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Sample records for sin nombre hantavirus

  1. Sin Nombre hantavirus decreases survival of male deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Angela D; Douglass, Richard J; Hudson, Peter J; Mills, James N; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2012-06-01

    How pathogens affect their hosts is a key question in infectious disease ecology, and it can have important influences on the spread and persistence of the pathogen. Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans. A better understanding of SNV in its reservoir host, the deer mouse, could lead to improved predictions of the circulation and persistence of the virus in the mouse reservoir, and could help identify the factors that lead to increased human risk of HPS. Using mark-recapture statistical modeling on longitudinal data collected over 15 years, we found a 13.4% decrease in the survival of male deer mice with antibodies to SNV compared to uninfected mice (both male and female). There was also an additive effect of breeding condition, with a 21.3% decrease in survival for infected mice in breeding condition compared to uninfected, non-breeding mice. The data identified that transmission was consistent with density-dependent transmission, implying that there may be a critical host density below which SNV cannot persist. The notion of a critical host density coupled with the previously overlooked disease-induced mortality reported here contribute to a better understanding of why SNV often goes extinct locally and only seems to persist at the metapopulation scale, and why human spillover is episodic and hard to predict.

  2. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  3. Equilibrium and kinetics of Sin Nombre hantavirus binding at DAF/CD55 functionalized bead surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranda, Tione; Swanson, Scarlett; Bondu, Virginie; Schaefer, Leah; Maclean, James; Mo, Zhenzhen; Wycoff, Keith; Belle, Archana; Hjelle, Brian

    2014-03-10

    Decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) is targeted by many pathogens for cell entry. It has been implicated as a co-receptor for hantaviruses. To examine the binding of hantaviruses to DAF, we describe the use of Protein G beads for binding human IgG Fc domain-functionalized DAF ((DAF)₂-Fc). When mixed with Protein G beads the resulting DAF beads can be used as a generalizable platform for measuring kinetic and equilibrium binding constants of DAF binding targets. The hantavirus interaction has high affinity (24-30 nM; k(on) ~ 10⁵ M⁻¹ s⁻¹, k(off) ~ 0.0045 s⁻¹). The bivalent (DAF)₂-Fc/SNV data agree with hantavirus binding to DAF expressed on Tanoue B cells (K(d) = 14.0 nM). Monovalent affinity interaction between SNV and recombinant DAF of 58.0 nM is determined from competition binding. This study serves a dual purpose of presenting a convenient and quantitative approach of measuring binding affinities between DAF and the many cognate viral and bacterial ligands and providing new data on the binding constant of DAF and Sin Nombre hantavirus. Knowledge of the equilibrium binding constant allows for the determination of the relative fractions of bound and free virus particles in cell entry assays. This is important for drug discovery assays for cell entry inhibitors.

  4. Assessing prevention measures and Sin Nombre hantavirus seroprevalence among workers at Yosemite National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Jackson, Rebecca; Materna, Barbara L; Windham, Gayle C; Enge, Barryett; Messenger, Sharon; Xia, Dongxiang; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Roisman, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    During 2012, a total of 10 overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park (Yosemite) became infected with a hantavirus (Sin Nombre virus [SNV]); three died. SNV infections have been identified among persons with occupational exposure to deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). We assessed SNV infection prevalence, work and living environments, mice exposures, and SNV prevention training, knowledge, and practices among workers of two major employers at Yosemite during September-October, 2012 by voluntary blood testing and a questionnaire. One of 526 participants had evidence of previous SNV infection. Participants reported frequently observing rodent infestations at work and home and not always following prescribed safety practices for tasks, including infestation cleanup. Although participants had multiple exposures to deer mice, we did not find evidence of widespread SNV infections. Nevertheless, employees working around deer mice should receive appropriate training and consistently follow prevention policies for high-risk activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Transmission ecology of Sin Nombre hantavirus in naturally infected North American deermouse populations in outdoor enclosures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoun H Bagamian

    Full Text Available Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV, hosted by the North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in North America. Most transmission studies in the host were conducted under artificial conditions, or extrapolated information from mark-recapture data. Previous studies using experimentally infected deermice were unable to demonstrate SNV transmission. We explored SNV transmission in outdoor enclosures using naturally infected deermice. Deermice acquiring SNV in enclosures had detectable viral RNA in blood throughout the acute phase of infection and acquired significantly more new wounds (indicating aggressive encounters than uninfected deermice. Naturally-infected wild deermice had a highly variable antibody response to infection, and levels of viral RNA sustained in blood varied as much as 100-fold, even in individuals infected with identical strains of virus. Deermice that infected other susceptible individuals tended to have a higher viral RNA load than those that did not infect other deermice. Our study is a first step in exploring the transmission ecology of SNV infection in deermice and provides new knowledge about the factors contributing to the increase of the prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen in its reservoir host and to changes in the risk of HPS to human populations. The techniques pioneered in this study have implications for a wide range of zoonotic disease studies.

  6. Transmission ecology of Sin Nombre hantavirus in naturally infected North American deermouse populations in outdoor enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Towner, Jonathan S; Kuenzi, Amy J; Douglass, Richard J; Rollin, Pierre E; Waller, Lance A; Mills, James N

    2012-01-01

    Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV), hosted by the North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. Most transmission studies in the host were conducted under artificial conditions, or extrapolated information from mark-recapture data. Previous studies using experimentally infected deermice were unable to demonstrate SNV transmission. We explored SNV transmission in outdoor enclosures using naturally infected deermice. Deermice acquiring SNV in enclosures had detectable viral RNA in blood throughout the acute phase of infection and acquired significantly more new wounds (indicating aggressive encounters) than uninfected deermice. Naturally-infected wild deermice had a highly variable antibody response to infection, and levels of viral RNA sustained in blood varied as much as 100-fold, even in individuals infected with identical strains of virus. Deermice that infected other susceptible individuals tended to have a higher viral RNA load than those that did not infect other deermice. Our study is a first step in exploring the transmission ecology of SNV infection in deermice and provides new knowledge about the factors contributing to the increase of the prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen in its reservoir host and to changes in the risk of HPS to human populations. The techniques pioneered in this study have implications for a wide range of zoonotic disease studies.

  7. Sin nombre virus (SNV) Ig isotype antibody response during acute and convalescent phases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostik, P; Winter, J; Ksiazek, T G; Rollin, P E; Villinger, F; Zaki, S R; Peters, C J; Ansari, A A

    2000-01-01

    Serum samples from 22 hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients were tested for Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-reactive antibodies. In the acute phase of HPS, 100% and 67% of the samples tested positive for SNV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgA, respectively. Among the virus-specific IgG antibodies, the most prevalent were IgG3 (in 97% of samples), followed by IgG1 (70%), IgG2 (30%), and IgG4 (3%).

  8. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  9. Increased Detection of Sin Nombre Hantavirus RNA in Antibody-Positive Deer Mice from Montana, USA: Evidence of Male Bias in RNA Viremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N. Mills

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are widespread emergent zoonotic agents that cause unapparent or limited disease in their rodent hosts, yet cause acute, often fatal pulmonary or renal infections in humans. Previous laboratory experiments with rodent reservoir hosts indicate that hantaviruses can be cleared from host blood early in the infection cycle, while sequestered long term in various host organs. Field studies of North American deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir of Sin Nombre hantavirus, have shown that viral RNA can be transiently detected well past the early acute infection stage, but only in the minority of infected mice. Here, using a non-degenerate RT-PCR assay optimized for SNV strains known to circulate in Montana, USA, we show that viral RNA can be repeatedly detected on a monthly basis in up to 75% of antibody positive deer mice for periods up to 3–6 months. More importantly, our data show that antibody positive male deer mice are more than twice as likely to have detectable SNV RNA in their blood as antibody positive females, suggesting that SNV-infected male deer mice are more likely to shed virus and for longer periods of time.

  10. A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jay W; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

    2013-09-13

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1-15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jay W.; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1–15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development. PMID:23892100

  12. The relative abundance of deer mice with antibody to Sin Nombre virus corresponds to the occurrence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in nearby humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H; Mills, James N; Root, Jon Jeffrey; Doty, Jeffrey B; Beaty, Barry J

    2011-05-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the principal cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the United States and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are its principal rodent host, and thus the natural cycle of the virus is related to the occurrence of HPS. Prevalence of rodent infection appears to be associated with fluctuations in deer mouse populations and, indirectly, with timing and amount of precipitation, a complex of biologic events. Given that rodent population abundances fluctuate, often acutely, it is not unreasonable to assume a direct correlation between the numbers of infected rodents and the number of human infections, unless confounding factors are involved. During a 13-year longitudinal study at a site in southwestern Colorado, we accumulated data regarding deer mice and antibody to SNV and therefore had the opportunity to compare dynamics of deer mouse populations, seroprevalence of antibody to SNV in the rodents, and numbers of HPS cases in Durango and in the State of Colorado as a whole. If abundances of deer mouse populations are directly correlated with occurrence of HPS, it is reasonable to assume that low densities of deer mice and low prevalences of antibody to SNV would lead to fewer human cases than would high densities and high prevalences. Our results substantiate such an assumption and suggest that the risk of acquisition of HPS is likely related to both high numbers of infected deer mice and human activities, rather than being strictly related to prevalence of SNV in the host rodent.

  13. Population dynamics of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Sin Nombre virus, California Channel Islands.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, T. B.; Chomel, B. B.

    1997-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first documented in 1993, is caused by Sin Nombre virus (SNV), which is carried by the Peromyscus species. In 1994, high SNV antibody prevalence was identified in deer mice from two California Channel Islands. We sampled two locations on three islands to estimate mouse population density and SNV prevalence. Population flux and SNV prevalence appear to vary independently.

  14. Elevated Cytokines, Thrombin and PAI-1 in Severe HCPS Patients Due to Sin Nombre Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Bondu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sin Nombre Hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae Hantavirus is a Category A pathogen that causes Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS with case fatality ratios generally ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS is characterized by vascular leakage due to dysregulation of the endothelial barrier function. The loss of vascular integrity results in non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, shock, multi-organ failure and death. Using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS measurements, we found that plasma samples drawn from University of New Mexico Hospital patients with serologically-confirmed HCPS, induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in confluent epithelial and endothelial cell monolayers grown in ECIS cultureware. We show that the loss of cell-cell adhesion is sensitive to both thrombin and plasmin inhibitors in mild cases, and to thrombin only inhibition in severe cases, suggesting an increasing prothrombotic state with disease severity. A proteomic profile (2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry of HCPS plasma samples in our cohort revealed robust antifibrinolytic activity among terminal case patients. The prothrombotic activity is highlighted by acute ≥30 to >100 fold increases in active plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 which, preceded death of the subjects within 48 h. Taken together, this suggests that PAI-1 might be a response to the severe pathology as it is expected to reduce plasmin activity and possibly thrombin activity in the terminal patients.

  15. Relationship of human behavior within outbuildings to potential exposure to Sin Nombre virus in western Montana.

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    Cline, Barbara J; Carver, Scott; Douglass, Richard J

    2010-09-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans. Transmission of SNV among the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) host predominates during spring and summer, and is greater in peridomestic than sylvan settings where, protected from UV light, SNV may survive longer. Incidence of HCPS reflects these times and settings and is associated with inhalation of mouse excreta. Little is known, however, about how human use of outbuildings contributes to potential exposure to SNV. Here, the frequency and seasonality of outbuilding use by humans was evaluated, via a survey of rural residents in western Montana, to quantify human behaviors and potential risk of exposure to SNV. Retrieving or return of tools and scooping feed/grain were the most frequently undertaken activities. Seasonal activities coinciding with seasons of highest HCPS incidence and times of potentially high viral shedding by deer mice, included retrieving or returning tools, calving or lambing, and, to a lesser extent, feeding livestock and sweeping or cleaning. Human behavior is a component of SNV transmission risk and this preliminary study provides a basis from which to further evaluate this route of exposure.

  16. Sin Nombre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    ) den illegale emigration fra Syd mod Nord, i dette tilfælde fra Mellemamerika og gennem Mexico til USA og b) ungdomsbanders vold, kriminalitet og parallelkultur. Filmen udkom i 2009 og er instrueret af den amerikanske filminstruktør Cary Fukunaga. Fukunaga foretog en grundig research i form af......Film belyser vigtige samfundsmæssige, kulturelle og interkulturelle problemer. Det kan være hvordan en profession udøves (film om advokater, læger, lærere, brandfolk), hvad der karakteriserer en etnisk gruppe eller subkultur, eller møder/konflikter mellem grupper og kulturer, osv. Derfor kan film...... med fordel inddrages i undervisningen for at levendegøre sådanne emner. Samtidig udgør film en vigtig kilde til udvikling af ideer indenfor discipliner som sociologi, kulturel og interkulturel forståelse og historie. Endvidere er film for mange mennesker den umiddelbare kilde til viden om folk og...

  17. Population Density and Seasonality Effects on Sin Nombre Virus Transmission in North American Deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus) in Outdoor Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagamian, Karoun H.; Douglass, Richard J.; Alvarado, Arlene; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Amman, Brian R.; Waller, Lance A.; Mills, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Surveys of wildlife host-pathogen systems often document clear seasonal variation in transmission; conclusions concerning the relationship between host population density and transmission vary. In the field, effects of seasonality and population density on natural disease cycles are challenging to measure independently, but laboratory experiments may poorly reflect what happens in nature. Outdoor manipulative experiments are an alternative that controls for some variables in a relatively natural environment. Using outdoor enclosures, we tested effects of North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) population density and season on transmission dynamics of Sin Nombre hantavirus. In early summer, mid-summer, late summer, and fall 2007–2008, predetermined numbers of infected and uninfected adult wild deermice were released into enclosures and trapped weekly or bi-weekly. We documented 18 transmission events and observed significant seasonal effects on transmission, wounding frequency, and host breeding condition. Apparent differences in transmission incidence or wounding frequency between high- and low-density treatments were not statistically significant. However, high host density was associated with a lower proportion of males with scrotal testes. Seasonality may have a stronger influence on disease transmission dynamics than host population density, and density effects cannot be considered independent of seasonality. PMID:22768034

  18. Biogeographic and ecological regulation of disease: Prevalence of Sin Nombre virus in island mice is related to island area, precipitation, and predator richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrock, John L.; Allan, Brian F.; Drost, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    The relative roles of top-down and bottom-up forces in affecting disease prevalence in wild hosts is important for understanding disease dynamics and human disease risk. We found that the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the agent of a severe disease in humans (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome), in island deer mice from the eight California Channel Islands was greater with increased precipitation (a measure of productivity), greater island area, and fewer species of rodent predators. In finding a strong signal of the ecological forces affecting SNV prevalence, our work highlights the need for future work to understand the relative importance of average rodent density, population fluctuations, behavior, and specialist predators as they affect SNV prevalence. In addition to illustrating the importance of both bottom-up and top-down limitation of disease prevalence, our results suggest that predator richness may have important bearing on the risk of exposure to animal-borne diseases that affect humans.

  19. Sin nombre virus and rodent species diversity: a test of the dilution and amplification hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Christine A; Lehmer, Erin M; Jeor, Stephen St; Dearing, M Denise

    2009-07-31

    Species diversity is proposed to greatly impact the prevalence of pathogens. Two predominant hypotheses, the "Dilution Effect" and the "Amplification Effect", predict divergent outcomes with respect to the impact of species diversity. The Dilution Effect predicts that pathogen prevalence will be negatively correlated with increased species diversity, while the Amplification Effect predicts that pathogen prevalence will be positively correlated with diversity. For many host-pathogen systems, the relationship between diversity and pathogen prevalence has not be empirically examined. We tested the Dilution and Amplification Effect hypotheses by examining the prevalence of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) with respect to diversity of the nocturnal rodent community. SNV is directly transmitted primarily between deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Using mark-recapture sampling in the Spring and Fall of 2003-2005, we measured SNV prevalence in deer mice at 16 landscape level sites (3.1 hectares each) that varied in rodent species diversity. We explored several mechanisms by which species diversity may affect SNV prevalence, including reduced host density, reduced host persistence, the presence of secondary reservoirs and community composition. We found a negative relationship between species diversity and SNV prevalence in deer mice, thereby supporting the Dilution Effect hypothesis. Deer mouse density and persistence were lower at sites with greater species diversity; however, only deer mouse persistence was positively correlated with SNV prevalence. Pinyon mice (P. truei) may serve as dilution agents, having a negative effect on prevalence, while kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), may have a positive effect on the prevalence of SNV, perhaps through effects on deer mouse behavior. While previous studies on host-pathogen systems have found patterns of diversity consistent with either the Dilution or Amplification Effects, the mechanisms by which species diversity influences

  20. Long-term patterns of immune investment by wild deer mice infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Jones, Jeremy D; Bego, Mariana G; Varner, Johanna M; Jeor, Stephen St; Clay, Christine A; Dearing, M Denise

    2010-01-01

    Immunocompetence of animals fluctuates seasonally, However, there is little consensus on the cause of these fluctuations. Some studies have suggested that these patterns are influenced by changes in reproductive condition, whereas others have suggested that differences result from seasonal variations in energy expenditures. The objective of our study was to examine these contrasting views of immunity by evaluating seasonal patterns of immune response and reproduction in wild populations of deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus exposed to Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Over three consecutive fall (September, October, November) and three consecutive spring (March, April, May) sampling periods, we used titration enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify virus-specific antibody production in 48 deer mice infected with SNV. Levels of reproductive hormones were quantified using ELISA. SNV antibody titers reached their lowest level during November (geometric mean titer [GMT] = 420) and their highest levels during September (GMT = 5,545) and May (GMT = 3,582), suggesting that the immune response of deer mice to SNV has seasonal patterns. The seeming decrease in antibody titer over winter coupled with the consistency in body masses suggests that during winter, immunocompetence may be compromised to offset the energetic costs of maintenance functions, including those associated with maintaining body mass. Deer mice showed distinct sex-based differences in SNV antibody production, with males producing higher antibody titers (GMT = 3,333) than females (GMT = 1,477). Levels of reproductive hormones do not appear to influence antibody production in either males or females, as there was no correlation between estradiol concentrations and SNV antibody titer in female deer mice (r² = 0.26), nor was there a significant relationship between levels of testosterone and SNV antibody titers in males (r² = 0.28). Collectively, this study demonstrates that immunocompetence of wild deer

  1. Sin semántica no hay estructura: la no descomposicionalidad de los nombres propios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fábregas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} En este trabajo argumentamos a favor de un análisis morfológico de los nombres propios que deriva de la hipótesis general del isomorfismo entre forma y significado. Nuestra propuesta es que los nombres propios no se segmentan morfológicamente porque el hablante no tiene que descomponerlos en partes menores para construir composicionalmente su semántica. Los datos que empleamos provienen del género de los topónimos; argumentamos que el género en estas formaciones es variable porque el hablante no descompone una desinencia en estas formaciones y, en ausencia de otros principios que obliguen a reconocer el género, la marca de género se emplea para expresar nociones semánticas.

  2. Hantavirus Prevention: Cleanup of Rodent Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    fatal outcome. Sin Nombre virus ( SNV ) has been responsible for over 90% of the human hantavirus cases in the United States in the last nine years...Peromyscus maniculatus, the deer mouse, is the primary reservoir for SNV . This has also been confirmed by USACHPPM-West surveillance at 44 military...installations, mostly in the western half of the United States, where 12% of the P. maniculatus sampled have been positive for SNV . The deer mouse is

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Robbin Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The first confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Manitoba was diagnosed in 1999. To define better the risk of exposure to hantaviruses in this area, the clinical features and epidemiological factors pertaining to this case were described, and a serological survey of rodents collected near the patient's residence was undertaken. Small mammals were collected using live traps, were anesthetized via inhalation of isoflurane and were bled. Human and mouse serologies were undertaken using an ELISA to detect hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin M antibodies. In addition, a full medical and epidemiological assessment, as well as individual risk factor and exposure analysis, were conducted. A 27-year-old Manitoba woman presented with severe respiratory distress and diffuse bilateral air space disease radiologically. Despite extremely aggressive measures, including mechanical ventilation, antibiotics, fluid management and inotropic support, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died 8 h after admission. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was confirmed by the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies to the Sin Nombre virus (SNV in her sera and by the demonstration of SNV genomic sequences in her lung tissue. Exposure to hantavirus likely occurred in and around the home or in the rural area in which she resided. A total of 252 small mammals, primarily deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, were collected from 17 different sites at or near where the patient lived. Antibodies to SNV were detected in 28 of 244 (11.5% deer mice, which were collected within 9 km of the residence of the fatal case, indicating that these rodents are a significant reservoir for SNV in this area.

  4. [Hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  5. Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.

  6. The interplay of plant and animal disease in a changing landscape: the role of sudden aspen decline in moderating Sin Nombre virus prevalence in natural deer mouse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Korb, Julie; Bombaci, Sara; McLean, Nellie; Ghachu, Joni; Hart, Lacey; Kelly, Ashley; Jara-Molinar, Edlin; O'Brien, Colleen; Wright, Kimberly

    2012-06-01

    We examined how climate-mediated forest dieback regulates zoonotic disease prevalence using the relationship between sudden aspen decline (SAD) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) as a model system. We compared understory plant community structure, small mammal community composition, and SNV prevalence on 12 study sites within aspen forests experiencing levels of SAD ranging from 95.0% crown fade. Our results show that sites with the highest levels of SAD had reduced canopy cover, stand density, and basal area, and these differences were reflected by reductions in understory vegetation cover. Conversely, sites with the highest levels of SAD had greater understory standing biomass, suggesting that vegetation on these sites was highly clustered. Changes in forest and understory vegetation structure likely resulted in shifts in small mammal community composition across the SAD gradient, as we found reduced species diversity and higher densities of deer mice, the primary host for SNV, on sites with the highest levels of SAD. Sites with the highest levels of SAD also had significantly greater SNV prevalence compared to sites with lower levels of SAD, which is likely a result of their abundance of deer mice. Collectively, results of our research provide strong evidence to show SAD has considerable impacts on vegetation community structure, small mammal density and biodiversity and the prevalence of SNV.

  7. EVALUATING THE IMPACTS OF COINFECTION ON IMMUNE SYSTEM FUNCTION OF THE DEER MOUSE ( PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS) USING SIN NOMBRE VIRUS AND BARTONELLA AS MODEL PATHOGEN SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Erin M; Lavengood, Kathryn; Miller, Mason; Rodgers, Jacob; Fenster, Steven D

    2018-01-01

    :  Simultaneous infections with multiple pathogens can alter the function of the host's immune system, often resulting in additive or synergistic morbidity. We examined how coinfection with the common pathogens Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Bartonella sp. affected aspects of the adaptive and innate immune responses of wild deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus). Adaptive immunity was assessed by measuring SNV antibody production; innate immunity was determined by measuring levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood and the complement activity of plasma. Coinfected mice had reduced plasma complement activity and higher levels of CRP compared to mice infected with either SNV or Bartonella. However, antibody titers of deer mice infected with SNV were more than double those of coinfected mice. Plasma complement activity and CRP levels did not differ between uninfected deer mice and those infected with only Bartonella, suggesting that comorbid SNV and Bartonella infections act synergistically, altering the innate immune response. Collectively, our results indicated that the immune response of deer mice coinfected with both SNV and Bartonella differed substantially from individuals infected with only one of these pathogens. Results of our study provided unique, albeit preliminary, insight into the impacts of coinfection on immune system function in wild animal hosts and underscore the complexity of the immune pathways that exist in coinfected hosts.

  8. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus

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    Amanda McGuire

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4 containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  9. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  10. Crystal Structure of the Core Region of Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Reveals the Mechanism for Ribonucleoprotein Complex Formation

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    Guo, Yu; Wang, Wenming; Sun, Yuna; Ma, Chao; Wang, Xu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Pi; Shen, Shu; Li, Baobin; Lin, Jianping; Deng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantaviruses, which belong to the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, infect mammals, including humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans with high mortality. Hantavirus encodes a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to encapsidate the genome and form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together with viral polymerase. Here, we report the crystal structure of the core domains of NP (NPcore) encoded by Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV), which are two representative members that cause HCPS in the New World. The constructs of SNV and ANDV NPcore exclude the N- and C-terminal portions of full polypeptide to obtain stable proteins for crystallographic study. The structure features an N lobe and a C lobe to clamp RNA-binding crevice and exhibits two protruding extensions in both lobes. The positively charged residues located in the RNA-binding crevice play a key role in RNA binding and virus replication. We further demonstrated that the C-terminal helix and the linker region connecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain and NPcore are essential for hantavirus NP oligomerization through contacts made with two adjacent protomers. Moreover, electron microscopy (EM) visualization of native RNPs extracted from the virions revealed that a monomer-sized NP-RNA complex is the building block of viral RNP. This work provides insight into the formation of hantavirus RNP and provides an understanding of the evolutionary connections that exist among bunyaviruses. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses are distributed across a wide and increasing range of host reservoirs throughout the world. In particular, hantaviruses can be transmitted via aerosols of rodent excreta to humans or from human to human and cause HFRS and HCPS, with mortalities of 15% and 50%, respectively. Hantavirus is therefore listed as a category C pathogen. Hantavirus encodes an NP that plays essential roles both in RNP formation and

  11. El nombre comercial

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    Ernesto Rengifo García

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available La figura del nombre comercial suele ser objeto de poco desarrollo conceptual en los cursos de derecho de propiedad industrial, e incluso en los manuales que sirven de sustento a aquellos, esto por cuanto, entre otras razones, existe la predisposición a abarcar el análisis de los signos distintivos con el estudio –ese sí exhaustivo– de la marca; y además porque el mismo legislador suele reenviar, para efectos de la integración normativa del nombre comercial, a lo por él dispuesto sobre las marcas de comercio. Sin embargo, el nombre comercial ha devenido un signo de primer orden y sus implicaciones son hoy tan trascendentales en el mundo del intercambio de bienes y servicios que no es suficiente para su estudio verlo como un mero apéndice del signo distintivo por excelencia, esto es, la marca. El artículo realiza una exposición de la regulación del nombre, y dentro de ella hace énfasis en sus falencias y en aquellos asuntos que, con contradicciones evidentes, pueden colocar a la institución del nombre comercial en problemas de interpretación o de incerteza frente a la seguridad que reclama un tráfico jurídico cada vez más intenso en el uso y posicionamiento de signos distintivos diferentes a las marcas.

  12. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster. PMID:23600567

  13. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

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    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  14. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

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    Sabine Lederer

    Full Text Available In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV, Puumala (PUUV, Seoul (SEOV, Saaremaa (SAAV, Dobrava (DOBV, Sin Nombre (SNV or Andes (ANDV. For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97; SEOV (China, n=5; DOBV (Romania, n=7; SNV (Canada, n=23; ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52. The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96% and/or IgM (n=131; 72%, while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99% of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71% IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%. Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%. Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2% showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV.

  15. Antagonism of type I interferon responses by new world hantaviruses.

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    Levine, Jessica R; Prescott, Joseph; Brown, Kyle S; Best, Sonja M; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2010-11-01

    Evasion of interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral signaling is a common defense strategy for pathogenic RNA viruses. To date, research on IFN antagonism by hantaviruses is limited and has focused on only a subset of the numerous recognized hantavirus species. The host IFN response has two phases, an initiation phase, resulting in the induction of alpha/beta IFN (IFN-α/β), and an amplification phase, whereby IFN-α/β signals through the Jak/STAT pathway, resulting in the establishment of the cellular antiviral state. We examined interactions between these critical host responses and the New World hantaviruses. We observed delayed cellular responses in both Andes virus (ANDV)- and Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-infected A549 and Huh7-TLR3 cells. We found that IFN-β induction is inhibited by coexpression of ANDV nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and is robustly inhibited by SNV GPC alone. Downstream amplification by Jak/STAT signaling is also inhibited by SNV GPC and by either NP or GPC of ANDV. Therefore, ANDV- and SNV-encoded proteins have the potential for inhibiting both IFN-β induction and signaling, with SNV exhibiting the more potent antagonism ability. Herein we identify ANDV NP, a previously unrecognized inhibitor of Jak/STAT signaling, and show that IFN antagonism by ANDV relies on expression of both the glycoproteins and NP, whereas the glycoproteins appear to be sufficient for antagonism by SNV. These data suggest that IFN antagonism strategies by hantaviruses are quite variable, even between species with similar disease phenotypes, and may help to better elucidate species-specific pathogenesis.

  16. Rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Detection of Hantavirus-Specific Antibodies in Divergent Small Mammals

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    Karla Cautivo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for the detection of hantavirus-specific antibodies from sera of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, the principal reservoir of Andes virus (ANDV, using an antigen previously developed for detection of antibodies to Sin Nombre virus (SNV in sera from Peromyscus maniculatus. The assay uses a protein A/G horseradish peroxidase conjugate and can be performed in as little as 1.5 hours. Serum samples from Oligoryzomys longicaudatus collected in central-south Chile were used and the assay identified several that were antibody positive. This assay can be used for the rapid detection of antibodies to divergent hantaviruses from geographically and phylogenetically distant rodent species.

  17. Diagnóstico virológico y molecular de virus transmitidos por roedores. Hantavirus y arenavirus

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    Silvana Levis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus (familia Bunyaviridae y arenavirus (familia Arenaviridae son virus de roedores; cada uno de ellos parece estar estrictamente asociado con una especie de roedor en la que causa una infección persistente y asintomática. En las Américas tienen como reservorios primarios a roedores de la sub-familia Sigmodontinae, y son causantes de síndrome pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH y fiebres hemorrágicas, respectivamente (1,2. El número de estos virus identificados en los últimos años ha aumentado significativamente; actualmente, el género Hantavirus está compuesto por más de 28 tipos diferentes, mientras que al menos 23 arenavirus conforman el género Arenavirus. Entre los hantavirus asociados con SPH se destacan el virus Sin Nombre en Norteamérica, y los virus Andes, Laguna Negra, Caño Delgadito, Araraquara y Juquitiba, en el cono sur de América, entre otros (2. Los arenavirus asociados a fiebres hemorrágicas reconocidos en Sud América al presente son: Junín (Argentina, Guanarito (Venezuela, Sabiá (Brasil, y Machupo y Chapare (Bolivia (3.

  18. Impact of the Yosemite hantavirus outbreak on hantavirus antibody testing at a national reference laboratory.

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    Prince, Harry E; Lieberman, Jay M

    2013-08-01

    In conjunction with the 2012 Yosemite hantavirus outbreak, the number of sera our facility tested for hantavirus antibodies increased. We tracked test results and used the data set to determine if a more efficient testing algorithm was possible. Sera were screened using laboratory-developed pan-hantavirus IgG and IgM enzyme immunoassays (EIAs), with an index of >1.10 defined as positive. Sera that were IgM positive by screening (screen IgM(+)) were tested for Sin Nombre virus (SNV)-specific IgM using a laboratory-developed EIA; screen IgM(+) IgG(+) sera were also tested for SNV IgG using a laboratory-developed immunoblot assay. SNV antibody-positive samples were sent to state public health laboratories (PHL) or the CDC for confirmation. Of 3,946 sera tested from July through December 2012, 205 were screen IgM(+) IgG negative (IgG(-)); 7/205 were SNV IgM(+), but only 1/5 sent to PHL/CDC was confirmed as SNV IgM(+). Of 61 screen IgM(+) IgG(+) sera, 16 were SNV antibody positive; 13/16 sera (from 11 patients) went to PHL/CDC, where SNV infection was confirmed for all patients. Of 12 confirmed patients, 7 had been exposed at Yosemite. A modified algorithm defining screen indices of ≥2.00 as positive identified 11/12 confirmed cases while reducing the number of sera requiring SNV-specific antibody testing by 65%; the patient missed was not tested until 3 months after the onset of symptoms. Hantavirus antibody testing at our facility identified 12 SNV-infected patients, including 7 exposed at Yosemite. Some screen IgM(+) IgG(-) SNV IgM(+) results were false positives, emphasizing the value of PHL/CDC confirmatory testing. We identified a modified algorithm requiring analysis of fewer specimens for SNV-specific antibodies without loss of sensitivity.

  19. Hantavirus Infections

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    Camilo Guzmán T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in humans in the Americas; The primary reservoirs are in the rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae. In South America, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome caused by numerous viral genotypes have been diagnosed. In Colombia, different serological studies have reported the circulation of hantavirus in humans and rodents. These viruses act in an intimate association with a rodent species that serves as a reservoir and have a distribution around the wild rodent, being limited to a specific geographic region. In South America, the first HPS-associated hantavirus was described in 1993 in Brazil and was called Juquitiva and from 1993 to 2012, more than 1400 cases had been identified in Brazil. This syndrome should be suspected in all patients with respiratory distress syndrome of unclear etiology, in areas endemic for the disease, especially if accompanied by fever, marked leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and bilateral interstitial infiltrates. Hemorrhagic febrile syndrome has not yet been described in the Americas. There are no clinical or laboratory signs that are pathognomonic of hantavirus infection. The treatment is based on adequate hydration, use of antipyretics and anti-inflammatories and patients with signs of severity should establish a more aggressive management. Triage is indispensable, patients with co-morbidities have a higher mortality risk and therefore should be hospitalized. Future research in Colombia should be directed to multidisciplinary studies that include viral isolation, different clinical forms of case presentation, epidemiological differences, risk factors, and taxonomy of viruses and rodents.

  20. Pathophysiology of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in rhesus macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronetz, David; Prescott, Joseph; Feldmann, Friederike; Haddock, Elaine; Rosenke, Rebecca; Okumura, Atsushi; Brining, Douglas; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Ebihara, Hideki; Scott, Dana P.; Hjelle, Brian; Feldmann, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) remains unclear because of a lack of surrogate disease models with which to perform pathogenesis studies. Nonhuman primates (NHP) are considered the gold standard model for studying the underlying immune activation/suppression associated with immunopathogenic viruses such as hantaviruses; however, to date an NHP model for HPS has not been described. Here we show that rhesus macaques infected with Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the primary etiological agent of HPS in North America, propagated in deer mice develop HPS, which is characterized by thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and rapid onset of respiratory distress caused by severe interstitial pneumonia. Despite establishing a systemic infection, SNV differentially activated host responses exclusively in the pulmonary endothelium, potentially the mechanism leading to acute severe respiratory distress. This study presents a unique chronological characterization of SNV infection and provides mechanistic data into the pathophysiology of HPS in a closely related surrogate animal model. We anticipate this model will advance our understanding of HPS pathogenesis and will greatly facilitate research toward the development of effective therapeutics and vaccines against hantaviral diseases. PMID:24778254

  1. Muleshoe Virus and Other Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine or Sigmodontine Rodents in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Cajimat, Maria N B; Richter, Martin H; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2017-10-01

    The broad objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of Muleshoe virus and other hantaviruses associated with cricetid rodents in Texas. Anti-hantavirus antibody was found in 38 (3.2%) of 1171 neotomine rodents and 6 (1.8%) of 332 sigmodontine rodents from 10 Texas counties; hantaviral RNA was detected in 23 (71.9%) of 32 antibody-positive rodents. Analyses of nucleocapsid protein gene sequences indicated Muleshoe virus infection in four hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from northern Texas; Bayou virus, three Texas marsh oryzomys (Oryzomys texensis) from the Gulf Coast; Limestone Canyon virus, five brush mice (Peromyscus boylii) from western Texas; and Sin Nombre virus-five Texas mice (P. attwateri), one Lacey's white-ankled deer mouse (P. laceianus), four white-footed mice (P. leucopus), and one fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens) from northern, central, or southern Texas. The results of this study together with the results of a previous study revealed that Muleshoe virus, perhaps in association with S. hispidus, is distributed across northern Texas. Finally, the results of Bayesian analyses of glycoprotein precursor (GPC) gene sequences and pairwise comparisons of complete GPC (amino acid) sequences strengthened support for the notion that Muleshoe virus is distinct from Black Creek Canal virus, Bayou virus, and all other species included in the Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus.

  2. [Rodent associated hantaviruses and hantavirus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Hantaviruses belongs to the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae are maintained in rodents and infects to humans by inhalation of the aerosol of infected rodent excreta. In this article, the epidemiology of hantavirus infection and the special relationship between rodent and hantavirus are described. Hantavirus infections include hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). HFRS is characterized high fever, hemorrhage, and renal disorder. HFRS is distributed in East Asia, Europe, and Russia. While HCPS is characterized acute respiratory dysfunction and cardiogenic shock. The distribution of HCPS is limited in North and South Americas. In Japan's neighboring countries, such as Russia, China, and Korea, large numbers of HFRS patients are reported in association with multiple hantaviruses. In Japan, hantavirus infection has not been reported since 1985 but grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae) inhabiting Hokkaido maintain one of the hantaviruses. Coevolution between hantavirus and host may have been occurred during a long period. The endemic areas of hantavirus infection are strongly associated with the distribution of host animal carrying pathogenic hantaviruses.

  3. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is ...

  4. A High-Throughput Flow Cytometry Screen Identifies Molecules That Inhibit Hantavirus Cell Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranda, Tione; Gineste, Catherine; Wu, Yang; Bondu, Virginie; Perez, Dominique; Lake, Kaylin R; Edwards, Bruce S; Sklar, Larry A

    2018-04-01

    Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which infects more than 200,000 people worldwide. Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause the most severe form of HCPS, with case fatality ratios of 30%-40%. There are no specific therapies or vaccines for SNV. Using high-throughput flow cytometry, we screened the Prestwick Chemical Library for small-molecule inhibitors of the binding interaction between UV-inactivated and fluorescently labeled SNV R18 particles, and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) expressed on Tanoue B cells. Eight confirmed hit compounds from the primary screen were investigated further in secondary screens that included infection inhibition, cytotoxicity, and probe interference. Antimycin emerged as a bona fide hit compound that inhibited cellular infection of the major HCPS (SNV)- and HCPS (Hantaan)-causing viruses. Confirming our assay's ability to detect active compounds, orthogonal testing of the hit compound showed that antimycin binds directly to the virus particle and blocks recapitulation of physiologic integrin activation caused by SNV binding to the integrin PSI domain.

  5. Globally emerging hantaviruses: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Chandy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are known to cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. They are globally emerging pathogens as newer serotypes are routinely being reported. This review discusses hantavirus biology, clinical features and pathogenesis of hantavirus disease, its diagnostics, distribution and mammalian hosts. Hantavirus research in India is also summarised.

  6. Hantaviroses Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Simão Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As hantaviroses constituem infecções zoonóticas amplamente distribuídas em todo o mundo. A febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal mostra-se endêmica na Ásia e Europa, acometendo milharea de pessoas anualmente. A síndrome cardiopulmonar pelo hantavírus, reconhecida como entidade clínica desde 1993, representa o protótipo das doenças emergentes e encontra-se distribuída em diversos países do continente americano, inclusive o Brasil. Ambas são transmitidas ao homem através da inalação de partículas virais eliminadas nas fezes e urina de roedores domésticos e silvestres. Trata-se de doenças sistêmicas febris que podem acometer vários órgãos, destacando-se o rim na febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal e os pulmões e o coração na síndrome cardiopulmonar. A taxa de letalidade da hantavirose americana alcança 50%. Diagnostica-se as hantaviroses através de provas sorológicas imunoenzimáticas ao identificar-se anticorpos específicos das classes IgM e IgG. Não há tratamento específico. Recomenda-se hidratação cuidadosa, indicação precoce de diálise nas formas renais e administração de drogas vasoativas nos períodos de hipotensão e choque. A administração de corticoesteróides e da ribavirina está sendo avaliada em estudos controlados. O número de casos dessas viroses tem crescido no Brasil ano a ano, e cumpre alertar os profissionais de saúde sobre a ocorrência dessas entidades nos vários estados do país, possibilitando diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado nos casos suspeitos da doença.Hantaviruses are zoonotic diseases that affect humans and have a worldwide distribution. The hemorrhagic fever associated with renal syndrome occurs endemically in the Asian and European continents affecting housauds of people every year. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, recognized as a clinical entity since 1993, represents the prototype of emerging diseases and is distributed in countries of the American

  7. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  9. Antiviral efficacy of favipiravir against two prominent etiological agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronetz, David; Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P; Furuta, Yousuke; Feldmann, Heinz; Gowen, Brian B

    2013-10-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by infection with several Sigmodontinae- and Neotominae-borne hantaviruses and has a case fatality rate of 30 to 50%. Humans often become infected by inhalation of materials contaminated with virus-laden rodent urine or saliva, although human-to-human transmission has also been documented for Andes virus (ANDV). The ability to transmit via aerosolization, coupled with the high mortality rates and lack of therapeutic options, makes the development of medical countermeasures against HPS imperative. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) against Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and ANDV, the predominant causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. In vitro, T-705 potently inhibited SNV and ANDV, as evidenced by decreased detection of viral RNA and reduced infectious titers. For both viruses, the 90% effective concentration was estimated at ≤5 μg/ml (≤31.8 μM). In the lethal ANDV hamster model, daily administration of oral T-705 at 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight diminished the detection of viral RNA and antigen in tissue specimens and significantly improved survival rates. Oral T-705 therapy remained protective against HPS when treatment was initiated prior to the onset of viremia. No disease model for SNV exists; however, using a hamster-adapted SNV, we found that daily administration of oral T-705 significantly reduced the detection of SNV RNA and antigen in tissue specimens, suggesting that the compound would also be effective against HPS in North America. Combined, these results suggest that T-705 treatment is beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis against HPS-causing viruses and should be considered for probable exposures.

  10. Two Decades of Hantavirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-06-29

    Dr. de St. Maurice, a CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officer, discusses hantavirus.  Created: 6/29/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/29/2017.

  11. Pandillas, migrantes y fronteras en Sin Nombre y Babel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2015-01-01

    social and ethnic divisions on a global scale and moreover, the latter represents and recreates social issues such as migration, globalization, borders and transnational gangs. The directors and screenwriters present their observations and thinking regarding these sociological issues thematically...... and by combining images, narrative and music a powerful message is provided...

  12. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil: clinical aspects of three new cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA Marcelo S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS has been recognized recently in Brazil, where 28 cases have been reported as of September 1999. We report here the clinical and laboratory findings of three cases whose diagnoses were confirmed serologically. All the patients were adults who presented a febrile illness with respiratory symptoms that progressed to respiratory failure that required artificial ventilation in two of them. Laboratory findings were most of the time consistent with those reported in the United States in patients infected with the Sin Nombre virus, and included elevated hematocrit and thrombocytopenia; presence of atypical lymphocytes was observed in one patient. The chest radiological findings observed in all the patients were bilateral, diffuse, reticulonodular infiltrates. Two patients died. Histopathological examination of the lungs of these patients revealed interstitial and alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and mild interstitial pneumonia characterized by infiltrate of immunoblasts and mononuclear cells. In the epidemiologic investigation of one of the cases, serologic (ELISA tests were positive in 3 (25% out of 12 individuals who shared the same environmental exposure. HPS should be included in the differential diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory failure.

  13. [Serological evidence of hanta virus infection (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus) in rodents from the Sucre Department in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pedro; Arroyo, Stiven; Corrales, Homer; Pérez, Julia; Álvarez, Lercy; Castellar, Anaís

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of this research was to determine the frequency of hantavirus-specific antibodies in rodents from the municipality of San Marcos in the Sucre department of Colombia. 144 rodents were captured in San Marcos' urban and rural areas using Sherman traps between December 2007 and July 2009. "Virus sin Nombre" (SNV)-specific antibodies were detected in plasma samples by an indirect ELISA immunoassay. An 8.3 % (12/144) seroprevalence rate was found. Specific seropositivity rates ranged from 6.8 % (3/44, Zygodontomysbrevicauda) to 50 % (1/2, Neacomysspinosus). No significant differences were found in seroprevalence according to capture area, gender and/or reproductive stage (p>0.05); however, there were more seropositive adult males. This is the first evidence of hanta virus seropositivity in rodents from the Murinae subfamily in Colombia. The presence of SNV antibodies in rodents in San Marcos supported the hypothesis that at least one hantavirusis circulating in rodents from northern Colombia.

  14. Marx (sin ismos)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Buey, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    El artículo introduce al libro Marx (sin ismos) escrito por Francisco Fernández Buey. La intención de la obra es ofrecer una comprensión de Marx distinguiéndolo del marxismo y de lo que en la historia otros autores han dicho y hecho en o contra su nombre: Marx no como un determinista económico sino precisamente como el autor genialmente crítico cuyo mensaje lleva a revelarse contra los determinantes económicos. La lectura de Korsch, Rubel y Sacristán, la comparación de Marx y el comunismo con...

  15. Nombres de dominio en Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Doña, Mª Sierra

    2002-01-01

    El nombre de dominio, tambien denominado "Domain Name System" (DNS) es un conjunto de dígitos (integrado por signos, letras, palabras o números), que sirven para identificar las diferentes personas e instituciones (conocidas como usuarios) que operan en la Red Internet (entr ellos: "icann.org"; "mcyt.es").

  16. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-14

    Dr. Adam MacNeil, epidemiologist with Viral Special Pathogens Branch at CDC, discusses hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.  Created: 7/14/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  17. La preuve par le nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available S’il en était besoin, la question des usages et de la finalité des résultats de l’inventaire général pourrait être abordée par le nombre : nombre d’œuvres répertoriées, de communes inventoriées, de clichés photographiques réalisés, de dossiers, de consultations des notices dans les bases de données… Les additions aujourd’hui sont éloquentes, mais elles laissent dans l’ombre le rôle de l’inventaire qui, en mettant en œuvre une démarche systématique de connaissance, participe à l’ identificatio...

  18. Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and the dynamics of hantavirus using remote sensing, GIS, and a spatially explicit agent-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lina

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a strain of hantavirus, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans, a deadly disease with high mortality rate (>50%). The primary virus host is deer mice, and greater deer mice abundance has been shown to increase the human risk of HPS. There is a great need in understanding the nature of the virus host, its temporal and spatial dynamics, and its relation to the human population with the purpose of predicting human risk of the disease. This research studies SNV dynamics in deer mice in the Great Basin Desert of central Utah, USA using multiyear field data and integrated geospatial approaches including remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and a spatially explicit agent-based model. The goal is to advance our understanding of the important ecological and demographic factors that affect the dynamics of deer mouse population and SNV prevalence. The primary research question is how climate, habitat disturbance, and deer mouse demographics affect deer mouse population density, its movement, and SNV prevalence in the sagebrush habitat. The results show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) can be good predictors of deer mouse density and the number of infected deer mice with a time lag of 1.0 to 1.3 years. This information can be very useful in predicting mouse abundance and SNV risk. The results also showed that climate, mouse density, sex, mass, and SNV infection had significant effects on deer mouse movement. The effect of habitat disturbance on mouse movement varies according to climate conditions with positive relationship in predrought condition and negative association in postdrought condition. The heavier infected deer mice moved the most. Season and disturbance alone had no significant effects. The spatial agent-based model (SABM) simulation results show that prevalence was negatively related to the disturbance levels and the sensitivity analysis showed that

  19. Recognition of decay accelerating factor and alpha(v)beta(3) by inactivated hantaviruses: Toward the development of high-throughput screening flow cytometry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranda, Tione; Wu, Yang; Perez, Dominique; Jett, Stephen D; BonduHawkins, Virginie; Ye, Chunyan; Edwards, Bruce; Hall, Pamela; Larson, Richard S; Lopez, Gabriel P; Sklar, Larry A; Hjelle, Brian

    2010-07-15

    Hantaviruses cause two severe diseases in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). The lack of vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HFRS and HCPS and the requirement for conducting experiments in a biosafety level 3 laboratory (BSL-3) limit the ability to probe the mechanism of infection and disease pathogenesis. In this study, we developed a generalizable spectroscopic assay to quantify saturable fluorophore sites solubilized in envelope membranes of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) particles. We then used flow cytometry and live cell confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to show that ultraviolet (UV)-killed SNV particles bind to the cognate receptors of live virions, namely, decay accelerating factor (DAF/CD55) expressed on Tanoue B cells and alpha(v)beta(3) integrins expressed on Vero E6 cells. SNV binding to DAF is multivalent and of high affinity (K(d) approximately 26pM). Self-exchange competition binding assays between fluorescently labeled SNV and unlabeled SNV are used to evaluate an infectious unit-to-particle ratio of approximately 1:14,000. We configured the assay for measuring the binding of fluorescently labeled SNV to Tanoue B suspension cells using a high-throughput flow cytometer. In this way, we established a proof-of-principle high-throughput screening (HTS) assay for binding inhibition. This is a first step toward developing HTS format assays for small molecule inhibitors of viral-cell interactions as well as dissecting the mechanism of infection in a BSL-2 environment. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Nephropathy due to Puumala hantavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandolo, A; Prajs, N; Lizop, M

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is due to an infection by the virus of the Hantavirus genus. Rodent hosts of Hantavirus are present in restricted areas in France; consequently, there are ecological niches and microepidemics of human Hantavirus infections. A HFRS case was diagnosed in the Paris region. The 11-year-old child had an acute debut fever-persistent despite antipyretic medication-asthenia, headache, abdominal pain, myalgia, thrombocytopenia, as well as renal failure with proteinuria. The diagnosis was made with a relevant clinical history and the specific serology of Puumala hantavirus. Therefore, a kidney biopsy was not necessary. What was interesting was the diagnostic approach because of the difference between the place and time of contamination and where the child became ill and developed the symptoms. The child was infected by Puumala hantavirus in Les Ardennes, a high-risk area, but became ill in the Paris region, an area with no prevalence. We review Hantavirus infections in France and its differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Hantavirus strains in East Africa related to Western African hantaviruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšíková, Jana; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2017), s. 278-280 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * East Africa * hantavirus * phylogeny * rodents Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  2. A Nonfatal Case of Dobrava Hantavirus Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Combined with Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemsedin Dreshaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Among hantaviruses (HTNV, 22 are known as pathogenic for humans. HTNV can cause two clinical entities: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. In most countries of Eastern Europe as well as in Kosovo, HTNV infection is presented mainly as HFRS. Here, we report a 20-year-old man with HFRS and HCPS caused by Dobrava hantavirus strain, successfully treated in Intensive Care Unit of Infectious Diseases Clinic, University Clinical Center of Kosovo. In HFRS endemic areas, patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome need to be evaluated for Dobrava hantavirus strain as a possible causative agent.

  3. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eHepojoki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with endothelial cells, and their effects on the increased vascular permeability.

  4. The fundamental role of endothelial cells in hantavirus pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus, a genus of rodent- and insectivore-borne viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, is a group of emerging zoonotic pathogens. Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in man, often with severe consequences. Vascular leakage is evident in severe hantavirus infections, and increased permeability contributes to the pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hantavirus interactions with hematopoietic and endothelial ...

