9. Giant Spermatocele Mimicking Hydrocele: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chih Yeh

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Spermatoceles are usually asymptomatic and often found incidentally during physical examination. We report a case of giant spermatocele that mimicked a hydrocele. A 55-year-old man suffered from right scrotal enlargement for several years. As the heavy sensation and scrotal soreness worsened in recent months, he came to our outpatient clinic for help. Hydrocele was suspected due to transilluminating appearance of the scrotal content. Surgical exploration was arranged and a giant spermatocele was found. Total excision of the spermatocele was performed and the patient recovered well. The specimen was sent for pathology and spermatocele with spermatozoa was noted.

  10. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or

  11. Giant Anal Condyloma Acuminatum in Childhood: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant Anal Condyloma Acuminatum in Childhood: A Case Report. K. Attipou, K. Yawovi, N. James, G. A. Napo-Koura, A. Tchangaï-Walla, K James. Abstract. The authors report a case of anal giant condyloma acuminatum present for 10 years in a 14 year old. The giant tumor was responsible for difficulty in the sitting and ...

  12. Giant Panda habitat selection in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Skidmore, A.K.; Shao, X.; Dang, D.; Wang, T.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about habitat selection of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), especially about the relationship between giant panda presence and bamboo and tree structures. We presented data on giant panda habitat use and selection in Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China. We used 1,066

  13. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant
    pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and
    abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity
    and quality of giant panda food resources. However,

  14. Giant urinary bladder calculus: Case report | Otieno | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vertical calculus weighing more than 100 g is categorised as a giant urinary bladder stone. Giant urinary bladder stones are very rare and very few cases have been reported in English literature and only one case from Africa. This is a case report of a patient with a giant urinary bladder calculus presenting as a rectal ...

  15. Expression of CD34 and CD68 in peripheral giant cell granuloma and central giant cell granuloma: An immunohistochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    VK, Varsha; Hallikeri, Kaveri; Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central and Peripheral giant cell granulomas of jaws are uncommon, benign, reactive disorders that are characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells and mononuclear cells within a stroma. The origin of the multinucleated giant cells is controversial; probably originating from fusion of histiocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Objective: To assess the expression of CD34 and CD68 in central and peripheral giant cell granulomas to understand the origin of these multinucleated giant cells. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of Central and Peripheral giant cell granulomas were evaluated immunohistochemically for CD34 and CD68 proteins expression. Results: Immunopositivity for CD34 was seen only in cytoplasm of endothelial cells of blood vessels; whereas, consistent cytoplasmic immunopositivity for CD68 was seen in few stromal cells. Statistical significance was seen in mean number of multinucleated giant cells, mean number of nuclei in multinucleated giant cells, CD68 expression and ratio of macrophages to multinucleated giant cells among two lesions. Conclusion: Although the central giant cell granulomas share some clinical and histopathological similarities with peripheral giant cell granulomas, differences in mean number of nuclei in multinucleated giant cells and CD68 immunoreactivity may underlie the distinct clinical behavior. PMID:25948986

  16. THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF GIANT ARCS IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon

    2011-01-01

    We measure the redshift distribution of a sample of 28 giant arcs discovered as a part of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey. Gemini/GMOS-North spectroscopy provides precise redshifts for 24 arcs, and 'redshift desert' constrains for the remaining 4 arcs. This is a direct measurement of the redshift distribution of a uniformly selected sample of bright giant arcs, which is an observable that can be used to inform efforts to predict giant arc statistics. Our primary giant arc sample has a median redshift z = 1.821 and nearly two-thirds of the arcs, 64%, are sources at z ∼> 1.4, indicating that the population of background sources that are strongly lensed into bright giant arcs resides primarily at high redshift. We also analyze the distribution of redshifts for 19 secondary strongly lensed background sources that are not visually apparent in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging, but were identified in deeper follow-up imaging of the lensing cluster fields. Our redshift sample for the secondary sources is not spectroscopically complete, but combining it with our primary giant arc sample suggests that a large fraction of all background galaxies that are strongly lensed by foreground clusters reside at z ∼> 1.4. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that our well-selected, spectroscopically complete primary giant arc redshift sample can be reproduced with a model distribution that is constructed from a combination of results from studies of strong-lensing clusters in numerical simulations and observational constraints on the galaxy luminosity function.

  17. Floret-like multinucleated giant cells in neurofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golka Dariusz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report discusses a case of neurofibroma containing floret-like multinucleated giant cells. This being the second such case in the literature. Floret-like multinucleated giant cells have been reported in gynaecomastia and neurofibroma in neurofibromatosis type 1. These cells have been reported in uncommon soft tissue tumours including pleomorphic lipoma, giant cell collagenoma, giant cell fibroblastoma and giant cell angiofibroma. We recommend these cells to be interpreted carefully keeping in mind the rare malignant change in neurofibromas. Immunohistochemistry would help in defining the nature of such cells.

  18. Giant amplification in degenerate band edge slow-wave structures interacting with an electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Veysi, Mehdi; Capolino, Filippo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Figotin, Alexander [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    We propose a new amplification regime based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate electromagnetic (EM) modes in a slow-wave structure and the electron beam, referred to as super synchronization. These four EM modes arise in a Fabry-Pérot cavity when degenerate band edge (DBE) condition is satisfied. The modes interact constructively with the electron beam resulting in superior amplification. In particular, much larger gains are achieved for smaller beam currents compared to conventional structures based on synchronization with only a single EM mode. We demonstrate giant gain scaling with respect to the length of the slow-wave structure compared to conventional Pierce type single mode traveling wave tube amplifiers. We construct a coupled transmission line model for a loaded waveguide slow-wave structure exhibiting a DBE, and investigate the phenomenon of giant gain via super synchronization using the Pierce model generalized to multimode interaction.

  19. Kinematics of giant low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, TE; Davies, JI; Impey, C; Phillipps, S

    1999-01-01

    High sensitivity H I observations now exist for six giant low surface brightness (LSB) disk galaxies including the two prototypes, Malin 1 (Bothun et al. 1987; Impey & Bothun 1989) and F568-6 (also known as Malin 2; Bothun et al. 1990). Their H I surface brightnesses are generally low, but

  20. Probing giant magnetoresistance with THz spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Tkach, Alexander; Casper, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    We observe a giant magnetoresistance effect in CoFe/Cu-based multistack using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The magnetic field-dependent dc conductivity, electron scattering time, as well as spin-asymmetry parameter of the structure are successfully determined. © 2014 OSA....

  1. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  2. Giant Retroperitoneal Lipoma in an Infant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-29

    Jun 29, 2010 ... We are reporting the case of a six-month-old child who presented with a giant retroperitoneal lipoma that was successfully managed by complete ... Retroperitoneal lipoma is an unusual entity that is most often found in adults between 40 and 60 years of age and rarely occurs in the first decade of life.

  3. Giant Plagioclase Basalts, eruption rate versus time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R.Narasimhan(krishtel emaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    can traps; Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 180 13–27. Hooper P R and others 1988 The Giant Plagioclase Basalts. (GPBs) of the Western Ghats, Deccan Traps; Mem. Geol. Soc. India 43 153–65. Khadri S F R and 3 others 1988 Stratigraphy of Thakurvadi. Formation, Western Deccan Basalt Province, India: In. Deccan Flood Basalts ...

  4. Giant viruses of amoebas: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eAherfi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 12 past years, five new or putative virus families encompassing several members, namely Mimiviridae, Marseilleviridae, pandoraviruses, faustoviruses, and virophages were described. In addition, Pithovirus sibericum and Mollivirus sibericum represent type strains of putative new giant virus families. All these viruses were isolated using amoebal coculture methods. These giant viruses were linked by phylogenomic analyses to other large DNA viruses. They were then proposed to be classified in a new viral order, the Megavirales, on the basis of their common origin, as shown by a set of ancestral genes encoding key viral functions, a common virion architecture, and shared major biological features including replication inside cytoplasmic factories. Megavirales is increasingly demonstrated to stand in the tree of life aside Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, and the megavirus ancestor is suspected to be as ancient as cellular ancestors. In addition, giant amoebal viruses are visible under a light microscope and display many phenotypic and genomic features not found in other viruses, while they share other characteristics with parasitic microbes. Moreoever, these organisms appear to be common inhabitants of our biosphere, and mimiviruses and marseilleviruses were isolated from human samples and associated to diseases. In the present review, we describe the main features and recent findings on these giant amoebal viruses and virophages.

  5. Giant resonances in the deformed continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsukasa, T.; Yabana, K.

    2004-01-01

    Giant resonances in the continuum for deformed nuclei are studied with the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory in real time and real space. The continuum effect is effectively taken into account by introducing a complex Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC). (orig.)

  6. Total hip arthroplasty for giant cell tumour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A 32 month follow up of an uncommon case of a Giant Cell Tumour affecting the proximal end of femur is presented. Following a wide excision, the hip was reconstructed using Charnley type of low friction total hip arthroplasty. At a 32 month review, there was no recurrence and the function was good.

  7. Giant dipole resonance by many levels theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The many levels theory is applied to photonuclear effect, in particular, in giant dipole resonance. A review about photonuclear dipole absorption, comparing with atomic case is done. The derivation of sum rules; their modifications by introduction of the concepts of effective charges and mass and the Siegert theorem. The experimental distributions are compared with results obtained by curve adjustment. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Giant melanoma of the left thumb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, CJAM; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    A 74-year-old female patient is described with a giant melanoma of the left thenar and concomitant bilateral pulmonary metastases. Palliative treatment consisted of a two-staged procedure in order to save the limb from amputation. Firstly, perfusion with gamma-interferon, tumour necrosis

  9. Giant cell arteritis: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Romero, J M

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis is the most common primary systemic vasculitis in adults. The condition is granulomatous arteritis of large and medium vessels, which occurs almost exclusively in patients aged 50 years or more. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  10. Surgical treatment for giant incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, A; Rosenberg, J; Bisgaard, T

    2014-01-01

    , and the sublay position may have advantages over onlay positioning. To avoid tension, it may be advisable to use a mesh in combination with a component separation technique. Inlay positioning of the mesh and repair without a mesh should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence to optimise repair for giant hernias...

  11. Reading on the Shoulders of Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Chaim, Michael; Riendeau, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting on his successful scientific career, Isaac Newton highlighted his intellectual debt to his predecessors. "If I have seen further," he wrote, "it was "only" by standing on the shoulders of giants." The authors have chosen the title of their article as a token of recognition of their debt to the teachings of…

  12. Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They show imprints of strong brittle to ductile–brittle deformation, and in places are associated with base metal and gold incidences, and pyrophyllite-diaspore mineralization. The geochemistry of giant quartz veins were studied. Apart from presenting new data on the geology and geochemistry of these veins, an attempt has ...

  13. Robust giant magnetoresistive effect type multilayer sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenssen, K.M.H.; Kuiper, A.E.T.; Roozeboom, F.

    2002-01-01

    A robust Giant Magneto Resistive effect type multilayer sensor comprising a free and a pinned ferromagnetic layer, which can withstand high temperatures and strong magnetic fields as required in automotive applications. The GMR multi-layer has an asymmetric magneto-resistive curve and enables

  14. Nitrogen depletion in field red giants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masseron, T.; Lagarde, N.; Miglio, A.

    2017-01-01

    , the behaviour of nitrogen data along the evolution confirms the existence of non-canonical extramixing on the red giant branch (RGB) for all low-mass stars in the field. But more surprisingly, the data indicate that nitrogen has been depleted between the RGB tip and the red clump. This may suggest that some...

  15. Giant light enhancement in atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomsky, O. N.; Gadomskaya, I. V.; Altunin, K. K.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the polarizing effect of the atoms in an atomic cluster can lead to full compensation of the radiative damping of excited atomic states, a change in the sign of the dispersion of the atomic polarizability, and giant light enhancement by the atomic cluster.

  16. Diseases and insects of Giant Sequoia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr. Parmeter

    1986-01-01

    Giant sequoias (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) are susceptible to a number of diseases and insects at each state of development from seeds to overmature trees. We presently have little more than a catalog of occurrences. The impacts and the management implications of disease and insect losses have scarcely been investigated or evaluated...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: giant congenital melanocytic nevus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Cancer Institute: What is Melanoma Educational Resources (10 links) Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: ... Large congenital melanocytic nevus Seattle Children's Hospital: Birthmarks What is a Large/Giant Congenital Melanocytic ... Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) Nevus Outreach ...

  18. Air pollution effects on giant sequoia ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.R. Miller; Nancy Grulke; K.W. Stolte

    1994-01-01

    Giant sequoia [Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz] groves are found entirely within the Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer type. Several of its companion tree species, mainly ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.), show foliar injury after...

  19. Giant pubertal prolactinoma: Complete resolution following short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-06

    Apr 6, 2016 ... 23.9 kg/m2, axillary‑pubic hair growth was at tanner stage. 1, right and left testis volume of 8 mL, and penis size was. 6.5 cm. In laboratory examinations, hyperprolactinemia. (>200 ng/mL), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism,. Giant pubertal prolactinoma: Complete resolution following short term carbegoline ...

  20. Sir Bob Edwards: Salute to a Giant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. Sir Bob Edwards: Salute to a Giant. Kamal Ahuja ... Clinic, Harley Street, London, W1G 6AP. Chairman and Company Secretary, Reproductive BioMedicine Online (RBMO) Duck End Farm, Park Lane, Dry Drayton, Cambridge, CB23 8DB.

  1. Giant Mucinous Cystadenoma in Nnewi, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian mucinous cystadenoma is a benign tumor that arises from the surface ... abdomen. On vaginal examination, the vulva, vaginal and cervix ... Multilocular cyst. Discussion. Giant ovarian tumors have become rare in recent times because most of them are discovered early during routine medical check or incidental ...

  2. Antiproliferative heparin (glycosaminoglycans) isolated from giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Heparin was isolated from two bivalve mollusks, Tridacna maxima (giant clam) and Perna viridis (green mussel). The isolated heparin was quantified in crude as well as purified samples and they were estimated as 2.72 and 2.2 g/kg (in crude) and 260 and 248 mg/g (in purified samples) in T. maxima and.

  3. Think big--giant genes in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, Oleg; Tümmler, Burkhard

    2008-03-01

    Long genes should be rare in archaea and eubacteria because of the demanding costs of time and resources for protein production. The search in 580 sequenced prokaryotic genomes, however, revealed 0.2% of all genes to be longer than 5 kb (absolute number: 3732 genes). Eighty giant bacterial genes of more than 20 kb in length were identified in 47 taxa that belong to the phyla Thermotogae (1), Chlorobi (3), Planctomycetes (1), Cyanobacteria (2), Firmicutes (7), Actinobacteria (9), Proteobacteria (23) or Euryarchaeota (1) (number of taxa in brackets). Giant genes are strain-specific, differ in their tetranucleotide usage from the bulk genome and occur preferentially in non-pathogenic environmental bacteria. The two longest bacterial genes known to date were detected in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 encoding proteins of 36 806 and 20 647 amino acids, being surpassed in length only by the human titin coding sequence. More than 90% of bacterial giant genes either encode a surface protein or a polyketide/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. Most surface proteins are acidic, threonine-rich, lack cystein and harbour multiple amino acid repeats. Giant proteins increase bacterial fitness by the production of either weapons towards or shields against animate competitors or hostile environments.

  4. Antiproliferative heparin (glycosaminoglycans) isolated from giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heparin was isolated from two bivalve mollusks, Tridacna maxima (giant clam) and Perna viridis (green mussel). The isolated heparin was quantified in crude as well as purified samples and they were estimated as 2.72 and 2.2 g/kg (in crude) and 260 and 248 mg/g (in purified samples) in T. maxima and P. viridis, ...

  5. An Uncommon Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Hunaina; George, Mina; Malhotra, Gopal; Al-Muzahmi, Khamis

    2011-01-01

    Giant Cell Tumors commonly occur at the ends of long bones. However in rare cases, they can occur in the bones of the hands and feet. Tumors in these locations occur in younger patients; in addition, these tumors are more commonly multifocal and are associated with a higher risk for local recurrence than tumors at the ends of long bones. Since lesions in the small bones may be multifocal, a patient with a giant cell tumor of the small bones should undergo a skeletal survey to exclude similar lesions elsewhere. Primary surgical treatment ranges from curettage or excision with or without bone grafting to amputation. The success of surgical treatment depends on the completeness with which the tumor was removed. We are presenting a case report of a 34 year old female, who presented with a swelling in the right hand, following trauma. X-ray of the hand showed an osteolytic expansile lesion at the base of the 1st metacarpal bone. The lesion was initially curetted and then treated by local resection with bone grafting. Histological examination revealed a typical benign giant cell tumor composed of closely packed stromal cells with a variable admixture of giant cells. Follow up at the end of one year did not reveal any recurrence of the tumor. PMID:22125733

  6. Polarization Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present simulated spectra of the flux and degree of polarization of starlight that is reflected by extrasolar giant planets (EGPs). In particular the polarization depends strongly on the structure of the planetary atmosphere, and appears to be a valuable tool for the characterization of EGPs.

  7. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke [College of Physics and Electronic information, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China); Yu, Peng [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Dou, Xianghua, E-mail: ning_gai@163.com, E-mail: tyk450@163.com [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biophysics, Dezhou University, Dezhou 253023 (China)

    2017-02-10

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M {sub ⊙}, the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ , which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ{sub 1}–Δ ν diagram.

  8. (RPS28) from the Giant Panda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... The expression product obtained could be used for purification and study of its function further. Key words: RPS28 gene, ribosomal protein S28 (RPS28), giant panda, (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), genomic cloning, overexpression. INTRODUCTION. The ribosome, a compact ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which.

  9. Giant hydrocele - an epitome of neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Akpo, Emmanuel E

    2005-01-01

    Hydrocele [Greek: water - sac] is abnormal fluid collection within the tunica vaginalis of the scrotum or a patent tunica vaginalis. It is a relatively common condition in surgical practice. However, a giant hydrocele, here defined for clinical purposes, as a hydrocele equal to or bigger than the patient's head, is rare as indicated by the limited number of reported cases in the literature.

  10. Giant omental lipoblastoma and CD56 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Miyano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of giant omental lipoblastoma in a 13-month-old boy, which was treated successfully by total excision. Tumor cells were positive for S100, CD34 and CD56. This is the first report of lipoblastoma expressing CD56, a fact that could be used to differentiate lipoblastoma from liposarcoma.

