WorldWideScience

Sample records for simulation paris sbir

  1. Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude. In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Numerical simulation of meteorological conditions for peak pollution in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carissimo, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-06-01

    Results obtained on the simulation of meteorological conditions during two episodes of peak pollution in Paris are presented, one in the winter, the other in the summer. The A3UR air quality modelling system is first described followed by the MERCURE mesoscale meteorological model. The conditions of simulation are described. The results obtained on these two causes show satisfactory agreement, for example on the magnitude of the urban heat island which is correctly reproduced. In this study, several areas of progress have been identified: improvement of the altitude measurement network around cities, the simulation of light wind conditions and the simulation of formation and dissipation of fog. (author) 24 refs.

  3. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  4. SBIR/STTR Programs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA SBIR and STTR programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA needs as described in the annual...

  5. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the Megapoli summer and winter campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fountoukis, C.; Megaritis, A.G.; Skyllakou, K.; Charalampidis, P.E.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Fachinger, F.; Wiedensohler, A.; Pilinis, C.; Pandis, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 x 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol dur-ing a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of

  6. COUPLING STATE-OF-THE-SCIENCE SUBSURFACE SIMULATION WITH ADVANCED USER INTERFACE AND PARALLEL VISUALIZATION: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, B.; Swenson, D.; Finsterle, S.; Zhou, Q.

    2008-01-01

    This is a Phase I report on a project to significantly enhance existing subsurface simulation software using leadership-class computing resources, allowing researchers to solve problems with greater speed and accuracy. Subsurface computer simulation is used for monitoring the behavior of contaminants around nuclear waste disposal and storage areas, groundwater flow, environmental remediation, carbon sequestration, methane hydrate production, and geothermal energy reservoir analysis. The Phase I project was a collaborative effort between Thunderhead Engineering (project lead and developers of a commercial pre- and post-processor for the TOUGH2 simulator) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (developers of the TOUGH2 simulator for subsurface flow). The Phase I project successfully identified the technical approaches to be implemented in Phase II.

  7. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fountoukis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 × 4 km2 over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol during a summer (July 2009 and a winter (January/February 2010 period as part of the MEGAPOLI (megacities: emissions, urban, regional, and global atmospheric pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation campaigns. Model predictions of carbonaceous aerosol are compared against Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer and black carbon (BC high time resolution measurements from three ground sites. PMCAMx predicts BC concentrations reasonably well reproducing the majority (70 % of the hourly data within a factor of two during both periods. The agreement for the summertime secondary organic aerosol (OA concentrations is also encouraging (mean bias = 0.1 µg m−3 during a photochemically intense period. The model tends to underpredict the summertime primary OA concentrations in the Paris greater area (by approximately 0.8 µg m−3 mainly due to missing primary OA emissions from cooking activities. The total cooking emissions are estimated to be approximately 80 mg d−1 per capita and have a distinct diurnal profile in which 50 % of the daily cooking OA is emitted during lunch time (12:00–14:00 LT and 20 % during dinner time (20:00–22:00 LT. Results also show a large underestimation of secondary OA in the Paris greater area during wintertime (mean bias =  −2.3 µg m−3 pointing towards a secondary OA formation process during low photochemical activity periods that is not simulated in the model.

  8. Simulating the formation of carbonaceous aerosol in a European Megacity (Paris) during the MEGAPOLI summer and winter campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, Christos; Megaritis, Athanasios G.; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Charalampidis, Panagiotis E.; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Fachinger, Friederike; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Pilinis, Christodoulos; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-03-01

    We use a three-dimensional regional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) with high grid resolution and high-resolution emissions (4 × 4 km2) over the Paris greater area to simulate the formation of carbonaceous aerosol during a summer (July 2009) and a winter (January/February 2010) period as part of the MEGAPOLI (megacities: emissions, urban, regional, and global atmospheric pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) campaigns. Model predictions of carbonaceous aerosol are compared against Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer and black carbon (BC) high time resolution measurements from three ground sites. PMCAMx predicts BC concentrations reasonably well reproducing the majority (70 %) of the hourly data within a factor of two during both periods. The agreement for the summertime secondary organic aerosol (OA) concentrations is also encouraging (mean bias = 0.1 µg m-3) during a photochemically intense period. The model tends to underpredict the summertime primary OA concentrations in the Paris greater area (by approximately 0.8 µg m-3) mainly due to missing primary OA emissions from cooking activities. The total cooking emissions are estimated to be approximately 80 mg d-1 per capita and have a distinct diurnal profile in which 50 % of the daily cooking OA is emitted during lunch time (12:00-14:00 LT) and 20 % during dinner time (20:00-22:00 LT). Results also show a large underestimation of secondary OA in the Paris greater area during wintertime (mean bias = -2.3 µg m-3) pointing towards a secondary OA formation process during low photochemical activity periods that is not simulated in the model.

  9. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias Paris region. The model simulation results suggest that both wet and dry deposition processes need to be considered when estimating the transfer of air pollutants to other environmental media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the performance of atmospheric models for both wet and dry deposition with fine spatial resolution.

  10. Wireless Sensor Needs Defined by SBIR Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studor, George F.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the needs for wireless sensor technology from various U.S. government agencies as exhibited by an analysis of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) solicitations. It would appear that a multi-agency group looking at overlapping wireless sensor needs and technology projects is desired. Included in this presentation is a review of the NASA SBIR process, and an examination of some of the SBIR projects from NASA, and other agencies that involve wireless sensor development

  11. Photometrical Observations "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Sukhov, K. P.; Kudak, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Photometrical observations GSS "SBIRS GEO 2" in B,V,R filters were carried near the equinoxes 2014-2015. Used velocity electrophotometer based on the FEU-79 in the pulse-counting mode. Received more than 25 light curves. From the known dimensions are defined; effective reflecting area - Sγλ, the spectral reflectance index - γλ, periods of light variation. Color-indices showed that in the reflected light flux from the GSS prevails "red" component. In the light curves are periodically dips and specular flash. This shows that GSS orbit is not in a static position specified triaxial orientation as in dynamic motion. Assumed following dynamics of the satellite "SBIRS GEO 2" in orbit. Helical scanning the Earth's surface visible infrared sensors satellite occurs with a period P1 = 15.66 sec. and swinging of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in an orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., from the northern to the southern pole. Thus, during the period of swinging GSS going on 2 scan the visible part of the northern and southern hemispheres. In some dates observations dynamics work satellite in orbit changed.

  12. Systems Engineering Applications for Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Engineering processes within the SBIR community. Information was collected from multiple organizations throughout the SBIR community to support this research...Force by Program Executive Officers, Technolgy Directorates, Air Logistics Centers and Test Centers. SBIR projects are developed in three phases...found to be associated with SBIR projects and varied among organizations. Thus it became essential to conduct interviews to gather the information

  13. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    elements (five SMGTs) for the S2E2 Mobile Ground System. ​ SBIRS Block Buy (GEO 5-6) The GEO 5-6 Tech Refresh (TR) Engineering Change Proposal was...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-210 Space Based Infrared System High ( SBIRS High) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 11:24:26 UNCLASSIFIED SBIRS High December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 11:24:26

  14. SBIR Phase I final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Grot

    2009-07-07

    The approach that we propose here in this SBIR proposal is a modified water electrolysis cell. In conventional water electrolysis the H2O is split into electrons, protons, and oxygen gas at the anode electrode. The electrons travel through an external power source and the protons travel through an electrolyte membrane to the cathode where they recombine to form hydrogen gas. The power source requires a minimum of 1.23 V to overcome the potential difference of the electrodes for the splitting of water. In contrast in our approach proposed here, instead of splitting water we are using acetate in wastewater and bacteria to oxidize the acetate into electrons and protons at the anode surface. The microbes release the electrons to the anode and the resulting protons move to the cathode electrode through the proton exchange membrane as described above and recombine to form hydrogen gas. The advantage here is that the required potential is now on the order of 0.25 to 0.8 V, and a considerable savings in electricity is realized to produce the same amount of hydrogen while at the same time removing organic matter from wastewater streams. Significant improvements in current density needs to be made in order for this type of technology to be economically viable

  15. Photometrical research geostationary satellite "SBIRS GEO-2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P; Sukhov, K. P; Kudak, V. I.

    The multicolor photometrical observations GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" were carried in B,V,R filters out during the autumn equinox 2014 and spring 2015 y. Periodic appearance of many light curves and dips of mirror reflections suggests that the GSS was not in orbit in a static position, predetermined three-axis orientation and in dynamic motion. On the basis of computer modeling suggests the following dynamics GSS "Sbirs Geo-2" in orbit. Helically scanning the visible Earth's surface infrared satellite sensors come with period P1 = 15.66 sec. and the rocking of the GSS about the direction of the motion vector of the satellite in orbit with P2 = 62.64 sec., most likely with the purpose to survey the greatest possible portion of the earth's surface.

  16. Estimation of the Paris NOx emissions from mobile MAX-DOAS observations and CHIMERE model simulations during the MEGAPOLI campaign using the closed integral method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiganfar, Reza; Beirle, Steffen; Denier van der Gon, Hugo; Jonkers, Sander; Kuenen, Jeroen; Petetin, Herve; Zhang, Qijie; Beekmann, Matthias; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We determined NOx emissions from Paris in summer 2009 and winter 2009/2010 by applying the closed integral method (CIM) to a large set of car multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements performed within the framework of the MEGAPOLI project (dk/" target="_blank">http://megapoli.dmi.dk/). MAX-DOAS measurements of the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) were performed in large circles around Paris. From the combination of the observed NO2 VCDs with wind fields, the NO2 influx into and the outflux from the encircled area was determined. The difference between the influx and outflux represents the total emission. Compared to previous applications of the CIM, the large number of measurements during the MEGAPOLI campaign allowed the investigation of important aspects of the CIM. In particular, the applicability of the CIM under various atmospheric conditions could be tested. Another important advantage of the measurements during MEGAPOLI is that simultaneous atmospheric model simulations with a high spatial resolution (3 × 3 km2) are available for all days. Based on these model data, it was possible to test the consistency of the CIM and to derive information about favourable or non-favourable conditions for the application of the CIM. We found that in most situations the uncertainties and the variability in the wind data dominate the total error budget, which typically ranges between 30 and 50 %. Also, measurement gaps and uncertainties in the partitioning ratio between NO and NO2 are important error sources. Based on a consistency check, we deduced a set of criteria on whether measurement conditions are suitable or not for the application of the CIM. We also developed a method for the calculation of the total error budget of the derived NOx emissions. Typical errors are between ±30 and ±50 % for individual days (with one full circle around Paris). From the application of the CIM to car MAX-DOAS observations we derive

  17. Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marcia S

    2005-01-01

    .... The Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, would perform missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives...

  18. Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marcia S

    2006-01-01

    .... The Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, would perform missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives...

  19. Military Space Programs: Issues Concerning DOD's SBIRS and STSS Programs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Marcia S

    2003-01-01

    .... The Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS, formerly SBIRS-Low), managed by the Missile Defense Agency, would perform missile tracking and target discrimination for missile defense objectives...

  20. The Results of Complex Research of GSS "SBIRS-Geo 2" Behavior in the Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Epishev, V. P.; Sukhov, K. P.; Karpenko, G. F.; Motrunich, I. I.

    2017-04-01

    The new generation of geosynchronous satellites SBIRS of US Air Force early warning system series (Satellite Early Warning System) replaced the previous DSP-satellite series (Defense Support Program). Currently from the territory of Ukraine, several GSS of DSP series and one "SBIRS-Geo 2" are available to observation. During two years of observations, we have received and analyzed for two satellites more than 30 light curves in B, V, R photometric system. As a result of complex research, we propose a model of "SBIRS-Geo" 2 orbital behavior compared with the same one of the DSP-satellite. To control the entire surface of the Earth with 15-16 sec interval, including the polar regions, 4 SBIRS satellites located every 90 deg. along the equator are enough in GEO orbit. Since DSP-satellites provide the coverage of the Earth's surface to 83 deg. latitudes with a period of 50 sec, DSP-satellites should be 8. All the conclusions were made based on an analysis of photometric and coordinate observations using the simulation of the dynamics of their orbital behavior.

  1. Paris Offscreen: Chinese Tourists in Cinematic Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.-A. O. Dung (Yun-An Olivia); S.L. Reijnders (Stijn)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article examines from a European-Asian perspective the relationship between media representations and the tourist’s imagination. We use the case of Chinese tourists in Paris to investigate how these non-European tourists imagine Europe, and how these imaginations

  2. From Penrith to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Elizabeth Clay

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Clay has written her first graphic novel, 'From Penrith to Paris', based on experiences of her first semester in France. It deals with the issues of student life, the loss of cultural identity through language and what it means to come from the cultural wasteland of Sydney to the cultural capital of the world - Paris. Through these funny and often life changing experiences, she realises the value of her hometown and that culture, no matter how it is perceived, plays an enormous role in the shaping of individuals.

  3. Industry-University SBIR NDT Projects — A Critical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Eugene R.

    2007-03-01

    The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program, funded by various United States government agencies (DOD, DOE, NSF, etc.), provides funds for Research and Development (R&D) of nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and equipment, thereby supplying valuable money for NDT development by small businesses and stimulating cooperative university programs. A review and critical assessment of the SBIR program as related to NDT is presented and should provide insight into reasons for or against pursuing this source of R&D funding.

  4. Exploratory Model Analysis of the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Low Global Scheduler Problem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, Brian

    1999-01-01

    ...) "System of Systems". The SBIRS Low component of the SBIRS "System of Systems" will track strategic and theater ballistic missiles from launch to reentry and relay necessary cueing data to missile interceptors...

  5. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1991 phase 1 projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. Carl; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of 301 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1991 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 301, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1991 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  6. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1990 phase 1 projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.

    1991-01-01

    The research objectives of the 280 projects placed under contract in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 1990 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 1 program are described. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses in response to NASA's 1990 SBIR Phase 1 Program Solicitation. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 280, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. The document also includes Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference in the 1990 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA field center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number.

  7. NASA SBIR abstracts of 1992, phase 1 projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Gilman, J. A.; Paige, J. B.; Sacknoff, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of 346 projects placed under contract by the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. These projects were selected competitively from among proposals submitted to NASA in response to the 1992 SBIR Program Solicitation. The basic document consists of edited, non-proprietary abstracts of the winning proposals submitted by small businesses. The abstracts are presented under the 15 technical topics within which Phase 1 proposals were solicited. Each project was assigned a sequential identifying number from 001 to 346, in order of its appearance in the body of the report. Appendixes to provide additional information about the SBIR program and permit cross-reference of the 1992 Phase 1 projects by company name, location by state, principal investigator, NASA Field Center responsible for management of each project, and NASA contract number are included.

  8. Paris Conference (Further report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    From 26-31 July, the international particle physics community met for its traditional biennial 'Rochester' jamboree, held this time in Paris. While there were no major physics surprises, there was still plenty of interest for all and the ground that was covered amply demonstrated the progress which has been made since the previous round of international meetings. The emphasis is very much on improving the already considerable level of agreement between different experiments and between experimental results and theoretical predictions

  9. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Communications Technology and Development which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are eighteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a security-enhanced autonomous network management, secure communications using on-demand single photons, cognitive software-defined radio, spacesuit audio systems, multiband photonic phased-array antenna, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  10. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Airbreathing Propulsion Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Bitler, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in Airbreathing Propulsion which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as with a Turbo-Brayton cryocooler for aircraft superconducting systems, braided composite rotorcraft structures, engine air brake, combustion control valve, flexible composite driveshaft, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  11. NASA Johnson Space Center SBIR STTR Program Technology Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program increases opportunities for small businesses to participate in research and development (R&D), increases employment, and improves U.S. competitiveness. Specifically the program stimulates U.S. technological innovation by using small businesses to meet federal R&D needs, increasing private-sector commercialization of innovations derived from federal R&D, and fostering and encouraging the participation of socially disadvantaged businesses. In 2000, the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program extended and strengthened the SBIR Program, increasing its emphasis on pursuing commercial applications by awarding contracts to small business concerns for cooperative R&D with a nonprofit research institution. Modeled after the SBIR Program, STTR is nevertheless a separately funded activity. Technologies that have resulted from the Johnson Space Center SBIR STTR Program include: a device for regenerating iodinated resin beds; laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis or LASIK; a miniature physiological monitoring device capable of collecting and analyzing a multitude of real-time signals to transmit medical data from remote locations to medical centers for diagnosis and intervention; a new thermal management system for fibers and fabrics giving rise to new line of garments and thermal-enhancing environments; and a highly electropositive material that attracts and retains electronegative particles in water.

  12. Demonstration of an efficient cooling approach for SBIRS-Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieczkoski, S. J.; Myers, E. A.

    2002-05-01

    The Space Based Infrared System-Low (SBIRS-Low) segment is a near-term Air Force program for developing and deploying a constellation of low-earth orbiting observation satellites with gimbaled optics cooled to cryogenic temperatures. The optical system design and requirements present unique challenges that make conventional cooling approaches both complicated and risky. The Cryocooler Interface System (CIS) provides a remote, efficient, and interference-free means of cooling the SBIRS-Low optics. Technology Applications Inc. (TAI), through a two-phase Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program with Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has taken the CIS from initial concept feasibility through the design, build, and test of a prototype system. This paper presents the development and demonstration testing of the prototype CIS. Prototype system testing has demonstrated the high efficiency of this cooling approach, making it an attractive option for SBIRS-Low and other sensitive optical and detector systems that require low-impact cryogenic cooling.

  13. KSC SBIR/STTR 2004 Program Year Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center Level III SBIR/STTR management staff is under the Technology Transfer Office within the Spaceport Engineering and Technology Directorate. The SBIR and STTR programs provide an opportunity for small high technology companies and research institutions to participate in Government-sponsored research and development (R&D) programs in key technology areas. The SBIR program was established by Congress in 1982 to provide increased opportunities for small businesses to participate in R&D programs, increase employment, and improve U.S. competitiveness. The program's specific objectives are to stimulate U.S. technological innovation, use small businesses to meet Federal research and development needs, increase private sector commercialization of innovations, and foster and encourage participation by socially disadvantaged businesses. Legislation enacted in December 2000 reauthorized the program and strengthened emphasis on pursuing commercial applications of SBIR projects. An SBIR Phase I contract is the opportunity to establish the feasibility and technical merit of a proposed innovation. Selected competitively, the Phase I contract lasts for 6 months and is funded up to $70,000. SBIR Phase II contracts continue the most promising Phase I projects based on scientific! technical merit, expected value to NASA, company capability, and commercial potential. Phase II contracts are usually for a period of 24 months and may not exceed $600,000. NASA usually selects approximately 40 percent of Phase I projects to continue to the Phase II level. Phase III is the process of furthering the development of a product to make it commercially available. The STTR program awards contracts to small business concerns for cooperative R&D with a nonprofit research institution. Research institutions include nonprofit research organizations, Federal laboratories, or universities. The goal of the program established by Congress is to facilitate the transfer of technology

  14. Physics buzz in Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    Katie Yurkewicz

    2010-01-01

    The International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP) took place from 22 to 28 July in Paris, and first results from the Large Hadron Collider experiments received top billing.   More than 1,100 physicists gathered in the Palais des Congrès conference centre to attend ICHEP, the world’s premier particle physics conference, where scientists presented and discussed the latest and most intriguing results from experiments in particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology, innovative theoretical approaches and predictions, and concepts for future accelerators and particle detectors. The buzz about the LHC experiments caught the eye of French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who addressed the conference on Monday 26 July. President Sarkozy exhorted the particle physics community to continue its quest to understand the nature of the Universe, and stated his belief that investment in fundamental research is critical for the progress of mankind. Steve Myers started off the mo...

  15. Postcard from Paris

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this week I was in Paris to join particle physicists from around the world at the International Conference on High-Energy Physics, ICHEP 2010. This conference series began in 1950 as the ‘Rochester series’, named for the original venue in the US, and its meetings rapidly became the place to present the latest results and discoveries.   Particle physics has certainly come a long way since those early days. In 60 years, the meetings have witnessed the birth and growth of CERN, the development of the current Standard Model of particles and their interactions - and now the first results from a truly international project, the LHC. I’d had the opportunity to be present at some of the previous meetings where important discoveries were announced, but this was the first time I had the privilege to attend as the Director-General of the laboratory that was the focus of much of the attention. It is clear from many of the people with whom I talked that the high quality ...

  16. THM large spatial-temporal model to simulate the past 2 Ma hydrogeological evolution of Paris Basin including natural tracer transport as part of site characterization for radwaste repository project Cigéo - France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabderrahmane, A., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogeological site characterization for deep geological high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository cover a large time scale needed for safety analysis and calculation. Hydrogeological performance of a site relies also on the effects of geodynamic evolution as tectonic uplift, erosion/sedimentation and climate including glaciation on the groundwater flow and solute and heat transfer. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical model of multilayered aquifer system of Paris Basin is developed to reproduce the present time flow and the natural tracer (Helium) concentration profiles based on the last 2 Ma of geodynamic evolution. Present time geological conceptual model consist of 27 layers at Paris Basin (Triassic-Tertiary) with refinement at project site scale (29 layers from Triassic to Portlandian). Target layers are the clay host formation of Callovo-Oxfrodian age (160 Ma) and the surrounding aquifer layers of Oxfordian and Dogger. Modelled processes are: groundwater flow, heat and solutes (natural tracers) transport, freezing and thawing of groundwater (expansion and retreat of permafrost), deformation of the multilayered aquifer system induced by differential tectonic uplift and the hydro-mechanical stress effect as caused by erosion of the outcropping layers. Numerical simulation considers a period from 2 Ma BP and up to the present. Transient boundary conditions are governed by geodynamic processes: (i) modification of the geometry of the basin and (ii) temperatures along the topography will change according to a series of 15 identical climate cycles with multiple permafrost (glaciation) periods. Numerical model contains 71 layers and 18 million cells. The solution procedure solves three coupled systems of equations, head, temperature and concentrations, by the use of a finite difference method, and by applying extensive parallel processing. The major modelling results related to the processes of importance for site characterization as hydraulic

  17. Space Surveillance Catalog growth during SBIRS low deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoult, C. P.; Wright, R. P.

    The Space Surveillance Catalog is a database of all Resident Space Objects (RSOs) on Earth orbit. It is expected to grow in the future as more RSOs accumulate on orbit. Potentially still more dramatic growth could follow the deployment of the Space Based Infrared System Low Earth Orbit Component (SBTRS Low). SBIRS Low, currently about to enter development, offers the potential to detect and acquire much smaller debris RSOs than can be seen by the current ground-based Space Surveillance Network (SSN). SBIRS Low will host multicolor infrared/visible sensors on each satellite in a proliferated constellation on low Earth orbit, and if appropriately tasked, these sensors could provide significant space surveillance capability. Catalog growth during SBIRS Low deployment was analyzed using a highly aggregated code that numerically integrates the Markov equations governing the state transitions of RSOs from uncataloged to cataloged, and back again. It was assumed that all newly observed debris RSOs will be detected as by-products of routine Catalog maintenance, not including any post breakup searches, and if sufficient sensor resources are available, be acquired into the Catalog. Debris over the entire low to high altitude regime were considered.

  18. Exploratory model analysis of the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) Low Global Scheduler problem

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Brian L.

    1999-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Proliferation of theater ballistic missile technologies to potential U.S. adversaries necessitates that the U.S. employ a defensive system to counter this threat. The system that is being developed is called the Space-Based Infrared System (SBIRS) "System of Systems". The SBIRS Low component of the SBIRS "System of Systems" will track strategic and theater ballistic missiles from launch to reentry and relay necessary cueing data to mis...

  19. Phase 2 SBIR Final Report: An Ultra-Sensitive Optical Biosensor for Flood Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The further development of a unique interferometric based optical biosensor platform for the rapid unlabelled detection and identification of foodborne pathogens was carried out under Phase II SBIR...