  5. Hantavirus and tuberculosis co-infection in an Indian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Someshwar Chate

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are a group of antigenically distinct viruses carried out in rodents and insectivores. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine, faeces and saliva of infected rodents. Hantaviruses are identified as aetiological agents of two human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus causing pulmonary renal disease has rarely been reported in children in India. Hantavirus infection is uncommon under the age of 12 years. We report a 9-year-old girl from Mumbai, India with fever, bilateral pleural effusion, thrombocytopaenia, haemoconcentration and oliguria due to hantavirus infection. She also had associated tuberculosis.

  6. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Yosemite FAQ: Non-U.S. Visitors to Yosemite History of HPS Related Links Prevent Rodent Infestations Cleaning Up After Rodents Diseases From Rodent Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How People Get Hantavirus Infection ...

  7. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  8. Discovery of Host Factors and Pathways Utilized in Hantaviral Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    KEYWORDS: Hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV), Sin Nombre virus ( SNV ), Puumala virus (PUUV), Dobrava virus (DOBV), Haploid screen, sterol regulatory complex...used as a control. Figure 5 clearly demonstrates that New World hantaviruses, Andes (ANDV) and Sin Nombre ( SNV ) as well as the Old World...SEOV) & New World (ANDV, SNV ) hantaviruses 1-4 B. Dyer Subtask 2: Create CRISPR knockout cell lines for SCAP, S1P and S2P in HAP1 and A549

  9. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  10. Dobrava Hantavirus Infection Complicated by Panhypopituitarism, Istanbul, Turkey, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jörg; Canpolat, Alper Tunga; Türk, Ali; Ettinger, Jakob; Atmaca, Deniz; Akyar, Işın; Yücel, Serap; Arıkan, Ender; Uyar, Yavuz; Çağlayık, Dilek Y.; Kocagöz, Ayşe Sesin; Kaya, Ayşin; Kruger, Detlev H.

    2012-01-01

    We identified Dobrava-Belgrade virus infection in Turkey (from a strain related to hantavirus strains from nearby countries) in a patient who had severe symptoms leading to panhypopituitarism, but no known risk for hantavirus. Our findings emphasize the need for increased awareness of hantaviruses in the region and assessment of symptomatic persons without known risk factors for infection. PMID:22709722

  11. Detection of Brazilian hantavirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification of N gene in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Lázaro Moreli; Ricardo Luiz Moro de Sousa; Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    2004-01-01

    We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity) and in all 9 blood samples (100% positi...

  12. Hantavirus del nuevo mundo: Ecología y epidemiología de un virus emergente en latinoamérica The New-World Hantaviruses: Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Puerta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Los hantavirus son un grupo de patógenos emergentes (familia Bunyaviridae; género Hantavirus identificados como agentes etiológicos de la Fiebre Hemorrágica con Síndrome Renal (FHSR en Europa y Asia y el Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en las Américas. La FHSR está relacionada con roedores de las subfamilias Murinae y Arvicolinae y el SCPH con roedores de las subfamilias Sigmodontinae y Arvicolinae. Desde la identificación del SCPH en los EE.UU. en 1993, muchos casos de SCPH y un número cada vez mayor de hantavirus y sus roedores reservorios han sido identificados en Centro y Sud América. Estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado diferencias notables en las seroprevalencias de anticuerpos en humanos y roedores reservorios que oscilan entre el 1% y más del 40%. Hasta ahora han sido notificados en toda América más de 1500 casos de SCPH y aproximadamente más de 15 variantes de hantavirus genética y serológicamente distintos asociados a roedores sigmodontinos. Las formas clínicas leves-autolimitadas, moderadas y graves de la enfermedad, los antecedentes de transmisión persona a persona y una incidencia mayor de manifestaciones clínicas extrapulmonares que se diferencian de la enfermedad clásica descrita por primera vez en EE.UU., son aspectos importantes sobre la epidemiología de los hantavirus y el SCPH en Latinoamérica; sin embargo, la historia completa de los hantavirus está aún por escribirse, debido a la naturaleza dinámica de estos virus y sus patologías, y a la complejidad de los factores que intervienen en su aparición, establecimiento y diseminación en poblaciones humanas y animales. Latinoamérica continúa representando la porción del continente con una oportunidad única y desafiante para el estudio de la relación de los hantavirus con sus huéspedes reservorios naturales y las interacciones virus-roedor-humano. Probablemente más hantavirus podrían ser descritos en el futuro, y ser

  13. Hantavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they breathe in contaminated dust from mice nests or droppings. You may come in contact with ... the building for another 30 minutes. Spray mouse nests and droppings with a 10% solution of chlorine ...

  14. ANÁLISIS LINGÜÍSTICO DE LOS NOMBRES DE MARCA ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ampuero-Canellas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brand name is a value within marketing strategy in every company. However, these words that are part of the vocabulary we use daily are not being enough considered from a linguistic point of view. This research analyses the phonetic, morphology and semantic of 141 Spanish brand names that belong to the Leading Brands of Spain Forum. Results describe how those words used as brand names in Spain are and which image of Spanish Language is projected through them. Furthermore, they can be used as guidelines for those people that are in charge of creating brand names.El nombre de marca es un valor asentado dentro de la estrategia de marketing de cualquier empresa. Sin embargo, desde el ámbito lingüístico se ha prestado escasa atención a estas palabras que constituyen una parte muy importante del vocabulario que utilizamos a diario. La investigación lleva a cabo un análisis de la fonética, morfología y semántica de 141 nombres de marcas españolas pertenecientes al Foro de Marcas Renombradas Españolas. Los resultados describen cómo son las palabras que se utilizan como nombres de marca en España y qué imagen de la lengua española se proyecta con ellas. Así mismo, también sirven de guía para las personas implicadas en el proceso de creación de nombres de marca.

  15. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Atlantic Argentinean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hantavirus causes a hemorrhagic disease and in 1993 was responsible for an outbreak of a pulmonary syndrome in the south of the United States of America. The disease is endemic in the north of Argentina where the Oran strain is prevalent. A fatal case of the Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) occurring in a migrant ...

  16. Hantaviral proteins: structure, functions and role in hantavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musalwa eMuyangwa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS or in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS. In the past few years, clinical cases of the hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins is critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins.

  17. Alimentary Tract as Entry Route for Hantavirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large proportion of hantavirus patients also suffer from gastrointestinal complications of unclear cause. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), the...in gastric juice for at least some time in pH 3 and is able to infect polarized human Caco-2 monolayers. This small intestinal cell model exhibited

  18. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    rodent-borne viruses (Johnson 2001) and can cause two important clinical syndromes: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. (HPS) in Asia and the Americas respectively (Krüger et al. 2001). HPS is also referred to as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) as deaths ...

  19. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-08

    dissemination of a novel zoonosis by means of international shipping. Rat- borne hantaviruses were subsequently detected in the United States, and two isolates...Ypersele de Strihou, C., Mery, J. P. 1989. Hantavirus- related acute interstitial nephritis in Western Europe. Expansion of a world-wide zoonosis

  20. Hantavirus Immunology of Rodent Reservoirs: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Schountz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  1. Detection of Brazilian hantavirus by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification of N gene in patients with hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lázaro Moreli

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay for hantavirus using primers selected to match high homology regions of hantavirus genomes detected from the whole blood of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS patients from Brazil, also including the N gene nucleotide sequence of Araraquara virus. Hantavirus genomes were detected in eight out of nine blood samples from the HCPS patients by RT-PCR (88.9% positivity and in all 9 blood samples (100% positivity by nested-PCR. The eight amplicons obtained by RT-PCR (P1, P3-P9, including one obtained by nested-PCR (P-2 and not obtained by RT-PCR, were sequenced and showed high homology (94.8% to 99.1% with the N gene of Araraquara hantavirus. Although the serologic method ELISA is the most appropriate test for HCPS diagnosis, the use of nested RT-PCR for hantavirus in Brazil would contribute to the diagnosis of acute hantavirus disease detecting viral genomes in patient specimens as well as initial genomic characterization of circulating hantaviruses.

  2. Evidence of human hantavirus infection and zoonotic investigation of hantavirus prevalence in rodents in western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.

  3. A non-fatal case of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into the UK (ex Panama), July 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Barry; Jameson, Lisa J.; Bovill, Bego?a A.; Aarons, Emma J.; Clewlow, Jodie; Lumley, Sarah; Latham, Jennie; Jenkins, Megan H.; MacGowan, Alasdair P.; Simpson, Andrew J.; Ahmed, Javeed; Brooks, Timothy J.; Hewson, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Highlights ? Detection of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome imported into Europe. ? Additional evidence that Choclo hantavirus is currently circulating and causing human disease in Panama. ? Novel diagnostic and sequencing assays for identifying cases of Choclo hantavirus infection.

  4. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  5. Potential geographic distribution of hantavirus reservoirs in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vilges de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin.

  6. El nombre y la adopción

    OpenAIRE

    Bigliardi, Karina A.

    2015-01-01

    Sumario: I. Definiciones. II. El nombre de pila - prenombre. III. Apellido del adoptado por adopción plena. IV. Apellido del adoptado por adopción simple. V. Apellido del adoptado por adopción de integración. VI. Reflexiones finales. VII. Bibliografía. Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales

  7. ANÁLISIS LINGÜÍSTICO DE LOS NOMBRES DE MARCA ESPAÑOLES ANÁLISIS LINGÜÍSTICO DE LOS NOMBRES DE MARCA ESPAÑOLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Jordá-Albiñana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El nombre de marca es un valor asentado dentro de la estrategia de marketing de cualquier empresa. Sin embargo, desde el ámbito lingüístico se ha prestado escasa atención a estas palabras que constituyen una parte muy importante del vocabulario que utilizamos a diario. La investigación lleva a cabo un análisis de la fonética, morfología y semántica de 141 nombres de marcas españolas pertenecientes al Foro de Marcas Renombradas Españolas. Los resultados describen cómo son las palabras que se utilizan como nombres de marca en España y qué imagen de la lengua española se proyecta con ellas. Así mismo, también sirven de guía para las personas implicadas en el proceso de creación de nombres de marca.Brand name is a value within marketing strategy in every company. However, these words that are part of the vocabulary we use daily are not being enough considered from a linguistic point of view. This research analyses the phonetic, morphology and semantic of 141 Spanish brand names that belong to the Leading Brands of Spain Forum. Results describe how those words used as brand names in Spain are and which image of Spanish Language is projected through them. Furthermore, they can be used as guidelines for those people that are in charge of creating brand names.

  8. When deviance becomes sin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Senekal

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article a brief exposition is given o f what sin and deviance entail. This perspective is approached in terms of what is called the logovision premise. This premise essentially maintains that human perception of reality is primarily mediated through words and that only God's words allow us to see reality as it truly is. Thus we are enabled to respond appropriately to reality - especially evaluative reality. By then applying God’s words to the issues involved in the study of deviance, more clarity is hopefully achieved. This is done by discussing the respective characteristics of sin and deviance and by briefly exploring the relationship between these two phenomena. Finally some of the implications for the study o f social deviance are discussed.

  9. Pp scattering at SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile-Giboni, E.; Cantale, G.; Hausammann, R.

    1983-01-01

    Using the PM1 polarized proton beam at SIN and a polarized target, the elastic pp scattering as well as the inelastic channel pp → π + d have been studied between 400 and 600 MeV. For the elastic reaction, a sufficient number of spin dependent parameters has been measured in order to do a direct reconstruction of the scattering matrix between 38 0 /sub cm/ and 90 0 /sub cm/. 10 references, 6 figures

  10. 10 years of SIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Schweizerisches Institut fur Nuklearforschung (Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, or SIN) proudly celebrated its 10th anniversary earlier this year. Welcoming the audience at a reception on 22 June, Swiss Federal Councillor Alphons Egli recalled that only about one human lifetime ago was it demonstrated that the atom, despite its name (from the Greek for indivisible), could in fact be split. Since then, questions arising from this discovery have continued to fascinate research workers all over the world

  11. Landscape, Climate and Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; D Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-09-01

    We performed a literature review in order to improve our understanding of how landscape and climate drivers affect HCPS outbreaks. Anthropogenic landscape changes such as forest loss, fragmentation and agricultural land uses are related with a boost in hantavirus reservoir species abundance and hantavirus prevalence in tropical areas, increasing HCPS risk. Additionally, higher precipitation, especially in arid regions, favors an increase in vegetational biomass, which augments the resources for reservoir rodents, also increasing HCPS risk. Although these relationships were observed, few studies described it so far, and the ones that did it are concentrated in few places. To guide future research on this issue, we build a conceptual model relating landscape and climate variables with HCPS outbreaks and identified research opportunities. We point out the need for studies addressing the effects of landscape configuration, temperature and the interaction between climate and landscape variables. Critical landscape thresholds are also highly relevant, once HCPS risk transmission can increase rapidly above a certain degree of landscape degradation. These studies could be relevant to implement preventive measures, creating landscapes that can mitigate disease spread risk.

  12. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: a report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Lazaro Moreli; Vivaldo Gomes da Costa; Daiane Pereira da Silva Novaes; Enia Cristina Flor; Juliana Freitas Silva; Keila Rejane Guimarães Vilela; Cácia Régia de Paula

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.

  13. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lazaro Moreli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hantavirus, from the family Bunyaviridae, causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in the Americas. This highly lethal anthropozoonosis afflicts preferentially individuals in rural areas and is transmitted by aerosol of excreta from infected wild rodents. The aim of this study is to report the almost simultaneous occurrence of two cases of HCPS in the municipality of Jataí, state of Goiás, Brazil.

  14. Un conocer sin cegamientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ferrante

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se reseña el libro La construcción de marcas de reconocimiento en sociedades ocularcentristas: el caso de mujeres ciegas del Área Metropolitana de Monterrey de Brenda Araceli Bustos García. Se describe el problema de investigación en el cual se inserta la tesis que nutre el libro y se recorre la trama argumental. Finalmente, se realiza una valoración positiva del modo de construcción del objeto de estudio, el cual promueve un conocer sin cegamientos. 

  15. El conflicto del magisterio de la ciudad de Buenos Aires en 1925: la identidad de una clase sin nombre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Mariela Manocchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En abril de 1925 el suicidio de una maestra desató un conflicto entre los maestros porteños y el Consejo Nacional de Educación. Según las asociaciones docentes reunidas en una Asamblea en homenaje a la fallecida, el suceso partía de conveniencias mezquinas y favores políticos que guiaban al Consejo al asignar cargos. Había llegado la hora de la acción docente, “una clase dormida despertaba” Días después, la prensa gremial publicó artículos acusando al CNE de inepto y corrupto. La respuesta fue contundente: dieciocho maestros exonerados. El decreto acusaba a un grupo minúsculo de subordinados corrompidos que emitía propaganda tendenciosa y hostil. En los meses siguientes hay un cruce de acusaciones constantes, muchos docentes son tildados de ácratas y deben defenderse aludiendo a la respetabilidad de “su clase” intentando diferenciarse del obrero con el que compartían penurias económicas pero del que diferirían en valores. En un borroso espacio social entre el proletariado y la élite, el magisterio pretendía darse una identidad de clase a partir del discurso de la moralidad. Analizaremos la confrontación como forma de comprender la posición social docente y qué nos dice ésta de la identidad de la clase media argentina en los años veinte.

  16. Characterization of Disease Course after Intramuscular or Intranasal Exposure to Sin Nombre Virus in Immunosuppressed Syrian Hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    specific drugs or vaccines to 52 treat or prevent HPS makes medical countermeasure development imperative. Well-53 TR-17-048 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...component for elucidating viral pathogenesis, testing and 190 evaluating vaccines , antivirals, and biologicals, and the potential licensing of those products...the ANDV/hamster model and 262 human HPS disease. Further refinement of this model allows the testing of vaccines and medical 263 countermeasures to

  17. Los hijos sin nombre: el silencio del olvido. Sábato y el claroscuro gnóstico argentino.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosilla Sánchez, Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    La tesis estudia la historia de Argentina en relación con la obra de Ernesto Sábato. El trabajo intenta a través de la historia del país sudamericano y la lectura de la obra de Sábato llegar a conclusiones que permitan explicar los hechos sucedidos en diciembre del 2001 en Argentina. Para ello, la tesis lleva a cabo un estudio mítico de la historia de Argentina en el que destaca el realizado sobre la figura del emigrante, héroe de las novelas de Sábato, a quien se compara con Caín. Por tanto,...

  18. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Chiara

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  19. Nueva evidencia epidemiológica y molecular a favor de la transmisión interhumana para el linaje Sout del hantavirus Andes New epidemiologic and molecular evidence of person to person transmission of hantavirus Andes Sout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego M. Pinna

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un brote de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus ocurrido en 1996 en el sur de Argentina un nuevo mecanismo de infección quedó demostrado para el virus Andes (AND: la transmisión viral de persona a persona. La sospecha de ocurrencia de este mecanismo de transmisión ha sido restringida a la zona endémica del linaje AND Sout. Describimos el caso de un paciente (caso A residente en Buenos Aires, que desarrolló una infección por hantavirus sin haber tenido ningún otro riesgo epidemiológico más que el contacto con un caso previo (caso I en un viaje al sur de Argentina. Posteriormente un tercer caso (caso B residente de la provincia de Buenos Aires, desarrolló un síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH teniendo como antecedente de riesgo varios encuentros con A. La confirmación de la enfermedad en los tres pacientes se realizó mediante diagnóstico serológico y caracterización genética viral. El linaje viral en los tres casos fue el AND Sout siendo idéntica la cepa viral. Entre los hallazgos clínicos del caso A es destacable el gran compromiso general, con síntomas gastrointestinales pero sin evidencia clínica de daño pulmonar. En el presente informe presentamos nueva evidencia para el mecanismo de transmisión interhumana del linaje AND Sout, con las características particulares de haber ocurrido por un contacto ocasional, no repetido, pero prolongado como un viaje en ómnibus de larga distancia y fuera del área endémica.After the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS outbreak occurred in Southern Argentina (Patagonia in 1996, a new mechanism of hantavirus spread was described for Andes virus (AND: person-to-person transmission. Since then, this mode of transmission has been limited to the endemic area of AND Sout lineage. We report here an HPS case, patient A, with residence in Buenos Aires Province, whose unique epidemiological risk factor was to have shared a trip to Southern Argentina with an already ill person, later

  20. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Marciel de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity, with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  1. Hantavirus infections in humans and commensal rodents in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T W; Chan, Y C; Joo, Y G; Lee, H W; Lee, P W; Yanagihara, R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the extent of hantavirus infection in Singapore, serological studies using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test were conducted on commensal rodents and on human patients in 4 diagnostic groups. Virus isolation using a Vero E6 cell line was performed on hantaviral antigen-positive rodent lung tissue. Of 142 rodents and 3 insectivores studied, 37 (26%) were seropositive for IFA. Rattus norvegicus was the predominant species captured, with the highest species-specific seropositive rate of 32% (36 of 113). A hantavirus strain, R36, was isolated from one R. norvegicus. Seropositive rates for human patients were: 8% respectively for dengue haemorrhagic fever suspects and for non-A non-B hepatitis patients, 3% for leptospirosis suspects and 2% for acute nephritis patients. 2 patients had marked liver dysfunction but mild renal involvement. This hepatitis-like manifestation appears to be a clinical variant of hantavirus infection.

  2. Bessel collocation approach for approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayip Yuzbasi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a collocation method is introduced to find the approximate solutions of Hantavirus infection model which is a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The method is based on the Bessel functions of the first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. This method converts Hantavirus infection model into a matrix equation in terms of the Bessel functions of first kind, matrix operations and collocation points. The matrix equation corresponds to a system of nonlinear equations with the unknown Bessel coefficients. The reliability and efficiency of the suggested scheme are demonstrated by numerical applications and all numerical calculations have been done by using a program written in Maple.

  3. geográfico del origen de nombres y apellidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mateos Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio geodemográfico de la composición y distribución de comunidades de minorías étnicas o extranjeros se ha convertido en una necesidad prioritaria para las autoridades públicas en los principales países o regiones receptoras. Esta comunicación presenta una nueva metodología, inicialmente desarrollada para el Reino Unido, que permite clasificar a la población en grupos étnicos de acuerdo con el origen geográfico, lingüístico, religioso o cultural de sus nombres y apellidos (origen étnico. Este método permite la actualización continua de datos sobre el origen étnico de la población y una mayor resolución nominal y espacial que el Censo. Se presentan los resultados de la aplicación de dicha metodología al estudio de la distribución geográfica y segregación residencial de poblaciones de minorías étnicas en España, utilizando un directorio telefónico como registro de nombres de la población total. Se utilizan Sistemas de Información Geográfica a una escala nacional y regional para medir la desigual distribución espacial de dichas minorías, indicando las limitaciones y potencial de este método.

  4. Infeksi Ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus pada Rattus norvegicus di Maumere Flores, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Mulyono

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Kasus leptospirosis dan infeksi Hantavirus dilaporkan mengalami peningkatan berkaitan dengan adanya pemanasan global.  Rattus norvegicus merupakan reservoir dari dua penyakit tersebut. Adanya infeksi ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus pada R. norvegicus merupakan faktor resiko terjadinya penularan Leptospira dan Hantavirus di populasi manusia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi infeksi ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus pada R. norvegicus di Kota Maumere, Flores. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif dengan desain potong lintang. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014 di daerah perimeter dan buffer pelabuhan Maumere, Flores. Populasi penelitian adalah R. norvegicus di Kota Maumere, Flores. Subyek penelitian adalah R. norvegicus yang tertangkap. Deteksi Leptospira pada R. norvegicus dengan teknik PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk gen 16S rRNA dan deteksi Hantavirus pada R. norvegicus dengan teknik nested-PCR menggunakan primer spesifik untuk segmen L. Analisis data dilakukan secara deskriptif.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan R. norvegicus yang tertangkap sejumlah 114 ekor. Prevalensi Leptospira pada R. norvegicus 4,3%, prevalensi Hantavirus 22,8% dan infeksi ganda Leptospira dan Hantavirus sebesar 1,8%.  Penularan leptospirosis dan infeksi Hantavirus berpotensi terjadinya di Kota Maumere. Kata kunci:  leptospirosis, Leptospira, Hantavirus, Maumere ABSTRACT Infection of Leptospirosis and Hantavirus are increased which related to global warming. Rattus norvegicus is reservoirs of both of diseases infections. Dual infection of Leptospira and Hantavirus in R. norvegicus become risk factor of Leptospira and Hantavirus infection in the human. The objective of this study is to figure out the prevalence of Dual infection in R. norvegicus. This study was descriptive research with cross-sectional design. The population of study was R. norvegicus in Maumere City, Flores. The rats  (n=114 were

  5. Serosurvey of pathogenic hantaviruses among forestry workers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Oldal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to survey the prevalence of human hantavirus infections among forestry workers, who are considered a risk population for contracting the disease. Sera collected from volunteers were tested for antibodies against Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV and Puumala (PUUV viruses. Material and Methods: For serological analyses, full capsid proteins of DOBV and PUUV viruses were produced in a bacterial expression system, while Ni-resin was used for protein purification. Samples were screened for anti-hantavirus antibodies by ELISA, results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Results: A total of 835 samples collected from 750 males and 85 females were tested by indirect ELISA and positive test results were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of the 45 ELISA-reactive samples, 38 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The regional distribution of seropositive individuals was as follows: 1.9% (2/107 in the Danube-Tisza Plateau (Great Plains, 3.1% (10/321 in the Southern Transdanubian region, 5.2% (13/248 in the Northern Transdanubian, and 8.2% (13/159 in the North Hungarian Mountains. Conclusions: Our data show marked geographic differences in seroprevalence of pathogenic hantaviruses within Hungary, indicating elevated exposure to hantavirus infections in some areas.

  6. Novel hantavirus identified in European bat species Nyctalus noctula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Dufková, L.; Širmarová, J.; Salát, J.; Bartonička, T.; Klempa, B.; Pfaff, F.; Höper, D.; Hoffmann, B.; Ulrich, R. G.; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, March (2017), s. 127-130 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Hantavirus * Bat * Phylogenetic analysis * Emerging virus * Bat-borne virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases; Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  7. Population Ecology of Hantavirus Rodent Hosts in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Loureiro, Nathalie; Strecht, Liana; Gentile, Rosana; Oliveira, Renata C.; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; Mattos, Luciana H. B. V.; Raboni, Sonia M.; Rubio, Giselia; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze population dynamics of hantavirus rodent hosts and prevalence of infection over a 2-year period in Southern Brazil, a region with a high incidence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The 14 small mammal species captured were composed of 10 rodents and four marsupials, the six most abundant species being Akodon serrensis, Oxymycterus judex, Akodon montensis, Akodon paranaensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, and Thaptomys nigrita. These species displayed a similar pattern with increasing population sizes in fall/winter caused by recruitment and both, increase in reproductive activity and higher hantavirus prevalence in spring/summer. Specific associations between A. montensis/Jaborá Virus (JABV) and O. nigripes/Juquitiba-like Virus (JUQV-like) and spillover infections between A. paranaensis/JABV, A. serrensis/JABV, and A. paranaensis/JUQV-like were observed. Spillover infection in secondary hosts seems to play an important role in maintaining JABV and JUQV-like in the hantavirus sylvatic cycle mainly during periods of low prevalence in primary hosts. PMID:24935954

  8. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system. [Chandy S, Abraham P and ..... distribution of the hosts through international shipping routes. The majority of SEOV-related .... Dalrymple J M 1994 Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus, ...

  9. Serosurvey of pathogenic hantaviruses among forestry workers in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldal, Miklós; Németh, Viktória; Madai, Mónika; Pintér, Réka; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Kutas, Anna; Sebők, Judit; Horváth, Győző; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to survey the prevalence of human hantavirus infections among forestry workers, who are considered a risk population for contracting the disease. Sera collected from volunteers were tested for antibodies against Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) viruses. For serological analyses, full capsid proteins of DOBV and PUUV viruses were produced in a bacterial expression system, while Ni-resin was used for protein purification. Samples were screened for anti-hantavirus antibodies by ELISA, results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. A total of 835 samples collected from 750 males and 85 females were tested by indirect ELISA and positive test results were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of the 45 ELISA-reactive samples, 38 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. The regional distribution of seropositive individuals was as follows: 1.9% (2/107) in the Danube-Tisza Plateau (Great Plains), 3.1% (10/321) in the Southern Transdanubian region, 5.2% (13/248) in the Northern Transdanubian, and 8.2% (13/159) in the North Hungarian Mountains. Our data show marked geographic differences in seroprevalence of pathogenic hantaviruses within Hungary, indicating elevated exposure to hantavirus infections in some areas.

  10. Hantaviruses in the Americas and Their Role as Emerging Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Torres-Pérez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The continued emergence and re-emergence of pathogens represent an ongoing, sometimes major, threat to populations. Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae and their associated human diseases were considered to be confined to Eurasia, but the occurrence of an outbreak in 1993–94 in the southwestern United States led to a great increase in their study among virologists worldwide. Well over 40 hantaviral genotypes have been described, the large majority since 1993, and nearly half of them pathogenic for humans. Hantaviruses cause persistent infections in their reservoir hosts, and in the Americas, human disease is manifest as a cardiopulmonary compromise, hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, with case-fatality ratios, for the most common viral serotypes, between 30% and 40%. Habitat disturbance and larger-scale ecological disturbances, perhaps including climate change, are among the factors that may have increased the human caseload of HCPS between 1993 and the present. We consider here the features that influence the structure of host population dynamics that may lead to viral outbreaks, as well as the macromolecular determinants of hantaviruses that have been regarded as having potential contribution to pathogenicity.

  11. Structure of the Hantavirus Nucleoprotein Provides Insights into the Mechanism of RNA Encapsidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Olal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The nucleoprotein (N of hantavirus is essential for viral transcription and replication, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have determined the crystal structure of hantavirus N to 3.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-lobed, mostly α-helical structure that is distantly related to that of orthobunyavirus Ns. A basic RNA binding pocket is located at the intersection between the two lobes. We provide evidence that oligomerization is mediated by amino- and C-terminal arms that bind to the adjacent monomers. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP complex. Our structure provides mechanistic insights into RNA encapsidation in the genus Hantavirus and constitutes a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at combating hantavirus infections.

  12. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  13. Phylogeny and Origins of Hantaviruses Harbored by Bats, Insectivores, and Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hant...

  14. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Francis A. Ennis; Masanori Terajima

    2011-01-01

    We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell ...

  15. A Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) DNA Vaccine Delivered Using a Spring-powered Jet Injector Elicits a Potent Neutralizing Antibody
Response in Rabbits and Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwilas, Steve; Kishimori, Jennifer M.; Josleyn, Matthew; Jerke, Kurt; Ballantyne, John; Royals, Michael; Hooper, Jay W.

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause most of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in North and South America, respectively. The chances of a patient surviving HPS are only two in three. Previously, we demonstrated that SNV and ANDV DNA vaccines encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies in laboratory animals, and (for ANDV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In those studies, the vaccines were delivered by gene gun or muscle electroporation. Here, we tested whether a combined SNV/ANDV DNA vaccine (HPS DNA vaccine) could be delivered effectively using a disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI) system (PharmaJet, Inc). PharmaJet intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) needle-free devices are FDA 510(k)-cleared, simple to use, and do not require electricity or pressurized gas. First, we tested the SNV DNA vaccine delivered by PharmaJet IM or ID devices in rabbits and NHPs. Both IM and ID devices produced high-titer anti-SNV neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits and NHPs. However, the ID device required at least two vaccinations in NHP to detect neutralizing antibodies in most animals, whereas all animals vaccinated once with the IM device seroconverted. Because the IM device was more effective in NHP, the Stratis® (PharmaJet IM device) was selected for follow-up studies. We evaluated the HPS DNA vaccine delivered using Stratis® and found that it produced high-titer anti-SNV and anti-ANDV neutralizing antibodies in rabbits (n=8/group) as measured by a classic plaque reduction neutralization test and a new pseudovirion neutralization assay. We were interested in determining if the differences between DSJI delivery (e.g., high-velocity liquid penetration through tissue) and other methods of vaccine injection, such as needle/syringe, might result in a more immunogenic DNA vaccine. To accomplish this, we compared the HPS DNA vaccine delivered by DSJI versus needle/syringe in NHPs (n=8/group). We found that

  16. A hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) DNA vaccine delivered using a spring-powered jet injector elicits a potent neutralizing antibody response in rabbits and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwilas, Steve; Kishimori, Jennifer M; Josleyn, Matthew; Jerke, Kurt; Ballantyne, John; Royals, Michael; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause most of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in North and South America, respectively. The chances of a patient surviving HPS are only two in three. Previously, we demonstrated that SNV and ANDV DNA vaccines encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies in laboratory animals, and (for ANDV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In those studies, the vaccines were delivered by gene gun or muscle electroporation. Here, we tested whether a combined SNV/ANDV DNA vaccine (HPS DNA vaccine) could be delivered effectively using a disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI) system (PharmaJet, Inc). PharmaJet intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) needle-free devices are FDA 510(k)-cleared, simple to use, and do not require electricity or pressurized gas. First, we tested the SNV DNA vaccine delivered by PharmaJet IM or ID devices in rabbits and NHPs. Both IM and ID devices produced high-titer anti-SNV neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits and NHPs. However, the ID device required at least two vaccinations in NHP to detect neutralizing antibodies in most animals, whereas all animals vaccinated once with the IM device seroconverted. Because the IM device was more effective in NHP, the Stratis(®) (PharmaJet IM device) was selected for follow-up studies. We evaluated the HPS DNA vaccine delivered using Stratis(®) and found that it produced high-titer anti-SNV and anti-ANDV neutralizing antibodies in rabbits (n=8/group) as measured by a classic plaque reduction neutralization test and a new pseudovirion neutralization assay. We were interested in determining if the differences between DSJI delivery (e.g., high-velocity liquid penetration through tissue) and other methods of vaccine injection, such as needle/syringe, might result in a more immunogenic DNA vaccine. To accomplish this, we compared the HPS DNA vaccine delivered by DSJI versus needle/syringe in NHPs (n=8/group). We found

  17. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  18. What Do We Know about How Hantaviruses Interact with Their Different Hosts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Ermonval

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes.

  19. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ping Guo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews, before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  20. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S Pereira

    Full Text Available In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅ of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB, surface plasmon resonance (SPR device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with

  1. Life history, sin, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibach, Ulrich

    2006-08-01

    On the basis of experiences in pastoral hospital care, the relationship between disease, sin, and guilt in the life of patients is explored. Against the disregard of this subject in medicine, and even in most of pastoral care, it is argued that patients' interest requires that their hidden or manifest questions be addressed, rather than their being exposed to efforts at "helping" through mere attempts at "debt clearance." Only by openly confronting sin and guilt can the patient be taken seriously in his role as subject of his disease. Theological and anthropological background considerations revealing the essence of sin as a disruption or even destruction of the Divine gift of life in its realization through a lived relationship to God and other humans are offered as evidence for this claim.

  2. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  3. [Hantavirus as important emerging agents in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondoño, Andrés F; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-01-01

    The dawning of the 20th century was marked by the emergence of new infectious disease agents and the appearance of others previously thought controlled. Both phenomena were possibly connected with ecological disturbances that led to the recognition of a dramatic climate change, of which the effects are only now becoming noticeable. Among the variety of agents to be considered, the many new viruses stand out, not only for their numerical proliferation, but also for their genetic versatility. It is this quality that provides them dexterity for evolving new strategies and adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Recently, some of the most ubiquitous and well-publicized viral agents in the American continents have been the rodent-borne viruses, and among these are the hantaviruses, etiological agents of pulmonary syndromes. Approximately 18 hantaviruses (belonging to the family Bunyaviridae), have been discovered in South America during the last 20 years, and although most of them cause persistent infections and subclinical infections in wild rodents (particularly members of the subfamily Sigmodontinae) and humans respectively; some others might also be highly lethal for humans. The goal herein is to review the state of the art regarding general aspects of hantaviruses and the diseases they cause around the world, highlighting the most recent findings in Colombia. Finally, the many unanswered questions will be recognized and highlighted concerning clinical importance and socio-economic impact of these agents on quality of public health in Colombia.

  4. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in an urban area in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, Mato Grosso (MT has the highest number of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases. Our study aimed to identify anti-hantavirus antibodies in the sera of patients from Sinop, MT, presenting with acute febrile illness. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data for 198 sera samples assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was conducted. RESULTS: Immunoglobulins G (IgGs against the hantavirus nucleoprotein were found in 13.6% of the tested sera. No sample had immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to hantavirus. Seropositivity occurred mainly in female residents in urban areas who worked around the household. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest circulation of hantavirus in Sinop.

  5. Seropositivity diagnosis for hantavirus in Jataí, Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lázaro Moreli

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Emerging diseases are of great interest, especially those associated with high mortality rates such as hantaviruses. We aimed to conduct a seroepidemiological survey to determine the levels of hantavirus infection. METHODS: In-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect specific antibodies. RESULTS: Of the 429 samples collected, seropositivity of 3.9% to anti-hantavirus immunoglobulin G (IgG was observed (CI 95%: 2.3-5.7. Moreover, in three cases, immunoglobulin M (IgM was detected, of which two were diagnosed as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate the considerable occurrence of previous hantavirus infections, highlighting occurrences from sub-clinical cases to HCPS.

  6. Los avatares de un nombre: Saavedra y Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garces, María Antonia

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Saavedra was not Cervantes's last name, nor one that his direct ancestors bore. The writer assumed this surname after his return from Barbary, where he was a captive from 1575 to 1580. This surname acquires an extraordinary significance in the light of the Cervantine literary production, because Saavedra is also the name granted by Cervantes to the protagonists of his dramas El trato de Argel and El gallardo español, and to a character in La historia del cautivo, interpolated in Don Quijote Part I. This essay examines the adoption of the patronymic Saavedra by Miguel de Cervantes from interdisciplinary perspectives, such as literary history, psychoanalytic theory, and a study of the frontiers between autobiography and fiction in the Spanish author. Saavedra represents a testimony of the limit experience of captivity and, simultaneously, a response to this experience emerging from artistic creation.Saavedra no era el apellido de Cervantes, ni tampoco un patronímico que llevaran sus antepasados directos. El escritor asumió este apellido algunos años después de su retomo de Argel, donde estuvo cautivo desde 1575 hasta 1580. Este apelativo adquiere una significación extraordinaria a la luz de la creación literaria cervantina, porque Saavedra es también el nombre otorgado por el autor a los protagonistas de sus dramas El trato de Argel y El gallardo español, así como a otro personaje en La historia del cautivo, interpolada en El Quijote de 1605. Este ensayo examina la adopción del apellido Saavedra por parte de Miguel de Cervantes desde perspectivas interdisciplinarias, como la historia literaria, la teoría psicoanalítica y el estudio de las fronteras entre la autobiografía y la ficción en el autor alcalaíno. Saavedra representa un testimonio de la experiencia limítrofe del cautiverio y, simultáneamente, una respuesta a la misma, que se erige a partir de la creación.

  7. Acerca del nombre del Perú en la actual Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Friede

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available Como es sabido, la adaptación del nombre "Perú" al Imperio Incaico es de origen netamente español. Los indios del Perú no llamaban así a su territorio, como lo confirman Valera, Cieza de León, Montesinos, Garcilaso y otros. Tenían nombres para designar las distintas provincias pero no para la totalidad del imperio de los incas.

  8. Changes in Diversification Patterns and Signatures of Selection during the Evolution of Murinae-Associated Hantaviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Castel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses’ molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local. We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  9. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC. Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%. Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5, and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks

  10. Climate change and sugarcane expansion increase Hantavirus infection risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, María; Fernandes, Katia; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2017-07-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which is highly virulent for humans. High temperatures and conversion of native vegetation to agriculture, particularly sugarcane cultivation can alter abundance of rodent generalist species that serve as the principal reservoir host for HCPS, but our understanding of the compound effects of land use and climate on HCPS incidence remains limited, particularly in tropical regions. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to fill this research gap and to predict the effects of sugarcane expansion and expected changes in temperature on Hantavirus infection risk in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The sugarcane expansion scenario was based on historical data between 2000 and 2010 combined with an agro-environment zoning guideline for the sugar and ethanol industry. Future evolution of temperature anomalies was derived using 32 general circulation models from scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (Representative greenhouse gases Concentration Pathways adopted by IPCC). Currently, the state of São Paulo has an average Hantavirus risk of 1.3%, with 6% of the 645 municipalities of the state being classified as high risk (HCPS risk ≥ 5%). Our results indicate that sugarcane expansion alone will increase average HCPS risk to 1.5%, placing 20% more people at HCPS risk. Temperature anomalies alone increase HCPS risk even more (1.6% for RCP4.5 and 1.7%, for RCP8.5), and place 31% and 34% more people at risk. Combined sugarcane and temperature increases led to the same predictions as scenarios that only included temperature. Our results demonstrate that climate change effects are likely to be more severe than those from sugarcane expansion. Forecasting disease is critical for the timely and efficient planning of operational control programs that can address the expected effects of sugarcane expansion and climate change on HCPS infection risk. The predicted spatial location of HCPS infection risks obtained here can be

  11. El «As» de los venenos: el arsénico en «El nombre de la rosa»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PELETEIRO VIGIL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available El cine es uno de los medios de comunicación más influyentes y accesibles a la población, constituyendo así un valioso recurso para la difusión de todo tipo de mensajes. Sin embargo, en ocasiones también puede conllevar malinterpretaciones y una pérdida de veracidad en absoluto menospreciable. En el presente trabajo, se analiza el argumento de El nombre de la rosa desde una perspectiva científica, teniendo en cuenta todos los aspectos toxicológicos de los envenenamientos que se acontecen y encuadrándolos en su contexto histórico, con el fin de esclarecer hasta qué punto sus autores se han mantenido fieles a la realidad o se han decantado por una ficción más atractiva. 

  12. Prevalence of serum antibodies to hantavirus in a rural population from the southern state of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Gregório Wrublevski Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rodent-borne hantaviruses cause severe human diseases. We completed a serological survey of hantavirus infection in rural inhabitants of Turvo County, in the southern State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, in which seropositivity for hantavirus was correlated to previous disease in the participants. METHODS: The levels of IgG antibodies to hantavirus Araraquara in the sera of 257 individuals were determined using an immunoenzymatic assay. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were found in 2.3% of the participants. All seropositive participants reported previous disease with symptoms suggestive of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Human infections causing unreported cardiopulmonary syndrome probably occur in the southern State of Santa Catarina.

  13. EL NOMBRE DE MARCA: INTERRELACIÓN DE FACTORES LINGÜISTICOS Y CORPORATIVOS

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    Teresa Magal-Royo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the process of creating a brand name, both linguistic and marketing are involved. This paper aims to describe the relationship between linguistic factors of brand name and corporate or business factors. To achieve this, an analysis of the linguistic content of 141 Spanish brand names has been done. These brands have been compared according to sector of activity, year of foundation and countries where the company is present. The results show that the studied corporate values do not influence extensively on linguistic features of the brand name in general, but they do influence in some of them in the language or the name’s origin. Therefore, business characteristics must be taken into account when creating a brand’s name.En el proceso de creación de un nombre de marca interviene tanto la lingüística como el marketing. Este trabajo pretende describir la interrelación entre factores lingüísticos del nombre de marca y factores corporativos o empresariales. Para ello se realiza un análisis de contenido de las características lingüísticas de 141 nombres de marca españoles y se comparan en función del sector de actividad, año de fundación y número de países en los que está presente la empresa. Los resultados indican que los valores corporativos estudiados no influyen en gran medida en las características lingüísticas del nombre de marca en general, pero sí en alguna de ellas como el idioma o el origen del nombre. Por lo tanto, las características empresariales sí deben ser tenidas en cuenta a la hora de crear un nombre de marca.

  14. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

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    Felipe Alves Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  15. First serologic evidence of human hantavirus infection in Alagoas State in Northeastern Brazil

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    José Alfredo dos Santos-Júnior

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is rare in Northeastern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted over a two-year period in Alagoas State, Northeastern Brazil. The prevalence of anti-hantavirus N-antigen IgM and IgG in human serum samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing. RESULTS: High avidity IgG was found in nine of 476 serum samples tested (from 102 patients with clinical manifestations compatible with HCPS, 124 patients with leptospirosis, and 250 healthy rural workers. CONCLUSIONS: Serologic evidence of past hantavirus infection in residents of Alagoas State indicates that hantaviruses are present in northeastern Brazil, even in areas silent for HCPS.

  16. Old World hantaviruses: aspects of pathogenesis and clinical course of acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautkrämer, Ellen; Zeier, Martin

    2014-07-17

    Hantavirus-associated diseases represent emerging infections that are ranked in the highest priority group of communicable diseases for surveillance and epidemiological research. In the last years, several novel hantavirus species were described and the number of host reservoir species harboring hantaviruses is also increasing. Reports of cases with severe or atypical clinical courses become also more frequent. These facts raise more and more questions concerning host reservoir specificity, pathogenicity and molecular mechanism of pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease is characterized by vascular leakage due to increased capillary permeability. The infection manifests often in the lung (hantaviral cardiopulmonary syndrome; HCPS) or in the kidney (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, HFRS). The underlying mechanisms of both syndromes are probably similar despite the difference in organ tropism. Characterization of hantaviral replication cycle and of patient-specific determinants will help to identify factors responsible for the clinical symptoms and course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of hantavirus infection in captive breed colonies of wild rodents

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    RC Oliveira

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild sigmondontine rodents are known to be the reservoir of several serotypes of New World hantaviruses. The mechanism of viral transmission is by aerosol inhalation of the excreta from infected rodents. Considering that the captive breed colonies of various wild mammals may present a potencial risk for hantaviral transmission, we examined 85 speciemens of Thrichomys spp. (Echimyidae and 17 speciemens of Nectomys squamipes (Sigmodontinae from our colony for the presence of hantavirus infections. Blood samples were assayed for the presence of antibodies to Andes nucleocapsid antigen using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Additionally, serum samples from workers previously exposed to wild rodents, in the laboratories where the study was conducted, were also tested by ELISA to investigate prevalence of anti-hantavirus IgG antibodies. All blood samples were negative for hantavirus antibodies. Although these results suggest that those rodent's colonies are hantavirus free, the work emphasizes the need for hantavirus serological monitoring in wild colonized rodents and secure handling potentially infected rodents as important biosafety measures.

  18. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection

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    Michelly de Pádua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  20. SIN3A and SIN3B differentially regulate breast cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Monica J.; Liu, Jianzhong; Libby, Emily Falk; Lee, Minnkyong; Crawford, Nigel P.S.; Hurst, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    SIN3 corepressor complexes play important roles in both normal development and breast cancer. Mammalian cells have two paralogs of SIN3 (SIN3A and SIN3B) that are encoded by distinct genes and have unique functions in many developmental processes. However, specific roles for SIN3A and SIN3B in breast cancer progression have not been characterized. We generated stable knockdown cells of SIN3 paralogs individually and in combination using three non-overlapping shRNA. Stable knockdown of SIN3B caused a significant decrease in transwell invasion through Matrigel and decreased the number of invasive colonies when grown in a 3D extracellular matrix. Conversely, stable knockdown of SIN3A significantly increased transwell invasion and increased the number of invasive colonies. These results were corroborated in vivo in which SIN3B knockdown significantly decreased and SIN3A knockdown increased experimental lung metastases. RNA sequencing was used to identify unique targets and biological pathways that were altered upon knockdown of SIN3A compared to SIN3B. Additionally, we analyzed microarray data sets to identify correlations of SIN3A and SIN3B expression with survival in patients with breast cancer. These data sets indicated that high mRNA expression of SIN3A as well as low mRNA expression of SIN3B correlates with longer relapse free survival specifically in patients with triple negative breast cancer which corresponds with our in vitro and in vivo data. These results demonstrate key functional differences between SIN3 paralogs in regulating the process of breast cancer metastasis and suggest metastasis suppressive roles of SIN3A and metastasis promoting roles of SIN3B. PMID:27780928

  1. El derecho al nombre social en las atenciones de salud respecto de pacientes transgéneros menores de edad: El caso Araya Astudillo con Clínica Alemana

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    Pablo Eterovic Barreda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A cinco años de la entrada en vigor de la Ley 20.584, que regula los derechos y deberes en relación con acciones vinculadas a la atención en salud, las personas transgéneros siguen viendo vulnerados sus derechos en esta materia, en específico el derecho a recibir un trato digno y ser llamados por su nombre, toda vez que no se respeta su nombre social ni éste ha sido incorporado en su ficha clínica. El presente artículo tiene por objeto establecer el marco jurídico vigente respecto de las personas transgénero y el derecho que tienen a que su nombre social sea considerado en materia sanitaria, incluso en el sector privado, aun a falta de norma expresa, con un comentario en específico sobre una sentencia de la Corte de Apelaciones de Santiago dictada con fecha 6 de octubre de 2016 y ratificada luego por la Corte Suprema el 14 de noviembre del mismo año, que establece esta obligación respecto de un menor de edad, sin que dicho derecho esté condicionado a la rectificación de partida de nacimiento.

  2. NOMBRES EN EL PAISAJE: LA TOPONIMIA, FUENTE DE CONOCIMIENTO Y APRECIO DEL TERRITORIO

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    Pascual Riesco Chueca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se recorre aquí en dos sentidos un camino que conduce de los nombres al paisaje, y del paisaje a los nombres. Estas flotantes nubes verbales -los topónimos- que acompañan, y a veces suplantan, a la realidad, son capaces de transformar con su leve peso las evidencias de lo material. El mecanismo de fijación de los nombres de lugar explica su relevancia como indicadores de paisaje. La densidad toponímica es un dato esencial: si es alta, avisa de una densidad homóloga en los usos y la historia del lugar. Se pasa revista a los topónimos como expresión de cultura y biogeografía, tradición oral y literatura. Se distinguen dos dimensiones en cierto modo antagónicas del nombre de lugar: su carácter hereditario, pero también su posible imposición, por razones simbólicas o de poder. Finalmente, se valoran posibilidades de puesta en valor de la toponimia en la disciplina del paisaje, y se discute el influjo de las nuevas denominaciones y rotulaciones sobre la experiencia del territorio.

  3. El nombre común de la falsa nutria sudamericana : El Quiyá

    OpenAIRE

    García Mata, Rafael

    1997-01-01

    En la presente comunicación se exponen los resultados de una investigación sobre los roedores anfibios habitantes de ríos y lagunas de la región argentina, la etimología de su nombre aborigen y las características de la industria peletera argentina.

  4. "La Historia de Mi Nombre": A Culturally Sustaining Early Literacy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kindel; Panther, Leah; Arce-Boardman, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    This article features a culturally sustaining practice that many early literacy teachers can adapt and use: "la historia de mi nombre"/the story of my name. The practice is described in the context of a second-grade bi/multilingual class as the Latinx students are learning about their names through culturally authentic literature,…

  5. Hantavirus en roedores de la Octava Región de Chile Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII Region of Chile

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    JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH. Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. De los 300 roedores analizados, cinco ejemplares (1,66 % resultaron ser positivos a hantavirus y correspondieron a tres especies de sigmodontinos: a saber, Loxodontomys micropus, que corresponde al único registro de este tipo para la especie en Chile, Abrotrix longipilis y Oligoryzomys longicaudatusThe Eight Region has the second highest number of cases of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS in humans for Chile. A study was performed to identify the number of rodents serologically positive to hantavirus and their local distribution in this region. To achieve this goal, we sampled eleven sites in the four provinces of the region. Seven rodents species were collected, with Abrothrix olivaceus presenting the largest number of captures followed by Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Of the 300 rodents analyzed, five (1.66 % were sero-positives to hantavirus and belonged to three different sigmodontine species: Abrothrix longipilis, O. longicaudatus, and Loxodontomys micropus. No previous records of seropositive L. micropus existed.

  6. Hantavirus en roedores de la Octava Región de Chile Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII Region of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ; WALDO VENEGAS; JOHN A SANDOVAL; PATRICIO CHANDIA; FERNANDO TORRES PÉREZ

    2004-01-01

    La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH). Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longi...