  11. Molecular analysis of dispersal in giant pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X J; Zhang, Z J; Wu, H; Goossens, B; Li, M; Jiang, S W; Bruford, M W; Wei, F W

    2007-09-01

    Although dispersal in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a demographic mechanism which can potentially counteract the negative effect of habitat fragmentation, little is known about dispersal in this species because of difficulties in observing individuals. Using data from faecal microsatellite genotyping, we compared the spatial distribution of giant pandas in two populations and the proximity of relatives in one key population to infer their dispersal pattern. We conclude that giant pandas exhibit female-biased dispersal because: (i) vAIc (variance of assignment index) for females was significantly larger than for males, suggesting that females comprise both 'local' and 'foreign' genotypes; (ii) the average spatial distance of related female dyads was significantly larger than that of males; (iii) larger r (relatedness), F(ST) (genetic variance among populations) and mAIc (mean of assignment index) values were found in males using the software FSTAT, although the differences were not significant; (iv) males set up territories neighbouring to their birth place; (v) significant population structure using microsatellites with a concomitant lack of mitochondrial structure was found in a previous study, possibly indicating more extensive female dispersal; and (vi) female-biased dispersal was strongly supported by evidence from concomitant ecological studies. Considering previous ecological data and life-history characteristics of the giant panda, female-biased dispersal is most likely to be due to competition for birth dens among females, inbreeding avoidance and enhancing inclusive fitness among related males.

  12. Membrane Protrusion Coarsening and Nanotubulation within Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    KAUST Repository

    Węgrzyn, Ilona

    2011-11-16

    Hydrophobic side groups on a stimuli-responsive polymer, encapsulated within a single giant unilamellar vesicle, enable membrane attachment during compartment formation at elevated temperatures. We thermally modulated the vesicle through implementation of an IR laser via an optical fiber, enabling localized directed heating. Polymer-membrane interactions were monitored using confocal imaging techniques as subsequent membrane protrusions occurred and lipid nanotubes formed in response to the polymer hydrogel contraction. These nanotubes, bridging the vesicle membrane to the contracting hydrogel, were retained on the surface of the polymer compartment, where they were transformed into smaller vesicles in a process reminiscent of cellular endocytosis. This development of a synthetic vesicle system containing a stimuli-responsive polymer could lead to a new platform for studying inter/intramembrane transport through lipid nanotubes. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Stripped Red Giants - Helium Core White Dwarf Progenitors and their sdB Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2017-03-01

    Some gaps in the mosaic of binary star evolution have recently been filled by the discoveries of helium-core white dwarf progenitors (often called extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs) as stripped cores of first-giant branch objects. Two varieties can be distinguished. One class is made up by SB1 binaries, companions being white dwarfs as well. Another class, the so-called EL CVn stars, are composite spectrum binaries, with A-Type companions. Pulsating stars are found among both classes. A riddle is posed by the apparently single objects. There is a one-to-one correspondence of the phenomena found for these new classes of star to those observed for sdB stars. In fact, standard evolutionary scenarios explain the origin of sdB stars as red giants that have been stripped close to the tip of first red giant branch. A subgroup of subluminous B stars can also be identified as stripped helium-cores of red giants. They form an extension of the ELM sequence to higher temperatures. Hence low mass white dwarfs of helium cores and sdB stars in binaries are close relatives in terms of stellar evolution.

  14. Isoscalar and isovector giant resonances in a self-consistent phonon coupling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lyutorovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present fully self-consistent calculations of isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole as well as isovector giant dipole resonances in heavy and light nuclei. The description is based on Skyrme energy-density functionals determining the static Hartree–Fock ground state and the excitation spectra within random-phase approximation (RPA and RPA extended by including the quasiparticle-phonon coupling at the level of the time-blocking approximation (TBA. All matrix elements were derived consistently from the given energy-density functional and calculated without any approximation. As a new feature in these calculations, the single-particle continuum was included thus avoiding the artificial discretization usually implied in RPA and TBA. The step to include phonon coupling in TBA leads to small, but systematic, down shifts of the centroid energies of the giant resonances. These shifts are similar in size for all Skyrme parametrizations investigated here. After all, we demonstrate that one can find Skyrme parametrizations which deliver a good simultaneous reproduction of all three giant resonances within TBA.

  15. Modeling Impacts of Climate Change on Giant Panda Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Songer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca are one of the most widely recognized endangered species globally. Habitat loss and fragmentation are the main threats, and climate change could significantly impact giant panda survival. We integrated giant panda habitat information with general climate models (GCMs to predict future geographic distribution and fragmentation of giant panda habitat. Results support a major general prediction of climate change—a shift of habitats towards higher elevation and higher latitudes. Our models predict climate change could reduce giant panda habitat by nearly 60% over 70 years. New areas may become suitable outside the current geographic range but much of these areas is far from the current giant panda range and only 15% fall within the current protected area system. Long-term survival of giant pandas will require the creation of new protected areas that are likely to support suitable habitat even if the climate changes.

  16. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Jordan B.; Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A.; Maya, Carolina; Pawel, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  17. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules in Alagille syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Jordan B. [Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Department of Radiology, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bellah, Richard D.; Anupindi, Sudha A. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Maya, Carolina [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pawel, Bruce R. [University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome. A retrospective search of the hospital database was performed to find all cases of hepatic masses in patients with Alagille syndrome during a 10-year period. Imaging, clinical charts, laboratory data and available pathology were reviewed and analyzed and summarized for each patient. Twenty of 45 patients with confirmed Alagille syndrome had imaging studies. Of those, we identified six with giant focal liver masses. All six patients had large central hepatic masses that were remarkably similar on US and MRI, in addition to having features of cirrhosis. In each case, the mass was located in hepatic segment VIII and imaging showed the mass splaying the main portal venous branches at the hepatic hilum, as well as smaller portal and hepatic venous branches coursing through them. On MRI, signal intensity of the mass was isointense to liver on T1-weighted sequences in four of six patients, but hyperintense on T1 in two of six patients. In all six cases, the mass was hypointense on T2- weighted sequences. The mass post-contrast was isointense to adjacent liver in all phases in five the cases. Five out of six patients had pathological correlation demonstrating preserved ductal architecture confirming the final diagnosis of a regenerative nodule. Giant hepatic regenerative nodules with characteristic US and MR features can occur in patients with Alagille syndrome with underlying cirrhosis. Recognizing these lesions as benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules should, thereby, mitigate any need for

  18. Thermal and rotational effect on giant dipole resonances in rotating nuclei at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai.

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic calculations are carried out for the giant dipole resonances excited on the thermal high spin states in 162 Er and 166 Er based on the thermal linear response theory with realistic forces and large single-particle space. The dynamical strength function is compared with the experimental γ-ray absorption cross section. The general trend that the resonance energy decreases and the resonance width increases with increasing angular momentum and temperature is well reproduced by the calculations. (author)

  19. Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, M.D.; Finn, J.; Tregenza, T.

    1999-01-01

    Out of all the animals, cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of larger males. At a mass breeding aggregation in South Australia, we repeatedly observed single small males accompanying mating pairs. While...

  20. The Bamboo-Eating Giant Panda Harbors a Carnivore-Like Gut Microbiota, with Excessive Seasonal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Wenping; Wang, Linghua; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Menghui; Fei, Lisong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Huang, He; Bridgewater, Laura C.; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Chenglin; Zhao, Liping

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The giant panda evolved from omnivorous bears. It lives on a bamboo-dominated diet at present, but it still retains a typical carnivorous digestive system and is genetically deficient in cellulose-digesting enzymes. To find out whether this endangered mammalian species, like other herbivores, has successfully developed a gut microbiota adapted to its fiber-rich diet, we conducted a 16S rRNA gene-based large-scale structural profiling of the giant panda fecal microbiota. Forty-five captive individuals were sampled in spring, summer, and late autumn within 1 year. Significant intraindividual variations in the diversity and structure of gut microbiota across seasons were observed in this population, which were even greater than the variations between individuals. Compared with published data sets involving 124 gut microbiota profiles from 54 mammalian species, these giant pandas, together with 9 captive and 7 wild individuals investigated previously, showed extremely low gut microbiota diversity and an overall structure that diverged from those of nonpanda herbivores but converged with those of carnivorous and omnivorous bears. The giant panda did not harbor putative cellulose-degrading phylotypes such as Ruminococcaceae and Bacteroides bacteria that are typically enriched in other herbivores, but instead, its microbiota was dominated by Escherichia/Shigella and Streptococcus bacteria. Members of the class Clostridia were common and abundant in the giant panda gut microbiota, but most of the members present were absent in other herbivores and were not phylogenetically related with known cellulolytic lineages. Therefore, the giant panda appears not to have evolved a gut microbiota compatible with its newly adopted diet, which may adversely influence the coevolutionary fitness of this herbivore. PMID:25991678

  1. Building on the shoulders of giants. Annual report, July 1, 1994--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The engineering giants of the late 19th and early 20th centuries set humanity on a journey from which there is no turning back. This year, we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the American Society of Heating, refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE`s) founding and a century of advancing heating, ventilating, air-conditioning and refrigerating (HVAC&R) technology. We stood on the shoulders of these engineering giants, and we viewed the Society`s achievements in a perfect perspective. My theme for this year - Building on the Shoulders of Giants - recognizes their work and describes our journey forward into ASHRAE`s second century. Through our Centennial Celebration, we involved members at all levels of the Society, from our oldest members to students, from the Executive Committee to the Board of Directors to the regions and to the local chapters and individual members. We also involved our associate societies and other related organizations. This publication describes the activities of ASHRAE for 1995.

  2. Modelling Kepler red giants in eclipsing binaries: calibrating the mixing-length parameter with asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanda; Bedding, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Ball, Warrick H.; Stello, Dennis; Murphy, Simon J.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2018-03-01

    Stellar models rely on a number of free parameters. High-quality observations of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler offer a great opportunity to calibrate model parameters for evolved stars. Our study focuses on six Kepler red giants with the goal of calibrating the mixing-length parameter of convection as well as the asteroseismic surface term in models. We introduce a new method to improve the identification of oscillation modes that exploits theoretical frequencies to guide the mode identification (`peak-bagging') stage of the data analysis. Our results indicate that the convective mixing-length parameter (α) is ≈14 per cent larger for red giants than for the Sun, in agreement with recent results from modelling the APOGEE stars. We found that the asteroseismic surface term (i.e. the frequency offset between the observed and predicted modes) correlates with stellar parameters (Teff, log g) and the mixing-length parameter. This frequency offset generally decreases as giants evolve. The two coefficients a-1 and a3 for the inverse and cubic terms that have been used to describe the surface term correction are found to correlate linearly. The effect of the surface term is also seen in the p-g mixed modes; however, established methods for correcting the effect are not able to properly correct the g-dominated modes in late evolved stars.

  3. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, R S A; Groombridge, J J; Zambrana Rojas, V D; Van Damme, P; Gottelli, D; Kundu, S; Bodmer, R; Ariani, C V; Iyengar, A; Jordan, W C

    2011-12-01

    The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, occupies a range including the major drainage basins of South America, yet the degree of structure that exists within and among populations inhabiting these drainages is unknown. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (612bp) and control region (383 bp) genes in order to determine patterns of genetic variation within the species. We found high levels of mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.93 overall) and support for subdivision into four distinct groups of populations, representing important centers of genetic diversity and useful units for prioritizing conservation within the giant otter. We tested these results against the predictions of three hypotheses of Amazonian diversification (Pleistocene Refugia, Paleogeography, and Hydrogeology). While the phylogeographic pattern conformed to the predictions of the Refugia Hypothesis, molecular dating using a relaxed clock revealed the phylogroups diverged from one another between 1.69 and 0.84 Ma, ruling out the influence of Late Pleistocene glacial refugia. However, the role of Plio-Pleistocene climate change could not be rejected. While the molecular dating also makes the influence of geological arches according to the Paleogeography Hypothesis extremely unlikely, the recent Pliocene formation of the Fitzcarrald Arch and its effect of subsequently altering drainage pattern could not be rejected. The data presented here support the interactions of both climatic and hydrological changes resulting from geological activity in the Plio-Pleistocene, in shaping the phylogeographic structure of the giant otter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution process of the Late Silurian–Late Devonian tectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Evolution process of ... Keywords. Tectonic evolution; zircon U–Pb dating; geochemistry; granitoid; Late Silurian–Late Devonian; Qimantagh. ... We obtained 5 zircon U–Pb ages from the Late Silurian–Late Devonian granitoids in the Qimantagh area.

  5. Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy and resection of a giant thymoma in a patient witness of Jehova

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Wu, Ching Feng; de la Torre, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    A rare case of a giant thymoma in a patient witness of Jehova treated by single port thoracoscopic resection is reported. A 78-year-old man with chest pain and mild dyspnea had been previously diagnosed with giant thymoma went to our hospital and asked for second opinion of operation. Computed tomography showed a 12.5 cm ? 9.5 cm ? 10 cm mass in the anterior mediastinum. Under the request of this patient, he is only willing to receive minimal invasive surgery without blood transfusion. Thirty...

  6. Oxygen isotopic evidence for vigorous mixing during the Moon-forming giant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edward D; Kohl, Issaku E; Warren, Paul H; Rubie, David C; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-29

    Earth and the Moon are shown here to have indistinguishable oxygen isotope ratios, with a difference in Δ'(17)O of -1 ± 5 parts per million (2 standard error). On the basis of these data and our new planet formation simulations that include a realistic model for primordial oxygen isotopic reservoirs, our results favor vigorous mixing during the giant impact and therefore a high-energy, high-angular-momentum impact. The results indicate that the late veneer impactors had an average Δ'(17)O within approximately 1 per mil of the terrestrial value, limiting possible sources for this late addition of mass to the Earth-Moon system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    the risk of systemic effects. However, most recommendations are based on extrapolation from findings in younger patients. Comorbidities are very common in patients with late-onset asthma and need to be taken into account in the management of the disease. In conclusion, late-onset asthma is poorly......Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case...... history and spirometry), it is important to acknowledge that elderly individuals are likely to have diminished bronchodilator reversibility and some degree of fixed airflow obstruction. Elderly individuals, therefore, often require further objective tests, including bronchial challenge testing...

  8. The Rise of a Giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    European astronomy has received a tremendous boost with the decision from ESO's governing body to proceed with detailed studies for the European Extremely Large Telescope. This study, with a budget of 57 million euro, will make it possible to start, in three years time, the construction of an optical/infrared telescope with a diameter around 40m that will revolutionise ground-based astronomy. The chosen design is based on a revolutionary concept specially developed for a telescope of this size. "The decision by the ESO Council to go ahead with the design study for an European Extremely Large Telescope is a very exciting one for European astronomy,", said Richard Wade, President of the ESO Council. "Today is a great day because the ESO Council has authorised us to go forward with the final design of the next flagship telescope of ESO,", says Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General. ESO PR Photo 46/06 ESO PR Photo 46/06 The European Extremely Large Telescope (Artist's Impression) Since the end of last year, ESO has been working together with its user community of European astronomers and astrophysicists to define the new giant telescope needed by the middle of the next decade [1]. More than one hundred astronomers from all European countries have been involved throughout 2006, helping the ESO Project Offices to produce a novel concept, in which performance, cost, schedule and risk were carefully evaluated. This fast pace has also been possible thanks to early conceptual studies in Europe (such as the ESO OWL and the EURO-50 studies) and research and development done in collaboration with a large number of European institutes and high-tech industries to develop critical enabling technologies within the framework of the EU FP6 programme and with significant contributions from all partners. Provisionally dubbed E-ELT for the European Extremely Large Telescope, ESO's innovative concept was presented in detail two weeks ago to more than 250 European astronomers at a

  9. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  10. MANAGEMENT OF A RARE RECURRENCE OF DISTAL TIBIAL GIANT CELL TUMOUR BY SANDWICH TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kishanrao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION First described by Jaffe et al in 1940, giant cell tumour (GCT constitutes 20% of all the skeletal neoplasms with a higher rate of recurrence after excision. Most common sites for the involvement are distal femur and proximal tibia followed by the distal end of radius. Ankle and foot involvement is rare <4%. Usually benign, they are locally aggressive and may occasionally undergo malignant transformation. The surgeon needs to strike a balance during treatment between being aggressive in order to reduce the incidence of local recurrence and being conservative in removing the normal bone to attain maximal function. Current literature suggests that intralesional curettage strikes the best balance between controlling disease and preserving optimum function in the majority of the cases though there may be occasions where the extent of the disease mandates resection to ensure adequate disease clearance. We report a case of Giant Cell Tumour of distal end of left Tibia in a 32-year-old female patient. Initially the condition was treated by curettage and bone grafting. But, due to recurrence of the condition within 9 months, she was treated with extended curettage using hydrogen peroxide, burr and bone cement as adjuvants and reconstruction using the “SANDWICH” Technique. At One year follow up there is no recurrence and reasonably good function around the ankle joint is maintained. Primary Giant Cell Tumours have been traditionally treated with curettage of the lesion followed by bone grafts/bone cement. Recurrent cases often require aggressive management. The adjuvant treatment used in our case offered good stability and allowed early mobilization of the ankle joint. This case substantiates the use of bone cement in the treatment of recurrent Giant Cell Tumour of distal tibia whenever the articular integrity is intact with reasonably good functional outcomes. However, a periodic follow-up is still recommended to watch-out for late re-recurrences

  11. Overview and status of the Giant Magellan Telescope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Patrick J.; Fanson, James; Bernstein, Rebecca; Ashby, David; Bigelow, Bruce; Boyadjian, Nune; Bouchez, Antonin; Chauvin, Eric; Donoso, Eduardo; Filgueira, Jose; Goodrich, Robert; Groark, Frank; Jacoby, George; Pearce, Eric

    2016-08-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope Project is in the construction phase. Production of the primary mirror segments is underway with four of the seven required 8.4m mirrors at various stages of completion and materials purchased for segments five and six. Development of the infrastructure at the GMT site at Las Campanas is nearing completion. Power, water, and data connections sufficient to support the construction of the telescope and enclosure are in place and roads to the summit have been widened and graded to support transportation of large and heavy loads. Construction pads for the support buildings have been graded and the construction residence is being installed. A small number of issues need to be resolved before the final design of the telescope structure and enclosure can proceed and the GMT team is collecting the required inputs to the decision making process. Prototyping activities targeted at the active and adaptive optics systems are allowing us to finalize designs before large scale production of components begins. Our technically driven schedule calls for the telescope to be assembled on site in 2022 and to be ready to receive a subset of the primary and secondary mirror optics late in the year. The end date for the project is coupled to the delivery of the final primary mirror segments and the adaptive secondary mirrors that support adaptive optics operations.