  20. SBIR Advanced Technologies in Aviation and Air Transportation System 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Kaszeta, Richard W.; Gold, Calman; Corke, Thomas C.; McGowan, Ryan; Matlis, Eric; Eichenlaub, Jesse; Davis, Joshua T.; Shah, Parthiv N.

    2017-01-01

    This report is intended to provide a broad knowledge of various topics associated with NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), with particular interest on the NASA SBIR contracts awarded from 2011-2012 executed by small companies. The content of this report focuses on the high-quality, cutting-edge research that will lead to revolutionary concepts, technologies, and capabilities that enable radical change to both the airspace system and the aircraft that fly within it, facilitating a safer, more environmentally friendly, and more efficient air transportation system.

  1. Tapping into a Billion Dollar Resource, SBIR/STTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexcur, Paul; Kalshoven, James

    2002-10-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs as implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These programs, as mandated by Congress, provide an opportunity for small, high technology companies and research institutions to participate in Government sponsored research and development (R&D) efforts in key technology areas. This presentation describes the background and operation of these two programs and discusses what factors a business should consider in making the decision to participate.

  2. Optical computing, optical memory, and SBIRs at Foster-Miller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domash, Lawrence H.

    1994-03-01

    A desktop design and manufacturing system for binary diffractive elements, MacBEEP, was developed with the optical researcher in mind. Optical processing systems for specialized tasks such as cellular automation computation and fractal measurement were constructed. A new family of switchable holograms has enabled several applications for control of laser beams in optical memories. New spatial light modulators and optical logic elements have been demonstrated based on a more manufacturable semiconductor technology. Novel synthetic and polymeric nonlinear materials for optical storage are under development in an integrated memory architecture. SBIR programs enable creative contributions from smaller companies, both product oriented and technology oriented, and support advances that might not otherwise be developed.

  3. Simulation of a Potential CO2 Storage in the West Paris Basin: Site Characterization and Assessment of the Long-Term Hydrodynamical and Geochemical Impacts Induced by the CO2 Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estublier Audrey

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the preliminary results of a study carried out as part of a demonstration project of CO2 storage in the Paris Basin. This project funded by ADEME (French Environment and Energy Management Agency and several industrial partners (TOTAL, ENGIE, EDF, Lafarge, Air Liquide, Vallourec aimed to study the possibility to set up an experimental infrastructure of CO2 transport and storage. Regarding the storage, the objectives were: (1 to characterize the selected site by optimizing the number of wells in a CO2 injection case of 200 Mt over 50 years in the Trias, (2 to simulate over time the CO2 migration and the induced pressure field, and (3 to analyze the geochemical behavior of the rock over the long term (1,000 years. The preliminary site characterization study revealed that only the southern area of Keuper succeeds to satisfy this injection criterion using only four injectors. However, a complementary study based on a refined fluid flow model with additional secondary faults concluded that this zone presents the highest potential of CO2 injection but without reaching the objective of 200 Mt with a reasonable number of wells. The simulation of the base scenario, carried out before the model refinement, showed that the overpressure above 0.1 MPa covers an area of 51,869 km2 in the Chaunoy formation, 1,000 years after the end of the injection, which corresponds to the whole West Paris Basin, whereas the CO2 plume extension remains small (524 km2. This overpressure causes brine flows at the domain boundaries and a local overpressure in the studied oil fields. Regarding the preliminary risk analysis of this project, the geochemical effects induced by the CO2 injection were studied by simulating the fluid-rock interactions with a coupled geochemical and fluid flow model in a domain limited to the storage complex. A one-way coupling of two models based on two domains fitting into each other was developed using dynamic boundary

  4. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology... public Webinar and Roundtable Meetings regarding its proposal to amend its regulations governing size and eligibility for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR...

  5. 48 CFR 227.7104 - Contracts under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. 227.7104 Section 227.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Data and Computer Software—Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, when technical data or... PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Technical Data 227.7104 Contracts under the Small Business...

  6. 48 CFR 52.227-20 - Rights in Data-SBIR Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means recorded information (regardless of the form or method of the recording) of a scientific or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights in Data-SBIR....227-20 Rights in Data—SBIR Program. As prescribed in 27.409(h), insert the following clause: Rights in...

  7. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  8. SBIR Final Report. Liquid Core Optical Scintillating Fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, C.P.; Steinbeck, J.; Buerstler, R.

    2000-01-01

    This Phase I SBIR project focused on developing flexible scintillating liquid core optical fibers, with potential uses in high-energy calorimetry, tracking, preradiators, active targets or other fast detectors. Progress on the six tasks of the project is summarized. The technical developments involve three technology components: (1) highly flexible capillaries or tubes of relatively low n (index of refraction) to serve as cladding and liquid core containment; (2) scintillator (and clear) fluids of relatively high n to serve as a core-- these fluids must have a high light transmission and, for some applications, radiation hardness; (3) optical end plugs, plug insertion, and plug-cladding tube sealing technology to contain the core fluids in the tubes, and to transmit the light

  9. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase I and Phase II Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high temperature environmental barrier coating systems, deployable space structures, solid oxide fuel cells, and self-lubricating hard coatings for extreme temperatures. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  10. A Report on the Navy SBIR Program: Best Practices, Roadblocks and Recommendations for Technology Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bland, Erin; Busch, Dan; Clark, Al

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years the Armed Services Committees have shown an increased interest in the DoD doing as much as possible to transition SBIR developed technologies into products or services that support the warfighter...

  11. Defense Contractors SBIR/STTR Partnering Manual: A Primer on Technology Risk Management and Partnering Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, John R

    2008-01-01

    As the world looks increasingly to technology innovation to meet the challenges of defense, security, disaster relief and increased health, many in industry have come to identify this nation's SBIR...

  12. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  13. What agreement in Paris in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In Warsaw, countries agreed to a process whereby each will unilaterally design and communicate its contribution toward reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. This process is to be ratified in late 2015 in Paris. Will the Paris agreement mark a turning point in climate policy? Will it measure up to the ambitions proclaimed by the international community at the Durban meeting?

  14. Turnable Semiconductor Laser Spectroscopy in Hollow Optical Waveguides, Phase II SBIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory J. Fetzer, Ph.D.

    2001-12-24

    In this study a novel optical trace gas sensor based on a perforated hollow waveguide (PHW) was proposed. The sensor has been given the acronym ESHOW for Environmental Sensor using Hollow Optical Waveguides. Realizations of the sensor have demonstrated rapid response time (<2s), low minimum detection limits (typically around 3 x 10-5 absorbance). Operation of the PHW technology has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid0infrared (MIR) regions of the spectrum. Simulation of sensor performance provided in depth understanding of the signals and signal processing required to provide high sensitivity yet retain rapid response to gas changes. A dedicated sensor electronics and software foundation were developed during the course of the Phase II effort. Commercial applications of the sensor are ambient air and continuous emissions monitoring, industrial process control and hazardous waste site monitoring. There are numerous other applications for such a sensor including medical diagnosis and treatment, breath analysis for legal purposes, water quality assessment, combustion diagnostics, and chemical process control. The successful completion of Phase II resulted in additional funding of instrument development by the Nations Institute of Heath through a Phase I SBIR grant and a strategic teaming relationship with a commercial manufacture of medical instrumentation. The purpose of the NIH grant and teaming relationship is to further develop the sensor to monitor NO in exhaled breath for the purposes of asthma diagnosis.

  15. Une herboristerie ethnique à Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaïdi , Maurad

    2012-01-01

    Place de la Chapelle à Paris, dans le 18e arrondissement. L'enseigne de ce magasin est peu explicite, mais la vitrine laisse deviner le type de produits vendus. L'information est un peu plus développée dans la langue arabe car il y est précisé que la vente concerne tous types d'encens, ainsi que des plantes arabes : il s'agit d'une herboristerie. Il est également écrit que le magasin exporte vers le Maroc : le mot en arabe est ambigu puisqu'il s'agit de "Maghreb", mais en général, utilisé seu...

  16. An Overview of Power, Energy Storage, and Conversion Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 15 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Power, Energy Storage and Conversion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as high-radiation-tolerant ceramic voltage isolators, development of hermetic sealing glasses for solid oxide fuel cells, rechargeable lithium metal cells, high-efficiency direct methane solid oxide fuel cell systems, Li metal protection for high-energy space batteries, isolated bidirectional direct current converters for distributed battery energy applications, and high-efficiency rad-hard ultrathin Si photovoltaic cell technology for space. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  17. Paris-Nairobi Conference - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-04-01

    Energy is critical to economic development and poverty reduction. The provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy services, especially for the poorest, contributes decisively to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Without energy, economies cannot grow and poverty cannot be reduced. Insufficient electricity supply affects many developing countries. Productivity, competitiveness, employment, and economic and social development are therefore limited. Low income countries are uppermost victims of climate change, though being the least responsible and the least armed to tackle and mitigate it. To meet the energy needs of Africa and other countries vulnerable to climate change and engage them on a sustainable development path, a priority for all countries, a concerted common global action is needed. This action shall be connected with existing initiatives in order to complement and enhance their efficiency. 2012 has been declared the international year for energy access by the United-Nations and during its presidency of the G8/G20, France wishes to foreground this issue. Therefore, France and Kenya want to contribute to this overall action, launching a global partnership for universal access to clean energy. In this context, the ministerial meeting launched this partnership on April 21, 2011 in Paris, France. This first meeting discussed ways to mobilize financing to achieve universal access to energy and to develop cleaner energies. Several obstacles have to be addressed and the following challenges shall be overcome: strengthening national and regional legal framework, improving capacity building and project management (source localization, technological options) and risk management. This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - white paper presentation (A. Mohamed, P. Lorec); 2 - Establishment of ECREEE as a regional

  18. NASA Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Successes, Infusion and Commercializations and Potential International Partnering Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Kathryn; Goodman, Doug; Whittington, James

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program has served as a beneficial funding vehicle to both US small technology businesses and the Federal Agencies that participate in the program. This paper, to the extent possible, while observing Intellectual Property (IP) laws, will discuss the many SBIR and STTR (SBIR Technology Transfer) successes in the recent history of the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Many of the participants of the International Conference on Environmental Systems (ICES) have based their research and papers on technologies that were made possible by SBIR/STTR awards and post award funding. Many SBIR/STTR successes have flown on Space Shuttle missions, Space X Dragons, and other spacecraft. SBIR/STTR technologies are currently infused on the International Space Station (ISS) and satellites, one of which was a NASA/JAXA (Japanese Space Agency) joint venture. Many of these companies have commercialized their technologies and grown as businesses while helping the economy through the creation of new jobs. In addition, this paper will explore the opportunity for international partnership with US SBIR/STTR companies as up to 49% of the makeup of the company is not required to be American owned. Although this paper will deal with technical achievements, it does not purport to be technical in nature. It will address the many requests for information on successes and opportunities within NASA SBIR and the virtually untapped potential of international partnering.

  19. Design, Construct and Test the Hi-Therm Simulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zavitsanos, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Under the previous SBIR programs, GSI investigated the application of highly exothermic intermetallic reactions with the most energetic of these reactions constituting the basis for the Hi-Therm Simulator...

  20. The Progress of SBIR Supported R and D of Solid State Pulse Modulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R

    2004-01-01

    The Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant program funded by the US Department of Energy makes a number of awards each year for R and D in the field of accelerator technology including high power pulse modulators and their components. This paper outlines program requirements, and reviews some of the awards made in the last three years in support of high power modulator systems and solid state switching. A number of award recipients are presenting the results of their SBIR R and D at this workshop

  1. A fractal analysis of the public transportation system of Paris

    OpenAIRE

    L Benguigui

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the railway networks of the public transportation system of Paris, based on the notion of fractals, is presented. The two basic networks, (metropolitan and suburban) which have different functions, have also a different fractal dimension: 1.8 for the metropolitan network, and 1.5 for the suburban network. By means of computer simulation, it is concluded that the true dimension of the metro network is probably 2.0. A fractal model of the suburban network, with the same features ...

  2. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG46 Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business Administration...

  3. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase 2 Awards, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    165 proposals for funding in Phase II of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. These proposals were selected from those submitted by... small research and development firms awarded Phase I contracts from the FY 1984 solicitation. In order to make information available on the technical

  4. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Communications Technology and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights eight of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Communication Technology and Development. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as X-ray navigation, microsensor instrument for unmanned aerial vehicle airborne atmospheric measurements, 16-element graphene-based phased array antenna system, interferometric star tracker, ultralow power fast-response sensor, and integrated spacecraft navigation and communication. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  5. An Overview of 2014 SBIR Phase 1 and Phase 2 Air-Breathing Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.; Morris, Jessica R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights nine of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and Phase II projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as development of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging method for the measurement of complex 3D ice shapes, phased array techniques for low signal-to-noise ratio wind tunnels, compact kinetic mechanisms for petroleum-derived and alternative aviation fuels, and hybrid electric propulsion systems for a multirotor aircraft. Each featured technology describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  6. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing Areas in In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are nineteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as high-performance Hall thruster support system, thruster discharge power converter, high-performance combustion chamber, ion thruster design tool, green liquid monopropellant thruster, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  7. An Overview of Air-Breathing Propulsion Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA mission directorates address critical research needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 24 of the innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects that emphasize one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-Air-Breathing Propulsion. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as hybrid nanocomposites for efficient aerospace structures; plasma flow control for drag reduction; physics-based aeroanalysis methods for open rotor conceptual designs; vertical lift by series hybrid power; fast pressure-sensitive paint systems for production wind tunnel testing; rugged, compact, and inexpensive airborne fiber sensor interrogators based on monolithic tunable lasers; and high sensitivity semiconductor sensor skins for multi-axis surface pressure characterization. Each featured technology describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  8. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Physical Sciences and Biomedical Technologies in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing areas in physical sciences and biomedical technologies in space, which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty two technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as reusable handheld electrolyte, sensor for bone markers, wideband single crystal transducer, mini treadmill for musculoskeletal, and much more. Each article in this report describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  9. An Overview of SBIR Phase 2 Materials Structures for Extreme Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR Phase II projects from 2007-2012 specifically addressing Areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are twenty three technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as fine-filament superconductor wire, composite oxide cathode materials, nano-composites, high radiation solar cell, wrapped multilayer insulation, thin aerogel, and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA personnel including engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn of NASA SBIR's capabilities that might be crosscutting into this technology area. As the result, it would cause collaborations and partnerships between the small companies and NASA Programs and Projects resulting in benefit to both SBIR companies and NASA.

  10. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase II Awards. 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    OFFICE: AFBMOiPMX THE INTEGR ATE-DRILL-LOADLSHUOT (IDLS) C’ NCv " , A CONTINUOUS DRILL 04 ’e SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH (SBIR) PROGRAM - PHASE 2...WORK WAS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT THE COMPONENTS OF THE -.’ WBGI INDEX ( WEB BULB, DRY BULB AND BLACK GLOBE TEMPERATURE) CAN BE DE- RIVED FROM SATELLITE DATA

  11. Balancing innovation with commercialization in NASA's Science Mission Directorate SBIR Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrile, R. J.; Jackson, B. L.

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) administers a portion of the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. One of the challenges of administrating this program is to balance the need to foster innovation in small businesses and the need to demonstrate commercialization by infusion into NASA. Because of the often risky nature of innovation, SBIR programs will tend to drift into a status that rewards proposals that promise to deliver a product that is exactly what was specified in the call. This often will satisfy the metric of providing a clear demonstration of infusion and thus also providing a publishable success story. However, another goal of the SBIR program is to foster innovation as a national asset. Even though data from commercially successful SMD SBIR tasks indicate a higher value for less innovative efforts, there are programmatic and national reasons to balance the program toward risking a portion of the portfolio on higher innovation tasks. Establishing this balance is made difficult because there is a reward metric for successful infusion and commercialization, but none for successful innovation. In general, the ultimate infusion and commercialization of innovative solutions has a lower probability than implementation of established ideas, but they can also have a much higher return on investment. If innovative ideas are valued and solicited in the SBIR program, then NASA technology requirements need to be specified in a way that defines the problem and possible solution, but will also allow for different approaches and unconventional methods. It may also be necessary to establish a guideline to risk a percentage of awards on these innovations.

  12. Climate Justice and the Paris Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelot, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    The concept of climate justice has been, for the first time, used in an international agreement - namely, the Paris Agreement. But this recognition of the notion of climate justice is extremely restricted by the very way it is formulated. Preamble of the Paris Agreement 'notes' that climate justice is recognized by 'certain cultures'. Does it mean that particular and concrete stakes of climate justice of the pre-COP21 agenda have been recognized or, on the contrary, that the notion so introduced is actually an empty shell without any genuine legal perspective? Considering this uncertainty, it appears relevant to analyze the Paris Agreement through the claims of various groups and coalitions, which influenced the COP21 negotiations

  13. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, René A; Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Pham, Huyên; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the third volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by René Carmona, Ivar Ekeland/Erik Taflin, Arturo Kohatsu-Higa, Pierre-Louis Lions/Jean-Michel Lasry, and Hyuên Pham.

  14. The Department of Defense FY 1998 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. Program Solicitation 98.2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...), and Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  15. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Topic CBD99-204, Phase I: 3D Chemical/BIO Response Trainer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Dennis

    1999-01-01

    The overall objective of this Phase I small business innovation research (SBIR) program effort was to demonstrate the scientific, technical and commercial feasibility of a 3D virtual world or virtual reality (VR...

  16. Program Solicitation 2001.2. Closing Date: 15 August 2001. FY 2001 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...), and Chemical and Biological Defense (CBD) hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  17. The Department of Defense FY 1999 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program. Program Solicitation 99.2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... Special Operations Command (SOCOM), hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  18. The Department of Defense FY 2000 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program: Program Solicitation 00.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... (NIMA), and U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM), hereafter referred to as DoD Components, invite small business firms to submit proposals under this solicitation for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program...

  19. The myriad challenges of the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Dann; Allen, Myles R.; Hall, Jim W.; Muller, Benito; Rajamani, Lavanya; Le Quéré, Corinne

    2018-05-01

    The much awaited and intensely negotiated Paris Agreement was adopted on 12 December 2015 by the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The agreement set out a more ambitious long-term temperature goal than many had anticipated, implying more stringent emissions reductions that have been under-explored by the research community. By its very nature a multidisciplinary challenge, filling the knowledge gap requires not only climate scientists, but the whole Earth system science community, as well as economists, engineers, lawyers, philosophers, politicians, emergency planners and others to step up. To kick start cross-disciplinary discussions, the University of Oxford's Environmental Change Institute focused its 25th anniversary conference upon meeting the challenges of the Paris Agreement for science and society. This theme issue consists of review papers, opinion pieces and original research from some of the presentations within that meeting, covering a wide range of issues underpinning the Paris Agreement. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  20. IMS LD. Paris Conference, April 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    3 presentations run in Paris, France, in Apri 1st, 2005, in the Cité des Sciences, sponsored by UNFOLD Project and l'AFNOR about the following topics: - Update on UNFOLD CoP Valkenburg meeting 2005 - Creating a UoL - Introducing CopperCore

  1. Air Force/Industry F-35/F-22 Technology Interchange Workshop for Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR): Plenary Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-28

    Identification/Solution Process • Senior leader engagement • Joint AFRL/Product center process • Multi-directorate AFRL engagement • PEO/ TEO approval...SPO Primes participation Strategy Driven Process Industry days PEO/ TEO Meeting Jan - May Prioritized Tech Solutions Existing SBIRs SBIR Topics...Electronic parts & components, Frontier now supports the Global Hawk Joint Stars, B-1B, KC -135, C-17, F-15E, & DoD’s Defense Support Program (DSP

  2. Software Infrastructure to Enable Modeling & Simulation as a Service (M&SaaS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 2 project will produce a software service infrastructure that enables most modeling and simulation (M&S) activities from code development and...

  3. Morphological diversity of wild medicinal Paris L. from China and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paris L. (Trilliaceae) is a temperate genus of about 24 perennial herbaceous species distributed from Europe to Eastern Asia. Paris is notable in China for its medicinal value. An investigation was conducted to determine the variations of 27 morphological characters of 196 accessions from 8 populations of medicinal Paris ...

  4. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Volume 2. Navy Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    NAVY ABSTRACTS OF SBIR PHASE I AWARDS mmhancemegs to be added. Advanced processor architeturs which u- new technology hardware and software for...Adaptive Compensation System for Performance Improvenent of piezoelectric Hydropbones Abstract: Hydopbone output level is, in gena, insly proportional to die...growth rate is proportional to the mode frequency and under optimal conditions, the cavity mode TMI 10 exponcntiates in only 10 oscillation periods. In

  5. NASA's Management and Utilization of the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexcur, Winfield Paul

    2003-01-01

    The United Space Congress established the SBIR program in 1982 for the following purposes: ( 1) Stimulate technological innovation (2) Increase private-sector commercialization derived from federal R&D (3) Use small business to meet federal R&D needs (4) Foster and encourage participation by disadvantaged persons and women in technological innovation The STTR program was established in 1992 with the additional requirement of having a small business partner with a research institution (usually a university) for the purpose of transferring intellectual property from the research institution to the small business concern for enabling a government technical need and furthering the technological development for the purpose of developing commercial products. The government of Japan has established a program that models portions of the U.S. SBIR and STTR programs. They are very interested in how NASA has been so successful in fulfilling the Congressional objectives of these programs. In particular, they want to understand the management practices and incentives that are provided to enable partnerships between business enterprises, academia and government. The speech will also focus on some of the many successful technologies (on a conceptual level) that have been developed through NASA s SBIR and STTR programs and mechanisms used to promote cooperation between small businesses, large businesses, academia and government agencies within the United States. The speech is on a conceptual level, focusing on U.S. and NASA policies and management implementation practices. No enabling technical discussion will be held.

  6. Australia's Unprecedented Future Temperature Extremes Under Paris Limits to Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sophie C.; King, Andrew D.; Mitchell, Daniel M.

    2017-10-01

    Record-breaking temperatures can detrimentally impact ecosystems, infrastructure, and human health. Previous studies show that climate change has influenced some observed extremes, which are expected to become more frequent under enhanced future warming. Understanding the magnitude, as a well as frequency, of such future extremes is critical for limiting detrimental impacts. We focus on temperature changes in Australian regions, including over a major coral reef-building area, and assess the potential magnitude of future extreme temperatures under Paris Agreement global warming targets (1.5°C and 2°C). Under these limits to global mean warming, we determine a set of projected high-magnitude unprecedented Australian temperature extremes. These include extremes unexpected based on observational temperatures, including current record-breaking events. For example, while the difference in global-average warming during the hottest Australian summer and the 2°C Paris target is 1.1°C, extremes of 2.4°C above the observed summer record are simulated. This example represents a more than doubling of the magnitude of extremes, compared with global mean change, and such temperatures are unexpected based on the observed record alone. Projected extremes do not necessarily scale linearly with mean global warming, and this effect demonstrates the significant potential benefits of limiting warming to 1.5°C, compared to 2°C or warmer.

  7. Ice-free Arctic projections under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.; Swart, Neil C.

    2018-05-01

    Under the Paris Agreement, emissions scenarios are pursued that would stabilize the global mean temperature at 1.5-2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels, but current emission reduction policies are expected to limit warming by 2100 to approximately 3.0 °C. Whether such emissions scenarios would prevent a summer sea-ice-free Arctic is unknown. Here we employ stabilized warming simulations with an Earth System Model to obtain sea-ice projections under stabilized global warming, and correct biases in mean sea-ice coverage by constraining with observations. Although there is some sensitivity to details in the constraining method, the observationally constrained projections suggest that the benefits of going from 2.0 °C to 1.5 °C stabilized warming are substantial; an eightfold decrease in the frequency of ice-free conditions is expected, from once in every five to once in every forty years. Under 3.0 °C global mean warming, however, permanent summer ice-free conditions are likely, which emphasizes the need for nations to increase their commitments to the Paris Agreement.