  7. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Anajatuba, Maranhão, Brazil

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    MENDES Wellington S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the rural area of the municipality of Anajatuba, state of Maranhão. Two other suspected cases from the same region are also described. The confirmed case involved a previously healthy young woman who died with signs and symptoms of acute respiratory insufficiency 5 days after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. The patient was a student who was helping her parents with work in the fields; it was a habit of the family to store rice inside the house. The suspected cases involved two first-degree relatives working as field hands who died of acute respiratory insufficiency 24 and 48 hours, respectively, after presenting fever, myalgia and a dry cough. Both stored rice and corn inside their home. People living in the region reported massive infestations with rats in the woods and fields.

  8. Does proficiency testing improve the quality of hantavirus serodiagnostics? Experiences with INSTAND EQA schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jörg; Grunert, Hans-Peter; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver; Zeichhardt, Heinz; Kruger, Detlev H

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus infections in Germany appear periodically with peak numbers every 2-3 years. The reported cases in the years 2007, 2010 and 2012 exceeded many times over those in the years in-between. In order to reveal faults of certain in vitro diagnostic assays (IVDs), to harmonize the performances of the individual assays and to improve the users' competence in interpreting the results, the National Consiliary Laboratory for Hantaviruses and INSTAND e.V. (Society for Promoting Quality Assurance in Medical Laboratories e.V.) established an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for proficiency testing of hantavirus serodiagnostics. The first EQA scheme (pilot study) started in March 2009 with 58 participating laboratories from Germany and neighboring countries. Twice a year four serum samples were sent out to the participants to investigate whether the sample reflects an acute or past infection and to distinguish between infections with the hantavirus types Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), both endemic in Central Europe. In addition, samples negative for anti-hantavirus antibodies were tested in order to examine the specificity of the IVDs applied in the participating laboratories. An increasing number of laboratories participated, with a maximum of 92 in March 2014. When summarizing in total 2592 test results, the laboratories reached an overall specificity of 96.7% and a sensitivity of 95% in their detection of a hantavirus infection. A correct distinction between acute and past infections was forwarded in 90-96% of replies of laboratories. Exact serotyping (PUUV vs. DOBV) of the infection was reported in 81-96% of replies with the lowest accuracy for past DOBV infections; cross-reactivities between diagnostic antigens of the two viruses as well as persistent IgM titers in humans may interfere with exact testing. The EQAs revealed acceptable results for the serodiagnostic of hantavirus infection including serotyping but further improvement

  9. Second external quality assurance study for the serological diagnosis of hantaviruses in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escadafal, Camille; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vapalahti, Olli; Niklasson, Bo; Teichmann, Anette; Niedrig, Matthias; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic throughout the world and hosted by rodents and insectivores. Two human zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), are caused by hantaviruses and case fatality rates have reached 12% for HFRS and 50% for HPS in some outbreaks. Symptomatic hantavirus infections in Europe are summarised as HFRS mainly due to Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade and Saaremaa virus. While HFRS has an overall low incidence in Europe, the number of cases varies from 100 per year in all Eastern and Southern Europe up to 1,000 per year only in Finland. To assess the quality of hantavirus diagnostics, the European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases (ENIVD) organised a first external quality assurance (EQA) in 2002. The purpose of this second EQA study is to collect updated information on the efficiency and accurateness of hantavirus serological methods applied by expert laboratories. A serum panel of 14 samples was sent to 28 participants in Europe of which 27 sent results. Performance in hantavirus diagnosis varied not only on the method used but also on the laboratories and the subclass of antibodies tested. Commercial and in-house assays performed almost equally. Enzyme immunoassays were mainly used but did not show the best performances while immunoblot assays were the less employed and showed overall better performances. IgM antibodies were not detected in 61% of the positive IgM samples and IgM detection was not performed by 7% of the laboratories indicating a risk of overlooking acute infections in patients. Uneven performances using the same method is indicating that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols.

  10. In search for factors that drive hantavirus epidemics.

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    Paul eHeyman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae are small mammal-associated zoonotic and emerging pathogens that can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Puumala virus, the main etiological agent carried by the bank vole Myodes glareolus is responsible for a mild form of HFRS while Dobrava virus induces less frequent but more severe cases of HFRS.Since 2000 in Europe, more than 3000 cases of HFRS have been recorded, in average, each year, which is nearly double compared to the previous decade. In addition to this upside long-term trend, significant oscillations occur. Epidemic years appear, usually every 2-4 years, with an increased incidence, generally in localised hot spots. Moreover, the virus has been identified in new areas in the recent years.A great number of surveys have been carried out in order to assess the prevalence of the infection in the reservoir host and to identify links with different biotic and abiotic factors. The factors that drive the infections are related to the density and diversity of bank vole populations, prevalence of infection in the reservoir host, viral excretion in the environment, survival of the virus outside its host, and human behaviour, which affect the main transmission virus route through inhalation of infected rodent excreta..At the scale of a rodent population, the prevalence of the infection increases with the age of the individuals but also other parameters, such as sex and genetic variability, interfere. The contamination of the environment may be correlated to the number of newly infected rodents, which heavily excrete the virus. The interactions between these different parameters add to the complexity of the situation and explain the absence of reliable tools to predict epidemics. In this review, the factors that drive the epidemics of hantaviruses in Middle Europe are discussed through a panorama of the epidemiological situation in Belgium, France and Germany.

  11. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brasilia periphery: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Rocha de Sá, Diana Aristótelis; Turra, Thiago Zavascki; Ferreira Borges, Nancy Mendonça; Nascimento, Ulisses Mariano; Damasceno, Emanuel Adelino Medeiros

    2009-09-15

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an emerging rodent-borne disease in the American continent, characterized by acute respiratory distress and a high case-fatality ratio. The present work describes a case of HPS, with favorable outcome, whose initial features were mistaken for leptospirosis or other less severe acute infections. The case of a 32-year-old male with an uneventful course of HPS is reported. He was inadvertently infected at work by exposure to a rodent-contaminated environment in Brasília, Federal District vicinity, during May 2008. Fever, headache and myalgia after exposure to a rodent-contaminated environment raised clinical suspicion. Non-cardiac pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, neutrophilia with band forms 26%, high hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes were observed. Leptospirosis and dengue were the main differential diagnoses because both pathogens are endemic in the area. Hantavirus IgM antibody-capture ELISA was positive, while tests for dengue, leptospirosis and yellow fever were negative. The prognosis for HPS is ominous and misdiagnoses may increase mortality. Better chances of survival depend on prompt intensive care support. Reports of moderate or less typical cases can raise the suspicion index among primary care and hospital-based physicians about this uncommon but severe condition that often affects previously healthy young individuals from developing countries, and subjects who interact with rodent-infested environments in North America. High awareness of HPS allowed successful management of the patient, even before establishing the diagnosis, by serological tests at the reference laboratory of the Ministry of Health. Clinical suspicion favored warning local health authorities about a new case of HPS.

  12. Historia del nombre genérico Escallonia mutis ex L. Fil. Historia del nombre genérico Escallonia mutis ex L. Fil.

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    Fernández Alonso J. L.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available According with the historical context of the Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada (1783-1816, the nomenclatural history of the generic name Escallonia Mutis ex L. fiI. (Grossulariaceae is discussed. The extant misinterpretation concerning the name in the manuscript documentation of the Expedition, is brigthened; four species of diferent  families appear associated to this name in the manuscripts. Type specimens of two species, Escallonia myrtilloides L. fiI. and Dichondra evolvulacea (L. fiI. Britton are located or selected. Dentro del contexto histórico de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada (1783-1816, se realiza el seguimiento del nombre genérico Escallonia Mutis ex L. fiI. (Grossulariaceae. Se aclara la confusión existente acerca de este nombre en la documentación manuscrita de la Expedición (Archivos de Mutis y Linneo, donde se encuentra asociado a descripciones originales de cuatro especies de diferentes familias. Se localiza y selecciona material tipo de dos de ellas: Escallonia myrtilloides L. fil. Y Dichondra evolvulacea (L. IiI. Britton.

  13. JUDEO - IGBO TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS CONCEPTION OF SIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The word sin is more of a religious term than ordinary. It is basically an action of defiance. That is, an action through which one deviates from the correct way or through which one misses the mark. This paper looked at how the Jews of the Old and New Testament periods understood the concept of sin in their society.

  14. Prediction of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) population dynamics in Montana, USA, using satellite-driven vegetation productivity and weather data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Loehman; Joran Elias; Richard J. Douglass; Amy J. Kuenzi; James N. Mills; Kent Wagoner

    2012-01-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for...

  15. Seroprevalencia de hantavirus en roedores y casos humanos en el sur de la Argentina Hantavirus seroprevalence in rodents and human cases in southern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Larrieu

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En la Provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, se presentaron casos humanos de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en la región de la cordillera andino patagónica. El virus Andes ha sido identificado en la región, tanto en el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus como en seres humanos, demostrándose la transmisión principalmente del roedor al hombre y la factibilidad de la transmisión de persona a persona. El objetivo del presente trabajo es presentar nueva información sobre especies de roedores portadores de hantavirus en Argentina, su prevalencia de anticuerpos para hantavirus (período 1999-2001 y la relación del tamaño de las poblaciones de roedores y su seroprevalencia con la ocurrencia de casos humanos (período 1996-2001. Para ello, se procedió a la colocación de 3973 trampas para captura viva de roedores, tipo sherman en seis operativos efectuados entre octubre de 1999 y mayo de 2001. Se obtuvieron muestras de sangre de los roedores las que fueron procesadas mediante enzimoinmunoensayo con antígenos elaborados a partir de virus Andes. Una síntesis de los resultados indica 397 roedores capturados, con un éxito de trampeo del 10% y una prevalencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus del 1.0%. Se observaron importantes diferencias en las especies capturadas en cada una de las regiones. Se capturaron O. longicaudatus y A. Olivaceus seropositivos y O. flavescens y C. Laucha potencialmente portadores de hantavirus Se registraron 6 casos humanos en el período 1993-1995 (correspondientes a estudios retrospectivos, 21 casos se notificaron en el período 1996-1998 y 6 en el período 1999-2001 Se analiza la correlación entre ocurrencia de casos humanos, seroprevalencia en roedores y éxito de trampeo.In the Province of Río Negro, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS have occurred in the region of the Patagonian Andean range. The Andes virus has been identified in the region, both in the rodent Oligoryzomys

  16. Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Resman Rus, Katarina; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Avšič Županc, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus), M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas. PMID:24335778

  17. Two cases of Hantavirus infection in Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sünbül

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF and Leptospirosis are endemic in our region. Hantavirus infections may beconfused with similar clinical picture zoonotic infections. Two patients with fever, malaise, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting,thrombocytopenia, renal failure, elevated transaminases, and a history of mouse contact were hospitalized in ourclinic with a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis, pneumonia, CCHF and Hantavirus infections. Empirical antibiotictreatment was initiated and CCHF and leptospirosis was ruled out with laboratory tests. Hantavirus immunoglobulin(Ig-G and Ig-M antibodies were detected positive by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA method in both cases but,Dobrova virus was detected in only one patient with immunoblotting methods. Both patients were discharged aftertreatment. Hantavirus infections may be misdiagnosed as zoonotic infections since they have similar clinical picture. Itshould be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of contact with mouse. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 117-120Key words: Hantavirus, hemorrhagic fever, renal syndrome, pulmonary syndrome

  18. Expression of a hantavirus N protein and its efficacy as antigen in immune assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T.M. Figueiredo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS has been recognized as an important public heath problem. Five hantaviruses associated with HCPS are currently known in Brazil: Juquitiba, Araraquara, Laguna Negra-like, Castelo dos Sonhos, and Anajatuba viruses. The laboratory diagnosis of HCPS is routinely carried out by the detection of anti-hantavirus IgM and/or IgG antibodies. The present study describes the expression of the N protein of a hantavirus detected in the blood sample of an HCPS patient. The entire S segment of the virus was amplified and found to be 1858 nucleotides long, with an open reading frame of 1287 nucleotides that encodes a protein of 429 amino acids. The nucleotide sequence described here showed a high identity with the N protein gene of Araraquara virus. The entire N protein was expressed using the vector pET200D and the Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The expression of the recombinant protein was confirmed by the detection of a 52-kDa protein by Western blot using a pool of human sera obtained from HCPS patients, and by specific IgG detection in five serum samples of HCPS patients tested by ELISA. These results suggest that the recombinant N protein could be used as an antigen for the serological screening of hantavirus infection.

  19. Phylogeographic Diversity of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Hantaviruses in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miša Korva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus, A. agrarius (Dobrava virus–Kurkino, M. glareolus (Puumala virus, S. areanus (Seewis virus,M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus. Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava–Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas.

  20. Orientalismos peninsulares en el levante andaluz. Nombres y usos de algunas plantas silvestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Montes, Francisco

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The author describes sorne wild plants from the provinces of Almería, Granada and Jaén (Andalusia, Spain that have folk names from Eastern Iberia. For each plant he provides the scientific and folk name, the isoglottic line and the lexical arca. He also informs about the use of these plants in folk and household medecine, religious rites, animal husbandry, etc.En este estudio se presentan algunas plantas silvestres de Almería, Granada y Jaén cuyos nombres vulgares proceden del oriente peninsular. De cada planta se da, junto al nombre vulgar y científico, la isoglosa o límite de los orientalismos y sus correspondientes áreas léxicas. Al mismo tiempo se hace el estudio etnográfico de sus usos en la medicina popular o doméstica, ritos religiosos, ganadería, etc.

  1. Effet du nombre de recoltes sur la qualite nutritionnelle de deux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La teneur en Calcium, Magnésium, Phosphore et en Potassium de P. ostreatus est supérieure à celle de P. aba/onus (p < 0.05). Par contre, le P. abalonus est légèrement plus riche en Fer, Zinc, et en Cuivre que le P. ostreatus. Pour une même espèce, le poids des champignons diminue significativement avec le nombre de ...

  2. El nombre y el sonido de las letras: ¿conocimientos diferenciables?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ferroni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el conocimiento del nombre y del sonido de las letras y la relación entre este conocimiento y la adquisición de la escritura. Estudios recientes han sugerido que el nombre y el sonido de las letras constituyen conocimientos relativamente independientes. Un grupo de 51 niños y niñas fueron evaluados al comenzar el 1er año de Educación Primaria mediante pruebas de conocimiento de letras, conciencia fonológica, denominación rápida de letras y habilidades motoras. A fin de año se administró una prueba de escritura de palabras. El análisis de los resultados mostró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el conocimiento del nombre y del sonido de las letras y un patrón de correlación diferente entre estos conocimientos y las demás habilidades prelectoras y con la adquisición de la escritura de palabras a fin de año. Se analizan las implicancias educativas de estos resultados.

  3. Seroprevalence of hantavirus and Yersinia pestis antibodies in professionals from the Plague Control Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.

  4. Serological Survey of Hantavirus and Flavivirus Among Wild Rodents in Central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseddu, Gian Mario; Sozio, Giulia; Valleriani, Fabrizia; Di Gennaro, Annapia; Pascucci, Ilaria; Gavaudan, Stefano; Marianneau, Philippe; Monaco, Federica

    2017-11-01

    Hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic viruses carried by rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) and Dobrava virus (DOBV) are the causative agents of human hantavirus infections in Europe. Knowledge about hantavirus circulation in Italy is very scarce. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are emerging neuropathogenic flaviviruses, both endemic in most part of the Italian territories. To monitor the circulation of PUUV, DOBV, WNV, and USUV in natural environment in central Italy, we carried out serological surveillance in wild rodents. During this study, 90 animals were captured in forested areas of Abruzzo and Marche regions and tested with serological assays for the specific pathogens. Serological test provided no evidence of PUUV and DOBV circulation in the studied area. However, four rodents (Apodemus flavicollis) were found to be positive by WNV ELISA test. Two of them were confirmed as WNV by virus neutralization test.

  5. Los nombres del diálogo literario. Su validez para el diálogo narrativo

    OpenAIRE

    González Iglesias, Juan Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Cualquier teoría de un género literario ha de tener en cuenta el nombre o los nombres del género, que representan un determinado concepto y en síntesis nos transmiten una teoría del género con un rico y exacto vocabulario especializado. En este trabajo vamos a explorar las relaciones entre los nombres del género literario y los nombres del género del discurso, con atención particular a un subgénero, el del diálogo narrativo, que no toma carta de naturaleza en la literatura latina hasta la Ant...

  6. Cirugía cardiovascular sin sangre

    OpenAIRE

    Portilla Fernández, María del Pilar; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2005-01-01

    ¿Cómo surgieron las cirugías sin el uso de sangre de donantes?/Programa de cirugía cardiaca sin sangre/Riesgo del uso de sangre de banco/Equipo humano/Técnicas y estrategias/El salvador de células/Hemodilución normovolémica aguda/Hipotermia intra-operatoria/Mantenimiento de la normotermia post-operatoria/Medicamentos/Controles intra-operatorios/Cirujanos experimentados/Proyecciones.

  7. [The role of natural environment in spreading of hantavirus--model of the correlation between host, pathogen and human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Anna; Dudek, Dorota; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    The environmental changes caused by humans influence ecosystem and thus have significant impact on occurrence of emerging and re-emerging diseases. The hantavirus infection belong to the one of them. The aim of this paper was to present current knowledge about relationship between hantavirus, their natural host and the spread of the infection to people. Rodents constitute both the natural host of the hantaviruses and the reservoir of hantavirus for environment. Circulation of the virus in the rodent population is crucial to maintain the virus in the environment. The individual characteristics of rodents influence on risk of infection with hantavirus. However, this relationship is still unexplained. Risk of pathogen exposure often increases with age and behavioral differences associated with the sex of the susceptible individual. Mating behaviors seem to play an important role in the spread of the virus among rodents. Human incidence of hantavirus infection has in general been found to correlate to the population size of rodent host especially in the model of nephropathia epidemica (NE; a mild form of HFRS), Puumala virus (PUU) and bank voles. The occurrence of hantavirus infections in humans is assumed to rise as a secondary effect from altered population sizes of rodents in a changing environment due to e.g. mast years, forest fragmentation, global warming.

  8. Diversity and distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and risk to human health in Jiuhua mountain area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xing Qiang; Li, Shi Guang; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Hua, Ri Mao

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the diversity and the distribution of host animal species of hantavirus and the effect on human health in Jiuhua Mountain area, China. The host animal species of hantavirus was surveyed by using the trap method and the species diversity was evaluated by using the Simpson, Shannon-Weaner, and Pielou indices. Hantavirus antigens or antibodies in lung and blood samples of all the captured host animals were detected by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. Nine animal species of hantavirus were distributed in the forest ecosystem of Jiuhua Mountain. Of these, Niviventer confucianus and Apodemus agrarius were predominant, and N. confucianus, Rattus norvegicus, and Mus musculus had relatively large niche breadth index values. The host animals in the eastern and western mountain regions shared similar biodiversity index characteristics, predominant species, and species structures. Hantavirus was detected in 5 host animal species in Jiuhua Mountain area, the carriage rate of hantavirus was 6.03%. The average density of host animals in forest areas of the mountainous area was only 2.20%, and the virus infection rate in the healthy population was 2.33%. The circulation of hantavirus was low in the forest areas of Jiuhua Mountain and did not pose a threat to human health. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. DIVERSIDAD DE ABEJAS SIN AGUIJÓN (HYMENOPTERA:MELIPONINI UTILIZADAS EN MELIPONICULTURA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se conoce la existencia de cerca de 120 especies de abejas nativas sin aguijón, muchas de las cuales tienen importantes usos y representaciones para diversos grupos sociales y culturales. A pesar de que su cría y manejo (meliponicultura, es una actividad que viene creciendo y tecnificándose en Latinoamérica y otras regiones del mundo, sus características y desarrollo en Colombia han sido poco documentados. Se presentan los resultados de entrevistas y visitas a 75 personas en 16 departamentos de Colombia, que cultivan 25 especies de abejas sin aguijón, agrupadas en 12 géneros. Se encontraron al menos nueve especies más sin identificación completa, se reportan cuatro nuevos registros para el país y se amplía la distribución para 21 taxones. Se presenta información sobre la distribución regional y altitudinal, el cultivo urbano y las denominaciones locales para las abejas. Se revisan algunas características de los géneros cultivados más comunes (Tetragonisca, Melipona, Paratrigona, Scaptotrigona, y Nannotrigona y se discute la importancia del vínculo entre diversidad biológica y cultural que se manifiesta en los nombres locales reportados. Ante un escenario mundial de expansión de la meliponicultura, se resaltan necesidades de investigación y riesgos para la conservación y manejo de la diversidad de abejas sin aguijón y los conocimientos asociados.

  10. Epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of hantavirus (HTV) infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J; McKenna, P; Groen, J; Osterhaus, A; Colson, P; Vervoort, T; van der Groen, G; Lee, H W

    1995-01-01

    Hantavirus (HTV) is recently discovered "hemorrhagic fever virus" belonging to the Bunyaviridae family, which is spread throughout the world by wild rodents and/or laboratory rats. During an epidemic in the Belgian-French Ardennes in 1993, more than 200 acute cases were recorded of the milder European form of HTV-illness, otherwise known as Nephropathia epidemica (NE). This variant may be recognized by the sudden onset of fever, acute renal failure, thrombocytopenia and sometimes by ophthalmologic complications. The symptomatology is rather aspecific and diagnosis can only be confirmed by serologic tests, of which the best option nowadays seems to be: screening by IgG EIA, followed by IgM confirmation with a mu-capture EIA test. Some of the tests described allow an evaluation of the causative serotype or even the moment of infection. Next to the "classic" serologic assays for detection of specific viral antibodies, we describe briefly our own experience with newer tests such as "high density particle agglutination" and "line immuno assay". Polymerase chain reaction for viral RNA genome typing and immunohistochemical colouring of the viral antigen in tissues seem to offer promising alternatives for the immediate future.

  11. Detection of the first incidence of Akodon paranaensis naturally infected with the Jabora virus strain (Hantavirus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We characterised hantaviruses circulating in different Akodon rodent species collected in midwestern Santa Catarina (SC, southern Brazil, where the Jabora hantavirus (JABV strain was first identified in Akodon montensis. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses based on a partial S segment indicated that, in SC, Akodon paranaensis and A. montensis carried the same type of hantavirus. Additionally, we conducted the first genomic characterisation of the complete S segment from the Brazilian JABV strain. This is the first report of A. paranaensis infected with the JABV.

  12. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles

    Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

  13. Presentación “Procesos con nombre de mujer”

    OpenAIRE

    Torremocha Hernández, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Producción Científica Bajo el título “Procesos con nombre de mujer” agrupamos una serie de trabajos de historiadores del Derecho y Modernistas, que han surgido de un debate que se ha desarrollado dentro del marco del proyecto de Investigación “Justicia y Mujer. Los tribunales penales en la definición de una identidad de género. Castilla y Portugal (1550-1800)”. Entre nuestras metas ha estado conocer el trabajo que sobre objetivos muy similares se desarrollan en Italia y en España, los enfo...

  14. Sin Stocks in Self Managed Superannuation Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Phillips

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical or responsible investing has attracted much attention over the last decade. Financial planners can nowadvise clients on a broad range of ethical investment products and some financial planning firms have this astheir sole activity. Interestingly, the alter ego of ethical investing, sin or vice investing, has attracted far lessattention. Recent research shows that ‘sinful’ investments can generate very strong returns and shouldcertainly not be avoided by investors without a full evaluation of the consequences of excluding theseinvestments from the portfolio. This paper extends these findings into the field of self managedsuperannuation funds operating within an Australian context. The prevalence of sinful investments within asample of SMSFs and the returns that may be generated by a portfolio consisting of sinful Australian equitiesis examined. Analysis reveals that the SMSF investors within the sample do not include very many sin stocksin their portfolios. However, it does not appear as though SMSF trustees are missing an important investmentopportunity because the analysis reveals that an equally-weighted portfolio of all vice or sin shares is unlikelyto generate superior returns.

  15. Molecular evolution of Puumala hantavirus in Fennoscandia: phylogenetic analysis of strains from two recolonization routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asikainen, Kari; Hänninen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki

    2000-01-01

    Like other members of the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, Puumala virus (PUUV) is thought to be co-evolving with its natural host, the bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus. To gain insight into the evolutionary history of PUUV in northern Europe during the last post-glacial period, we...

  16. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A. Ennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell responses negatively correlated with disease severity, but in another report the number of regulatory T cells, which are thought to suppress T cell responses, negatively correlated with disease severity. In rat experiments, in which hantavirus causes persistent infection, depletion of regulatory T cells helped infected rats clear virus without inducing immunopathology. These seemingly contradictory findings may suggest delicate balance in T cell responses between protection and immunopathogenesis. Both too strong and too weak T cell responses may lead to severe disease. It is important to clarify the role of T cells in these diseases for better treatment (whether to suppress T cell functions and protection (vaccine design which may need to take into account viral factors and the influence of HLA on T cell responses.

  17. Drotrecogin alpha (activated) in two patients with the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    McDermid, Robert C; Gibney, RT Noel; Brisebois, Ronald J; Skjodt, Neil M

    2006-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated) (DAA) for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive ...

  18. Differential Regulation of PAI-1 in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bellomo, Carla; Korva, Miša; Papa, Anna; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vaheri, Antti; Martinez, Valeria P; Strandin, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    Abstract We analyzed the levels of circulating tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)–1 in acute hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The levels of tPA commonly increased in both diseases, whereas PAI-1 correlated with disease severity in HCPS but not in HFRS.

  19. Puumala hantavirus infection in humans and in the reservoir host, Ardennes region, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, F; Penalba, C; Vuillaume, P; Boue, F; Coudrier, D; Pontier, D; Artois, M

    2002-12-01

    We compared the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica cases, over a multi-annual population cycle, in northeastern France with the hantavirus serology for bank voles captured in the same area. We discuss hypotheses to explain the pattern of infection in both humans and rodents and their synchrony.

  20. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Radosa, L.; Schlegel, M.; Gebauer, P.; Ansorge, H.; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, M.; Mošanský, L.; Fričová, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Groschup, M. H.; Krüger, D. H.; Ulrich, R. G.; Klempa, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2013), s. 403-410 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * shrew Sorex minutus * Asikkala virus * Cental Europe Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.264, year: 2013

  1. Nombre, muerte y santificación de una prostituta. Escritura y culto de Botitas Negras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pavez Ojeda

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos las diferentes formas de reinscripción del cuerpo y figura de Irene Iturra Sáez, prostituta asesinada en la ciudad de Calama, en el norte de Chile, en septiembre de 1969, y conocida hoy con el nombre de Botitas Negras. Las escrituras que proliferan en torno a esta “santita” popular otorgan importantes claves para entender la singularidad del personaje y las formas de devoción popular que lo “canonizan”. Presentamos así las diferentes formas y contenidos de esta intertextualidad que se despliega en torno a la vida, la muerte y la vida postmortem de Botitas Negras: prensa, escrituras judiciales, rumores, cartas, objetos, y nombres propios. Las cartas dirigidas a la santa prostituta y los objetos de su altar trazan las inscripciones de su existencia actual, a través de lo que identificamos como un ciclo de intercambio dialógico entre los devotos y la santa. De esta manera, podremos ver el santuario de Botitas Negras como una “oficina de gobierno” que recibe peticiones (cartas y obsequios (pagos, y la santa milagrosa como ministra de una teocracia biopolítica que dispensa “protección de la vida” e interviene con milagros, en ayuda de sujetos fragmentados y precarizados por el gobierno neoliberal de una “mano invisible”.

  2. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prist, Paula Ribeiro; Uriarte, Maria; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Prado, Amanda; Pardini, Renata; D Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012) and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature), landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane), and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index). We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest). In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk), and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  3. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  4. Original Sin and T. E. Hulme's Aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishler, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    T. E. Hulme, a vigorous opponent of romanticism in art, poetry, and philosophy, insisted that the underlying flaw of the romantic view was its rejection of the dogma of Original Sin and the fall of man. His views are explored for the significant bearing they have on the development of aesthetic insight and indirectly on value and outlook.…

  5. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Administración sin fronteras

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavenato, Idalberto

    2010-01-01

    Dentro de las conferencias presentadas en el marco del IX Congreso Nacional de Administradores de Empresas y 11 Internacional con sede en la Universidad Santiago de Cali, merece destacarse la expuesta por el profesor ldalberto Chiavenato Administración sin Fronteras, de la cual presentamos una síntesis a modo de resumen, antes de pasar a su transcripción completa.

  7. Advertising and the Seven Sins of Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy, Larry

    2004-01-01

    A positive intention may be formed as a result of exposure to an advertisement, but if a memory malfunction interferes with that intention, the advertising will be ineffective.This paper considers the implications for advertisers of Daniel Schacter’s ‘seven sins of memory’: transcience, absent......-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. Each of the ‘sins’ is explained in detail and advice provided for advertisers on how to avoid these pitfalls....

  8. Sin3b Interacts with Myc and Decreases Myc Levels*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Sanz, Pablo; Quintanilla, Andrea; Lafita, M. Carmen; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; García-Gutierrez, Lucia; Tabor, Vedrana; Varela, Ignacio; Shiio, Yuzuru; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Portillo, Francisco; Leon, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Myc expression is deregulated in many human cancers. A yeast two-hybrid screen has revealed that the transcriptional repressor Sin3b interacts with Myc protein. Endogenous Myc and Sin3b co-localize and interact in the nuclei of human and rat cells, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assay. The interaction is Max-independent. A conserved Myc region (amino acids 186–203) is required for the interaction with Sin3 proteins. Histone deacetylase 1 is recruited to Myc-Sin3b complexes, and its deacetylase activity is required for the effects of Sin3b on Myc. Myc and Sin3a/b co-occupied many sites on the chromatin of human leukemia cells, although the presence of Sin3 was not associated with gene down-regulation. In leukemia cells and fibroblasts, Sin3b silencing led to Myc up-regulation, whereas Sin3b overexpression induced Myc deacetylation and degradation. An analysis of Sin3b expression in breast tumors revealed an association between low Sin3b expression and disease progression. The data suggest that Sin3b decreases Myc protein levels upon Myc deacetylation. As Sin3b is also required for transcriptional repression by Mxd-Max complexes, our results suggest that, at least in some cell types, Sin3b limits Myc activity through two complementary activities: Mxd-dependent gene repression and reduction of Myc levels. PMID:24951594

  9. First evidence of Seoul hantavirus in the wild rat population in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Verner-Carlsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the first detection of Seoul hantavirus (SEOV-specific antibodies in the wild brown rat population in the Netherlands. SEOV-reactive antibodies were found in three rats out of 16 in a repeated series of tests including immunofluorescence assay, immunoblot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Focus reduction neutralization test confirmed the presence of SEOV-specific antibodies, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR confirmed the presence of hantaviral RNA. This discovery follows the recent findings of SEOV infections in wild and pet brown rats and humans in England, Wales, France, Belgium, and Sweden, indicating an even higher importance of this hantavirus for public health in large areas of Europe.

  10. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  11. Co-circulation of soricid- and talpid-borne hantaviruses in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010-2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0-18.8% and 0-5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1%-100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3%-100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species co-existing in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Human hantavirus infection elicits pronounced redistribution of mononuclear phagocytes in peripheral blood and airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Scholz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. Infection can cause severe disease with up to 40% mortality depending on the viral strain. The virus primarily targets the vascular endothelium without direct cytopathic effects. Instead, exaggerated immune responses may inadvertently contribute to disease development. Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs, including monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs, orchestrate the adaptive immune responses. Since hantaviruses are transmitted via inhalation, studying immunological events in the airways is of importance to understand the processes leading to immunopathogenesis. Here, we studied 17 patients infected with Puumala virus that causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Bronchial biopsies as well as longitudinal blood draws were obtained from the patients. During the acute stage of disease, a significant influx of MNPs expressing HLA-DR, CD11c or CD123 was detected in the patients' bronchial tissue. In parallel, absolute numbers of MNPs were dramatically reduced in peripheral blood, coinciding with viremia. Expression of CCR7 on the remaining MNPs in blood suggested migration to peripheral and/or lymphoid tissues. Numbers of MNPs in blood subsequently normalized during the convalescent phase of the disease when viral RNA was no longer detectable in plasma. Finally, we exposed blood MNPs in vitro to Puumala virus, and demonstrated an induction of CCR7 expression on MNPs. In conclusion, the present study shows a marked redistribution of blood MNPs to the airways during acute hantavirus disease, a process that may underlie the local immune activation and contribute to immunopathogenesis in hantavirus-infected patients.

  13. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Profiling of external metabolites during production of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniukas, Linas; Grammel, Hartmut; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Reichl, Udo

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, producing hantavirus Puumala nucleocapsid protein for diagnostics and as a candidate vaccine were analyzed for uptake and excretion of intermediary metabolites during process optimization studies of fed-batch bioreactor cultures. Concentrations of glucose, maltose, galactose, pyruvate, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetate, succinate and formaldehyde (used as a selection agent) were measured in the culture medium in order to find a metabolite pattern,...

  15. Co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba Hantavirus in Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Maia, Renata Malachini; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Flávio César Gomes; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2018-04-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging serious disease in the Americas, transmitted from wild rodents to humans through inhalation of aerosol containing virus. Herein, we characterized two distinct hantaviruses circulating in rodent species form Central Plateau, Midwestern region of Brazil in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome, an area characterized by small trees and grasses adapted to climates with long dry periods. In this study, we identified the co-circulation of the Araraquara virus and a possible new lineage of the Juquitiba virus (JUQV) in Oligoryzomys nigripes. The implications of co-circulation are still unknown, but it can be the key for increasing viral diversity or emergence of new species through spillover or host switching events leading to co-infection and consequently recombination or reassortment between different virus species. Phylogenetic analyses based on the complete S segment indicated that, alongside with Oligoryzomys mattogrossae rodents, O. nigripes species could also have a whole as JUQV reservoir in the Cerrado biome. Although these rodents' species are common in the Cerrado biome, they are not abundant demonstrating how complex and different hantavirus enzootic cycles can be in this particular biome.

  16. Genetic analysis of hantaviruses carried by Myodes and Microtus rodents in Buryatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundkvist Åke

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hantavirus genome sequences were recovered from tissue samples of Myodes rufocanus, Microtus fortis and Microtus oeconomus captured in the Baikal area of Buryatia, Russian Federation. Genetic analysis of S- and M-segment sequences of Buryatian hantavirus strains showed that Myodes-associated strains belong to Hokkaido virus (HOKV type while Microtus-associated strains belong to Vladivostok virus (VLAV type. On phylogenetic trees Buryatian HOKV strains were clustered together with M. rufocanus- originated strains from Japan, China and Far-East Russia (Primorsky region. Buryatian Microtus- originated strains shared a common recent ancestor with M. fortis- originated VLAV strain from Far-East Russia (Vladivostok area. Our data (i confirm that M. rufocanus carries a hantavirus which is similar to but distinct from both Puumala virus carried by M. glareolus and Muju virus associated with M. regulus, (ii confirm that M. fortis is the natural host for VLAV, and (iii suggest M. oeconomus as an alternative host for VLAV.

  17. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Tucumán province associated to an unexpected viral genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Ciancaglini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe the characterization of the viral genotype involved in the first case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome reported in Tucumán, a Northwestern province of Argentina. A 23-year-old woman, with no record of travel history and previously diagnosed with an antiphospholipid syndrome, died after 11 days of severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency. Among the four endemic regions of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, the Northwest Region has the highest incidence, exceeding 50% of all reported cases in the country. Until now, only Salta and Jujuy (2 out of the 6 provinces composing the Northwest Region, reported cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, all of which occurred in the Yungas Forest area. Remarkably, the viral genotype characterized in this case showed higher nucleotide identity with the Andes-BsAs genotype most prevalent in Buenos Aires province, located 1400 km apart from Tucumán, than with any of the commonly found genotypes in the Northwest Region. The Andes-BsAs genotype has been associated with 30% lethality and interhuman transmission in Buenos Aires province. Interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out in the present case

  19. Sur le nombre de points rationnels des variétés abéliennes et des Jacobiennes sur les corps finis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Yves; Haloui, Safia; Lachaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Nous établissons de nouvelles majorations et minorations pour le nombre de points rationnels des variétés abéliennes et des Jacobiennes sur un corps fini. Nous déterminons de plus les nombres maximum et minimum de points rationnels des surfaces Jacobiennes sur un corps fini donné. We give upper a...

  20. Verdad absoluta desde el libro del Éxodo: el nombre divino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ferrada Moreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende iluminar el significado del nombre divino 'ehyé 'aser 'ehyé (Seré el que seré; Ex 3, 14, para ejemplarizar en qué sentido el libro del Éxodo (y tal vez el grueso del Antiguo Testamento afirma algunas verdades con pretensión de absoluto. Para el lector de nuestros tiempos, Seré el que seré resulta problemático, no solo por su formulación enigmática, cuyo sentido no entiende a cabalidad; sino también porque culturalmente pierden valor, cada vez con mayor fuerza, las proposiciones que se postulan como absolutas. La interpretación existencial del nombre de Dios, que se propone, resuelve el enigma: Seré el que seré designa el compromiso divino injustificado de su presencia a favor de su pueblo. El sentido absoluto de esta afirmación coincide con el de otras importantes afirmaciones teológicas del libro del Éxodo: no pretenden anular la esfera histórica de la existencia, particularmente la libertad humana y su contingencia, sino al contrario muestran su valor y le aportan su fundamento de origen, sentido y dirección.The author of thiis article intends to provide insight into the meaning of the divine ñame 'ehyé 'áser 'ehyé (I will be whom will be; Ex 3,14, in order to exemplify in what sense the book of Exodus (and, perhaps, the greater part of the Oíd Testament affirms certain truths with the intention of absoluteness. For the reader of our own times, I will be whom I will be turns out to be problematic, not only for its enigmatic formation, whose meaning is not fully captured, but also because, culturally, the propositions formulated as absolutes lose in an ever greater degree their valué. The existential interpretation of the ñame of God, which the author proposes, resolves the enigma: I will be whom will be designates the unjustified divine commitment of His presence in favor of His people. The absolute sense of this affirmation coincides with that of other important theological affirmations of

  1. Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are an established cause of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Europe. Following a confirmed case of HFRS in the UK, in an individual residing on a farm in North Yorkshire and the Humber, a tidal estuary on the east coast of Northern England, and the subsequent isolation of a Seoul hantavirus from rats trapped on the patient’s farm, it was considered appropriate to further investigate the public health risk of this virus in the region. Of a total 119 individuals tested, nine (7.6% were seropositive for hantavirus antibodies. Seven of the seropositive samples showed a stronger reaction to Seoul and Hantaan compared to other clinically relevant hantaviruses. Observation of rodents during the day, in particular mice, was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity. In addition to one region known to be at risk following an acute case, five further potential risk areas have been identified. This study supports recently published evidence that hantaviruses are likely to be of public health interest in the region.

  2. Responses of small mammals to habitat fragmentation: epidemiological considerations for rodent-borne hantaviruses in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. The transmission of hantaviruses among rodent hosts may be higher with the increase of reservoir host abundance in a given area (density-dependent transmission) and with the decrease of small mammal diversity (dilution effect phenomenon). These population and community parameters may be modified by habitat fragmentation; however, studies that focus on fragmentation and its effect on hantavirus infection risk are scarce. To further understanding of this issue, we assessed some population and community responses of rodents that may increase the risk for hantavirus transmission among wildlife hosts in the Americas. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the responses of small mammals to fragmentation of native habitats, relative to patch size. Our analyses included five countries and 14 case studies for abundance of reservoir hosts (8 species) and 15 case studies for species richness. We found that a reduction of patch area due to habitat fragmentation is associated with increased reservoir host abundances and decreased small mammal richness, which is mainly due to the loss of non-host small mammals. According to these results, habitat fragmentation in the Americas should be considered as an epidemiological risk factor for hantavirus transmission to humans. These findings are important to assess potential risk of infection when fragmentation of native habitats occurs.

  3. THE HEIDELBERG CATECHISM ON HUMAN SIN AND MISERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian needs to take the concept of sin very seriously, even if we are not to dwell on it. There are three reasons for this: first, sin-talk is not the same as moralism; second, sin-talk is intertwined with grace; and third, we have an ethical responsibility to talk of human sin and misery. A few brief comments on each of these.

  4. Últimos nombres canónicos (1990-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Maurel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El ciertamente arrogante y algo atrabiliario título de este artículo merece apuntar una lista de obviedades que espero sepan perdonarme. La misma noción de canon, tal y como la entiendo, siguiendo el magistral estudio de Pozuelo Yvancos y Aradra Sánchez (2000, es de por sí compleja y reniega de definiciones simplistas, ya que convergen en ella, entre otras cuestiones, la porosidad social y la inestabilidad que se da en la base, el texto literario. Acotado teóricamente el terreno, las prometidas obviedades. Sé y asumo el riesgo de proponer una serie de novelistas últimos, porque al campo de la novela me limitaré, por lo que tiene de arbitraria injusticia, aunque ésta se vea acotada por el convencimiento razonado. Otros nombres podrían entrar aquí con todo merecimiento (José Ángel González Sáinz, Felipe Benítez Reyes, Javier Cercas, Belén Gopegui, Luis Magrinyà, Antonio Álamo, Antonio Orejudo, Luisa Castro, Cristina Sánchez-Andrade, Benjamín Prado..., y a ellos me dedicaré en próximos trabajos.

  5. "Rhome, Rumon, Ruma": una aproximación global al origen del nombre de Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Luis Casquillo Fumanal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La etimología del nombre de Roma es todavía un problema abierto. Quedan en pie las teorías que hacen derivar Roma del etrusco Rumon, «río», o del itálico Ruma, «ubre, colina». Pasada ya la fiebre etruscológica, ahora que el relato tradicional de la fundación de Roma por Rómulo adquiere nuevo vigor en la escuela arqueológica italiana de Andrea Carandini, resulta oportuna la reivindicación de la etimología de Roma a partir del itálico Ruma, teniendo en cuenta el conjunto de nuevos datos —sobre todo antropológicos— que contribuyen a dar valor a esta teoría.The etimology of the name Rome is yet an open probleme. They are still standing theories that make derive Rome from the etruscan word Rumon, «river», or from the italic word Ruma, «nipple, hill». Nowadays, when the etruscological fever is gone and the traditional story of the foundation of Rome by Romulus obtains a new consistency in the italian archaeological school of Andrea Carandini, it turns very oportune the reivindication of the etimology of Rome from italic Ruma, bearing in mind the joint of new dates —especially anthropological dates— that contribute to value this theory.

  6. The Heidelberg Catechism on human sin and misery | Baard | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Heidelberg Catechism's section on Sin and Misery does not provide a moralistic or legalistic perspective on the human condition. Instead, it offers, in abbreviated format, a restatement of the doctrine of original sin, which points to sin as a condition and not just an act. As such, it invites us to think more deeply about the ...

  7. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  8. A case-control study after a hantavirus infection outbreak in the south of Belgium: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loock, F; Thomas, I; Clement, J; Ghoos, S; Colson, P

    1999-04-01

    Puumala is the most common hantavirus serotype in Europe and is spread mainly by the red bank vole. Between 1 July 1992 and 31 January 1994, an outbreak of Puumala virus-induced nephropathia epidemica (NE) occurred in the Belgian Ardennes. Serologically confirmed cases (n = 41) were compared with two groups of asymptomatic seronegative controls. Risks identified included sighting of living rodents, exposure to rodent droppings, and trapping rodents during the 4 weeks preceding onset of symptoms. Activities during this 4-week period that presented the greatest risk were woodcutting, reopening of a nonaerated room, and strenuous physical effort. This is the first case-control study on risk factors for NE in Europe. In comparison with the American form of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which is spread by deer mice, professional activity appears to be a more important risk factor for acquisition of hantavirus in Europe.

  9. ( ) 100 dk sin cTk ikX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE a function of IX I. Using eikX = cos kX + i sin A~X, we see that the contribution from the sin kX term vanishes because the integrand is an odd function of k. Thus u(1)(X, T). CB(T). -- sin (cTk) cos kX. 100 dk o 7rk. 100 dk. C B ( T ). -. ( sin (CT + X) k + sin (CT - X) k) o 27rk i B ( T) (c (CT + X) + c (CT - X) ).

  10. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  11. En Caracas: una radio sin antena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tomás Angola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuenta la experiencia única de la radio comunitaria Parque Central de Caracas (1994 donde al decir de su director y concesionario de la estación se necesitó compromiso, esfuerzo, romanticismo y comunidad. Creada como un sistema de seguridad y publicidad surgió por iniciativa de la Asociación de vecinos de la Etapa 1 donde viven más de 12 mil personas Funciona sin estar dentro de los patrones transmisor-Antena-Receptor, no se encuentra regulada por ninguna ley, son a decir de Marañón el medio de comunicación más libre del país donde la comunidad se expresa por sobre la economía, la técnica y la ley.

  12. Un mundo sin límites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba, Joaquín Mª

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos del siglo XVI, las nuevas ediciones del Atlas de Ptolomeo publicadas en Roma o Venecia solían incluir un mapamundi modificado sin cesara a medida que descubridores y navegantes alcanzaban nuevos y antes desconocidos horizontes. La temprana circunnavegación de Magallanes y Elcano (1519-1522 confirmaba con su esferidad, que el mundo no tenía límites. Durante aquel siglo magnífico, la literatura española de viajes al Oriente Próximo islámico tenía que ser menos señalada. La casi perenne guerra contra el Imperio Otomano, señor de una buena parte de las costas mediterráneas, y sobre todo la empresa de América y los viajes de exploración y conquista que aquella demandaba, …

  13. A Fatal Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Misdiagnosed as Dengue: An Investigation into the First Reported Case in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Guterres, Alexandro; Teixeira, Bernardo Rodrigues; Fernandes, Jorlan; Júnior, João Marcos Penna; de Jesus Oliveira Júnior, Reynaldo; Pereira, Liana Strecht; Júnior, João Bosco; Meneguete, Patrícia Soares; Dias, Cristina Maria Giordano; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-07-01

    We report the results of an investigation into a fatal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where the disease had not been reported previous to 2015. Following the notification of an HPS case, serum samples were collected from the household members and work contacts of the HPS patient and tested for antibody to hantaviruses. Seroprevalence of 22% (10/45) was indicated for hantavirus out of 45 human samples tested. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 72 rodents during fieldwork to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection, by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay IgG, and to characterize the rodent hantavirus reservoir(s), by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Antibody prevalence was 6.9%. The circulation of a single genotype, the Juquitiba hantavirus, carried by two rodent species, black-footed pigmy rice rat ( Oligoryzomys nigripes ) and cursor grass mouse ( Akodon cursor ), was shown by analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the S segment. Juquitiba hantavirus circulates in rodents of various species, but mainly in the black-footed pigmy rice rat. HPS is a newly recognized clinical entity in Rio de Janeiro State and should be considered in patients with febrile illness and acute respiratory distress.

  14. La estrategia me-too: un producto semejante con un nombre distintivo ubicado junto al líder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Arboleda Arango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio explica la probabilidad de confusión del consumidor por el uso de la estrategia me-too en función de tener empaques con un nombre de marca distintivo y ubicar al me-too junto al líder de la categoría. Para esta evaluación se utilizó la categoría de papas fritas cuyo líder del mercado es Margarita y se creó un producto me-too: Fristas. A través de un experimento se manipularon dos variables: tener un nombre de marca distintivo en el empaque (ausente vs. presente y ubicación en góndola (junto al líder vs. me-too solo. Los resultados muestran que tener un nombre de la marca distintivo en el empaque afecta la probabilidad de confusión, de tal forma que la presencia del nombre de la marca disminuye la probabilidad de confusión. Además, cuando el producto me-too está solo hay una mayor probabilidad de confusión que cuando está junto al líder. Este estudio confirma la importancia de que los empaques cuenten con una marca distintiva. Y su principal aporte está en demostrar que la ubicación de un producto me-too junto al líder de la categoría es una práctica acertada al prevenir la confusión del consumidor

  15. La palabra impotente: ¿cómo se llaman los nombres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Hurtado Tarazona

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de reflexión está basado en el ensayo del pensador alemán Walter Benjamin “Sobre el lenguaje general y sobre el lenguaje de los hombres” (1916 y la concepción del lenguaje que allí se presenta. Benjamin postula que el “lenguaje puro” es el lenguaje divino, en el que el nombre es la misma cosa que menta; luego de la caída (el pecado original aparece el lenguaje de los hombres, que es sólo denominación, mímesis y ya no tiene poder creador. A la luz de ese postulado se analiza la poética de la escritora argentina Alejandra Pizarnik y se estudian las correspondencias que se dan en las nociones de un lenguaje puro o cero en contacto con una dimensión religiosa, y el fracaso de la palabra en la modernidad, donde sólo se tiene el paraíso perdido. This article is based on the essay “On Language as Such and the Language of Man “ (1916 of the German philosopher Walter Benjamin, and the conception of language explained there. Benjamin teaches that “pure language” is the divine language, in which the name is equivalent to the creation of the thing that is named; after the fall of this kind of language, it appears men language, which is only denomination, mimesis and no longer has magical powers of being creative. Based on this postulate, the poetics of Argentinian writer Alejandra Pizarnik is analyzed, by the relations of the notion of a pure language or zero language in contact with a religious dimenssion, and the failure of the word in modernity, as a lost paradise.

  16. Un extraño nombre de la rótula: voceusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barcia Goyanes, Juan José

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the synonyms of rotula Berengarius Da Carpi gives us in his Commentary to Mondino's work the word "voceusa". The Author refers his attempts to find its significance and the conclusion he got to.

    Entre los sinónimos de la rótula que nos da Berenguer da Carpí en sus Commentaria a la Anatomia de Mondino aparece la palabra "voceusa". El Autor refiere sus intentos de encontrar su significado y la conclusión a que llegó.

  17. Sins: the Supernova Intensive Study - SN1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert

    1991-07-01

    Supernovae are stars at the end of stellar evolution. They mark the moment of stellar destruction, act as the key process in the chemical evolution of the universe, serve as agitators and probes of the interstellar medium, and provide sharp and useful tools for cosmological investigations. As SN 1987A demonstrated, the best progress in this field comes from detailed study of the brightest objects. Many central problems of supernova research can be attacked by intensive and extensive observations of a handful of moderately bright supernovae using the HST cameras and spectrographs. SN 1987A provides a unique opportunity to connect the evolution of a supernova with the development of a supernova remnant and will be intensively studied in this program. Because supernovae touch on so many fields of astronomy, the results of this Supernova Intensive Study (SINS) will affect a broad range of areas from stellar interiors to cosmology so a diverse team of investigators has been assembled which includes experts on all these aspects of astronomy. While the first cycle observations concentrate on SN 1987A and on a fresh supernova to be studied at intermediate age, the second and third cycle will include target-of-opportunity observations of freshly-discovered supernovae which will strive for good UV coverage at early phases of the outburst.