  12. Global nutrient transport in a world of giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Christopher E; Roman, Joe; Faurby, Søren; Wolf, Adam; Haque, Alifa; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Malhi, Yadvinder; Dunning, John B; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-26

    The past was a world of giants, with abundant whales in the sea and large animals roaming the land. However, that world came to an end following massive late-Quaternary megafauna extinctions on land and widespread population reductions in great whale populations over the past few centuries. These losses are likely to have had important consequences for broad-scale nutrient cycling, because recent literature suggests that large animals disproportionately drive nutrient movement. We estimate that the capacity of animals to move nutrients away from concentration patches has decreased to about 8% of the preextinction value on land and about 5% of historic values in oceans. For phosphorus (P), a key nutrient, upward movement in the ocean by marine mammals is about 23% of its former capacity (previously about 340 million kg of P per year). Movements by seabirds and anadromous fish provide important transfer of nutrients from the sea to land, totalling ∼150 million kg of P per year globally in the past, a transfer that has declined to less than 4% of this value as a result of the decimation of seabird colonies and anadromous fish populations. We propose that in the past, marine mammals, seabirds, anadromous fish, and terrestrial animals likely formed an interlinked system recycling nutrients from the ocean depths to the continental interiors, with marine mammals moving nutrients from the deep sea to surface waters, seabirds and anadromous fish moving nutrients from the ocean to land, and large animals moving nutrients away from hotspots into the continental interior.

  13. TWENTY-FIVE-GAUGE PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY IN COMPLEX RETINAL DETACHMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH GIANT RETINAL TEAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumawat, Devesh; Bhari, Anju; Chandra, Parijat

    2018-04-01

    To study the structural and functional outcomes of 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy in giant retinal tear-associated retinal detachments. Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with giant retinal tear, who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy over a period of 15 months at a tertiary eye care center by a single surgeon, were recruited in this retrospective interventional study. Giant retinal tears were mostly traumatic (35.3%) or associated with myopia (35.3%) and occurred in young (mean age 25.7 years) males (94.1%). Most eyes had best-corrected visual acuity ≤20/1,200 (in 82.3%), foveal detachment (in 88.2%), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy ≤Grade B (in 82.3%). The giant retinal tear extent was more than 180° in 29.4% and the fellow eye was involved in 35.2% of eyes. All eyes underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with encircling band in 41.1%, perfluorocarbon liquid use in 82.3%, and endotamponade with sulphur hexafluoride (23.6%) or silicone oil (76.4%). At mean follow-up of 10.2 months, reattachment rate was 88.2%. Only 35.2% of eyes achieved final visual acuity ≥20/80 with a cause of poor vision being cataract, secondary glaucoma, macular pucker, and corneal edema. Twenty-five-gauge pars plana vitrectomy can achieve excellent attachment rates in eyes with giant retinal tear-associated retinal detachment. It can be as efficient as larger-gauge vitrectomy, at the same time retaining all advantages of smaller-gauge surgery.

  14. Neglected giant fibroadenoma of the breast presenting like a fungating breast cancer in a premenarchal Nigerian teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arowolo, O A; Akinkuolie, A A; Adisa, A O; Obonna, G C; Olasode, B J

    2012-01-01

    Giant fibroadenoma of the breast is a type of rare benign breast tumour which can grow to a giant size, It is even rarer for this benign tumour to grow rapidly, ulcerate spontaneously and present like a fungating breast tumour in a way mimicking breast cancer. Carcinoma of the breast on the other hand has been on the increase so much that it has assumed an epidemiological dimension. In developing country such as Nigeria late presentation of breast cancer has remained a rule rather than exception and it is very common for patient to present with fungating breast lesion. This is a case presentation of a 14 year old premenarchal girl presenting with a massive ulcerating and fungating left breast mass that was initially thought to be a fungating locally advanced breast carcinoma on clinical examination. Further examination of the morphology of the resected surgical specimen and histological examination confirmed it to be giant fibroadenoma of the breast. The giant fungating breast tumour successfully managed by partial mastectomy and breast reconstruction with an excellent result and a high degree of patient satisfaction was achieved. Though a rare clinical entity benign breast tumour can present like a fungating breast cancer and this must be bore in mind especially in young adolescent patients presenting with ulcerating breast tumour.

  15. The discoveries of WASP-91b, WASP-105b and WASP-107b: Two warm Jupiters and a planet in the transition region between ice giants and gas giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Lendl, M.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Madhusudhan, N.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Turner, O. D.; Udry, S.; West, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    We report the discoveries of three transiting exoplanets. WASP-91b is a warm Jupiter (1.34 MJup, 1.03 RJup) in a 2.8-day orbit around a metal-rich K3 star. WASP-105b is a warm Jupiter (1.8 MJup, 0.96 RJup) in a 7.9-day orbit around a metal-rich K2 star. WASP-107b is a warm super-Neptune/sub-Saturn (0.12 MJup, 0.94 RJup) in a 5.7-day orbit around a solar-metallicity K6 star. Considering that giant planets seem to be more common around stars of higher metallicity and stars of higher mass, it is notable that the hosts are all metal-rich, late-type stars. With orbital separations that place both WASP-105b and WASP-107b in the weak-tide regime, measurements of the alignment between the planets' orbital axes and their stars' spin axes may help us to understand the inward migration of short-period, giant planets. The mass of WASP-107b (2.2 MNep, 0.40 MSat) places it in the transition region between the ice giants and gas giants of the Solar System. Its radius of 0.94 RJup suggests that it is a low-mass gas giant with a H/He-dominated composition. The planet thus sets a lower limit of 2.2 MNep on the planetary mass above which large gaseous envelopes can be accreted and retained by proto-planets on their way to becoming gas giants. We may discover whether WASP-107b more closely resembles an ice giant or a gas giant by measuring its atmospheric metallicity via transmission spectroscopy, for which WASP-107b is a very good target. Based on observations made with: the WASP-South photometric survey instrument, the 0.6-m TRAPPIST robotic imager, and the EulerCam camera and the CORALIE spectrograph mounted on the 1.2-m Euler-Swiss telescope.The photometric time-series and radial-velocity data used in this work are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/604/A110

  16. Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic thymectomy and resection of a giant thymoma in a patient witness of Jehova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego; Wu, Ching Feng; de la Torre, Mercedes

    2017-06-01

    A rare case of a giant thymoma in a patient witness of Jehova treated by single port thoracoscopic resection is reported. A 78-year-old man with chest pain and mild dyspnea had been previously diagnosed with giant thymoma went to our hospital and asked for second opinion of operation. Computed tomography showed a 12.5 cm × 9.5 cm × 10 cm mass in the anterior mediastinum. Under the request of this patient, he is only willing to receive minimal invasive surgery without blood transfusion. Thirty-six hours after surgical resection, the patient safely discharged from our hospital without complication. Pathological diagnosis indicated a thymoma without capsular invasion, and a diagnosis of Masaoka stage I thymoma was made. Giant mediastinal thymoma is not rare, but how to perform minimal invasive surgery without complication and blood transfusion is a great challenge even for an experienced surgeon.

  17. Electroexcitation of giant resonances in 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, R.S.; Auer, I.P.; Bergstrom, J.C.; Caplan, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The giant resonance region of 181 Ta has been investigated by means of inelastic electron scattering with primary electron energies of 79.1 to 118.3 MeV. A peak-fitting procedure was employed to separate the measured spectrum into nine different resonance components. Multipolarity and strength assignments were deduced using DWBA analysis with the Goldhaber-Teller and Steinwedel-Jensen models. In addition to the well-known giant dipole structure, other resonances were identified at 23.2+-0.3 MeV (E2), 9.5+-0.2 and 11.5+-0.2 MeV (E2 or E0), 19.5+-0.8 MeV (E3), 3.70+-0.14 MeV (E3 or E4), and 5.40+-0.15 MeV (E4 or E5). The model dependence of the analysis is discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Tracheostomy in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, Benjamin M; Newton, Alisa; Hinshaw, Keith C; Klide, Alan M

    2008-12-01

    Anesthesia in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) may be complicated by apnea. Although emergent orotracheal intubation may be possible in other species, the particular anatomy of the anteater prevents a smooth intubation. A technique, developed on a cadaver model, is described for a surgical approach to the trachea of the giant anteater that may be used to secure an airway in an anesthetized animal under emergent conditions. The approach is complicated by the presence of the large paired submaxillary salivary gland and the relatively deep and caudal position of the larynx relative to the ramus of the mandible. This procedure, however, appears to be a feasible method to achieve endotracheal intubation in the anteater.

  19. Giant peripheral osteoma of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kachewar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osseous expansion of any body part is an unwelcome guest and deep are its impacts when it is located on the face. The bigger the lesion, the more bitter is the psycho-social trauma to the affected individual. This article describes the case of a 50 year old female who presented with painless swelling of the right submandibular region manifesting as a dreadful cosmetic disfigurement. The mass had been progressing slowly for the last 15 years. Imaging showed a giant peripheral osteoma of 10.8 cm involving buccal and lingual surface of the body, ramus, angle and inferior border of the right side of mandible. To the best of our knowledge, a giant peripheral osteoma of mandible having size more than 10 cm has never been reported earlier.

  20. Photon scattering by the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; McKeown, R.D.; Specht, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although many features of the giant dipole resonance are well known, the coupling between the basic dipole oscillation and other nuclear collective degrees of freedom such as surface vibrations and rotations is poorly understood. This aspect was investigated by elastic and inelastic bremsstrahlung scattering of tagged photons over the energy range 15 to 22 MeV. Target nuclei were 60 Ni, 52 Cr, 56 Fe, 92 Mo, and 96 Mo. Scattering and absorption cross sections are tabulated, along with parameters obtained from a two-Lorentzian analysis of the scattering cross sections; measured spectra are shown. It was necessary to remove Thomson scattering from the experimental results. It was found that coupling to surface vibrations in the giant dipole resonance is much weaker than the dynamic collective model suggests. The elastic scattering cross section for all targets but 60 Ni showed structure that is not evident in the absorption cross section measurement. 12 figures, 2 tables

  1. Thermal escape from extrasolar giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Tommi T; Lavvas, Panayotis; Harris, Matthew J; Yelle, Roger V

    2014-04-28

    The detection of hot atomic hydrogen and heavy atoms and ions at high altitudes around close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) such as HD209458b implies that these planets have hot and rapidly escaping atmospheres that extend to several planetary radii. These characteristics, however, cannot be generalized to all close-in EGPs. The thermal escape mechanism and mass loss rate from EGPs depend on a complex interplay between photochemistry and radiative transfer driven by the stellar UV radiation. In this study, we explore how these processes change under different levels of irradiation on giant planets with different characteristics. We confirm that there are two distinct regimes of thermal escape from EGPs, and that the transition between these regimes is relatively sharp. Our results have implications for thermal mass loss rates from different EGPs that we discuss in the context of currently known planets and the detectability of their upper atmospheres.

  2. Study of giant resonances in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, M.I.C.

    1986-01-01

    The electrodisintegration cross section for 181 Ta, 208 Pb and 209 Bi was measured by counting the emitted neutrons, with incident electrons in the energy range 8-22 MeV. The data was analysed using the virtual photon method, in order to obtain a multipole decomposition and the intensities of Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole, isoscalar and isovector, in the Giant Resonance. The results obtained for the isovector Giant Quadrupole Resonance are compared with the measured photodisintegration cross section, using data from Saclay and Livermore. This comparision indicates that the photodisintegration data can be well explained assuming an isovector E2 Resonance located between 120 and 130 A -1/3 MeV, with an intensity of one isovector E2 sum. (author) [pt

  3. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  4. Mengapa Late Childhood Merokok?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriyani Taryaka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is set to determine the cause of late childhood smoking and whether the factor behind late child hood smoking is the same with teenagers. The background of this research are the findings of Tobacco Control Support Center that 3 out of 10 students are found to be smoking before reaching the age of 10. This research uses qualitative case study research through observation and in-depth direct interview towards 3 male subjects aged 11 who smokes every day. Results show that the 3 subjects smoke due to personal factor, friends, family and cigarette advertisements. Most of the factor behind the smoking behavior are found to be in the sociogenic motive category. Therefore, it could be concluded that the smoking behavior of the 3 subjects is not purely from the personal factor, but more of the environmental factor having big part in creating smoking behavior in the 3 subjects. Factors behind smoking behavior of the three late childhood subjects and teenagers have a lot in common. Friend factor is the first driving factor of smoking behavior on both late childhood and teenager. 

  5. Loneliness among Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Bruce; Skomski, Grant G.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed extent of loneliness among late adolescent college students (N=559). Findings suggest that, although moderate loneliness was reported by most participants, number of respondents evidenced high degree of loneliness. Comparison of lonely and nonlonely adolescents yielded relatively few significant differences. Lonely and nonlonely…

  6. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a

  7. Giant polypoid gastric heterotopia of jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Ramchandra Shenovi Mandrekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric tissue has been described in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract as an incidental finding. However, its presentation as a mass in the jejunum with obstructive manifestations is a rare event. We report here a rare case of giant polypoid gastric heterotopia in the jejunum that presented with intestinal obstruction in a 22-year-old female, along with a brief review of the literature.

  8. The overshoot problem and giant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzhaki, Nissan

    2008-01-01

    Models of small-field inflation often suffer from the overshoot problem. A particularly efficient resolution to the problem was proposed recently in the context of string theory. We show that this resolution predicts the existence of giant spherically symmetric overdense regions with radius of at least 110 Mpc. We argue that if such structures will be found they could offer an experimental window into string theory.

  9. Giant osteoblastoma of temporal bone: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIGUEIREDO EBERVAL GADELHA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign osteoblastoma is an uncommon bone tumor accounting for approximately 1% of all bone tumors. There are only 35 cases of skull osteoblastoma reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 23 year old male with a giant osteoblastoma of temporal bone submitted to a total removal of the tumor after an effective embolization of all external carotid branches. The authors discuss diagnostic and management aspects of this uncommon skull tumor.

  10. Bilateral giant abdominoscrotal hydroceles complicated by appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarram, Sai G.; Dipietro, Michael A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Graziano, Kathleen; Mychaliska, George B. [University of Michigan, Department of Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Abdominoscrotal hydrocele is a rare entity, with fewer than 100 cases reported in children. Bilateral abdominoscrotal hydroceles are even less common, with 14 cases reported in children. Various complications of abdominoscrotal hydrocele have been reported in the literature. We present a 4-month-old boy with bilateral giant abdominoscrotal hydroceles who developed appendicitis apparently because of obstruction from the right hydrocele. We discuss the various imaging modalities used to establish the diagnosis and plan the operative approach. (orig.)

  11. Squid Giant Axons Synthesize NF Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Marianna; Chun, Jong Tai; Giuditta, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Squid giant axon has been an excellent model system for studying fundamental topics in neurobiology such as neuronal signaling. It has been also useful in addressing the questions of local protein synthesis in the axons. Incubation of isolated squid giant axons with [ 35 S]methionine followed by immunoprecipitation with a rabbit antibody against all squid neurofilament (NF) proteins demonstrates the local synthesis of a major 180 kDa NF protein and of several NF proteins of lower molecular weights. Their identification as NF proteins is based on their absence in the preimmune precipitates. Immunoprecipitates washed with more stringent buffers confirmed these results. Our data are at variance with a recent study based on the same experimental procedure that failed to visualize the local synthesis of NF proteins by the giant axon and thereby suggested their exclusive derivation from nerve cell bodies (as reported by Gainer et al. in Cell Mol Neurobiol 37:475-486, 2017). By reviewing the pertinent literature, we confute the claims that mRNA translation is absent in mature axons because of a putative translation block and that most proteins of mature axons are synthesized in the surrounding glial cells. Given the intrinsic axonal capacity to synthesize proteins, we stress the glial derivation of axonal and presynaptic RNAs and the related proposal that these neuronal domains are endowed with largely independent gene expression systems (as reported by Giuditta et al. in Physiol Rev 88:515-555, 2008).

  12. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  13. Rare cause of odynophagia: Giant esophageal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Aprile, Giuseppe; Amore, Francesca F; Corona, Daniela; Giaquinta, Alessia; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2016-04-14

    Gastrointestinal complications are a frequent cause of morbidity after transplantation and may affect up to 40% of kidney transplant recipients. Here we report a rare case of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in a kidney transplant recipient. A 37-year-old female presented with a one-week history of odynophagia and weight loss. Upon admission, the patient presented cold sores, and a quantitative cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction was positive (10(5) copies/mL). An upper endoscopy demonstrated the presence of a giant ulcer. Serological test and tissue biopsies were unable to demonstrate an infectious origin of the ulcer. Immunosuppression was reduced and everolimus was introduced. An empirical i.v. therapy with acyclovir was started, resulting in a dramatic improvement in symptoms and complete healing of the ulcer. Only two cases of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in kidney transplant recipients have been reported in the literature; in both cases, steroid therapy was successful without recurrence of symptoms or endoscopic findings. However, this report suggests that correction of immune imbalance is mandatory to treat such a rare complication.

  14. [Giant cell reparative granuloma of the skull].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhong, D; Liu, L; Sun, C; Han, D; Yang, W

    2000-02-01

    To investigate the clinical course, histologic feature, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment of giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG). Three cases of GCRG, which arose in the skull, were collected from 1987 to 1999 and analyzed clinicopathologically. Two patients had the lesion in the temporal bone and one in the orbit. One patient with GCRG had a recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. Histologically, all of three cases were characterized by fibroblastic proliferation with osteoclast-like giant cell rich areas, hemorrage, and newly formed bone or osteoid trabeculae. GCRG appeared as a typical bony lytic lesion on computed tomography (CT) and as low signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). GCRG is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that typically arises in mandible and maxilla and its involvement in skull is rare. Although behaves benignly, GCRG may be locally aggresive. It is usually misdiagnosed for a giant cell tumor (GCT). Diagnosis of GCRG is based on typical histologic features as well as clinical information. Complete surgical resection is believed to be the most suitable treatment for GCRG and long-term follow-up by CT scanning is essential.