  8. Bookmaker and pari-mutuel betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Shing, Hui-Fai

    2008-01-01

    A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events (a race won by a "favourite") have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events (a "longshot" wins). Such favourite-longshot (FL) biases however appear to be more severe and persist......A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events (a race won by a "favourite") have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events (a "longshot" wins). Such favourite-longshot (FL) biases however appear to be more severe...... and persistent in bookmaker markets than in pari-mutuel markets; the latter sometimes exhibit no bias or a reverse FL bias. Our results help understand these differences: the odds grid in bookmaker markets leads to a built-in FL bias, whereas that used in pari-mutuel betting pushes these markets toward a reverse...

  9. Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Çinlar, Erhan; Ekeland, Ivar; Jouini, Elyes; Scheinkman, José; Touzi, Nizar

    2004-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the second volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. This volume presents the following articles: "Hedging of Defaultable Claims" by T. Bielecki, M. Jeanblanc, and M. Rutkowski; "On the Geometry of Interest Rate Models" by T. Björk; "Heterogeneous Beliefs, Speculation and Trading in Financial Markets" by J.A. Scheinkman, and W. Xiong.

  10. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  11. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  12. From Paris to the End of Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Claes, Dag Harald; Hveem, Helge

    2016-01-01

    "This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We ana...

  13. Paris after Trump: An Inconvenient Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    With his announcement to pull the US out of the Paris Agreement US President Donald Trump has snubbed the international climate policy community. Key remaining parties to the Agreement such as Europe and China might call for carbon tariffs on US imports as a sanctioning instrument to coerce US compliance. Our analysis, however, reveals an inconvenient insight for advocates of carbon tariffs: given the possibility of retaliatory tariffs across all imported goods, carbon tariffs do not constitu...

  14. The Paris Agreement to Ignore Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2016-01-01

    At the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change held in Paris, France, 30 November to 11 December 2015, an Agreement was reached by the international community including 195 countries. The Agreement has been hailed, by participants and the media, as a major turning point for policy in the struggle to address human induced climate change. The following is a short critical commentary in which I briefly explain why ...

  15. Post Paris and November 8, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    COP 21 in Paris, as historic as it was, established the necessary, but not the sufficient. The signatories to the landmark Paris accord are a coalition of the willing, but their pledges are only as good as the sustained will of individual countries to adhere to their commitments. The U.S. presidential election has demonstrated how easily uncertainty can be added. Even if all countries abide by the Paris climate agreement, capping global mean temperatures to 2oC will likely require net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2085 and substantial negative emissions over the long term. Before the Paris agreement was finished, it was clear that the pledged emission cuts by 2030 would not be sufficient in and of themselves, to stay under 2oC. Given the accumulation of greenhouse gases to date, limiting warming to a maximum of 2oC would require bending the curve of global emissions by 2020, i.e., over the next four years. If the past is a prologue, without even taking into account an emergence from the global recession, we stand a realistic chance of blowing right past the 2oC target. What, then, are the challenges going forward? Is 2oC a real goal that is attainable, or is it a stretch goal? Meeting a 2oC target is a function of when mitigation begins in earnest, the rate of mitigation, and the rate and amount of carbon sequestration. What are the implications of this trade space? While much effort has been put into designing a climate observing system from a science perspective, relatively little thought has been put into determining what observations are needed to support policy decisions, mitigation, and verify the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions that resulted from the Paris Agreement. If 2oC is a stretch goal, intellectual honesty requires that we consider mitigation and adaptation in tandem, and not as either/or. Similarly, even with all its attendant ethical dilemmas, it is important to thoroughly study geoengineering so that policy makers have a robust

  16. Daylighting Digital Dimmer SBIR Phase 2 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan [MoJo Labs Inc., Longmont, CO (United States)

    2018-01-17

    The primary focus of the Phase II Development is the implementation of two key technologies, Task To Wall (TTW) Control, and Wand Gesture light dimming control into an easy to use remote for SSL light control, the MoJo Remote. The MoJo Remote product family includes a battery powered wireless remote, a WiFi gateway as well as Mobile Applications for iOS and Android. Specific accomplishments during the second reporting period include: 1. Finalization and implementation of MoJo Remote Accelerometer and capacitive-touch based UI/UX, referred to as the Wand Gesture UI. 2. Issuance of Patent for Wand Gesture UI. 3. Industrial and Mechanical Design for MoJo Remote and MoJo Gateway. 4. Task To Wall implementation and testing in MoJo Remote. 5. Zooming User Interface (ZUI) for the Mobile App implemented on both iOS and Andriod. 6. iOS Mobile app developed to beta level functionality. 7. Initial Development of the Android Mobile Application. 8. Closed loop color control at task (demonstrated at 2016 SSL R&D Workshop). 9. Task To Wall extended to Color Control, working in simulation. 10. Beta testing begun in Late 2017/Early 2018. The MoJo Remote integrates the Patented TTW Control and the Wand Gesture innovative User Interface, and is currently in Beta testing and on the path to commercialization.

  17. Digital active material processing platform effort (DAMPER), SBIR phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1992-11-01

    Applied Technology Associates, Inc., (ATA) has demonstrated that inertial actuation can be employed effectively in digital, active vibration isolation systems. Inertial actuation involves the use of momentum exchange to produce corrective forces which act directly on the payload being actively isolated. In a typical active vibration isolation system, accelerometers are used to measure the inertial motion of the payload. The signals from the accelerometers are then used to calculate the corrective forces required to counteract, or 'cancel out' the payload motion. Active vibration isolation is common technology, but the use of inertial actuation in such systems is novel, and is the focus of the DAMPER project. A May 1991 report was completed which documented the successful demonstration of inertial actuation, employed in the control of vibration in a single axis. In the 1 degree-of-freedom (1DOF) experiment a set of air bearing rails was used to suspend the payload, simulating a microgravity environment in a single horizontal axis. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology was used to calculate in real time, the control law between the accelerometer signals and the inertial actuators. The data obtained from this experiment verified that as much as 20 dB of rejection could be realized by this type of system. A discussion is included of recent tests performed in which vibrations were actively controlled in three axes simultaneously. In the three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system, the air bearings were designed in such a way that the payload is free to rotate about the azimuth axis, as well as translate in the two horizontal directions. The actuator developed for the DAMPER project has applications beyond payload isolation, including structural damping and source vibration isolation. This report includes a brief discussion of these applications, as well as a commercialization plan for the actuator.

  18. Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security - SBIR Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twogood, Richard E [Dirac Solutions Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    2015-01-27

    This is the Final Report for the DOE Phase II SBIR project “Ultra-secure RF Tags for Safeguards and Security.” The topics covered herein include technical progress made, progress against the planned milestones and deliverables, project outcomes (results, collaborations, intellectual property, etc.), and a discussion on future expectations of deployment and impacts of the results of this work. In brief, all planned work for the project was successfully completed, on or ahead of schedule and on budget. The major accomplishment was the successful development of a very advanced passive ultra-secure RFID tag system with combined security features unmatched by any commercially available ones. These tags have high-level dynamic encrypted authentication, a novel tamper-proofing mechanism, system software including graphical user interfaces and networking, and integration with a fiber-optic seal mechanism. This is all accomplished passively (with no battery) by incorporating sophisticated hardware in the tag which harvests the energy from the RFID readers that are interrogating the tag. Based on initial feedback (and deployments) at DOE’s Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), it is anticipated these tags and their offspring will meet DOE and international community needs for highly secure RFID systems. Beyond the accomplishment of those original objectives for the ultra-secure RF tags, major new spin-off thrusts from the original work were identified and successfully pursued with the cognizance of the DOE sponsor office. In particular, new classes of less sophisticated RFID tags were developed whose lineage derives from the core R&D thrusts of this SBIR. These RF “tag variants” have some, but not necessarily all, of the advanced characteristics described above and can therefore be less expensive and meet far wider markets. With customer pull from the DOE and its national laboratories, new RFID tags and systems (including custom readers and software) for

  19. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  20. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Abstracts of Phase 2 Awards 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    into diamond. 2 ARMY SBIR PHASE II AWARDS Transition metals were alloyed at relatively low temperatures to form a thin layer of silicides which lowered...structures. D~uring the phase I program. lDamaskos . Intc. succCssfullN delltonstratet! a cs stpssiol loter :,1I formed by depositinig alte rnat intg layers ...Heights Drive Office: CRI)FC Aica. fiI 96701 Co ntract #: 1)AAA 1 5-93-C-0002if Phonie: 1808)l 486-5381 Ill: Dr, T- J, G. Rasbould Title: Urease -Linked

  1. EERE-SBIR technology transfer opportunity. H2 Safety Sensors for H2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) works in partnership with industry (including small businesses), academia, and DOE's national laboratories to establish fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies as economically competitive contributors to U.S. transportation needs. The work that is envisioned between the SBIR/STTR grantee and Los Alamos National Laboratory would involve Technical Transfer of Los Alamos Intellectual Property (IP) on Thin-film Mixed Potential Sensor (U.S. Patent 7,264,700) and associated know-how for H2 sensor manufacturing and packaging.

  2. Linear feature extraction from radar imagery: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research), phase 2, option 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, David L.; Kahn, Philip; Conner, Gary D.; Lawton, Daryl T.

    1988-12-01

    The goal of this effort is to develop and demonstrate prototype processing capabilities for a knowledge-based system to automatically extract and analyze features from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. This effort constitutes Phase 2 funding through the Defense Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. Previous work examined the feasibility of and technology issues involved in the development of an automated linear feature extraction system. This final report documents this examination and the technologies involved in automating this image understanding task. In particular, it reports on a major software delivery containing an image processing algorithmic base, a perceptual structures manipulation package, a preliminary hypothesis management framework and an enhanced user interface.

  3. The Biosphere Under Potential Paris Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, Sebastian; Boysen, Lena R.; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    Rapid economic and population growth over the last centuries have started to push the Earth out of its Holocene state into the Anthropocene. In this new era, ecosystems across the globe face mounting dual pressure from human land use change (LUC) and climate change (CC). With the Paris Agreement, the international community has committed to holding global warming below 2°C above preindustrial levels, yet current pledges by countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions appear insufficient to achieve that goal. At the same time, the sustainable development goals strive to reduce inequalities between countries and provide sufficient food, feed, and clean energy to a growing world population likely to reach more than 9 billion by 2050. Here, we present a macro-scale analysis of the projected impacts of both CC and LUC on the terrestrial biosphere over the 21st century using the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) to illustrate possible trajectories following the Paris Agreement. We find that CC may cause major impacts in landscapes covering between 16% and 65% of the global ice-free land surface by the end of the century, depending on the success or failure of achieving the Paris goal. Accounting for LUC impacts in addition, this number increases to 38%-80%. Thus, CC will likely replace LUC as the major driver of ecosystem change unless global warming can be limited to well below 2°C. We also find a substantial risk that impacts of agricultural expansion may offset some of the benefits of ambitious climate protection for ecosystems.

  4. 3-D basin modelling of the Paris Basin: diagenetic and hydrogeologic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Jost, A.; Marsily, G. de

    2004-01-01

    A 3-D basin model of the Paris basin is presented in order to simulate through geological times fluid, heat and solute fluxes. This study emphasizes: i) the contribution of basin models to the quantitative hydrodynamic understanding of behaviour of the basin over geological times; ii) the additional use of Atmospheric General Circulation model (AGCM) to provide palaeo-climatic boundaries for a coupled flow and mass transfer modelling, constrained by geochemical and isotopic tracers and; iii) the integration of different types of data (qualitative and quantitative) to better constrain the simulations. Firstly, in a genetic way, basin model is used to reproduce geological, physical and chemical processes occurring in the course of the 248 My evolution of the Paris basin that ought to explain the present-day hydraulic properties at the regional scale. As basin codes try to reproduce some of these phenomena, they should be able to give a plausible idea of the regional-scale permeability distribution of the multi-layered system, of the pre-industrial hydrodynamic conditions within the aquifers and of the diagenesis timing and type of hydrodynamic processes involved. Secondly, climate records archived in the Paris basin groundwater suggest that climate and morphological features have an impact on the hydrogeological processes, particularly during the last 5 My. An Atmospheric General Circulation model is used with a refined spatial resolution centred on the Paris basin to reproduce the climate for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ky) and the middle Pliocene (3 My). These climates will be prescribed, through forcing functions to the hydrological code with the main objective of understanding the way aquifers and aquitards react under different climate conditions, the period and the duration of these effects. Finally, the Paris basin has been studied for a number of years by different scientific communities, thus a large amount of data has been collected. By

  5. Paris INDCs: will they achieve the goal of the Paris Climate Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribett, W. R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Hope, A. P.; Bennett, B.; Canty, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    We provide an overview of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted prior to the 21st meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which are the backbone of the Paris Climate Agreement. Two flavors of INDCs were submitted: unconditional (i.e., firm commitments) and conditional (commitments contingent on financial flow and/or technology transfer). Generally, the Paris INDCs extend to year 2030. However, achievement of either the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °C warming) of the Paris Agreement requires consideration of emissions out to 2060, due to the projected rise in energy demand, growing populations, and rising standards of living. We therefore project global carbon emissions out to year 2060, and compare to various RCP scenarios of IPCC (2013). These projections will be used to assess whether the target (1.5 °C warming) or upper limit (2.0 °) of the Paris Climate Agreement will be met.

  6. A origem da Universidade de Paris (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Afonso da Costa Nunes

    1967-03-01

    Foi no princípio do século XIII que a Universidade começou a organizar-se . Em 1200, por um privilégio outorgado por Filipe Augusto, a corporação dos professôres e dos estudantes de Paris passou a reger-se pela jurisdição eclesiástica, furtando-se dessa maneira ao fôro civil. Em 1215, Roberto de Courçon, legado pontifício, conce-deu ao studium parisiense seus primeiros estatutos oficiais . Se tais medidas constituíram o início da organização jurídica da Universidade, foram, por outro lado, o remate de um lento processo de formação . Mas, como decorreu êsse movimento germinativo da Universidade de Paris? Que condições o prepararam e que fatôres contri-buíram para sua gênese e desenvolvimento?

  7. An Overview of Materials Structures for Extreme Environments Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    Technological innovation is the overall focus of NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The program invests in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency projects. This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I and II projects that specifically address areas in Materials and Structures for Extreme Environments, one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. Each article describes an innovation, defines its technical objective, and highlights NASA applications as well as commercial and industrial applications. Ten technologies are featured: metamaterials-inspired aerospace structures, metallic joining to advanced ceramic composites, multifunctional polyolefin matrix composite structures, integrated reacting fluid dynamics and predictive materials degradation models for propulsion system conditions, lightweight inflatable structural airlock (LISA), copolymer materials for fused deposition modeling 3-D printing of nonstandard plastics, Type II strained layer superlattice materials development for space-based focal plane array applications, hydrogenous polymer-regolith composites for radiation-shielding materials, a ceramic matrix composite environmental barrier coating durability model, and advanced composite truss printing for large solar array structures. This report serves as an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, program managers, and other personnel to learn about innovations in this technology area as well as possibilities for collaboration with innovative small businesses that could benefit NASA programs and projects.

  8. Pariisi kord = Paris' move / João Francisco Figueira

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Figueira, João Francisco, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Pariisi nõustamisprojektide rahvusvahelisest võistlusest "Le Grand Pari(s)". Sooviti saada julget ja elluviidavat projekti Pariisi arenguks aastani 2050. Osales kümme kutsutud arhitektide, planeerijate ja ekspertide töörühma. Osade tööde mõningaid aspekte tutvustav käsitlus

  9. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  10. SBIR & STTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    I’I’GW:O’VIH!rl:: !r.(ll:~~ccl~l\\ 1 t:n ’ • ·iiUo:O. lOJ7, W<tlcn SICil.• ) llj ~ anll )nlAllol~on lnuN<Se $1)!11 f l «.f10Q ’I hc;~.r~~’ U. t~ lil’’’"’\\1...r \\o ~I ~ h t I ~ , t I Ill I ’ I .. , r l).: td = _!:1 dl .. H.mtsvl" Al _l_’:_ l ,• T’ l•l• , I ,

  11. DOD-SBIR Structured Multi-Resolution PIC Code for Electromagnetic Plasma Simulations, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vay, J L; Grote, D P; Friedman, A

    2010-04-22

    A novel electromagnetic solver with mesh refinement capability was implemented in Warp. The solver allows for calculations in 2-1/2 and 3 dimensions, includes the standard Yee stencil, and the Cole-Karkkainen stencil for lower numerical dispersion along the principal axes. Warp implementation of the Cole-Karkkainen stencil includes an extension to perfectly matched layers (PML) for absorption of waves, and is preserving the conservation property of charge conserving current deposition schemes, like the Buneman-Villanesor and Esirkepov methods. Warp's mesh refinement framework (originally developed for electrostatic calculations) was augmented to allow for electromagnetic capability, following the methodology presented in [1] extended to an arbitrary number of refinement levels. Other developments include a generalized particle injection method, internal conductors using stair-cased approximation, and subcycling of particle pushing. The solver runs in parallel using MPI message passing, with a choice at runtime of 1D, 2D and 3D domain decomposition, and is shown to scale linearly on a test problem up-to 32,768 CPUs. The novel solver was tested on the modeling of filamentation instability, fast ignition, ion beam induced plasma wake, and laser plasma acceleration.

  12. DOD-SBIR Structured Multi-Resolution PIC Code for Electromagnetic Plasma Simulations, Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vay, J.L.; Grote, D.P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel electromagnetic solver with mesh refinement capability was implemented in Warp. The solver allows for calculations in 2-1/2 and 3 dimensions, includes the standard Yee stencil, and the Cole-Karkkainen stencil for lower numerical dispersion along the principal axes. Warp implementation of the Cole-Karkkainen stencil includes an extension to perfectly matched layers (PML) for absorption of waves, and is preserving the conservation property of charge conserving current deposition schemes, like the Buneman-Villanesor and Esirkepov methods. Warp's mesh refinement framework (originally developed for electrostatic calculations) was augmented to allow for electromagnetic capability, following the methodology presented in (1) extended to an arbitrary number of refinement levels. Other developments include a generalized particle injection method, internal conductors using stair-cased approximation, and subcycling of particle pushing. The solver runs in parallel using MPI message passing, with a choice at runtime of 1D, 2D and 3D domain decomposition, and is shown to scale linearly on a test problem up-to 32,768 CPUs. The novel solver was tested on the modeling of filamentation instability, fast ignition, ion beam induced plasma wake, and laser plasma acceleration.

  13. Géochimie organique du bassin de Paris Organic Geochemistry of the Paris Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espitalie J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente ici les principaux résultats de l'étude géochimique réalisée, dans le bassin de Paris, à partir des déblais et des carottes provenant de 100 sondages pétroliers ou miniers, et des huiles prélevées dans les réservoirs du Mésozoïque (Trias, Bathonien supérieur, Néocomien. Les différentes méthodes géochimiques utilisées sont la pyrolyse, particulièrement bien adaptée à l'étude des nombreux échantillons de déblais recueillis, la chromatographie en phase gazeuse pour l'analyse détaillée des huiles et des extraits de roche, la spectrométrie de masse pour l'étude des biomarqueurs. Les époques principales de formation de l'huile et du gaz ont été déterminées par simulation sur ordinateur d'un modèle mathématique de genèse des hydrocarbures. Les méthodes de pyrolyse ont permis de dresser des logs géochimiques des forages étudiés et de déterminer, par le calcul, les paramètres de pyrolyse initiaux des roches-mères, avant leur enfouissement. On a pu ainsi établir, dans le périmètre étudié, des cartes de carbone organique initial, de potentiels pétroliers totaux et de quantités d'HC migrés. L'ensemble de ces résultats montre que les roches-mères de la grande majorité des huiles du Mésozoïque sont situées dans le Lias, s'échelonnant depuis le Toarcien jusqu'à l'Hettangien et que les meilleures zones de potentiel pétrolier du Bassin sont localisées à l'emplacement des régions de forte subsidence à l'époque du Lias. L'étude détaillée des hydrocarbures et celle des biomarqueurs ne permettent pas de distinguer les différentes huiles entre elles, quelle que soit leur profondeur, ni de leur attribuer une origine précise à partir des différents niveaux du Lias. Les cartes de migration mettent en évidence des déplacements latéraux des hydrocarbures dans certaines roches-mères (cas du Toarcien inférieur. Elles montrent aussi un déficit important en hydrocarbures à la base du

  14. Can the Paris Agreement stop global warming?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howalt Owe, Selina; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    in the year 2030 of about 55 Gt Carbon to 40 Gt Carbon. This can be compared to an approximate emission of 35 Gt in 2014 and thus means that a global rise in emission of only 5 Gt Carbon is allowed over the next 15 years Using the Danish Center for Earth System Science (DCESS)model [1] we have investigated...... how large an emission reduction is necessary to keep the global temperatures below these targets.The DCESS model is a low order Earth system box model which includes atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere components, and using the year 1765 as the preindustriallevel. We have...... examined different emission scenarios and the national commitments and find that even if the Paris Agreement is fulfilled, global temperatures will have increased by 1.5 degree C in 2030, and then only a yearly percentage reduction of 5% or more will be sufficient to keep temperatures below 2 degree C...

  15. Origin of the Societe des Americanistes, Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Pascal Riviale (1991 produced a two volume dissertation summarizing the work of French scholars involved in anthropology, ethnography, and archaeology in Peru from the beginning of Peruvian independence in 1821 up until World War 1. From the commentary, it is clear that not only does this volume trace individual scholars, and institu­tions involved in archaeologically-related research, but it develops a number of general intellectual themes as well. Riviale has recently (1996 extracted a portion of his dissertation relating to the events leading up to the founding of the Society of Americanists, Paris, in 1895. Because he is focusing in this case on the origin of a specific organiza­tion, he concentrates on exegesis of the institutional antecedents from 1821 onward.

  16. Ocean commitments under the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Natalya D.; Victor, David G.; Levin, Lisa A.

    2017-11-01

    Under the Paris Agreement nations made pledges known as nationally determined contributions (NDCs), which indicate how national governments are evaluating climate risks and policy opportunities. We find that NDCs reveal important systematic patterns reflecting national interests and capabilities. Because the ocean plays critical roles in climate mitigation and adaptation, we created a quantitative marine focus factor (MFF) to evaluate how governments address marine issues. In contrast to the past, when oceans received minimal attention in climate negotiations, 70% of 161 NDCs we analysed include marine issues. The percentage of the population living in low-lying areas--vulnerable to rising seas--positively influences the MFF, but negotiating group (Annex 1 or small island developing states) is equally important, suggesting political motivations are crucial to NDC development. The analysis reveals gaps between scientific and government attention, including on ocean deoxygenation, which is barely mentioned. Governments display a keen interest in expanding marine research on climate priorities.

  17. 77 FR 23228 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... business concerns to submit a Phase II application for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program (CFDA 84.133). This is in response to Public Law 106-554, the ``Small Business Reauthorization Act... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research...

  18. 77 FR 23229 - Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program-Phase I-Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ....133). This is in response to Public Law 106- 554, the ``Small Business Reauthorization Act of [[Page... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Submission for OMB Review; Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program--Phase I--Grant Application Package SUMMARY: This application package invites small business...

  19. An Overview of In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenics Fluids Management Efforts for 2014 SBIR Phases I and II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program focuses on technological innovation by investing in the development of innovative concepts and technologies to help NASA's mission directorates address critical research and development needs for Agency programs. This report highlights 11 of the innovative SBIR 2014 Phase I and II projects from 2010 to 2012 that focus on one of NASA Glenn Research Center's six core competencies-In-Space Propulsion and Cryogenic Fluids Management. The technologies cover a wide spectrum of applications such as divergent field annular ion engines, miniature nontoxic nitrous oxide-propane propulsion, noncatalytic ignition systems for high-performance advanced monopropellant thrusters, nontoxic storable liquid propulsion, and superconducting electric boost pumps for nuclear thermal propulsion. Each article describes an innovation and technical objective and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. This report provides an opportunity for NASA engineers, researchers, and program managers to learn how NASA SBIR technologies could help their programs and projects, and lead to collaborations and partnerships between the small SBIR companies and NASA that would benefit both.