  18. JUAN SIN MIEDO VA A LA ESCUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez-Anchía

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base la lectura del cuento "Juan Sin Miedo" realizada por tres sujetos adolescentes, pretendo responder a la pregunta sobre los principales temores que enfrenta la población costarricense adolescente en la actualidad. Las respuestas giran en torno a tres núcleos significativos: el miedo a la exclusión económica y social, materializada en el trato discriminatorio hacia quienes no se adecuan a los criterios impuestos por la sociedad de consumo; el miedo a la escuela, en tanto excluye a quienes no se ajustan a la norma esperada de desempeño académico; y el miedo al otro, en particular a la calle y la escuela como espacios de violencia. Concluyo señalando que, detrás de dichos temores, es posible leer un anhelo de pertenencia; de aprecio sincero y gratuito, en que no medie el rendimiento académico de la persona; así como un anhelo de seguridad en el entorno cercano.

  19. Complete genome characterisation and phylogenetic position of Tigray hantavirus from the Ethiopian white-footed mouse, Stenocephalemys albipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Těšíková, Jana; Meheretu, Y.; Čížková, Dagmar; Bryjová, Anna; Leirs, H.; Bryja, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, November (2016), s. 242-245 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * Murinae * Ethiopia * High throughput sequencing * Genomics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  20. More Novel Hantaviruses and Diversifying Reservoir Hosts — Time for Development of Reservoir-Derived Cell Culture Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Eckerle

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  1. The seven sins of memory: implications for self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, Daniel L; Chiao, Joan Y; Mitchell, Jason P

    2003-10-01

    We examine the relation between memory and self by considering errors of memory. We draw on the idea that memory's imperfections can be classified into seven basic categories or "sins." Three of the sins concern different types of forgetting (transience, absent-mindedness, and blocking), three concern different types of distortion (misattribution, suggestibility, and bias), and one concerns intrusive memories (persistence). We focus in particular on two of the distortion-related sins, misattribution and bias. By describing cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies that illuminate these memory sins, we consider how they might bear on the relation between memory and self.

  2. Profiling helper T cell subset gene expression in deer mice

    OpenAIRE

    Oko, Lauren; Aduddell-Swope, Bethany; Willis, Derall; Hamor, Robyn; Coons, Teresa A; Hjelle, Brian; Schountz, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the most common mammals in North America and are reservoirs for several zoonotic agents, including Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the principal etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in North America. Unlike human HCPS patients, SNV-infected deer mice show no overt pathological symptoms, despite the presence of virus in the lungs. A neutralizing IgG antibody response occurs, but the virus establishes a persistent infec...

  3. Profiling of external metabolites during production of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein with recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniukas, Linas; Grammel, Hartmut; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Reichl, Udo

    2008-03-01

    Recombinant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, producing hantavirus Puumala nucleocapsid protein for diagnostics and as a candidate vaccine were analyzed for uptake and excretion of intermediary metabolites during process optimization studies of fed-batch bioreactor cultures. Concentrations of glucose, maltose, galactose, pyruvate, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetate, succinate and formaldehyde (used as a selection agent) were measured in the culture medium in order to find a metabolite pattern, indicative for the physiological state of the producer culture. When the inducer galactose was employed as a growth substrate, the metabolite profile of recombinant yeast cells was different from those of the non-recombinant original strain which excreted considerable amounts of metabolites with this substrate. In contrast, galactose-induced heterologous gene expression was indicated by the absence of excreted intermediary metabolites, except succinate. A model strain expressing a GFP fusion of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein differed in the excretion of metabolites from strains without GFP. In addition, the influence of alkali ions, employed for pH control is also demonstrated.

  4. [Climatic aspects in hantavirus transmission areas in São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donalisio, Maria Rita; Vasconcelos, Cíntia Honório; Pereira, Luiz Eloy; Avila, Ana Maria H; Katz, Giselda

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution of reported hantavirus cases in São Paulo State, Brazil (n = 80), from 1993 to 2005 and identify local climatic patterns during this period. Kernel point estimation of density was used to show the highest concentrations in Ribeirão Preto, São Carlos, Franca, Tupi Paulista, and Greater São Paulo. Increase in the number of cases during this period suggests disease dissemination even when considering increased diagnostic capacity and higher sensitivity of the health services. There was a marked seasonal variation in hantavirus in the cerrado (savannah) areas; the common pattern is a higher incidence in drier months as compared to mean levels in the last 40 years. These coincide with periods of high rodent food source levels in grains, sugarcane, and other crops. Harvesting and storing grains increases human exposure to rodents. Climatic indicators together with ecological variables can be local transmission risk markers and should receive more attention in epidemiological monitoring and control of the disease.

  5. Production of hantavirus Puumala nucleocapsid protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for vaccine and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniukas, L; Grammel, H; Reichl, U

    2006-07-13

    The production of hantavirus Puumala nucleocapsid (N) protein for potential applications as a vaccine and for diagnostic purposes was investigated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a recombinant host. The N protein gene and the hexahistidine tagged N (h-N) protein gene were expressed intracellular from a 2-microm plasmid vectors under the control of a fused galactose inducible GAL10-PYK promoter. For monitoring the recombinant gene expression, a h-N and a GFP fusion protein was used. Different cultivation strategies and growth media compositions were tested in shake flasks and a 5 l bioreactor. When using defined YNB growth medium, we found the biomass yield to be unsatisfactorily low. Higher concentrated YNB medium, promoted cell growth but showed a pronounced inhibitory effect on heterologous gene expression. This phenomenon could not be attributed to plasmid losses, as we could demonstrate high stability of the vector under the applied cultivation conditions. Supplementation of YNB medium with extracts of plant origin resulted in increased biomass yields with concomitant high expression levels of the recombinant gene. The modified medium was used for fed-batch cultivations where basic metabolic features as well as growth parameters were determined in addition to recombinant gene expression. The maximal volumetric yield of N protein was 316 mg l(-1), the respective yield of h-N protein was 284 mg l(-1). Our study provides a basis for large-scale production of hantavirus vaccines, which satisfies economic efficiency as well as biosafety regulations for human applications.

  6. Landscape genetics highlights the role of bank vole metapopulation dynamics in the epidemiology of Puumala hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Chaval, Y; Xuéreb, A; Ribas Salvador, A; Poulle, M-L; Voutilainen, L; Henttonen, H; Charbonnel, N; Cosson, J F

    2011-09-01

    Rodent host dynamics and dispersal are thought to be critical for hantavirus epidemiology as they determine pathogen persistence and transmission within and between host populations. We used landscape genetics to investigate how the population dynamics of the bank vole Myodes glareolus, the host of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), vary with forest fragmentation and influence PUUV epidemiology. We sampled vole populations within the Ardennes, a French PUUV endemic area. We inferred demographic features such as population size, isolation and migration with regard to landscape configuration. We next analysed the influence of M. glareolus population dynamics on PUUV spatial distribution. Our results revealed that the global metapopulation dynamics of bank voles were strongly shaped by landscape features, including suitable patch size and connectivity. Large effective size in forest might therefore contribute to the higher observed levels of PUUV prevalence. By contrast, populations from hedge networks highly suffered from genetic drift and appeared strongly isolated from all other populations. This might result in high probabilities of local extinction for both M. glareolus and PUUV. Besides, we detected signatures of asymmetric bank vole migration from forests to hedges. These movements were likely to sustain PUUV in fragmented landscapes. In conclusion, our study provided arguments in favour of source-sink dynamics shaping PUUV persistence and spread in heterogeneous, Western European temperate landscapes. It illustrated the potential contribution of landscape genetics to the understanding of the epidemiological processes occurring at this local scale. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. A rapid method for infectivity titration of Andes hantavirus using flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Ferrés, Marcela; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    The focus assay is currently the most commonly used technique for hantavirus titer determination. This method requires an incubation time of between 5 and 11 days to allow the appearance of foci after several rounds of viral infection. The following work presents a rapid Andes virus (ANDV) titration assay, based on viral nucleocapsid protein (N) detection in infected cells by flow cytometry. To this end, an anti-N monoclonal antibody was used that was developed and characterized previously. ANDV N could be detected as early as 6 h post-infection, while viral release was not observed until 24-48 h post-infection. Given that ANDV detection was performed during its first round of infection, a time reduction for titer determination was possible and provided results in only two days. The viral titer was calculated from the percentage of N positive cells and agreed with focus assay titers. Furthermore, the assay was applied to quantify the inhibition of ANDV cell entry by patient sera and by preventing endosome acidification. This novel hantavirus titration assay is a highly quantitative and sensitive tool that facilitates infectivity titration of virus stocks, rapid screening for antiviral drugs, and may be further used to detect and quantify infectious virus in human samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutrophil depletion suppresses pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and occurrence of pulmonary edema caused by hantavirus infection in C.B-17 SCID mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koma, Takaaki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Nagata, Noriyo; Sato, Yuko; Shimizu, Kenta; Yasuda, Shumpei P; Amada, Takako; Nishio, Sanae; Hasegawa, Hideki; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-07-01

    Hantavirus infections are characterized by vascular hyperpermeability and neutrophilia. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that pulmonary vascular permeability is increased by Hantaan virus infection and results in the development of pulmonary edema in C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice lacking functional T cells and B cells. Increases in neutrophils in the lung and blood were observed when pulmonary edema began to be observed in the infected SCID mice. The occurrence of pulmonary edema was inhibited by neutrophil depletion. Moreover, the pulmonary vascular permeability was also significantly suppressed by neutrophil depletion in the infected mice. Taken together, the results suggest that neutrophils play an important role in pulmonary vascular hyperpermeability and the occurrence of pulmonary edema after hantavirus infection in SCID mice. Although hantavirus infections are characterized by the occurrence of pulmonary edema, the pathogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time in vivo that hantavirus infection increases pulmonary vascular permeability and results in the development of pulmonary edema in SCID mice. This novel mouse model for human hantavirus infection will be a valuable tool and will contribute to elucidation of the pathogenetic mechanisms. Although the involvement of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of hantavirus infection has largely been ignored, the results of this study using the mouse model suggest that neutrophils are involved in the vascular hyperpermeability and development of pulmonary edema in hantavirus infection. Further study of the mechanisms could lead to the development of specific treatment for hantavirus infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Jabur Badra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.

  10. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this ...

  11. Judeo - Igbo traditional religious conception of sin: socio – religious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theword sin ismore of a religious termthan ordinary. It is basically an action of defiance. That is, an action through which one deviates from the correct way or through which one misses the mark. This paper looked at how the Jews of theOld andNewTestament periods understood the concept of sin in their society.

  12. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-01-01

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We firs...

  13. Alcance e valor do nome-do-pai atualmente: algumas considerações Alcance y valor del nombre-del-padre actualmente: algunas consideraciones Reach and value of name-of-the-father nowadays: some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Zétola Lustoza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é discutir o alcance do conceito de Nome-do-Pai atualmente. No primeiro ensino de Lacan tal conceito era considerado o pilar fundamental do diagnóstico, pois sua presença ou ausência eram decisivas para estabelecer a diferença estrutural entre neurose e psicose, porém hoje em dia o Nome-do-Pai vem sofrendo ataques a partir de três vertentes - a teórica, a clínica e a sociológica - gerando no movimento analítico dúvidas quanto a sua validade e colocando em xeque a relevância da distinção estrutural. As três fontes que colocariam o conceito sob suspeita seriam: o último ensino de Lacan, que pluralizou os Nomes-do-Pai; a emergência dos novos sintomas, que desafiam um diagnóstico estrutural preciso; e a decadência das figuras de autoridade no mundo social. O artigo busca responder a algumas dessas críticas, defendendo a importância do conceito de Nome-do-Pai, embora restrinja seu domínio de validade.El objetivo de este artículo es discutir el alcance del concepto de Nombre-del-padre actualmente. En la primera enseñanza de Lacan este concepto era considerado el pilar fundamental del diagnóstico, ya que su presencia o ausencia eran decisivas para establecer la diferencia estructural entre neurosis y psicosis. Sin embargo, hoy en día el Nombre-del-padre ha sufrido ataques desde tres vertientes (teórica, clínica y sociológica, generando en el movimiento analítico dudas en cuanto a su validez y poniendo en jaque la relevancia de la distinción estructural. Las tres fuentes poniendo el concepto bajo sospecha serían: la última enseñanza de Lacan, que pluralizó los nombres-del-padre; la emergencia de los nuevos síntomas, los cuales desafían un diagnóstico estructural preciso; y la decadencia de las figuras de autoridad en el mundo social. El artículo busca contestar a algunas de esas críticas, en defensa de la importancia del concepto de Nombre-de-padre, aunque limitando su dominio de validez

  14. Diferencias regionales y Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (enfermedad emergente y tropical en Argentina Regional differences and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (an emerging and tropical disease in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sosa-Estani

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen algunos factores que habrían favorecido a caracterizar la expresión del Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus en Argentina. Estos factores muestran diversos orígenes que van desde los procesos de ocupación del espacio y de producción, la estructura laboral, el patrón de migración humana, la etnia, la dinámica de reservorios y su relación con los tipos de virus, y el comportamiento del hombre. Estos factores se expresan en tres marcos ecológicos asociados a diferentes regiones geográficas de Argentina: 1 Noroeste, 2 Central (Pampa húmeda y 3 Sur Andina. Este complejo escenario obliga a abordar con la misma complejidad las investigaciones, para identificar determinantes primarios, biológicos, sociales y ambientales, causales de salud o enfermedad en su estrecha interacción y no individualmente. Este abordaje permitirá diseñar estrategias apropiadas para mejorar las condiciones de salud. Las mismas deberían ser diseñadas y transferidas por equipos transdisciplinarios de investigación, donde la participación de la comunidad desde las primeras etapas de desarrollo es esencial para la sustentabilidad de la estrategia.Factors related to the characteristics of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina are described. Factors from different scientific fields converge to form the syndrome's analytical framework. Some of these factors are the history of spatial occupation, work and production structures, human migration patterns, ethnic composition, reservoir dynamics and its relationship to the different circulating viruses, and human behavior. Furthermore, the multiple factors are expressed in three ecological frameworks, associated with three different geographical regions of Argentina: 1 Northwest; 2 Central ("wet Pampa"; and 3 South Andean. In order to understand the actual causality of health or disease as an interaction of many factors, research on the primary biological, social, and environmental determinants of

  15. Degrons at the C terminus of the pathogenic but not the nonpathogenic hantavirus G1 tail direct proteasomal degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Nandini; Sen, Adrish; Mackow, Erich R

    2007-04-01

    Pathogenic hantaviruses cause two human diseases: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). The hantavirus G1 protein contains a long, 142-amino-acid cytoplasmic tail, which in NY-1 virus (NY-1V) is ubiquitinated and proteasomally degraded (E. Geimonen, I. Fernandez, I. N. Gavrilovskaya, and E. R. Mackow, J. Virol. 77: 10760-10768, 2003). Here we report that the G1 cytoplasmic tails of pathogenic Andes (HPS) and Hantaan (HFRS) viruses are also degraded by the proteasome and that, in contrast, the G1 tail of nonpathogenic Prospect Hill virus (PHV) is stable and not proteasomally degraded. We determined that the signals which direct NY-1V G1 tail degradation are present in a hydrophobic region within the C-terminal 30 residues of the protein. In contrast to that of PHV, the NY-1V hydrophobic domain directs the proteasomal degradation of green fluorescent protein and constitutes an autonomous degradation signal, or "degron," within the NY-1V G1 tail. Replacing 4 noncontiguous residues of the NY-1V G1 tail with residues present in the stable PHV G1 tail resulted in a NY-1V G1 tail that was not degraded by the proteasome. In contrast, changing a different but overlapping set of 4 PHV residues to corresponding NY-1V residues directed proteasomal degradation of the PHV G1 tail. The G1 tails of pathogenic, but not nonpathogenic, hantaviruses contain intervening hydrophilic residues within the C-terminal hydrophobic domain, and amino acid substitutions that alter the stability or degradation of NY-1V or PHV G1 tails result from removing or adding intervening hydrophilic residues. Our results identify residues that selectively direct the proteasomal degradation of pathogenic hantavirus G1 tails. Although a role for the proteasomal degradation of the G1 tail in HPS or HFRS is unclear, these findings link G1 tail degradation to viral pathogenesis and suggest that degrons within hantavirus G1 tails are potential virulence determinants.

  16. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS.

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    Sara Konrath

    Full Text Available MAIN OBJECTIVES: The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS. Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies. METHODS: In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250, we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. RESULTS: The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults, intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression, and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior. The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. SIGNIFICANCE: The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  17. SinR controls enterotoxin expression in Bacillus thuringiensis biofilms.

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    Annette Fagerlund

    Full Text Available The entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis produces dense biofilms under various conditions. Here, we report that the transition phase regulators Spo0A, AbrB and SinR control biofilm formation and swimming motility in B. thuringiensis, just as they control biofilm formation and swarming motility in the closely related saprophyte species B. subtilis. However, microarray analysis indicated that in B. thuringiensis, in contrast to B. subtilis, SinR does not control an eps operon involved in exopolysaccharides production, but regulates genes involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopeptide kurstakin. This lipopeptide is required for biofilm formation and was previously shown to be important for survival in the host cadaver (necrotrophism. Microarray analysis also revealed that the SinR regulon contains genes coding for the Hbl enterotoxin. Transcriptional fusion assays, Western blots and hemolysis assays confirmed that SinR controls Hbl expression, together with PlcR, the main virulence regulator in B. thuringiensis. We show that Hbl is expressed in a sustained way in a small subpopulation of the biofilm, whereas almost all the planktonic population transiently expresses Hbl. The gene coding for SinI, an antagonist of SinR, is expressed in the same biofilm subpopulation as hbl, suggesting that hbl transcription heterogeneity is SinI-dependent. B. thuringiensis and B. cereus are enteric bacteria which possibly form biofilms lining the host intestinal epithelium. Toxins produced in biofilms could therefore be delivered directly to the target tissue.

  18. Mapas de riesgo para Hantavirus en el Parque Nacional Conguillío, sur de Chile Hantavirus risk maps for Conguillío National Park, southern Chile

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    ANDRÉS MUÑOZ-PEDREROS

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El riesgo de infección con Hantavirus depende de factores, que determinan una probabilidad de contagio con los reservorios, tales como: (a la estructura vegetacional y el uso del suelo como un escenario primario, donde los factores específicos de composición, estructura y densidad de la vegetación detallan elementos relacionados con el habitat de los reservorios. (b La existencia de poblaciones de roedores reservorio. (c Establecimientos humanos, como disponibilidad y densidad de caminos, áreas habitadas o de presencia humana (e.g., casas, bodegas. Estos tres factores, habitat (probabilidad de ocurrencia del reservorio, roedores seropositivos (peligro de contagio y humanos (población expuesta, conjugados, proporcionan los elementos de juicio necesarios para establecer el riesgo. Es importante considerar que estos factores tienen una dinámica de cambio estacional durante el año y modificaciones ambientales naturales y antrópicas. Así, buscamos comprender el riesgo a que está sometido el ser humano en el espacio rural. Los modelos espaciales corresponden a representaciones de la realidad observada en un área determinada y condicionada a diversos factores geográficos, topográficos, biológicos, climáticos, etc. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer sectores potenciales de riesgo al hantavirus en un parque nacional de la IX Región de Chile empleando cartas temáticas de variables ambientales en un Sistema de Información Geográfica para analizar fotografías aéreas mediante fotointerpretación, transferencia, digitalización y manejo de base de datos gráfica y alfanumérica, validada en terreno. La capa vectorial fue "rasterizada" con un tamaño de pixel de 50 m. El mapa de riesgo se construyó utilizando un modelo aditivo de capas mediante el uso del software Model Builder 1.0, extensión de Arc View 3.2. La base del procedimiento fue el proceso de "overlay" aritmético, que sobrepone las capas adicionando los términos de

  19. SIN-inhibitory phosphatase complex promotes Cdc11p dephosphorylation and propagates SIN asymmetry in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N Sadananda; Shao, Nan; McLean, Janel R; Sevugan, Mayalagu; Ren, Liping; Chew, Ting Gang; Bimbo, Andrea; Sharma, Reetu; Tang, Xie; Gould, Kathleen L; Balasubramanian, Mohan K

    2011-12-06

    Cytokinesis in many eukaryotes involves the function of an actomyosin-based contractile ring. In fission yeast, actomyosin ring maturation and stability require a conserved signaling pathway termed the SIN (septation initiation network). The SIN consists of a GTPase (Spg1p) and three protein kinases, all of which localize to the mitotic spindle pole bodies (SPBs). Two of the SIN kinases, Cdc7p and Sid1p, localize asymmetrically to the newly duplicated SPB in late anaphase. How this asymmetry is achieved is not understood, although it is known that their symmetric localization impairs cytokinesis. Here we characterize a new Forkhead-domain-associated protein, Csc1p, and identify SIN-inhibitory PP2A complex (SIP), which is crucial for the establishment of SIN asymmetry. Csc1p localizes to both SPBs early in mitosis, is lost from the SPB that accumulates Cdc7p, and instead accumulates at the SPB lacking Cdc7p. Csc1p is required for the dephosphorylation of the SIN scaffolding protein Cdc11p and is thereby required for the recruitment of Byr4p, a component of the GTPase-activating subunit for Spg1p, to the SPB. Because Cdc7p does not bind to GDP-Spg1p, we propose that the SIP-mediated Cdc11p dephosphorylation and the resulting recruitment of Byr4p are among the earliest steps in the establishment of SIN asymmetry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. SIN-Inhibitory Phosphatase Complex (SIP) Promotes Cdc11p Dephosphorylation and Propagates SIN Asymmetry in Fission Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N. Sadananda; Shao, Nan; McLean, Janel R.; Sevugan, Mayalagu; Ren, Liping; Chew, Ting Gang; Bimbo, Andrea; Sharma, Reetu; Tang, Xie; Gould, Kathleen L.; Balasubramanian, Mohan K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytokinesis in many eukaryotes involves the function of an actomyosin-based contractile ring. In fission yeast, actomyosin ring maturation and stability require a conserved signaling pathway termed the SIN (septation initiation network). The SIN consists of a GTPase (Spg1p) and three protein kinases, all of which localize to the mitotic spindle pole bodies (SPBs). Two of the SIN kinases, Cdc7p and Sid1p, localize asymmetrically to the newly duplicated SPB in late anaphase. How this asymmetry is achieved is not understood, although it is known that their symmetric localization impairs cytokinesis. Results Here we characterize a new Forkhead-domain-associated protein, Csc1p, and identify SIN-Inhibitory PP2A-complex (SIP), which is crucial for the establishment of SIN asymmetry. Csc1p localizes to both SPBs early in mitosis, is lost from the SPB that accumulates Cdc7p, and instead accumulates at the SPB lacking Cdc7p. Csc1p is required for the dephosphorylation of the SIN scaffolding protein Cdc11p and is thereby required for the recruitment of Byr4p, a component of the GTPase-activating subunit for Spg1p, to the SPB. Conclusions Since Cdc7p does not bind to GDP-Spg1p, we propose that the SIP-mediated Cdc11p-dephosphorylation and the resulting recruitment of Byr4p are amongst the earliest steps in the establishment of SIN asymmetry. PMID:22119525

  1. High-resolution computed tomography findings in eight patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Diego de Lacerda; Hochhegger, Bruno; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares; Zanetti, Glaucia; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Ultra X, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Grupo Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2017-05-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HRCT findings from eight cases of HPS. All patients were men, aged 19-70 (mean, 41.7) years. Diagnoses were established by serological test (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in all patients. Two chest radiologists analyzed the images and reached decisions by consensus. Results: The predominant HRCT findings were ground-glass opacities (GGOs) and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, found in all eight cases; however, the crazy-paving pattern was found in only three cases. Pleural effusion and peribronchovascular thickening were observed in five patients. The abnormalities were bilateral in all patients. Conclusion: The predominant HRCT findings in patients with HPS were GGOs and smooth inter- and intralobular septal thickening, which probably correlate with the histopathologic findings of pulmonary edema. (author)

  2. The role of endothelial activation in dengue hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiropoulou, Christina F; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2013-08-15

    The loss of the endothelium barrier and vascular leakage play a central role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever viruses. This can be caused either directly by the viral infection and damage of the vascular endothelium, or indirectly by a dysregulated immune response resulting in an excessive activation of the endothelium. This article briefly reviews our knowledge of the importance of the disruption of the vascular endothelial barrier in two severe disease syndromes, dengue hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Both viruses cause changes in vascular permeability without damaging the endothelium. Here we focus on our understanding of the virus interaction with the endothelium, the role of the endothelium in the induced pathogenesis, and the possible mechanisms by which each virus causes vascular leakage. Understanding the dynamics between viral infection and the dysregulation of the endothelial cell barrier will help us to define potential therapeutic targets for reducing disease severity.

  3. Drotrecogin Alpha (Activated in Two Patients with the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C McDermid

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS is associated with rapid cardiopulmonary collapse from endothelial injury, resulting in massive capillary leak, shock and severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. To date, treatment remains supportive and includes mechanical ventilation, vasopressors and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, with mortality approaching 50%. Two HCPS survivors initially given drotrecogin alpha (activated (DAA for presumed bacterial septic shock are described. Vasoactive medications were required for a maximum of 52 h, whereas creatinine levels and platelet counts normalized within seven to nine days. Given the similar presentations of HCPS and bacterial septic shock, empirical DAA therapy will likely be initiated before a definitive diagnosis of HCPS is made. Further observations of DAA in HCPS seem warranted.

  4. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome

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    Mariangela Pimentel Pincelli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus é uma doença de conhecimento relativamente recente e freqüentemente fatal, apresentando-se como síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo. No Brasil, desde o primeiro surto, relatado em novembro/dezembro de 1993, em Juquitiba, 226 casos já foram registrados pela Fundação Nacional da Saúde. A doença afeta indivíduos previamente hígidos, apresentando-se com pródromo febril e sintomas semelhantes aos de um resfriado comum, podendo rapidamente evoluir para edema pulmonar, insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque. A hemoconcentração e a plaquetopenia são comuns da síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus, e o quadro radiológico típico é de um infiltrado intersticial bilateral difuso, que progride rapidamente para consolidações alveolares, paralelamente à piora do quadro clínico. A mortalidade inicial era em torno de 75% e declinou para aproximadamente 35%, nos últimos anos. Os pacientes que sobrevivem geralmente recuperam-se completamente, cerca de uma semana após o estabelecimento do quadro respiratório. O agente causal, não reconhecido até há pouco, foi identificado como um hantavírus, cujo reservatório natural são animais roedores da família Muridae, subfamília Sigmodontinae. O tratamento específico antiviral ainda não é bem estabelecido, estando em estudo a eficácia de ribavirina. Cuidados de terapia intensiva como ventilação mecânica e monitoramento hemodinâmico invasivo são necessários nas formas mais graves da doença. Essas medidas, se instituídas precocemente, podem melhorar o prognóstico e a sobrevida dos pacientes com síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por hantavírus.Hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome is a recently identified and often fatal disease, which presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Since the first outbreak, in Nov/Dec 1993, in Juquitiba, Brazil, 226 cases have been registered by

  5. SINS/CNS Nonlinear Integrated Navigation Algorithm for Hypersonic Vehicle

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    Yong-jun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celestial Navigation System (CNS has characteristics of accurate orientation and strong autonomy and has been widely used in Hypersonic Vehicle. Since the CNS location and orientation mainly depend upon the inertial reference that contains errors caused by gyro drifts and other error factors, traditional Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS/CNS positioning algorithm setting the position error between SINS and CNS as measurement is not effective. The model of altitude azimuth, platform error angles, and horizontal position is designed, and the SINS/CNS tightly integrated algorithm is designed, in which CNS altitude azimuth is set as measurement information. GPF (Gaussian particle filter is introduced to solve the problem of nonlinear filtering. The results of simulation show that the precision of SINS/CNS algorithm which reaches 130 m using three stars is improved effectively.

  6. Deregulation of levels of angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 is associated with severe courses of hantavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusshag, Christian; Osberghaus, Anja; Baumann, Alexandra; Schnitzler, Paul; Zeier, Martin; Krautkrämer, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Hantavirus disease is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and its antagonist angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) play a key role in the control of capillary permeability. Ang-1 is responsible for maintenance of cell-to-cell contacts whereas Ang-2 destabilizes monolayers. An imbalance of Ang-1 and Ang-2 levels results in enhanced permeability and capillary leakage. To analyze the involvement of angiopoietins in hantavirus-induced disruption of endothelia, we measured the levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in hantavirus infection. Levels of angiopoietins of 31 patients with acute Puumala virus (PUUV) infection and a patient infected with Dobrava-Belgrade virus genotype Sochi (DOBV-Sochi) were analyzed. An age-matched group of 16 healthy volunteers served as control. The ratios of Ang-2 to Ang-1 levels were calculated and correlated with laboratory parameters. Patients with PUUV and DOBV-Sochi infection exhibited elevated ratios of Ang-2/Ang-1 compared to the control group. The imbalance of Ang-2 to Ang-1 levels was observed early after onset of symptoms and lasted for the acute phase of infection. The deregulation in DOBV-Sochi infection was more prominent than in PUUV infection. Analysis of Ang-2/Ang-1 ratio and laboratory parameters in the PUUV cohort revealed a positive correlation with serum creatinine and a negative correlation with serum albumin and thrombocyte levels. We observed an imbalance between levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in patients infected with PUUV and DOBV-Sochi. Elevated Ang-2/Ang-1 ratios correlate with disease severity. The virus-induced deregulation of angiopoietin levels may enhance capillary permeability and contribute to the pathogenesis of hantavirus disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. La traducción de los nombres propios: estudio del caso de la serie de televisión Juego de Tronos

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    La presencia de los nombres propios en todas las culturas, hace que sean un elemento clave para las traducciones de cualquier obra literaria. En la actualidad, un elevado número de estas obras literarias se adapta a los medios audiovisuales. Esta combinación, junto con el proceso que implica y sus métodos, se convertirá en el objetivo de análisis del presente trabajo. Juego de Tronos es una serie de televisión que ha pasado por este proceso y que contiene un importante número de nombres pr...

  8. KARAKTERISTIK LINGKUNGAN DAN ASPEK SOSIAL DEMOGRAFI DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI HANTAVIRUS DI WILAYAH PELABUHAN TANJUNG PRIOK DAN SUNDA KELAPA, JAKARTA UTARA

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    Kasnodihardjo Kasnodihardjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological study on hantavirus infection diseases in the area of Tanjung Priok and Sunda Kelapa Harbours has been conducted in the year of 1997; Considering a harbour may become a very potential port d'antre of diseases between islands, regions and countries. Hantavirus infection is well known as haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, cause by some species of genus Hantavirus and transmitted to human by air droplet contaminated by urine, saliva or faeces of infected rodents. This is toreport a part of the study which is stress on sociocultural aspects, especially character of demography and community perceptions to hantavirus infection diseases. The data were collected by interviewing using questionaires and field observations. Sample population were household (HH while family members above 13 year of age including head of HH (Kepala Rumah Tangga were chosen as individual respondents and become analitical units. In total the number of samples were 113 HH, consisting 58 HH in Kelurahan Koja and 55 HH in Kelurahan Ancol. The number of individual respondents were 410 people. The results showed that most of respondents work as a labor in the harbours. In general they have low level formal education, mostly only elementary school graduated. The relatively low of their formal education they have might influence their wrong perceptions to any disease. The wrong community perceptions in the two areas mistaken hantavirus infection diseases with typhoid diseases.

  9. Breve historia del cine en el África negra. Cuando el cinc era "africano", pero sólo de nombre.

    OpenAIRE

    Speciale, Alessandra

    1999-01-01

    Speciale, A. (1999). Breve historia del cine en el África negra. Cuando el cinc era "africano", pero sólo de nombre. Nosferatu. Revista de cine. (30):4-19. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/41132. 4 19 30

  10. (disFunción ejecutiva en personas mayores con y sin Alzheimer: Actuación estratégica basada en expectativas

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    Benjamín Sierra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La disfunción ejecutiva (dFE es una alteración mental central en las personas con demencia de Alzheimer (DA. Aquí exploramos su déficit en un aspecto apenas investigado: la actuación estratégica basada en el manejo de expectativas, desarrolladas mediante un uso novedoso de estímulos familiares. Para ello aplicamos a un grupo de adultos jóvenes sanos y a dos de mayores, uno sin y otro con DA, una variante de la tarea Stroop. Según la eficacia con la que procedan a la ejecución estratégica de la tarea, la influencia de esa actuación predominará o no sobre la del procesamiento automático de los nombres, pudiendo generar patrones de resultados cualitativamente diferentes. Encontramos que mientras los jóvenes muestran un patrón Stroop 'inverso' y los mayores con DA el patrón convencional, el comportamiento de los mayores sin DA se sitúa en un punto intermedio. Eso implica que la DA cursa con una pérdida adicional (a la producida por la edad avanzada de capacidad para la actuación estratégica basada en expectativas.

  11. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

    2014-04-01

    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.

  12. The hanta hunting study: underdiagnosis of Puumala hantavirus infections in symptomatic non-travelling leptospirosis-suspected patients in the Netherlands, in 2010 and April to November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeijenbier, M; Hartskeerl, R A; Reimerink, J; Verner-Carlsson, J; Wagenaar, J F; Goris, M G; Martina, B E; Lundkvist, Å; Koopmans, M; Osterhaus, A D; van Gorp, E C; Reusken, C B

    2014-08-14

    Leptospirosis and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) are hard to distinguish clinically since these two important rodent-borne zoonoses share hallmark symptoms such as renal failure and haemorrhage. Leptospirosis is caused by infection with a spirochete while HFRS is the result of an infection with certain hantaviruses. Both diseases are relatively rare in the Netherlands. Increased incidence of HFRS has been observed since 2007 in countries that border the Netherlands. Since a similar rise in incidence has not been registered in the Netherlands, we hypothesise that due to overlapping clinical manifestations, hantavirus infections may be confused with leptospirosis, leading to underdiagnosis. Therefore, we tested a cohort of non-travelling Dutch patients with symptoms compatible with leptospirosis, but with a negative diagnosis, during 2010 and from April to November 2011. Sera were screened with pan-hantavirus IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Sera with IgM reactivity were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). ELISA (IgM positive) and IFA results were confirmed using focus reduction neutralisation tests (FRNTs). We found hantavirus-specific IgG and/or IgM antibodies in 4.3% (11/255) of samples taken in 2010 and in 4.1% (6/146) of the samples during the 2011 period. After FRNT confirmation, seven patients were classed as having acute Puumala virus infections. A review of hantavirus diagnostic requests revealed that at least three of the seven confirmed acute cases as well as seven probable acute cases of hantavirus infection were missed in the Netherlands during the study period.

  13. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens

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    Camilo Guzmán

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5% and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%. Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70% were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4% were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis, six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae, one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus. All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia.

  14. Theoretical uncertainty in sin 2beta: An update

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuchini, Marco; Silvestrini, Luca

    2011-01-01

    The source of theoretical uncertainty in the extraction of sin 2beta from the measurement of the golden channel Bd -> J/psi K0 is briefly reviewed. An updated estimate of this uncertainty based on SU(3) flavour symmetry and the measurement of the decay Bd -> J/psi pi0 is also presented.

  15. Prediction of the electron redundant SinNn fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huihui; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Hongshan

    2018-05-01

    The stabilities and electronic structures of SimAln-mNn and SinNn (n = 16, 20, m = 12 and n = 24, m = 16) fullerene-like cages have been investigated using density functional method B3LYP and the second-order perturbation theory MP2. The results show that the SimAln-mNn and SinNn fullerenes are more stable than the AlN counterparts. Comparing with the corresponding AlnNn cages, one silicon atom in each Si2N2 square protrudes and the excess electrons reside as lone pair electrons at the outside of the protrudent Si atoms. Analyses on the electronic structures suggest that the Sisbnd N bonds are covalent bonding with strong polarity. The ELF (electron localization function) shows large electron pair probability between Si and N atoms. The orbital interactions between Si and N are stronger than that between Al and N atoms; the overlap integral is 0.40 per Sisbnd N bond in SinNn and 0.34 per Alsbnd N bond in AlnNn. The AIM (atoms in molecule) charges on the Al atoms in AlnNn and SimAln-mNn are 2.37 and 2.40. The charges on the in-plane and protrudent Si atoms are about 2.88 and 1.50 respectively. Considering the large local dipole moments around the protrudent Si atoms, the electrostatic interactions are also favorable to the SiN cages.

  16. How the Seven Deadly Sins can Lead to Project Failure

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    Harold Kerzner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than forty years, the project management landscape has seen textbooks, journal articles and presented papers discussing the causes of project failures. Unfortunately, many of the failure analyses seem to look at failure superficially rather than in depth. When trying to discover the root cause of a failure, we usually look first in the contractor’s company for someone to blame rather than in our own company. If that doesn’t work, then we begin climbing the organizational hierarchy in our own company by focusing on the project team, followed by the project manager. Once we find someone to blame, the search seems to end and we feel comfortable that we have discovered the cause of the failure. It is human nature to begin finger-pointing at the bottom of the organizational hierarchy first, rather than at the top. Yet, more often than not, the real cause of failure is the result of actions (or inactions and decisions made at the top of the organizational chart than at the bottom. It is also human nature to make decisions based upon how we are affected by the Seven Deadly Sins, namely: envy, anger, pride, greed, sloth, lust and gluttony. Decisions made based upon the Seven Deadly Sins, whether they are made at the top or bottom of the organization, can have dire consequences on projects. Sometimes the sins are hidden and not easily recognized by ourselves or others. We simply do not see or feel that were are committing a sin. The Seven Deadly Sins affect all of us sooner or later, even though we refuse to admit it. Some of us may be impacted by just one or two of the sins, whereas others may succumb to all seven. What is unfortunate is that the greatest damage can occur on projects when the sins influence the way that senior levels of management must interface with projects, whether as a project sponsor or as a member of a governance group. Bad decisions at the top, especially if based upon emotions rather than practicality, can place the

  17. Cases of Clinically Proven Hantavirus Infection with a Pulmonary Syndrome among Pregnant Women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan

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    Andrey V. An

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: For nearly a decade, a disease likely to have been misdiagnosed was observed in pregnant women in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. It caused the rapid decline and death of patients, with about 45% mortality rate. The disease was suspected to be caused by a virus of the HVP (Hantavirus family, and clinical studies were conducted to ascertain. Methods: As no system for registration of such cases had been maintained, researchers developed a questionnaire with indicators chiefly based on relevant literature. All the women admitted exhibiting the symptoms listed were covered by the study. Results: Among the 16 cases identified from September to December 2008, ten survived; 80% belonged to the indigenous ethnic group; 80% were housewives. Most (90% were between 16 and 34 weeks’ pregnancy, 24.5 weeks on average. Almost all of them experienced labored breathing and abnormally high body temperature. About 75% of the women lived in the vicinity of rodents’ habitats, and about half of them could have been in direct contact with the aerosolized rodent excreta. Conclusions: Researchers believe that those women exposed to the excreta were cases of HPS. In practice, the surgical removal of the fetus proved to be the most efficient treatment. However, the medical community has a growing concern about patients with HPV being misdiagnosed and the related difficulties in diagnosing and treating them.

  18. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Muridae, Sigmodontinae, Oryzomini), the natural reservoir of genotype Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ittig, Raúl E; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Polop, Jaime J; Gardenal, Cristina N

    2008-11-01

    The rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus or long-tailed pygmy rice rat is the reservoir of the aetiological agent of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina and Chile. We characterize 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci which would be useful for studies on microgeographical population structure in the species. Amplification of these loci in 42 individuals from four natural populations revealed four to 21 alleles per locus, and values of observed heterozygosities ranging from 0.371 to 0.896. Cross-species amplifications showed that some of the primers designed may be useful for other species of the genus Oligoryzomys. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Leptospira spp. in Small Mammals from Areas with Low and High Human Hantavirus Incidences in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiegala, Anna; Albrecht, Christoph; Dafalla, Maysaa; Drewes, Stephan; Oltersdorf, Carolin; Turni, Hendrik; Imholt, Christian; Jacob, Jens; Wagner-Wiening, Christiane; Ulrich, Rainer G; Pfeffer, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is caused by Leptospira spp. and is considered the most widespread zoonotic disease worldwide. It mimics nephropathia epidemica in humans, a disease mainly caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV). Small mammals are reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and PUUV. Seewis virus (SWSV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus with unknown pathogenicity. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence for Leptospira spp. and the frequency of Leptospira-hantavirus co-infections in small mammals collected at locations with high and low incidences in humans. In 2012 and 2013, 736 small mammals belonging to seven species (Apodemus flavicollis, Microtus agrestis, Microtus arvalis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus, S. coronatus, and S. minutus) were collected at four high incidence sites (H1-H4) and four low (L1-L4) incidence sites for PUUV infection in humans. Kidney-derived DNA samples were tested for Leptospira spp. by real-time PCR targeting the lipl 32 gene and further analyzed by duplex PCR targeting the flaB and the secY genes. For the detection of Seewis virus, lung-derived DNA was tested via RT-PCR targeting the nucleocapsid gene. Altogether, 42 of the 736 small mammals including 27 of 660 bank voles and 11 of 66 shrews, were positive for Leptospira spp., while Sorex spp. (14.7%) showed significantly higher prevalences compared to bank voles (4.1%). Detected Leptospira spp. were pathogenic species other than L. kirschneri. Significantly more Leptospira-positive bank voles were found at H sites than at L sites. Altogether 22.2% of positive bank voles were infected with PUUV. Double infection of PUUV and Leptospira spp. occurrence in bank voles is 1.86 times (OR = 1.86; 95% CI: 0.72-4.73) more likely than infections with each pathogen separately. Leptospira- positive bank voles are focally positively associated with PUUV infection in bank voles and with human hantavirus cases. It should be considered that shrews may serve as Leptospira spp. reservoirs.

  20. Taxonomic revision of the moss salamander Nototriton barbouri (Schmidt (Caudata: Plethodontidae), with description of two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Josiah H

    2016-11-24

    Moss salamanders (genus Nototriton) are represented in northern Central America by nine putative species: N. barbouri, N. brodiei, N. lignicola, N. limnospectator, N. mime, N. picucha, N. saslaya, N. stuarti, and N. tomamorum. I estimate the phylogenetic relationships for these species based on data from three mitochondrial gene fragments (16S, cytochrome b, and COI), and compare morphological variation among putative taxa. As evidenced here and in previous studies, the taxon N. barbouri is paraphyletic with respect to populations from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in northern Honduras. I restrict this taxon to populations from the Sierra de Sulaco in central Yoro, Honduras, and describe two new species from the Cordillera Nombre de Dios.

  1. ¿Cirugía coronaria sin bomba para todos?

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    José María Melero Tejedor

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En la pasada década importantes desarrollos técnicos han hecho posible que la cirugía coronaria sin circulación extracorpórea se convierta en un procedimiento rutinario y reproducible. Se presenta la evolución de esta técnica en nuestro hospital durante estos 10 años, el protocolo quirúrgico utilizado, los resultados obtenidos y las motivaciones para extender su uso a todos los pacientes. A pesar de las controversias suscitadas, se espera que la cirugía coronaria sin circulación extracorpórea continúe expandiéndose y los futuros cirujanos cardíacos deben estar preparados para ello.

  2. Notes on "bioethics and sin" by Jean-Francois Collange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozby, Dimitri

    2005-08-01

    Placing the notion of sin in the context of a meontic account of evil, and emphasizing the effect of sin on the sinner himself, this commentary exposes the insufficiency of restricting oneself to human efforts at atonement, and of thus underemphasizing the role of Christ. Collange's claim that the teaching of "predestination" is rooted in Paul and that the doctrine of merits and indulgences is rooted in Augustine is criticized, and Luther's "forensic" understanding is linked with Augustine, rather than with Paul. Collange's reduction of the concern for holiness to respect and trust is contrasted with holiness's essential context of loving unification with God. The commentary closes by exposing the unsatisfactory scantiness of Collange's treatment of cloning, health-care economy, and of the evils of life.

  3. Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuhui; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Xiaotian; Wu, Yuelong; Wu, Haibin

    2018-01-01

    We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN) membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ˜3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.

  4. The black Arab as a substitution for sin and guilt

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    Petrović Radmilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The figure of the Black Arab as a form of guilt and sin is a well-established memorial pattern throughout the Mediterranean world, having already existed for more than 3000 years. This text is focused on two different types of interpretation of the Black Stone and its semantic relation with the symbolized figure of Black Arab in the oral traditions of Mediterranean peoples - Jewish religion and Islamic eschatology. The transformation of the signification of the Black Stone was transferred to the Islamic religion in the act of pilgrimage. The Jewish practice of transferring sin and guilt is related with the Iranian-Manichean Ahura Mazda-Ahriman, and the ancient Greek goddess Hecate. All manifestations of the Black Arab left a deep trace on Slavic spiritual life through the Slavic gods Chernobog, Triglav and Toyan and consequently on the deeply rooted conception of all Slavic peoples that the Black Arab was a black demon of death and the underworld.

  5. Parametric excitation of a SiN membrane via piezoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a stoichiometric silicon nitride (SiN membrane-based electromechanical system, in which the spring constant of the mechanical resonator can be dynamically controlled via piezoelectric actuation. The degenerate parametric amplifier is studied in this configuration. We observe the splitting of mechanical mode in the response spectra of a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. In addition, we demonstrate that the quality factor Q of the membrane oscillator can be significantly enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude due to the coherent amplification, reaching an effective Q factor of ∼3 × 108 at room temperature. The nonlinear effect on the parametric amplification is also investigated, as well as the thermomechanical noise squeezing. This system offers the possibility to integrate electrical, optical and mechanical degrees of freedom without compromising the exceptional material properties of SiN membranes, and can be a useful platform for studying cavity optoelectromechanics.

  6. MEMS Based SINS/OD Filter for Land Vehicles’ Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisheng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A constrained low-cost SINS/OD filter aided with magnetometer is proposed in this paper. The filter is designed to provide a land vehicle navigation solution by fusing the measurements of the microelectromechanical systems based inertial measurement unit (MEMS IMU, the magnetometer (MAG, and the velocity measurement from odometer (OD. First, accelerometer and magnetometer integrated algorithm is studied to stabilize the attitude angle. Next, a SINS/OD/MAG integrated navigation system is designed and simulated, using an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF. It is shown that the accuracy of the integrated navigation system will be implemented to some extent. The field-test shows that the azimuth misalignment angle will diminish to less than 1°. Finally, an outliers detection algorithm is studied to estimate the velocity measurement bias of the odometer. The experimental results show the enhancement in restraining observation outliers that improves the precision of the integrated navigation system.

  7. Una leyenda sobre los Bagaudas cristianos en la Alta Edad Media. El nombre Bacauda en la onomástica personal Europea de los siglos VI y VII

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    Juan Carlos SÁNCHEZ LEÓN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Un aspecto importante de la historia de los Bagaudas, hasta ahora no tratado por la historiografía sobre el tenia, es el de su recuerdo en la Edad Media a través del nombre de persona Bacauda, y la relación de este recuerdo con algunas leyendas sobre el carácter cristiano de los Bagaudas que circularon por Europa Occidental entre los siglos V-XI.

  8. En nombre del Padre

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    Carlos Mayolo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Venir de lo escrito, amar una obra como uno fue amado. ¿Quién mejor que su propia hija vea la vida de su propio padre con una memoria como ninguno? Cada momento de su obsesión que es la vida y la obra Literaria de una persona admirada como padre, como familia , como relación tierna, puede ser la más clara apreciación de una persona amada.

  9. A retrospective serologic survey of hantavirus infections in the county of Cássia dos Coqueiros, State of São Paulo, Brazil Inquérito sorológico retrospectivo das infecções por hantavirus no município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Soraya Jabur Badra

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7% samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.INTRODUÇÃO: Infecções graves por hantavírus têm obtido crescente atenção das autoridades da saúde pública da Eurásia e Américas. De 1993 a 2010, o Brasil reportou 1.300 casos de síndrome pulmonar cardiovascular por hantavírus (SPCVH com, aproximadamente, 80 deles no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo com taxa de fatalidade de 48%. O vírus Araraquara é o agente etiológico da SPCVH nessa região. Considerando que nas Am

  10. Publicación válida de 101 nombres de especies y subspecies de los generos Nasa y Aosa (Loasaceae: Cornales

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    Maximilian Weigend

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo publicamos los nombres válidos de 101 taxones asignados como nuevas especies, nuevos subgeneros y nuevas combinaciones en los géneros Nasa y Aosa (Loasaceae: Cornales. Los nombres invalidos fueron publicados en diversos artí- culos en los últimos diez años. Se hace esta publicación como consecuencia de los cambios en el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Botánica adoptados recientemente por el International Botanical Congress (IBC realizado en Viena, 2005. Para cada taxón se provee el nombre válido, protólogo del tipo, diagnosis en latín para las 41 especies o subespecies nuevas, la cita de la publicación original inválida y la cita donde se encuentran los dibujos respectivos. El listado de taxones para Nasa incluye todas las especies actualmente conocidas del género, incluyendo a las especies recientemente publicadas en TAXON.

  11. Sin and bioethics: why a liturgical anthropology is foundational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2005-08-01

    The project of articulating a coherent, canonical, content-full, secular morality-cum-bioethics fails, because it does not acknowledge sin, which is to say, it does not acknowledge the centrality of holiness, which is essential to a non-distorted understanding of human existence and of morality. Secular morality cannot establish a particular moral content, the harmony of the good and the right, or the necessary precedence of morality over prudence, because such is possible only in terms of an ultimate point of reference: God. The necessity of a rightly ordered appreciation of God places centrally the focus on holiness and the avoidance of sin. Because the cardinal relationship of creatures to their Creator is worship, and because the cardinal corporate act of human worship is the Liturgy, morality in general and bioethics in particular can be understood in terms of the conditions necessary, so as worthily to enter into Eucharistic liturgical participation. Morality can be summed up in terms of the requirements of ritual purity. A liturgical anthropology is foundational to an account of the content-full morality and bioethics that should bind humans, since humans are first and foremost creatures obliged to join in rightly ordered worship of their Creator. When humans worship correctly, when they avoid sin and pursue holiness, they participate in restoring created reality.