  15. Bloodless Operation for a Giant Hydrocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    A new hydrocele eversion technique designed for treating giant hydroceles (fluid content over 3 L) is described. The technique takes advantage of the existence of an avascular, loose areolar plane between the external and internal spermatic fascia within which a subdartos-cremasteric pouch is developed. The hydrocele fluid is drained through a trochar and cannula, and the tunica vaginalis is everted and then quilted with 2/0 chromic catgut. The testis and the quilted tunica are placed in the subdartos-cremasteric pouch and the incision is closed. The quilting of the tunica vaginalis not only prevents reinversion of the sac, but, together with the tight fit of the pouch around the sac, it also reduces the potential space into which postoperative seroma can accumulate. This technique is particularly useful when fibrous adhesions develop between the tunica vaginalis and the subjacent spermatic fascia in giant hydroceles. No drains or external pressure dressing are required, and the technique has been used in 14 giant hydroceles with no complications or recurrence. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:3351971

  16. Late effects of thoracic irradiation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boelling, T.; Koenemann, S.; Ernst, I.; Willich, N. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital of Muenster (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Purpose: to summarize the literature regarding the late effects of radiotherapy to the thorax in childhood and adolescence with special emphasis on cardiac and pulmonary impairment. Material und methods: the literature was critically reviewed using the PubMed {sup registered} database with the key words 'late effects', 'late sequelae', 'child', 'childhood', 'adolescence', 'radiation', 'radiotherapy', 'thorax', 'lung', 'heart', and 'pulmonary'. Results: 17 publications dealing with radiation-induced pulmonary and cardiac late sequelae in children could be identified and were analyzed in detail. 29 further publications with additional information were also included in the analysis. Pulmonary function impairment after mediastinal irradiation arose in one third of all pediatric patients, even when treatment was performed with normofractionated lower doses (15-25 Gy). Whole lung irradiation was regularly followed by pulmonary function impairment with differing rates in several reports. However, clinically symptomatic function impairment like dyspnea was less frequent. Irradiation of up to 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2 Gy) to the heart showed little or no cardiac toxicity in analyses of irradiated children (median follow-up 1.3-14.3 years). Doses of > 25 Gy (single doses {<=} 2-3.3 Gy) led to several cardiac dysfunctions. However, new data from adults with longer follow-up may indicate threshold doses as low as 1 Gy. Impairment of skeletal growth, breast hypoplasia, and secondary malignancy were further potential late sequelae. Conclusion: several retrospective reports described radiation-associated late sequelae in children. However, there is still a lack of sufficient data regarding the characterization of dose-volume effects. (orig.)

  17. Leader-to-leader splicing is required for efficient production and accumulation of polyomavirus late mRNAs.

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, G R; Marlor, C W; Barrett, N L; Carmichael, G G

    1989-01-01

    Polyomavirus late mRNA molecules contain multiple, tandem copies of a noncoding 57-base "late leader" exon at their 5' ends. This exon is encoded only once in the genome. Leader multiplicity arises from leader-leader splicing in giant primary transcripts, which are the result of multiple circuits of the viral genome by RNA polymerase II. We have been interested in learning more about the role of the leader exon in late viral gene expression. We recently showed that an abbreviated-leader mutan...

  18. Determination of Baylisascaris schroederi infection in wild giant pandas by an accurate and sensitive PCR/CE-SSCP method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available It has been recognized that other than habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, the infection of the roundworm Baylisascaris schroederi (B. schroederi is one of the major causes of death in wild giant pandas. However, the prevalence and intensity of the parasite infection has been inconsistently reported through a method that uses sedimentation-floatation followed by a microscope examination. This method fails to accurately determine infection because there are many bamboo residues and/or few B. schroederi eggs in the examined fecal samples. In the present study, we adopted a method that uses PCR and capillary electrophoresis combined with a single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (PCR/CE-SSCP to detect B. schroederi infection in wild giant pandas at a nature reserve, and compared it to the traditional microscope approach. The PCR specifically amplified a single band of 279-bp from both fecal samples and positive controls, which was confirmed by sequence analysis to correspond to the mitochondrial COII gene of B. schroederi. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the amount of genomic DNA was linearly correlated with the peak area of the CE-SSCP analysis. Thus, our adopted method can reliably detect the infectious prevalence and intensity of B. schroederi in wild giant pandas. The prevalence of B. schroederi was found to be 54% in the 91 fecal samples examined, and 48% in the fecal samples of 31 identified individual giant pandas. Infectious intensities of the 91 fecal samples were detected to range from 2.8 to 959.2 units/gram, and from 4.8 to 959.2 units/gram in the fecal samples of the 31 identified giant pandas. For comparison, by using the traditional microscope method, the prevalence of B. schroederi was found to be only 33% in the 91 fecal samples, 32% in the fecal samples of the 31 identified giant pandas, and no reliable infectious intensity was observed.

  19. Determination of Baylisascaris schroederi infection in wild giant pandas by an accurate and sensitive PCR/CE-SSCP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenping; Yie, Shangmian; Yue, Bisong; Zhou, Jielong; An, Renxiong; Yang, Jiangdong; Chen, Wangli; Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Fujun; Yang, Guangyou; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2012-01-01

    It has been recognized that other than habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, the infection of the roundworm Baylisascaris schroederi (B. schroederi) is one of the major causes of death in wild giant pandas. However, the prevalence and intensity of the parasite infection has been inconsistently reported through a method that uses sedimentation-floatation followed by a microscope examination. This method fails to accurately determine infection because there are many bamboo residues and/or few B. schroederi eggs in the examined fecal samples. In the present study, we adopted a method that uses PCR and capillary electrophoresis combined with a single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (PCR/CE-SSCP) to detect B. schroederi infection in wild giant pandas at a nature reserve, and compared it to the traditional microscope approach. The PCR specifically amplified a single band of 279-bp from both fecal samples and positive controls, which was confirmed by sequence analysis to correspond to the mitochondrial COII gene of B. schroederi. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the amount of genomic DNA was linearly correlated with the peak area of the CE-SSCP analysis. Thus, our adopted method can reliably detect the infectious prevalence and intensity of B. schroederi in wild giant pandas. The prevalence of B. schroederi was found to be 54% in the 91 fecal samples examined, and 48% in the fecal samples of 31 identified individual giant pandas. Infectious intensities of the 91 fecal samples were detected to range from 2.8 to 959.2 units/gram, and from 4.8 to 959.2 units/gram in the fecal samples of the 31 identified giant pandas. For comparison, by using the traditional microscope method, the prevalence of B. schroederi was found to be only 33% in the 91 fecal samples, 32% in the fecal samples of the 31 identified giant pandas, and no reliable infectious intensity was observed.

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the face: surgical management and challenges for reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaiti, A; Mijiti, A; Yarbag, A; Moming, A

    2016-02-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma, in which the tumour measures 5 cm or greater in diameter, is a very rare skin malignancy that accounts for less than 1 per cent of all basal cell tumours. Very few studies have reported on the incidence, resection and reconstruction of this lesion worldwide. In total, 17 patients with giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck region underwent surgical excision and reconstruction at our hospital. Medical charts were retrospectively reviewed and analysed. The lesion was usually in the forehead, eyelid, lips or nasal-cheek region. The greatest diameter ranged from 5 to 11 cm, with 5-6 cm being the most common size at the time of presentation. All patients had their tumour resected and reconstructed in a single-stage procedure, mostly with a local advancement flap, and with no post-operative flap failure. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck can be successfully treated with a local flap in a single-stage approach.

  1. Red giants and yellow stragglers in the young open cluster NGC 2447

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, M. D.; Pereira, C. B.; Drake, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    In this work we analyzed, using high-resolution spectroscopy, a sample of 12 single and 4 spectroscopic binary stars of the open cluster NGC 2447. For the single stars we obtained atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of Li, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Si, Ti, Ni, Cr, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Eu. Rotational velocities were obtained for all the stars. The abundances of the light elements and Eu and the rotational velocities were derived using spectral synthesis technique. We obtained a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.17 ±0.04. We found that the abundances of all elements are similar to field giants and/or giants of open clusters, even for the s-process elements, which are enhanced as in other young open clusters. We show that the spectroscopic binaries NGC 2447-26, 38 and 42 are yellow-straggler stars, of which the primary is a giant star and the secondary a main-sequence A-type star.

  2. Giant arachnoid granulation in a patient with benign intracranial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Denizli (Turkey)

    2008-10-15

    We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  3. Giant arachnoid granulation in a patient with benign intracranial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiroglu, Yilmaz; Yaqci, Baki; Cirak, Bayram; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2008-01-01

    We report magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT) and angiographic imaging of an unusual giant arachnoid granulation in the superior sagittal sinus in a man with headache and vertigo. Intrasinus pressure measurements revealed a significant pressure gradient across the lesion. MR imaging is useful to identify giant arachnoid granulation and dural sinus thrombosis, whereas dural sinus pressure measurement in certain cases of giant arachnoid granulations can be used to evaluate the lesion as the cause of the patient's symptoms. (orig.)

  4. Do giant oilfield discoveries fuel internal armed conflicts?

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hsiang Lei; Guy Michaels

    2011-01-01

    We use new data to examine the effects of giant oilfield discoveries around the world since 1946. On average, these discoveries increase per capita oil production and oil exports by up to 50 percent. But these giant oilfield discoveries also have a dark side: they increase the incidence of internal armed conflict by about 5-8 percentage points. This increased incidence of conflict due to giant oilfield discoveries is especially high for countries that had already experienced armed conflicts o...

  5. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior.

  6. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  7. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean sl...

  8. Observing giant panda habitat and forage abundance from space

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, T.

    2009-01-01

    Giant pandas are obligate bamboo grazers. The bamboos favoured by giant pandas are typical forest understorey plants. Therefore, the availability and abundance of understorey bamboo is a key factor in determining the quantity and quality of giant panda food resources. However, there is little or no information about the spatial distribution or abundance of bamboo underneath the forest canopy, due to the limitations of traditional ground survey and remote sensing classification techniques. In ...

  9. Giant Persistent Photoconductivity of the WO3 Nanowires in Vacuum Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Kai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A giant persistent photoconductivity (PPC phenomenon has been observed in vacuum condition based on a single WO3 nanowire and presents some interesting results in the experiments. With the decay time lasting for 1 × 104 s, no obvious current change can be found in vacuum, and a decreasing current can be only observed in air condition. When the WO3 nanowires were coated with 200 nm SiO2 layer, the photoresponse almost disappeared. And the high bias and high electric field effect could not reduce the current in vacuum condition. These results show that the photoconductivity of WO3 nanowires is mainly related to the oxygen adsorption and desorption, and the semiconductor photoconductivity properties are very weak. The giant PPC effect in vacuum condition was caused by the absence of oxygen molecular. And the thermal effect combining with oxygen re-adsorption can reduce the intensity of PPC.

  10. M-giant star candidates identified in LAMOST DR 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jing; Li, Jing; Chen, Li; Hou, Jin-Liang; Lépine, Sébastien; Yang, Ming; Li, Guang-Wei; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    We perform a discrimination procedure with the spectral index diagram of TiO5 and CaH2+CaH3 to separate M giants from M dwarfs. Using the M giant spectra identified from LAMOST DR1 with high signal-to-noise ratio, we have successfully assembled a set of M giant templates, which show more reliable spectral features. Combining with the M dwarf/subdwarf templates in Zhong et al., we present an extended library of M-type templates which includes not only M dwarfs with a well-defined temperature and metallicity grid but also M giants with subtypes from M0 to M6. Then, the template-fitting algorithm is used to automatically identify and classify M giant stars from LAMOST DR1. The resulting catalog of M giant stars is cross-matched with 2MASS JHK s and WISE W1/W2 infrared photometry. In addition, we calculated the heliocentric radial velocity of all M giant stars by using the cross-correlation method with the template spectrum in a zero-velocity rest frame. Using the relationship between the absolute infrared magnitude M J and our classified spectroscopic subtype, we derived the spectroscopic distance of M giants with uncertainties of about 40%. A catalog of 8639 M giants is provided. As an additional result of this analysis, we also present a catalog of 101 690 M dwarfs/subdwarfs which are processed by our classification pipeline. (paper)

  11. Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Mandell, Avi M; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2006-09-08

    Close-in giant planets (e.g., "hot Jupiters") are thought to form far from their host stars and migrate inward, through the terrestrial planet zone, via torques with a massive gaseous disk. Here we simulate terrestrial planet growth during and after giant planet migration. Several-Earth-mass planets also form interior to the migrating jovian planet, analogous to recently discovered "hot Earths." Very-water-rich, Earth-mass planets form from surviving material outside the giant planet's orbit, often in the habitable zone and with low orbital eccentricities. More than a third of the known systems of giant planets may harbor Earth-like planets.

  12. Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical presentation of 3 cases. Mohamed Rami, Abdelhalim Mahmoudi, Aziz El Madi, Khalid Khattala, Moulay Abderrahmane Afifi, Youssef Bouabdallah ...

  13. Spatial and temporal activity patterns of the free-living giant mole-rat (Fukomys mechowii, the largest social bathyergid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matěj Lövy

    Full Text Available Despite the considerable attention devoted to the biology of social species of African mole-rats (Bathyergidae, Rodentia, knowledge is lacking about their behaviour under natural conditions. We studied activity of the largest social bathyergid, the giant mole-rat Fukomys mechowii, in its natural habitat in Zambia using radio-telemetry. We radio-tracked six individuals during three continuous 72-h sessions. Five of these individuals, including a breeding male, belonged to a single family group; the remaining female was probably a solitary disperser. The non-breeders of the family were active (i.e. outside the nest 5.8 hours per 24h-day with the activity split into 6.5 short bouts. The activity was more concentrated in the night hours, when the animals also travelled longer distances from the nest. The breeding male spent only 3.2 hours per day outside the nest, utilizing less than 20% of the whole family home range. The dispersing female displayed a much different activity pattern than the family members. Her 8.0 hours of outside-nest activity per day were split into 4.6 bouts which were twice as long as in the family non-breeders. Her activity peak in the late afternoon coincided with the temperature maximum in the depth of 10 cm (roughly the depth of the foraging tunnels. Our results suggest that the breeding individuals (at least males contribute very little to the work of the family group. Nevertheless, the amount of an individual's activity and its daily pattern are probably flexible in this species and can be modified in response to actual environmental and social conditions.

  14. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  15. Giant electric field controlled magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 thin film heterostructures on single crystal Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Yang, Yaodong; Viswan, Ravindranath; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

    2011-07-01

    We have deposited self-assembled BiFeO3 (BFO)-CoFe2O4 (CFO) thin films on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates and studied the change in magnetic anisotropy under different strain conditions induced by an applied electric field. After electric field poling, we observed (i) giant magnetization change: magnetization of original CFO phase is three times larger than that of strained one and (ii) magnetic force microscopy line profiles that exhibited significant change in the CFO magnetic domain response in accordance to magnetization-field (M-H) loops. Together, these results demonstrate good control of the magnetic properties of CFO via an electric field induced strain.

  16. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Late effects are by definition effects that occur at least one year, and in most cases decades, after the time of exposure. The late effects considered in this chapter are limited to latent cancer incidence and mortality, and benign thyroid disease. A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from the radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. It is assumed that exposure to high-LET radiation would be negligible in such an accident, and thus only risks from low-LET exposure are evaluated. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, bone cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, skin cancer, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. Because the time of death is also important in assessing the impact of an accident, and because the quality of life after the occurrence of cancer will often be reduced, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated

  17. On-pump coronary surgery with and without cardioplegic arrest: comparison of inflammation, myocardial, cerebral and renal injury and early and late health outcome in a single-centre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pradeep; Rogers, Chris A; Bayliss, Kate M; Rahaman, Natasha C; Panayiotou, Nayia; Angelini, Gianni D; Ascione, Raimondo

    2011-05-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of on-pump beating heart coronary surgery on organ function, and early and late health outcome as compared with conventional technique. A total of 81 patients were randomised to (1) coronary surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardioplegic arrest (CA) (on-pump with CA, n=41) or to (2) CPB without CA (on-pump without CA, n=40). Primary outcomes included serial measurement of interleukins (IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) for inflammation, troponin I for myocardial injury, protein S100 for cerebral injury and creatinine clearance (CrCl) and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) for renal injury. In-hospital health outcome and 5-year event-free survival were secondary outcomes. Baseline and intra-operative characteristics were similar between groups. A marked release of ILs was observed in both groups, but no significant differences between the groups were found (IL-6 +9%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -15% to +39%, p=0.49; IL-8 +4%, 95% CI -34% to +63%, p=0.86; IL-10 -0.1%, 95% CI -19% to +21%, p=0.93). Troponin I rose in both groups and was on average 34% higher in the on-pump without CA group but this did not reach statistical significance (95% CI -0.4% to +87%, p=0.08). S100 protein was higher in the on-pump without CA group at 12h (p=0.04) but did not differ at other times (p=0.16). The level of CrCl was higher 1h in the on-pump without CA group (+23%, 95% CI +1% to +50%, p=0.04), but not thereafter. NAG release was similar in both groups (+1% 95% CI -23% to +33%, p=0.91). Early and 5-year health outcomes were similar. On-pump without CA coronary surgery does not provide any obvious advantage when compared with the conventional technique of on-pump with CA in elective patients. Both techniques provide a comparable degree of inflammatory activation, myocardial, cerebral and renal injury with similar 5-year event-free survival. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Should the Endangered Status of the Giant Panda Really Be Reduced? The Case of Giant Panda Conservation in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent reports of giant panda protection efforts in Sichuan Province, China, combined with the survey results from 927 households within and adjacent to the giant panda reserves in this area. The results showed that household attitudes were very positive regarding giant panda protection efforts. Over the last 10 years, farmers’ dependence on the natural resources provided by giant panda reserves significantly decreased. However, socio-economic development increased resource consumption, and led to climate change, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, and other issues that placed increased pressure on giant panda populations. This difference between local and regional scales must be considered when evaluating the IUCN status of giant pandas. While the status of this species has improved in the short-term due to positive local attitudes, large-scale socio-economic development pressure could have long-term negative impacts. Consequently, the IUCN assessment leading to the classification of giant panda as “vulnerable” instead of “endangered”, should not affect its conservation intensity and effort, as such actions could negatively impact population recovery efforts, leading to the extinction of this charismatic species.

  19. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  20. Ultra-Low Power Optical Transistor Using a Single Quantum Dot Embedded in a Photonic Wire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, H.A.; Grange, T.; Malik, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons.......Using a single InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic wire, we realize a giant non-linearity between two optical modes to experimentally demonstrate an all-optical transistor triggered by 10 photons....