  20. Automated System for Aneuploidy Detection in Sperm Final Report CRADA No. TC-1364-96: Phase I SBIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunlay, R. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This project was a relationship between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Biological Detection, Inc. (now known as Cellomics, Inc.) It was funded as a Phase I SBIR from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) awarded to Cellomics, Inc. with a subcontract to LLNL.

  1. SBIR and STTR Program for Assistive Technology Device Development: Evaluation of Impact Using an ICF-Based Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen M.; Arthanat, Sajay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the impact of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) grant programs of 5 federal agencies National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Department of Education (USDE), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and…

  2. Paris Convention on third party liability in the field of nuclear energy and Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This new bilingual (English and French) edition of the 1960 Paris Convention and 1963 Brussels Supplementary Convention incorporates the provisions of the Protocols which amended each of them on two occasions, in 1964 and 1982. The Expose des motifs to the Paris Convention, as revised in 1982 is also included in this pubication. (NEA) [fr

  3. Paris 2000 researches and men; Paris 2000 des recherches et des hommes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The IWA and ISWA congresses organized in Paris in july showed the latest research developments in the field of water and wastes management. The water sector is more mature than the waste sector but for both a closer association of the public and private is increasing. A summary of the presentations in successively the water and the wastes management is proposed bringing an analysis of the international situation and regulations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Linear feature extraction from radar imagery: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) phase 2, option 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Gary D.; Milgram, David L.; Lawton, Daryl T.; McConnell, Christopher C.

    1988-04-01

    The goal of this effort is to develop and demonstrate prototype processing capabilities for a knowledge-based system to automatically extract and analyze linear features from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. This effort constitutes Phase 2 funding through the Defense Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. Previous work examined the feasibility of the technology issues involved in the development of an automatedlinear feature extraction system. This Option 1 Final Report documents this examination and the technologies involved in automating this image understanding task. In particular, it reports on a major software delivery containing an image processing algorithmic base, a perceptual structures manipulation package, a preliminary hypothesis management framework and an enhanced user interface.

  5. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route — an example of technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.

    1989-04-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates has received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described.

  6. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route - an example of technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience on this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates has received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. (orig.)

  7. A proton medical accelerator by the SBIR route: An example of technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Medical facilities for radiation treatment of cancer with protons have been established in many laboratories throughout the world. Essentially all of these have been designed as physics facilities, however, because of the requirement for protons up to 250 MeV. Most of the experience in this branch of accelerator technology lies in the national laboratories and a few large universities. A major issue is the transfer of this technology to the commercial sector to provide hospitals with simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive accelerators for this application. The author has chosen the SBIR route to accomplish this goal. ACCTEK Associates have received grants from the National Cancer Institute for development of the medical accelerator and beam delivery systems. Considerable encouragement and help has been received from Argonne National Laboratory and the Department of Energy. The experiences to date and the pros and cons on this approach to commercializing medical accelerators are described. 4 refs., 1 fig

  8. Herbert Marcuse vai a Paris, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pessoa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio fornece uma interpretação do filme Paris, Texas, de Wim Wenders, à luz da dialética da civilização como apresentada por Herbert Marcuse em Eros e civilização: uma interpretação filosófica do pensamento de Freud. Para que a “aplicação” do pensamento de Marcuse ao filme de Wenders não soterre a obra de arte com filosofemas previamente existentes e de uso disseminado, o contato entre a imagem do cineasta e a palavra do filósofo acontece em uma via de mão dupla. Assim, se a princípio a caracterização marcuseana da dialética entre a pulsão erótica e as demandas da civilização serve para articular algumas das imagens do filme de Wenders, tentamos mostrar, no final de nosso percurso, como o filme de Wenders permite a formulação de algumas questões que tornam visível o quanto o próprio Marcuse negligenciou uma das principais contribuições de Freud para a reflexão estética: a relação essencial entre a pulsão de morte e a negatividade da arte.

  9. Paris, Texas. Saksamaal ja sinu peas / Kairi Prints

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prints, Kairi

    2010-01-01

    6.- 12. oktoobrini Tallinnas ja Tartus toimuval filmifestivalil "Uus Saksa Kino" saab vaadata Wim Wendersi muusikadokumentaale. "Film ja filosoofia" rubriigis koha- ja rahvusespetsiifika eksistentsist tänapäeva filmikunstis ja W. Wendersi filmist "Paris, Texas" (USA 1984)

  10. Turning Paris into reality at the University of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David G.; Abdulla, Ahmed; Auston, David; Brase, Wendell; Brouwer, Jack; Brown, Karl; Davis, Steven J.; Kappel, Carrie V.; Meier, Alan; Modera, Mark; Zarin Pass, Rebecca; Phillips, David; Sager, Jordan; Weil, David; TomKat Natural Gas Exit Strategies Working Group

    2018-03-01

    The Paris Agreement highlights the need for local climate leadership. The University Of California's approach to deep decarbonization offers lessons in efficiency, alternative fuels and electrification. Bending the emissions curve globally requires efforts that blend academic insights with practical solutions.

  11. Signal detection in global mean temperatures after "Paris": an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Bregman, Bram; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2018-02-01

    In December 2015, 195 countries agreed in Paris to hold the increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Since large financial flows will be needed to keep GMSTs below these targets, it is important to know how GMST has progressed since pre-industrial times. However, the Paris Agreement is not conclusive as regards methods to calculate it. Should trend progression be deduced from GCM simulations or from instrumental records by (statistical) trend methods? Which simulations or GMST datasets should be chosen, and which trend models? What is pre-industrial and, finally, are the Paris targets formulated for total warming, originating from both natural and anthropogenic forcing, or do they refer to anthropogenic warming only? To find answers to these questions we performed an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis where datasets and model choices have been varied. For all cases we evaluated trend progression along with uncertainty information. To do so, we analysed four trend approaches and applied these to the five leading observational GMST products. We find GMST progression to be largely independent of various trend model approaches. However, GMST progression is significantly influenced by the choice of GMST datasets. Uncertainties due to natural variability are largest in size. As a parallel path, we calculated GMST progression from an ensemble of 42 GCM simulations. Mean progression derived from GCM-based GMSTs appears to lie in the range of trend-dataset combinations. A difference between both approaches appears to be the width of uncertainty bands: GCM simulations show a much wider spread. Finally, we discuss various choices for pre-industrial baselines and the role of warming definitions. Based on these findings we propose an estimate for signal progression in GMSTs since pre-industrial.

  12. An Analysis of Information Systems Technology Initiatives and Small Businesses in the DoD Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    which aimed at analyzing and evaluating the SBIR program through a survey and case study methodology. The report contained 10 academic articles...highlights the difficulty in any academic research that might attempt to estimate the return on investment of federal funding used in the SBIR...military training tools, knowledge management tools (i.e., “InfoTracker,” which can detect text overlaps and identify plagiarism ), as well as

  13. The Paris Observatory has 350 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequeux, James

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Observatory is the oldest astronomical observatory that has worked without interruption since its foundation to the present day. The building due to Claude Perrault is still in existence with few modifications, but of course other buildings have been added all along the centuries for housing new instruments and laboratories. In particular, a large dome has been built on the terrace in 1847, with a 38-cm diameter telescope completed in 1857: both are still visible. The main initial purpose of the Observatory was to determine longitudes. This was achieved by Jean-Dominique Cassini using the eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter: a much better map of France was the produced using this method, which unfortunately does not work at sea. Incidentally, the observation of these eclipses led to the discovery in 1676 of the finite velocity of light by Cassini and Rømer. Cassini also discovered the differential rotation of Jupiter and four satellites of Saturn. Then, geodesy was to be the main activity of the Observatory for more than a century, culminating in the famous Cassini map of France completed around 1790. During the first half of the 19th century, under François Arago, the Observatory was at the centre of French physics, which then developed very rapidly. Arago initiated astrophysics in 1810 by showing that the Sun and stars are made of incandescent gas. In 1854, the new director, Urbain Le Verrier, put emphasis on astrometry and celestial mechanics, discovering in particular the anomalous advance of the perihelion of Mercury, which was later to be a proof of General Relativity. In 1858, Leon Foucault built the first modern reflecting telescopes with their silvered glass mirror. Le Verrier created on his side modern meteorology, including some primitive forecasts. The following period was not so bright, due to the enormous project of the Carte du Ciel, which took much of the forces of the Observatory for half a century with little scientific return. In

  14. From Paris to the End of Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Harald Claes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possibilities and obstacles for a cost-effective implementation of policies that will lead to a significant reduction in global CO2 emissions from the use of oil. The structural conditions and economic consequences of changing national or regional energy systems vary dramatically. In addition, there are a large number of actors with strong interests along the energy value chain that may potentially halt, delay or alter the implementation of the Paris treaty. We analyze these issues by first locating oil in the overall energy system, then identifying possibilities and obstacles at various stages of the oil value chain, and finally by contextualizing global oil by discussing whether and how it may be affected by geopolitics and regional conflict. In brief, our argument is that developments in consumption volumes and patterns will be most important. Market forces are vital, but they are influenced by politics and public policy outcomes. Transportation is the most important sector for oil consumption, with changes in transport behavior, modes and technology being vital drivers. The behavior of investors will be a decisive factor in shaping the production side of the oil system. If investments go down as a response to lasting low oil prices and/or because investors decide to turn to green economy options, the supply of oil will logically shrink. On the other hand, the growth and development aspirations of a rapidly growing population in developing countries are likely to stimulate demand and thus increase exploration, production and subsequently the price. Finally, we emphasize the importance of (geopolitics influencing all aspects of the value chain of oil.

  15. An Overview of Communications Technology and Development Efforts for 2015 SBIR Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Steele, Gynelle C.

    2017-01-01

    This report highlights innovative SBIR 2015 Phase I projects specifically addressing areas in Communications Technology and Development which is one of six core competencies at NASA Glenn Research Center. There are fifteen technologies featured with emphasis on a wide spectrum of applications such as novel solid state lasers for space-based water vapor dial; wide temperature, high voltage and energy density capacitors for aerospace exploration; instrument for airborne measurement of carbonyl sulfide; high-power tunable seed laser for methane Lidar transmitter; ROC-rib deployable ka-band antenna for nanosatellites; a SIC-based microcontroller for high-temperature in-situ instruments and systems; improved yield, performance and reliability of high-actuator-count deformable mirrors; embedded multifunctional optical sensor system; switching electronics for space-based telescopes with advanced AO systems; integrated miniature DBR laser module for Lidar instruments; and much more. Each article in this booklet describes an innovation, technical objective, and highlights NASA commercial and industrial applications. space-based water vapor dial; wide temperature, high voltage and energy density capacitors foraerospace exploration; instrument for airborne measurement of carbonyl sulfide; high-power tunable seed laser formethane Lidar transmitter; ROC-rib deployable ka-band antenna for nanosatellites.

  16. Chemical characteristics of saponins from Paris fargesii var. brevipetala and cytotoxic activity of its main ingredient, paris saponin H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Feiyan; Yin, Hongxiang; Chen, Chu; Liu, Xianbo; Xue, Dan; Chen, Tiezhu; He, Jun; Zhang, Hao

    2012-06-01

    More attention was paid to the anti-tumor activity of Rhizoma Paridis (RP) recently, of which the wild resource was decreased significantly. This study was aimed to elucidate the chemical characteristics of Paris fargesii var. brevipetala (PFB) that may be administrated as alternate resource of legal RP. A HPLC-ELSD method was established to characterize the steroid saponins in rhizomes of PFB and two legal Paris species [Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC) and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY)] in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP). Ten saponins (paris saponins I, II, V, VI, VII, H, gracillin and other three paris saponins) were involved as standards. The results indicated that PFB contained pennogenyl saponins as the main components with small amounts of diosgenin saponins. The total contents of the detected saponins in PFB ranged from 9.12mg/g to 85.33mg/g. Nine of the twelve PFB samples own a total content of paris saponins I, II, VI, and VII more than 6.0mg/g (meeting the standard of CP 2010 edition). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminate Analysis (PLS-DA) both confirmed the fact that saponin profiles of PFB, PPC and PPY were different from each other. In addition, paris saponin H (Ps H), the predominant saponin of PFB (>50%), was tested in vitro to evaluate its cytotoxic activities on HepG2, A549, RPE and L929 cells with a positive control of Cisplatin. Ps H showed a remarkable cytotoxic activity on A549 cells with an IC(50) value of 1.53±0.08μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maio de 1968 em Paris: testemunho de um estudante Paris, May 1968: witness of a student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Thiollent

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar informações sobre os acontecimentos de maio de 1968 na França e seus desdobramentos na vida universitária e intelectual. Os temas abordados são o contexto da crise universitária, as formas de contestação estudantil do ensino de ciências sociais e economia e as fontes intelectuais do movimento. Com base em documentos inéditos, são descritas diversas experiências de comunicação alternativa, de relacionamento entre estudantes e trabalhadores no decorrer dos acontecimentos, assim como uma tentativa de Universidade Popular no 13° distrito de Paris, de julho a outubro de 1968. São analisados alguns aspectos dos debates e da evolução das ciências sociais e da filosofia pós-68, período marcado pela crise do ideário socialista e pelo crescimento do individualismo.This article aims to present the happenigs occured in France in May 1968 and its consequences in the intelectual and university world. The topics are the context of the university crises, the forms of studants complaint against the teaching of Social Sciences and Economy and the intelectual sources of the movement. Based on unpublished documents, many experiences of alternative communication are described and the relationship between students and employees during the happenning and even an attempt to make a Popular University in the 13rd district of Paris, from July to October 1968, as well. Some aspects of the debates and the evolution of the Social Sciences and the Philosophy post 68 are analised. This period was remarked by the crises of the socialist set of ideas and the growth of the individualism.

  18. Wartime Paris, cirrhosis mortality, and the ceteris paribus assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillmore, Kaye Middleton; Roizen, Ron; Farrell, Michael; Kerr, William; Lemmens, Paul

    2002-07-01

    This article critiques the ceteris paribus assumption, which tacitly sustains the epidemiologic literature's inference that the sharp decline in cirrhosis mortality observed in Paris during the Second World War derived from a sharp constriction in wine consumption. Paris's wartime circumstances deviate substantially from the "all else being equal" assumption, and at least three other hypotheses for the cirrhosis decline may be contemplated. Historical and statistical review. Wartime Paris underwent tumultuous changes. Wine consumption did decline, but there were, as well, a myriad of other changes in diet and life experience, many involving new or heightened hardships, nutritional, experiential, institutional, health and mortality risks. Three competing hypotheses are presented: (1) A fraction of the candidates for cirrhosis mortality may have fallen to more sudden forms of death; (2) alcoholics, heavy drinkers and Paris's clochard subpopulation may have been differentially likely to become removed from the city's wartime population, whether by self-initiated departure, arrest and deportation, or death from other causes, even murder; and (3) there was mismeasurement in the cirrhosis mortality decline. The alcohol-cirrhosis connection provided the template for the alcohol research effort (now more than 20 years old) aimed at re-establishing scientific recognition of alcohol's direct alcohol-problems-generating associations and causal responsibilities. In a time given to reports of weaker associations of the alcohol-cirrhosis connection, the place and importance of the Paris curve in the wider literature, as regards that connection, remains. For this reason, the Paris findings should be subjected to as much research scrutiny as they undoubtedly deserve.

  19. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  20. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2002

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures in Financial Mathematics, of which this is the first volume, will, on an annual basis, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding - established or upcoming! - specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference for research in the field. It arises as a result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by P. Bank/H. Föllmer, F. Baudoin, L.C.G. Rogers, and M. Soner/N. Touzi.

  1. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Chestnoy; Dinara Gershinkova

    2017-01-01

    In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in address...

  2. Final Report SBIR Phase I, Improvement of Properties of Tubular Internal-Tin Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Final report of SBIR to develop an economical process that can produce the best material for high field magnets to be used in the next generation of accelerators. The overall problem is to develop an economical process that can produce material with good properties for high field magnets to be used in the future for High Energy Physics (HEP) applications. The Internal-tin (IT) process, called by some the Restacked Rod process (RRP), for making Nb 3 Sn has been very successful in achieving high J c properties in the high field region. As a result it has been used effectively in several high field magnets. Originally, when this material was processed to give the highest J c it behaved unstably in the low field region and consequently did not perform as well in magnets designed for intermediate field applications. In this field range, the Powder-in-Tube (PIT) material, that has a lower d eff and a high RRR, behaved more reliably. The IT material has been improved to give better stability in the low field range and consequently the process offers a considerable challenge to the PIT process for application in both types of magnets. The PIT material has two principal drawbacks - lower J c and high cost. Work has been carried out to address these two problems and Supergenics I LLC has reported, on a low cost tubular process that is under development. It has fewer problems than the (IT) process in making low d eff materials and is of lower cost than both the IT and PIT processes. At the present stage, the J c 's that have been achieved are similar to those of the PIT material but are below those of the IT material. The purpose of the work proposed here is to improve the properties of the material made by this tubular process that has been described previously.

  3. Parallel tools GUI framework-DOE SBIR phase I final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galarowicz, James [Argo Navis Technologies LLC., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    2013-12-05

    Many parallel performance, profiling, and debugging tools require a graphical way of displaying the very large datasets typically gathered from high performance computing (HPC) applications. Most tool projects create their graphical user interfaces (GUI) from scratch, many times spending their project resources on simply redeveloping commonly used infrastructure. Our goal was to create a multiplatform GUI framework, based on Nokia/Digia’s popular Qt libraries, which will specifically address the needs of these parallel tools. The Parallel Tools GUI Framework (PTGF) uses a plugin architecture facilitating rapid GUI development and reduced development costs for new and existing tool projects by allowing the reuse of many common GUI elements, called “widgets.” Widgets created include, 2D data visualizations, a source code viewer with syntax highlighting, and integrated help and welcome screens. Application programming interface (API) design was focused on minimizing the time to getting a functional tool working. Having a standard, unified, and userfriendly interface which operates on multiple platforms will benefit HPC application developers by reducing training time and allowing users to move between tools rapidly during a single session. However, Argo Navis Technologies LLC will not be submitting a DOE SBIR Phase II proposal and commercialization plan for the PTGF project. Our preliminary estimates for gross income over the next several years was based upon initial customer interest and income generated by similar projects. Unfortunately, as we further assessed the market during Phase I, we grew to realize that there was not enough demand to warrant such a large investment. While we do find that the project is worth our continued investment of time and money, we do not think it worthy of the DOE's investment at this time. We are grateful that the DOE has afforded us the opportunity to make this assessment, and come to this conclusion.

  4. Relative humidity impact on aerosol parameters in a Paris suburban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Randriamiarisoa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of relative humidity (RH and aerosol parameters (scattering cross section, size distributions and chemical composition, performed in ambient atmospheric conditions, have been used to study the influence of relative humidity on aerosol properties. The data were acquired in a suburban area south of Paris, between 18 and 24 July 2000, in the framework of the 'Etude et Simulation de la Qualité de l'air en Ile-de-France' (ESQUIF program. According to the origin of the air masses arriving over the Paris area, the aerosol hygroscopicity is more or less pronounced. The aerosol chemical composition data were used as input of a thermodynamic model to simulate the variation of the aerosol water mass content with ambient RH and to determine the main inorganic salt compounds. The coupling of observations and modelling reveals the presence of deliquescence processes with hysteresis phenomenon in the hygroscopic growth cycle. Based on the Hänel model, parameterisations of the scattering cross section, the modal radius of the accumulation mode of the size distribution and the aerosol water mass content, as a function of increasing RH, have been assessed. For the first time, a crosscheck of these parameterisations has been performed and shows that the hygroscopic behaviour of the accumulation mode can be coherently characterized by combined optical, size distribution and chemical measurements.

  5. Polyp Morphology: An Interobserver Evaluation for the Paris Classification Among International Experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Sascha C.; Hazewinkel, Y.; East, James E.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Rastogi, Amit; Pellisé, Maria; Sanduleanu-Dascalescu, Silvia; Bastiaansen, Barbara A. J.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Paris classification is an international classification system for describing polyp morphology. Thus far, the validity and reproducibility of this classification have not been assessed. We aimed to determine the interobserver agreement for the Paris classification among seven Western

  6. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Pataje G S; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C Norman

    2015-09-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  7. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Withdrawing from the Paris climate agreement hurts the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoff, Jason

    2017-09-01

    The Trump administration's domestic plans would have curtailed the nation's climate action even if it had stayed in the Paris Agreement. Yet, the decision to leave the agreement undermines US international energy and climate leadership and the prospects of ramping up global climate policy ambition.

  9. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleussner, Carl Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the

  10. The impact of the US retreat from the Paris Agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, Jonathan; McGee, Jeffrey S.; Stephens, Tim; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I.

    2017-01-01

    The United States’ decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement (pending possible re-engagement under different terms) may have significant ramifications for international climate policy, but the implications of this decision remain contested. This commentary illustrates how comparative analysis

  11. What does the Paris Agreement mean for adaptation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesnikowski, Alexandra; Ford, James; Biesbroek, Robbert; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Maillet, Michelle; Araos, Malcolm; Austin, Stephanie E.

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement takes a significant step forward in strengthening the adaptation pillar of global climate policy. By widening the normative framing around adaptation, calling for stronger adaptation commitments from states, being explicit about the multilevel nature of adaptation governance, and

  12. Artificial radioactive products in the atmosphere at Paris. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abribat, M; Pouradier, J; Venet, A M

    1952-01-01

    The radioactivity of solid matter in rain water and air collected near Paris in November 1951, and in April and May 1952, follows the same decay law as that observed for fission products after a nuclear detonation in Nevada in November 1951.

  13. Retracted: Effect of Paris polyphylla extract on seconddegree burns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... This article previously published in Volume 15 Issue 10 of this journal in October 2016 has been retracted in line with the guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines). Retracted: Ma Z, Yin W, Hu G, Zhu Z, Huang Z. Effect of Paris polyphylla ...

  14. The Paris Agreement: Consequences for the EU and Carbon Markets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinar Andresen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Most observers argue that this agreement is a step in the right direction. However, we do not know how effective it will be in terms of reducing emissions. We therefore discuss its potential effectiveness regarding EU climate policies and carbon markets. We argue that the Paris Agreement may have a positive effect but uncertainties abound.

  15. The Magic Factory: How MGM Made "An American in Paris."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Donald

    This book covers the aesthetic and production aspects of the 1951 musical film, "An American in Paris," through interviews with many of the production specialists who helped make this motion picture. The film represents the genre of the color Hollywood musical. It was the winner of six Academy Awards, featured a major star and a developing star,…

  16. Creating to understand – developmental biology meets engineering in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kicheva, Anna; Rivron, Nicolas C.

    2017-01-01

    In November 2016, developmental biologists, synthetic biologists and engineers gathered in Paris for a meeting called ‘Engineering the embryo’. The participants shared an interest in exploring how synthetic systems can reveal new principles of embryonic development, and how the in vitro manipulation

  17. Paris polyphylla extract inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Paris polyphylla extract (PPE) on proliferation and apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells. Methods: Morphological changes were examined by microscopy in A549 cells after exposure to PPE. Trypan blue staining of living cells was used to aid the construction of the cell growth curve ...

  18. Paris: Beyond the Climate Dead End through Pledge and Review?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert O. Keohane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Agreement of December 2015 marks a decisive break from the unsuccessful Kyoto regime. Instead of targets and timetables, it established a Pledge and Review system, under which states will offer Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs to reducing emissions that cause climate change. But this successful negotiation outcome was achieved at the price of vagueness of obligations and substantial discretion for governments. Many governments will be tempted to use the vagueness of the Paris Agreement, and the discretion that it permits, to limit the scope or intensity of their proposed actions. Whether Pledge and Review under the Paris Agreement will lead to effective action against climate change will therefore depend on the inclination both of OECD countries and newly industrializing countries to take costly actions, which for the OECD countries will include financial transfers to their poorer partners. Domestic politics will be crucial in determining the attitudes of both sets of countries to pay such costs. The actual impact of the Paris Agreement will depend on whether it can be used by domestic groups favoring climate action as a point of leverage in domestic politics—that is, in a “two-level game” simultaneously involving both international and domestic politics.