  12. Misattribution, false recognition and the sins of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L; Dodson, C S

    2001-09-29

    Memory is sometimes a troublemaker. Schacter has classified memory's transgressions into seven fundamental 'sins': transience, absent-mindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias and persistence. This paper focuses on one memory sin, misattribution, that is implicated in false or illusory recognition of episodes that never occurred. We present data from cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies that illuminate aspects of misattribution and false recognition. We first discuss cognitive research examining possible mechanisms of misattribution associated with false recognition. We also consider ways in which false recognition can be reduced or avoided, focusing in particular on the role of distinctive information. We next turn to neuropsychological research concerning patients with amnesia and Alzheimer's disease that reveals conditions under which such patients are less susceptible to false recognition than are healthy controls, thus providing clues about the brain mechanisms that drive false recognition. We then consider neuroimaging studies concerned with the neural correlates of true and false recognition, examining when the two forms of recognition can and cannot be distinguished on the basis of brain activity. Finally, we argue that even though misattribution and other memory sins are annoying and even dangerous, they can also be viewed as by-products of adaptive features of memory.

  13. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Verstraeten, Willem W; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Barrios, José M; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Maes, Piet; Van Ranst, Marc

    2009-01-16

    Nephropathia epidemica (NE), an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034). NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  14. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maes Piet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE, an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034. NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another record NE incidence for 2008. We therefore predict that with the anticipated climate changes due to global warming, NE might become a highly endemic disease in Belgium and surrounding countries.

  15. Landscape and regional environmental analysis of the spatial distribution of hantavirus human cases in Europe

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    Caroline Brigitte Zeimes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Europe, the most prevalent hantavirus, Puumala virus, is transmitted by bank voles and causes nephropathia epidemica in human. The European spatial distribution of nephropathia epidemica is investigated here for the first time with a rich set of environmental variables. Methods: The influence of variables at the landscape and regional level is studied through multilevel logistic regression and further information on their effects across the different European ecoregions is obtained by comparing an overall niche model (boosted regression trees with regressions by ecoregion. Results: The presence of nephropathia epidemica is likely in populated regions with well-connected forests, more intense vegetation activity, low soil water content, mild summers and cold winters. In these regions, landscapes with a higher proportion of built-up areas in forest ecotones and lower minimum temperature in winter are expected to be more at risk. Climate and forest connectivity have a stronger effect at the regional level. If variables are staying at their current values, the models predict that nephropathia epidemica may know intensification but should not spread (although Southern Sweden, the Norwegian coast and the Netherlands should be kept under watch.Conclusions: Models indicate that large-scale modeling can lead to a very high predictive power. At large scale, the effect of one variable on disease may follow three response scenarios: the effect may be the same across the entire study area; the effect can change according to the variable value, and the effect can change depending on local specificities. Each of these scenarios impacts large-scale modeling differently.

  16. MÚSICAS SIN MEMORIA = Musics without memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo Salgado, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    A partir de los planteamientos del filósofo francés Daniel Charles sobre la música y el olvido, reflexionamos en este ensayo sobre la relación entre la memoria y la música. La centralidad del tiempo en este capítulo de la estéticamusical nos conduce desde Aristóteles hasta Pierre Boulez y sin olvidar a Adorno, la posibilidad de una nueva escucha pasa por una nueva relación conla memoria.

  17. MÚSICAS SIN MEMORIA = Musics without memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen PARDO SALGADO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los planteamientos del filósofo francés Daniel Charles sobre la música y el olvido, reflexionamos en este ensayo sobre la relación entre la memoria y la música. La centralidad del tiempo en este capítulo de la estéticamusical nos conduce desde Aristóteles hasta Pierre Boulez y sin olvidar a Adorno, la posibilidad de una nueva escucha pasa por una nueva relación conla memoria.

  18. Epidemiología de las infecciones por arena y hantavirus del Nuevo Mundo

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    Noemí Pini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available En la última década el reconocimiento de un número de brotes o casos aislados de fiebres hemorrágicas virales (FHV ha alertado sobre la amenaza de estas enfermedades como potenciales infecciones emergentes. El concepto de FHV resulta relativamente moderno, si se considera que muchas de las enfermedades que agrupamos bajo este síndrome eran claramente conocidas por el hombre desde muchos siglos atrás (1. Su carácter de infecciones emergentes es, sin duda, verdadero si se tiene en cuenta que su reconocimiento se ha incrementado significativamente. Observadas, sin embargo, desde el ángulo de los agentes que las producen, el concepto de “nuevo” no es tal: los virus causantes de estas enfermedadeses probable que sean más antiguos que nuestra propia especie humana.

  19. Measurement of the cp violation parameter sin 2 beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.F. Kelley

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate of (anti B) d 0 versus B d 0 decays to J/ψK s 0 . In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP violation parameter sin(2β). A total of 198±17 B d 0 /(anti B) d 0 decays were observed in p(anti p) collisions at √s=1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial B flavor (whether B 0 or (anti B) 0 ) is determined by a same-side flavor tagging technique. The analysis results in sin(2β)=1.8±1.1(stat.)±0.3(syst.). This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of studying CP violation in the B 0 -(anti B) 0 system at a hadron collider. By applying the methods used in this analysis, future, higher-statistics experiments should be able to tightly constrain the parameters of the Standard Model

  20. Between morality and repentance: recapturing "sin" for bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2005-08-01

    Distinguishing within "sin" the dimensions of anomia, hamartia, and asthenia makes it possible to analyze in greater detail the contrary manners in which traditional and post-traditional Christianities in this issue of Christian Bioethics endeavor to recapture what was lost when secular bioethics reconstructed the specifically spiritual-context-oriented normative commitments of Christianity in one-dimensionally moral terms. Various post-traditional attempts at securing moral orientation and resources for forgiveness, both of which secular bioethics finds increasingly difficult to provide, are critically reviewed. Their engagement of secular moral concepts and concerns, and even their adoption of an academically philosophical posture and language, is presented as responsible for their failure to adequately preserve what in traditional Christianity would count as prohibited vs. permitted, and advisable vs. non-advisable, or what would allow to resolve "tragic conflicts." The deeper reason for this failure lies in post-traditional Christianity's restricting the Christian life (with its central tension between love and the law) to what can be captured by cognitive categories. As the survey of several traditionally Christian accounts of sin in bioethics makes clear, both moral orientation (along with the resolution of "tragic" conflicts) and the sources of forgiveness are available, once that Christian life is framed in terms of persons' spirit-supported practical involvement in ascesis and liturgy, and once bioethical reflections are situated in the experiential context of such involvement.

  1. Condiciones para la transmision del hantavirus en zona andina de Río negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Talmon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH es una enfermedad de etiología viral que causa en el hombre un cuadro respiratorio grave. En Patagonia, la enfermedad es causada por el virus Andes Sur (AND, transmitido por el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las actividades del hombre que favorecen su exposición a roedores, denominados escenarios de contagio. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a partir de información recolectada en investigaciones de casos ocurridos en Río Negro, mediante Fichas Clínico-Epidemiológicas e informes de evaluación ecológico/ambiental. Se definieron como variables a ser consideradas: edad, sexo, época del año, grado de urbanización, localización geográfica, integración del hombre al hábitat de roedores, fuente probable de exposición, actividad humana y nivel de saneamiento. Se estudiaron 32 casos. La exposición rural se verificó en 18 (56.2% de los casos y 10 (31.3% en paraje rural (grupo de viviendas en zona rural. En relación al ambiente antropogénico 24 (75% resultaron en ambientes modificados por el hombre y 8 (25% en áreas poco modificadas. El sitio de exposición de mayor importancia en El Bolsón fue el interior de edificaciones en 8 de los 18 casos allí registrados (44.5%, mientras que en Bariloche fueron ambientes de exterior con 8/14 (57.1% casos. La actividad de riesgo fue laboral en 23 (71.9% de los casos y recreacional en 7 (28.1%. Determinar los escenarios de contagio a nivel local ha aportado información para aplicar todos los recursos disponibles en materia de prevención y educación sanitaria.

  2. La alternancia posesiva con nombres de partes del cuerpo : un estudio descriptivo del español a partir de datos de corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos Vaamonde, Gael

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo se centra en la descripción de tres construcciones del español que pueden aparecer indistintamente con un mismo verbo, y que constituyen la denominada como Alternancia Posesiva. Se trata de construcciones de carácter transitivo caracterizadas por contemplar una relación de carácter posesivo entre un nombre de parte del cuerpo y su correspondiente poseedor. Concretamente, se analizan las siguientes posibilidades construccionales: a) Construcción de poseedor interno. b) Co...

  3. Arcadi Espada, En nombre de Franco. Los héroes de la embajada de España en el Budapest nazi

    OpenAIRE

    Costantini, Luca

    2014-01-01

    En nombre de Franco è un libro pubblicato nel 2013 dal giornalista, saggista ed opinionista spagnolo Arcadi Espada, per la casa editrice Espasa. Il volume, che nella versione spagnola conta 310 pagine, narra le vicende degli «eroi dell’ambasciata di Spagna nella Budapest nazista». Espada, che scrive per il quotidiano «El Mundo», è autore di testi come Diarios (vincitore del premio Espasa per la saggistica), Contra Catalunya, Raval: del amor a los niños, Notas para una biografía de Josep Pla, ...

  4. Spatial and temporal patterning of bank vole demography and the epidemiology of the Puumala hantavirus in northeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augot, D; Sauvage, F; Boue, F; Bouloy, M; Artois, M; Demerson, J M; Combes, B; Coudrier, D; Zeller, H; Cliquet, F; Pontier, D

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological data from bank voles, Myodes glareolus, naturally infected by the hantavirus Puumala (PUUV) were collected by a capture-mark-recapture protocol from 2000 to 2002 in the French department of Ardennes. Four monitored trapping sites were established in two forests located in two cantons (Flize and Monthermé). We captured 912 bank voles corresponding to 557 different individuals during 8820 trapping nights for an overall trapping success of 10.34%. The average PUUV seroprevalence was 22.4%. Characteristics of the system reported in North European countries are confirmed in France. PUUV seroprevalence and abundance of rodents appeared weakly linked. Adult voles were more frequently antibody-positive, but no difference between sexes was established. Anti-PUUV seropositive voles were captured and high seroprevalence was observed from both forests, without human infection reported in Flize canton during the study. One site among the four exhibited peculiar infection dynamics, where vole weight and infection risk were negatively correlated.

  5. Ongoing spillover of Hantaan and Gou hantaviruses from rodents is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During 1974-2011, 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. In 2011, the incidence of HFRS remained high, with 19.61 cases/100,000 population, despite the onset of vaccination in 1997. During 1974-1998, HFRS cases in Longquan occurred mainly in winter, while in the past decade the peak of HFRS has shifted to the spring. Notably, the concurrent prevalence of rodent-borne hantaviruses in the region was also high. Phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences recovered from rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of Gou virus (GOUV in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV in the stripe field mice, respectively. Strikingly, viral sequences sampled from infected humans were very closely related to those from rodents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HFRS represents an important public health problem in Longquan even after years of preventive measures. Our data suggest that continual spillover of the novel genetic variant of GOUV and the new genetic lineage of HTNV are responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS in humans. In addition, this is the first report of GOUV associated with human HFRS cases, and our data suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.

  6. Melanoma gástrico sin origen primario conocido

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    Gorka Docio Gregorio

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia derivada de los melanocitos, que equivale al 5 % de las neoplasias cutáneas. El 95 % de los melanomas se desarrolla en la piel y menos de 3 % corresponde a melanoma metastásico sin evidencia de tumor primario. En el tracto gastrointestinal, la afectación por melanoma es debido la mayoría de las veces a metástasis. El melanoma primario gastrointestinal está descrito que afecta a la zona anorrectal, seguido de esófago. El melanoma gástrico primario es un tumor excepcional, existen muy pocos casos documentados en la literatura. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con un melanoma en estómago como primera manifestación de la enfermedad y hacemos una revisión del estado actual.

  7. Anisotropic straining of graphene using micropatterned SiN membranes

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    Francesca F. Settembrini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We use micro-Raman spectroscopy to study strain in free-standing graphene monolayers anchored to SiN holes of non-circular geometry. We show that a uniform differential pressure load yields measurable deviations from hydrostatic strain, conventionally observed in radially symmetric microbubbles. A pressure load of 1 bar yields a top hydrostatic strain of ≈ 0.7% and a G± splitting of 10 cm−1 in graphene clamped to elliptical boundaries with axes 40 and 20 μm, in good agreement with the calculated anisotropy Δε ≈ 0.6% and consistently with recent reports on Grüneisen parameters. The implementation of arbitrary strain configurations by designing suitable boundary clamping conditions is discussed.

  8. Sinú River raw water treatment by natural coagulants

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    Johana Paola Rodiño-Arguello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron cinco extractos coagulantes naturales en solución salina de tallosde Hylocereus cf. trigonus (Cactus, exudado gomoso de Albizia saman (Campano, corteza deGuazuma ulmifolia (Guácimo y corteza y semilla de Moringa oleífera (Moringa, en muestrasde agua cruda tomadas del río Sinú, con niveles de turbidez inicial entre 56 y 300 unidadesnefelométricas de turbidez (UNT. Con ensayos de jarras, se determinó las efi cienciasde remoción de turbidez, como una función del porcentaje de actividad coagulante, paradosis aplicadas entre 5 mg/L a 200 mg/L. Aunque el Carbono Orgánico Total (COT es unparámetro importante en la calidad del agua, no se incluyó en este estudio debido a que seha hallado que la turbidez del rio Sinú es de origen sedimentario y su corriente tiene unabaja carga orgánica. Las efi ciencias de remoción variaron de 40% (con turbidez menores a100 UNT hasta 90% (con turbidez inicial mayor a 150 UNT, para dosis óptimas de 10 mg/La 40 mg/L de extractos de tallos de H. cf. trigonus, exudado gomoso de A. saman, y cortezasde G. ulmifolia y de M. oleífera. El extracto de mayor efi ciencia fue el obtenido de la semillade M. oleífera, siendo más efectivo con turbidez mayor a 150 UNT, logrando una actividadcoagulante hasta del 98%.

  9. Reply to Comment Clement et al.: (Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Jameson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We acknowledge Clement and colleagues for their comments [1] on our paper [2]. We agree that many controversies are being discussed by the hantavirus community, particularly surrounding the interpretation of serological results and the designation of new species and strains. Within this setting, we are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the key factual and methodological points raised by Clements et al. [...

  10. Barn owl (Tyto alba predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magrini

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9% and Necromys lasiurus (6.7% being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection.

  11. Barn owl (Tyto alba) predation on small mammals and its role in the control of hantavirus natural reservoirs in a periurban area in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, L; Facure, K G

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to inventory the species of small mammals in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, based on regurgitated pellets of the barn owl and to compare the frequency of rodent species in the diet and in the environment. Since in the region there is a high incidence of hantavirus infection, we also evaluate the importance of the barn owl in the control of rodents that transmit the hantavirus. Data on richness and relative abundance of rodents in the municipality were provided by the Centro de Controle de Zoonoses, from three half-yearly samplings with live traps. In total, 736 food items were found from the analysis of 214 pellets and fragments. Mammals corresponded to 86.0% of food items and were represented by one species of marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis) and seven species of rodents, with Calomys tener (70.9%) and Necromys lasiurus (6.7%) being the most frequent. The proportion of rodent species in barn owl pellets differed from that observed in trap samplings, with Calomys expulsus, C. tener and Oligoryzomys nigripes being consumed more frequently than expected. Although restricted to a single place and based on few individuals, the present study allowed the inventory of eight species of small mammals in Uberlândia. The comparison of the relative frequencies of rodent species in the diet and in the environment indicated selectivity. The second most preyed upon species was N. lasiurus, the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. In this way, the barn owl might play an important role in the control of this rodent in the region, contributing to the avoidance of a higher number of cases of hantavirus infection.

  12. Viviré con su nombre, morirá con el mío de Jorge Semprún: Reconfiguración y síntesis del universo narrativo de Buchenwald (o El Lager explicado al gran público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Raquel Macciuci

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Viviré con su nombre, morirá con el mío de Jorge Semprún, la cuarta y por el momento última novela del ciclo dedicado a narrar la experiencia de deportado en el campo de concentración de Buchenwald, retoma la perspectiva y los motivos principales de los tres libros que la anteceden. Sin embargo, como es propio de la escritura del autor madrileño, las con tinuidades no impiden que cada novela tenga sus rasgos peculiares y reconocibles. En el texto objeto de atención en el presente artículo las señas de identidad descansan sobre dos planos: el primero afecta a la materia del relato y deviene de una visión sumaria que reúne y reorganiza los ejes temáticos precedentes; el segundo se origina en innovaciones diversas en el discurso narrativo que había venido cultivando el autor, híbrido y rebelde al canon de la novela clásica. El resultado es una novela más accesible al gran público y más cercana a las tendencias de la narrativa española actual

  13. Viviré con su nombre, morirá con el mío de Jorge Semprún: Reconfiguración y síntesis del universo narrativo de Buchenwald (o El Lager explicado al gran público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Raquel Macciuci

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Viviré con su nombre, morirá con el mío de Jorge Semprún, la cuarta y por el momento última novela del ciclo dedicado a narrar la experiencia de deportado en el campo de concentración de Buchenwald, retoma la perspectiva y los motivos principales de los tres libros que la anteceden. Sin embargo, como es propio de la escritura del autor madrileño, las con tinuidades no impiden que cada novela tenga sus rasgos peculiares y reconocibles. En el texto objeto de atención en el presente artículo las señas de identidad descansan sobre dos planos: el primero afecta a la materia del relato y deviene de una visión sumaria que reúne y reorganiza los ejes temáticos precedentes; el segundo se origina en innovaciones diversas en el discurso narrativo que había venido cultivando el autor, híbrido y rebelde al canon de la novela clásica. El resultado es una novela más accesible al gran público y más cercana a las tendencias de la narrativa española actual

  14. El origen del nombre América Latina y la tradición católica del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ayala Mora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo está dedicado a rastrear las raíces de la denominación "latina" de nuestra América, a través del uso que dio la Iglesia Católica al término. Se examina desde la fundación del Colegio Pio Latino Americano de Roma, impulsado por el sacerdote chileno José Ignacio Eyzaguirre Portales, en la sexta década del siglo XIX, con el auspicio del papa Pio IX. En primer lugar, se hace una breve relación de la evolución del nombre de "América Latina" para pasar a establecer la situación de la Iglesia y su relación con el Estado. Luego, se estudia el origen específico del uso del nombre, la personalidad de Eyzaguirre Portales, los antecedentes y la fundación del colegio. Se concluye con breves referencias a la trayectoria de esa institución educativa, a su influencia, y a la definición de la "Iglesia Católica Latinoamericana", con sus manifestaciones de más de un siglo, hasta los últimos anos.

  15. Death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) mediated apoptosis in hantavirus infection is counter-balanced by activation of interferon-stimulated nuclear transcription factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F., E-mail: sv.khaiboullina@gmail.com [Whittemore Peterson Institute, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Morzunov, Sergey P. [Department of Pathology and Nevada State Health Laboratory, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Boichuk, Sergei V. [Kazan State Medical University, Kazan (Russian Federation); Palotás, András [Asklepios-Med (private medical practice and research center), Szeged (Hungary); Jeor, Stephen St. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Lombardi, Vincent C. [Whittemore Peterson Institute, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno (United States); Rizvanov, Albert A. [Department of Genetics, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-01

    Hantaviruses are negative strand RNA species that replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm. They also activate numerous cellular responses, but their involvement in nuclear processes is yet to be established. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study investigates the molecular finger-print of nuclear transcription factors during hantavirus infection. The viral-replication-dependent activation of pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was followed by subsequent localization in nuclear bodies (NBs). PML was also found in close proximity to activated Sp100 nuclear antigen and interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein (ISG-20), but co-localization with death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) was not observed. These data demonstrate that hantavirus triggers PML activation and localization in NBs in the absence of DAXX-PLM-NB co-localization. The results suggest that viral infection interferes with DAXX-mediated apoptosis, and expression of interferon-activated Sp100 and ISG-20 proteins may indicate intracellular intrinsic antiviral attempts.

  16. Implementation of Mobile Target Positioning Technology Integrating SINS with WSN Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and robust positioning technology is expected to promote management level and service efficiency in various industrial applications. The strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS approach has short-term accurate positioning performance, but the SINS is known for its accumulative error over time. Meanwhile, wireless sensor networks (WSN approach can keep the mobile target on effective tracking after a long time monitoring, but the WSN may have large positioning error in certain areas. In order to make the positioning method allow profit from their advantages, this paper proposes a positioning technology using SINS approach in conjunction with WSN approach. The measurement parameters by SINS and WSN approaches are used. Then the SINS, anchor nodes, mobile tags, XBee, and computer are applied to design the positioning system. The estimation results indicate that the proposed method can make up for the shortcomings by pure SINS or WSN method and can be available for some accurate and robust applications.

  17. Sins: the Supernova Intensive Study - 87A Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert

    1991-07-01

    Supernovae are stars at the end of stellar evolution. They mark the moment of stellar destruction, act as the key process in the chemical evolution of the universe, serve as agitators and probes of the interstellar medium, and provide sharp and useful tools for cosmological investigations. As SN 1987A demonstrated, the best progress in this field comes from detailed study of the brightest objects. Many central problems of supernova research can be attacked by intensive and extensive observations of a handful of moderately bright supernovae using the HST cameras and spectrographs. SN 1987A provides a unique opportunity to connect the evolution of a supernova with the development of a supernova remnant and will be intensively studied in this program. Because supernovae touch on so many fields of astronomy, the results of this Supernova Intensive Study (SINS) will affect a broad range of areas from stellar interiors to cosmology so a diverse team of investigators has been assembled which includes experts on all these aspects of astronomy. While the first cycle observations concentrate on SN 1987A and on a fresh supernova to be studied at intermediate age, the second and third cycle will include target-of-opportunity observations of freshly-discovered supernovae which will strive for good UV coverage at early phases of the outburst.

  18. Early Christian spiritualties of sin and forgiveness according to 1 John

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    Dirk G. van der Merwe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to investigate the possible lived experiences created by this text. The text revolves around the experience of fellowship with God (1:6, 7 who is characterised as ‘light’. For the author of 1 John, sin disrupts this fellowship. He creates an awareness and a ‘spirituality of sin and guilt’ in the lives of his readers through the use of the experiential metaphor of darkness in a dialectic combination with light and the two false negations ‘do not have sin’ (sin as a noun and ‘do not sin’ (sin as a verb. This fellowship is re-established through living in the light: the confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin. The author creates a spirituality of confession, forgiveness and expiation of sin through descriptive cultic (blood of Jesus and expiation, forensic (paraclete, atypical (cleans, expiation, paraclete and all-inclusive (all [twice], whole, anyone language. Thus, in his rhetoric, the author uses metaphor, dialectic, sacrificial, forensic, atypical and all-inclusive language to facilitate a variety of ‘lived experiences’ within his readers. Firstly, he wants them to feel guilty about their sins and consequently, after they have confessed their sins, to strengthen their faith. Secondly, he wants to encourage them to believe that they can experience the forgiveness of their sins and, by doing so, know that they have eternal life (5:13 and can experience fellowship with God and, mutually, with one another.

  19. Assessing the consistency of John Calvin’s doctrine on human sinfulness

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    Nico Vorster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The accusation is often levelled at Calvin that his doctrine on sin is inconsistent, contradictory, deterministic and culpable of making God the Author of sin. This article probes the validity of these accusations by analysing the consistency of John Calvin’s doctrine on human sinfulness and by asking whether Calvin’s understanding of sinful human nature is theologically valid. In doing so, the investigation keeps in mind the structural make-up of his theology, the rhetorical intent of his utterances and the devices he employs to harmonise possible inconsistencies in his theology. The finding is that characterisations of Calvin’s doctrine on sin as deterministic, logically inconsistent and culpable of making God the Author of sin are not well-founded. Factors often overlooked are the dialectical nature of his theological reflection on sin, the chronological evolution of his thought on sin and the fact that he does not regard God and human beings as operating on the same ontological level, though this does not mean that God is not active in creaturely reality. When these factors are taken into account, Calvin’s doctrine on sin proves to be fairly consistent and reconcilable with the rest of his theology.

  20. Paula Biglieri y Gloria Perelló (eds.), En el Nombre del Pueblo: la emergencia del populismo kirchnerista, UNSAM  Edita, Buenos Aires, 2007, 166 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Valenzuela, Hernán

    2012-01-01

    La reciente reelección de Cristina Fernández en la Argentina con una mayoría abrumadora y las ceremonias y memorial inaugurados en honor del ex- presidente Néstor Kirchner a poco más de un año de su muerte vuelven más necesaria la revisión del origen del kirchnerismo para comprender su relación con la política democrática y el populismo. Por suerte contamos con un buen libro para iniciar esta tarea. Me refiero a En el Nombre del Pueblo, un esfuerzo mancomunado de cinco jóvenes investigadoras....

  1. La importancia del nombre propio en la constitución del sujeto = The importance of own name in the subject constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Martínezez Farrero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo analiza la diferencia conceptual entre el ser humano como “sujeto” y el ser humano como “objeto”, llegando a la conclusión de que el ser humano consigue constituirse como “sujeto” en el diálogo con los demás y consigo mismo, a partir de un significante lingüístico que es su nombre propio.Abstract: This article analyzes the conceptual difference between the human being as a "subject" and the human being as an "object", concluding that human being gets established as "subject" in dialogue with the others and themself, from a linguistic signifier that is his own name.

  2. Development of flameless combustion; Desarrollo de la combustion sin flama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Sauceda, M. Leonardo; Cervantes de Gortari, Jaime Gonzalo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: 8344afc@prodigy.net.mx; jgonzalo@servidor.unam.mx

    2010-11-15

    The paper intends contribute to global warming mitigation joint effort that develops technologies to capture the CO{sub 2} produced by fossil fuels combustion and to reduce emission of other greenhouse gases like the NO{sub x}. After reviewing existing combustion bibliography is pointed out that (a) touches only partial aspects of the collective system composed by Combustion-Heat transfer process-Environment, whose interactions are our primary interest and (b) most specialists think there is not yet a clearly winning technology for CO{sub 2} capture and storage. In this paper the study of combustion is focused as integrated in the aforementioned collective system where application of flameless combustion, using oxidant preheated in heat regenerators and fluent gas recirculation into combustion chamber plus appropriated heat and mass balances, simultaneously results in energy saving and environmental impact reduction. [Spanish] El trabajo pretende contribuir al esfuerzo conjunto de mitigacion del calentamiento global que aporta tecnologias para capturar el CO{sub 2} producido por la combustion de combustibles fosiles y para disminuir la emision de otros gases invernadero como NOx. De revision bibliografica sobre combustion se concluye que (a) trata aspectos parciales del sistema compuesto por combustion-proceso de trasferencia de calor-ambiente, cuyas interacciones son nuestro principal interes (b) la mayoria de especialistas considera no hay todavia una tecnologia claramente superior a las demas para captura y almacenaje de CO{sub 2}. Se estudia la combustion como parte integrante del mencionado sistema conjunto, donde la aplicacion de combustion sin flama, empleando oxidante precalentado mediante regeneradores de calor y recirculacion de gases efluentes ademas de los balances de masa y energia adecuados, permite tener simultaneamente ahorros energeticos e impacto ambiental reducido.

  3. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes). The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV repartition are not

  4. Highly differentiated, resting gn-specific memory CD8+ T cells persist years after infection by andes hantavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Manigold

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In man, infection with South American Andes virus (ANDV causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. HCPS due to ANDV is endemic in Southern Chile and much of Argentina and increasing numbers of cases are reported all over South America. A case-fatality rate of about 36% together with the absence of successful antiviral therapies urge the development of a vaccine. Although T-cell responses were shown to be critically involved in immunity to hantaviruses in mouse models, no data are available on the magnitude, specificity and longevity of ANDV-specific memory T-cell responses in patients. Using sets of overlapping peptides in IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays, we herein show in 78 Chilean convalescent patients that Gn-derived epitopes were immunodominant as compared to those from the N- and Gc-proteins. Furthermore, while the relative contribution of the N-specific response significantly declined over time, Gn-specific responses remained readily detectable ex vivo up to 13 years after the acute infection. Tetramer analysis further showed that up to 16.8% of all circulating CD3(+CD8(+ T cells were specific for the single HLA-B*3501-restricted epitope Gn(465-473 years after the acute infection. Remarkably, Gn(465-473-specific cells readily secreted IFN-gamma, granzyme B and TNF-alpha but not IL-2 upon stimulation and showed a 'revertant' CD45RA(+CD27(-CD28(-CCR7(-CD127(- effector memory phenotype, thereby resembling a phenotype seen in other latent virus infections. Most intriguingly, titers of neutralizing antibodies increased over time in 10/17 individuals months to years after the acute infection and independently of whether they were residents of endemic areas or not. Thus, our data suggest intrinsic, latent antigenic stimulation of Gn-specific T-cells. However, it remains a major task for future studies to proof this hypothesis by determination of viral antigen in convalescent patients. Furthermore, it remains to be seen whether Gn-specific T

  5. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Alexis Ribas; Guivier, Emmanuel; Xuéreb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Cadet, Patrice; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Henttonen, Heikki; Cosson, Jean-François; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2011-02-08

    Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV) in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes). The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus--helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV repartition are not previously identified. Moreover, our

  6. Concomitant influence of helminth infection and landscape on the distribution of Puumala hantavirus in its reservoir, Myodes glareolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henttonen Heikki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puumala virus, the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, is the most prevalent hantavirus in Europe. The risk for human infection seems to be strongly correlated with the prevalence of Puumala virus (PUUV in populations of its reservoir host species, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. In humans, the infection risks of major viral diseases are affected by the presence of helminth infections. We therefore proposed to analyse the influence of both helminth community and landscape on the prevalence of PUUV among bank vole populations in the Ardennes, a PUUV endemic area in France. Results Among the 313 voles analysed, 37 had anti-PUUV antibodies. Twelve gastro-intestinal helminth species were recorded among all voles sampled. We showed that PUUV seroprevalence strongly increased with age or sexual maturity, especially in the northern forests (massif des Ardennes. The helminth community structure significantly differed between this part and the woods or hedgerows of the southern cretes pre-ardennaises. Using PUUV RNA quantification, we identified significant coinfections between PUUV and gastro-intestinal helminths in the northern forests only. More specifically, PUUV infection was positively associated with the presence of Heligmosomum mixtum, and in a lesser extent, Aonchotheca muris-sylvatici. The viral load of PUUV infected individuals tended to be higher in voles coinfected with H. mixtum. It was significantly lower in voles coinfected with A. muris-sylvatici, reflecting the influence of age on these latter infections. Conclusions This is the first study to emphasize hantavirus - helminth coinfections in natural populations. It also highlights the importance to consider landscape when searching for such associations. We have shown that landscape characteristics strongly influence helminth community structure as well as PUUV distribution. False associations might therefore be evidenced if geographic patterns of helminths or PUUV

  7. preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  8. Measurement of sin2θw and ϱ in deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutens, P. G.; Merritt, F. S.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Messner, R. L.; Novikoff, D. B.; Purohit, M. V.; Blair, R. E.; Sciulli, F. J.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Fisk, H. E.; Fukushima, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Kondo, T.; Rapidis, P. A.; Yovanovitch, D. D.; Bodek, A.; Coleman, R. N.; Marsh, W. L.; Fackler, O. D.; Jenkins, K. A.

    1985-03-01

    We describe a high statistics measurement from deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering of the electroweak parameters ϱ and sin2θw, performed in the Fermilab narrow-band neutrino beam. Our measurement uses a radius-dependent cut in y = EH/Ev which reduces the systematic error in sin2θw, and incorporates electromagnetic and electroweak radiative corrections. In a renormalization scheme where sin2θw ≡ 1-m2W/m2Z, a value of sin2θw = 0.242+/-0.011+/-0.005 is obtained fixing ϱ = 1. If both sin2θw and ϱ are allowed to vary in a fit to our data, we measure ϱ = 0.991 +/- 0.025 +/- 0.009. Present address: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA.

  9. The seven sins of memory. Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacter, D L

    1999-03-01

    Though often reliable, human memory is also fallible. This article examines how and why memory can get us into trouble. It is suggested that memory's misdeeds can be classified into 7 basic "sins": transience, absentmindedness, blocking, misattribution, suggestibility, bias, and persistence. The first three sins involve different types of forgetting, the next three refer to different types of distortions, and the final sin concerns intrusive recollections that are difficult to forget. Evidence is reviewed concerning each of the 7 sins from relevant sectors of psychology (cognitive, social, and clinical) and from cognitive neuroscience studies that include patients with focal brain damage or make use of recently developed neuroimaging techniques. Although the 7 sins may appear to reflect flaws in system design, it is argued instead that they are by-products of otherwise adaptive features of memory.

  10. QUE LA DICHA HERIDA SE LA DIO DE BUENA, SIN QUE INTERVINIESE TRAICIÓN ALGUNA...: EL ORDENAMIENTO DEL ESPACIO FRONTERIZO MAPUCHE, 1726-1760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO LEÓN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nadie reconocía en él patria ni bandera. Cuando llegaba a los pagos de Quirihue, Rere, San Pedro, Tinguiririca, Puchacay o Maule, los inquilinos y mayordomos de las haciendas rehuían de su compañía porque leían en las cicatrices de su rostro, en los tatuajes de su cuerpo o en su hablar tosco y extraño, al hombre que vivía recorriendo caminos, huyendo de su propio nombre y de la justicia. Procreado en la violencia de un momento que nadie recordaba, su vida se inició en el mundo de los miserables, recogiendo las migajas con sabor a vino y cebolla, a charqui y queso añejo, para luego cazar furtivamente corderos, cabras y gallinas que degollaba con inusual calma para alimentar a su madre y a sus hermanastros; su juventud pasó entre muchas pendencias, grillos, cadenas, cepos y amores, aventuras y malones, para convertirse en hombre el día aciago en que por primera vez limpió de la hoja de su cuchillo la sangre de otro ser humano. Siempre llegaba y se iba en silencio, sin más nombre que sus apodos, que hablaban de otras muertes y de otras tierras, de asaltos, cuatrerismo y picardías; muchos se medían contra su sombra, otros se afanaban por ser sus conocidos y muy pocos podían llamarle amigo; bebedor incansable de aguardiente durante la vendimia y cantor alegre en las pulperías de extramuros, era un jugador empedernido de dados y naipes, de rayuelas y carreras ‘a la chilena’. Transitaba como sombra por fuertes, pagos y villas, puestos y vados, dejando tras de sí la extraña sensación de nunca haber pisado esa tierra. Sus historias en las noches lluviosas eran interminables, atrayendo sobre sí el halo de los hombres solitarios y andariegos que deslumbraban a las mujeres y niños, y que ejercían una fatal envidia entre los huasos e inquilinos. En su vida se entrecruzaban corregidores, comandantes y cabos de fuertes con la misma abundancia que lonkos, machis y caciques; hablaba con facilidad las dos lenguas, preparaba pócimas de

  11. Environmental change and disease dynamics: effects of intensive forest management on Puumala hantavirus infection in boreal bank vole populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutilainen, Liina; Savola, Sakeri; Kallio, Eva Riikka; Laakkonen, Juha; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Intensive management of Fennoscandian forests has led to a mosaic of woodlands in different stages of maturity. The main rodent host of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), a species that can be found in all woodlands and especially mature forests. We investigated the influence of forest age structure on PUUV infection dynamics in bank voles. Over four years, we trapped small mammals twice a year in a forest network of different succession stages in Northern Finland. Our study sites represented four forest age classes from young (4 to 30 years) to mature (over 100 years) forests. We show that PUUV-infected bank voles occurred commonly in all forest age classes, but peaked in mature forests. The probability of an individual bank vole to be PUUV infected was positively related to concurrent host population density. However, when population density was controlled for, a relatively higher infection rate was observed in voles trapped in younger forests. Furthermore, we found evidence of a "dilution effect" in that the infection probability was negatively associated with the simultaneous density of other small mammals during the breeding season. Our results suggest that younger forests created by intensive management can reduce hantaviral load in the environment, but PUUV is common in woodlands of all ages. As such, the Fennoscandian forest landscape represents a significant reservoir and source of hantaviral infection in humans.

  12. Environmental change and disease dynamics: effects of intensive forest management on Puumala hantavirus infection in boreal bank vole populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Voutilainen

    Full Text Available Intensive management of Fennoscandian forests has led to a mosaic of woodlands in different stages of maturity. The main rodent host of the zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus, a species that can be found in all woodlands and especially mature forests. We investigated the influence of forest age structure on PUUV infection dynamics in bank voles. Over four years, we trapped small mammals twice a year in a forest network of different succession stages in Northern Finland. Our study sites represented four forest age classes from young (4 to 30 years to mature (over 100 years forests. We show that PUUV-infected bank voles occurred commonly in all forest age classes, but peaked in mature forests. The probability of an individual bank vole to be PUUV infected was positively related to concurrent host population density. However, when population density was controlled for, a relatively higher infection rate was observed in voles trapped in younger forests. Furthermore, we found evidence of a "dilution effect" in that the infection probability was negatively associated with the simultaneous density of other small mammals during the breeding season. Our results suggest that younger forests created by intensive management can reduce hantaviral load in the environment, but PUUV is common in woodlands of all ages. As such, the Fennoscandian forest landscape represents a significant reservoir and source of hantaviral infection in humans.

  13. Prone Position Ventilation Used during a Transfer as a Bridge to Ecmo Therapy in Hantavirus-Induced Severe Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

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    R. Cornejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transport of critically ill patients is a complex issue. We present a case using prone positioning as a bridge to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, performed by a critical retrieval team from a university hospital. Case Report. A 28-year-old male developed fever, progressive respiratory failure, and shock. He was admitted to ICU from a public hospital, and mechanical ventilation was begun, but clinical response was not adequate. ECMO was deemed necessary due to severe respiratory failure and severe shock. A critical retrieval team of our center was assembled to attempt transfer. Prone positioning was employed to stabilize and transfer the patient, after risk-benefit assessment. Once in our hospital, ECMO was useful to resolve shock and pulmonary edema secondary to Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Finally, he was discharged with normal functioning. Conclusion. This case exemplifies the relevance of a retrieval team and bridge therapy. Prone positioning improves oxygenation and is safe to perform as transport if performed by a trained team as in this case. Preparation and organization is necessary to improve outcomes, using teams and organized networks. Catastrophic respiratory failure and shock should not be contraindications to transferring patients, but it must be done with an experienced team.

  14. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  15. La modernidad sin centro Pintores griegos de la primera mitad del siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Belmonte, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    En el campo de la pintura, desde principios del siglo XX hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en un contexto de crisis social, económica y política, se llevó a cabo una intensa experimentación y se conformaron diversas corrientes artísticas que crearon nuevos lenguajes expresivos. En Grecia, país alejado de los grandes centros culturales y los grandes nombres, hubo pintores que tuvieron entonces un papel de suma importancia en la asimilación de las novedades artísticas y en su reinterpretación a ...

  16. Knowledge and practices about hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a cluster of Japanese communities in Argentina Conocimientos y prácticas relacionados con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en un conglomerado de comunidades japonesas en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniaki Suzuki

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To provide information on hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS knowledge and practices among a cluster of the rural Japanese communities near La Plata in central Ar gentina, an area with confirmed HPS cases. Particular emphasis was placed on testing the hy pothesis that there would be differences between household use of HPS prevention measures based on the head-of-household's knowledge of HPS. METHODS: A questionnaire was designed in three sections: (1 household demographic char acteristics, (2 HPS knowledge, and (3 HPS preventive measures. Questionnaires were given to the household head or other adult representing the household at an HPS prevention semi nar sponsored by the Japanese Association of La Plata in February 2007. Total HPS knowl edge scores were dichotomized into high (equal to or more than the median knowledge score and low (less than the median. Differences between the two household groups were catego rized, according to the degree of HPS knowledge, and analyzed. RESULTS: The 86 households that responded accounted for about 72% of the total study households in the area. The median knowledge score of 5 (range: 0-9, of 10 divided the study households into two groups: high knowledge score group (n = 40 and low knowledge score group (n = 46. The findings suggest an association between a household's accurate HPS knowledge and its respective use of HPS preventive measures. CONCLUSION: The findings of the study have important implications for taking further steps toward improved HPS management and prevention strategies.OBJETIVOS: Documentar los conocimientos y las prácticas relacionadas con el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH en un conglomerado de comunidades rurales japonesas cerca de La Plata, en la parte central de Argentina, una zona con casos confirmados de SPH. Se hizo hincapié especial en probar la hipótesis de que habría diferencias en el empleo de medidas preventivas contra el SPH en los hogares según el

  17. Réduction du nombre de puits par l'utilisation de forages horizontaux Reducing the Number of Wells by Using Horizontal Drilling

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    Giger F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'un des intérêts du forage horizontal est le gain de productivité sur chaque puits. L'objet de cet article est de proposer des éléments d'analyse, comme la productivité surfacique, destinés à aider l'instance responsable du développement d'un champ confrontée au choix économique entre un schéma classique par puits verticaux et un autre schéma intégrant des puits d'un autre type, et notamment des drains horizontaux. Des méthodes de résolution approchées d'emploi simple sont proposées pour évaluer le nombre de puits verticaux que peut remplacer un drain ho-rizontal. One of the advantages of horizontal drilling is the increase in productivity of each well. The aim of this article is to propose bases for making an analysis, such as areal productivity, so as to help the decision-maker responsible for the development of a field when confronted with an economic choice between a conventional system using vertical wells and an alternative system including other types of wells, and in particular horizontal wells. Simple and approximate solutions are proposed for evaluating the number of vertical wells that can be replaced by a horizontal wells.

  18. Comercialización, prescripción y dispensación de medicamentos con nombres genéricos en Cuba: un enfoque regulador

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    Celeste Aurora Sánchez González

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una caracterización de los nombres de las especialidades farmacéuticas aprobadas en Cuba desde 1959 al 2001 y se evaluó el empleo de las Denominaciones Comunes Internacionales y genéricos como herramientas de apoyo a la prescripción y dispensación que favorecen su uso racional. Se definieron y se mostraron en el tiempo las disposiciones de la reglamentación farmacéutica nacional al respecto. Se concluyó el amplio uso de esta nomenclatura en los medicamentos producidos por la industria farmacéutica nacional y la activa regulación sanitaria en los últimos años, en concordancia con las recomendaciones de la OMS.A characterization of the names of the pharmaceutical specialties approved in Cuba from 1959 to 2001 was performed and the use of the International Nonproprietary Names as tools supporting drug prescription and dispensation and their rational use was evaluated . Provisions of the national pharmaceutical regulations about this subject were defined and shown in the course of time. It was concluded that in the last few years the use of this nomenclature in drugs manufactured by the Cuban Pharmaceutical Industry was extensive and that the implementation of sanitary regulation was very active in compliance with WHO recommendations.

  19. A Precision Measurement of sin$^{2}\\theta$$_{w}$ from Semileptonic Neutrino Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Wotschack, Jorg

    1987-01-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring the electroweak mixing parameter sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, of the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg theory $^{1}$ as precisely as possible: first, its value may be predicted by models of Grand Unification;$^{2}$ second, precise measurements of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ from different processes would test the validity of electroweak radiative corrections. $^{3,$}$. Different methods have been used to determine sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$, over a large range of $Q^{2}$ values. FIGURE 1 gives a compilation of sin$^{2}\\Theta$$_{w}$ with remarkable agreement between the results. At present, it is most precisely determined in semileptonic neutrino-nucleon scattering from the ratio of neutral current (NC) to charged current (CC) cross and in proton-antiproton collisions from the W boson mass. $^{10,11}$.

  20. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition. PMID:24574891

  1. Online calibration technique for LDV in SINS/LDV integrated navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Gao, Chunfeng; Wei, Guo; Long, Xingwu

    2017-05-01

    There are the scale factor error of LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) and the misalignment between the SINS (Strapdown inertial navigation system) and the vehicle in a SINS/LDV integrated navigation system. In this paper, the effects of these errors on the attitude, velocity and position of dead reckoning are derived, and a new online calibration method aiming to calibrate the scale factor of LDV and the misalignment between the SINS and the vehicle for the integrated system is put forward. This method, which is utilize the velocity and position of the Global Position System (GPS) as references, use the velocity error and position error of dead reckoning to estimate these errors. Through simulation and experiment, the validity and feasibility of the method are verified. The results show that the scale factor and the misalignment can be calibrated with satisfying accuracy, and the related research can provide technical support for high precision navigation of SINS/LDV integrated navigation systems.

  2. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  3. An amino-terminal segment of hantavirus nucleocapsid protein presented on hepatitis B virus core particles induces a strong and highly cross-reactive antibody response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldmacher, Astrid; Skrastina, Dace; Petrovskis, Ivars; Borisova, Galina; Berriman, John A.; Roseman, Alan M.; Crowther, R. Anthony; Fischer, Jan; Musema, Shamil; Gelderblom, Hans R.; Lundkvist, Aake; Renhofa, Regina; Ose, Velta; Krueger, Detlev H.; Pumpens, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) core particles tolerate the insertion of the amino-terminal 120 amino acids (aa) of the Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein. Here, we demonstrate that the insertion of 120 amino-terminal aa of N proteins from highly virulent Dobrava and Hantaan hantaviruses allows the formation of chimeric core particles. These particles expose the inserted foreign protein segments, at least in part, on their surface. Analysis by electron cryomicroscopy of chimeric particles harbouring the Puumala virus (PUUV) N segment revealed 90% T = 3 and 10% T = 4 shells. A map computed from T = 3 shells shows additional density splaying out from the tips of the spikes producing the effect of an extra shell of density at an outer radius compared with wild-type shells. The inserted Puumala virus N protein segment is flexibly linked to the core spikes and only partially icosahedrally ordered. Immunisation of mice of two different haplotypes (BALB/c and C57BL/6) with chimeric core particles induces a high-titered and highly cross-reactive N-specific antibody response in both mice strains

  4. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Andreo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS caused by Andes virus (ANDV in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average, but dry summers (less than 100 mm, very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C, as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa, where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina.

  5. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924

  6. Den danske magtelite bør dæmpe sin begejstring over Macron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellersgaard, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Eliten. Den franske præsident, der caster sig selv som en politisk fornyer, er præget af elitære institutioner og netværk gennem hele sin karriere.......Eliten. Den franske præsident, der caster sig selv som en politisk fornyer, er præget af elitære institutioner og netværk gennem hele sin karriere....

  7. Sin(x)**2 + cos(x)**2 = 1. [programming identities using comparative combinatorial substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to achieve tasteful automatic employment of the identities sin sq x + cos sq x = 1 and cos sq h x -sin sq h x = 1 in a manner which truly minimizes the complexity of the resulting expression are described. The disappointments of trigonometric reduction, trigonometric expansion, pattern matching, Poisson series, and Demoivre's theorem are related. The advantages of using the method of comparative combinatorial substitutions are illustrated.

  8. AUV Positioning Method Based on Tightly Coupled SINS/LBL for Underwater Acoustic Multipath Propagation

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    Tao Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System/LBL (Long Base Line tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range. Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL.

  9. A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Death and Sin in the Works of St. Augustine

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    Ghasem kakaie

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Death has been an everlasting human question. It has been regarded as one of the existential and human epistemic concerns both in religions and various philosophical and theological schools. The question of death in the works of Saint Augustine has been largely dismissed by scholars. Scrutinizing his oeuvre indicates that compared to his predecessors and based on his approach to Christianity, specifically to St. Paul’s doctrines, Augustine is more attentive to the relation between death and sin. In his works, he justifies death based on the original sin as well as those everyday sins that committed by human being throughout her life, identifying sin as the cause of death. Accordingly, he prefers moral causes rather than natural causes resulting in death. Augustine contends that there are three types of death, i.e. corporeal death (the separation of soul and body, spiritual death (separation of human being and God due to sin, and the eternal death (in which soul remains in body, bearing the burden of eternal corporeal punishment away from God. He believes that God created a human being in a way according to which she would have benefited from eternal life if she had not sinned. However, now not only corporeal death but also the eternal death of soul are the consequences of sins. He opines that all human race, Except Jesus and his mother are the heirs of the original sin committed by Adam and Eve. In this way, every human being is born sinful, contaminated by the original. According to this viewpoint, the human race cannot be perceived as naturally innocent or away from intellectual mistake and deviation. Rather, human being and her thoughts and deeds can be understood only based on the doctrine of fall. In addition, the Adam’s original sin in not merely an event but it is a complicated circumstance imposed by God as a punishment of Adam and Eve due to their disobedience which is followed by different types of death as well as such

  10. Serologic survey of hantavirus in a rural population from the northern State of Mato Grosso, Brazil Pesquisa sorológica para hantavírus em uma população rural do norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Ioni Oliveira Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hantavirus is a genus of ribonucleic acid (RNA viruses included in the family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne zoonoses that, in the last 18 years, became an emergent public health problem in the Americas, causing a severe cardiopulmonary syndrome. This disease has no specific treatment and has a high case fatality. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by inhaling aerosols of rodent excreta. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies to hantavirus in the population of the rural settlement of Tupã in the county of Marcelândia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. METHODS: The participants of the serologic survey were visited at their homes and selected randomly among the settlement population. Blood samples of the participants were collected by venopuncture. The serum samples were tested by an IgG-ELISA using an N recombinant protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen, using the protocol previously established by Figueiredo et al. RESULTS: IgG antibodies to hantavirus were detected in 7 (13% of the 54 participants. The positivity was higher among men. It was observed that there was an association of seropositivity to hantavirus within the participants born in the south of Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, in this rural area, everyone is exposed to the same risk of becoming infected with hantavirus, and, therefore, there is a need to intensify surveillance activities and education of the local people to prevent this viral infection.INTRODUÇÃO: Hantavirus é um gênero de vírus RNA incluído na família Bunyaviridae. Hantaviroses são zoonoses transmitidas por roedores que nos últimos 18 anos tornou-se um problema emergente da saúde pública nas Américas causando uma síndrome cardiopulmonar. Esta doença não tem nenhum tratamento específico e apresenta alta letalidade. A transmissão do hantavirus ao homem ocorre pela inalação de aerossóis dos excrementos de roedores. O

  11. Los nombres de las redes en las «Ordenanzas de los cordoneros» (Sevilla, 24 de octubre de 1482

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    García Cornejo, Rosalía

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns names of nets on the «Ordenanzas de los cordoneros» (1482 of Seville. The author's aim is to compare this short hand-written text with the printed Recopilacion de las Ordenanças of Seville (1527, the Ordenanças (1632 and the manuscript of the Ordenanzas of Malaga ([1556] 1989. These texts are analyzed in order to fix the form of the words, establish their etymology and trace their history in the development of Spanish. The author also offers some brief notes about other romance languages as aids to the understanding of the form of the words and their meaning.