  1. Electrified BPS giants: BPS configurations on giant gravitons with static electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad Mahdi

    2007-01-01

    We consider D3-brane action in the maximally supersymmetric type IIB plane-wave background. Upon fixing the light-cone gauge, we obtain the light-cone Hamiltonian which is manifestly supersymmetric. The 1/2 BPS solutions of this theory (solutions which preserve 16 supercharges) are either of the form of spherical three branes, the giant gravitons, or zero size point like branes. We then construct specific classes of 1/4 BPS solutions of this theory in which static electric field on the brane is turned on. These solutions are deformations about either of the two 1/2 BPS solutions. In particular, we study in some detail 1/4 BPS configurations with electric dipole on the three sphere giant, i.e. BIons on the giant gravitons, which we hence call BIGGons. We also study BPS configurations corresponding to turning on a background uniform constant electric field. As a result of this background electric field the three sphere giant is deformed to squashed sphere, while the zero size point like branes turn into circular or straight fundamental strings in the plane-wave background, with their tension equal to the background electric field

  2. Measuring Precise Radii of Giants Orbiting Giants to Distinguish Between Planet Evolution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunblatt, Samuel; Huber, Daniel; Lopez, Eric; Gaidos, Eric; Livingston, John

    2017-10-01

    Despite more than twenty years since the initial discovery of highly irradiated gas giant planets, the mechanism for planet inflation remains unknown. However, proposed planet inflation mechanisms can now be separated into two general classes: those which allow for post-main sequence planet inflation by direct irradiation from the host star, and those which only allow for slowed cooling of the planet over its lifetime. The recent discovery of two inflated warm Jupiters orbiting red giant stars with the NASA K2 Mission allows distinction between these two classes, but uncertainty in the planet radius blurs this distinction. Observing transits of these planets with the Spitzer Space Telescope would reduce stellar variability and thus planet radius uncertainties by approximately 50% relative to K2, allowing distinction between the two planet inflation model classes at a 3-sigma level. We propose to observe one transit of both known warm Jupiters orbiting red giant stars, K2-97b and EPIC228754001.01, to distinguish between planet model inflation classes and measure the planetary heating efficiency to 3-sigma precision. These systems are benchmarks for the upcoming NASA TESS Mission, which is predicted to discover an order of magnitude more red giant planet systems after launching next year.

  3. Epidemiology and integrated control of Potato Late Blight in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, R.J.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Hermansen, A.; Bain, R.; Bradshaw, N.; Ritchie, F.; Shaw, D.S.; Evenhuis, A.; Kessel, G.J.T.; Wander, J.G.N.; Andersson, B.; Hansen, J.G.; Hannukkala, A.; Naerstad, R.; Nielsen, B.

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is a major threat to potato production in northwestern Europe. Before 1980, the worldwide population of P. infestans outside Mexico appeared to be asexual and to consist of a single clonal lineage of A1 mating type characterized by a single

  4. Giant encephalocele: a study of 14 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, A K

    2011-01-01

    Giant encephalocele is a rare condition and few published reports are available in the English literature. It is a challenge to neurosurgeons, even today. This series consists of 14 patients with giant encephaloceles treated at our institute. Over a period of 8 years, from 2002 to 2009, 110 patients with encephaloceles were managed at our institute. Amongst them, 14 were children with giant encephaloceles. All patients had CT/MRI or both prior to surgery, and all were operated upon. Four patients were neonates, under 1 month of age, and 9/14 patients (64%) were under 3 months. The youngest child was a newborn baby aged 2 days. Except for 1 with an anterior encephalocele, the rest were patients with occipital encephaloceles. A CT scan was performed on 5 and an MRI on 1 patient. Both CT and MRI scans were performed on the other 8 patients. MRI/CT showed hydrocephalus in 10/14 patients. Of these, 7 required ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt, and the remaining 3 with mild to moderate hydrocephalus did not. Of the 7 patients who underwent VP shunt, 5 had a shunt during the encephalocele repair and 2 had a postoperative shunt for increasing hydrocephalus. Other associated anomalies recorded were acquired Chiari malformation in 3 patients, secondary craniostenosis with microcephaly in 5, and syringomyelia in 1 patient. All the patients underwent repair of encephalocele and 4 had suturectomy of coronal suture for the secondary craniostenosis. There were 2 postoperative deaths due to hypothermia. Among the 12 surviving patients, 9 had a good outcome and 3 had poor mental development. The present study shows overall good outcomes in 9/14 (66%) patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r ∼> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems

  6. Monopole Giant Resonances and TDHF boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, P.D.; Almehed, D.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Maruhn, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Using time-dependent Hartree-Fock, we induce isoscalar and isovector monopole vibrations and follow the subsequent vibrations of both the same and opposite isospin nature in the N Z nucleus 132 Sn. By suitable scaling of the proton and neutron parts of the excitation operators, the coupling between the modes is studied, and the approximate normal modes found. Chaotic dynamics are then analysed in the isoscalar giant monopole resonance by using reflecting boundaries in a large space to build up a large number of 0 + states whose spacings are then analysed. A Wigner-like distribution is found

  7. Isotopic dependence of giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar Touv, J.; Moalem, A.; Shlomo, S.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure is presented which allows the application of linear response theory and the random phase approximation to an open shell. The procedure is applied to Ca isotopes. The general features of giant multipole resonances are found to vary smoothly with the mass. The resonances exhibit more structure in the open lfsub(7/2) shell nuclei. While the energy-weighted dipole sum is practically constant in all isotopes, the isoscalar quadrupole and octupole energy weighted sums increase continuously by approx. 30% from 40 Ca to 48 Ca. (orig.)

  8. Temperature dependence of giant dipole resonance width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model extended to finite temperature within the framework of the thermo field dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ d own of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 12S n and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that the width Γ d own increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones existing in the literature

  9. The Fuzziness of Giant Planets’ Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Helled, Ravit; Stevenson, David

    2017-01-01

    Giant planets are thought to have cores in their deep interiors, and the division into a heavy-element core and hydrogen–helium envelope is applied in both formation and structure models. We show that the primordial internal structure depends on the planetary growth rate, in particular, the ratio of heavy elements accretion to gas accretion. For a wide range of likely conditions, this ratio is in one-to-one correspondence with the resulting post-accretion profile of heavy elements within the ...

  10. The fuzziness of giant planets’ cores

    OpenAIRE

    Helled, Ravit; Stevenson, David

    2017-01-01

    Giant planets are thought to have cores in their deep interiors, and the division into a heavy-element core and hydrogen–helium envelope is applied in both formation and structure models. We show that the primordial internal structure depends on the planetary growth rate, in particular, the ratio of heavy elements accretion to gas accretion. For a wide range of likely conditions, this ratio is in one-to-one correspondence with the resulting post-accretion profile of heavy elements within the ...

  11. Hypophosphatemic rickets associated with giant hairy nevus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of multisystem pathologic conditions and epidermal nevi, known as the epidermal nevus syndrome, includes disorders of bone, central nervous system, eye, kidney, vasculature and skin. Rarely, congenital nevomelanocytic nevus also known as hairy nevus has also been reported in association with hypophosphatemic rickets. Studies suggest that phosphaturia, caused by circulating factors, called "phosphatonins" may be secreted by an epidermal or hairy nevus. We report here, a rare case of hypophosphatemic rickets associated with a giant hairy nevus in a 10-year-old boy.

  12. Excess mortality in giant cell arteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgård, C; Sloth, H; Keiding, Niels

    1991-01-01

    A 13-year departmental sample of 34 patients with definite (biopsy-verified) giant cell arteritis (GCA) was reviewed. The mortality of this material was compared to sex-, age- and time-specific death rates in the Danish population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.8 (95% confidence...... with respect to SMR, sex distribution or age. In the group of patients with department-diagnosed GCA (definite + probable = 180 patients), the 95% confidence interval for the SMR of the women included 1.0. In all other subgroups there was a significant excess mortality. Excess mortality has been found in two...

  13. Giant fibroepithelial polyp of the vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Korkmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibroepithelial polyps are among common benign skin lesions. They are usually small and skin-colored lesions and are located frequently in the axilla and neck. They are rarely seen in the vulva. There is a small number of cases that reach the giant sizes in this area in the literature. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a pedunculated mass measuring 25 cm in diameter, localized to the right labium majus. The lesion was excised and the histopathological diagnosis was fibroepithelial polyp. We present this case because of it is the largest reported fibroepithelial polyp of the vulva in the literature.

  14. Giant Submandibular Calculus Eroding Oral Cavity Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Haw Lim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sialolithiasis is the formation of calculi or sialoliths in the salivary gland. It is the most common benign condition of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis can occur in all salivary glands. The submandibular gland is most commonly affected followed by the parotid gland. Calculi commonly measure less than 10 mm. Calculi of more than 15 mm are termed giant salivary gland calculi and are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of unusually large submandibular gland calculus of 5 cm in greatest dimension which caused erosion of the oral cavity.

  15. Morphometric image analysis of giant vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husen, Peter Rasmussen; Arriaga, Laura; Monroy, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a strategy to determine lengths and orientations of tie lines in the coexistence region of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases of cholesterol containing ternary lipid mixtures. The method combines confocal-fluorescence-microscopy image stacks of giant unilamellar vesicles...... (GUVs), a dedicated 3D-image analysis, and a quantitative analysis based in equilibrium thermodynamic considerations. This approach was tested in GUVs composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol. In general, our results show a reasonable...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ail...uropoda_melanoleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_me...lanoleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  17. Giant Submandibular Calculus Eroding Oral Cavity Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eng Haw; Nadarajah, Sanjeevan; Mohamad, Irfan

    2017-09-01

    Sialolithiasis is the formation of calculi or sialoliths in the salivary gland. It is the most common benign condition of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis can occur in all salivary glands. The submandibular gland is most commonly affected followed by the parotid gland. Calculi commonly measure less than 10 mm. Calculi of more than 15 mm are termed giant salivary gland calculi and are infrequently reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of unusually large submandibular gland calculus of 5 cm in greatest dimension which caused erosion of the oral cavity.

  18. Giant cell tumour of the proximal radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A P; Mahajan, S; Singh, A P

    2009-11-01

    A 52-year-old Indian woman presented with a progressively increasing swelling and pain in the right elbow for the past eight months, which was not associated with trauma or constitutional symptoms. The patient was diagnosed to have Campanacci grade III giant cell tumour of the proximal radius, and was treated with above elbow amputation. The patient has not shown any recurrence after five years of follow-up. The case was reported because of its rarity and the unusual site of occurrence of the tumour.

  19. Lyme carditis mimicking giant cell arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krati Chauhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Presenting an interesting case of a patient who complained of myalgias, fatigue, headache, jaw claudication and scalp tenderness. Patient’s physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory findings showed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, bilateral temporal artery biopsy results were negative and first degree atrioventricular block was seen on electrocardiogram. Serology for Borrelia burgdorferi was positive; patient was diagnosed with Lyme carditis and treated with doxycycline. Lyme is a tick-borne, multi-system disease and occasionally its presentation may mimic giant cell arteritis. On follow-up there was complete resolution of symptoms and electrocardiogram findings.

  20. Plaque like giant dermatofibroma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinitha Varghese Panicker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatofibroma, also known as benign fibrous histiocytoma, is a soft-tissue tumour that usually occurs in the mid-adult life and shows a slight female predominance. Giant dermatofibroma, a very rare clinical variant, is characterised by its unusually large size, benign biological behaviour despite its large size and same histopathological characteristics as conventional dermatofibroma. We report a 63-year-old woman who presented with a large tumour on the scapular region which showed histopathological features of benign dermatofibroma.

  1. Giant fibroadenoma presenting like fungating breast cancer in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Giant fibroadenoma of the breast is a rare benign breast tumour which seldom grows to a giant size, it is even rarer for this benign tumour to grow rapidly, ulcerate spontaneously and present like a fungating breast tumour in a way mimicking breast cancer. Case presentation: This is a presentation of a 14 year ...

  2. Giant bladder diverticulum : A rare cause of bladder outlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant bladder diverticula are rare causes of bladder outlet obstruction in children and have rarely been reported. In this paper, we present three children with giant bladder diverticula who presented with bladder outlet obstruction within a year. Micturating cystourethrogram is important for investigating bladder outlet ...

  3. surgical management of aggressive synchronous jaw central giant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... a lymphoma at the initial presentation. There are other lesions that occur in the jaws that contain giant cells within them. These include the aneurysmal ... Endod 2002; 93: 161–166. 8. Harris M. Central giant cell granulomas of the jaws regress with calcitonin therapy. Br J Oral Maxillofac. Surg 1993; 31: ...

  4. The potential significance of binovular follicles and binucleate giant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    No pregnancy was achieved after transfer of an embryo from a binovular follicle. Binucleate giant oocytes have been observed sporadically but a few reports suggest an incidence of up to 0.3% of all gametes retrieved. Extensive studies performed by two independent centres demonstrated that giant oocytes are diploid at ...

  5. Giant lipoma of the right gluteal region | Adebayo | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors and can arise in any location where fat is found. They could present as a tiny swelling or as an enormous mass in a body region. When they are more than 10 cm in their widest dimension or greater than 1 kg in weight, they are called giant lipomas. Giant lipomas ...

  6. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the hallux following enchondroma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign intra osseous lytic lesion occurring especially in gnathis bone but also seen in feet and hands. It has similar clinical and radiological presentations than giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, and hyperparathyroidism brown tumors but with specific ...

  7. in Chinese giant salamander ( Andrias davidianus , Blanchard, 1871)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A disease in farmed Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus) was a common event, being an economically important threat for Chinese farms. Based on the clinical signs, epizootiology and pathogens belonging to the genus, Ranavirus was suspected as the possible etiology. Although in a cultured Chinese giant ...

  8. Wood of Giant Sequoia: properties and unique characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas D. Piirto

    1986-01-01

    Wood properties of giant sequoia (Sequoia gigantea [Lindl.] Decne.) were compared with those for other coniferous tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive content, and decay resistance of young-growth giant sequoia are comparable to or more favorable than those of coast redwood (...

  9. Surgical sterilization of the African giant pouched rats | Werema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to all principles of surgery. This study has demonstrated the three surgical procedures for African Giant pouched rats as being useful to veterinarians in public/private practice and/or in biomedical research facilities. Keywords: Surgical sterilization, ovariectomy, ovariohysterectomy, orchidectomy, African giant pouched rats ...

  10. The hydrogen to helium mixing ratio in the giant planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, D.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical bases for deducing the solar abundance of helium from the determination of the H 2 /He mixing ratio in the giant planets are examined. The present state of the determination of the helium abundance is given. Experimental methods used to evaluate the H 2 /He ratio in the giant planets are critically reviewed. Methods in prospect are also briefly exposed. (Auth.)

  11. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al).

  12. Globally intertwined evolutionary history of giant barrel sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swierts, Thomas; Peijnenburg, Katja T.C.A.; Leeuw, de Christiaan A.; Breeuwer, Johannes A.J.; Cleary, Daniel F.R.; Voogd, de Nicole J.

    2017-01-01

    Three species of giant barrel sponge are currently recognized in two distinct geographic regions, the tropical Atlantic and the Indo-Pacific. In this study, we used molecular techniques to study populations of giant barrel sponges across the globe and assessed whether the genetic structure of these

  13. Genetic variation and early performance of Giant Sequoia in plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Libby

    1986-01-01

    Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum [Lindl.] Buchholz) is genetically less variable than expected; furthermore, it is less variable and its populations are less structured than are several associated or related conifers. Giant sequoia seedlings from open-pollinated seeds of isolated trees or from small outlier groves do not survive and grow as...

  14. Malignant Giant Cell Tumour of Bone with Axillary Metastasis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-06-06

    Jun 6, 2002 ... SUMMARY. Giant Cell Tumour of bone is a typically benign and solitary tumour. However, multiple lesions have been described and 5-10% of lesions may be malignant. We present a case of a malignant giant cell tumour of the distal radius with metastasis to the ipsilateral axilla (an uncommon location).

  15. Unusual giant prostatic urethral calculus | Bello | Journal of Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant vesico-prostatic urethral calculus is uncommon. Urethral stones rarely form primarily in the urethra, and they are usually associated with urethral strictures, posterior urethral valve or diverticula. We report a case of a 32-year-old man with giant vesico-prostatic (collar-stud) urethral stone presenting with sepsis and ...

  16. Giant Calculus In The Mouth Of Partially Edentulous Woman, (Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This case report is to create awareness of the presence of giant calculus in the mouth, the possible causes and its prevention. Report: This describes the oral condition of a partially edentulous woman with a giant calculus in the mouth. It highlights the effect of such an enormous calculus in the oral cavity.

  17. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  18. Late induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W

    1990-09-01

    In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.

  19. Late Washing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO 2 - ] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO 2 - ] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft 2 for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec

  20. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investiga...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  1. Treatment of giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema by ipsilateral bronchial occlusion with a Swan-Ganz catheter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, Shantanu; Gupta, Archana; Wung, Jen-Tien; Berdon, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) can be seen as a complication of chronic ventilation in extremely low-birth-weight babies. Many can be managed by conventional pulmonary care which includes positioning, suctioning, chest physiotherapy, gentle conventional ventilation and high-frequency ventilation. Some may need invasive procedures such as lung puncture, pleurotomies and excisional surgery. This is the group in which single-lung ventilation may be beneficial and circumvent the need for an invasive procedure. We describe the technique of single-lung ventilation using a Swan-Ganz catheter to block the main stem bronchus on the diseased side in air-leak syndromes. A retrospective chart review was done on 17 newborns undergoing single-lung ventilation using this technique at the Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia University, from 1986 to 2000. The technique was successful in the management of severe, neonatal unilateral lung disease not responsive to conventional modes of therapy in all but two neonates as seen by a significant improvement in pH and a decrease in PaCO 2 levels. In one neonate malpositioning of the Swan-Ganz catheter balloon could have contributed to the development of pneumothorax. The described technique of single-lung ventilation provides a safe, minimally invasive and economically feasible method of management of unilateral giant PIE in newborns not responsive to conventional modes of therapy with minimal complications. (orig.)