  19. Graph Theory in Paris : Conference in Memory of Claude Berge

    CERN Document Server

    Fonlupt, Jean; Fouquet, Jean-Luc; Fournier, Jean-Claude; Alfonsín, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    In July 2004, a conference on graph theory was held in Paris in memory of Claude Berge, one of the pioneers of the field. The event brought together many prominent specialists on topics, such as perfect graphs and matching theory, upon which Claude Berge's work has had a major impact. This volume includes contributions to these and other topics from many of the participants.

  20. Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2015-06-15

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simulations. Some practical applications of each simulation type are also considered. The final conclusion then summarizes the main important items to keep in mind before opting for a simulation tool or before performing a simulation.

  1. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  2. Paris-Princeton lectures on mathematical finance 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Cousin, Areski; Guéant, Olivier; Hobson, David; Jeanblanc, Monique; Lasry, Jean-Michel; Laurent, Jean-Paul; Lions, Pierre-Louis; Tankov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fourth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from outstanding specialists - established or on the rise! The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field. The articles are the result of frequent exchanges between the finance and financial mathematics groups in Paris and Princeton. The present volume sets standards with articles by Areski Cousin, Monique Jeanblanc and Jean-Paul Laurent, Stéphane Crépey, Olivier Guéant, Jean-Michel Lasry and Pierre-Louis Lions, David Hobson, and Peter Tankov.

  3. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  4. Les mauvais rêves. Une prison à Disneyland Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Genetelli, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Situé à 35 km de Paris, dans la nouvelle ville de Marne-La-Vallée, Disneyland Paris représente la première destination de loisirs d'Europe. L'implantation du “rongeur aux grande oreilles” ne s'est pas contentée d'établir un simple parc à thème, mais elle a cherché à imposer un cadre de vie sur toute une partie du territoire français, à travers un partenariat public-privé unique en France. De ce fait, nous nous retrouvons dans un “territoire-bulle” contrôlé par Disney. Tout y est propre, sécur...

  5. Borderline personality disorder in cultural context: commentary on Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S G

    1996-01-01

    Paris suggests that some cultures provide protective factors that can suppress the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Yet all cultures contain some individuals who perceive themselves as unable to meet what is expected of them, and the resultant distress is expressed through a variety of "ethnic" disorders such as susto or nervios. When viewed in this context, BPD is similar to these disorders, notably in the perceived sense of social failure, marginality and powerlessness.

  6. Probabilistic analysis of crack containing structures with the PARIS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner-Foit, A.

    1987-10-01

    The basic features of the PARIS code which has been developed for the calculation of failure probabilities of crack containing structures are explained. An important issue in the reliability analysis of cracked components is the probabilistic leak-before-break behaviour. Formulae for the leak and break probabilities are derived and it is shown how a leak detection system influences the results. An example taken from nuclear applications illustrates the details of the probabilistic leak-before-break analysis. (orig.) [de

  7. Interobserver reproducibility of the Paris system for reporting urinary cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology represents a significant improvement in classification of urinary specimens. The system acknowledges the difficulty in cytologically diagnosing low-grade urothelial carcinomas and has developed categories to deal with this issue. The system uses six categories: unsatisfactory, negative for high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NHGUC, atypical urothelial cells, suspicious for high-grade urothelial carcinoma, high-grade urothelial carcinoma, other malignancies and a seventh subcategory (low-grade urothelial neoplasm. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-seven urine specimens were independently reviewed by four cytopathologists unaware of the previous diagnoses. Each cytopathologist rendered a diagnosis according to the Paris System categories. Agreement was assessed using absolute agreement and weighted chance-corrected agreement (kappa. Disagreements were classified as low impact and high impact based on the potential impact of a misclassification on clinical management. Results: The average absolute agreement was 65% with an average expected agreement of 44%. The average chance-corrected agreement (kappa was 0.32. Nine hundred and ninety-nine of 1902 comparisons between rater pairs were in agreement, but 12% of comparisons differed by two or more categories for the category NHGUC. Approximately 15% of the disagreements were classified as high clinical impact. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the scheme recommended by the Paris System shows adequate precision for the category NHGUC, but the other categories demonstrated unacceptable interobserver variability. This low level of diagnostic precision may negatively impact the applicability of the Paris System for widespread clinical application.

  8. Evolution of atmospheric radioactivity in Paris region. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abribat, M; Pouradier, J; Venet, A M

    1953-01-01

    Daily measurements of radioactivity have shown the passage of many atomic clouds, and particularly the series of explosions in the US and Russia, while those in the Pacific and Australia have been identified in Milan. For the Australian explosion in October 1953, there was no radioactive increase in the air in the Paris region, while for the Pacific explosion there were measurable fluctuations but very feeble. For the Russian explosions in August 1954, the fluctuations were much greater than for the Pacific ones.

  9. Retracted: Effect of Paris polyphylla extract on second- degree burns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-26

    Jan 26, 2018 ... Retracted: Ma Z, Yin W, Hu G, Zhu Z, Huang Z. Effect of Paris polyphylla extract on second-degree burns in rats. Trop J Pharm Res 2016; 15(10):2131-2135 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v15i10.11. From the Editor. Our attention was drawn to the falsification of the data published in this article which was ...

  10. Le Paris d’Hemingway : une question de style

    OpenAIRE

    Mallier, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Hemingway’s representation of Paris in The Sun Also Rises and A Moveable Feast has held many a reader in thrall. It steers clear of traditional description as the author prefers to "make" the city rather than "describe" it. This article analyzes Hemingway’s style in the light of this enigmatic aesthetic statement. The author’s idiosyncratic syntax tends to blur the semantic frontiers between juxtaposed words, and his use of repetition enhances the musicality of sentences, which constitutes th...

  11. Could US mayors achieve the entire US Paris climate target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Huang, J.; Hutchins, M.; Liang, J.

    2017-12-01

    After the recent US Federal Administration announcement not to adhere to the Paris Accords, 359 mayors (and counting) in the US pledged to maintain their commitments, reducing emissions within their jurisdictions by 26-28% from their 2005 levels by the year 2025. While important, this leaves a large portion of the US landscape, and a large amount of US emissions, outside of the Paris commitment. With Federal US policy looking unlikely to change, could additional effort by US cities overcome the gap in national policy and achieve the equivalent US national Paris commitment? How many cities would be required and how deep would reductions need to be? Up until now, this question could not be reliably resolved due to lack of data at the urban scale. Here, we answer this question with new data - the Vulcan V3.0 FFCO2 emissions data product - through examination of the total US energy related CO2 emissions from cities. We find that the top 500 urban areas in the US could meet the national US commitment to the Paris Accords with a reduction of roughly 30% below their 2015 levels by the year 2025. This is driven by the share of US emissions emanating from cities, particularly the largest cohort. Indeed, as the number of urban areas taking on CO2 reduction targets grows, the less the reduction burden on any individual city. In this presentation, we provide an analysis of US urban CO2 emissions and US climate policy, accounting for varying definitions of urban areas, emitting sectors and the tradeoff between the number of policy-active cities and the CO2 reduction burden.

  12. Assessment of indoor environment in Paris child day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Barral, Sophie; Ravelomanantsoa, Hanitriniala; Dusséaux, Murielle; Tribout, Martin; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Children are sensitive to indoor environmental pollution. Up until now there has been a lack of data on air quality in child day care centers. The aim of this study is to document the indoor environment quality of Paris child day care centers by repeated measurements, and to compare pollutant levels in child day care centers with levels in Paris dwellings. We selected 28 child day care centers frequented by a random sample of babies who participated in the PARIS birth cohort environmental investigation, and visited the child day care centers for one week twice in one year. Biological contaminants assessed were fungi, endotoxin, dust mite allergens, and chemical pollutants: aldehydes, volatile organic compounds and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Relative humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide levels were measured simultaneously. A standardized questionnaire was used to gather information about the buildings and their inhabitants. Airborne endotoxin levels in child day care centers were higher than those found in Paris dwellings. Dust mite allergens in child day care centers were below the threshold level for sensitization in the majority of samples, and in common with dwelling samples. Penicillium and Cladosporium were the most commonly identified genera fungi. The child day care center indoor/outdoor ratio for most chemical pollutants was above unity except for NO2, the levels for NO2 being significantly higher than those measured in homes. Chemical and biological contamination in child day care centers appears to be low, apart from endotoxin and NO2. Failure to take child exposure in child day care centers into account could result in an overestimation of children's exposure to other pollutants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Smoke Inhalation and Cyanide Poisoning: 20 Years of Paris Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxocobalamin has been used as a cyanide poisoning antidote for many years in France. It has recently been approved by the US FDA. In Paris, hydroxocobalamin is carried by the Brigade de Sapeurs Pompiers (Paris Fire Brigade) in mobile intensive care vehicles and has been administered empirically to victims of enclosed-space fire smoke inhalation who meet the criteria of having soot in the nose, mouth, or throat, any alteration in mental status or disturbance in consciousness, and especially if any degree of hypotension is present (BP less than or equal to 100 mmHg systolic). The administration of hydroxocobalamin at the scene was shown to be safe. Hydroxocobalamin has also been efficacious and safe in 'pure' cyanide poisoning, as long as brain death has not already occurred. A 'toxidrome' of cyanide poisoning has been developed in our institution in Paris, and its application can assist in making the diagnosis of this life-threatening poisoning which cannot be emergent diagnosed by currently-available laboratory methods.(author)

  14. A thyrotoxicosis outbreak due to dietary pills in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Ioos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Vincent Ioos1, Vincent Das1, Eric Maury1,2, Jean-Luc Baudel1, Jérôme Guéchot3, Bertrand Guidet1,2, Georges Offenstadt1,21Réanimation Médicale; 2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, INSERM, UMR-S 707; 3Unité d’Hormonologie, APHP, Hôpital Saint Antoine, F-75012, Paris, FranceAbstract: Three women were consecutively admitted to our medical intensive care unit for thyrotoxicosis after the ingestion of dietary pills accidentally containing high levels of thyroxin. These cases were observed during an outbreak in the Paris area. Despite similar blood levels of thyroid hormones, their clinical presentation and outcome were very different. One patient developed febrile confusion and died from malignant hyperthermia. The second one had progressive confusion requiring mechanical plasma exchange therapy and had a favorable outcome. The third one had very moderate symptoms. These exceptional observations raise several issues concerning diagnosis, physiopathology and treatment of thyrotoxicosis factitia.Keywords: thyrotoxicosis, dietary pills, thyroxin

  15. Revision of the Paris and Brussels Conventions of Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Contracting Parties to the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and to the 1963 Brussels Convention Supplementary to the Paris Convention, have concluded this Spring four years of negotiation on the revision of these instruments. This exercise was itself started as a logical consequence of the adoption in 1997 of a revised Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and of a Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage. The Contracting Parties have concluded that the existing regime established by these Conventions remains viable and sound but that it also warrants improvements to ensure that greater financial security will be available to compensate a potentially larger number of victims in respect of a broader range of nuclear damage. A number of more technical amendments have also been agreed, in particular to ensure compatibility with other existing Conventions in this field. When the revised Paris and Brussels Conventions come into force, the total amount of funds available for compensation, provided by the liable nuclear operator and by the States concerned, will be 1.5 billion euros. (author)

  16. Carmes Polytechnique, Housing in the Heart of Paris Energy renovation of a social housing estate in Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Horn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The architecture offices Atelier de la Seine and Rethink have been commissioned with the engineers Pouget Consultants by the social landlord Paris Habitat for the extensive renovation of a social housing estate in the historic centre of Paris. The estate has been built in 1930 and integrates a part of the former college of the Lombard build in the 17th century. It belongs to the social housing typology 'Habitations à Bon Marché (HBM' constructed between1894 and 1949. This typology is generally characterized by its integration in its urban context and an apparent brick facade. The renovation project includes a focus on the reduction of the energy consumption. An important subject, as of the total number of 4.6 millions of social housing in France more than 50 % have been build before 1975 (before the first thermal regulation and many are still considered energy-intensive.

  17. Aerosol chemical and optical properties over the Paris area within ESQUIF project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol chemical and optical properties are extensively investigated for the first time over the Paris Basin in July 2000 within the ESQUIF project. The measurement campaign offers an exceptional framework to evaluate the performances of the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE in simulating concentrations of gaseous and aerosol pollutants, as well as the aerosol-size distribution and composition in polluted urban environments against ground-based and airborne measurements. A detailed comparison of measured and simulated variables during the second half of July with particular focus on 19 and 31 pollution episodes reveals an overall good agreement for gas-species and aerosol components both at the ground level and along flight trajectories, and the absence of systematic biases in simulated meteorological variables such as wind speed, relative humidity and boundary layer height as computed by the MM5 model. A good consistency in ozone and NO concentrations demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the plume structure and location fairly well both on 19 and 31 July, despite an underestimation of the amplitude of ozone concentrations on 31 July. The spatial and vertical aerosol distributions are also examined by comparing simulated and observed lidar vertical profiles along flight trajectories on 31 July and confirm the model capacity to simulate the plume characteristics. The comparison of observed and modeled aerosol components in the southwest suburb of Paris during the second half of July indicates that the aerosol composition is rather correctly reproduced, although the total aerosol mass is underestimated by about 20%. The simulated Parisian aerosol is dominated by primary particulate matter that accounts for anthropogenic and biogenic primary particles (40%, and inorganic aerosol fraction (40% including nitrate (8%, sulfate (22% and ammonium (10%. The secondary organic aerosols (SOA represent 12% of the total aerosol mass, while the

  18. Prediction of Accurate Mixed Mode Fatigue Crack Growth Curves using the Paris' Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajith, S.; Krishna Murthy, K. S. R.; Robi, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate information regarding crack growth times and structural strength as a function of the crack size is mandatory in damage tolerance analysis. Various equivalent stress intensity factor (SIF) models are available for prediction of mixed mode fatigue life using the Paris' law. In the present investigation these models have been compared to assess their efficacy in prediction of the life close to the experimental findings as there are no guidelines/suggestions available on selection of these models for accurate and/or conservative predictions of fatigue life. Within the limitations of availability of experimental data and currently available numerical simulation techniques, the results of present study attempts to outline models that would provide accurate and conservative life predictions.

  19. Policemen exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Paris; Exposition des policiers aux polluants atmospheriques a Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugajny, Ch.; Coursimault, A.; Donati, J.; Vieillard, H. [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police de Paris, 75 (France); Ducos, P.; Gaudin, R. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of automotive pollution on police health in Paris, more particularly those that are working near streets and crossroads; police working indoors are included in measurements as a reference population. This work included individual exposure measurements to some urban pollution main indicators and biological determinations to estimate the impact of these pollutants on health. Biological measurements, including determinations of carboxyhemoglobin, lead in blood and trans, trans-muconic acid in urine were realised. Carbon monoxide and benzene individual exposure had been measured by the use of individual analysers and diffusive samplers respectively. Motorcycle policemen and policemen at crossroads are more exposed than reference population working indoor. CO mean exposure levels are 6, 8 mg/m{sup 3} for motorcycle policemen, 5, 4 mg/m{sup 3} for policemen at crossroads, compared to 3, 6 mg/m{sup 3} for policemen working indoors. Carboxyhemoglobin mean values before work are four to five times more important for smokers (4, 5 % HbCO) than no-smokers (1,0%HbCO). After work, these values are respectively 5,3 % and 1,1 %. Non-smokers agents don't reach the OMS value (2,5%HbCO), even after work. Smoking contributes to higher levels of CO in blood than car exhaust pollutants, even for high air pollutants concentrations. Lead blond levels, which average is 45{mu}g/l, are clearly smaller than the OMS value (200{mu}g/l). About non-smokers agents, benzene median exposures are 74 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for motorcycle policemen, 19 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for policemen at crossroads, compared to 8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for sedentary agents. If motorcycle agents filled up the tank with gasoline, benzene median exposure level is 229 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Differences between smokers and non-smokers benzene exposure are not significant. For non-smokers agents, median trans, trans muconic acid values after work are 0,06 mg/l for pollution exposed agents

  20. Fog modelling during the ParisFog campaign: predictive approach and spatial heterogeneity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing

    2010-01-01

    In fog or low clouds modeling, the accurate comprehension of the interaction among the turbulence, the microphysics and the radiation is still an important issue in improvement of numerical prediction quality. The improvement of fog modeling is important both in forecasting in transportation and in industrial domain by reason of their discharges atmospheric (cooling tower, smog...). The 1D version of Code-Saturne has been used for the numerical simulation with the observational data from the ParisFog campaign, which took place at the SIRTA site during 2006-2007 winter. The comparison between the simulation and observation shows that the model is able to reproduce correctly the fog evolution from its formation to its dissipation. The sensitivity analysis of the behavior of the different parameterizations shows that the fog dynamic is sensible to the turbulence closure, the fog water content to the sedimentation processes and the fog droplet spectrum to the nucleation scheme. The performance of a long-period simulation in forecasting mode shows that the robustness of the model and the contribution of the coupling by nudging and a mesoscale model in 36 hours advance. The 3D version of Code-Saturne allows us to study the effect of spatial heterogeneity on the fog formation. Firstly, the simulations have been performed within a homogeneous horizontal domain with RANS mode. And then, the surface roughness in different type of surface and the building area will be taken into account. (author) [fr

  1. USA Withdrawal from Paris Agreement – What Next?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Chestnoy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In June 2017, President Trump announced the USA’s withdrawal from the Paris Climate Accord, which had been ratified for less than a year, thanks in large part to the USA. That drastic shift followed the change in residency at the White House. Withdrawing from the Paris Accord presents an interesting topic for analysis. There’s the practical side of the withdrawal procedure as set out in Article 28 of the agreement, not to mention the consequences of US non-participation in addressing international climate issues. There are other international forums (Such as G8 and G20, which also have an interest in climate related topics. The Article analyses the U.S. position in negotiations and its commitments assumed the moment the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC came into effect until now: the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, financial aid and reporting. It also provides general analysis of national legal obligations under the Paris Accord, ratification of that agreement in general and in particularly another that took place in the USA, it focuses on the specifics of withdrawal. The specified three-year period from the Agreement becoming active, after which any party may withdraw from it (2019, is a noteworthy detail. It is well-known that the Paris Agreement provides a framework that does not impose individual national commitments or a commitment to a compliance system. In essence, and from a legal point of view, it is nonbinding. This was what allowed the USA to accept the terms of the accord relatively quickly and to use the simplified procedure, which by-passed Congress. In the opinion of the authors, President Trump’s resolution to withdraw should, possibly, be considered as a simple continuation of his election discourse and the fulfilment of a campaign promise. Additionally, President Trump’s declared intent to review the Paris Accord has legal grounds on which to launch further international negotiations

  2. Understanding the Paris agreement: analysing the reporting requirements under the enhanced transparency framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Sharma, Sudhir

    At the Paris climate conference (COP-21) in December 2015, the Conference of the Parties decided to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This was the first time that 195 Parties had agreed on a universal, legally binding climate instrument......th October 2016, 74 Par¬ties had ratified the Agreement, accounting for 58.82% of global GHG emissions.1 The Paris Agreement will thus enter into force on 4th November 2016....

  3. Load curve impact of large electric vehicles fleet in the Paris Ile-de-France region

    OpenAIRE

    Assoumou , Edi; Marmorat , Jean-Paul; Houel , Jérôme; Roy , Valérie

    2015-01-01

    The EV-STEP project was carried out within the ERANET+ Electromobility framework. Funding for the research work presented in this paper by the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy is gratefully acknowledged. Complementary support was provided by the Chair Modeling for sustainable development, driven by MINES ParisTech, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, and AgroParisTech; supported by ADEME, EDF, GRTgaz, Schneider Electric and the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development...

  4. A Library in the Grands Moulins de Paris: challenging Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tresson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the University of Paris 7 and its new Main Library will move to Paris Rive Gauche, a recently developed neighbourhood on the left bank of the Seine. The library will occupy most of the city’s former industrial mills, the Grands Moulins de Paris. As part of the project, the library developed a very detailed functional program. The facilities are expected to comprise 1,800 workstations (half of which will be computerized, and upon completion will have a capacity of 300,000 freely accessible documents and 350,000 documents in store over a total surface area of some 12,000 m2. The architect Rudy Ricciotti won the international competition to design the library held in 2001. Perfectly suited to its function, the industrial building in which the library is housed dates from the 1920s. It presents both advantages (vast surfaces, sufficient load-bearing capacity, natural light, etc. and obstacles (restrictions on free circulation, forests of columns in certain areas, interrupted spaces, etc. to being transformed into a library that is functional and adapted to its purposes. The building’s structure and the constraints it imposed profoundly influenced the program which had to be adjusted, and also affected other aspects, including the arrangement and features of the furnishings as well as the building’s system of signs. In agreement with the university, the library worked in close collaboration with the architect from the earliest sketches onwards. As a result, his initial plan also evolved considerably. The installation of the library in the Grands Moulins offers us a chance to observe the nature and effects of the interactions between the transformation of a building and the evolution of a program.

  5. [From Ulysses to Paris: Journey to the medicalization of ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly.

  6. 5th Paris-Princeton Lectures on Mathematical Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Benth, Fred Espen; Guasoni, Paolo; Manolarakis, Konstantinos; Muhle-Karbe, Johannes; Nee, Colm; Protter, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The current volume presents four chapters touching on some of the most important and modern areas of research in Mathematical Finance: asset price bubbles (by Philip Protter); energy markets (by Fred Espen Benth); investment under transaction costs (by Paolo Guasoni and Johannes Muhle-Karbe); and numerical methods for solving stochastic equations (by Dan Crisan, K. Manolarakis and C. Nee).The Paris-Princeton Lecture Notes on Mathematical Finance, of which this is the fifth volume, publish cutting-edge research in self-contained, expository articles from renowned specialists. The aim is to produce a series of articles that can serve as an introductory reference source for research in the field.

  7. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  8. Acts of terrorism in Paris and Brussels: common and different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Vonsovych

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the common and distinctive features of the terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels in 2015 and 2016. The attacks have confirmed the weakness of European security system in the context of the protection of its citizens from the threat № 1 in the world. The high level of democracy and liberalism are not allowed to use power instruments effectively in the fight against terrorism, which was the result of the fact that the terrorists were able to freely access to the place of their acts and to implement them. It was determined that the common features are the following: in Paris and in Brussels, the attacks were carried out by terrorist militaristic group «The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant» (ISIL; the places of commission of terrorist acts; guns of terrorists; military units of France and Belgium are parties of the armed conflict in Syria on the side of the Syrian opposition and struggle against ISIL; there were a few terrorist attacks. It is proved that the differences are as follows: in Paris, in addition to explosives, packed with nails, also were used automatic weapons and grenades, but only explosives in Brussels; France is more active in the fight against terrorism in the international arena and in every way opposed to violence against humanity, so there is a terrorist attack can be seen as a blow to the democratic and humanitarian values; Belgium is a «political heart» of the European Union that’s why the terrorist attack on it can be seen as a blow to the political system of the EU; in Paris, the attack was supposed to apply except for the population and for high officials in the name of F. Hollande and F. Steinmeier, and in Brussels – only civilians.conducting effective public diplomacy by means of virtual diplomacy. In the context of the establishment of the global information society the key target groups must be: Diasporas, foreign media (including bloggers, investors, influential foreign

  9. Overcoming Obstacles in Global Climate Action from Copenhagen to Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Garrison, Jean A.; Kolleg-Forschergruppe The Transformative Power of Europe

    2017-01-01

    The global climate change agreement completed on December 12, 2015 in Paris set a collective target to cap greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius with a goal to get as close as possible to 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels. These goals were to be accomplished through a “bottom up” mechanism for national policy approaches in which states made their own choices about how they would meet climate targets. This paper examines why and how an a...