    Este estudio versa sobre los nombres de las redes en las «Ordenanzas de los cordoneros» (1482 de Sevilla. El objetivo capital es comparar este breve texto manuscrito con los correspondientes, ya impresos, de la Recopilación de las Ordenanças de Sevilla (1527, de la Ordenanças (1632 y del manuscrito de las Ordenanzas de Málaga ([1556] 1989. El análisis tiene por objeto fijar la forma de las palabras, establecer su etimología y realizar un recorrido a través de su historia en la lengua española. En algunos casos, ofrecemos breves notas sobre otras lenguas romances, que son esenciales para comprender no sólo la forma de las palabras sino también su significado.

  12. Nuevo nombre para antiguos conceptos

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    Alexandra Ayala Marín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El periodismo cívico, público o comunitario son tres denominaciones para un mismo fenómeno surgido en los E.U. y que va difundiéndose por América Latina, precisamente donde su esencia (el protagonismo y la participación real del perceptor en los procesos comunicacionales surgió y se desarrolló hace décadas. La autora al entrevistar a Carlos Alvares Teijeiro, uno de los estudiosos del tema, ofrece algunos aspectos de esta (nueva? práctica periodística que tiene que ver con la democracia

  13. La Lista de nombres vulgares y botánicos de árboles y arbustos propicios para repoblar los bosques de la República de Fernando Altamirano y José Ramírez a más de 110 años de su publicación The List of common and botanical names of trees and shrubs suitable for restoration of the woods of the Republic by Fernando Altamirano and José Ramírez, more than 110 years after its publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Hilda Flores Olvera

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dado el valor histórico y práctico de la lista de árboles y arbustos para repoblar los bosques de la República Mexicana que Altamirano y Ramírez publicaron hace 111 años y de la inaccesibilidad para consultarla, se elaboró una lista con los nombres científicos corregidos y/o los sinónimos actualizados, en su caso, para facilitar la consulta. Se proponen las posibles especies a las que Altamirano y Ramírez se refirieron, y para las que sólo indicaron nombre vulgar y género. Se anota si las especies son nativas o introducidas, su uso en el presente y los métodos de propagación. Se analiza y discute la lista a la luz de los enfoques actuales de restauración. El documento original consta de 281 nombres vulgares que representan 259 especies de 72 familias; 231 especies son angiospermas y 28 gimnospermas. La mayoría de los géneros tienen una sola especie y tan solo nueve, más de cuatro: Pinus con 19, Quercus con 11, Cordia y Tabebuia con cinco, Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus y Yucca con cuatro. Se reproduce la carátula y la última página de la edición de l894.Because of the importance of the list of plant species for repopulating the forests of the Mexican Republic, first published by Altamirano and Ramírez 111 years ago, and the difficulty to access it, a list is presented considering current trends in ecological restoration, and corrected scientific names were added to facilitate its use. To improve the utility of the list some information such like if the species are native or introduced, their uses and propagation methods is provided. The authors provide 281 common names that represent 259 species of 72 families of which 231 species are angiosperms and 28 gymnosperms. Most of the genera are represented by one species and only nine genera are represented by four or more species: Pinus (19 species, Quercus (11 species, Cordia and Tabebuia (5 species each and Annona, Bursera, Caesalpinia, Juniperus and Yucca (4 species

  14. A Novel Grid SINS/DVL Integrated Navigation Algorithm for Marine Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yingyao; Zhao, Lin; Cheng, Jianhua; Wu, Mouyan; Fan, Xiaoliang

    2018-01-26

    Integrated navigation algorithms under the grid frame have been proposed based on the Kalman filter (KF) to solve the problem of navigation in some special regions. However, in the existing study of grid strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/Doppler velocity log (DVL) integrated navigation algorithms, the Earth models of the filter dynamic model and the SINS mechanization are not unified. Besides, traditional integrated systems with the KF based correction scheme are susceptible to measurement errors, which would decrease the accuracy and robustness of the system. In this paper, an adaptive robust Kalman filter (ARKF) based hybrid-correction grid SINS/DVL integrated navigation algorithm is designed with the unified reference ellipsoid Earth model to improve the navigation accuracy in middle-high latitude regions for marine application. Firstly, to unify the Earth models, the mechanization of grid SINS is introduced and the error equations are derived based on the same reference ellipsoid Earth model. Then, a more accurate grid SINS/DVL filter model is designed according to the new error equations. Finally, a hybrid-correction scheme based on the ARKF is proposed to resist the effect of measurement errors. Simulation and experiment results show that, compared with the traditional algorithms, the proposed navigation algorithm can effectively improve the navigation performance in middle-high latitude regions by the unified Earth models and the ARKF based hybrid-correction scheme.

  15. Fuzzy adaptive integration scheme for low-cost SINS/GPS navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourmohammadi, Hossein; Keighobadi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Due to weak stand-alone accuracy as well as poor run-to-run stability of micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS)-based inertial sensors, special approaches are required to integrate low-cost strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) with global positioning system (GPS), particularly in long-term applications. This paper aims to enhance long-term performance of conventional SINS/GPS navigation systems using a fuzzy adaptive integration scheme. The main concept behind the proposed adaptive integration is the good performance of attitude-heading reference system (AHRS) in low-accelerated motions and its degradation in maneuvered or accelerated motions. Depending on vehicle maneuvers, gravity-based attitude angles can be intelligently utilized to improve orientation estimation in the SINS. Knowledge-based fuzzy inference system is developed for decision-making between the AHRS and the SINS according to vehicle maneuvering conditions. Inertial measurements are the main input data of the fuzzy system to determine the maneuvering level during the vehicle motions. Accordingly, appropriate weighting coefficients are produced to combine the SINS/GPS and the AHRS, efficiently. The assessment of the proposed integrated navigation system is conducted via real data in airborne tests.

  16. Infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by ANDES Hantavirus enhances pro-inflammatory state, the secretion of active MMP-9 and indirectly enhances endothelial permeability

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    Lopez-Lastra Marcelo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Andes virus (ANDV, a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9 that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC. Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs

  17. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

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    Nicole Haese

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000. Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50. Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8, or no-treatment (n=8, developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral

  18. Spatial prediction and validation of zoonotic hazard through micro-habitat properties: where does Puumala hantavirus hole - up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Magnusson, Magnus; Evander, Magnus; Hörnfeldt, Birger; Ecke, Frauke

    2017-07-26

    To predict the risk of infectious diseases originating in wildlife, it is important to identify habitats that allow the co-occurrence of pathogens and their hosts. Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is a directly-transmitted RNA virus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans, and is carried and transmitted by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In northern Sweden, bank voles undergo 3-4 year population cycles, during which their spatial distribution varies greatly. We used boosted regression trees; a technique inspired by machine learning, on a 10 - year time-series (fall 2003-2013) to develop a spatial predictive model assessing seasonal PUUV hazard using micro-habitat variables in a landscape heavily modified by forestry. We validated the models in an independent study area approx. 200 km away by predicting seasonal presence of infected bank voles in a five-year-period (2007-2010 and 2015). The distribution of PUUV-infected voles varied seasonally and inter-annually. In spring, micro-habitat variables related to cover and food availability in forests predicted both bank vole and infected bank vole presence. In fall, the presence of PUUV-infected voles was generally restricted to spruce forests where cover was abundant, despite the broad landscape distribution of bank voles in general. We hypothesize that the discrepancy in distribution between infected and uninfected hosts in fall, was related to higher survival of PUUV and/or PUUV-infected voles in the environment, especially where cover is plentiful. Moist and mesic old spruce forests, with abundant cover such as large holes and bilberry shrubs, also providing food, were most likely to harbor infected bank voles. The models developed using long-term and spatially extensive data can be extrapolated to other areas in northern Fennoscandia. To predict the hazard of directly transmitted zoonoses in areas with unknown risk status, models based on micro-habitat variables and developed through machine learning techniques in

  19. [Comparison of direct immune-fluorescent assay and real-time quantitative PCR in detecting the Hantavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng-bo; Li, Shen; Wei, Jing; Ma, Chang-an; Lu, Xiao-ling; DU, Shui-quan; Guan, Lu-yuan; Zheng, Yuan; Dong, Jian-hua; Ma, Chao-feng; Wang, Jing-jun

    2013-04-01

    To compare the differences between the direct immuno-fluorescent assay (DFA) and real-time quantitative PCR in detecting the Hantavirus (HV) in rat lungs. From April to October in 2012, a total of 479 rats were caught by mouse-trap in residential or wild areas in Huxian, Jingyang, and Meixian of Shaanxi province, where haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was highly prevalent. The rats were dissected to take the two lungs, one was frozen and applied immuno-fluorescent assay to detect HV antigen while the other one was extracted its RNA and detected HV nucleic acid by real-time quantitative PCR. Then we compared the positive rate of the two methods. Out of the 479 rats, 105 were caught from residential areas and the other 374 were caught from wild areas. Among the 105 rats caught from residential areas, no HV were detected out neither by DFA nor by real-time quantitative PCR. Among the 374 wild rats, 13.1% (49/374) were detected HV positive by DFA and 14.7% (55/374) were detected HV positive by real-time quantitative PCR. The difference showed no statistical significance (χ(2) = 0.402, P = 0.526). When detecting each lung sample, the HV positive rate was 10.2% (49/479) under the detection by DFA while the HV positive rate was 11.5% (55/479) under the detection by real-time quantitative PCR. The difference had no statistical significance (χ(2) = 1.286, P = 0.257) and the consistency coefficient was 68.2% under the paired chi-square test analysis, which showed high consistency (u = 11.759, P quantitative PCR to detect HV was 77.6% (38/49) comparing with DFA as standard, and the specificity was 96.1% (413/430). Out of the 9 suspected HV positive sample detected by DFA, 6 were confirmed positive by real-time quantitative PCR and 3 were denied. Compared with the DFA, real-time quantitative PCR could also be used to detect the infection of HV in rats, and the result might be more stable.

  20. Production and characterization of Si-N films obtained by r.f. magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.; Cavaleiro, A.; Vieira, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Si-N films were deposited by sputtering from an Si 3 N 4 target with different deposition pressures and negative substrate bias. The films were amorphous and showed a ''featureless'' morphology. A high oxygen content was detected in unbiased films. For these films the Si/N ratio was very high compared with the target composition, whereas for biased films the opposite was observed. Si-N films presented cohesive failures for loads as high as 21 N and adhesive failure at 45 N when they were analysed by scratch test. Very high hardness (45 GPa) was obtained, particularly for biased films. Unbiased films were softer, which is attributed to the formation of silicon oxide and/or to a lower compressive stress level. (orig.)

  1. Crítica: ¿un quincenario sin compromisos? (1948-1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Torres Duque

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Quiza una de las razones por las cuales, en nuestro país, eso que la comunicación social llama "cultura" haya tenido un desarrollo tan inauténtico y fragmentario sea el matrimonio espurio entre aquélla y la vida pública nacional. En el mejor de los casos, nuestros hombres representativos lucharon por conciliar sus dos vidas en un humanismo integral de pensamiento y de arte: casos como los de Miguel Antonio Caro, José Eusebio Caro y Guillermo Valencia nos ofrecen tema interesante para antologías o historias de las letras nacionales. Otros ejemplos, otros nombres, serían más penosos de mencionar, tanto más si están unidos a significativos momentos de la historia patria.

  2. Inactivité physique et nombre d'heures passées devant la télévision chez les adultes autochtones asthmatiques : analyse transversale de l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones

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    N. Doggett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexte : Notre analyse visait à déterminer l'association entre l'asthme et le niveau d'activité physique ainsi qu'avec le nombre d'heures d'activités sédentaires chez les adultes autochtones et visait à comprendre l'influence de l'inactivité physique et du nombre d'heures d'activités sédentaires sur l'utilisation des soins de santé par les adultes autochtones asthmatiques. Méthodologie : Notre analyse a porté sur 20 953 répondants adultes de l'Enquête auprès des peuples autochtones de 2006. Nous avons considéré que les répondants étaient atteints d'asthme « actuel » s'ils avaient déclaré avoir reçu un diagnostic d'asthme de la part d'un médecin et s'ils avaient une ordonnance valide pour des médicaments contre l'asthme. Notre définition d'une activité physique insuffisante correspondait au fait de pratiquer moins de 3 heures d'activité physique modérée à intense par semaine, et notre définition d'un nombre élevé d'heures passées devant la télévision correspondait au fait de regarder la télévision pendant plus de 10 heures par semaine. Nous avons évalué l'utilisation des soins de santé à l'aide du nombre de consultations de professionnels de la santé et du nombre d'hospitalisations d'au moins une nuit. Résultats : Les adultes autochtones asthmatiques étaient plus susceptibles de déclarer un nombre élevé d'heures passées devant la télévision (RC = 1,16; IC : 1,11 à 1,22 et une activité physique insuffisante (RC = 1,15; IC : 1,10 à 1,20 que les non-asthmatiques. Les asthmatiques ayant déclaré un nombre élevé d'heures passées devant la télévision ont signalé plus de consultations de professionnels de la santé au cours des 12 derniers mois (RC = 2,59; IC : 2,34 à 2,87, plus d'hospitalisations d'au moins une nuit au cours de la dernière année (RC = 1,95; IC : 1,82 à 2,08 et plus d'hospitalisations d'au moins une nuit au cours des 5 dernières années (RC = 1,13; IC : 1,07 à 1

  3. Experimental Andes virus infection in deer mice: characteristics of infection and clearance in a heterologous rodent host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Spengler

    Full Text Available New World hantaviruses can cause hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome with high mortality in humans. Distinct virus species are hosted by specific rodent reservoirs, which also serve as the vectors. Although regional spillover has been documented, it is unknown whether rodent reservoirs are competent for infection by hantaviruses that are geographically separated, and known to have related, but distinct rodent reservoir hosts. We show that Andes virus (ANDV of South America, carried by the long tailed pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, infects and replicates in vitro and in vivo in the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus, the reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV, found in North America. In experimentally infected deer mice, viral RNA was detected in the blood, lung, heart and spleen, but virus was cleared by 56 days post inoculation (dpi. All of the inoculated deer mice mounted a humoral immune response by 14 dpi, and produced measurable amounts of neutralizing antibodies by 21 dpi. An up-regulation of Ccl3, Ccl4, Ccl5, and Tgfb, a strong CD4⁺ T-cell response, and down-regulation of Il17, Il21 and Il23 occurred during infection. Infection was transient with an absence of clinical signs or histopathological changes. This is the first evidence that ANDV asymptomatically infects, and is immunogenic in deer mice, a non-natural host species of ANDV. Comparing the immune response in this model to that of the immune response in the natural hosts upon infection with their co-adapted hantaviruses may help clarify the mechanisms governing persistent infection in the natural hosts of hantaviruses.

  4. Fabrication of high-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions on thin SiN membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edouard; Jacobson, Brian R.; Hu, Qing

    1993-01-01

    We have successfully fabricated high-quality and high-current density superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions on freestanding thin silicon nitride (SIN) membranes. These devices can be used in a novel millimeter-wave and THz receiver system which is made using micromachining. The SIS junctions with planar antennas were fabricated first on a silicon wafer covered with a SiN membrane, the Si wafer underneath was then etched away using an anisotropic KOH etchant. The current-voltage characteristics of the SIS junctions remained unchanged after the whole process, and the junctions and the membrane survived thermal cycling.

  5. Moving State Marine SINS Initial Alignment Based on High Degree CKF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new moving state marine initial alignment method of strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS is proposed based on high-degree cubature Kalman filter (CKF, which can capture higher order Taylor expansion terms of nonlinear alignment model than the existing third-degree CKF, unscented Kalman filter and central difference Kalman filter, and improve the accuracy of initial alignment under large heading misalignment angle condition. Simulation results show the efficiency and advantage of the proposed initial alignment method as compared with existing initial alignment methods for the moving state SINS initial alignment with large heading misalignment angle.

  6. Sucesos vitales estresantes en mujeres en situación sin hogar

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cabrera, José Juan; Rodríguez Moreno, Sara Isabel; Roca Morales, Pablo; Panadero Herrero, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Las Personas Sin Hogar (PSH) forman parte de un colectivo especialmente vulnerable al padecimiento de Sucesos Vitales Estresantes (SVE) a lo largo de la vida. Además, los escasos datos indican que las Mujeres Sin Hogar (MSH) presentan una mayor vulnerabilidad a sufrir dichos sucesos. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la prevalencia de SVE en un grupo de 138 MSH de la ciudad de Madrid. Los resultados apuntan que las MSH experimentan un número muy elevado de SVE tanto en la infancia/adole...

  7. Cambios microestructurales y reológicos de masas y panes sin gluten

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Flores, José Octavio

    2015-01-01

    El estudio de la microestructura de las masas y panes sin gluten nos permite predecir el comportamiento de estos durante los procesos de elaboración y por ende la maquinabilidad de los mismos. Se hizo un análisis reológico de masas sin gluten y un análisis de perfil de textura (TPA) a los panes elaborados a partir de estas, también se tomaron imágenes por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido, tanto de las masas como de los panes. Para hacer el perfil reológico se hicieron ensayos osci...

  8. Sin City?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Gautier, Pieter A.; Teulings, Coen n.

    , the ones who stay in the city have significant higher divorce rates. Similarly, for the couples who married outside the city, the ones who move to the city are more likely to divorce. This correlation can be explained by both a causal and a sorting effect. We disentangle them by using the timing...

  9. High precision measurement of sin2theta/sub W/ in semi-leptonic neutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, C.

    1985-01-01

    The experiment has provided what is presently the most accurate measurement of sin 2 theta/sub W/. The errors are still too large for a significant test of the standard model and the measured value is in agreement with the measured values of M/sub W/ and M/sub Z/. On the other hand, this result can constrain the Grand Unified models. The standard SU(5) model predicts sin 2 theta/sub W//sup MS/ = 0.214 +/- 0.004 (the error comes from the uncertainty on Lambda/sub MS/), in very good agreement with the measured value. While this model has big problems with the proton lifetime, it could be saved by its supersymmetric extension. In the minimal SU(5) SUSY model (with 2 Higgs supermultiplets) sin 2 theta/sub W//sup MS/ = 0.233 +/- 0.004, [12] in bad agreement with the measured value. The addition of other Higgs supermultiplets increases the value of sin 2 theta/sub W/. Unless some unexpected large contribution from higher-twist terms occurs, the present measurement can already bring a significant constraint on Grand Unified models

  10. SINs and SOMs: Neural microcircuits for size tuning in the zebrafish and mouse visual pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Barker

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In many animals, a fast and reliable circuit for discriminating between predator-sized objects and edible (prey-sized objects is necessary for survival. How are receptive fields in visual brain areas organized to extract information about size? Recent studies from the zebrafish optic tectum and the mouse visual cortex suggest de novo shaping of receptive fields by subtypes of inhibitory neurons. Del Bene et al. (2010 describe a population of GABAergic neurons in the zebrafish optic tectum (Superficial Interneurons, SINs that are necessary for size filtering during prey capture. Adesnik et al. (2012 describe a somatostatin-expressing interneuron population (SOMs that confers surround suppression on layer II/III pyramidal cells in mouse V1. Strikingly both the SINs and the SOMs, display size-dependent response properties. Increasing visual stimulus size increases excitatory input to these neurons. Dampening SIN or SOM activity alters tuning of neighboring circuits such that they lose preference for small objects. Both results provide exciting evidence for mechanisms of size filtering in visual circuits. Here we review the roles of the SINs and the SOMs and speculate on the similarity of such spatial filters across species.

  11. A Reflection on the Traditional African Concept of Sin, Sickness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the meaning and nature of HIV/AIDS; the traditional African perception of sin, sickness and disease in relation to HIV/AIDS. It also looks at the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS pandemic on Africans and Africa as a continent. It discuses traditional ways of combating the pandemic and of confronting ...

  12. Initial Self-Alignment for Marine Rotary SINS Using Novel Adaptive Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Pei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate initial attitude is essential to affect the navigation result of Rotary Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, which is usually calculated by initial alignment. But marine mooring Rotary SINS has to withstand dynamic disturbance, such as the interference angular velocities and accelerations caused by surge and sway. In order to overcome the limit of dynamic disturbance under the marine mooring condition, an alignment method using novel adaptive Kalman filter for marine mooring Rotary SINS is developed in this paper. This alignment method using the gravity in the inertial frame as a reference is discussed to deal with the lineal and angular disturbances. Secondly, the system error model for fine alignment in the inertial frame as a reference is established. Thirdly, PWCS and SVD are used to analyze the observability of the system error model for fine alignment. Finally, a novel adaptive Kalman filter with measurement residual to estimate measurement noise variance is designed. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve better accuracy and stability for marine Rotary SINS.

  13. A Method for Oscillation Errors Restriction of SINS Based on Forecasted Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuity, real-time, and accuracy are the key technical indexes of evaluating comprehensive performance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS. However, Schuler, Foucault, and Earth periodic oscillation errors significantly cut down the real-time accuracy of SINS. A method for oscillation error restriction of SINS based on forecasted time series is proposed by analyzing the characteristics of periodic oscillation errors. The innovative method gains multiple sets of navigation solutions with different phase delays in virtue of the forecasted time series acquired through the measurement data of the inertial measurement unit (IMU. With the help of curve-fitting based on least square method, the forecasted time series is obtained while distinguishing and removing small angular motion interference in the process of initial alignment. Finally, the periodic oscillation errors are restricted on account of the principle of eliminating the periodic oscillation signal with a half-wave delay by mean value. Simulation and test results show that the method has good performance in restricting the Schuler, Foucault, and Earth oscillation errors of SINS.

  14. El Palacio sin máscara: La lectura de quien no estuvo allí.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Abad Faciolince

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un análisis de la obra "El Palacio sin máscara" referido a la toma del Palacio de Justicia por parte de guerrilleros y la masacre ocurrida por parte de los militares. En la obra se retrata la realidad, se poda la información de todo ruido para dejar ver la verdad.

  15. Decrease in Accuracy of a Rotational SINS Caused by its Rotary Table's Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We call a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS that uses the rotation auto-compensation technique (which is a common method to reduce the effect of the bias errors of inertial components a ‘rotational SINS’. In a rotational SINS, the rotary table is an important component, rotating the inertial sensor assembly back and forth in azimuth to accomplish error modulation. As a consequence of the manufacturing process, errors may exist in rotary tables which decrease the navigation accuracy of rotational SINSs. In this study, the errors of rotary tables are considered in terms of installation error, wobble error and angular error, and the models of these errors are established for the rotational SINS. Next, the propagation characteristics of these errors in the rotational SINS are analysed and their effects on navigation results are discussed. Finally, the theoretical conclusions are tested by numerical simulation. This paper supplies a good reference for the development of low-cost rotational SINSs, which usually have low accuracy rotary tables and which may be used in robots, intelligent vehicles and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  16. Ten Sins Challenging Education in the Contemporary Global Era: A Philosophical Essay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M.

    2004-01-01

    According to this author, the modern epoch is characterized by a decrease of vital spirituality and an increase of materialistic values and virtues. This article discusses what the author views as the ten sins challenging education in the contemporary global era. These are: (1) the shrinking of spiritual values; (2) corruption; (3) sexual…

  17. Do Schacter's Seven Sins of Memory Apply to Ratings of Children's Emotional and Behavioral Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renk, Kimberly; Donnelly, Reesa; McKinney, Cliff; Baksh, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Schacter (2001) proposes that there are seven memory malfunctions that occur in everyday life and that affect individuals' ability to recall occurrences in their lives. Given that these sins affect other areas of memory, it is likely that they may affect the ratings that informants provide when they are recalling characteristics of the emotional…

  18. Absolute Absolution: The Forgiveness of Original Sin by Ministers of Government Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, John Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Traces the evolution of public schooling as an attempt by progressives and others to absolve citizens of Original Sin and unweave the world view of traditional Christianity. Argues that the removal from schools of Christian beliefs about morality, labor, self-control, and death signals a wish to collectivize the American masses and restore a…

  19. Construction of Δm2--sin2 2θ plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, R.

    1991-01-01

    In the two-flavor approximation, the probability for a neutrino to oscillate from one flavor to the other is given by Ρ νa → νb = sin 2 2θ sin 2 (1.27 Δm 2 L/E ν ) where θ is the mixing angle, Δm 2 = |m νa 2 - m νb 2 | is measured in (eV/c 2 ) 2 , L, the distance from the source, is measured in km, and E, the beam energy, is measured in GeV. If either Δm 2 or sin 2 2Θ is zero, there is no oscillation. They might also have small, non-zero values, causing the oscillations to be so small as to be unobservable in a particular experiment. They may also have values which allow us to determine the probability of oscillation, but so far no compelling evidence for oscillation exists. The universal method of portraying what region of parameter space is explored by a neutrino oscillation experiment is to mark off an area on a Δm 2 vs. sin 2 2θ plot. Typically, a line is graphed, with the claim that if the experiment finds not evidence of oscillation, one can, for example, be 90% certain that Δm 2 and sin 2 2θ lie within the region below and to the left of the line. Since these plots are so widely used, it is useful to understand the process by which they are created

  20. Honduras en la ruta trans-ístmica (Análisis de la propuesta de Juan García de Hermosilla de mudar Nombre de Dios por Puerto Caballos 1556-1570

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizet Payne Iglesias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los proyectos para la construcción de una ruta que conectaría el Caribe y el pacífico para ampliar el comercio con el Perú a través de Honduras entre 1525 y 1570. Resaltando los intereses que se pusieron en juego y las disputas con otros espacios regionales como el de Nombre de Dios - Panamá, además de las razones de su fracaso que marcarían los derroteros de muchas regiones centroamericanas.

  1. Bicarbonate Plays a Critical Role in the Generation of Cytotoxicity during SIN-1 Decomposition in Culture Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyo Shirai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1 is used as a donor of peroxynitrite (ONOO− in various studies. We demonstrated, however, that, the cell-culture medium remains cytotoxic to PC12 cells even after almost complete SIN-1 decomposition, suggesting that reaction product(s in the medium, rather than ONOO−, exert cytotoxic effects. Here, we clarified that significant cytotoxicity persists after SIN-1 decomposes in bicarbonate, a component of the culture medium, but not in NaOH. Cytotoxic SIN-1-decomposed bicarbonate, which lacks both oxidizing and nitrosating activities, degrades to innocuous state over time. The extent of SIN-1 cytotoxicity, irrespective of its fresh or decomposed state, appears to depend on the total number of initial SIN-1 molecules per cell, rather than its concentration, and involves oxidative/nitrosative stress-related cell damage. These results suggest that, despite its low abundance, the bicarbonate-dependent cytotoxic substance that accumulates in the medium during SIN-1 breakdown is the cytotoxic entity of SIN-1.

  2. Bicarbonate Plays a Critical Role in the Generation of Cytotoxicity during SIN-1 Decomposition in Culture Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Kyo; Okada, Tatsumi; Konishi, Kanako; Murata, Hiroshi; Akashi, Soichiro; Sugawara, Fumio; Watanabe, Nobuo; Arai, Takao

    2012-01-01

    3-Morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) is used as a donor of peroxynitrite (ONOO−) in various studies. We demonstrated, however, that, the cell-culture medium remains cytotoxic to PC12 cells even after almost complete SIN-1 decomposition, suggesting that reaction product(s) in the medium, rather than ONOO−, exert cytotoxic effects. Here, we clarified that significant cytotoxicity persists after SIN-1 decomposes in bicarbonate, a component of the culture medium, but not in NaOH. Cytotoxic SIN-1-decomposed bicarbonate, which lacks both oxidizing and nitrosating activities, degrades to innocuous state over time. The extent of SIN-1 cytotoxicity, irrespective of its fresh or decomposed state, appears to depend on the total number of initial SIN-1 molecules per cell, rather than its concentration, and involves oxidative/nitrosative stress-related cell damage. These results suggest that, despite its low abundance, the bicarbonate-dependent cytotoxic substance that accumulates in the medium during SIN-1 breakdown is the cytotoxic entity of SIN-1. PMID:22848780

  3. Evidence of surface loss as ubiquitous limiting damping mechanism in SiN micro- and nanomechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN) micro- and nanomechanical resonators have attracted a lot of attention in various research fields due to their exceptionally high quality factors (Qs). Despite their popularity, the origin of the limiting loss mechanisms in these structures has remained controversial....... In this Letter we propose an analytical model combining acoustic radiation loss with intrinsic loss. The model accurately predicts the resulting mode-dependent Qs of low-stress silicon-rich and high-stress stoichiometric SiN membranes. The large acoustic mismatch of the low-stress membrane to the substrate seems......, and cantilevers) SiN resonators extracted from literature, suggesting surface loss as ubiquitous damping mechanism in thin SiN resonators with Qsurf=βh and β=6×1010±4×1010  m−1. Based on the intrinsic loss the maximal achievable Qs and Qf products for SiN membranes and strings are outlined....

  4. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL/magnetic compass pilot (MCP, a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV.

  5. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV. PMID:26729120

  6. Measurement of the CP asymmetry parameter sin(2β) at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCompte, T. J.

    1998-01-01

    We present a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate for bar B d 0 versus B d 0 decays to J/ψK S 0 . In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP-violation parameter sin(2β). A total of 198 ± 17 B d 0 /bar B d 0 decays were observed in pbar p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial b-flavor is determined by a same side flavor tagging technique. Our analysis results in sin(2β) = 1.8 ± 1.1(stat) ± 0.3(syst)

  7. Normal A0-A1 stars with low v sin i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, F.; Gebran, M.; Monier, R.; Hill, G.; Gulliver, A.; Adelman, S.; Smalley, B.; Pintado, O.; Reiners, A.

    2014-11-01

    Royer et al. te{Ror_07_2} studied a sample of A0-A1 stars that did not contain any previously known binary or chemically peculiar (CP) star. They showed that the distribution of the equatorial rotational velocities of the sample is bimodal. We report here the preliminary results of the abundance analysis of 47 of those ``normal'' A0-A1 main-sequence stars. The selection criterion was v sin i < 65 km s^{-1}. An hierarchical classification based on the abundances has supported the identification of new CP stars, while normal composition was confirmed the for ˜40 clean sample of normal A0-A1 stars with low v sin i was then examined for intrinsically slow rotators.

  8. Diagnóstico de sinéquias uterinas por histerossonografia transvaginal

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães Filho,Hélio Antonio; Mattar,Rosiane; Araujo Júnior,Edward; Pires,Cláudio Rodrigues; Moron,Antonio Fernandes

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de sinéquias uterinas em pacientes com aborto recorrente e a acurácia diagnóstica da ultra-sonografia transvaginal (US-TV) e da histerossonografia (HS). MÉTODOS: Sessenta pacientes não grávidas com passado de três ou mais abortos espontâneos consecutivos foram avaliadas por US-TV, HS e histeroscopia (HTC) para a pesquisa de sinéquias uterinas. A HTC foi considerada o padrão ouro do estudo. A concordância dos achados da US-TV e da HS foram avaliadas pelo coefici...

  9. Rapid Transfer Alignment of MEMS SINS Based on Adaptive Incremental Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hairong; Sun, Tingting; Zhang, Baiqiang; Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Yang

    2017-01-14

    In airborne MEMS SINS transfer alignment, the error of MEMS IMU is highly environment-dependent and the parameters of the system model are also uncertain, which may lead to large error and bad convergence of the Kalman filter. In order to solve this problem, an improved adaptive incremental Kalman filter (AIKF) algorithm is proposed. First, the model of SINS transfer alignment is defined based on the "Velocity and Attitude" matching method. Then the detailed algorithm progress of AIKF and its recurrence formulas are presented. The performance and calculation amount of AKF and AIKF are also compared. Finally, a simulation test is designed to verify the accuracy and the rapidity of the AIKF algorithm by comparing it with KF and AKF. The results show that the AIKF algorithm has better estimation accuracy and shorter convergence time, especially for the bias of the gyroscope and the accelerometer, which can meet the accuracy and rapidity requirement of transfer alignment.

  10. AUV Underwater Positioning Algorithm Based on Interactive Assistance of SINS and LBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao

    2015-12-30

    This paper studies an underwater positioning algorithm based on the interactive assistance of a strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) and LBL, and this algorithm mainly includes an optimal correlation algorithm with aided tracking of an SINS/Doppler velocity log (DVL)/magnetic compass pilot (MCP), a three-dimensional TDOA positioning algorithm of Taylor series expansion and a multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. The final simulation results show that compared to traditional underwater positioning algorithms, this scheme can not only directly correct accumulative errors caused by a dead reckoning algorithm, but also solves the problem of ambiguous correlation peaks caused by multipath transmission of underwater acoustic signals. The proposed method can calibrate the accumulative error of the AUV position more directly and effectively, which prolongs the underwater operating duration of the AUV.

  11. Some dosimetry and radiobiological studies with the SIN biomedical pion beam.

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    The high intensity isochronous cyclotron of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research, SIN near ZUrich, was put into operation about 1% years ago and the intensity of the extracted 590 MeV proton beam has. since May this year, reached a value of 25 uA under stable and continuous operation. It is foreseen to further increase this current 1) and to reach about 30 pA by the end of the year.

  12. La contabilidad de las entidades sin finalidad lucrativa: especial referencia a las fundaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Arnau Paradís, Andreu

    2002-01-01

    Las entidades no lucrativas tienen cada día mas presencia en las sociedades democráticas. Nuestro objetivo ha sido el estudio detallado de la contabilidad de estas entidades, especialmente las fundaciones, analizando si la normativa contable empresarial es aplicable a estas entidades. En el ámbito conceptual no se requiere un marco contable diferente, sin embargo, y por tratarse de un sector de actividad claramente diferenciado, algunas normas contables requieren de una interpretación diferen...

  13. Quantum solitons and their relation with fermion fields for the (sin phi)sub(2)-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogrebkov, A.K.; Sushko, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Schema of canonical quantization of the/sin phi/sub(2)-self-interaction is developed systematically, which takes into account from the very beginning the existence of solitons in corresponding classical dynamical system. Correct definition of quantum soliton is given. The connection between the descriptions of quantum solitons on the basis of the proposed quantization schema and in terms of fermion fields is demonstrated

  14. Phelipanche cernua Pomel (Orobanchaceae, a prioritary name for the western mediterranean species recently redescribed as Ph. inexpectata [Phelipanche cernua Pomel (Orobanchaceae, un nombre prioritario para la especie del Mediterráneo Occidental recientemente descrita como Ph. inexspectata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlón Ruiz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The specific parasite of Lactuca (Compositae described in 2005 from the Iberian Peninsula as Phelipanche inexspectata (Orobanchaceae and known so far in northeastern Spain and southern France, is shown to also occur in mountain areas of northern Africa, where it had been previously described under the neglected name Phelipanche cernua. Given the recent proposal to consider the aforementioned Lactuca parasite a mere variant of Phelipanche schultzii, we stress the neat differences between both species. RESUMEN: Phelipanche cernua Pomel (Orobanchaceae, un nombre prioritario para la especie del Mediterráneo Occidental recientemente descrita como Ph. inexspectata. Se dan pruebas de que la parásita específica de Lactuca (Compositae descrita en 2005 de la Península Ibérica como Phelipanche inexspectata (Orobanchaceae, y conocida hasta ahora del noreste de España y el sur de Francia, alcanza las montañas del norte de África, de las que ya había sido descrita bajo el nombre Phelipanche cernua. Dada la reciente afirmación de que dicha parásita de Lactuca es una mera variante de Phelipanche schultzii, recalcamos las netas diferencias entre ambas especies.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE CARAMELOS DE UCHUVA SIN SACAROSA ADICIONADOS CON CALCIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCIA ELENA VALENCIA G

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de la adición de calcio sobre los atributos de calidad de un caramelo blando a base de fruto de uchuva sin sacarosa, comparándolo con uno similar sin calcio. Se emplea calcio lácteo como ingrediente funcional, el cual se incorpora a granel, con el objetivo de alcanzar un valor diario de referencia mayor del 20% en una porción de 15 g de producto, según la normativa colombiana. El calcio afecta principalmente la acidez del producto (, la elasticidad (>, la cohesividad (. El caramelo adicionado presentó contenidos de 292,5 ± 9 mg Ca/porción, correspondiente a un 20 % del valor diario de referencia, lo cual permite identificar al producto con el descriptor 'Excelente fuente de calcio'. Los caramelos blandos de uchuva sin azúcar adicionados con calcio, representan una alternativa económica para cubrir necesidades de calcio en la dieta de la población

  16. Back scattering involving embedded silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles for c-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Hemanta; Mitra, Suchismita; Siddiqui, M. S.; Saxena, A. K.; Chaudhuri, Partha; Saha, Hiranmay; Banerjee, Chandan

    2018-04-01

    A novel material, structure and method of synthesis for dielectric light trapping have been presented in this paper. First, the light scattering behaviour of silicon nitride nanoparticles have been theoretically studied in order to find the optimized size for dielectric back scattering by FDTD simulations from Lumerical Inc. The optical results have been used in electrical analysis and thereby, estimate the effect of nanoparticles on efficiency of the solar cells depending on substrate thickness. Experimentally, silicon nitride (SiN) nanoparticles have been formed using hydrogen plasma treatment on SiN layer deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD). The size and area coverage of the nanoparticles were controlled by varying the working pressure, power density and treatment duration. The nanoparticles were integrated with partial rear contact c-Si solar cells as dielectric back reflector structures for the light trapping in thin silicon solar cells. Experimental results revealed the increases of current density by 2.7% in presence of SiN nanoparticles.

  17. A Novel Scheme for DVL-Aided SINS In-Motion Alignment Using UKF Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In-motion alignment of Strapdown Inertial Navigation Systems (SINS without any geodetic-frame observations is one of the toughest challenges for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV. This paper presents a novel scheme for Doppler Velocity Log (DVL aided SINS alignment using Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF which allows large initial misalignments. With the proposed mechanism, a nonlinear SINS error model is presented and the measurement model is derived under the assumption that large misalignments may exist. Since a priori knowledge of the measurement noise covariance is of great importance to robustness of the UKF, the covariance-matching methods widely used in the Adaptive KF (AKF are extended for use in Adaptive UKF (AUKF. Experimental results show that the proposed DVL-aided alignment model is effective with any initial heading errors. The performances of the adaptive filtering methods are evaluated with regards to their parameter estimation stability. Furthermore, it is clearly shown that the measurement noise covariance can be estimated reliably by the adaptive UKF methods and hence improve the performance of the alignment.

  18. [TULA HANTAVIRUS IN CRIMEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashina, L N; Zaykovskaya, A V; Protopopova E K; Babkin, I V; Malyshev, B S; Tovpinets, N N; Evstafiev, I L

    2015-01-01

    Genetic evidence of the Tula virus (TULV) in Crimea region of Russia is presented. Based on the reverse transcription PCR and subsequent sequence analysis, a total of 4 RNA isolates of the TULV were identified from the tissue samples of the Altai voles Microtus obscurus captured in the Bakhchisaray district of the Republic Crimea. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-, M-, and L-segment sequences of the Crimean TULV strains showed that they formed distinct genetic lineage, Russia IV, in the TULV variant. New sequences were most closely related to the lineage Russia I sequences obtained from common vole (M. arvalis) captured in the Tula region in Central Russia

  19. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology How is HPS diagnosed? Diagnosing HPS in an individual who has only been infected for a few days is difficult, because early symptoms such as fever, muscle aches, and fatigue are easily confused with influenza. ...

  20. Novel liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for sensitive determination of the mustard allergen Sin a 1 in food

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Llamas, Gloria; Maes, Xavier; Muñoz-García, Esther; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Pérez-Gordo, Marina; Vivanco, Fernando; Pérez-Gordo, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Mustard is a condiment added to a variety of foodstuffs and a frequent cause of food allergy. A new strategy for the detection of mustard allergen in food products is presented. The methodology is based on liquid chromatography analysis coupled to mass spectrometry. Mustard allergen Sin a 1 was purified from yellow mustard seeds. Sin a 1 was detected with a total of five peptides showing a linear response (lowest LOD was 5 ng). Sin a 1 was detected in mustard sauces and salty biscuit (19 ± 3 ...

  1. La Cultura escolenímica en España. Propuestas para el estudio etnohistórico de los nombres de las escuelas. // Escolenimic Culture in Spain. Proposals for the ethnohistorical study of the scools´names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliodoro Manuel Pérez Moreno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available (ES El presente artículo propone insertar los nombres de las instituciones escolares, de las escuelas, en el perímetro conceptual del constructo Cultura Escolar, incorporando dichas denominaciones como elemento simbólico e inmaterial -con registro físico- de la cultura particular de cada centro y de la cultura global de la escuela española. Apelativos institucionales que son símbolos identitarios, de loable semiótica comunitaria, de arbitraria selección paracurricular y de diferencial poder de transmisión subliminal sobre los escolares y la ciudadanía general. Se introduce como neologismo -recurriendo a la etimología común de otras palabras análogas- el término Escolenimia, que significaría el estudio de los nombres de los centros escolares. También el artículo recoge –además de una primera propuesta de tipología de escolénimos- el referente teleológico de un Proyecto de Investigación en ciernes sobre la Cultura Escolenímica (objetivos acompañados de interrogantes, comentarios y tareas, donde los nombres de las escuelas son objeto de estudio etnohistórico. // (EN This article proposes to add the schools´names, schools in the conceptual construct perimeter School Culture, by adding such names as a symbolic and intangible element (regarding to physical register of the particular culture of each center and the global culture of the Spanish school. Institutional forms of address are symbols of identity, related to a laudable community semiotics, to an arbitrary” paracurricular” selection and differential power of subliminal transmission on schoolchildren and on the general citizenry.It is introduced as a neologism, using the common etymology of other similar words, the term” Escolenimia”, which would mean the study of the schools´names. The article also includes, in addition to a first proposal for the type of escolénimos- a teleological referent regarding to a research project about the

  2. Spatial and Temporal Epidemiology of Nephropathia Epidemica Incidence and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Rodent Hosts: Identification of the Main Environmental Factors in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchatre-Leroy, E; Crespin, L; Boué, F; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2017-08-01

    In Europe, the increasing number of nephropathia epidemica (NE) infections in humans, caused by Puumala virus carried by bank voles (Myodes glareolus), has triggered studies of environmental factors driving these infections. NE infections have been shown to occur in specific geographical areas characterized by environmental factors that influence the distribution and dynamics of host populations and virus persistence in the soil. Here, we review the influence of environmental conditions (including climate factors, food availability and habitat conditions) with respect to incidence in humans and seroprevalence in rodents, considering both direct and indirect transmission pathways. For each type of environmental factor, results and discrepancies between studies are presented and examined in the light of biological hypotheses. Overall, food availability and temperature appear to be the main drivers of host seroprevalence and NE incidence, but data quality and statistical approaches varied greatly among studies. We highlight the issues that now need to be addressed and suggest improvements for study design in regard to the current knowledge on hantavirus epidemiology. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus: aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, do diagnóstico laboratorial e do tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo Luiz Tadeu M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome pulmonar e cardiovascular por Hantavirus (SPCVH, é doença emergente com descrição crescente de casos no Brasil. Neste trabalho, estudou-se 8 casos confirmados da doença. Todos apresentaram febre e dispnéia. Taquicardia, astenia, hipotensão e estertoração pulmonar ocorreram em 75 a 87,5% dos casos. Plaquetopenia e hipoxemia ocorreram em 100% dos casos, hemoconcentração, leucocitose com desvio à esquerda e elevação de uréia e creatinina séricas em 75 a 87,5%. Assistência respiratória, hidratação endovenosa e utilização de aminas vasoativas foram as medidas utilizadas nos pacientes. Ressalta-se que o suporte ventilatório e cardiovascular deve ser precocemente instituído, preferencialmente em unidades de terapia intensiva, com precauções universais e respiratórias de isolamento. Deve-se ter cuidados com infusão excessiva de líquidos para não agravar o edema pulmonar. A mortalidade observada, de 50%, é elevada, deveu-se à gravidade da doença e ao comparecimento tardio para tratamento intensivo. Deve-se informar sobre a SPCVH aos profissionais de saúde, considerando que casos de SPCVH, provavelmente, vêm passando desapercebidos.

  4. Calcium isotopic composition of high-latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eisenhauer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST history in climate-sensitive regions (e.g. tropical and polar oceans became a challenging task in palaeoceanographic research. Biogenic shell carbonate SST proxies successfully developed for tropical regions often fail in cool water environments. Their major regional shortcomings and the cryptic diversity now found within the major high latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. highlight an urgent need to explore complementary SST proxies for these cool-water regions. Here we incorporate the genetic component into a calibration study of a new SST proxy for the high latitudes. We found that the calcium isotopic composition (δ44/40Ca of calcite from genotyped net catches and core-top samples of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin. is related to temperature and unaffected by genetic variations. The temperature sensitivity has been found to be 0.17 (±0.02‰ per 1°C, highlighting its potential for downcore applications in open marine cool-water environments. Our results further indicate that in extreme polar environments, below a critical threshold temperature of 2.0 (±0.5°C associated with salinities below 33.0 (±0.5‰, a prominent shift in biomineralization affects the δ44/40Ca of genotyped and core-top N. pachyderma (sin., becoming insensitive to temperature. These findings highlight the need of more systematic calibration studies on single planktonic foraminiferal species in order to unravel species-specific factors influencing the temperature sensitivity of Ca isotope fractionation and to validate the proxies' applicability.

  5. Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Pérez-Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes/Objetivo: La demencia tipo Alzheimer es una de las causas más frecuentes de dependencia en población mayor, a lo que se une, la considerable demanda de cuidados. Además, cuando el cuidador es un familiar o una persona sin formación especializada, el cuidado tiene un impacto sobre su salud. Para conocer las necesidades de estos cuidadores y evaluar el nivel de sobrecarga o malestar del cuidador, se realiza la propuesta del Inventario de Sobrecarga en Cuidadores Familiares sin Formación Especializada de Enfermos de Alzheimer (IPSO-CA24. Método: En base a las respuestas de 255 cuidadores, se analizaron las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario, mediante análisis de fiabilidad, análisis factoriales exploratorios y confirmatorios. Resultados: Los análisis factoriales informan de una estructura de seis factores relacionados (Reacción ante el diagnóstico, Salud física, Sintomatología psicológica (cuidador, Sintomatología conductual (enfermo, Conocimientos de la enfermedad y Nivel de dependencia, con una fiabilidad entre 0,75 y 0,93, que explican el 66,52% de la varianza total. También se obtiene apoyo para su validez convergente. Conclusiones: El IPSO-CA24 viene a dar respuesta a la necesidad de un instrumento que permita una valoración multidimensional de la sobrecarga del cuidador familiar sin formación especializada. © 2017 Asociación Española de Psicología Conductual. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. This is an open access article under the CC BY−NC−ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by−nc−nd/4.0/.

  6. La modernidad sin centro Pintores griegos de la primera mitad del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernández Belmonte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el campo de la pintura, desde principios del siglo XX hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial, en un contexto de crisis social, económica y política, se llevó a cabo una intensa experimentación y se conformaron diversas corrientes artísticas que crearon nuevos lenguajes expresivos. En Grecia, país alejado de los grandes centros culturales y los grandes nombres, hubo pintores que tuvieron entonces un papel de suma importancia en la asimilación de las novedades artísticas y en su reinterpretación a través de las propias experiencias y características culturales. Estos pintores secundarios, como Parthenis, Maleas, Theofilos, Kontoglou y Tsarouchis, crearon una obra de gran calidad y tuvieron un papel fundamental en la creación de una identidad griega moderna en el campo artístico.In the field of Painting, from the beggining of the XXth Century to the Second World War, in a context of social, economic and political crisis, there was an intense experimentation and different artistic trends were formed. In Greece, a country that was far away from the big cultural centers and the reknowed names, there were painters who played a very important role regarding the assimilation of the artistic novelties and their reinterpretation through the own experiences and cultural characteristics. These secondary painters, like Parthenis, Maleas, Theofilos, Kontoglou and Tsarouchis, had a work of great quality and had a decisive role in the creation of a modern Greek identity in the artistic field.

  7. Fractura radicular en incisivo. Evolución favorable sin tratamiento endodóncico

    OpenAIRE

    Berástegui, Esther

    1995-01-01

    Paciente de 16 años que presentó traumatismo agudo en dientes incisivos superiores jugando al baloncesto. El diente 21 sufrió fractura radicular inclinada en tercio medio y el 11 necrosis postraumática a los cuatro meses. Se realizó ferulización del 21 con resinas compuestas durante tres meses, alcanzando éxito en el tratamiento de la fractura , sin realizar endodoncia en el incisivo citado. El 11 requirió tratamiento del conducto debido a la necrosis. Se recomiendan controles posteriores suc...

  8. Tecnologías emergentes para la conservación de alimentos sin calor

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Molina, Juan José; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.; Swanson, Barry G.

    2001-01-01

    Not available

    Se han investigado los principios básicos de tres tecnologías emergentes para pasteurizar y esterilizar alimentos sin empleo del calor Mediante numerosos estudios se ha comprobado la efectividad de los campos eléctricos pulsantes de alta intensidad (CEPAI), los pulsos de luz (PL) y los campos magnéticos oscilantes (CMO) en la destrucción de microorganismos y enzimas de sistemas alimentarios. En la inactivación microbiana por CEPA!, el blanco principal es la me...

  9. [Successful treatment of surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) with systemic immunosuppresive agents and amniotic membrane grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Coma, M; Franco-Benito, M; García-Ruiz-de-Morales, J M; Alonso-Orcajo, N; Del Barrio-Manso, I

    2009-11-01

    We report the case of a 74-year-old female who developed a necrotizing sclerokeratitis affecting her left eye after uncomplicated cataract surgery. She had no previous history of systemic autoimmune disease. Histopathology of the lesion revealed necrotic granulomatosis with an increased number of plasma cells. Surgically induced necrotizing sclerokeratitis (SINS) is a serious entity which requires prompt and aggressive therapy to prevent its potential devastating ocular consequences. Conjunctival resection and amniotic membrane grafting may be necessary to temporarily interrupt local immunologic events in severe cases. However, associated systemic immunomodulatory therapy seems to be mandatory (Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol 2009; 84: 577-580).