  2. Treatment of giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema by ipsilateral bronchial occlusion with a Swan-Ganz catheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Shantanu [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Maimonides Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Gupta, Archana; Wung, Jen-Tien [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States); Berdon, Walter E. [College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, Pediatric Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of New York, New York, NY (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Unilateral giant pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) can be seen as a complication of chronic ventilation in extremely low-birth-weight babies. Many can be managed by conventional pulmonary care which includes positioning, suctioning, chest physiotherapy, gentle conventional ventilation and high-frequency ventilation. Some may need invasive procedures such as lung puncture, pleurotomies and excisional surgery. This is the group in which single-lung ventilation may be beneficial and circumvent the need for an invasive procedure. We describe the technique of single-lung ventilation using a Swan-Ganz catheter to block the main stem bronchus on the diseased side in air-leak syndromes. A retrospective chart review was done on 17 newborns undergoing single-lung ventilation using this technique at the Children's Hospital of New York, Columbia University, from 1986 to 2000. The technique was successful in the management of severe, neonatal unilateral lung disease not responsive to conventional modes of therapy in all but two neonates as seen by a significant improvement in pH and a decrease in PaCO{sub 2} levels. In one neonate malpositioning of the Swan-Ganz catheter balloon could have contributed to the development of pneumothorax. The described technique of single-lung ventilation provides a safe, minimally invasive and economically feasible method of management of unilateral giant PIE in newborns not responsive to conventional modes of therapy with minimal complications. (orig.)

  3. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  4. New properties of giant resonances in highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Studies on the giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei investigated in heavy ion-induced particle-γ coincidence experiments are reviewed. A signature is found in the γ-decay of excited nuceli which shows direct decay of the giant dipole resonance. This provides a new dimension in giant resonance studies and the possibility to study the dependence of giant resonance energy, width and sum rule strength on excitation energy and rotation of the system. Further, the fact that the giant resonance splits in deformed nuclei provides a unique way to get information on the shape of hot nuclei. First results are obtained on the following questions: (i)What is the nuclear shape at high temperature (T≥2 MeV)? (ii)Is there a phase transition in the nuclear shape at T∼1.7 MeV? (iii)Does motional narrowing exist in hot nuclei? (author). 19 refs., 11 figs

  5. Giant Planets Can Act as Stabilizing Agents on Debris Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M. A.; Pichardo, B.; Peimbert, A., E-mail: mmunoz.astro@gmail.com [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. postal 70-264 Ciudad Universitaria, México (Mexico)

    2017-07-01

    We have explored the evolution of a cold debris disk under the gravitational influence of dwarf-planet-sized objects (DPs), both in the presence and absence of an interior giant planet. Through detailed long-term numerical simulations, we demonstrate that when the giant planet is not present, DPs can stir the eccentricities and inclinations of disk particles, in linear proportion to the total mass of the DPs; on the other hand, when the giant planet is included in the simulations, the stirring is approximately proportional to the mass squared. This creates two regimes: below a disk mass threshold (defined by the total mass of DPs), the giant planet acts as a stabilizing agent of the orbits of cometary nuclei, diminishing the effect of the scatterers; above the threshold, the giant contributes to the dispersion of the particles.

  6. A Green's function approach to giant-dipole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stielow, Thomas; Scheel, Stefan; Kurz, Markus

    2018-01-01

    In this work we perform a Green’s function analysis of giant-dipole systems. First, we derive the Green’s functions of different magnetically field-dressed systems, in particular of electronically highly excited atomic species in crossed electric and magnetic fields—so-called giant-dipole states. We determine the dynamical polarizability of atomic giant-dipole states as well as the adiabatic potential energy surfaces of giant-dipole molecules in the framework of the Green’s function approach. Furthermore, we perform an comparative analysis of the latter to an exact diagonalization scheme and show the general divergence behavior of the widely applied Fermi-pseudopotential approach. Finally, we derive the giant-dipole’s regularized Green’s function representation.

  7. Giant magnons of string theory in the lambda background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appadu, Calan; Hollowood, Timothy J.; Miramontes, J. Luis; Price, Dafydd; Schmidtt, David M.

    2017-07-01

    The analogues of giant magnon configurations are studied on the string world sheet in the lambda background. This is a discrete deformation of the AdS5× S 5 background that preserves the integrability of the world sheet theory. Giant magnon solutions are generated using the dressing method and their dispersion relation is found. This reduces to the usual dyonic giant magnon dispersion relation in the appropriate limit and becomes relativistic in another limit where the lambda model becomes the generalized sine-Gordon theory of the Pohlmeyer reduction. The scattering of giant magnons is then shown in the semi-classical limit to be described by the quantum S-matrix that is a quantum group deformation of the conventional giant magnon S-matrix. It is further shown that in the small g limit, a sector of the S-matrix is related to the XXZ spin chain whose spectrum matches the spectrum of magnon bound states.

  8. Giant Dissecting Aortic Aneurysm in an Asymptomatic Young Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant aortic aneurysm is defined as aneurysm in the aorta greater than 10 cm in diameter. It is a rare finding since most patients will present with complications of dissection or rupture before the size of aneurysm reaches that magnitude. Etiological factors include atherosclerosis, Marfan’s syndrome, giant cell arteritis, tuberculosis, syphilis, HIV-associated vasculitis, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and medial agenesis. Once diagnosed, prompt surgical intervention is the treatment of choice. Although asymptomatic unruptured giant aortic aneurysm has been reported in the literature, there has not been any case of asymptomatic giant dissecting aortic aneurysm reported in the literature thus far. We report a case of giant dissecting ascending aortic aneurysm in an asymptomatic young male who was referred to our institution for abnormal findings on physical exam.

  9. Semimicroscopic description of the giant quadrupole resonances in deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurchev, G.; Malov, L.A.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The calculation results of the giant quadrupole isoscalar and isovector resonances performed within the random phase approximation are represented. The strength functions for E2-transitions are calculated for doubly even deformed nuclei in the regions 150 (<=) A < 190 and 228 (<=) A < 248 in the energy interval (0-40) MeV. The following integral characteristics of giant quadrupole resonances are obtained: the position, widths, the contribution to the energy weighted sum rule and the contribution to the total cross section of photoabsorption. The calculations have shown that giant quadrupole resonances are common for all the considered nuclei. The calculated characteristics of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance agree with the available experimental data. The calculations also show that the semimicroscopic theory can be successfully applied for the description of giant multipole resonances

  10. Giant pandas can discriminate the emotions of human facial pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youxu; Dai, Qiang; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe; Chen, Peng; Xue, Rui; Feng, Feifei; Chen, Chao; Liu, Jiabin; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun; Qi, Dunwu

    2017-08-16

    Previous studies have shown that giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) can discriminate face-like shapes, but little is known about their cognitive ability with respect to the emotional expressions of humans. We tested whether adult giant pandas can discriminate expressions from pictures of half of a face and found that pandas can learn to discriminate between angry and happy expressions based on global information from the whole face. Young adult pandas (5-7 years old) learned to discriminate expressions more quickly than older individuals (8-16 years old), but no significant differences were found between females and males. These results suggest that young adult giant pandas are better at discriminating emotional expressions of humans. We showed for the first time that the giant panda, can discriminate the facial expressions of humans. Our results can also be valuable for the daily care and management of captive giant pandas.

  11. Inherent Tumor Characteristics That Limit Effective and Safe Resection of Giant Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Hiroshi; Hara, Takayuki; Nagata, Yuichi; Fukuhara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yamada, Shozo

    2017-10-01

    Surgical treatment of giant pituitary adenomas is sometimes challenging. We present our surgical series of giant nonfunctioning adenomas to shed light on the limitations of effective and safe tumor resection. The preoperative tumor characteristics, surgical approaches, outcome, and histology of giant nonfunctioning adenoma (>40 mm) in 128 consecutive surgical patients are reviewed. The follow-up period ranged from 19 to 113 months (mean 62.2 months). A transsphenoidal approach was used in the treatment of 109 patients and a combined transsphenoidal transcranial approach in 19 patients. A total of 93 patients (72.7%) underwent total resection or subtotal resection apart from the cavernous sinus (CS). The degree of tumor resection, excluding the marked CS invasion, was lower in tumors that were larger (P = 0.0107), showed massive intracranial extension (P = 0.0352), and had an irregular configuration (P = 0.0016). Permanent surgical complications developed in 28 patients (22.0%). Long-term tumor control was achieved in all patients by single surgery, including 43 patients with adjuvant radiotherapy. Most tumors were histologically benign, with a low MIB-1 index (inherent factors that independently limit effective resection. These high-risk tumors require an individualized therapeutic strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SURGICAL TREATMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION FOR CENTRAL GIANT CELL GRANULOMA OF MANDIBLE - case report and literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG is a benign aggressive destructive osteolytic lesion of osteoclastic origin. The central giant cell granuloma is often found in the mandible, anterior to the first molars. It most commonly occurs in patients under the age of 30, with a clear female prevalencePurpose: To present a case of CGCG of the lower jaw in Department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery, University Hospital "St. Anna". Although en bloc resection provides the lowest recurrence rate, only a few single case reports describe the use of this technique followed by reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts.Material and methods: The medical history of a 28 years patient with a large central giant cell granuloma in the mandible. Biopsy specimen taken from the lesion showed CGCG followed by curettage with peripheral ostectomy with preservation of the continuity of the mandible.Result: At the 1-year clinical and radiological follow up there was no sign of recurrence. Conclusion: After complete healing of the graft, prosthetic rehabilitation with implants will be perfomed. This allows the best functional and aesthetic results.

  13. Earliest example of a giant monitor lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack L Conrad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Varanidae is a clade of tiny (600 mm PCL lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis, although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new monitor is larger (longer than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors.

  14. Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jack L.; Balcarcel, Ana M.; Mehling, Carl M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Varanidae is a clade of tiny (600 mm PCL) lizards first appearing in the Cretaceous. True monitor lizards (Varanus) are known from diagnostic remains beginning in the early Miocene (Varanus rusingensis), although extremely fragmentary remains have been suggested as indicating earlier Varanus. The paleobiogeographic history of Varanus and timing for origin of its gigantism remain uncertain. Methodology/Principal Findings A new Varanus from the Mytilini Formation (Turolian, Miocene) of Samos, Greece is described. The holotype consists of a partial skull roof, right side of a braincase, partial posterior mandible, fragment of clavicle, and parts of six vertebrae. A cladistic analysis including 83 taxa coded for 5733 molecular and 489 morphological characters (71 previously unincluded) demonstrates that the new fossil is a nested member of an otherwise exclusively East Asian Varanus clade. The new species is the earliest-known giant (>600 mm PCL) terrestrial lizard. Importantly, this species co-existed with a diverse continental mammalian fauna. Conclusions/Significance The new monitor is larger (longer) than 99% of known fossil and living lizards. Varanus includes, by far, the largest limbed squamates today. The only extant non-snake squamates that approach monitors in maximum size are the glass-snake Pseudopus and the worm-lizard Amphisbaena. Mosasauroids were larger, but exclusively marine, and occurred only during the Late Cretaceous. Large, extant, non-Varanus, lizards are limbless and/or largely isolated from mammalian competitors. By contrast, our new Varanus achieved gigantism in a continental environment populated by diverse eutherian mammal competitors. PMID:22900001

  15. Literature review of giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) biology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-08-03

    This report reviews the available literature on giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) to compile existing information on this species and identify knowledge gaps that, if addressed, would help to inform conservation efforts for giant gartersnakes.  Giant gartersnakes comprise a species of semi-aquatic snake precinctive to wetlands in the Central Valley of California.  The diversion of surface water and conversion of wetlands to agricultural and other land uses resulted in the loss of more than 90 percent of natural giant gartersnake habitats.  Because of this habitat loss, giant gartersnakes are now listed by the United States and California Endangered Species Acts as Threatened.  Most extant populations occur in the rice-growing regions of the Sacramento Valley, which comprises the northern portion of the giant gartersnake’s former range.  The huge demand for water in California for agriculture, industry, recreation, and other human consumption, combined with periodic severe drought, places remaining giant gartersnake habitats at increased risk of degradation and loss.  This literature review summarizes the available information on giant gartersnake distribution, habitat relations, behavior, demography, and other aspects of its biology relevant to conservation.  This information is then compiled into a graphical conceptual model that indicates the importance of different aspects of giant gartersnake biology for maintaining positive population growth, and identifies those areas for which important information relevant for conservation is lacking.  Directing research efforts toward these aspects of giant gartersnake ecology will likely result in improvements to conserving this unique species while meeting the high demands for water in California.

  16. A Refined Catalogue of Phoenix Dwarf Galaxy Giant Star Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolewski, Joshua; Siegel, M.; Palma, C.; Charlton, J.

    2005-12-01

    Continuing our studies of the Phoenix dwarf irregular galaxy and its extended tidal structure, we present the results of a survey using improved photometry with the Washington M-T2-DDO51 photometric method. The three-filter method has the ability to discriminate low surface-gravity giant stars from high surface gravity dwarfs and has proven successful at showing extended distributions of giant stars in other dSph satellites of the Milky Way. Our survey of Phoenix, the most distant (Rgc > 400kpc) of the Milky Way's bound satellites, was taken over a 0.5 square degree region obtained with the CTIO 4-meter telescope and Mosaic II camera. Relying on conservative cuts in photometric error and stellar shape parameter space, our photometry provides a clean list of extratidal giant star candidates. We find 250 giant candidates in our survey that pass both color-magnitude and color-color constraint cuts. Of these, we have roughly 29 candidate giant stars that lie outside the tidal radius of Phoenix. This number of candidate extratidal stars has not been adjusted for background contamination. Further investigations are required to determine if any of these stars were once bound to Phoenix. Using the entire sample of candidate giant stars associated with Phoenix, we also see structural differences in the spatial distribution of high and low metallicity giant stars within the galaxy. Similar differences in the spatial distribution of young and old stars in Phoenix have been noted by other authors. Finally, we compare our photometric selection of Phoenix stars with spectroscopically verified giant stars from Gallart et al (2001) and find that our selection process is successful in identifying these stars as giants, suggesting a high efficiency in selecting giants. We gratefully acknowledge funding for this work from an NSF REU supplement and grant AST 0306884.

  17. Winds from Luminous Late-Type Stars: II. Broadband Frequency Distribution of Alfven Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airapetian, V.; Carpenter, K. G.; Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present the numerical simulations of winds from evolved giant stars using a fully non-linear, time dependent 2.5-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. This study extends our previous fully non-linear MHD wind simulations to include a broadband frequency spectrum of Alfven waves that drive winds from red giant stars. We calculated four Alfven wind models that cover the whole range of Alfven wave frequency spectrum to characterize the role of freely propagated and reflected Alfven waves in the gravitationally stratified atmosphere of a late-type giant star. Our simulations demonstrate that, unlike linear Alfven wave-driven wind models, a stellar wind model based on plasma acceleration due to broadband non-linear Alfven waves, can consistently reproduce the wide range of observed radial velocity profiles of the winds, their terminal velocities and the observed mass loss rates. Comparison of the calculated mass loss rates with the empirically determined mass loss rate for alpha Tau suggests an anisotropic and time-dependent nature of stellar winds from evolved giants.

  18. The Fuzziness of Giant Planets’ Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helled, Ravit; Stevenson, David

    2017-05-01

    Giant planets are thought to have cores in their deep interiors, and the division into a heavy-element core and hydrogen-helium envelope is applied in both formation and structure models. We show that the primordial internal structure depends on the planetary growth rate, in particular, the ratio of heavy elements accretion to gas accretion. For a wide range of likely conditions, this ratio is in one-to-one correspondence with the resulting post-accretion profile of heavy elements within the planet. This flux ratio depends sensitively on the assumed solid-surface density in the surrounding nebula. We suggest that giant planets’ cores might not be distinct from the envelope and includes some hydrogen and helium, and the deep interior can have a gradual heavy-element structure. Accordingly, Jupiter’s core may not be well defined. Accurate measurements of Jupiter’s gravitational field by Juno could put constraints on Jupiter’s core mass. However, as we suggest here, the definition of Jupiter’s core is complex, and the core’s physical properties (mass, density) depend on the actual definition of the core and on the planet’s growth history.

  19. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martineau-Huynh, Olivier; Bustamante, Mauricio; Carvalho, Washington

    2017-01-01

    The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a planned array of ~200 000 radio antennas deployed over ~200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus prod...... per year are expected for the standard models. The instrument will also detect UHECRs and possibly FRBs. Here we show how our preliminary design should enable us to reach our sensitivity goals, and discuss the steps to be taken to achieve GRAND.......The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a planned array of ~200 000 radio antennas deployed over ~200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus...... produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. GRAND aims at reaching a neutrino sensitivity of 5.10$^{11}$ E$^{-2}$ GeV$^{-1}$cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$sr$^{-1}$ above 3.10$^{16}$ eV. This ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and ~50 events...

  20. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended.

  1. The Fuzziness of Giant Planets’ Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helled, Ravit [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Stevenson, David [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Giant planets are thought to have cores in their deep interiors, and the division into a heavy-element core and hydrogen–helium envelope is applied in both formation and structure models. We show that the primordial internal structure depends on the planetary growth rate, in particular, the ratio of heavy elements accretion to gas accretion. For a wide range of likely conditions, this ratio is in one-to-one correspondence with the resulting post-accretion profile of heavy elements within the planet. This flux ratio depends sensitively on the assumed solid-surface density in the surrounding nebula. We suggest that giant planets’ cores might not be distinct from the envelope and includes some hydrogen and helium, and the deep interior can have a gradual heavy-element structure. Accordingly, Jupiter’s core may not be well defined. Accurate measurements of Jupiter’s gravitational field by Juno could put constraints on Jupiter’s core mass. However, as we suggest here, the definition of Jupiter’s core is complex, and the core’s physical properties (mass, density) depend on the actual definition of the core and on the planet’s growth history.

  2. The Fuzziness of Giant Planets’ Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helled, Ravit; Stevenson, David

    2017-01-01

    Giant planets are thought to have cores in their deep interiors, and the division into a heavy-element core and hydrogen–helium envelope is applied in both formation and structure models. We show that the primordial internal structure depends on the planetary growth rate, in particular, the ratio of heavy elements accretion to gas accretion. For a wide range of likely conditions, this ratio is in one-to-one correspondence with the resulting post-accretion profile of heavy elements within the planet. This flux ratio depends sensitively on the assumed solid-surface density in the surrounding nebula. We suggest that giant planets’ cores might not be distinct from the envelope and includes some hydrogen and helium, and the deep interior can have a gradual heavy-element structure. Accordingly, Jupiter’s core may not be well defined. Accurate measurements of Jupiter’s gravitational field by Juno could put constraints on Jupiter’s core mass. However, as we suggest here, the definition of Jupiter’s core is complex, and the core’s physical properties (mass, density) depend on the actual definition of the core and on the planet’s growth history.