  10. Walter Benjamin e Paris: individualidade e trabalho intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ortiz

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é uma leitura do texto de Walter Benjamin Paris capital do século XIX. A partir do conjunto de anotações que Benjamin faz de diversos livros consultados, principalmente durante sua pesquisa na Bibliothèque Nationale, o autor pretende trabalhar a noção de indivíduo vinculando-a a dois temas. Primeiro, a emergência do flâneur como tradução do espírito de mobilidade que se inaugura com a modernidade. Para isso a discussão sobre a noção de espaço, particularmente no que diz respeito a cidade de Paris, é importante. O flâneur surge assim como um indivíduo desenraizado que se locomove através do espaço urbano remodelado. Segundo, uma aproximação entre o ato da flânerie e o trabalho intelectual. Considerando a flânerie como uma atividade intelectual o autor mostra como os temas do distanciamento e da construção do objeto são relevantes tanto para o flâneur-detetive quanto para a reflexão nas ciências sociais.This paper is an interpretation of Walter Benjamins Paris, Capital of the 19th Century. Based on the notes Benjamin made on several books he read, mainly during his research at the Bibliotèque Nationale, the author discusses the notion of the individual linking it to two themes. First, to the emergence of the flâneur as a translation of the spirit of mobility which starts with modernity. The discussion on the notion of space, especially where it concerns Paris, is essential for this analysis. The flâneur is seen as an uprooted individual who moves around the remodelled urban space. Second, to the proximity between the act of flânerie and that of intellectual work. Taking flânerie to be intellectual activity, the author shows how the themes of the distancing and the construction of the object are relevant, both to the detective-flâneur and to the reflection in social sciences.

  11. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressi, M.; Nicolas, J.B.; Sciare, J.; Feron, A.; Nonnaire, N.; Petit, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris (France) - the second most populated - larger urban zone - in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 examined over 1 year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion fine aerosols to their sources; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate (A.S.)-rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.)-rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metal industry, were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μgm -3 ) respectively on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S.- and A.N.-rich factors have undergone mid- or long-range transport from continental Europe; heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites

  12. Two months of disdrometer data in the Paris area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, Auguste; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The Hydrology, Meteorology, and Complexity laboratory of École des Ponts ParisTech (hmco.enpc.fr) has made a data set of optical disdrometer measurements available that come from a campaign involving three collocated devices from two different manufacturers, relying on different underlying technologies (one Campbell Scientific PWS100 and two OTT Parsivel2 instruments). The campaign took place in January-February 2016 in the Paris area (France). Disdrometers provide access to information on the size and velocity of drops falling through the sampling area of the devices of roughly a few tens of cm2. It enables the drop size distribution to be estimated and rainfall microphysics, kinetic energy, or radar quantities, for example, to be studied further. Raw data, i.e. basically a matrix containing a number of drops according to classes of size and velocity, along with more aggregated ones, such as the rain rate or drop size distribution with filtering, are available. Link to the data set: https://zenodo.org/record/1240168" target="_blank">https://zenodo.org/record/1240168 (DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1240168" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1240168).

  13. Understanding the origin of Paris Agreement emission uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Fricko, Oliver; Meinshausen, Malte; Krey, Volker; Zilliacus, Johanna J J; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-06-06

    The UN Paris Agreement puts in place a legally binding mechanism to increase mitigation action over time. Countries put forward pledges called nationally determined contributions (NDC) whose impact is assessed in global stocktaking exercises. Subsequently, actions can then be strengthened in light of the Paris climate objective: limiting global mean temperature increase to well below 2 °C and pursuing efforts to limit it further to 1.5 °C. However, pledged actions are currently described ambiguously and this complicates the global stocktaking exercise. Here, we systematically explore possible interpretations of NDC assumptions, and show that this results in estimated emissions for 2030 ranging from 47 to 63 GtCO 2 e yr -1 . We show that this uncertainty has critical implications for the feasibility and cost to limit warming well below 2 °C and further to 1.5 °C. Countries are currently working towards clarifying the modalities of future NDCs. We identify salient avenues to reduce the overall uncertainty by about 10 percentage points through simple, technical clarifications regarding energy accounting rules. Remaining uncertainties depend to a large extent on politically valid choices about how NDCs are expressed, and therefore raise the importance of a thorough and robust process that keeps track of where emissions are heading over time.

  14. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  15. Understanding the origin of Paris Agreement emission uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Fricko, Oliver; Meinshausen, Malte; Krey, Volker; Zilliacus, Johanna J. J.; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-06-01

    The UN Paris Agreement puts in place a legally binding mechanism to increase mitigation action over time. Countries put forward pledges called nationally determined contributions (NDC) whose impact is assessed in global stocktaking exercises. Subsequently, actions can then be strengthened in light of the Paris climate objective: limiting global mean temperature increase to well below 2 °C and pursuing efforts to limit it further to 1.5 °C. However, pledged actions are currently described ambiguously and this complicates the global stocktaking exercise. Here, we systematically explore possible interpretations of NDC assumptions, and show that this results in estimated emissions for 2030 ranging from 47 to 63 GtCO2e yr-1. We show that this uncertainty has critical implications for the feasibility and cost to limit warming well below 2 °C and further to 1.5 °C. Countries are currently working towards clarifying the modalities of future NDCs. We identify salient avenues to reduce the overall uncertainty by about 10 percentage points through simple, technical clarifications regarding energy accounting rules. Remaining uncertainties depend to a large extent on politically valid choices about how NDCs are expressed, and therefore raise the importance of a thorough and robust process that keeps track of where emissions are heading over time.

  16. Addressing climate change: lessons from Paris, challenges for Marrakech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaram, Dhanasree

    2016-02-01

    Dhanasree Jayaram, Project Associate in the Manipal Advanced Research Group of Manipal University (Karnataka, India), and author of 'Breaking out of the Green House: Indian Leadership in Times of Environmental Change (2012)' answers the following questions regarding the Paris agreement reach during COP21: - What is your assessment of the Paris agreement reach during COP21? - What is the most positive/negative aspect? - Is the agreement legally binding according to you? - What was the main 'redline' for the Indian government in the negotiations? - Is the Indian government satisfied by the content of the agreement? - Some people say that what happened outside the COP21 but during the week (Indian Solar Alliance, New Chinese Funds, Divest-Invest campaign, Electricity for Africa, activism of civil society, etc.), is more important that what happened inside. Do you share this opinion? - Are you optimistic regarding the gap between the 1.5 deg. C limit and the current level of the INDC? - What do you think about the position of the OPEC countries? - What are the main progresses proposed by the agreement regarding the financial dimension? - What are the main challenges for the COP22 in Morocco? What are the next big steps?

  17. REDD+ Crossroads Post Paris: Politics, Lessons and Interplays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Corbera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the special issue “REDD+ crossroads post Paris: politics, lessons and interplays”. The contributions to the special issue demonstrate, first, that REDD+ design in the studied countries has generally lacked social legitimacy and sidelined key actors that have an important role in shaping land-use sector dynamics. Second, they show that REDD+ early actions have tended to oversimplify local realities and have been misaligned with other policy goals and local needs. Third, REDD+ efforts have remained constrained to the forestry or climate mitigation policy sectors and have thus suffered from a lack of harmonization across local, national and international concerns, specifically of contradictory policy. As REDD+ moves from its preparedness to its implementation phase, more research efforts should be aimed at analysing the power relations that underpin and determine the design and implementation of REDD+ policies and actions, the potential for and limits to the vertical and horizontal harmonization of land-use policies and management, and the processes of resistance to or accommodation of REDD+ practices on the ground. In doing so, we advocate for multi-and transdisciplinary research that does not take for granted the benefits of REDD+ and which critically scrutinizes the multiple goals of this ambitious international policy framework, and where it sits within the broader Paris Agreement implementation agenda.

  18. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. -Climate: the key objectives of the Paris 2015 Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damian, Michel; Abbas, Mehdi; Berthaud, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The present article focuses on the already discernable key objectives of the climate agreement due to be signed in December 2015 in Paris, to come into force in 2020. The agreement - promoted by the G2 USA-China - will be based exclusively on 'national policies', turning its back on the first climate policy enshrined in the Kyoto Protocol, synonymous with an outdated, top-down architecture and hopes of a binding international agreement. All states, including those, such as China, which the Kyoto Protocol placed in the list of developing countries, are expected to propose 'intended nationally determined contributions' to cutting greenhouse gas emissions. These contributions are heterogeneous, with only modest medium-term targets, and not legally binding. The Paris Agreement will represent a turning point, heralding a new climate governance in the continuation of state-centered governance, but henceforth on a global scale. In other words the agreement will take into account the preferences of the 196 parties to the 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change, in particular those of the most powerful among their number. We maintain that this agreement will change the course of climate change mitigation and adaptation for decades

  20. A Tale of Two Small Business Grants: The Best of Times, the Worst of Times from the NASA Ames Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Lee, Geoffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of the SBIR Program are to: stimulate technological innovation in the private sector; strengthen the role of Small Business Concerns (SBCs) in meeting Federal research and development needs; increase the commercial application of these research results; and encourage participation of socially and economically disadvantaged persons and women-owned small businesses. The process can be highly rewarding, providing the small business with resources to pursue research and development with a focus on providing NASA with new and advanced capabilities. We present two examples of how the NASA Ames SBIR Program has addressed these purposes, nurturing innovative ideas from small, businesses into commercially viable products that also address analytical needs in space research. These examples, from the Science Instruments for Conducting Solar System Exploration Subtopic, describe the journey from innovative concept to analytical instrument, one successful and one hampered by numerous roadblocks (including some international intrigue}.

  1. Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gould, Derek A; Chalmers, Nicholas; Johnson, Sheena J

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of the many limitations of traditional apprenticeship training is driving new approaches to learning medical procedural skills. Among simulation technologies and methods available today, computer-based systems are topical and bring the benefits of automated, repeatable, and reliable p...... performance assessments. Human factors research is central to simulator model development that is relevant to real-world imaging-guided interventional tasks and to the credentialing programs in which it would be used....

  2. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-08-01

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the '''Energiewende''.

  3. The German ''Energiewende''. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement; Die Deutsche Energiewende. Bewertung nach dem Klima-Abkommen von Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2016-12-15

    The World-Climate-Summit 2016 in Paris agreed to exacerbated goals for climate protection. This paper will scrutinize whether Germany can comply with its Paris-obligations by continuing the ongoing German ''Energiewende''. The result is clear-cut: The German ''Energiewende'' is inadequate. Due to the cap-and-trade system of the EU the ''Energiewende'' can in no way contribute to climate protection.

  4. Karl Marx and the Paris Commune of 1871: Tracing Traditions of Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In 1871, citizens of the war torn arrondissements of Paris, in the face of traumatic political and military turmoil, established a new local form of government. The Paris Commune, as this government became known as in the English world, attracted attention for its alternative political-economic organization. One notable commentator was Karl Marx…

  5. Energy and Global Climate Change: The Road from Paris to Denver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey

    2016-10-27

    This presentation provides an overview of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory; a snapshot of U.S. power sector transformation; a brief history of climate negotiations; an overview of the Paris Agreement; and what the Paris Agreement means for Colorado and beyond.

  6. Effect of Paris saponin on antitumor and immune function in U14 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bearing mice, and reduced the serum IL-4 level. The Paris saponin can inhibit U14 cell growth and prolong survival time of mice; it is speculated that the Paris saponin may express its anti-tumor activity by improving the body's immune system.

  7. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  8. The COCCON Paris Experiment - Model-Data Comparison of XCO2 (and XCH4) in an Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, F. R.; Staufer, J.; Frey, M.; Broquet, G.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Sha, M. K.; Blumenstock, T.; Te, Y. V.; Janssen, C.; Jeseck, P.; Chelin, P.; Fratacci, T.; Tu, Q.; Gross, J.; Schäfer, K.; Orphal, J.; Ciais, P.; Hase, F.

    2016-12-01

    Currently, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas1 and the future population growth is also predicted to occur mostly in urban centers. While emissions of Greenhouse Gases and carbon-based air pollutants can be estimated quite precisely on national scale using fuel consumption statistics, typically to about 3%-40%2, higher uncertainties of 20%-50% are reported3 for urban GHG emissions. Atmospheric observations, when combined with inversion modelling can allow independently assessing such urban emission inventories4. This study investigates how well novel low-resolution FTS observations can be represented within atmospheric transport models used in such inversion systems, which would be the pre-requisite for a future system based on XCO2 observations. A network of five EM27sun instruments5,6was deployed across the Paris Metropolitan region (upwind, downwind and inside of Paris, diameter ca. 40km) for a three week period in spring 2015. Observed XCO2 significantly varies during this period ranging from 400.5ppm to 406ppm. A decrease in XCO2 throughout the day, likely driven by the biogenic CO2 uptake in the region, is recorded at all sites. Both observational and simulated XCO2 also clearly show that the emissions in the Paris region significantly increase XCO2 (0-2ppm), depending on meteorological conditions. The observational data is compared to three configurations of our XCO2 forward model to assess their performance. We find that all simulations and observations agree qualitatively and that the gradient of XCO2 over Paris can also be reproduced quantitatively for specific meteorological conditions and optimal model setup. 1United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision 2Anders et al. 2014, Tellus B 2014, 66, 23616, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v66.23616 3Wu et al. 2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7743-7771, doi:10.5194/acp-16-7743-2016 4Staufer et al. 2016

  9. PARIS reprograms glucose metabolism by HIF-1α induction in dopaminergic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hojin; Jo, Areum; Kim, Hyein; Khang, Rin; Lee, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Hanna; Park, Chi-Hu; Choi, Jeong-Yun; Lee, Yunjong; Shin, Joo-Ho

    2018-01-22

    Our previous study found that PARIS (ZNF746) transcriptionally suppressed transketolase (TKT), a key enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in the substantia nigra (SN) of AAV-PARIS injected mice. In this study, we revealed that PARIS overexpression reprogrammed glucose metabolic pathway, leading to the increment of glycolytic proteins along with TKT reduction in the SN of AAV-PARIS injected mice. Knock-down of TKT in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells led to an increase of glycolytic enzymes and decrease of PPP-related enzymes whereas overexpression of TKT restored PARIS-mediated glucose metabolic shift, suggesting that glucose metabolic alteration by PARIS is TKT-dependent. Inhibition of PPP by either PARIS overexpression or TKT knock-down elevated the level of H 2 O 2 , and diminished NADPH and GSH levels, ultimately triggering the induction of HIF-1α, a master activator of glycolysis. In addition, TKT inhibition by stereotaxic injection of oxythiamine demonstrated slight decrement of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) in SN but not cortical neurons in the cortex, suggesting that TKT might be a survival factor of DNs. In differentiated SH-SY5Y, cell toxicity by GFP-PARIS was partially restored by introduction of Flag-TKT and siRNA-HIF-1α. We also observed the increase of HIF-1α and glycolytic hexokinase 2 in the SN of Parkinson's disease patients. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS accumulation might distort the balance of glucose metabolism, providing clues for understanding mechanism underlying selective DNs death by PARIS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Air untuk Pengembangan Pariwisata di Pulau Pari, Kepulauan Seribu, DKI Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Sinulingga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk (a menganalisis kondisi ketersediaan air di Pulau Pari, (b menganalisis kondisi kualitas air di Pulau Pari, (c menganalisis kebutuhan air dan proyeksinya untuk masa yang akan datang di Pulau Pari, dan (d merumuskan strategi pengelolaan sumberdaya air untuk pariwisata di Pulau Pari. Metode penelitian terdiri atas perhitungan neraca air, kebutuhan air, metode geometrik, analisis deskriptif, dan analisis SWOT. Pengambilan sampel air dan penduduk menggunakan metode purposive, sedangkan sampel wisatawan menggunakan metode accidental random sampling. Hasil akhir penelitian ketersediaan airtanah di Pulau Pari sebesar 290000,48 m3/tahun. Kualitas airtanah di lokasi penelitian tergolong baik. Besarnya kebutuhan air tahun 2013 sebesar 46381,947 m3/tahun. Pada tahun 2018 menjadi 54443,953 m3/tahun dan pada tahun 2023 mengalami peningkatan menjadi 63548,472 m3/tahun. Prioritas utama strategi pengelolaan sumberdaya air untuk pariwisata yaitu membuat kebijakan pembatasan pengunjung agar kelestarian pulau dan sumberdaya air tetap terjaga.   ABSTRACT This study aims to (a analyze water availability conditions in Pari Island, (b analyze the water quality conditions in Pari Island, (c analyze water demand and water projections for the future in Pari Island, and (d formulate strategies management water resources for tourism in Pari Island. The research method consists of the calculation of the water balance, water requirements, geometric methods, descriptive analysis, and SWOT analysis. Water sampling and settlement using purposive method, tourist’s samples using accidental random sampling. The final results of The amount of soil water availability in Pari Island of 290000,48 m3 / year. Groundwater quality in the study area are classified as good. The amount of water demand in 2013 amounted to 46381,947 m3 / year. In 2018 became 54443,953 m3 / year and in 2023 increased to 63548,472 m3 / year. First priority water resource

  11. 16. Paris Cosmology Colloquium 2012 - Slides of the presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasenby, A.; Page, L.; Vega, H.J. de; Biermann, P.L.; Ma, E.; Laveder, M.; Kormendy, J.; Weinheimer, C.; Freeman, K.; Walker, M.; Conselice, C.J.; Rebolo, R.; Wehus, K.; Mirabel, F.; Serenelli, A.; Das, S.; Cooray, A.; Burigana, C.; Sanchez, N.G.; Mather, J.C.; Smoot, G.F.; Schmidt, B.P.; Tognini, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Warm (keV scale) Dark Matter emerged impressively over CDM (Cold Dark Matter) as the leading Dark Matter candidate. In the context of this new Dark Matter situation, which implies novelties in the astrophysical, cosmological and keV particle physics context, this 16. Paris Colloquium 2012 is devoted to the LambdaWDM Standard Model of the Universe. The topics of the colloquium are as follows: -) observational and theoretical progress on the nature of dark matter: keV scale warm dark matter, -) large and small scale structure formation in agreement with observations at large scales and small galactic scales, and -) neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology. This document gathers the slides of the presentations.

  12. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLANC, A.; HOLMES, L.L.; HARBOTTLE, G.

    1998-01-01

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries

  13. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Brigitte

    1993-01-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  14. Revision of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busekist, Otto von.

    1977-01-01

    The Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention have in substance remained unchanged since their adoption in 1960 and 1963, respectively. During that period, nuclear industry and technology have developed considerably while the financial and monetary bases of the Conventions have been shattered. The amounts of liability and compensation have been eroded by inflation, and the gold-based unit of account in which these amounts are expressed has lost its original meaning after the abolition of the official gold price. The question of revising the Conventions, in particular of raising those amounts and of replacing the unit of account, is therefore being studied by the Group of Governmental Experts on Third party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. (auth.) [fr

  15. Flexibility of the Paris Agreement on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine-Schonne, Marion

    2016-01-01

    The Paris agreement lays the foundation for a new international legal regime on climate change. To achieve a universal agreement, many compromises were made, reflected in the international agreement by signs of flexibility. Firstly, at the temporal level, a 'periodic review mechanism of the National Contributions' is set up. Concerning then the means of implementation of the agreement, a new 'mechanism for sustainable development' has been introduced. This mechanism aims to facilitate the implementation of international legal obligations with a logic of cost-effectiveness, reproducing in this sense the market mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. At least, at the normative level, flexibility of law is obvious in this agreement, in order to adapt norms to scientific knowledge evolution and political decisions

  16. Paris Agreement and opportunities for innovative nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    How far can technology take us? Pushing energy technology to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060 could meet the mid-point of the range of ambitions expressed in Paris. Nuclear additions need to double current rate to meet 2DS. 2016 saw the highest nuclear capacity additions since 1990, but new construction starts down sharply. The fuel mix to generate electricity is vastly different to today. The average carbon intensity of power generation falls from around 520 gCO2/kWh today to Below zero in the B2DS. Nuclear innovation could also target need for decarbonised heat. Heating and cooling in industry and buildings accounts for more than 40% of final energy consumption and 30% of global CO2 emissions

  17. Paris and Vienna nuclear liability conventions: challenges for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2004-01-01

    Insurers have actively contributed to the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. In the course of these negotiations they have pointed out that some of the proposals for revision may have consequences for insurers and could prove incapable of finding insurance support. This paper aims at explaining the revision related points, which could cause problems in respect of insurability. Furthermore, the writer takes the liberty to expand its scope to more generally include developments, which have the potential to influence the availability of insurance capacity. Therefore, also the insurance implications of terrorist acts combined with share market developments of recent years will be dealt with.(author)

  18. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournel, Brigitte [Electricite de France (France)

    1993-07-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  19. Research aspects in the Paris-Sud University, in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Some of the research works developed in the Paris-Sud University, in 1988, are reported. In this second volume, the following research papers are presented: the antiprogesterone; the English Channel Tunnel; the individual will concerning filiation; the glycannic variations of the α 1; the molecular phylogenies; the adrenergetical transmission and the β receptors; the organical phases and crystallogenesis in the carbonaceous biomineralizations; the quarks electric charge determination; the X-imagery; the regulation of the enzymatic activities by light in the superior vegetals; the chemical reaction dynamical analysis; the experiment report concerning heavy ions - high density plasma interactions; the 13 C/ 12 C isotopic splitting during photosynthesis; the articular prothesis methodology; and the public authorities and commerce in France [fr

  20. Parametrization of the scattering wave functions of the Paris potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1996-10-01

    The neutron-proton scattering wave functions of the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential are parametrized for partial waves of total angular momenta less than 5. The inner parts of the wave functions are approximated by polynomials with a continuous transition to the outer parts, which are given by the asymptotic regime and determined by the respective phase shifts. The scattering wave functions can then be calculated at any given energy below 400 MeV. Special attention is devoted to the zero-energy limit of the low partial waves. An easy-to-use FORTRAN program, which allows the user to calculate these parametrized wave functions, is available via electronic mail. (author)

  1. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V. N.; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size distributions (0.8-42 nm) with an air ion spectrometer and fine particle number concentrations (> 6 nm) with a twin differential mobility particle sizer in an urban site of Paris between 26 June 2009 and 4 October 2010. Air ions were size classified as small (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). The median concentrations of small and large ions were 670 and 680 cm-3, respectively, (sum of positive and negative polarities), whereas the median concentration of intermediate ions was only 20 cm-3, as these ions were mostly present during new particle formation bursts, i.e. when gas-to-particle conversion produced fresh aerosol particles from gas phase precursors. During peaks in traffic-related particle number, the concentrations of small and intermediate ions decreased, whereas the concentrations of large ions increased. Seasonal variations affected the ion population differently, with respect to their size and polarity. NPF was observed in 13 % of the days, being most frequent in spring and late summer (April, May, July, and August). The results also suggest that NPF was favoured on the weekends in comparison to workdays, likely due to the lower levels of condensation sinks in the mornings of weekends (CS weekdays 09:00: 18 × 10-3 s-1; CS weekend 09:00: 8 × 10-3 s-1). The median growth rates (GR) of ions during the NPF events varied between 3 and 7 nm h-1, increasing with the ion size and being higher on workdays than on weekends for intermediate and large ions. The median GR of

  2. Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    Ross's Simulation, Fourth Edition introduces aspiring and practicing actuaries, engineers, computer scientists and others to the practical aspects of constructing computerized simulation studies to analyze and interpret real phenomena. Readers learn to apply results of these analyses to problems in a wide variety of fields to obtain effective, accurate solutions and make predictions about future outcomes. This text explains how a computer can be used to generate random numbers, and how to use these random numbers to generate the behavior of a stochastic model over time. It presents the statist

  3. EUROPEAN UNION IN GLOBAL CLIMATE GOVERNANCE: TO PARIS AND BEYOND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Savorskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the European Union is aspiring global leadership in the area of climate change, which is refl ected in its active participation in the negotiations on the international climate change regime. However, those ambitions have not always turned out to be appropriate or justifi ed. Despite the fact that the European Union was able to achieve certain results during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and even more signifi cant results in the process of its ratifi cation, for the most part EU negotiation strategy based on normative considerations, had not been successful, it was especially evident during the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen. Partly the disappointing results of EU performance during the Copenhagen negotiations are to be blamed on some of the key features of EU functioning logic, for example, the overall tendency to rely on scientifi c evidence in policy-making, which did not allow the EU to assess other parties’ interests adequately. As the results of the negotiations of parties to the UNFCCC in December 2015 in Paris have shown, the European Union did manage to work out its previous mistakes and build a broad informal international coalition. Contrary to the pessimistic expectations, the agreement was adopted and it took into account quite a few of the EU proposals. However, the Paris Treaty has a number of fl aws and inaccuracies, so the ability to eliminate them in a timely manner by the international community and the EU in particular, will determine the future of the new international climate change regime.