  10. A precision measurement of sin2θw in neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.; Arroyo, C.G.; Bachmann, K.T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Bolton, T.; Foudas, C.; Lefmann, W.C.; Leung, W.C.; Mishra, S.R.; Oltman, E.; Quintas, P.Z.; Rabinowitz, S.A.; Sciulli, F.J.; Seligman, W.G.; Shaevitz, M.H.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Schumm, B.A.; Bernstein, R.H.; Borcherding, F.; Fisk, H.E.; Lamm, M.J.; Marsh, W.; Merritt, K.W.B.; Schellman, H.M.; Yovanovitch, D.D.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.S.; Barbaro, P. de; Sakumoto, W.K.; Kinnel, T.; Sandler, P.H.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    A precise measurement of the weak mixing angle is reported from the ratio of the neutral current to charged current inclusive cross-sections in deep-inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. Using the on-shell definition, the value obtained is currently the most accurate determination of sin 2 θ w in a single experiment. The data were gathered at the CCFR neutrino detector in the Fermilab quadrupole-triplet wide-band neutrino beam, with neutrino energies up to 600 GeV. 2 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs

  11. Pájaros enjaulados: homosexualidad y prisión en Hombres sin mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo Saborido, Emilio José

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo se centra en la interacción entre homosexualidad y prisión en la novela del cubano Carlos Montenegro titulada “Hombres sin mujer” (1938). A partir de una aproximación sociológica al hecho literario, se analizan estructuralmente las nociones y prácticas homosexuales carcelarias, teniendo en cuenta especialmente sus componentes y la creación de categorías auto-explicativas o etnocategorías, el orden en el que se constituyen estos elementos y los conflictos que los a...

  12. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González; Ivonne Vizcarra-Bordi

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un est...

  13. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    Viridiana Vanessa Conzuelo-González

    2009-01-01

    El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria) entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estud...

  14. Precision measurement of sin2thetaW from semileptonic neutrino scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, H.; Belusevic, R.; Blondel, A.; Blümer, H.; Böckmann, P.; Brummel, H. D.; Buchholz, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Debu, P.; Duda, J.; Dydak, F.; Falkenburg, B.; Fiedler, M.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Grant, A. L.; Guyot, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Hepp, V.; Hughes, E. W.; Kampschulte, B.; Keilwerth, H.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Krasny, M.; Królikowski, J.; Kurz, N.; Lipniacka, A.; Merlo, J.-P.; Müller, E.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Pollman, D.; Ranjard, F.; Renk, B.; Schuller, J.-P.; Taureg, H.; Tittel, K.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wotschack, J.

    1986-07-01

    The ratio Rν of the neutral- to charged-current cross sections of neutrinos in iron has been measured in an exposure of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay neutrino detector to a 160-GeV/c neutrino narrow-band beam at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The result is Rν=0.3072+/-0.0025(stat)+/- 0.0020(syst), for hadronic energy greater than 10 GeV. The electroweak mixing parameter is sin2thetaW=0.225+/-0.005(expt )+/-0.003(theor)+0.013(mc-1. 5 GeV/c2), where mc is the charm-quark mass.

  15. HISTOPATOLOGIA DE LA INFECCIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE OVEJAS SIN LANA Ovis aries POR Neospora caninum

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Oviedo; Rafael Goretti; Marlene Vargas; Joaquin Patarroyo.

    2003-01-01

    Ovejas sin lana en diferentes estados reproductivos fueron inoculadas por vía intravenosa con taquizoítos deN. caninum muestra «NC-beef» con el fin de estudiar la patofisiología de la enfermedad en estos animales yverificar la posibilidad de ser usados como modelo experimental de neosporosis bovina. Se utilizaron cincoovejas gestantes (una con 15 días, dos con 30 días, dos con 90 días), tres no gestantes y dos con 10 díasposparto. Los animales eran serologicamente negativos para N.caninum y T...

  16. Clima organizacional y disposici?n al cambio en una entidad sin ?nimo de lucro

    OpenAIRE

    G?nzalez-Rubio, Daniella; Quintanilla, Karen

    2017-01-01

    El prop?sito de la investigaci?n fue describir el clima organizacional y la actitud hacia el cambio de los colaboradores de la Fundaci?n Compasi?n y Amor, entidad sin ?nimo de lucro, con el fin de generar una propuesta que contribuya al desarrollo organizacional. Se realiz? una investigaci?n cuantitativa y descriptiva con 15 colaboradores de la Fundaci?n, los que tienen contrato directo y est?n en cargo administrativo y los voluntarios que no tienen contrato. Se dise?? y aplic? una bater?a c...

  17. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra plus Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Nadir BRDF Adjusted...

  18. Evaluasi Perancangan Antarmuka untuk Membangun User Experience pada Layanan SInTA Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshia Aditya Santoso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available SInTA is a search engine developed by Duta Wacana Christian University (DWCU to locate references of final task reports or thesis ever made by DWCU students.The existence and function of SInTA is not widely known by students. In addition, SInTA still require many improvements on feature and UI design to simplify the interaction between users and interface.This research use individual expert review approach to evaluate interface, whereas data divided into 6 User Experience measurement scales. The result of evaluation is User Experience recommendation which used to build prototype.Considering User Experience shall be created a prototype which should attract users, meet the needs of users, and satisfy the users. In this research, prototype has higher User Experience mean values rather than SInTA old interface, thereby the research be assessed as being successful.

  19. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  20. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  2. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  3. A structured workflow for mapping human Sin3 histone deacetylase complex interactions using Halo-MudPIT AP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Charles A S; Thornton, Janet L; Eubanks, Cassandra G; Adams, Mark K; Miah, Sayem; Boanca, Gina; Liu, Xingyu; Katt, Maria; Parmely, Tari; Florens, Laurence A; Washburn, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Although a variety of affinity purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) strategies have been used to investigate complex interactions, many of these are susceptible to artifacts due to substantial overexpression of the exogenously expressed bait protein. Here we present a logical and systematic workflow that uses the multifunctional Halo tag to assess the correct localization and behavior of tagged subunits of the Sin3 histone deacetylase complex prior to further AP-MS analysis. Using this workflow, we modified our tagging/expression strategy with 21.7% of the tagged bait proteins that we constructed, allowing us to quickly develop validated reagents. Specifically, we apply the workflow to map interactions between stably expressed versions of the Sin3 subunits SUDS3, SAP30 or SAP30L and other cellular proteins.  Here we show that the SAP30 and SAP30L paralogues strongly associate with the core Sin3 complex, but SAP30L has unique associations with the proteasome and the myelin sheath.  Next, we demonstrate an advancement of the complex NSAF (cNSAF) approach, in which normalization to the scaffold protein SIN3A accounts for variations in the proportion of each bait capturing Sin3 complexes and allows a comparison between different baits capturing the same protein complex. This analysis reveals that although the Sin3 subunit SUDS3 appears to be used in both SIN3A and SIN3B based complexes, the SAP30 subunit is not used in SIN3B based complexes. Intriguingly, we do not detect the Sin3 subunits SAP18 and SAP25 among the 128 high-confidence interactions identified, suggesting that these subunits may not be common to all versions of the Sin3 complex in human cells. This workflow provides the framework for building validated reagents to assemble quantitative interaction networks for chromatin remodeling complexes and provides novel insights into focused protein interaction networks. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. La variabilité génétique chez l'huître plate Ostrea edulis (L. 1758) : inférence du nombre de géniteurs instantané d'une population

    OpenAIRE

    Da Silva, Sara Maria Mira

    2001-01-01

    Les études de génétique des populations des bivalves marins ont fréquemment mit en évidence une relation hétérozygotie / valeur sélective, et un fort déficit en hétérozygotes. Parmi les hypothèses explicatives de ces deux phénomènes, la création d'individus consanguins dans les populations est particulièrement intéressante à tester. Le but de ce travail était de vérifier s'il pouvait y avoir un nombre faible de géniteurs à la base d'un événement de reproduction donné chez l'huître plate Ostre...

  5. Simulation numérique et modélisation de l'interaction fluide-structure et étude vibratoire de deux cylindres en tandem à nombre de Reynolds élevé

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Perez, Saul

    2013-01-01

    Dans le contexte des interactions fluide-structure, ce stage a consisté en l'analyse physique d'un écoulement instationnaire autour d'une configuration de deux cylindres en tandem à nombre de Reynolds élevé, au moyen de simulations numériques. À l'aide des modèles de turbulence au premier ordre par approche statistique et du code de calcul NSMB, une première étude en 2D en statique a été menée. Ce cas test est assimilable de manière simplifiée à un train d'atterrissage. Une attention spéciale...

  6. Demo 94. Campana de vacío : hinchar un globo sin soplar y cocer un huevo en el Everest

    OpenAIRE

    Garro Martínez, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: a) Hinchar un globo sin soplar: Experimentar la relación entre el volumen y la presión de los gases. Demostrar que es posible hinchar un globo sin insuflar aire en su interior, reduciendo la presión (atmosférica). b) Cocer un huevo en el Everest: Comprobar la disminución del punto de ebullición del agua al reducir la presión (atmosférica)

  7. MEASUREMENT OF SIN 2 BETA IN B0 ---> PHI K0(S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, Stefan

    2002-07-25

    We present a preliminary measurement of the time-dependent CP-violating asymmetry in the neutral B decay B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sub s}{sup 0}, with {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and K{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The measurement uses a data sample of about 87 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2002 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. In this sample we study events in which the CP final state is fully reconstructed and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry sin2{beta} is derived from the decay-time distributions. We measure sin2{beta} = -0.19{sub -0.50}{sup +0.52}(stat) {+-} 0.09(syst).

  8. A Study of Large sin2φBs with High Mass Fourth Generation t'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chien Yi

    2009-01-01

    The Standard Model predicts the CP violation phase φ SM Bs -M 12 ≅ (V * ts V tb ) in B s (bar) B s mixing is very small, of O(λ 2 η) ∼ -0.02, any finite value of φ Bs measured at the Tevatron would mean New Physics. Recent hints for finite sin2φ Bs have appeared from CDF and D 0 experiments at the Tevatron Run II. We consider the possibility to account for it with the 4 th generation t' quark. Considering recent direct search bounds, we set the mass to be near the unitarity bound of 600 GeV. Combining the measurement values of Δm Bs with B(B d → X s l + l - , together with typical f Bs values, we find a sizable sin2φ SM4 B s ∼ -0.3. Using a typical value of m b' = 580 GeV, we get a narrow range of values, 0.089 t'b | + → π + ν(bar)ν) and Δm D 0. Finally, we use the ZFITTER code to check the global fit deviation. (author)

  9. METODOLOGÍA PARA UN SCORING DE CLIENTES SIN REFERENCIAS CREDITICIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Espin-García

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las decisiones de otorgamiento de crédito son cruciales en la administración de riesgos. Las instituciones financieras han desarrollado y usado modelos de credit scoring para estandarizar y automatizar las decisiones de crédito, sin embargo, no es común encontrar metodologías para aplicarlos a clientes sin referencias crediticias, es decir clientes que carecen de información en los burós nacionales de crédito. En este trabajo se presenta una metodología general para construir un modelo sencillo de credit scoring enfocado justamente a esa población, la cual ha venido tomando una mayor importancia en el sector crediticio latinoamericano. Se usa la información sociodemográfica proveniente de las solicitudes de crédito de una pequeña institución bancaria mexicana para ejemplificar la metodología.

  10. SinCHet: a MATLAB toolbox for single cell heterogeneity analysis in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiannong; Smalley, Inna; Schell, Michael J; Smalley, Keiran S M; Chen, Y Ann

    2017-09-15

    Single-cell technologies allow characterization of transcriptomes and epigenomes for individual cells under different conditions and provide unprecedented resolution for researchers to investigate cellular heterogeneity in cancer. The SinCHet ( gle ell erogeneity) toolbox is developed in MATLAB and has a graphical user interface (GUI) for visualization and user interaction. It analyzes both continuous (e.g. mRNA expression) and binary omics data (e.g. discretized methylation data). The toolbox does not only quantify cellular heterogeneity using S hannon P rofile (SP) at different clonal resolutions but also detects heterogeneity differences using a D statistic between two populations. It is defined as the area under the P rofile of S hannon D ifference (PSD). This flexible tool provides a default clonal resolution using the change point of PSD detected by multivariate adaptive regression splines model; it also allows user-defined clonal resolutions for further investigation. This tool provides insights into emerging or disappearing clones between conditions, and enables the prioritization of biomarkers for follow-up experiments based on heterogeneity or marker differences between and/or within cell populations. The SinCHet software is freely available for non-profit academic use. The source code, example datasets, and the compiled package are available at http://labpages2.moffitt.org/chen/software/ . ann.chen@moffitt.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  12. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  13. Sin práctica no hay discurso, sin cuerpo no hay saber: Sobre legitimidades en las teorías de la descolonización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ximena Postigo

    2016-03-01

    En todo proceso de descolonización del saber, tan importante como la afirmación de una autonomía epistemológica y práctica es el reconocimiento del lugar de enunciación desde el que esta se produce. Una teoría de la descolonización elaborada desde la observación de los movimientos sociales no es semejante a una producida desde el propio movimiento social. En el primer caso, la teoría de lo de-colonial no deriva ni nace de una práctica. Walter Mignolo, por ejemplo, quien define su propuesta teórica como “la intervención de un pensador de-colonial”, escribe desde este lugar. En el segundo caso, la teoría se piensa desde y para el movimiento de los cuerpos. Así, Silvia Rivera Cusicanqui –para quien postulados como los de Mignolo dan cuenta de otra forma de colonialismo­– sostiene que un pensamiento de la descolonización es inimaginable sin una práctica descoloniozadora. En este contexto interno-externo, una mirada al Estado Plurinacional desde intervenciones como las de Mignolo tiende a una idealización binaria que no contribuye al proceso descolonizador sino, más bien, a una rearticulación del pensamiento occidental. A su vez, esta idealización es desmentida por discursos internos que ven en el gobierno de Evo Morales una incoherencia entre el discurso y la práctica. Este artículo explora todas estas instancias, reconociendo en las teorías producidas desde la lucha los pilares del Estado Plurinacional, y en las tensiones entre poderosos aquello que más bien, oscurece el valor del movimiento social.

  14. Dual Regulation of Bacillus subtilis kinB Gene Encoding a Sporulation Trigger by SinR through Transcription Repression and Positive Stringent Transcription Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaro Fujita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that transcription of kinB encoding a trigger for Bacillus subtilis sporulation is under repression by SinR, a master repressor of biofilm formation, and under positive stringent transcription control depending on the adenine species at the transcription initiation nucleotide (nt. Deletion and base substitution analyses of the kinB promoter (PkinB region using lacZ fusions indicated that either a 5-nt deletion (Δ5, nt -61/-57, +1 is the transcription initiation nt or the substitution of G at nt -45 with A (G-45A relieved kinB repression. Thus, we found a pair of SinR-binding consensus sequences (GTTCTYT; Y is T or C in an inverted orientation (SinR-1 between nt -57/-42, which is most likely a SinR-binding site for kinB repression. This relief from SinR repression likely requires SinI, an antagonist of SinR. Surprisingly, we found that SinR is essential for positive stringent transcription control of PkinB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA analysis indicated that SinR bound not only to SinR-1 but also to SinR-2 (nt -29/-8 consisting of another pair of SinR consensus sequences in a tandem repeat arrangement; the two sequences partially overlap the ‘-35’ and ‘-10’ regions of PkinB. Introduction of base substitutions (T-27C C-26T in the upstream consensus sequence of SinR-2 affected positive stringent transcription control of PkinB, suggesting that SinR binding to SinR-2 likely causes this positive control. EMSA also implied that RNA polymerase and SinR are possibly bound together to SinR-2 to form a transcription initiation complex for kinB transcription. Thus, it was suggested in this work that derepression of kinB from SinR repression by SinI induced by Spo0A∼P and occurrence of SinR-dependent positive stringent transcription control of kinB might induce effective sporulation cooperatively, implying an intimate interplay by stringent response, sporulation, and biofilm formation.

  15. El problema del crecimiento sostenible ¿cómo crecer sin destruirse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Saravia Rios

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available De una u otra forma las organizaciones perciben el crecer como una meta necesaria en la planeación estratégica y cuando se logra el crecimiento buscado se supone una gestión exitosa. Sin embargo, en ocasiones no hay claridad sobre lo que significa crecer, cuáles son sus efectos y no se comprende con profundidad el significado de una buena gestión. Es común ver a las organizaciones formular preguntas como:¿Crecer significa vender más?, ¿Hasta dónde puedo crecer? ¿Crecer es tener mayor infraestructura y personal? ¿Qué tan rentable seré creciendo? o presentando afirmaciones como: “la meta del plan estratégico para este año es crecer un 20%, eso nos posicionará como el número uno en el sector”. La meta de una organización debe ser: ser sostenible y el crecer, puede ser una estrategia para lograrla, sin embargo, el crecer por sí mismo no necesariamente genera sostenibilidad, por esto, si una organización lo entiende como su meta puede comprometer su viabilidad. El problema del crecimiento tiene varias dimensiones de análisis que involucran todas las instancias de una organización, por ejemplo, se necesita tener acceso a la información del mercado y el entorno, se necesita tener la inteligencia para comprender esta información, se necesita una estructura organizacional dinámica, flexible e innovadora, es necesario comprender cómo los diferentes procesos interactúan y qué recursos necesitan. Para entender el crecer como una estrategia, se hace necesaria su formalización, y el uso de herramientas que permitan su manejo, estas herramientas deberán incluir las diferentes dimensiones de análisis. Mediante el uso de estos modelos, una organización puede diseñar una estrategia de crecimiento coherente con sus metas, y sin el riesgo de comprometer su estabilidad.

  16. Molecular basis of the activity of SinR protein, the master regulator of biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joseph A; Rodrigues, Cecilia; Lewis, Richard J

    2013-04-12

    Bacterial biofilms are complex communities of cells that are attached to a surface by an extracellular matrix. Biofilms are an increasing environmental and healthcare issue, causing problems ranging from the biofouling of ocean-going vessels, to dental plaque, infections of the urinary tract, and contamination of medical instruments such as catheters. A complete understanding of biofilm formation therefore requires knowledge of the regulatory pathways underpinning its formation so that effective intervention strategies can be determined. The master regulator that determines whether the gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis switches from a free-living, planktonic lifestyle to form a biofilm is called SinR. The activity of SinR, a transcriptional regulator, is controlled by its antagonists, SinI, SlrA, and SlrR. The interaction of these four proteins forms a switch, which determines whether or not SinR can inhibit biofilm formation by its repression of a number of extracellular matrix-associated operons. To determine the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters governing the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions at the heart of this epigenetic switch, we have analyzed the protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions by isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. We also present the crystal structure of SinR in complex with DNA, revealing the molecular basis of base-specific DNA recognition by SinR and suggesting that the most effective means of transcriptional control occurs by the looping of promoter DNA. The structural analysis also enables predictions about how SinR activity is controlled by its interaction with its antagonists.

  17. LA ESFERA AFECTIVA EN LA EDUCACIÓN DE LOS MENORES SIN AMPARO FAMILIAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alybé Moreno-Aurioles Matamoros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Se abordan los principios y categorías que sustentan el tratamiento educativo en la atención a las necesidades educativas especiales originadas por el fenómeno desamparo familiar, desde la concepción de familia, teniendo en cuenta que en los centros de asistencia social donde son atendidos los menores sin amparo familiar se debe cumplir con las funciones establecidas para la familia en nuestra sociedad. Se reflejan elementos que obligatoriamente deben tenerse en cuenta para favorecer el desarrollo de la esfera afectiva como las vivencias, actividad, educación, enfatizando en las características de esta esfera, base de la personalidad, unida a la cognitiva.

  18. Error Analysis and Compensation of Gyrocompass Alignment for SINS on Moving Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved method of gyrocompass alignment for strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS on moving base assisted with Doppler velocity log (DVL is proposed in this paper. After analyzing the classical gyrocompass alignment principle on static base, implementation of compass alignment on moving base is given in detail. Furthermore, based on analysis of velocity error, latitude error, and acceleration error on moving base, two improvements are introduced to ensure alignment accuracy and speed: (1 the system parameters are redesigned to decrease the acceleration interference and (2 a data repeated calculation algorithm is used in order to shorten the prolonged alignment time caused by changes in parameters. Simulation and test results indicate that the improved method can realize the alignment on moving base quickly and effectively.

  19. residenciales de madres sin cónyuge en Ciudad Juárez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zamorano Villarreal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se abordarán los itinerarios y las prácticas residenciales de madres sin cónyuge en Ciudad Juárez, ese punto de convergencia de inmigrantes nacionales y capitales internacionales y ahora, una de las más importantes ciudades maquiladoras del país. A partir de 51 historias de vida con trabajadoras de esta industria, se comparan los itinerarios residenciales de familias monoparentales con los de familias biparentales. Esta comparación permite ver las desventajas de las primeras para ingresar al mercado de la vivienda, que no se explican únicamente por factores de orden económico, sino también moral y práctico.

  20. Lithography-based fabrication of nanopore arrays in freestanding SiN and graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Yang, Wayne; Dekker, Cees

    2018-04-01

    We report a simple and scalable technique for the fabrication of nanopore arrays on freestanding SiN and graphene membranes based on electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching. By controlling the dose of the single-shot electron-beam exposure, circular nanopores of any size down to 16 nm in diameter can be fabricated in both materials at high accuracy and precision. We demonstrate the sensing capabilities of these nanopores by translocating dsDNA through pores fabricated using this method, and find signal-to-noise characteristics on par with transmission-electron-microscope-drilled nanopores. This versatile lithography-based approach allows for the high-throughput manufacturing of nanopores and can in principle be used on any substrate, in particular membranes made out of transferable two-dimensional materials.

  1. Precision measurement of sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ from semileptonic neutrino scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H.; Belusevic, R.; Blondel, A.; Bluemer, H.; Boeckmann, P.; Brummel, H.D.; Buchholz, P.; Burkhardt, H.; Debu, P.; Duda, J.; Dydak, F.; Falkenburg, B.; Fiedler, M.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Grant, A.L.; Guyot, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Hepp, V.; Hughes, E.W.; Kampschulte, B.; Keilwerth, H.; Kleinknecht, K.; Knobloch, J.; Krasny, M.; Kro-acute-accentlikowski, J.; Kurz, N.; Lipniacka, A.; Merlo, J.; Mueller, E.; Para, A.; Perez, P.; Perrier, F.; Pollman, D.; Ranjard, F.; Renk, B.; Schuller, J.; Taureg, H.; Tittel, K.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wotschack, J.

    1986-07-21

    The ratio R-italic/sub ..nu../ of the neutral- to charged-current cross sections of neutrinos in iron has been measured in an exposure of the CERN-Dortmund-Heidelberg-Saclay neutrino detector to a 160-GeV/c-italic neutrino narrow-band beam at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The result is R-italic/sub ..nu../ = 0.3072 +- 0.0025(stat) +- 0.0020(syst), for hadronic energy greater than 10 GeV. The electroweak mixing parameter is sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ = 0.225 +- 0.005(expt ) +- 0.003(theor)+0.013(m-italic/sub c-italic/-1. 5 GeV/c-italic/sup 2/), where m-italic/sub c-italic/ is the charm-quark mass.

  2. Cost of global warming may be 'sin' taxes on CO 2 use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, Cliff.

    1995-01-01

    One suggested solution for curbing carbon dioxide emissions and thus stopping the so-called greenhouse effect is taxing the emissions. A meeting in Maastrict, The Netherlands, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change declared that greenhouse emissions are putting the worlds climate at serious risk. The panel called on both industry and governments to act 'urgently' to deal with the threat. For some who have been watching world temperature closely, all of this concern may seem a bit strange. Worldwide temperatures had cooled by approximately 0.08 degrees Fahrenheit in the five years between 1987 and 1992, perhaps the strongest arguments for global warming come from surface temperature measurement, taken primarily at weather stations, show a steady march toward warmer temperatures since 1980 or so. Despite the satellite record and other evidence that nothing of global warming are yet appearing CO 2 sin taxes seem a likely possibility in at least some European countries and perhaps in Canada. (author)

  3. COMUNICACIÓN, CONOCIMIENTO Y PODER SIN AGENDA SOBRE LA SEGURIDAD CIUDADANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesús Rocha Picón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo reflexiona analíticamente sobre la comunicación, el poder y el conocimiento sin agenda sobre la seguridad ciudadana. En la comunicación está surgiendo el “Paradigma de comunicación de seguridad”, con fuertes bases éticas, moral y ciudadana, como mecanismo de colaboración mutua y prioridad en las relaciones de comunicación. Las relaciones de poder se basan en el “Paradigma de la dialógica” promoviendo espacios de diálogo y discusión. En el conocimiento se crearían condiciones y estrategias apropiadas para promoverse, articulando programas tanto a nivel local, sectorial, institucional y universitario, para brindar un esarrollo de la seguridad ciudadana con una fuerte base científica.

  4. Adolfo Bioy casares y Mario Bellatin: sobre cartas sin cuerpo y acantilados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fernandes Cipreste

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Se propone una lectura de dos escritores hispanoamericanos – Adolfo Bioy Casares y Mario Bellatin – con el propósito de reflexionar sobre discursos de poder, incluido el ámbito de la Crítica Latinoamericana. Se entienden las experiencias de los personajes de sus obras, y también el ethos de ambos los autores, como una existência ética y estética que resiste a los intentos de categorizaciones. La propuesta se hace a la luz del concepto de Comunidad, del filósofo italiano Roberto Esposito, y de la discusión de Hugo Achugar sobre lo local y lo global en América Latina. Dos imágenes inspiran ese análisis: la carta sin cuerpo en Dormir al sol, de Casares; y el acantilado de Bellatin en Los fantasmas del masajista.

  5. Sexo sin reproducción y reproducción sin sexo. Sexualidad y salud reproductiva de los donantes de semen y óvulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Plaza, Consuelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-assisted reproductive technology (HART appeared in the 1970s to help resolve sterility problems. Advances in this field opened up multiple options both for heterosexual couples with fertility problems and for other groups who saw the opportunity to access maternity/paternity at any point in their lifestage and/or without the need for reproductive coitus. The access of new groups (homosexual couples, men and women without partners, late access to maternity... has led to an increased need for gamete donors. This paper presents research conducted in assisted reproduction clinics in the Autonomous Region of Madrid in Spain. The research shows the control process exercised with male and female donors, whose bodies are dissociated in order to act as mere reproducers who meet the maternity and/or paternity needs and wishes of others. We will refer both to the consequences for egg and semen donors in terms of the modification of sexual habits, and to the repercussions for the reproductive health of egg donors.Las técnicas de reproducción humana asistida (TRHA surgen en los años 70 para solucionar problemas de esterilidad. Los avances en este campo abrieron múltiples opciones para parejas heterosexuales con problemas de fertilidad y para otros grupos que vieron cubrir sus expectativas para acceder a la maternidad/paternidad en cualquier momento de su ciclo vital y/u obviando el coito reproductivo. El acceso de nuevos grupos (parejas homosexuales, mujeres y hombres sin pareja, acceso tardío a la maternidad, ha provocado un aumento de la necesidad de gametos de donantes. Esta propuesta presenta una investigación llevada a cabo en clínicas de reproducción asistida de la Comunidad de Madrid (España. Se mostrará cómo se ejerce un control sobre los y las donantes quedando sus cuerpos disociados como meros reproductores al servicio de las necesidades y deseos de maternidad y/o paternidad de otros. Se pondrá de manifiesto las consecuencias para

  6. Autoprotección del aluminio anodizado sin sellar expuesto a la atmósfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, E.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available To confirm or refute the widely held idea that the sealing operation is vital to guarantee the good resistance of anodised aluminium to atmospheric corrosion, unsealed anodised specimens with three different film thicknesses were exposed in 9 atmospheres in Iberoamérica with salinity values of between 3.9 and 684 mg m sup>-2 day-1 of chlorides. Using a wide variety of techniques, from scanning and transmission electron microscopy to direct measurements by gravimetry, and including indirect measurements by electrochemical techniques as well as standard sealing quality control tests, the self-sealing capacity of unsealed anodic coatings during atmospheric exposure is demonstrated. Surprisingly, unlike other types of protective coatings, the quality of anodic films improves with ageing. Keywords

    Para confirmar o rebatir la idea, muy difundida, de que la operación de sellado es imprescindible para garantizar una buena resistencia del aluminio anodizado a la corrosión atmosférica, se expusieron muestras de anodizados sin sellar, de tres espesores diferentes, en 9 atmósferas de Iberoamérica, con salinidades comprendidas entre 3,9 y 684 mg m-2 d-1 de cloruros. Por las más variadas técnicas, desde la microscopía electrónica de barrido o transmisión a la medida directa por gravimetría, pasando por los ensayos normalizados de control de calidad del sellado y la medida indirecta por técnicas electroquímicas, se demuestra la capacidad de autosellado, durante la exposición a la atmósfera, de los recubrimientos anódicos sin sellar. Sorprendentemente, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en recubrimientos protectores de otra naturaleza, la calidad de los anodizados mejora con el envejecimiento.

  7. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  8. Detection of bioagents using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard S; Hjelle, Brian; Hall, Pam R; Brown, David C; Bisoffi, Marco; Brozik, Susan M; Branch, Darren W; Edwards, Thayne L; Wheeler, David

    2014-04-29

    A biosensor combining the sensitivity of surface acoustic waves (SAW) generated at a frequency of 325 MHz with the specificity provided by antibodies and other ligands for the detection of viral agents. In a preferred embodiment, a lithium tantalate based SAW transducer with silicon dioxide waveguide sensor platform featuring three test and one reference delay lines was used to adsorb antibodies directed against Coxsackie virus B4 or the negative-stranded category A bioagent Sin Nombre virus (SNV). Rapid detection of increasing concentrations of viral particles was linear over a range of order of magnitude for both viruses, and the sensor's selectivity for its target was not compromised by the presence of confounding Herpes Simplex virus type 1 The biosensor was able to delect SNV at doses lower than the load of virus typically found in a human patient suffering from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).

  9. A Novel Robust H∞ Filter Based on Krein Space Theory in the SINS/CNS Attitude Reference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their numerous merits, such as compact, autonomous and independence, the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and celestial navigation system (CNS can be used in marine applications. What is more, due to the complementary navigation information obtained from two different kinds of sensors, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system can be enhanced availably. Thus, the SINS/CNS system is widely used in the marine navigation field. However, the CNS is easily interfered with by the surroundings, which will lead to the output being discontinuous. Thus, the uncertainty problem caused by the lost measurement will reduce the system accuracy. In this paper, a robust H∞ filter based on the Krein space theory is proposed. The Krein space theory is introduced firstly, and then, the linear state and observation models of the SINS/CNS integrated navigation system are established reasonably. By taking the uncertainty problem into account, in this paper, a new robust H∞ filter is proposed to improve the robustness of the integrated system. At last, this new robust filter based on the Krein space theory is estimated by numerical simulations and actual experiments. Additionally, the simulation and experiment results and analysis show that the attitude errors can be reduced by utilizing the proposed robust filter effectively when the measurements are missing discontinuous. Compared to the traditional Kalman filter (KF method, the accuracy of the SINS/CNS integrated system is improved, verifying the robustness and the availability of the proposed robust H∞ filter.

  10. A Feasibility Analysis of Land-Based SINS/GNSS Gravimetry for Groundwater Resource Detection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Lin, Cheng-An; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2015-09-29

    The integration of the Strapdown Inertial Navigation System and Global Navigation Satellite System (SINS/GNSS) has been implemented for land-based gravimetry and has been proven to perform well in estimating gravity. Based on the mGal-level gravimetry results, this research aims to construct and develop a land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry device containing a navigation-grade Inertial Measurement Unit. This research also presents a feasibility analysis for groundwater resource detection. A preliminary comparison of the kinematic velocities and accelerations using multi-combination of GNSS data including Global Positioning System, Global Navigation Satellite System, and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, indicates that three-system observations performed better than two-system data in the computation. A comparison of gravity derived from SINS/GNSS and measured using a relative gravimeter also shows that both agree reasonably well with a mean difference of 2.30 mGal. The mean difference between repeat measurements of gravity disturbance using SINS/GNSS is 2.46 mGal with a standard deviation of 1.32 mGal. The gravity variation because of the groundwater at Pingtung Plain, Taiwan could reach 2.72 mGal. Hence, the developed land-based SINS/GNSS gravimetry can sufficiently and effectively detect groundwater resources.

  11. Higher order mode suppression in high-Q anomalous dispersion SiN microresonators for temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordts, A; Pfeiffer, M H P; Guo, H; Brasch, V; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-02-01

    High-Q silicon nitride (SiN) microresonators enable optical Kerr frequency comb generation on a photonic chip and have recently been shown to support fully coherent combs based on temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation. For bright soliton formation, it is necessary to operate SiN waveguides in the multimode regime in order to produce waveguide induced anomalous group velocity dispersion. However, this regime can lead to local disturbances of the dispersion due to avoided crossings caused by coupling between different mode families and, therefore, prevent the soliton formation. Here, we demonstrate that a single-mode "filtering" section inside high-Q resonators enables efficiently suppression of avoided crossings, while preserving high quality factors (Q∼10(6)). We verify the approach by demonstrating single soliton formation in SiN resonators with a filtering section.

  12. Pactos sin tributo: caudillos y campesinos en el nacimiento de la República: Ayacucho, 1825-18501

    OpenAIRE

    G., Cecilia Méndez

    2015-01-01

    La batalla que selló el fin del dominio español en América del Sur se había librado el 9 de diciembre de 1824, en Ayacucho. Pocos meses después, y virtualmente en los mismos territorios, estallaría una rebelión que por tres años pondría en jaque a la autoridad política de la recién inaugurada república del Perú. Los insurrectos eran una alianza de soldados y oficiales del ejército español, comerciantes, campesinos, curas, arrieros y hacendados de Huanta. Se habían levantado en nombre del Rey ...

  13. Búsqueda de Colocaciones en la Web para Sinónimos de Wordnet Búsqueda de Colocaciones en la Web para Sinónimos de Wordnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Montes -y-Gómez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La Web es sin lugar a dudas el repositorio de información más grande jamás construido por el ser humano. Con más de cuatro mil millones de páginas indexadas por los motores de búsqueda públicos, la Web representa el mayor y más amplio corpus textual disponible en la actualidad. Por su valor lingüístico, dado que contiene información en más de 1 500 lenguajes, este corpus está siendo usado con gran éxito en muchas tareas de procesamientodel lenguaje natural. En particular, varios métodos de minería de datos se han aplicado para extraer de la Web algunos tipos de patrones lingüísticos útiles para tareas como la traducción automática y búsqueda de respuestas. En este artículo presentamos un método que permite encontrar combinaciones de palabras significativas a los diferentes sentidos atribuibles a una palabra polisémica. Los experimentos realizados, aunque preliminares, muestran el gran potencial del método propuesto para encontrar estas colocaciones por sentido usando la Web como corpus, así como la viabilidad de la incorporación de dichas colocaciones en sistemas de desambiguación del sentido de las palabras, que pueden a su vez ser usados en sistemas de traducción automática y recuperación de información.There is no doubt that the Web is the biggest information repository ever before constructed by human beings. With more than four billion pages index-linked by the public search engines, the Web represents the biggest and the widest textual corpus available in our days. Because his high linguistic value, because contains information in more than 1500 different languages, this corpus is being used with great success in many tasks related to the natural language process. In particular, several methods of data mining have been applied to extract from the Web some types of linguistic patterns which are useful for a diversity of tasks, such as automatic translations and answer search systems. In this work we presenta

  14. Cele șapte păcate ale greenwashing-ului [The seven sins of greenwashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drăgoi M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This editorial tackles a problem the Romanian forestry journals have never dealt with: the greenwashing phenomenon. After a brief excursion into the communication clichés consciously or unconsciously delivered by the media to the public, we have scrutinized the seven sins of greenwashing, found into the forestry sector or promoted by the public authority responsible for environmental protection. The first sin we have found refers to the hidden trade-offs and the best example in this respect is the stumpage price. Being too high, neither the forest administrator/owner nor the contractor pays attention to the quality of the harvesting process, compromising the natural regeneration, destroying the upper soil and triggering erosion processes. Lack of evidence about the misbehavior of forest inspectors or unsubstantiated allegation when it comes to the ones responsible with forest regime supervision is the second sin, followed by the sin of vagueness. The best example of vague statement is the concept of favorable conservation status, barely defined for species but hard to define for large habitats. The sin of worship false labels goes along with the forest management planning system still stuck to the sustained yield principle even for very small forest ownerships, unable to produce steady annual yields simply because a regular age structure cannot be ever reached. The sin of irrelevance was exemplified by the paper waste that follows each public awareness campaign based on colorful flyers, personalized plastic ballpoint pens, folders and so on. Compared to the environmental cost of having this paper recycled the social benefit of having used this paper-based material fades out. The sin of lesser of two evils pops up whenever the public authority fails to enforce the best available technology, which sometime comes about with a higher social cost or less fringe benefits for all people working in forestry. After the collapse of the communist regime

  15. Influencia de los trastornos mentales y de la personalidad en el abandono de procesos en personas sin hogar

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Salavera

    2014-01-01

    Las personas sin hogar protagonizan un alto índice de abandonos en los procesos terapéuticos que establecen. El motivo de abandono no siempre es conocido, en esta investigación se aborda si viene mediado por los trastornos mentales o son los trastornos de personalidad los que llevan un mayor peso. Los resultados muestran a las personas sin hogar con deterioro cognitivo leve y trastornos de personalidad del grupo de problemas interpersonales y ambivalentes como los principales candidatos al ab...

  16. $\\sin(2\\beta)$ with $B^0 \\rightarrow\\!J/\\!\\psi K_\\text{S}$ at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Niet, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The poster presents the recent measurement of $\\sin(2\\beta)$ using $B^0$ decays to the $J/\\!\\psi K_\\text{S}$ final state. The measurement is based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0$\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. To control penguin pollutions in the determination of $\\sin(2\\beta)$, $B_s^0$ decays to the same final state can be analysed. The results of the corresponding analysis are presented as well.

  17. Enfermedad periodontal en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con y sin obesidad en Lima, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Quezada Carrera, José Carlos; Sacsaquispe Contreras, Sonia; Gutiérrez Ventura, Fredy; del Castillo López, César; López Pinedo, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: Determinar si la enfermedad periodontal afecta más a pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con obesidad que a  los pacientes sin obesidad. Material y métodos: La población estuvo conformado por 170 pacientes con diagnósticode Diabetes Mellitus (DM) tipo 2; fueron divididos en dos grupos 85 diabéticos obesos y 85 diabéticos no obesos: el grupo obesos fue de 55 mujeres y 30 hombres mientras que el grupo sin obesidad fue de 37 mujeresy 48 hombres. Se utilizó el Índice Periodontal Comunitario Mo...

  18. Valores percibidos en la publicidad de alimentos por jóvenes con y sin trastornos de la conducta alimentaria

    OpenAIRE

    Lluís Mas-Manchón; Ángel Rodríguez-Bravo; Norminanda Montoya-Vilar; Fernando Morales-Morante; Elaine Lopes; Elena Añaños; Rafaella Peres; María Eugenia Martínez; Antoni Grau

    2015-01-01

    La publicidad utiliza imágenes corporales fuertemente estereotipadas para promocionar cánones físicos y conductas alimentarias no saludables asociadas a productos de alimentación dirigidos sobre todo a jóvenes. El objetivo de este estudio, realizado en Barcelona (España) durante el mes de mayo de 2013, es testear la percepción de 25 valores en siete spots televisivos de alimentación (con y sin estrategias de imagen corporal) en 139 jóvenes con y sin trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA)...

  19. Calculation of the thermal utilisation factor in a cell made up of a given number of concentric media; Calcul du facteur d'utilisation thermique dans une cellule formee d'un nombre quelconque de milieux concentriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amouyal, A.; Benoist, P.; Guionnet, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The method of calculating the thermal utilisation factor, described in a previous report, is extended to the case of a cylindrical cell containing a given number of concentric media, certain of which may be empty. A collision by collision method is used in all but the peripheral medium, which may be treated by a theory of controlled diffusion. A programme for the IBM 650 calculator has been based on this method. Some numerical results are presented. An equivalent matrix formulation, due to C. Guionnet, is given as an appendix. (author) [French] La methode de calcul du facteur d'utilisation thermique, exposee dans un rapport precedent, est etendue au cas d'une cellule cylindrique comportant un nombre quelconque de milieux concentriques, certains de ces milieux pouvant etre vides. On utilise une methode choc par choc dans tous les milieux excepte le milieu peripherique qui peut etre traite par une theorie de diffusion ajustee. La methode a fait l'objet d'un programme pour le calculateur IBM 650. Quelques resultats numeriques sont presentes. Une formulation matricielle equivalente, due a C. Guionnet, est exposee en annexe. (auteur)

  20. Efecto del etnocentrismo sobre la tendencia a usar el nombre de marca en las decisiones de compra. Una aplicación al caso del calzado en España y Rusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Ostrovskaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el grado en que la Tendencia a usar el Nombre de Marca (TBN se ve afectada por el etnocentrismo del consumidor (CET y se pretende determinar si esta influencia varía en función de la edad o el sexo. Para ello se emplea una encuesta basada en la Web y realizada en dos países (España y Rusia, utilizando un muestreo adaptativo. Los datos, provenientes de 321 españoles y 375 rusos, fueron evaluados haciendo uso de la escala de Bristow, D.N., Schneider, K.C. & Schuler, D.K. (2002, para medir la TBN, y la escala de Shimp & Sharma (1987, para la CET, verificando sus invariancias. De este modo se advierte que el CET no tiene influencia sobre la TBN, aun haciendo una discriminación por grupos de edad o sexo. Los resultados obtenidos se refieren a dos países con diferentes valores culturales y distinto nivel de desarrollo económico, lo que ofrece una nueva perspectiva, que va más allá de estudios aislados sobre las marcas o países específicos. El trabajo muestra que existen, entre los dos países, algunos rasgos similares respecto al BN y al CET, sirviendo como input para desarrollar estrategias de diferenciación y segmentación.

  1. ROTATION–ACTIVITY CORRELATIONS IN K AND M DWARFS. I. STELLAR PARAMETERS AND COMPILATIONS OF v sin i AND P /sin i FOR A LARGE SAMPLE OF LATE-K AND M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Mullan, D. J.; Paletou, F.; Gebran, M.

    2016-01-01

    The reliable determination of rotation–activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T eff , parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin i . In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the ( R – I ) C color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon and Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters ( T eff , log( g ), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis–based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius–[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin i in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin i measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P /sin i measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P /sin i , and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level.

  2. Rotation-Activity Correlations in K and M Dwarfs. I. Stellar Parameters and Compilations of v sin I and P/sin I for a Large Sample of Late-K and M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdebine, E. R.; Mullan, D. J.; Paletou, F.; Gebran, M.

    2016-05-01

    The reliable determination of rotation-activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T eff, parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin I. In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the (R-I) C color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon & Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters (T eff, log(g), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis-based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius-[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin I in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin I measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P/sin I measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P/sin I, and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level. Based on observations available at Observatoire de Haute Provence and the European Southern Observatory databases and on Hipparcos parallax measurements.

  3. ROTATION–ACTIVITY CORRELATIONS IN K AND M DWARFS. I. STELLAR PARAMETERS AND COMPILATIONS OF v sin i AND P /sin i FOR A LARGE SAMPLE OF LATE-K AND M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdebine, E. R. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, BT61 9DG Armagh, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Mullan, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Paletou, F. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Gebran, M., E-mail: eric_houdebine@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Notre Dame University-Louaize, P.O. Box 72, Zouk Mikael (Lebanon)

    2016-05-10

    The reliable determination of rotation–activity correlations (RACs) depends on precise measurements of the following stellar parameters: T {sub eff}, parallax, radius, metallicity, and rotational speed v sin i . In this paper, our goal is to focus on the determination of these parameters for a sample of K and M dwarfs. In a future paper (Paper II), we will combine our rotational data with activity data in order to construct RACs. Here, we report on a determination of effective temperatures based on the ( R – I ){sub C} color from the calibrations of Mann et al. and Kenyon and Hartmann for four samples of late-K, dM2, dM3, and dM4 stars. We also determine stellar parameters ( T {sub eff}, log( g ), and [M/H]) using the principal component analysis–based inversion technique for a sample of 105 late-K dwarfs. We compile all effective temperatures from the literature for this sample. We determine empirical radius–[M/H] correlations in our stellar samples. This allows us to propose new effective temperatures, stellar radii, and metallicities for a large sample of 612 late-K and M dwarfs. Our mean radii agree well with those of Boyajian et al. We analyze HARPS and SOPHIE spectra of 105 late-K dwarfs, and we have detected v sin i in 92 stars. In combination with our previous v sin i measurements in M and K dwarfs, we now derive P /sin i measures for a sample of 418 K and M dwarfs. We investigate the distributions of P /sin i , and we show that they are different from one spectral subtype to another at a 99.9% confidence level.

  4. Smokers’ Strategic Responses to Sin Taxes: Evidence from Panel Data in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S.; Ross, Hana

    2014-01-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own (RYO) tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, socio-demographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of RYO tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to over-estimates of a sin tax’s health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. PMID:24677731

  5. Sins: the Supernova Intensive Study - 87A Revisit CYCLE3HIGH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert

    1992-06-01

    Supernovae are stars at the end of stellar evolution. They mark the moment of stellar destruction, act as the key process in the chemical evolution of the universe, serve as agitators and probes of the interstellar medium, and provide sharp and useful tools for cosmological investigations. As SN 1987A demonstrated, the best progress in this field comes from detailed study of the brightest objects. Many central problems of supernova research can be attacked by intensive and extensive observations of a handful of moderately bright supernovae using the HST cameras and spectrographs. SN 1987A provides a unique opportunity to connect the evolution of a supernova with the development of a supernova remnant and will be intensively studied in this program. Because supernovae touch on so many fields of astronomy, the results of this Supernova Intensive Study (SINS) will affect a broad range of areas from stellar interiors to cosmology so a diverse team of investigators has been assembled which includes experts on all these aspects of astronomy. While the first cycle observations concentrate on SN 1987A and on a fresh supernova to be studied at intermediate age, the second and third cycle will include target-of-opportunity observations of freshly-discovered supernovae which will strive for good UV coverage at early phases of the outburst.

  6. Optimization Algorithm for Kalman Filter Exploiting the Numerical Characteristics of SINS/GPS Integrated Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Xu, Shike; Wang, Duhu; Zhang, Aiwu

    2015-11-11

    Aiming at addressing the problem of high computational cost of the traditional Kalman filter in SINS/GPS, a practical optimization algorithm with offline-derivation and parallel processing methods based on the numerical characteristics of the system is presented in this paper. The algorithm exploits the sparseness and/or symmetry of matrices to simplify the computational procedure. Thus plenty of invalid operations can be avoided by offline derivation using a block matrix technique. For enhanced efficiency, a new parallel computational mechanism is established by subdividing and restructuring calculation processes after analyzing the extracted "useful" data. As a result, the algorithm saves about 90% of the CPU processing time and 66% of the memory usage needed in a classical Kalman filter. Meanwhile, the method as a numerical approach needs no precise-loss transformation/approximation of system modules and the accuracy suffers little in comparison with the filter before computational optimization. Furthermore, since no complicated matrix theories are needed, the algorithm can be easily transplanted into other modified filters as a secondary optimization method to achieve further efficiency.

  7. Heavy metals in Sinú river, department of Córdoba, Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jairo Feria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las concentraciones de Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Hg, Pb y Cd en sedimentos superficiales del río Sinú. Las muestras se recolectaron en 10 sitios de muestreo aguas abajo del embalse de Urrá I, considerándose dos períodos de muestreo, uno en época de lluvia y otro en época seca. Las concentraciones de los metales se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica o por voltametría y se normalizaron con respecto a las concentraciones del aluminio, por ser un metal conservativo. Se observó una fuerte correlación entre las concentraciones de Cu, Ni, Cr y Zn para ambos períodos muestreados, sugiriendo un origen común. Adicionalmente, el factor de enriquecimiento indicó para todos los elementos evaluados, a excepción del Fe, concentraciones enriquecidas de metales pesados en los sedimentos. En los sitios que reciben el impacto de los suelos inundados, existe una mayor concentración de metales en los sedimentos, comparada con otras zonas de la cuenca, lo cual se asocia con la reducción de sulfatos y la formación de sulfuros y la subsecuente liberación y disponibilidad de metales pesados.

  8. HISTOPATOLOGIA DE LA INFECCIÓN EXPERIMENTAL DE OVEJAS SIN LANA Ovis aries POR Neospora caninum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Oviedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovejas sin lana en diferentes estados reproductivos fueron inoculadas por vía intravenosa con taquizoítos deN. caninum muestra «NC-beef» con el fin de estudiar la patofisiología de la enfermedad en estos animales yverificar la posibilidad de ser usados como modelo experimental de neosporosis bovina. Se utilizaron cincoovejas gestantes (una con 15 días, dos con 30 días, dos con 90 días, tres no gestantes y dos con 10 díasposparto. Los animales eran serologicamente negativos para N.caninum y T. gondii. Dos ovejas gestantes, noinoculadas, fueron utilizadas como control negativo. Los corderos necropsiados, nacidos de ovejas inoculadasantes o durante la gestación presentaron alteraciones histopatológicas en diferentes tejidos, siendo las masseveras observadas en el sistema nervioso central, caracterizadas por la presencia de formas quísticas delparásito asociadas con infiltrado inflamatorio predominantemente mononuclear, áreas de necrosis y en algunoscasos presencia de calcificación. Los corderos nacidos de ovejas inoculadas 10 días después del parto nopresentaron signos clínicos de la enfermedad ni anticuerpos contra o parásito y a la necropsia no presentaronlesiones en ninguno de los tejidos analizados. Un cordero nacido de oveja no inoculada no presentó alteracionesmicroscópicas en ninguno de los tejidos analizados

  9. El dilema de los recursos naturales comunes "sin doliente(s"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Parra Leidy Marcela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad, personas como Aristóteles y Tucídides plantearon una teoría básica que evidenció el comportamiento que las personas tienen con respecto al uso continuo de algún recurso natural común. Dejaron entrever el conflicto, normalmente económico, que se genera por la intervención de intereses individuales sobre los bienes públicos. La tragedia de los comunes (término popularizado por Garrett Hardin en 1968 explica cómo el acceso sin restricciones a un recurso "comunal" finito conduce a la sobreexplotación y al agotamiento de dicho recurso por el aumento desmedido en su demanda. Esto ocurre porque el grupo o los individuos que aprovechan los recursos no cargan directamente con los costos de su explotación. Entonces frente a la premisa de que el recurso es de todos y para todos, pero en última instancia, no pertenece a nadie, cabe preguntarse qué prima: ¿Un interés individual sobre un colectivo? O tal vez, ¿es una cuestión de enfoque etológico?