  3. Confirmation of Kepler Planet Candidates around Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Bun-ei

    2014-01-01

    Detecting planetary transits is extremely valuable not only because it makes an independent confirmation of a planet from Doppler method but also because the photometric transits yield unambiguous information on planet masses and radii, and thus mean density and interior structure, and obliquity of planetary orbits. Planets around giants and subgiants have been intensively surveyed over the decade by precise radial velocity (RV) measurements, mainly from the viewpoint of planet searches around intermediate-mass (1.5-5M⊙) stars. The planets show remarkable properties in their masses and orbital parameters. Unfortunately, however, it is quite difficult to detect transiting ones around such evolved stars because of the large sizes of the host stars. Therefore, our understanding of properties of planets around intermediate-mass stars are still far behind from those around solar-like stars. In S13B, we made the first RV follow-up observations with HDS for the transiting planet candidates around giants found by Kepler space telescope, and identified promising candidates of true transiting planets. Here we propose to take additional RV data for them with HDS in order to make sure that the RV periodicity is the same as the transit one.

  4. Unusual arsenic metabolism in Giant Pandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuer, Simone; Dungl, Eveline; Hoffmann, Wiebke; Li, Desheng; Wang, Chengdong; Zhang, Hemin; Goessler, Walter

    2017-12-01

    The total arsenic concentration and the arsenic speciation in urine and feces samples of the two Giant Pandas living at Vienna zoo and of their feed, bamboo, were determined with ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Urine was the main excretion route and accounted for around 90% of the ingested arsenic. The urinary arsenic concentrations were very high, namely up to 179 μg/L. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was the dominating arsenic compound in the urine samples and ranged from 73 to 92% of the total arsenic, which is unusually high for a terrestrial mammal. The feces samples contained around 70% inorganic arsenic and 30% DMA. The arsenic concentrations in the bamboo samples were between 16 and 920 μg/kg dry mass. The main arsenic species in the bamboo extracts was inorganic arsenic. This indicates that the Giant Panda possesses a unique way of very efficiently methylating and excreting the provided inorganic arsenic. This could be essential for the survival of the animal in its natural habitat, because parts of this area are contaminated with arsenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Giant scrotal lymphoedema - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejeswi, Poornachandra; Prabhu, Shivananda; Augustine, Alfred J; Ram, Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Giant Scrotal Lymphoedema is a rare disease. Such Scrotal elephantiasis presents multiple problems both to the patient as well as the treating clinician obstruction, aplasia, or hypoplasia of the lymphatic vessels. The most common cause world wide is lymphatic Filariasis. We present a particularly grotesque where the resected scrotal tissue weighed 32kg which is one of the largest so far mentioned in literature. The lymphoedema was progressive over 8 years duration and the testes were not palpable with the penis deeply buried. Scrotum was explored and penis was recovered deep within the pit of lymphoedema. Careful dissection done with cautery to delineate penis circumferentially from the root of scrotal lymphoedema. Foleys catheterisation was done. After the separation of penis scrotal skin flaps were raised on either side by extending the incision horizontally. De bulking of lymphoedema was done and the remaining scrotal skin was closed in Y shaped manner with root of penis in centre. Meticulous technique of dissection, cautery and ligasure use of Ligasure enabled excision with minimal blood loss. Once fibrosis sets in resectional therapy will be needed in most cases. Successful reduction scrotoplasty with acceptable cosmetic results can be obtained in giant scrotal lymphoedemas weighing as large as 32kg as in our case. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Condensed matter view of giant resonance phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangwill, A.

    1987-01-01

    The intent of this article is to present a view of giant resonance phenomena (an essentially atomic phenomenon) from the perspective of a condensed matter physicist with an interest in the optical properties of matter. As we shall see, this amounts to a particular prejudice about how one should think about many-body effects in a system of interacting electrons. Some of these effects are special to condensed matter systems and will be dealt with in the second half of this paper. However, it turns out that the authors view of the main ingredient to a giant resonance differs significantly from that normally taken by scientists trained in the traditional methods of atomic physics. Therefore, in the first section the author will take advantage of the fact that his contribution to this volume was composed and delivered to the publishers somewhat after the conclusion of the School (rather than before as requested by the organizers) and try to clearly distinguish the differences of opinion presented by the lecturers from the unalterable experimental facts. 46 references, 9 figures

  7. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purohit Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell tumor (GCT of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography.

  8. Post-Flare Giant Arches - Unanswered Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M. J.; Seaton, D. B.; Dennis, B. R.; Palmerio, E.; Savage, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations from the SWAP EUV imager on-board PROBA2 and SXI X-ray observations from the GOES satellite have shown that post-flare giant arches and regular post-flare loops are one and the same thing. However, it is still not clear how certain loop systems are able to sustain prolonged growth to heights greater than half a solar-radii. In this presentation we further explore the energy deposition rate above post-flare loop systems through high-energy RHESSI observations. We also explore the difference between the growth of different loop systems through an epoch analysis. The epoch analysis is initially performed over the period when the STEREO satellites were in quadrature with PROBA2 allowing us to assess the difference between their on-disk and on-limb signatures. Giant arches are generally characterised by their height of growth when observed close to the solar limb, but due to the optically thin nature of the EUV solar atmosphere, projection effects and the scarcity of events occurring within 5 degrees of the limb it is not understood how common these events are. Using the analysis during the quadrature period we gain a better understanding of how rare these events are, and by determining characteristic on disk signatures we can combine our data set with magnetogram observations to better understand their magnetic evolution.

  9. Isotopic ratios D/H and 15N/14N in giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Thiabaud, Amaury; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy

    2018-04-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in planets is important since it allows us to investigate the origins and initial composition of materials. The present work aims to determine the possible range of values for isotopic ratios D/H and 15N/14N in giant planets. The main objective is to provide valuable theoretical assumptions on the isotopic composition of giant planets, their internal structure, and the main reservoirs of species. We use models of ice formation and planet formation that compute the composition of ices and gas accreted in the core and the envelope of planets. Assuming a single initial value for isotopic ratios in volatile species, and disruption of planetesimals in the envelope of gaseous planets, we obtain a wide variety of D/H and 15N/14N ratios in low-mass planets (≤100 Mearth) due to the migration pathway of planets, the accretion time of gas species whose relative abundance evolves with time, and isotope exchanges among species. If giant planets with mass greater than 100 Mearth have solar isotopic ratios such as Jupiter and Saturn due to their higher envelope mass, Neptune-type planets present values ranging between one and three times the solar value. It seems therefore difficult to use isotopic ratios in the envelope of these planets to get information about their formation in the disc. For giant planets, the ratios allow us to constrain the mass fraction of volatile species in the envelope needed to reproduce the observational data by assuming initial values for isotopic ratios in volatile species.

  10. Low major histocompatibility complex class II DQA diversity in the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Xiang-Dong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca is one of the most endangered animals due to habitat fragmentation and loss. Although the captive breeding program for this species is now nearly two decades old, researches on the genetic background of such captive populations, especially on adaptive molecular polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex (MHC, are still limited. In this study, we characterized adaptive variation of the giant panda's MHC DQA gene by PCR amplification of its antigen-recognizing region (i.e. the exon 2 and subsequent single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP and sequence analyses. Results The results revealed a low level of DQA exon 2 diversity in this rare animal, presenting 6 alleles from 61 giant panda individuals. The observed polymorphism was restricted to 9 amino acid substitutions, all of which occurred at and adjacent to positions forming the functionally important antigen-binding sites. All the samples were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. A significantly higher rate of non-synonymous than synonymous substitutions at the antigen-binding sites indicated positive selection for diversity in the locus. Conclusion The DQA allelic diversity of giant pandas was low relative to other vertebrates. Nonetheless, the pandas exhibited more alleles in DQA than those in DRB, suggesting the alpha chain genes would play a leading role when coping with certain pathogens and thus should be included in conservation genetic investigation. The microsatellite and MHC loci might predict long-term persistence potential and short-term survival ability, respectively. Consequently, it is recommended to utilize multiple suites of microsatellite markers and multiple MHC loci to detect overall genetic variation in order to design unbiased conservation strategies.

  11. Biomass Burning as a Source of Mineral Dust and Giant Aerosol to the Free Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, K. D.; Liao, J.; Murphy, D. M.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.; Woods, S.; Lawson, P.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant emission source of fine mode aerosol to the atmosphere. Fires can also emit supermicron particles that are important for cloud formation. Mineral dust aerosol exert a strong influence on formation of cirrus clouds by acting as efficient ice nuclei. Giant aerosol larger than ~10 microns can dominate condensational growth inside warm clouds and affect precipitation rates. Airborne measurements of aerosol concentration and single particle composition were conducted inside smoke plumes from fires originating in North America, Asia, and Central American. Sub- and supermicron mineral dust concentrations were strongly correlated with biomass burning particle concentrations, both within strong fire plumes and in the background troposphere. Dust concentrations varied with fire intensity and vegetation type. In general, western US wildfires emitted more dust than eastern US and Central American fires. Dust concentrations inside plumes were strongly enhanced relative to background air, demonstrating that biomass burning can provide a significant source of potential ice nuclei to the free troposphere. However, dust particles emitted from fires were coated with more organic carbon material than dust from other sources, which may reduce their ability to act as ice nuclei. Giant aerosol particles up to several 100 microns in size were also observed within some fire plumes and could account for 50% of the particle volume. Particle images show irregular shapes and suggest ash and fibrous plant material. Giant aerosol persisted inside plumes in the free troposphere for 100's of km downwind from fire sources, indicating that particles must have low density to remain aloft. This combination of direct injection above the boundary layer and reduced depositional loss provides a regional source of particles that may act as giant cloud condensation nuclei.

  12. THE LAST STAGES OF TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION: DYNAMICAL FRICTION AND THE LATE VENEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Warren, Paul H. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yin Qingzhu, E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [UCD, Department of Geology, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    The final stage of terrestrial planet formation consists of the clean-up of residual planetesimals after the giant impact phase. Dynamically, a residual planetesimal population is needed to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets to circular and coplanar orbits after the giant impact stage. Geochemically, highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance patterns inferred for the terrestrial planets and the Moon suggest that a total of about 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} of chondritic material was delivered as 'late veneer' by planetesimals to the terrestrial planets after the end of giant impacts. Here, we combine these two independent lines of evidence for a leftover population of planetesimals and show that: (1) a residual population of small planetesimals containing 0.01 M{sub Circled-Plus} is able to damp the high eccentricities and inclinations of the terrestrial planets after giant impacts to their observed values. (2) At the same time, this planetesimal population can account for the observed relative amounts of late veneer added to the Earth, Moon, and Mars provided that the majority of the accreted late veneer was delivered by small planetesimals with radii {approx}< 10 m. These small planetesimal sizes are required to ensure efficient damping of the planetesimal's velocity dispersion by mutual collisions, which in turn ensures sufficiently low relative velocities between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals such that the planets' accretion cross sections are significantly enhanced by gravitational focusing above their geometric values. Specifically, we find that, in the limit that the relative velocity between the terrestrial planets and the planetesimals is significantly less than the terrestrial planets' escape velocities, gravitational focusing yields a mass accretion ratio of Earth/Mars {approx}({rho}{sub Circled-Plus }/{rho}{sub mars})(R{sub Circled-Plus }/R{sub mars}){sup 4} {approx} 17, which

  13. Persistence of distinctive morphotypes in the native range of the CITES-listed Aldabra giant tortoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Lindsay A; Ozgul, Arpat; Accouche, Wilna; Baxter, Rich; ChongSeng, Lindsay; Currie, Jock C; Doak, Naomi; Hansen, Dennis M; Pistorius, Pierre; Richards, Heather; van de Crommenacker, Janske; von Brandis, Rainer; Fleischer-Dogley, Frauke; Bunbury, Nancy

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the extent of morphological variation in the wild population of Aldabra giant tortoises is important for conservation, as morphological variation in captive populations has been interpreted as evidence for lingering genes from extinct tortoise lineages. If true, this could impact reintroduction programmes in the region. The population of giant tortoises on Aldabra Atoll is subdivided and distributed around several islands. Although pronounced morphological variation was recorded in the late 1960s, it was thought to be a temporary phenomenon. Early researchers also raised concerns over the future of the population, which was perceived to have exceeded its carrying capacity. We analyzed monthly monitoring data from 12 transects spanning a recent 15-year period (1998-2012) during which animals from four subpopulations were counted, measured, and sexed. In addition, we analyzed survival data from individuals first tagged during the early 1970s. The population is stable with no sign of significant decline. Subpopulations differ in density, but these differences are mostly due to differences in the prevailing vegetation type. However, subpopulations differ greatly in both the size of animals and the degree of sexual dimorphism. Comparisons with historical data reveal that phenotypic differences among the subpopulations of tortoises on Aldabra have been apparent for the last 50 years with no sign of diminishing. We conclude that the giant tortoise population on Aldabra is subject to varying ecological selection pressures, giving rise to stable morphotypes in discrete subpopulations. We suggest therefore that (1) the presence of morphological differences among captive Aldabra tortoises does not alone provide convincing evidence of genes from other extinct species; and (2) Aldabra serves as an important example of how conservation and management in situ can add to the scientific value of populations and perhaps enable them to better adapt to future

  14. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.

    1985-01-01

    A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from low-LET radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, cancers of the bones, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, skin, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. In addition, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated. The model used in the earlier Reactor Safety Study has been modified to reflect additional epidemiological data and these changes are described in detail. 37 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  15. Better late than never

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Womack, Molly C; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Hoke, Kim L

    2016-01-01

    in the final stages of ear maturation. Thus, juvenile toads are at a hearing disadvantage, at least in the high-frequency range, throughout much of their development, because late forming ear elements are critical to middle ear function at these frequencies. We discuss the potential fitness consequences......Most vertebrates have evolved a tympanic middle ear that enables effective hearing of airborne sound on land. Although inner ears develop during the tadpole stages of toads, tympanic middle ear structures are not complete until months after metamorphosis, potentially limiting the sensitivity...... of post-metamorphic juveniles to sounds in their environment. We tested the hearing of five species of toads to determine how delayed ear development impairs airborne auditory sensitivity. We performed auditory brainstem recordings to test the hearing of the toads and used micro-CT and histology to relate...

  16. Granular giant magnetoresistive materials and their ferromagnetic resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, M.; Das, B. N.; Koon, N. C.; Chrisey, D. B.; Horwitz, J.

    1994-11-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can reveal important information on the size and shape of the ferromagnetic particles which are dispersed in granular giant magnetoresistive (GMR) materials. We have investigated the FMR spectra of three different types of granular GMR material, each with different properties: (1) melt-spun ribbons of Fe5Co15Cu80 and Co20Cu80, (2) thin films of Co20Cu80 produced by pulsed laser deposition, and (3) a granular multilayer film of (Cu(50 A)/Fe(10 A)) x 50. We interpret the linewidth of these materials in as simple a manner as possible, as a 'powder pattern' of noninteracting ferromagnetic particles. The linewidth of the melt-spun ribbons is caused by a completely random distribution of crystalline anisotropy axes. The linewidth of these samples is strongly dependent upon the annealing temperature: the linewidth of the as-spun sample is 2.5 kOe (appropriate for single-domain particles) while the linewidth of a melt-spun sample annealed at 900 C for 15 min is 3.8 kOe (appropriate for larger, multidomain particles). The linewidth of the granular multilayer is attributed to a restricted distribution of shape anisotropies, as expected from a discontinuous multilayer, and is only 0.98 kOe with the magnetic field in the plane of the film.

  17. Ferromagnetic-resonance studies of granular giant-magnetoresistive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, M.; Das, B. N.; Koon, N. C.; Chrisey, D. B.; Horwitz, J.

    1994-07-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) can reveal important information on the size and shape of the ferromagnetic particles which are dispersed in granular giant magnetoresistive (GMR) materials. We have investigated the FMR spectra of three different types of granular GMR material, each with different properties: (1) melt-spun ribbons of Fe5Co15Cu80 and Co20Cu80, (2) thin films of Co20Cu80 produced by pulsed laser deposition, and (3) a granular multilayer film of [Cu(50 Å)/Fe(10 Å)]×50. We interpret the linewidth of these materials in as simple a manner as possible, as a ``powder pattern'' of noninteracting ferromagnetic particles. The linewidth of the melt-spun ribbons is caused by a completely random distribution of crystalline anisotropy axes. The linewidth of these samples is strongly dependent upon the annealing temperature: the linewidth of the as-spun sample is 2.5 kOe (appropriate for single-domain particles) while the linewidth of a melt-spun sample annealed at 900 °C for 15 min is 4.5 kOe (appropriate for larger, multidomain particles). The linewidth of the granular multilayer is attributed to a restricted distribution of shape anisotropies, as expected from a discontinuous multilayer, and is only 0.98 kOe when the applied magnetic field is in the plane of the film.

  18. Double-diffusive staircases in gas giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaud, Pascale; Moll, Ryan; Mankovich, Chris; Fortney, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    We present Direct Numerical Simulations of the transport of heat and heavy elements across a double-diffusive interface or a double-diffusive staircase, in conditions that are close to those one may expect to find near the boundary between the heavy-element rich core and the hydrogen-helium envelope of giant planets such as Jupiter. We find that the non-dimensional ratio of the buoyancy flux associated with heavy element transport to the buoyancy flux associated with heat transport lies roughly between 0.5 and 1, which is much larger than previous estimates derived by analogy with geophysical double-diffusive convection. We also find that the structure of double-diffusive interfaces at low Prandtl number differs significantly from those observed at high Prandtl number. Using these results, we find that the entire core of Jupiter would be eroded within less than 1Myr assuming that the core-envelope boundary is composed of a single interface, but could be entirely preserved in the presence of a staircase. This is particularly pertinent in the context of present and anticipated results from the Juno mission. Supported by NSF AST 1412951, NASA NNX15AQ62H.