  4. La Cité Universitaire Internationale de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bureau

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La Cité Internationale Universitaire de Paris est le lieu où se concentrent le plus de résidences universitaires en Île-de-France avec une vocation affichée d’accueillir les étudiants et chercheurs du monde entier, et ce depuis 1925. Elle leur offre un ensemble de services centralisés et un cadre privilégié mais se considère avant tout comme un creuset pour la rencontre des cultures et la diffusion de la culture française parmi les élites intellectuelles internationales. Au-delà des intentions, nous avons cherché, par la rencontre de ses dirigeants et des résidents, à saisir d’une part, la réalité actuelle des échanges culturels promus par une politique du « brassage » et d’autre part, la dynamique de « l’espace vécu » des résidents.The Cité Internationale of Paris is the place where concentrate most university halls of residence in the French capital with a displayed vocation to welcome the students and the researchers of the whole world since 1925. It offers to them a set of centralized services and a privileged living environment but considers itself above all as a melting pot for the meeting of cultures and the spreading of French culture among international intellectual elites. Beyond intentions, we tried, by the meeting of managements and residents, to grasp the current reality of cultural exchanges thanks to the policy of the "mixing" and the dynamic of "the space lived" on residents.

  5. Final report SBIR Phase II. High current density (Jc), low A.C . loss, low cost, Internal-Tin Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Final report of SBIR to develop an economical process that can produce the best material for high field magnets to be used in the next generation of accelerators. The overall objective is to develop an economical process that can produce the best material for high field magnets to be used in future particle accelerators. The internal-tin process has shown by others to produce high J c Nb 3 Sn material and the work here is primarily directed to lowering the AC losses, increasing piece lengths and lowering costs. In the previous reports on this Phase II work we have explored the finned restack approach. We have however encountered ductility problems when we have attempted to produce material without fins but with large numbers of subelements in the restacks. The work reported has concentrated on the scale up of the internal-tin materials without fins and we have finally made internal tin material with 40 (micro)m subelements which exhibited a J c at 12 T of 2757 A/mm 2 in the non-Cu and a J c at 14 T of 1985 A/mm 2 in the non-Cu. These results are the best we have achieved to date and are approaching those that Oxford has achieved for sometime.

  6. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not

  7. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change

  8. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-01-01

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  9. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Tamotsu, E-mail: nishida@gene.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  10. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Defense Agencies Abstracts of Phase 2 Awards 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Topic#: 91-045 00- 91BRDOM 325 NORTH CARSON ROAD Office: BRDEC BIRMINGHAM, AL 35215 Contract #: DAAK70-93-C-0068 Phone: (205) 854-5992 PI: Mr. Craig ...Contract #: N61339-94-C-0008 Phone: (805) 682-7940 PI: Craig Bloxham Title: Final Design and Implementation for the Tours System Abstract: The primary...capabilities to evaluate the results of the simulations. DEEGAN RESEARCH GROUP, INC. Topic#: 92-001 U)U 92AED006 39 PORTER LANE Office: AEDC PORTSMOUTH

  11. [Development strategy of Paris based on combination of domestic patent and current resource application and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei-Ya; Tao, Ai-En; Xia, Cong-Long

    2018-01-01

    Paris is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has antitumor, antibacterial, sedative, analgesic and hemostatic effects. It has been used as an ingredient of 81 Chinese patent medicines, with a wide application and large market demand. Based on the data retrieved from state Intellectual Property Office patent database, a comprehensive analysis was made on Paris patents, so as to explore the current features of Paris patents in the aspects of domestic patent output, development trend, technology field distribution, time dimension, technology growth rate and patent applicant, and reveal the development trend of China's Paris industry. In addition, based on the current Paris resource application and development, a sustainable, multi-channel and multi-level industrial development approach was built. According to the results, studies of Paris in China are at the rapid development period, with a good development trend. However, because wild Paris resources tend to be exhausted, the studies for artificial cultivation technology should be strengthened to promote the industrial development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. PINK1 Primes Parkin-Mediated Ubiquitination of PARIS in Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1 and parkin cause autosomal-recessive Parkinson’s disease through a common pathway involving mitochondrial quality control. Parkin inactivation leads to accumulation of the parkin interacting substrate (PARIS, ZNF746 that plays an important role in dopamine cell loss through repression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1-alpha (PGC-1α promoter activity. Here, we show that PARIS links PINK1 and parkin in a common pathway that regulates dopaminergic neuron survival. PINK1 interacts with and phosphorylates serines 322 and 613 of PARIS to control its ubiquitination and clearance by parkin. PINK1 phosphorylation of PARIS alleviates PARIS toxicity, as well as repression of PGC-1α promoter activity. Conditional knockdown of PINK1 in adult mouse brains leads to a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that is dependent on PARIS. Altogether, these results uncover a function of PINK1 to direct parkin-PARIS-regulated PGC-1α expression and dopaminergic neuronal survival.

  13. SBIR PHASE I FINAL REPORT: Adoption of High Performance Computational (HPC) Modeling Software for Widespread Use in the Manufacture of Welded Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Frederick W. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Punch, Edward F. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Kurth, Elizabeth A. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States); Kennedy, James C. [Engineering Mechanics Corporation of Columbus (Emc2), Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-12-02

    fabrication costs. VFT currently is tied to a commercial solver which makes it prohibitively expensive for use by SMEs, as there is a significant licensing cost for the solver - over and above for the relatively minimal cost for VFT. Emc2 developed this software code over a number of years in close cooperation with CAT (Peoria, IL), who currently uses this code exclusively for worldwide fabrication, product design and development activities. The use of VFT has allowed CAT to move directly from design to product fabrication and helped eliminate (to a large extent) new product prototyping and subsequent testing. Additionally, CAT has been able to eliminate/reduce costly one-of-a-kind appliances used to reduce distortion effects due to fabrication. In this context, SMEs can realize the same kind of improved product quality and reduced cost through adoption of the adapted version of VFT for design and subsequent manufacture of new products. Emc2's DOE SBIR Phase I effort successfully adapted VFT so that SMEs have access to this sophisticated and proven methodology that is quick, accurate and cost effective and available on-demand to address weld-simulation and fabrication problems prior to manufacture. The open source code, WARP3D, a high performance finite element code mainly used in fracture and damage assessment of structures, was modified so that computational weld problems can be solved efficiently on multiple processors and threads with VFT. The thermal solver for VFT, based on a series of closed form solution approximations, was enhanced for solution on multiple processors greatly increasing overall speed. In addition, the graphical user interface (GUI) has been tailored to integrate these solutions with WARP3D. The GUI is used to define all the weld pass descriptions, number of passes, material properties, consumable properties, weld speed, etc. for the structure to be modeled. The GUI was improved to make it user-friendly for engineers that are not experts in finite

  14. Computational Platform for Flux Analysis Using 13C-Label Tracing- Phase I SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dien, Stephen J.

    2005-04-12

    Isotopic label tracing is a powerful experimental technique that can be combined with metabolic models to quantify metabolic fluxes in an organism under a particular set of growth conditions. In this work we constructed a genome-scale metabolic model of Methylobacterium extorquens, a facultative methylotroph with potential application in the production of useful chemicals from methanol. A series of labeling experiments were performed using 13C-methanol, and the resulting distribution of labeled carbon in the proteinogenic amino acids was determined by mass spectrometry. Algorithms were developed to analyze this data in context of the metabolic model, yielding flux distributions for wild-type and several engineered strains of M. extorquens. These fluxes were compared to those predicted by model simulation alone, and also integrated with microarray data to give an improved understanding of the metabolic physiology of this organism.

  15. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  16. Biological effects of particles from the paris subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoual, Rafik; Boczkowski, Jorge; Goven, Delphine; Amara, Nadia; Tabet, Lyes; On, Dinhill; Leçon-Malas, Véronique; Aubier, Michel; Lanone, Sophie

    2007-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from atmospheric pollution can easily deposit in the lungs and induce recruitment of inflammatory cells, a source of inflammatory cytokines, oxidants, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which are important players in lung structural homeostasis. In many large cities, the subway system is a potent source of PM emission, but little is known about the biological effects of PM from this source. We performed a comprehensive study to evaluate the biological effects of PM sampled at two sites (RER and Metro) in the Paris subway system. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, were exposed to 0.01-10 microg/cm2 and 5-100 microg/mouse subway PM or reference materials [carbon black (CB), titanium dioxide (TiO2), or diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)]. We analyzed cell viability, production of cellular and lung proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2), KC (the murin analog of interleukin-8), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], and mRNA or protein expression of MMP-2, -9, and -12 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Deferoxamine and polymixin B were used to evaluate the roles of iron and endotoxin, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of subway PM (but not CB, TiO2, or DEPs) induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in TNFalpha and MIP-2 production by RAW 264.7 cells, in a manner involving, at least in part, PM iron content (34% inhibition of TNF production 8 h after stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with 10 microg/cm2 RER particles pretreated with deferoxamine). Similar increased cytokine production was transiently observed in vivo in mice and was accompanied by an increased neutrophil cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (84.83+/-0.98% of polymorphonuclear neutrophils for RER-treated mice after 24 h vs 7.33+/-0.99% for vehicle-treated animals). Subway PM induced an increased expression of MMP-12 and HO-1 both in vitro and in vivo. PM from the

  17. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  18. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L; Vautard, R; Flamant, P H [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C; Beekmann, M; Megie, G; Sicard, M [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C; Lefebvre, M P; Lossec, B [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P; Martin, D [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P; Toupance, G [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  19. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Menut

    Full Text Available The "Étude et Simulation de la QUalité de l'air en Ile de France" (ESQUIF project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000 to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1 to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2 to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (pollution – urban and regional; troposphere – composition and chemistry – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (mesoscale meteorology

  20. Climate - 30 questions to understand the Paris Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfin, Pascal; Staime, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The authors, who participate in the negotiations on climate, propose an analysis and a description of the various geopolitical, economic and financial challenges which are part of the next conference on climate (Conference of Parties, COP 21) which is to take place in France in December 2015. They notably discuss to which extent France is an example, what Obama can do, why things are changing in China, who are the opponents in the struggle against climate change. While one of the main issue of this conference, and the possible cause of its failure, will be the financial issue, and particularly the promise made in 2009 to mobilise 100 billions dollars every year in favour of developing countries which are the most impacted by global warming, in an interview, one of the author evokes the content of his book: he discusses the general consensus about the human origin of climate change, evokes fossil industries and oil producing countries as opponents to an energy revolution, outlines that energy transition is at the heart of what he calls the Battle of Paris (the conference), outlines the important role France can play despite some weaknesses of its climate policy, the new momentum given by China and the USA. He considers low carbon economy as the main world challenge on the long term

  1. Running from Paris to Beijing: biomechanical and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Degache, Francis; Edouard, Pascal; Feasson, Léonard; Verney, Julien; Oullion, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biomechanical changes occurring in a subject after running 8,500 km in 161 days (i.e. 52.8 km daily). Three weeks before, 3 weeks after (POST) and 5 months after (POST+5) running from Paris to Beijing, energy cost of running (Cr), knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and biomechanical parameters (using a treadmill dynamometer) at different velocities were assessed in an experienced ultra-runner. At POST, there was a tendency toward a 'smoother' running pattern, as shown by (a) a higher stride frequency and duty factor, and a reduced aerial time without a change in contact time, (b) a lower maximal vertical force and loading rate at impact and (c) a decrease in both potential and kinetic energy changes at each step. This was associated with a detrimental effect on Cr (+6.2%) and a loss of strength at all angular velocities for both knee flexors and extensors. At POST+5, the subject returned to his original running patterns at low but not at high speeds and maximal strength remained reduced at low angular velocities (i.e. at high levels of force). It is suggested that the running pattern changes observed in the present study were a strategy adopted by the subject to reduce the deleterious effects of long distance running. However, the running pattern changes could partly be linked to the decrease in maximal strength.

  2. Lorenz Oken and Naturphilosophie in Jena, Paris and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    Although Lorenz Oken is a classic example of Naturphilosophie as applied to biology, his views have been imperfectly understood. He is best viewed as a follower of Schelling who consistently attempted to apply Schelling's ideas to biological data. His version of Naturphilosophic, however, was strongly influenced by older pseudoscience traditions, especially alchemy and numerology as they had been presented by Robert Fludd, whose works were current in Jena and available to him. According to those influences, parts of Oken's philosophical conception were communicable even in a non-idealistic scientific culture, for example in Paris, where Oken met Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Geoffroy however was embedded in a French intellectual tradition, and the correspondence between his views and those of Oken was only superficial. The English anatomist Richard Owen attempted to incorporate the views of Oken and Geoffroy within his own, idiosyncratic system. Although Darwin knew of Oken's ideas, it was Geoffroy who really affected his evolutionary biology, and any influence of Oken must have been attenuated to the point of triviality.

  3. An American termite in Paris: temporal colony dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Guillaume; Dedeine, Franck; Bech, Nicolas; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Dupont, Simon; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-12-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are widespread invaders, particularly in urban habitats. Their cryptic and subterranean lifestyle makes them difficult to detect, and we know little about their colony dynamics over time. In this study we examined the persistence of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) colonies in the city of Paris over a period of 15 years. The aim was (1) to define the boundaries of colonies sampled within the same four areas over two sampling periods, (2) to determine whether the colonies identified during the first sampling period persisted to the second sampling period, and (3) to compare the results obtained when colonies were delineated using a standard population genetic approach versus a Bayesian clustering method that combined both spatial and genetic information. Herein, colony delineations were inferred from genetic differences at nine microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial locus. Four of the 18 identified colonies did not show significant differences in their genotype distributions between the two sampling periods. While allelic richness was low, making it hard to reliably distinguish colony family type, most colonies appeared to retain the same breeding structure over time. These large and expansive colonies showed an important ability to fuse (39% were mixed-family colonies), contained hundreds of reproductives and displayed evidence of isolation-by-distance, suggesting budding dispersal. These traits, which favor colony persistence over time, present a challenge for pest control efforts, which apply treatment locally. The other colonies showed significant differences, but we cannot exclude the possibility that their genotype distributions simply changed over time.

  4. Gambling in revolutionary Paris - The Palais Royal: 1789-1838.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, R T

    1992-06-01

    By the revolution of 1789, the four-story, quadrangular Palais Royal in Paris had become the most glittering tourist center of Europe, with 180 shops and cafes in its ground floor arcades. By 1791, its basement and secondary story contained over 100 separate, illicit gambling operations featuring the most popular dice and card games. The mania for gambling had been transferred from defunct, monarchical Versailles to the thriving, bourgeois Palais Royal, where the five main gaming clubs throbbed from noon till midnight. During the Revolution, Prince Talleyrand won 30,000 francs at one club, and after Waterloo in 1815, Marshal Blucher lost 1,500,000 francs in one night at another. To bring the situation under control and raise taxes for the state, in 1806 Napoleon legalized the main clubs, which from 1819 to 1837 grossed an enormous 137 million francs. When the anti-gambling forces triumphed in 1837 and the clubs were closed down, the National Guard had to be called out to evict the mobs of gamblers who refused to leave the tables. Dramatic reports from Revolutionary police raids, and quotations from the memoirs of humorous French gamblers and shocked foreign visitors, provide anecdotal illustrations of the 49 years during which the Palais Royal was the most intriguing and picturesque gambling mecca of Europe-and probably of the world.

  5. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  6. Indoor tetrachloroethylene levels and determinants in Paris dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Ramond, Anna; Momas, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    There is growing public health concern about indoor air quality. Tetrachloroethylene (PERC), a chlorinated volatile organic compound widely used as a solvent in dry cleaning facilities, can be a residential indoor air pollutant. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS (Pollution and asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort, this study firstly aimed to document domestic PERC levels, and then to identify the factors influencing these levels using standardized questionnaires about housing characteristics and living conditions. Air samples were collected in the child's bedroom over one week using passive devices when infants were 1, 6, 9, and 12 months. PERC was identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PERC annual domestic level was calculated by averaging seasonal levels. PERC was omnipresent indoors, annual levels ranged from 0.6 to 124.2 μg/m3. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models showed that proximity to dry cleaning facilities, do-it-yourself activities (e.g.: photographic development, silverware), presence of air vents, and building construction date (<1945) were responsible for higher domestic levels of PERC. This study, conducted in an urban context, provides helpful information on PERC contamination in dwellings, and identifies parameters influencing this contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Winter air pollution and infant bronchiolitis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségala, Claire; Poizeau, David; Mesbah, Mounir; Willems, Sylvie; Maidenberg, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common respiratory pathogens in infants and young children. It is not known why some previously healthy infants, when in contact with RSV, develop bronchiolitis whereas others have only mild symptoms. Our study aimed to evaluate the possible association between emergency hospital visits for bronchiolitis and air pollution in the Paris region during four winter seasons. We included children under the age of 3 years who attended emergency room services for bronchiolitis (following standardized definition) during the period 1997-2001. Two series of data from 34 hospitals, the daily number of emergency hospital consultations (n=50857) and the daily number of hospitalizations (n=16588) for bronchiolitis, were analyzed using alternative statistical methods; these were the generalized additive model (GAM) and case-crossover models. After adjustments for public holidays, holidays and meteorological variables the case-crossover model showed that PM10, BS, SO2 and NO2 were positively associated with both consultations and hospitalizations. GAM models, adjusting for long-term trend, seasonality, holiday, public holiday, weekday and meteorological variables, gave similar results for SO2 and PM10. This study shows that air pollution may act as a trigger for the occurrence of acute severe bronchiolitis cases.

  8. Paris Photo 2015 / Kristel Schwede, Annika Haas, Laura Põld, Piret Frey

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline fotomess "Paris Photo 2015" 12. kuni 15. novembrini Pariisi messihallis Grand Palais. Eestit esindasid messil oma loominguga Jaanus Samma, Sigrid Viir, Krista Mölder (Temnikova & Kasela galerii)

  9. Treatment of unicameral bone cysts by curettage and packing with plaster-of-Paris pellets. 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Leonard F; Jones, Richard H

    2004-05-01

    Long-term follow-up of twenty-six patients with unicameral bone cysts treated by curettage and packing with plaster-of-Paris pellets showed a recurrence in only two cases and no serious complications.

  10. Paris Chamber of Commerce Examinations and ACTFL/ETS Proficiency Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Patricia W.

    1987-01-01

    Compares the Paris Chamber of Commerce Exams (both certificate and diploma levels) and the ACTFL Guidelines for language proficiency for the benefit of language teachers. Teaching strategies are suggested for preparing students for the Chamber of Commerce exams. (LMO)

  11. U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement: Reasons, impacts, and China's response

    OpenAIRE

    Hai-Bin Zhang; Han-Cheng Dai; Hua-Xia Lai; Wen-Tao Wang

    2017-01-01

    Applying qualitative and quantitative methods, this article explains the driving forces behind U.S. President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, assesses the impacts of this withdrawal on the compliance prospects of the agreement, and proposes how China should respond. The withdrawal undercuts the foundation of global climate governance and upsets the process of climate cooperation, and the impacts are manifold. The withdrawal undermines the universality of the Pari...

  12. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  13. Emission of intermediate, semi and low volatile organic compounds from traffic and their impact on secondary organic aerosol concentrations over Greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartelet, K.; Zhu, S.; Moukhtar, S.; André, M.; André, J. M.; Gros, V.; Favez, O.; Brasseur, A.; Redaelli, M.

    2018-05-01

    Exhaust particle emissions are mostly made of black carbon and/or organic compounds, with some of these organic compounds existing in both the gas and particle phases. Although emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are usually measured at the exhaust, emissions in the gas phase of lower volatility compounds (POAvapor) are not. However, these gas-phase emissions may be oxidised after emission and enhance the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). They are shown here to contribute to most of the SOA formation in Central Paris. POAvapor emissions are usually estimated from primary organic aerosol emissions in the particle phase (POA). However, they could also be estimated from VOC emissions for both gasoline and diesel vehicles using previously published measurements from chamber measurements. Estimating POAvapor from VOC emissions and ageing exhaust emissions with a simple model included in the Polyphemus air-quality platform compare well to measurements of SOA formation performed in chamber experiments. Over Greater Paris, POAvapor emissions estimated using POA and VOC emissions are compared using the HEAVEN bottom-up traffic emissions model. The impact on the simulated atmospheric concentrations is then assessed using the Polyphemus/Polair3D chemistry-transport model. Estimating POAvapor emissions from VOC emissions rather than POA emissions lead to lower emissions along motorway axes (between -50% and -70%) and larger emissions in urban areas (up to between +120% and +140% in Central Paris). The impact on total organic aerosol concentrations (gas plus particle) is lower than the impact on emissions: between -8% and 25% along motorway axes and in urban areas respectively. Particle-phase organic concentrations are lower when POAvapor emissions are estimated from VOC than POA emissions, even in Central Paris where the total organic aerosol concentration is higher, because of different assumptions on the emission volatility distribution, stressing the

  14. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  15. Long-term hydrodynamic response induced by past climatic and geo-morphologic forcing: The case of the Paris basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Goncalves, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guyomard, Y.; Guillocheau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of safe underground storage of radioactive waste in low-permeability layers, it is essential to evaluate the mobility of deep groundwaters over timescales of several million years. On these timescales, the environmental evolution of a repository should depend upon a range of natural processes that are primarily driven by climate and geo-morphologic variations. In this paper, the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years is investigated. A three-dimensional transient modelling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Ecole des Mines de Paris, ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geo-morphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to estimate river-valley incision and alpine uplift. Climate forcing results from paleo-climate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and the Middle Pliocene Warmth (similar to 3 Ma). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (ENSMP). Results about the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions are presented, in particular in the vicinity of ANDRA's Bure potential repository site within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous layer. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid

  16. Formation of organic aerosol in the Paris region during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign: evaluation of the volatility-basis-set approach within the CHIMERE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. J. Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulations with the chemistry transport model CHIMERE are compared to measurements performed during the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation summer campaign in the Greater Paris region in July 2009. The volatility-basis-set approach (VBS is implemented into this model, taking into account the volatility of primary organic aerosol (POA and the chemical aging of semi-volatile organic species. Organic aerosol is the main focus and is simulated with three different configurations with a modified treatment of POA volatility and modified secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation schemes. In addition, two types of emission inventories are used as model input in order to test the uncertainty related to the emissions. Predictions of basic meteorological parameters and primary and secondary pollutant concentrations are evaluated, and four pollution regimes are defined according to the air mass origin. Primary pollutants are generally overestimated, while ozone is consistent with observations. Sulfate is generally overestimated, while ammonium and nitrate levels are well simulated with the refined emission data set. As expected, the simulation with non-volatile POA and a single-step SOA formation mechanism largely overestimates POA and underestimates SOA. Simulation of organic aerosol with the VBS approach taking into account the aging of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC shows the best correlation with measurements. High-concentration events observed mostly after long-range transport are well reproduced by the model. Depending on the emission inventory used, simulated POA levels are either reasonable or underestimated, while SOA levels tend to be overestimated. Several uncertainties related to the VBS scheme (POA volatility, SOA yields, the aging parameterization, to emission input data, and to simulated OH levels can be responsible for