  10. La comunicación expresiva en niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra GRAZONA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estuvo centrada en niños con multidiscapacidad que se comunican a través de canales no visuales y no verbales. A partir de la pregunta central respecto a: ¿Cómo dan a conocer el contenido de sus mensajes los niños con multidiscapacidad que no poseen lenguaje verbal?, implementamos un estudio con dos fases complementarias y de convergencia metodológica. La primera, amparada en el paradigma positivista, en la que realizamos un acercamiento objetivo a la realidad y por medio de la operacionalización de los conceptos teóricos. en la segunda fase, profundizamos a través de la Metodología de estudio de Caso (9 en total y con un anclaje en el paradigma fenomenológico-interpretativo. El objetivo perseguido fue: Conocer las formas comunicativas de niños con multidiscapacidad sin lenguaje verbal, por ello privilegiamos el análisis en profundidad a partir de la utilización de diferentes técnicas que permitieron el acercamiento a los niños en ambientes naturales y triangular la información para proporcionar fiabilidad y validez. Las mencionadas etapas permitieron obtener un conocimiento holístico de las formas comunicativas idiosincráticas utilizadas por los niños con multidiscapacidad, que, a modo de bisagra, constituyen su fenotipo comunicativo.

  11. Determination of sin2 θ {w/eff} using jet charge measurements in hadronic Z decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J. P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M. N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Palla, F.; Pater, J. R.; Pusztaszeri, J. F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Wildish, T.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rossignol, J. M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Ten Have, I.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Whelan, E. P.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H. G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H. G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; St. Denis, R.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J. F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A. M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M. H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J. J.; Videau, I.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J. F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J. P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Aleppo, M.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Ragusa, F.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Bellantoni, L.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I. J.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.

    1996-03-01

    The electroweak mixing angle is determined with high precision from measurements of the mean difference between forward and backward hemisphere charges in hadronic decays of the Z. A data sample of 2.5 million hadronic Z decays recorded over the period 1990 to 1994 in the ALEPH detector at LEP is used. The mean charge separation between event hemispheres containing the original quark and antiquark is measured forbbar b andcbar c events in subsamples selected by their long lifetimes or using fast D*’s. The corresponding average charge separation for light quarks is measured in an inclusive sample from the anticorrelation between charges of opposite hemispheres and agrees with predictions of hadronisation models with a precision of 2%. It is shown that differences between light quark charge separations and the measured average can be determined using hadronisation models, with systematic uncertainties constrained by measurements of inclusive production of kaons, protons and Λ’s. The separations are used to measure the electroweak mixing angle precisely as sin2 ϑ {w/eff}=0.2322±0.0008(exp.stat.) ±0.0007(exp.syst.)±0.0008(sep.). The first two errors are due to purely experimental sources whereas the third stems from uncertainties in the quark charge separations.

  12. Corrosión de armaduras galvanizadas y sin proteger embebidas en cemento aluminoso estabilizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triviño, F.

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El cemento aluminoso, cuya obtención se basa en la fusión de bauxita y caliza, ha demostrado desde que fue patentado en Francia, en 1908 por Cementos Lafarge, unas propiedades excepcionales que lo hacen idóneo para ciertas aplicaciones. Tales propiedades son fundamentalmente el desarrollo de elevadas resistencias mecánicas en las primeras edades de hidratación, posibilidad de hormigonar en tiempo frío, una gran resistencia química al agua de mar y a los sulfatos, propiedades refractarias, etc. Todo ello hizo que el cemento aluminoso del tipo fundido, con un 40 % de Al2O3, se utilizara ampliamente en la construcción. Sin embargo, a partir de un determinado momento empezaron a observarse alteraciones en algunas obras construidas con hormigón de este tipo, manifestándose importantes pérdidas de sus resistencias mecánicas (1. Las causas de tales deterioros han sido ampliamente estudiadas (2-(13, atribuyéndose la principal a la "conversión" de los aluminatos cálcicos hidratados hexagonales en hidratos cúbicos, según reacción [1].

  13. Existir sin ser visto. Aproximaciones a una teoría del sujeto espectador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis PUELLES ROMERO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la constatación de un sorprendente desequilibrio entre la evidente participación del espectador en el hecho artístico y la escasa dedicación que sin embargo ha recibido por parte de la Estética y la Historia del arte, estas páginas indagan en las razones de esta insuficiencia de la teoría, además de aportar algunos puntos de vista de utilidad para la elaboración de una estética de los espectadores que concrete y complete la Estética de la Recepción de la Escuela de Constanza.ABSTRACT: This article stems from the obvious lack of balance between the active participation of the spectator in the artistic event, and the lack of attention he has received in Aesthetics and Art History. It explores the reasons for this insufficiency in art theory, as it puts forward an outline for an aesthetics of the spectator that can be added to the reception theory of the Constance School.

  14. Estudios sobre postmodernidad y estudios culturales: ¿sinónimos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Roberto A. Follari

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La postmodernidad exige para ser comprendida una dimensión sociohistórica y otra filosófica que le resulta irrenunciables. También hay una serie de fenómenos propiamente culturales, que son los que los denominados "estudios culturales" (G. Canclini. M. Barbero, etc. han asumido en Latinoamérica. Tales estudios han aportado una descripción de fenómenos nuevos, que no son analizados por ningún otro discurso teórico (tribus urbanas, identidades lábiles, influencia de los medios en los nuevos estilos de consumo, etc.. Con ello se da cuenta de parte de la cuestión postmodernidad, pero sin dudase deja fuera otras: lo filosófico y aún lo social y lo político quedan fuera de esa especie de antropología del presente. Por lo tanto, un enfoque integral de lo postmoderno incluye los estudios culturales, pero está lejos de limitarse a ellos.

  15. Smokers' strategic responses to sin taxes: evidence from panel data in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Justin S; Ross, Hana

    2015-02-01

    In addition to quitting and cutting consumption, smokers faced with higher cigarette prices may compensate in several ways that mute the health impact of cigarette taxes. This study examines three price avoidance strategies among adult male smokers in Thailand: trading down to a lower-priced brand, buying individual sticks of cigarettes instead of packs, and substituting roll-your-own tobacco for factory-manufactured cigarettes. Using two panels of microlevel data from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Study, collected in 2005 and 2006, we estimate the effects of a substantial excise tax increase implemented throughout Thailand in December 2005. We present estimates of the marginal effects and price elasticities for each of five consumer behaviors. We find that, controlling for baseline smoking characteristics, sociodemographics, and policy variables, quitting is highly sensitive to changes in cigarette prices, but so are brand choice, stick-buying, and use of roll-your-own tobacco. Neglecting such strategic responses leads to overestimates of a sin tax's health impact, and neglecting product substitution distorts estimates of the price elasticity of cigarette demand. We discuss the implications for consumer welfare and several policies that mitigate the adverse impact of consumer responses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Aprendizaje sin refuerzo explícito en discriminaciones condicionales con estímulos complejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Pérez Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la posibilidad de que los sujetos mejorasen su ejecución a lo largo de una tarea de discriminación condicional en la que no se proporcionara retroalimentación de sus respuestas. Para ello se expuso a 188 sujetos a una prueba de evaluación de equivalencia-equivalencia, se dividió la misma en cuatro bloques de 9 ensayos y se analizó la diferencia de aciertos. Los resultados muestran que aquellos sujetos que cometieron entre 5 y 12 fallos presentan una mejora entre el primer y cuarto bloque de casi el 20% y en algunos casos de hasta el 44.44%. Se discuten estos resultados como evidencia del aprendizaje sin refuerzo explícito y se valora su posible implicación en contra de algunos estudios centrados en la búsqueda de procedimientos de facilitación de la respuesta de equivalencia-equivalencia.

  17. How might global health master deadly sins and strive for greater virtues?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Panter-Brick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the spirit of critical reflection, we examine how the field of global health might surmount current challenges and prioritize its ethical mandate, namely to achieve, for all people, equity in health. We use the parlance of mastering deadly sins and striving for greater virtues in an effort to review what is needed to transform global health action. Global health falls prey to four main temptations: coveting silo gains, lusting for technological solutions, leaving broad promises largely unfulfilled, and boasting of narrow successes. This necessitates a change of heart: to keep faith with the promise it made, global health requires a realignment of core values and a sharper focus on the primacy of relationships with the communities it serves. Based on the literature to date, we highlight six steps to re-orienting global health action. Articulating a coherent global health agenda will come from principled action, enacted through courage and prudence in decision-making to foster people-centered systems of care over the entire lifespan.

  18. Evidence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents captured in a rural area of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Evidência de infecção por hantavírus em roedores silvestres capturados em uma área rural do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Regina S. de Lemos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are the etiological agents of the Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome, a serious rodent-borne disease in Brazil. In order to investigate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents, a survey was conducted in three different suburban areas of the municipality of Pedreira, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Of the 145 wild animals captured belonging to 12 different species identified by morphology and karyological analysis, 107 were rodents of the following species: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, and Myocastor coypus. Blood samples from these rodents were assayed for the presence of antibodies against hantavirus by IgG ELISA using Andes recombinant nucleocapsid antigen. Antibody reactive to Andes virus was found in two different species, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. These results indicate a potential risk for hantavirus transmission to humans in this area, where reservoir rodents are present in peridomestic settings.Hantavírus é o agente etiológico da síndrome cardio-pulmonar por hantavirus (SCPH, uma importante doença transmitida por roedores no Brasil. Com o objetivo de se conhecer a ocorrência de infecção por hantavírus em pequenos roedores silvestres, uma análise sorológica foi conduzida em três diferentes áreas do subúrbio da cidade de Pedreira, São Paulo. Dos 145 animais silvestres capturados, pertecentes a 12 diferentes espécies identificadas por morfologia e por análise cariológica, 107 eram roedores das seguintes espécies: Akodon montensis, Bolomys lasiurus, Calomys tener, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oligoryzomys flavescens, e Myocastor coypus. Amostras de sangue desses roedores foram testadas para a presença de anticorpos IgG contra o antígeno do nucleocapsídeo do vírus Andes através do teste ELISA. Reatividade sorológica ao vírus Andes foi observada em duas espécies diferentes, O. nigripes and O. flavescens. Estes resultados

  19. Cirugía del tronco común con y sin circulación extracorpórea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Ríos Barrera

    2006-01-01

    Conclusiones: Los resultados en ambos grupos han sido similares, por lo que, en la actualidad, la existencia de estenosis del TC no condiciona la técnica de revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica con o sin CEC, quedando su elección a criterio del cirujano.

  20. The SINS Survey : Modeling the Dynamics of z ~ 2 Galaxies and the High-z Tully-Fisher Relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cresci, G.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Genzel, R.; Schreiber, N. M. Förster; Davies, R.; Bouché, N.; Buschkamp, P.; Genel, S.; Shapiro, K.; Tacconi, L.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Burkert, A.; Eisenhauer, F.; Gerhard, O.; Lutz, D.; Naab, T.; Sternberg, A.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Erb, D. K.; Kurk, J.; Lilly, S. L.; Renzini, A.; Shapley, A.; Steidel, C. C.; Caputi, K.

    2009-01-01

    We present the modeling of SINFONI integral field dynamics of 18 star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2 from Hα line emission. The galaxies are selected from the larger sample of the SINS survey, based on the prominence of ordered rotational motions with respect to more complex merger-induced dynamics. The

  1. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 500m SIN Grid product, MYD09GHK, is a seven-band product computed from the MODIS Level 1B land...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  3. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  4. The homeobox gene Mohawk represses transcription by recruiting the sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Douglas M; Beres, Brian J; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Rawls, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Mohawk is an atypical homeobox gene expressed in embryonic progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, tendon, and cartilage. We demonstrate that Mohawk functions as a transcriptional repressor capable of blocking the myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 fibroblasts. The repressor activity is located in three small, evolutionarily conserved domains (MRD1-3) in the carboxy-terminal half of the protein. Point mutation analysis revealed six residues in MRD1 are sufficient for repressor function. The carboxy-terminal half of Mohawk is able to recruit components of the Sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex (Sin3A, Hdac1, and Sap18) and a subset of Polymerase II general transcription factors (Tbp, TFIIA1 and TFIIB). Furthermore, Sap18, a protein that bridges the Sin3A/HDAC complex to DNA-bound transcription factors, is co-immunoprecipitated by MRD1. These data predict that Mohawk can repress transcription through recruitment of the Sin3A/HDAC co-repressor complex, and as a result, repress target genes required for the differentiation of cells to the myogenic lineage. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Tnf-α expression and promoter sequences reflect the balance of tolerance/resistance to Puumala hantavirus infection in European bank vole populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, Emmanuel; Galan, Maxime; Salvador, Alexis Ribas; Xuéreb, Anne; Chaval, Yannick; Olsson, Gert E; Essbauer, Sandra; Henttonen, Heikki; Voutilainen, Liina; Cosson, Jean-François; Charbonnel, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) influences the ability to limit parasite infection but its over-production might result in inflammatory disorders. The level of Tnf-α gene expression could thus mediate a balance of tolerance/resistance to infections. This study focused on Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection in its rodent host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In humans, PUUV is responsible of a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, nephropathia epidemica (NE). The severity of NE is associated with an over-production of TNF-α. By contrast, PUUV infection in bank vole is chronic and asymptomatic. It is likely that different coevolutionary histories between PUUV and its hosts could lead to different balances of resistance/tolerance to PUUV infection, at least partly mediated by variable production levels of TNF-α. We investigated the hypothesis that bank voles from PUUV endemic areas should exhibit higher levels of tolerance, i.e. lower levels of TNF-α production, than bank voles from areas where PUUV prevalence is low. For this purpose, we analysed variations of Tnf-α gene expression and promoter sequences among European populations of bank voles. Our results revealed an absence of up-regulation of Tnf-α gene expression in PUUV infected bank voles and significant differences in Tnf-α gene expression level with regard to PUUV endemicity. These results corroborated the hypothesis of different balances of tolerance/resistance to PUUV. Two single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes within the Tnf-α promoter (-302 GG/GG and -296 A/A) were associated with higher Tnf-α gene expression and were more frequent in non-endemic areas. This study emphasized the potential influence of selection acting on TNF-α production and mediating a tolerance/resistance balance to PUUV in bank voles. Further investigations, including the role of phenotypic plasticity and parasite communities on Tnf-α expression levels, should provide important keys to understand

  6. Estrategias de desarrollo comunitario: estudio de la integración de las personas sin hogar y las instituciones asistenciales en la ciudad de Valladolid.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso-Ponga García, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Se realiza una investigación sobre la asistencia al sin hogarismo en un ámbito local. Investigar el modo concreto en que se articulan las diferentes entidades que prestan atención a las personas sin hogar en la ciudad de Valladolid. Analizar el modo en el que la asistencia a personas sin hogar se materializa en un entorno urbano concreto. Estudiar en qué medida la estructura asistencial influye en la vida de las personas sin hogar. Trabajo Fin de Master. Curso 2011-2012

  7. Hernioplastia laparoscópica sin fijadores específicos Laparoscopic hernioplasty without specific fixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Hernández Gutiérrez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Esta investigación tuvo el objetivo de mostrar los resultados preliminares del uso la hernioplastia laparoscópica sin fijadores específicos, en pacientes con hernia inguinal de tipo III según la Clasificación de Nyhus, en nuestro medio. MÉTODOS. Se documentaron los resultados preliminares de pacientes operados entre mayo de 2006 y febrero de 2007 y un seguimiento de 2 a 3 años hasta la actualidad. La muestra quedó conformada por 11 pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente por mínimo acceso. A todos se les realizó una plastia con prótesis de polipropileno: se fijó la malla en 4 de ellos y en los restantes 7 no se fijó, independientemente del tipo de abordaje empleado. No se utilizó ninguno de los fijadores específicos existentes en el mercado para este fin. RESULTADOS. El tiempo quirúrgico promedió 55 min y la curación del 100 % se observó al año de seguimiento. Las complicaciones fueron: en el transoperatorio, hipercapnia transitoria en 1 de los 7 pacientes operados por vía totalmente extraperitoneal, y en el posoperatorio, un hematoma en uno de los puertos quirúrgicos, en el mismo paciente. Se utilizaron antibióticos en 2 pacientes, y la mortalidad fue nula. CONCLUSIONES. La hernioplastia laparoscópica para este tipo de hernia es efectiva aún sin fijadores específicos para la malla quirúrgica. El hecho de no fijar la malla ahorra tiempo quirúrgico, dolor posoperatorio, y no afecta la efectividad de la técnica. No es necesario usar antibioticoterapia profiláctica, a menos que el tiempo quirúrgico sea mayor de 2 h. La hernioplastia laparoscópica ahorra 19 993 € por cada 100 enfermos operados, cuando no se fija la malla quirúrgica.INTRODUCTION: The aim of present research was to show the preliminary results of laparoscopic hernioplasty use without specific fixers in patients presenting with type II inguinal hernia according the Nyhus classification in our practice. METHODS: Authors confirmed the

  8. Efecto sinérgico de penicilina G y Kanamicina en septicemia neonatal por estafilococo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Espino

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sesenta y tres pacientes con diagnóstico de septicemia neonatal, 44 por estafilococo coagulasa negativa y 19 por estafilococo coagulasa positiva recibieron tratamiento con penicilina G y kanamicina. El 72, 7 % de las cepas de estafilococo coagulasa negativa y el 61,3 % de las cepas de estafilococo coagulasa positiva aisladas, fueron resistentes a ambos antibióticos individualmente. Se observó sinergismo marcado en 27 cepas de estafilococo coagulasa negativa y 12 de estafilococo coagulasa positiva, cuya media geométrica de los valores del índice de concentración fraccionaria inhibitoria (CFI fue de 0,39 y 0,11 respectivamente. En el resto de las pruebas realizadas se observó adición. Al considerar a todos los pacientes juntos, la efectividad del tratamiento fue mayor cuando el germen era sensible a ambos antibióticos, que cuando sólo era sensible a uno de los 2. Para los resultados sinérgicos, el 82 % de los pacientes tuvieron una salida clínica efectiva, así como también el 62,5 % de los resultados aditivos. La efectividad general de la combinación fue del 74,6 %. El estudio sugiere que el uso rutinario de la combinación de penicilina G y kanamicina que haya demostrado sinergia o adición in vitro, deberá ser considerado para el tratamiento de infecciones por estafilococos.

  9. Tecnologías emergentes para la conservación de alimentos sin calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Molina, Juan José

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Se han investigado los principios básicos de tres tecnologías emergentes para pasteurizar y esterilizar alimentos sin empleo del calor Mediante numerosos estudios se ha comprobado la efectividad de los campos eléctricos pulsantes de alta intensidad (CEPAI, los pulsos de luz (PL y los campos magnéticos oscilantes (CMO en la destrucción de microorganismos y enzimas de sistemas alimentarios. En la inactivación microbiana por CEPA!, el blanco principal es la membrana celular que, al ser sometida a campos eléctricos de alta intensidad, se hace permeable formando huecos o poros cuyo tamaño se incrementa a medida que aumenta la intensidad del campo eléctrico o el tiempo de tratamiento o se reduce la resistencia iónica del medio de pulsación. Por otra parte, los PL inducen reacciones fotoquímicas y fototérmicas en los alimentos, causando la muerte de gran cantidad de microorganismos, especialmente en productos alimenticios envasados. Los CMO producen simulación o inhibición en el crecimiento y reproducción de los microorganismos, un simple pulso de intensidad de 5-10 teslas y frecuencias de 5-500 kHz es suficiente para reducir el número de microorganismos en un mínimo de 2 ciclos logarítmicos. Se ha comprobado que estas tecnologías alargan la vida de anaquel de diversos productos alimenticios y pueden ser consideradas como sustitutos parciales de los procesos convencionales de pasteurización y esterilización de alimentos por tratamientos térmicos.

  10. ¿Al final, TLC con o sin biopiratería?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Isabel Gómez Lee

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema está en que en Colombia los temas de acceso a los recursos genéticos, los derechos de propiedad intelectual (DPI y la protección del conocimiento tradicional (CT no han recibido la importancia que se merecen. No ha habido un debate abierto acerca del papel que juegan estos temas en el desarrollo de un país megadiverso y una nación multiétnica y pluricultural, como es Colombia. Sin embargo, el gobierno colombiano decidió negociar un TLC indefinido que define la política comercial al respecto para Colombia. En febrero de 2006, se cerraron las negociaciones del TLC en términos similares a Perú. Ese país aceptó las patentes de genes aislados y de plantas conforme a los intereses de Estados Unidos. Colombia tiene cuatro grupos étnicos: 84 pueblos indígenas que hablan 64 lenguas, los afrocolombianos, los raizales del Archipiélago de San Andrés y Providencia y los rom. La constitución de 1991 garantiza y protege los recursos genéticos, la diversidad étnica y cultural y los derechos humanos. Las posiciones y propuestas oficiales sobre acceso a recursos genéticos, biodiversidad y protección del CT que presentó el gobierno colombiano en el TLC, no fueron concertadas previamente con los grupos étnicos colombianos. El Estado tiene que consultarlos, para determinar su posición respecto al acceso a los recursos genéticos, la protección al CT y los DPI

  11. Faustina Sáez de Melgar: liberación sin rupturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorado, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on periodicals as the principal documental source, this article aims to demonstrate how the copious literary production and biography of Faustina Sáez de Melgar (1833? was closely linked to journalism. The creator of several magazines aimed at women, she seems to regard fashion magazines as a way of encouraging reading habits in the home. She asserts that education is the key to delivering women from their social marginalisation, which she denounced as a form of slavery. Although an active supporter of abolitionism -author of the drama La cadena rota- she did not consider women’s liberation to require any break in social norms, as it can be found within marriage, the maintaining of patriarchal structures and the practising of Christian virtues. Her thought sometimes appears opportunistic and contradictory. This is possibly a result of a cautious strategy, in which she sought to achieve only what was possible in her epoch.Con documentación hemerográfica como fuente principal, el artículo pretende poner de manifiesto la estrecha relación que con la prensa tuvo la extensa obra y la biografía de Faustina Sáez de Melgar (1833?. Creadora de varias revistas dirigidas a la mujer, vio en ellas un medio de fomentar la lectura en los hogares. Afirma que la educación es el medio por el que la mujer puede liberarse de la marginación social que padece y que ella denuncia como esclavitud. Autora del drama La cadena rota, comprometida con el abolicionismo, considera sin embargo innecesario romper ninguna: esa liberación llega además por el matrimonio y la práctica de las virtudes en una sociedad patriarcal cristiana. Sus opiniones parecen en ocasiones contradictorias y oportunistas. Posiblemente subyace una cautelosa estrategia en aplicación del “posibilismo”.

  12. THE SINS/zC-SINF SURVEY of z {approx} 2 GALAXY KINEMATICS: OUTFLOW PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Foerster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Buschkamp, Peter; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Griffin, Kristen Shapiro [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, I-35122 (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Peng, Yingjie [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Bouche, Nicolas [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Berlin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Burkert, Andreas [Department fuer Physik, Universitaets-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, Muenchen, D-81679 (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di AstrofisicaOsservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-12-10

    Using SINFONI H{alpha}, [N II], and [S II] AO data of 27 z {approx} 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS and zC-SINF surveys, we explore the dependence of outflow strength (via the broad flux fraction) on various galaxy parameters. For galaxies that have evidence for strong outflows, we find that the broad emission is spatially extended to at least the half-light radius ({approx}a few kpc). Decomposition of the [S II] doublet into broad and narrow components suggests that this outflowing gas probably has a density of {approx}10-100 cm{sup -3}, less than that of the star-forming gas (600 cm{sup -3}). There is a strong correlation of the H{alpha} broad flux fraction with the star formation surface density of the galaxy, with an apparent threshold for strong outflows occurring at 1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Above this threshold, we find that SFGs with log m{sub *} > 10 have similar or perhaps greater wind mass-loading factors ({eta} = M-dot{sub out}/SFR) and faster outflow velocities than lower mass SFGs, suggesting that the majority of outflowing gas at z {approx} 2 may derive from high-mass SFGs. The mass-loading factor is also correlated with the star formation rate (SFR), galaxy size, and inclination, such that smaller, more star-forming, and face-on galaxies launch more powerful outflows. We propose that the observed threshold for strong outflows and the observed mass loading of these winds can be explained by a simple model wherein break-out of winds is governed by pressure balance in the disk.

  13. Centering Panama in Global Modernity: The Search for National Identity and the Imagining of the Orient in Rogelio Sinán’s “Sin novedad en Shanghai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyoung Verónica Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since its independence from Colombia in 1903 backed by the United States government, which resulted in a treaty that granted the US free rein to build, administer and control what would be known as the Panama Canal, Panama’s quest for modern nationhood has been severely called into question. More often than not it is posited as an artificial state with little organic unity and limited sovereignty: a state that is literally made in the USA. Panamanian intellectuals, such as Rogelio Sinán, responded to these discourses on the Panamanian nation-state by actively constructing a Panamanian national identity, and by calling attention to the central significance of Panama in the twentieth-century world of global modernity. Questioning the widespread narrative of Panama as a peripheral North American neo-colony that was at best a marginal actor in international history, Sinán positioned Panama at the center of the modern world where World Wars, international migrations and global capitalism connected. By exploring Sinán’s short story “Sin novedad en Shanghai” that takes place in East Asia during World War II, this study argues that the writer’s deployment of the Orient—as a geopolitical, cultural, symbolic and imaginary space—allows him to reposition Panama. In its symbolic relation to this Orient, Panama emerges not as the backwaters of global modernity, but at its center—a cosmopolis between the Orient and the Occident that reveals a microcosm of the modern world.

  14. El desafío de la propiedad industrial frente a las nuevas tecnologías informáticas : el sistema de marcas frente a los nombres de dominio

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos Aristizábal, Ana María

    2007-01-01

    El crecimiento de la Internet significó para el mundo económico la apertura comercial y la oportunidad de mayores desarrollos tecnológicos. Sin embargo, para el derecho, específicamente para el área de la propiedad industrial, significó el inicio de una carrera por encontrar nuevas formas de protección a los derechos de propiedad industrial, los cuales, al igual que las nuevas tecnologías, propician un positivo funcionamiento del mercado en tanto que permiten la diferenciación empresarial y l...

  15. 350-IJBCS-Article-Dr Nombre Issa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    huit familles botaniques qui sont utilisées par les apiculteurs traditionnels pour attirer les essaims d'Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille. Un meilleur conditionnement de ces plantes permettrait de les utiliser avec les ruches modernes pour leur colonisation, constituant ainsi une alternative à l'importation du matériel de capture.

  16. El nombre y los conceptos de historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Hartog

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available History has been one of the words of “intersection,” or better yet, the cardinal concept around which the credible has crystalized over the past two centuries. What does the word History mean today? What belief does it entail? It is necessary, first of all, to free oneself completely from accepting a meaning for the word which, even if it is no longer effective in the present world, still lurks in the shadows throughout most of the discipline. It is the meaning that has been promoted and imposed by Europe: the modern concept of history, which in being responsible for the progress of the peoples of the world, embellished itself with a capital H. It is thus worthwhile asking whether the old name of history can once again prove somehow useful for designating a new way of articulating the three categories of past, present and future that human beings have always required to organize their common life.

  17. Prediction of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) population dynamics in Montana, USA, using satellite-driven vegetation productivity and weather data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehman, Rachel A; Elias, Joran; Douglass, Richard J; Kuenzi, Amy J; Mills, James N; Wagoner, Kent

    2012-04-01

    Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the main reservoir host for Sin Nombre virus, the primary etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America. Sequential changes in weather and plant productivity (trophic cascades) have been noted as likely catalysts of deer mouse population irruptions, and monitoring and modeling of these phenomena may allow for development of early-warning systems for disease risk. Relationships among weather variables, satellite-derived vegetation productivity, and deer mouse populations were examined for a grassland site east of the Continental Divide and a sage-steppe site west of the Continental Divide in Montana, USA. We acquired monthly deer mouse population data for mid-1994 through 2007 from long-term study sites maintained for monitoring changes in hantavirus reservoir populations, and we compared these with monthly bioclimatology data from the same period and gross primary productivity data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor for 2000-06. We used the Random Forests statistical learning technique to fit a series of predictive models based on temperature, precipitation, and vegetation productivity variables. Although we attempted several iterations of models, including incorporating lag effects and classifying rodent density by seasonal thresholds, our results showed no ability to predict rodent populations using vegetation productivity or weather data. We concluded that trophic cascade connections to rodent population levels may be weaker than originally supposed, may be specific to only certain climatic regions, or may not be detectable using remotely sensed vegetation productivity measures, although weather patterns and vegetation dynamics were positively correlated.

  18. Tratamiento cognitivo-conductual grupal del trastorno de pánico con o sin agorafobia en un centro de salud mental público

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Puerto, Ascensión; Martín García-Sancho, Julio César; López Soler, Concepción

    2009-01-01

    La eficacia de la terapia cognitivo-conductual (TCC) en el tratamiento del trastorno de pánico (TP) con o sin agorafobia está bien documentada; sin embargo, se conoce menos su efectividad en formato grupal. El propósito de este estudio es investigar

  19. Seven deadly sins in confronting endemic iodine deficiency, and how to avoid them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J T

    1996-04-01

    and apportioned fairly; and 7) nonsustainability: for permanent success, an iodization program must be fair to all relevant parties and accompanied by a regular system of appropriate monitoring. Only with careful avoidance of these seven "deadly sins" can the goal of sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency be achieved.

  20. La persistencia bacteriana: una problemática ignorada por una ciencia sin respuestas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FORMENTINI E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ARTÍCULO DE OPINIÓN. En nuestra cultura occidental tenemos un concepto triunfalista y mesiánico de la ciencia, ya que se confía que tarde o temprano la misma hallará respuestas y soluciones a los problemas del hombre. Sin embargo, la ciencia tiende a negar sistemáti-camente todo aquello para lo cual no tiene explicación y condena al olvido a todo conocimiento para lo cual no tiene aplicación actual. Las bacterias persistentes son uno de esos problemas olvidados, que recientemente ha despertado interés en la comunidad científica, al tener que enfrentarse a la problemática creciente de la resistencia bacteriana. Este artículo trata dos temas disímiles pero que están estrechamente relacionados. El primero, consiste en explicar el ignorado y olvidado fenómeno de la persistencia bacteriana y su impli-cancia en la progresiva disminución de la vida útil de los antibióticos. El segundo, es un análisis epistémico-ético con el objetivo de dilucidar la responsabilidad de la ciencia respecto de la ignorancia y el olvido de esta problemática. Finalmente se propone una pos-tura epistemológica para la revalorización constante de los conocimientos olvidados. SUMMARY. Bacterial persistence: an ignored problem by a science without answers. In our western culture, we have a triumphalist and messianic conception of science, since it is confided that sooner or later it will find the answers and the solutions to the problems of humanity. However, science tends to systematically ignore everything for which it has no explanation, and condemns to oblivion all knowledge that has not practical application. Persister cells are one of those forgotten problems, although it has recently attracted the attention of the scientific community, as it is associated with the growing problem of bacterial resistance. This article addresses two dissimilar but closely related topics. The first is to explain the forgotten and ignored phenomenon of persister cells

  1. Variables socionutricionales de hogares mazahuas integrados por preescolares desnutridos con madres con obesidad y sin obesidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conzuelo González, Viridiana Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El primer objetivo fue conocer cuántos menores de cinco años con diferentes grados de desnutrición tienen una madre con sobrepeso/obesidad/ en una comunidad indígena que vive en extrema pobreza y bajo condiciones de migración masculina internacional. El segundo fue comparar tres variables socionutricionales (ingreso familiar, educación de la madre y adecuación nutrimental de la dieta diaria entre estos hogares y los hogares con desnutrición infantil y madres sin obesidad. Se realizó un estudio transversal (2006-2007, en la comunidad mazahua de San Francisco Tepeolulco, Municipio de Temascalcingo; que incluyó a 85 hogares integrados por preescolares con desnutrición inscritos al programa Oportunidades. Se determinó el estado nutrición de los preescolares con indicadores antropométricos y se obtuvo el IMC de las madres de estos infantes. Se aplicó una encuesta socionutricional, incluida el recordatorio de 24 horas, y complementado con la observación participante (cualitativa. Se encontró que 83% de las madres mazahuas presentaron sobrepeso u obesidad. El estado de nutrición de los preescolares con madres con obesidad presentó un porcentaje mayor de desnutrición (76%. En la variable género, se encontró que 54% de los niños con madres con obesidad tenía baja talla. Al relacionar el nivel educativo de la madre, esta variable resultó ser estadísticamente significativa (p=0.015, donde el analfabetismo está más relacionado con la desnutrición infantil que tienen madres de bajo y/o peso normal. La elevada prevalencia de hogares conformados con preescolares con desnutrición y madres con obesidad, es un síntoma más de la pobreza en zonas indígenas en México, con bajo índice de desarrollo humano.

  2. Synthesis of In2S3 thin films by spray pyrolysis from precursors with different [S]/[In] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Thierno; Nafidi, A.; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; Mollar, Miguel; Hartitti, Bouchaib; Fahoume, Mounir

    2014-06-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique from solutions with different [S]/[In] ratios on glass substrates at a constant temperature of 250 °C. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy and optical transmittance spectroscopy. All samples exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a preferential orientation along (0, 0, 12). A good stoichiometry was attained for all samples. The morphology of thin film surfaces, as seen by SEM, was dense and no cracks or pinholes were observed. Raman spectroscopy analysis shows active modes belonging to β-ln2S3 phase. The optical transmittance in the visible range is higher than 60% and the band gap energy slightly increases with the sulfur to indium ratio, attaining a value of 2.63 eV for [S]/[In] = 4.5.

  3. Influencia de los trastornos mentales y de la personalidad en el abandono de procesos en personas sin hogar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salavera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las personas sin hogar protagonizan un alto índice de abandonos en los procesos terapéuticos que establecen. El motivo de abandono no siempre es conocido, en esta investigación se aborda si viene mediado por los trastornos mentales o son los trastornos de personalidad los que llevan un mayor peso. Los resultados muestran a las personas sin hogar con deterioro cognitivo leve y trastornos de personalidad del grupo de problemas interpersonales y ambivalentes como los principales candidatos al abandono de procesos de corte psicosocial. Esto implica la necesidad de tener en cuenta estos trastornos en el tratamiento y desarrollo de programas específicos de intervención.

  4. GaN-based FETs using Cat-CVD SiN passivation for millimeter-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Mimura, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    We have found that SiN passivation by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) can significantly increase an electron density of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET). This effect enables thin-barrier HFET structures to have a high-density two-dimensional electron gas and leads to suppression of short-channel effects. We fabricated 30-nm-gate Al 0.4 Ga 0.6 N(8 nm)/GaN HFETs using Cat-CVD SiN. The maximum drain current density and extrinsic transconductance were 1.49 A/mm and 402 mS/mm, respectively. Current-gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency of the HFETs were 181 and 186 GHz, respectively. These high-frequency device characteristics are sufficiently high enough for millimeter-wave applications

  5. Máximos y mínimos sin cálculo aplicado a la economía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Cabrera G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El articulo muestra los problemas más sencillos “Máximos y Mínimos sin Cálculo”. Este tipo de problemas se presentan en ingeniería, la industria, la administración y la vida cotidiana, con una característica en común, no obstante sus diferencias. Esta característica, consiste en determinar la forma  de lograr un efecto óptimo mediante la selección de una entre varias posibilidades. Estos problemas se resuelve por medio de métodos  de cálculo diferencial, pero solo pueden ser calculados únicamente, con la ayuda del álgebra elemental. Este es, precisamente el contenido del artículo, que propone métodos más sencillos, sin la aplicación del cálculo diferencial.

  6. The seven deadly sins of physician practice management. How to stop committing them to gain a competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, J

    1998-01-01

    Many words have been written about how the marketplace is changing--and hurting--medical group practice. However, not all problems are external. Physicians and managers are doing some of the harm to themselves. "Deadly sins," including a lack of urgency, copycat strategies, trend chasing and the creation of meaningless networks, inhibit growth. Avoiding these mistakes can make it easier to handle those changes group practices can't control.

  7. Meningitis neumocócica en un lactante curada sin secuelas neurológicas ni neuroquirúrgicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lamote de Grignon

    1953-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactante de 45 días, en pésimas condiciones fisiológicas, que presenta una meningitis neumocócica indiscutible. Es tratada con sulfatiazol y penicilina (apenas por vía intratecal. Cura prácticamente a los 17 días sin secuela alguna. A los 8 meses se mantenía bien desde todos los puntos de vista.

  8. A Method for SINS Alignment with Large Initial Misalignment Angles Based on Kalman Filter with Parameters Resetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, large initial misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which causes alignment failure when the classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used. In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS initial alignment is investigated, and the key reason for alignment failure is given as the state covariance from Kalman filter cannot represent the true one during the steady filtering process. According to the analysis, an alignment method for SINS based on multiresetting the state covariance matrix of Kalman filter is designed to deal with large initial misalignment angles, in which classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used, but the state covariance matrix should be multireset before the steady process until large misalignment angles are decreased to small ones. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation and car test, and the results indicate that the proposed method can fulfill initial alignment with large misalignment angles effectively and the alignment accuracy of the proposed method is as precise as that of alignment with small misalignment angles.

  9. The devil is in the details: the seven deadly sins of organizing and continuing interprofessional education in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phillip G

    2011-09-01

    In spite of increased calls for expanding interprofessional practice (IPP) in the US health care system to address concerns about patient safety and quality of care, there has not been a corresponding dramatic growth in interprofessional education (IPE) programs. Indeed, the history of IPE in the US has been a roller-coaster ride of gains and losses, successes and failures. Understanding why this has been so requires the development of a personal and political economy framework, based on an understanding of the structural, ideological, and economic factors and forces that characterize IPE in American higher education. Using a metaphor of the seven deadly sins (lust, pride, greed, gluttony, envy, sloth, and wrath), this discussion focuses on both things that should not be done (sins of commission) and those that should be done but are not (sins of omission) to create successful and sustainable IPE programs. Taken together, these factors help to frame a perspective on IPE that highlights the essential knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed by faculty and administrators to create, implement, and - most importantly - sustain successful programs. Implications of this framework for promoting increased IPE are discussed, particularly with respect to insuring its successful continuation into the future.

  10. Freedom in responsibility: on the relevance of "sin" as a hermeneutic guiding principle in bioethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräb-Schmidt, Elisabeth

    2005-08-01

    This essay deals with questions of responsibility concerning technology, in particular, gene technology and the special problem of research on embryos. I raise issues concerning the extent of humans' authority to act and the limits of human freedom. In what way is that freedom given, and what kind of responsibility results from it? By discussing various concepts of human freedom in the tradition of European philosophy, as juxtaposed to the Protestant understanding of freedom, this essay discusses the restricting limits, and the obligation to take responsibility. It will turn out that the question concerning freedom cannot be answered without understanding what being human involves. From a Christian perspective, this implies that the foundational relationship between human freedom and sin will be central to an assessment of the human ability to take responsibility. By obliterating the limits of human freedom, sin jeopardizes the very essence of that freedom. The project of taking into account the sinful state of the human condition thus aims at developing a realistic picture of the authority of humans in action, even in view of the human tasks of promoting science and research.

  11. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  12. El movimiento de los trabajadores rurales sin tierra y la reforma agraria en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo FERNÁNDEZ FRANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo, es un primer avance, de carácter exploratorio, de una investigación más amplia que el autor está llevando a cabo sobre el mismo tema. Centrado en el "Movimiento de los Trabajadores Rurales sin Tierra", habitualmente identificado en Brasil por las siglas MST, se contempla dicho movimiento social desde sus orígenes más remotos, al final de los años 50, hasta nuestros días situándolo, por un lado, en las transformaciones políticas y en parte sociales, y en el largo y lento proceso de una reforma agraria inconclusa, por otro. De forma descriptiva, se desarrollan, en un primer paso, los antecedentes, proceso de constitución, etapas y estructura agraria brasileña, se plantea de forma suscinta la problemática de la reforma agraria. Con estas consideraciones preliminares, siguiendo casi literalmente la formulación del propio MST, se exponen, con mayor amplitud, los objetivos y características de la Reforma Agraria desde la perspectiva de los propios trabajadores rurales. Asimismo, aunque de forma más esquemática y en base a los datos oficiales, se plantean las directrices, metas y algunas de las realizaciones del Gobierno de Fernando H. Cardoso sobre dicha reforma. En definitiva, con este artículo, se pretenden establecer las bases y los ejes analíticos necesarios para una investigación más amplia y comprensiva de este fenómeno social de masas que va más allá de la propia realidad de injusticia que se está viviendo en el mundo rural brasileño y que está contando también con un amplio y sorprendente apoyo de sectores urbanos de la población brasileña.ABSTRACT: This article is an introductory and exploratory advance of a more extensive investigation that the author is carrying out on the same subject. The research is centred on the "Movement of the Rural Workers without Land", which is ussually identified in Brazil with the initials MST. This social movement is analyzed since its remotest origins, the

  13. Fachada ventilada cerámica sin sub-estructuras metálicas denominado: SIERRAVENT®

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    Luque-Fernández, F. J.

    2011-04-01

    innovando con su nuevo producto “ SIERRAVENT® ”. El sistema patentado ha supuesto un gran impacto en el sector de la construcción, ya que permite la ejecución de una Fachada Ventilada sin la utilización de complejas estructuras metálicas ni tornillería. En el artículo se describen tanto los componentes del sistema y sus propiedades, como las características técnicas del mismo en su conjunto y los criterios para la resolución de algunos encuentros y puntos singulares. Asimismo, se hace mención a las ventajas competitivas.

  14. Genomic organization and phylogenetic utility of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus lymphotoxin-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta

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    Prescott Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are among the most common mammals in North America and are important reservoirs of several human pathogens, including Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV. SNV can establish a life-long apathogenic infection in deer mice, which can shed virus in excrement for transmission to humans. Patients that die from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS have been found to express several proinflammatory cytokines, including lymphotoxin (LT, in the lungs. It is thought that these cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of HCPS. LT is not expressed by virus-specific CD4+ T cells from infected deer mice, suggesting a limited role for this pathway in reservoir responses to hantaviruses. Results We have cloned the genes encoding deer mouse LTα and LTβ and have found them to be highly similar to orthologous rodent sequences but with some differences in promoters elements. The phylogenetic analyses performed on the LTα, LTβ, and combined data sets yielded a strongly-supported sister-group relationship between the two murines (the house mouse and the rat. The deer mouse, a sigmodontine, appeared as the sister group to the murine clade in all of the analyses. High bootstrap values characterized the grouping of murids. Conclusion No conspicuous differences compared to other species are present in the predicted amino acid sequences of LTα or LTβ; however, some promoter differences were noted in LTβ. Although more extensive taxonomic sampling is required to confirm the results of our analyses, the preliminary findings indicate that both genes (analyzed both separately and in combination hold potential for resolving relationships among rodents and other mammals at the subfamily level.

  15. (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonance assignments of the conserved region in the middle domain of S. pombe Sin1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Saori; Furuita, Kyoko; Hattori, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Ikegami, Takahisa; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Kojima, Chojiro

    2015-04-01

    SAPK-interacting protein 1 (Sin1) is an important component of the target of rapamycin (TOR) complex 2 (TORC2). TOR is a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase and forms functionally distinct protein complexes referred to as TORC1 and TORC2. TORC2, conserved from yeast to humans, phosphorylates AGC-family protein kinases and has many cellular functions including the regulation of actin cytoskeleton. The Sin1 subunit of TORC2 is required for the binding of TORC2 to substrates, and the conserved region in the middle (CRIM) domain of Sin1 is important in the substrate recognition of TORC2. Here, we report on the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe Sin1 (amino acids 247-400) (Sin1CRIM), which possesses the CRIM domain. These data contribute toward the structure determination of Sin1CRIM and an understanding of the interactions of Sin1CRIM with substrates of TORC2.

  16. Sin as an Ailment of Soul and Repentance as the Process of Its Healing. The Pastoral Concept of Penitentials as a Way of Dealing with Sin, Repentance, and Forgiveness in the Insular Church of the Sixth to the Eighth Centuries

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    Kursawa Wilhelm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the advent of the Kingdom of God in Jesus contains as an intrinsic quality the opportunity for repentance (metanoia as often as required, the Church of the first five-hundred years shows serious difficulties with the opportunity of conversion after a relapse in sinning after baptism. The Church allowed only one chance of repentance. Requirement for the reconciliation were a public confession and the acceptance of severe penances, especially after committing the mortal sin of apostasy, fornication or murder. As severe as this paenitentia canonica appears, its entire conception especially in the eastern part of the Church, the Oriental Church, is a remedial one: sin represents an ailment of the soul, the one, who received the confession, is called upon to meet the confessing person as a spiritual physician or soul-friend. Penance does not mean punishment, but healing like a salutary remedy. Nevertheless, the lack of privacy led to the unwanted practice of postponing repentance and even baptism on the deathbed. An alternative procedure of repentance arose from the sixth century onwards in the Irish Church as well as the Continental Church under the influence of Irish missionaries and the South-West-British and later the English Church (Insular Church. In treatises about repentance, called penitentials, ecclesiastical authorities of the sixth to the eight centuries wrote down regulations, how to deal with the different capital sins and minor trespasses committed by monks, clerics and laypeople. Church-representatives like Finnian, Columbanus, the anonymous author of the Ambrosianum, Cummean and Theodore developed a new conception of repentance that protected privacy and guaranteed a discrete, an affordable as well as a predictable penance, the paenitentia privata. They not only connected to the therapeutic aspect of repentance in the Oriental Church by adopting basic ideas of Basil of Caesarea and John Cassian, they also established an

  17. Análisis de la variabilidad de nombres de autores españoles en depósitos digitales universitarios de acceso abierto: un estudio por áreas de conocimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orduña-Malea, Enrique

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish authors who sign with their official Spanish name (which includes two surnames and sometimes two first names or who change their signing name over time will find it more difficult to collect together their scientific output. Making use of experience with IraLIS (International Registry for Authors: Library and Information Science = Links to Identify Scientists; http://www.iralis.org, this study examines how authorities are registered in two Spanish OAI-PMH-compliant projects: Recercat and E-Prints Complutense.

    The authorities database of the two repositories analysed were downloaded. The style of signing - the recommended one should contain only two elements - was recorded by field of knowledge, using the topic classification systems of the Intute project and the ANEP agency.

    The most commonly used signing style involved two surnames (76 % in Recercat and 94 % in E-Prints Complutense. The social sciences showed the greatest adoption of the recommended signing style (20 % of all records in this area.

    The adoption rate of the recommended signing style in both repositories was low, especially in E-Prints Complutense. The index of the use of the recommended signing style by knowledge field reveals a true picture of these Open Access repositories. This information could allow awareness campaigns to be designed for different fields of knowledge. It might be thought that the most internationalised sciences and the authors of its literature would take signing style into account, but this does not seem to be the case. Indeed, the social sciences were those which most frequently followed the recommended system. The areas of technology, health and life sciences, the arts and humanities should be the subjects of awareness campaigns. Further work should study the possible differences in the use of signing style depending on who inputs information into databases.

    Los autores que firman con su nombre oficial

  18. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos: relato de caso Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome with multiple organ dysfunctions: case report

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    Marcelo Spegiorin Moreno

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A hantavirose é uma zoonose que apresenta distribuição mundial e sua transmissão está relacionada com o íntimo contato com roedores. Causa dois tipos de doença: a febre hemorrágica com síndrome renal (FHSR, endêmica na Ásia e Europa e a síndrome pulmonar por hantavírus (SPH, encontrada no continente americano, inclusive no Brasil, com elevadas taxas de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de SPH com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos, que recebeu tratamento intensivo precoce e reanimação guiada por parâmetros de fluxo e de perfusão tecidual. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 36 anos, iniciou quadro febril inespecífico, dispnéia progressiva, hipóxia grave e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Apresentava infiltrado interstício-alveolar difuso na radiografia de tórax. Evoluiu com disfunção de múltiplos órgãos (pulmonar, renal, hematológica, cardiovascular e metabólica. Recebeu tratamento e monitorização hemodinâmica invasiva precoces. As alterações laboratoriais mais importantes foram plaquetopenia, elevação dos níveis de hematócrito e hemoglobina, leucocitose, elevação de transaminases, de lactado desidrogenase e sorologia positiva para hantavírus (ELISA IgM positivo. O paciente apresentou reversão das disfunções orgânicas, recebendo alta hospitalar após 21 dias de hospitalização. CONCLUSÕES: A reanimação precoce e agressiva dirigida por metas levou à reversão da síndrome de falência de múltiplos órgãos e a um desfecho clínico favorável, apesar da gravidade da doença.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hantavirus infection is a zoonose with worldwide distribution. The transmission is related to the intimal contact with rodents. It causes two syndromes: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS, endemic in Asia and Europe and the Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, found in the American continent, including Brazil, with high mortality

  19. Tramas de la violencia de género: sustantivación, metonimias, sinécdoques y preposiciones

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    Elena Casado Aparicio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lo que creemos saber sobre la violencia de género (que es una lacra y los maltratadores unos machistas puede estar comprometiendo hoy análisis, diagnósticos e intervenciones. Además "hace género" y afecta al modo y grado en que nos hacemos cargo de la desigualdad. Analizar las sustantivaciones, sinécdoques y metonimias de las tramas de la violencia permite reconstruir relaciones significativas. Porque ¿qué significa la preposición 'de' que conecta violencia y género?

  20. Tramas de la violencia de género: sustantivación, metonimias, sinécdoques y preposiciones

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    Elena Casado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lo que creemos saber sobre la violencia de género (que es una lacra y los maltratadores unos machistas puede estar comprometiendo hoy análisis, diagnósticos e intervenciones. Además “hace género” y afecta al modo y grado en que nos hacemos cargo de la desigualdad. Analizar las sustantivaciones, sinécdoques y metonimias de las tramas de la violencia permite reconstruir relaciones significativas. Porque ¿qué significa la preposición ‘de’ que conecta violencia y género?