  19. Suppression of auger recombination in ""giant"" core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santamaria, Florencio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schaller, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Yongfen [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Many potential applications of semiconductor nanocrystals are hindered by nonradiative Auger recombination wherein the electron-hole (exciton) recombination energy is transferred to a third charge carrier. This process severely limits the lifetime and bandwidth of optical gain, leads to large nonradiative losses in light emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, and is believed to be responsible for intermittency ('blinking') of emission from single nanocrystals. The development of nanostructures in which Auger recombination is suppressed has been a longstanding goal in colloidal nanocrystal research. Here, we demonstrate that such suppression is possible using so-called 'giant' nanocrystals that consist of a small CdSe core and a thick CdS shell. These nanostructures exhibit a very long biexciton lifetime ({approx}10 ns) that is likely dominated by radiative decay instead of non-radiative Auger recombination. As a result of suppressed Auger recombination, even high-order multiexcitons exhibit high emission efficiencies, which allows us to demonstrate optical amplification with an extraordinarily large bandwidth (>500 me V) and record low excitation thresholds.

  20. Female impersonation as an alternative reproductive strategy in giant cuttlefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Finn, J.; Tregenza, T.

    1999-01-01

    Out of all the animals, cephalopods possess an unrivalled ability to change their shape and body patterns. Our observations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) suggest this ability has allowed them to evolve alternative mating strategies in which males can switch between the appearance of a female and that of a male in order to foil the guarding attempts of larger males. At a mass breeding aggregation in South Australia, we repeatedly observed single small males accompanying mating pairs. While doing so, the small male assumed the body shape and patterns of a female. Such males were never attacked by the larger mate-guarding male. On more than 20 occasions, when the larger male was distracted by another male intruder, these small males, previously indistinguishable from a female, were observed to change body pattern and behaviour to that of a male in mating display. These small males then attempted to mate with the female, often with success. This potential for dynamic sexual mimicry may have played a part in driving the evolution of the remarkable powers of colour and shape transformation which characterize the cephalopods.

  1. Giant secondary grain growth in Cu films on sapphire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Single crystal metal films on insulating substrates are attractive for microelectronics and other applications, but they are difficult to achieve on macroscopic length scales. The conventional approach to obtaining such films is epitaxial growth at high temperature using slow deposition in ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here we describe a different approach that is both simpler to implement and produces superior results: sputter deposition at modest temperatures followed by annealing to induce secondary grain growth. We show that polycrystalline as-deposited Cu on α-Al2O3(0001 can be transformed into Cu(111 with centimeter-sized grains. Employing optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electron backscatter diffraction to characterize the films before and after annealing, we find a particular as-deposited grain structure that promotes the growth of giant grains upon annealing. To demonstrate one potential application of such films, we grow graphene by chemical vapor deposition on wafers of annealed Cu and obtain epitaxial graphene grains of 0.2 mm diameter.

  2. Giant fibrovascular polyp of the esophagus: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Ajit Harishkumar; Sharma, Sanjay; Ramachandran, Vijay; Chattopadhyay, Tushar K; Ray, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    A fibrovascular polyp is a peculiar nonepithelial tumor of the esophagus that invariably arises in the cervical esophagus at the level of the thoracic inlet and grows distally into a massive elongated, pedunculated, intraluminal lesion. Although it is a benign lesion that is eminently resectable, it is a dramatic entity owing to its tendency to cause bizarre complications such as asphyxia and sudden death when it regurgitates into the pharynx and causes laryngeal impaction. This report describes the multimodality imaging appearance of an archetypal case of a giant fibrovascular polyp in a patient with a seemingly innocuous presentation for the size of the lesion. The essential role of cross-sectional imaging in establishing a prompt diagnosis, defining the tissue elements of the mass, and delineation of the exact extent of the lesion in guiding the treatment approach is highlighted. The appearance of fibrovascular polyp in a single patient with a combination of barium swallow, multidetector computed tomography, and high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging has not been reported previously.

  3. Population structure of the giant garter snake, Thamnophis gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M.M.; Wylie, G.D.; Routman, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    The giant garter snake, Thamnophis gigas, is a threatened species endemic to California's Central Valley. We tested the hypothesis that current watershed boundaries have caused genetic differentiation among populations of T. gigas. We sampled 14 populations throughout the current geographic range of T. gigas and amplified 859 bp from the mitochondrial gene ND4 and one nuclear microsatellite locus. DNA sequence variation from the mitochondrial gene indicates there is some genetic structuring of the populations, with high F ST values and unique haplotypes occurring at high frequency in several populations. We found that clustering populations by watershed boundary results in significant between-region genetic variance for mtDNA. However, analysis of allele frequencies at the microsatellite locus NSU3 reveals very low F ST values and little between-region variation in allele frequencies. The discordance found between mitochondrial and microsatellite data may be explained by aspects of molecular evolution and/or T. gigas life history characteristics. Differences in effective population size between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, or male-biased gene flow, result in a lower migration rate of mitochondrial haplotypes relative to nuclear alleles. However, we cannot exclude homoplasy as one explanation for homogeneity found for the single microsatellite locus. The mitochondrial nucleotide sequence data supports conservation practices that identify separate management units for T. gigas. ?? Springer 2006.

  4. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...... giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R ~ 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality...... found that the four CN peaks may be paired—the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations...

  5. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species. PMID:27310722

  6. Provirophages and transpovirons as the diverse mobilome of giant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnues, Christelle; La Scola, Bernard; Yutin, Natalya; Fournous, Ghislain; Robert, Catherine; Azza, Saïd; Jardot, Priscilla; Monteil, Sonia; Campocasso, Angélique; Koonin, Eugene V; Raoult, Didier

    2012-10-30

    A distinct class of infectious agents, the virophages that infect giant viruses of the Mimiviridae family, has been recently described. Here we report the simultaneous discovery of a giant virus of Acanthamoeba polyphaga (Lentille virus) that contains an integrated genome of a virophage (Sputnik 2), and a member of a previously unknown class of mobile genetic elements, the transpovirons. The transpovirons are linear DNA elements of ~7 kb that encompass six to eight protein-coding genes, two of which are homologous to virophage genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the free form of the transpoviron replicates within the giant virus factory and accumulates in high copy numbers inside giant virus particles, Sputnik 2 particles, and amoeba cytoplasm. Analysis of deep-sequencing data showed that the virophage and the transpoviron can integrate in nearly any place in the chromosome of the giant virus host and that, although less frequently, the transpoviron can also be linked to the virophage chromosome. In addition, integrated fragments of transpoviron DNA were detected in several giant virus and Sputnik genomes. Analysis of 19 Mimivirus strains revealed three distinct transpovirons associated with three subgroups of Mimiviruses. The virophage, the transpoviron, and the previously identified self-splicing introns and inteins constitute the complex, interconnected mobilome of the giant viruses and are likely to substantially contribute to interviral gene transfer.

  7. Role of nature reserves in giant panda protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Li, Junqing

    2018-02-01

    Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a flagship species in nature conservation of the world; to protect this species, 67 nature reserves have been established in China. To evaluate the protection effect of giant panda nature reserves, we analyzed the variation of giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province based on the national survey data released by State Forestry Administration and Sichuan Forestry Department. Results showed that from the third national survey to the fourth, giant panda number and habitat area of 23 giant panda nature reserves of Sichuan province failed to realize the significant increase. Furthermore, we found that the total population growth rate of 23 nature reserves in the last 12 years was lower than those of the province total of Sichuan and the national total of China, and the total habitat area of the 23 nature reserves was decreasing in the last 12 years, but the province total and national total were all increasing. We propose that giant panda protection should pay more attention to how to improve the protective effects of nature reserves.

  8. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-06-16

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species.

  9. TESTING CONVECTIVE-CORE OVERSHOOTING USING PERIOD SPACINGS OF DIPOLE MODES IN RED GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalban, J.; Noels, A.; Dupret, M.-A.; Scuflaire, R. [Institut d' Astrophysique et Geophysique de l' Universite de Liege, Allee du six Aout, 17 B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miglio, A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Ventura, P. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma-INAF, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Uncertainties on central mixing in main-sequence (MS) and core He-burning (He-B) phases affect key predictions of stellar evolution such as late evolutionary phases, chemical enrichment, ages, etc. We propose a test of the extension of extra-mixing in two relevant evolutionary phases based on period spacing ({Delta}P) of solar-like oscillating giants. From stellar models and their corresponding adiabatic frequencies (respectively, computed with ATON and LOSC codes), we provide the first predictions of the observable {Delta}P for stars in the red giant branch and in the red clump (RC). We find (1) a clear correlation between {Delta}P and the mass of the helium core (M{sub He}); the latter in intermediate-mass stars depends on the MS overshooting, and hence it can be used to set constraints on extra-mixing during MS when coupled with chemical composition; and (2) a linear dependence of the average value of the asymptotic period spacing (({Delta}P){sub a}) on the size of the convective core during the He-B phase. A first comparison with the inferred asymptotic period spacing for Kepler RC stars also suggests the need for extra-mixing during this phase, as evinced from other observational facts.

  10. Nuclear reaction rate uncertainties and astrophysical modeling: Carbon yields from low-mass giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herwig, Falk; Austin, Sam M.; Lattanzio, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations that demonstrate the influence of three key nuclear reaction rates on the evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars have been carried out. We study the case of a star with an initial mass of 2 M · and a metallicity of Z=0.01, somewhat less than the solar metallicity. The dredge-up of nuclear processed material from the interior of the star and the yield predictions for carbon are sensitive to the rate of the 14 N(p,γ) 15 O and triple-α reactions. These reactions dominate the H- and He-burning shells of stars in this late evolutionary phase. Published uncertainty estimates for each of these two rates propagated through stellar evolution calculations cause uncertainties in carbon enrichment and yield predictions of about a factor of 2. The other important He-burning reaction, 12 C(α,γ) 16 O, although associated with the largest uncertainty in our study, does not have a significant influence on the abundance evolution compared with other modeling uncertainties. This finding remains valid when the entire evolution from the main sequence to the tip of the asymptotic giant branch is considered. We discuss the experimental sources of the rate uncertainties addressed here and give some outlooks for future work

  11. Giant coronary artery aneurysm after Takeuchi repair for anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlay, Shannon M; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Dearani, Joseph A; Warnes, Carole A

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with an anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery who had undergone Takeuchi repair at age 7 years presented for evaluation. The Takeuchi procedure creates an aortopulmonary window and an intrapulmonary tunnel that baffles the left coronary artery to the aorta. A mediastinal mass was identified as a giant aneurysm of the left coronary artery resulting in compression of the pulmonary artery and left upper pulmonary vein. The patient underwent open repair with patch closure at the aortic entrance of the left coronary Takeuchi repair and resection and evacuation of the aneurysm. A saphenous vein graft to the left anterior descending artery was performed. Postoperative echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular function. This is the first reported case of giant aneurysm formation after Takeuchi repair. The reported complications have included the development of pulmonary artery stenosis at the intrapulmonary baffle, baffle leak, decreased left ventricular function, and mitral regurgitation. In conclusion, late complications of the Takeuchi procedure are common, underscoring the importance of lifelong follow-up at a center with experience in treating coronary anomalies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Withered on the stem: is bamboo a seasonally limiting resource for giant pandas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youxu; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Wei, Wei; Nie, Yonggang; Hu, Yibo; Yang, Xuyu; Gu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zejun

    2017-04-01

    In response to seasonal variation in quality and quantity of available plant biomass, herbivorous foragers may alternate among different plant resources to meet nutritional requirements. Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are reliant almost exclusively on bamboo which appears omnipresent in most occupied habitat, but subtle temporal variation in bamboo quality may still govern foraging strategies, with population-level effects. In this paper, we investigated the possibility that temporal variation in the quality of this resource is involved in population regulation and examined pandas' adaptive foraging strategies in response to temporal variation in bamboo quality. Giant pandas in late winter and early spring consumed a less optimal diet in Foping Nature Reserve, as the availability of the most nutritious and preferred components and age classes of Bashania fargesii declined, suggesting that bamboo may be a seasonally limiting resource. Most panda mortalities and rescues occurred during the same period of seasonal food limitation. Our findings raised the possibility that while total bamboo biomass may not be a limiting factor, carrying capacity may be influenced by subtle seasonal variation in bamboo quality. We recommend that managers and policy-makers should consider more than just the quantity of bamboo in the understory and that carrying capacity estimates should be revised downward to reflect the fact that all bamboos are not equal.

  13. Three-point correlation functions of giant magnons with finite size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Changrim; Bozhilov, Plamen

    2011-01-01

    We compute holographic three-point correlation functions or structure constants of a zero-momentum dilaton operator and two (dyonic) giant magnon string states with a finite-size length in the semiclassical approximation. We show that the semiclassical structure constants match exactly with the three-point functions between two su(2) magnon single trace operators with finite size and the Lagrangian in the large 't Hooft coupling constant limit. A special limit J>>√(λ) of our result is compared with the relevant result based on the Luescher corrections.

  14. Optimization of autonomous magnetic field sensor consisting of giant magnetoimpedance sensor and surface acoustic wave transducer

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a novel autonomous thin film magnetic field sensor consisting of a tri-layer giant magnetoimpedance sensor and a surface acoustic wave transponder. Double and single electrode interdigital transducer (IDT) designs are employed and compared. The integrated sensor is fabricated using standard microfabrication technology. The results show the double electrode IDT has an advantage in terms of the sensitivity. In order to optimize the matching component, a simulation based on P-matrix is carried out. A maximum change of 2.4 dB of the reflection amplitude and a sensitivity of 0.34 dB/Oe are obtained experimentally. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. Further development of data acquisition system of the Akeno giant air shower array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohoka, H.; Hayashida, N.; Kakimoto, F.; Kamata, K.; Kawaguchi, S.; Kawasumi, N.; Nagano, M.

    1997-01-01

    The data acquisition system of the Akeno giant air shower array (AGASA) is described. The AGASA array covers an area of about 100 km 2 and has been operated since 1990 to study the origin of extremely high energy cosmic rays. In the early stage of our experiment, AGASA was divided into four sub-arrays called branches for topographical reasons so that air showers were observed independently at each branch. In December 1995, we have improved the data acquisition system and unified the four branches into a single detection system. By this unification, the effective detection area of the AGASA increases by about 1.7 times in the early stage. (orig.)

  16. A sensitive and specific PCR assay for the detection of Baylisascaris schroederi eggs in giant panda feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, De-Sheng; Zhou, Xuan; Xie, Yue; Liang, Yi-Nan; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Yu, Hua; Chen, Shi-Jie; Yan, Yu-Bo; Gu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Shu-Xian; Peng, Xue-Rong; Yang, Guang-You

    2013-10-01

    Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most common intestinal nematodes in giant pandas. It can cause severe baylisascariasis which is highly infectious in its natural hosts. A rapid and reliable diagnosis of parasite infections is crucial to protect giant pandas, as well as for environmental monitoring and disease surveillance. Here, we established a specific PCR assay for B. schroederi detection which was targeting a 331-bp long fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene. Fifty fresh fecal samples collected from captive giant pandas were tested by the established PCR assay and the traditional flotation technique. DNA extracted from a single B. schroederi egg could be successfully amplified, while no cross-reactivity was found with DNA from Ancylostoma caninum eggs. The detection rate of the PCR assay was 68%, which was higher than that of the traditional egg flotation (46%). Our findings demonstrated that the PCR assay is sensitive and specific for the detection and identification of B. schroederi eggs. Therefore, it could become a useful tool for the investigation of B. schroederi infections in giant pandas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tumor Budding, Micropapillary Pattern, and Polyploidy Giant Cancer Cells in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shiwu; Zhang, Dan; Yang, Zhengduo; Zhang, Xipeng

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCGs) induced by CoCl2 could form through endoreduplication or cell fusion. A single PGCC formed tumors in immunodeficient mice. PGCCs are also the key contributors to the cellular atypia and associate with the malignant grade of tumors. PGCCs have the properties of cancer stem cells and produce daughter cells via asymmetric cell division. Compared with diploid cancer cells, these daughter cells express less epithelial markers and acq...

  18. The behaviour of giant clams (Bivalvia: Cardiidae: Tridacninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Pamela; Todd, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Giant clams, the largest living bivalves, live in close association with coral reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. These iconic invertebrates perform numerous important ecological roles as well as serve as flagship species-drawing attention to the ongoing destruction of coral reefs and their associated biodiversity. To date, no review of giant clams has focussed on their behaviour, yet this component of their autecology is critical to their life history and hence conservation. Almost 100 articles published between 1865 and 2014 include behavioural observations, and these have been collated and synthesised into five sections: spawning, locomotion, feeding, anti-predation, and stress responses. Even though the exact cues for spawning in the wild have yet to be elucidated, giant clams appear to display diel and lunar periodicities in reproduction, and for some species, peak breeding seasons have been established. Perhaps surprisingly, giant clams have considerable mobility, ranging from swimming and gliding as larvae to crawling in juveniles and adults. Chemotaxis and geotaxis have been established, but giant clams are not phototactic. At least one species exhibits clumping behaviour, which may enhance physical stabilisation, facilitate reproduction, or provide protection from predators. Giant clams undergo several shifts in their mode of acquiring nutrition; starting with a lecithotrophic and planktotrophic diet as larvae, switching to pedal feeding after metamorphosis followed by the transition to a dual mode of filter feeding and phototrophy once symbiosis with zooxanthellae ( Symbiodinium spp.) is established. Because of their shell weight and/or byssal attachment, adult giant clams are unable to escape rapidly from threats using locomotion. Instead, they exhibit a suite of visually mediated anti-predation behaviours that include sudden contraction of the mantle, valve adduction, and squirting of water. Knowledge on the behaviour of giant clams will benefit

  19. Electroformation of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles from Native Membranes and Organic Lipid Mixtures for the Study of Lipid Domains under Physiological Ionic-Strength Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes, Ruth; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Ibarguren, Maitane

    2010-01-01

    Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) constitute a cell-sized model membrane system that allows direct visualization of particular membrane-related phenomena, such as domain formation, at the level of single vesicles using fluorescence microscopy-related techniques. Currently available protocols for ...

  20. Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into demographic history and local adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shancen; Zheng, Pingping; Dong, Shanshan

    2013-01-01

    The panda lineage dates back to the late Miocene and ultimately leads to only one extant species, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Although global climate change and anthropogenic disturbances are recognized to shape animal population demography their contribution to panda population...... dynamics remains largely unknown. We sequenced the whole genomes of 34 pandas at an average 4.7-fold coverage and used this data set together with the previously deep-sequenced panda genome to reconstruct a continuous demographic history of pandas from their origin to the present. We identify two...... panda populations that show genetic adaptation to their environments. However, in all three populations, anthropogenic activities have negatively affected pandas for 3,000 years....