  17. The Path Forward from Paris: the Challenge for Tropical Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C.

    2016-12-01

    The pledges of emissions reductions put forth at the COP21 in Paris fall short of ensuring the desired guardrail of 2 C warming, let alone the more stringent, but necessary, goal of 1.5 C warming if we want to minimize the increasing risks of climate change over both the short term of decades and the long term of centuries. Decarbonization of the global economy is mandatory, which implies a gargantuan challenge of decarbonizing the energy system. Given the likelihood of decreasing strength of the natural sinks in the global oceans and land biota as warming progresses, it may be necessary to reach nearly zero net emissions by midcentury and even negative net emissions by the end of the century. In addition to massive and rapid implementation of renewable energy systems, desirable mitigation trajectories involve large-scale reforestation and ecosystem restoration and also bioenergy capture and storage systems (BECCS). Tropical countries can play an important role to meet both goals as long as they are able to implement sustainable agriculture at the large scale that is nearly carbon-neutral and resilient to unavoidable climate change. And reaching sustainability in the agricultural sector—remembering that agricultural direct emissions and indirect emissions due to deforestation account for almost one quarter of global emissions—is under the constraint to meet food security for all, that is, food production has to grow 70% by midcentury, with concomitant reduction of waste in the food chain. I will take the example of mitigation options for Brazil—a large tropical country with per capita emissions of about 7.5 ton CO2-eq—to illustrate sustainable development trajectories of reaching carbon neutrality by midcentury. That will imply developing a modern, more productive carbon-neutral agriculture within the next two decades, reducing tropical deforestation to nearly zero within a decade, restoring ecosystems and increasing renewable energy use to over 80% of its

  18. Embedding the logic of the Paris Agreement into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss-Stemping, Judith; Sartor, Oliver; Colombier, Michel

    2017-10-01

    To safeguard the climate and to keep the temperatures targets of the Paris Agreement within reach, determined climate action of global players, such as the European Union (EU) and its Member States, is needed more than ever. The Paris Agreement sets out a clear process to review and raise ambition embarking on a long-term transformation of the global economy. To ensure that this process and the logic of the Paris Agreement is adequately embedded in the into the new Regulation on Governance of the Energy Union, IDDRI identifies the long-term strategies, iterative process and inherent time-line of the Paris Agreement as points of vigilance

  19. Polyp morphology: an interobserver evaluation for the Paris classification among international experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Sascha C; Hazewinkel, Y; East, James E; van Leerdam, Monique E; Rastogi, Amit; Pellisé, Maria; Sanduleanu-Dascalescu, Silvia; Bastiaansen, Barbara A J; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    The Paris classification is an international classification system for describing polyp morphology. Thus far, the validity and reproducibility of this classification have not been assessed. We aimed to determine the interobserver agreement for the Paris classification among seven Western expert endoscopists. A total of 85 short endoscopic video clips depicting polyps were created and assessed by seven expert endoscopists according to the Paris classification. After a digital training module, the same 85 polyps were assessed again. We calculated the interobserver agreement with a Fleiss kappa and as the proportion of pairwise agreement. The interobserver agreement of the Paris classification among seven experts was moderate with a Fleiss kappa of 0.42 and a mean pairwise agreement of 67%. The proportion of lesions assessed as "flat" by the experts ranged between 13 and 40% (Pagreement did not change (kappa 0.38, pairwise agreement 60%). Our study is the first to validate the Paris classification for polyp morphology. We demonstrated only a moderate interobserver agreement among international Western experts for this classification system. Our data suggest that, in its current version, the use of this classification system in daily practice is questionable and it is unsuitable for comparative endoscopic research. We therefore suggest introduction of a simplification of the classification system.

  20. Microbial Monitoring from the Frontlines to Space: A Successful Validation of a Department of Defense (DoD) Funded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Technology on Board the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Khodadad, Christina; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Pollack, Lawrence; Roman, Monsi

    2017-01-01

    The RAZOR EX (Registered Trademark) PCR unit was initially developed by the DoD as part of an SBIR project to detect and identify biothreats during field deployment. The system was evaluated by NASA as a commercial technology for future microbial monitoring requirements and has been successfully demonstrated in microgravity on-board the International Space Station.

  1. The Paris Agreement: end of the climate multilateralism crisis or evolution in chiaroscuro?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavallee, Sophie; Maljean-Dubois, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    After a decade of chaotic negotiations, the twenty-first Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change managed on 12 December 12 2015 to agree on the text of an international treaty, the Paris Agreement, preceded by a COP decision aiming both to explain and prepare the entry into force of the treaty. Is this compromise text marking a significant step or is it a weak agreement incapable to alter our medium and long term trajectories of emissions of greenhouse gases? Tracing the process that led to its adoption helps to better understand the substantive and procedural contribution of the Paris agreement, without denying its limits. As a new brick in the complex architecture of the climate regime, the Paris Agreement is more the beginning of a new era for climate diplomacy, full of uncertainties, than a final stage

  2. Assessment of the Climate Paris Agreement in the light of a Global Standard of Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabau, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Reactions to the Paris Agreement oscillate between political enthusiasm, given the diplomatic challenge that was taken-up, and activist disappointment, considering the emergency and scale of transformations to undertake to tackle climate change. The legal analysis of the COP21, its results and prospects they open however needs to be done in the light of dispassionate criteria. The one proposed in this paper uses a global standard of transparency. The reading grid offered thus enables to locate the Paris Agreement in the context of a global and complex governance; two features that the theory of global administrative law aims to better understand, from an empirical but also a prescriptive approaches. This assessment shows that the balance between transparency and opacity, intelligibility, effectiveness or efficiency is both delicate to establish and unstable. If the way the cursor was positioned under the Paris Agreement may seem unsatisfactory in many respects, it must not be forgotten that it is intended to evolve

  3. Messier, Copernicus, Flamsteed: The SAF Rare-Book Collection in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2014-01-01

    The historic books belonging to the Société Astronomique de France, founded by Camille Flammarion in 1887, are located partly in Paris and partly at the Flammarion site in Juvisy, a Paris suburb. Their holdings include first editions of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and of Flamsteed's star atlas, as well as Messier's own copy of his 1783 and 1784 papers with his handwritten comments and additions. I will describe the fruitless search for a Bevis atlas and the circumstances that led me to inspect these treasures. I thank David Valls-Gabaud and Philippe Morel of the Société Astronomique de France for their hospitality in Paris, Jean-Claude Pecker, and Owen Gingerich for his prior work on Messier's catalogue.

  4. Climate champions? France, Germany and Europe in the negotiations about the Paris Agreement on climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykut, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    This report discusses the role and implications of France, Germany and Europe in the preparation of the Paris Agreement of December 2015. The author first discusses the historical aspiration of Europe to have a role of leadership in the negotiations. Then, he examines and comments the actual results of the COP21 and the content of the Paris Agreement. He analyses situational factors, the economic and political context, the role of the French diplomacy, of Germany and of the European Union. He analyses dynamics which, on the medium and the long terms, has shaped climate governance, notably the red lines defined by China and the USA, and the general framework of negotiations which tend to exclude some important issues which are considered as matters of conflict. The last part proposes a retrospective overview on room and options available for Europe to find a leadership again within the new climate regime implemented by the Paris Agreement

  5. Housing and the construction of the city: the Paris Habitat Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Arpa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, the history and the evolution of social housing provision merge with those of a centennial institution. Created in 1914, the Office Public d’Habitations à Bon Marché, currently called Paris Habitat, manages more than 1,200 operations, 120,000 housing units inhabited by 200,000 residents. This article reviews an investigation to this exceptional heritage commissioned by the Pavillon de l'Arsenal in Paris, which resulted in the exhibition and catalogue Paris Habitat: Cent ans de ville, cent ans de vie, presented by the institution in 2015.The investigation, exhibition and publication were organized around the analysis of ten fragments of reality that, rather than matching administrative divisions or urban planning projects, span municipalities, districts and infrastructures. From low-cost to large-scale housing, from concerns with hygiene to ecology issues, each one of the building ensembles analyzed bears witness to the will to change society through housing. Written by the project’s main curator and catalogue editor, this review details the process through which essential questions formulated early on – What is the city we want like? How is it built? – were answered to: selecting from the wealth of material produced by Paris Habitat over one hundred years of activity, the team exposed their political stance on urban strategies at large. Importantly, Paris Habitat’s ‘actions’ substantiated the team’s belief that our knowledge of this long, continuous urban experiment can contribute to improve the metropolises of today and strengthen its ability to answer contemporary concerns: the transformation of offices into housing, new residents’ participation formulas, new building and conception processes, which are key elements in the making of cities that need to be dense, diverse, intense, fertile and agile.

  6. Aerosol particle measurements at three stationary sites in the megacity of Paris during summer 2009: meteorology and air mass origin dominate aerosol particle composition and size distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Freutel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During July 2009, a one-month measurement campaign was performed in the megacity of Paris. Amongst other measurement platforms, three stationary sites distributed over an area of 40 km in diameter in the greater Paris region enabled a detailed characterization of the aerosol particle and gas phase. Simulation results from the FLEXPART dispersion model were used to distinguish between different types of air masses sampled. It was found that the origin of air masses had a large influence on measured mass concentrations of the secondary species particulate sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, and oxygenated organic aerosol measured with the Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer in the submicron particle size range: particularly high concentrations of these species (about 4 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, 2 μg m−3, and 7 μg m−3, respectively were measured when aged material was advected from continental Europe, while for air masses originating from the Atlantic, much lower mass concentrations of these species were observed (about 1 μg m−3, 0.2 μg m−3, 0.4 μg m−3, and 1–3 μg m−3, respectively. For the primary emission tracers hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol, black carbon, and NOx it was found that apart from diurnal source strength variations and proximity to emission sources, local meteorology had the largest influence on measured concentrations, with higher wind speeds leading to larger dilution and therefore smaller measured concentrations. Also the shape of particle size distributions was affected by wind speed and air mass origin. Quasi-Lagrangian measurements performed under connected flow conditions between the three stationary sites were used to estimate the influence of the Paris emission plume onto its surroundings, which was found to be rather small. Rough estimates for the impact of the Paris emission plume on the suburban areas can be

  7. Geç Ortaçağ Avrupası’nın Meşhur ve Gizemli Şehri Paris (Paris That Was Famous and Mysterious City of the Late Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalik BAKIR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Paris is one of the most important capitals of the middle age. Actually, this city is universecity. Namely, Paris was remembered as a univercity, education center and art and architecture center. Paris appeared differently from the other cities. Here was an important city that East culture and West culture mixed with each other. In its environment, there were cities that have a traditional structure. It carries all the facilities of the city structure in the later middle ages. Namely, Paris is remembered firstly, while city structure is described. Like Chretien de Troyes described, Paris had the culture that made France as the first heritage of Roma and Greek. Paris is a colourful city. Perhaps, France had the most crowd population because of these facilities of Paris. Generally, undoubtedly, these facilities had a big role about the development of France civilization in the 13th century. So, in this study, we will study to introduce Paris with social-economic and culturel angles and give its appearance in the later middle ages.

  8. Revision of the Paris Convention from the German point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlmann, Wilfried.

    1977-01-01

    The paper discusses the revision of the Paris Convention from the German point of view and states how this country has used the possibilities for exceptions provided under the Convention so that German nuclear third party liability legislation differs somewhat from the standards laid down in the Convention. This is explained by a desire to provide increased financial security for the population concerned. After describing various proposed procedures for increasing liability amounts in the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention the author concludes that his country would welcome a revision of the Conventions which would provide increased financial security for the public. (NEA) [fr

  9. [Jacques Clarion (1776-1844), professor of l'Ecole de pharmacie de Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépardoux, Francis

    2006-11-01

    Engaged in military campaigns from 1793 to 1797, he then studied medicine in Paris, as well as pharmacy, specialised in chemistry and botany. Supported by Deyeux and Corvisart, he was nominated as pharmacist of the emperor. From 1819 to 1844, he taught botany at the School of pharmacy of Paris. In 1823, the authority gave him a second chair for the medical botany at the Faculty of medicine, but after the 1830 revolution, he was dismissed. He mainly worked in taxonomy, contributing to several publications with Palisot and de Candolle for Graminaceae. He was a member of the academy of medicine.

  10. CO2 dispersion modelling over Paris region within the CO2-MEGAPARIS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate simulation of the spatial and temporal variability of tracer mixing ratios over urban areas is a challenging and interesting task needed to be performed in order to utilise CO2 measurements in an atmospheric inverse framework and to better estimate regional CO2 fluxes. This study investigates the ability of a high-resolution model to simulate meteorological and CO2 fields around Paris agglomeration during the March field campaign of the CO2-MEGAPARIS project. The mesoscale atmospheric model Meso-NH, running at 2 km horizontal resolution, is coupled with the Town Energy Balance (TEB urban canopy scheme and with the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere and Atmosphere CO2-reactive (ISBA-A-gs surface scheme, allowing a full interaction of CO2 modelling between the surface and the atmosphere. Statistical scores show a good representation of the urban heat island (UHI with stronger urban–rural contrasts on temperature at night than during the day by up to 7 °C. Boundary layer heights (BLH have been evaluated on urban, suburban and rural sites during the campaign, and also on a suburban site over 1 yr. The diurnal cycles of the BLH are well captured, especially the onset time of the BLH increase and its growth rate in the morning, which are essential for tall tower CO2 observatories. The main discrepancy is a small negative bias over urban and suburban sites during nighttime (respectively 45 m and 5 m, leading to a few overestimations of nocturnal CO2 mixing ratios at suburban sites and a bias of +5 ppm. The diurnal CO2 cycle is generally well captured for all the sites. At the Eiffel tower, the observed spikes of CO2 maxima occur every morning exactly at the time at which the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL growth reaches the measurement height. At suburban ground stations, CO2 measurements exhibit maxima at the beginning and at the end of each night, when the ABL is fully contracted, with a strong spatio-temporal variability. A

  11. Air quality in the mid-21. century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km x 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km x 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present-day levels over Paris is modeled under the 'business-as-usual' scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic 'mitigation' scenario leads to a moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current urban-scale study is driven by volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional-scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas, projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer timescale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under business-as usual and mitigation scenarios, respectively, compared to the present-day period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions

  12. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10 yr control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present time levels over Paris is modeled under the "business as usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic mitigation scenario leads to moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current, urban scale study, is driven by VOC-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer time-scale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under "business as usual" and "mitigation" scenarios respectively compared to present time period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the smoothing of the large urban increment

  13. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-07-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year control simulation. Ozone is in very good agreement with measurements while PM2.5 is underestimated by 20% over the urban area mainly due to a large wet bias in wintertime precipitation. A significant increase of maximum ozone relative to present-day levels over Paris is modeled under the "business-as-usual" scenario (+7 ppb) while a more optimistic "mitigation" scenario leads to a moderate ozone decrease (-3.5 ppb) in year 2050. These results are substantially different to previous regional-scale projections where 2050 ozone is found to decrease under both future scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this difference is due to the fact that ozone formation over Paris at the current urban-scale study is driven by volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited chemistry, whereas at the regional-scale ozone formation occurs under NOx-sensitive conditions. This explains why the sharp NOx reductions implemented in the future scenarios have a different effect on ozone projections at different scales. In rural areas, projections at both scales yield similar results showing that the longer timescale processes of emission transport and ozone formation are less sensitive to model resolution. PM2.5 concentrations decrease by 78% and 89% under business-as-usual and mitigation scenarios, respectively, compared to the present-day period. The reduction is much more prominent over the urban part of the domain due to the effective reductions of road transport and residential emissions resulting in the

  14. Strontium 90 activity in drinking water of Paris area from 1963 to 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Patti, F.; Gros, R.

    1976-01-01

    Strontium 90 was determined in drinking water of the Southern Paris area from 1963 to 1972. Activities usually below 1pCi/l were related to the Seine river flow and decreased with a half-life of about five years [fr

  15. Analyzing power in pp scattering at low energies: the Paris potential predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, J.; Pires, P.; Tourreil, R. de; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.

    1979-12-01

    Predictions of the Paris potential for the analyzing power in pp scattering at low energies are compared with recent high precision measurements at 6.14MeV and earlier measurements at 10 and 16MeV. Phase shift values are also presented and discussed in view of previous analyses

  16. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  17. China's response to climate change issues after Paris Climate Change Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yun

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Climate Change Conference was successfully concluded with the Paris Agreement, which is a milestone for the world in collectively combating climate change. By participating in IPCC assessments and conducting national climate change assessments, China has been increasing its understanding of the issue. For the first time, China's top leader attended the Conference of the Parties, which indicates the acknowledgement of the rationality and necessity of climate change response by China at different levels. Moreover, this participation reflects China's commitment to including climate change in its ecology improvement program and pursuing a low-carbon society and economy. In order to ensure the success of the Paris Conference, China has contributed significantly. China's constructive participation in global governance shows that China is a responsible power. These principles such as the creation of a future of winewin cooperation with each country contributing to the best of its ability;a future of the rule of law, fairness, and justice;and a future of inclusiveness, mutual learning, and common development will serve as China's guidelines in its efforts to facilitate the implementation of the Paris Agreement and participate in the design of international systems.

  18. Is Marc-Antoine Jullien De Paris the "Father" of Comparative Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Erwin H.

    2017-01-01

    More than any other historical figure, Marc-Antoine Jullien of Paris has been considered the "Father" of Comparative Education, and his "Esquisse d'un ouvrage sur l'éducation compare", appearing in 1816-17, has been viewed as that field's originating source. Yet, the view that Jullien is the first in his field, and that his…

  19. Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2 °c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Elzen, Den Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Fransen, Taryn; Fekete, Hanna; Winkler, Harald; Schaeffer, Roberto; Sha, Fu; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte

    2016-01-01

    The Paris climate agreement aims at holding global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius and to "pursue efforts" to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius. To accomplish this, countries have submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) outlining their post-2020 climate action. Here

  20. The Paris Agreement: resolving the inconsistency between global goals and national contributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höhne, Niklas; Kuramochi, Takeshi; Warnecke, Carsten; Röser, Frauke; Fekete, Hanna; Hagemann, Markus; Day, Thomas; Tewari, Ritika; Kurdziel, Marie; Sterl, Sebastian; Gonzales, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of the Paris Agreement in December 2015 moved the world a step closer to avoiding dangerous climate change. The aggregated individual intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) are not yet sufficient to be consistent with the long-term goals of the agreement of ‘holding the

  1. Exploring fair and ambitious mitigation contributions under the Paris Agreement goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pan, Xunzhang; Elzen, den Michel; Höhne, Niklas; Teng, Fei; Wang, Lining

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve the Paris Agreement goals of keeping the temperature rise well below 2 °C or even 1.5 °C, all countries would need to make fair and ambitious contributions to reducing emissions. A vast majority of countries have adopted reduction targets by 2030 in their Nationally Determined

  2. Entry into force and then? The Paris agreement and state accountability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, Sylvia I.; Groff, Maja; Tamás, Peter A.; Dahl, Arthur L.; Harder, Marie K.; Hassall, Graham

    2018-01-01

    The entry into force of the Paris Agreement on climate change brings expectations that states will be held to account for their commitments. The article elaborates on why this is not a realistic assumption unless a broader multilevel perspective is taken on the nature of accountability regimes for

  3. Contribution of the G20 economies to the global impact of the Paris agreement climate proposals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Elzen, Michel; Admiraal, Annemiek; Roelfsema, Mark; van Soest, Heleen; Hof, Andries F.; Forsell, Nicklas

    2016-01-01

    By 15 December 2015, 187 countries had submitted their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) summarising their climate actions after 2020 in the context of the Paris Agreement. We used a unified framework to assess the mitigation components of INDCs covering 105 countries

  4. The Paris Agreement : resolving the inconsistency between global goals and national contributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höhne, Niklas; Kuramochi, Takeshi|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838683; Warnecke, Carsten; Röser, Frauke; Fekete, Hanna; Hagemann, Markus|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374023557; Day, Thomas; Tewari, Ritika; Kurdziel, Marie; Sterl, Sebastian; Gonzales, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of the Paris Agreement in December 2015 moved the world a step closer to avoiding dangerous climate change. The aggregated individual intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) are not yet sufficient to be consistent with the long-term goals of the agreement of ‘holding the

  5. Rebound policy in the Paris Agreement: instrument comparison and climate-club revenue offsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Rebound is given scant attention in both IPCC documents and UNFCCC climate summits, where climate agreements are negotiated. This article argues that without an international climate treaty, or with a soft treaty in the form of voluntary pledges, as characterizes the recent Paris climate agreement,

  6. Complete genome sequence of Paris mosaic necrosis virus, a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genomic sequence of a novel potyvirus was determined from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Its genomic RNA consists of 9,660 nucleotides (nt) excluding the 3’-terminal poly (A) tail, containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a large polyprotein. The virus shares 52.1-69.7%...

  7. China's response to climate change issues after Paris Climate Change Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Climate Change Conference was successfully concluded with the Paris Agreement, which is a milestone for the world in collectively combating climate change. By participating in IPCC assessments and conducting national climate change assessments, China has been increasing its understanding of the issue. For the first time, China's top leader attended the Conference of the Parties, which indicates the acknowledgement of the rationality and necessity of climate change response by China at different levels. Moreover, this participation reflects China's commitment to including climate change in its ecology improvement program and pursuing a low-carbon society and economy. In order to ensure the success of the Paris Conference, China has contributed significantly. China's constructive participation in global governance shows that China is a responsible power. These principles such as the creation of a future of win–win cooperation with each country contributing to the best of its ability; a future of the rule of law, fairness, and justice; and a future of inclusiveness, mutual learning, and common development will serve as China's guidelines in its efforts to facilitate the implementation of the Paris Agreement and participate in the design of international systems.

  8. Signal detection in global mean temperatures after "Paris" : An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Bregman, Bram; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2018-01-01

    In December 2015, 195 countries agreed in Paris to "hold the increase in global mean surface temperature (GMST) well below 2.0 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C. Since large financial flows will be needed to keep GMSTs below these

  9. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S

    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal

  10. 76 FR 12399 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Paris: Life & Luxury”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... the exhibition ``Paris: Life & Luxury,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... objects at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California, from on or about April 26, 2011, until on or about August 7, 2011, the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, from on or about [[Page 12400

  11. De Grande Mosquée de Paris tussen eerbetoon en propaganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    In het hart van Parijs, tegenover de Jardin des Plantes, staat de Grande Mosquée de Paris, geopend in 1926. In elke toeristische gids staat dat de muntthee en baklava in het café heerlijk zijn en dat de moskee bedoeld was als eerbetoon aan de islamitische soldaten die in de Eerste Wereldoorlog hun

  12. Paris and its long-term temperature goal: First steps on a long road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelj, J.

    2017-12-01

    As a means to achieve its long-term temperature goal, the Paris Agreement put in place a system of regularly updated country pledges alternating with global stocktaking exercises that assess progress towards achieving the Paris goals. By now, the vast majority of countries have submitted their intended actions (also known as Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs). This begs the question what these amount to and whether they are in line with the agreement`s long-term temperature goal. A structured sensitivity analysis of the emissions implications of the Paris pledges has been carried out, showing that the ambiguity and imprecision of the NDCs leaves open a wide range of possible outcomes by 2030. This range has important implications for the feasibility and cost of pathways that attempt to limit warming to the temperature goals of the Agreement. We identify salient steps to reduce the overall uncertainty, and explore the minimum requirements that have to be met for integrated energy-economy-land models to still find options to stay within the temperature limits of the Paris Agreement. These requirements come under the form of near-term emissions reductions, and assumptions about the deployment of carbon-dioxide removal technologies in the second half of the century.

  13. Learning from CDM SD tool experience for Article 6.4 in the Paris Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Arens, Christof; Mersmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement (PA) emphasizes the intrinsic relationship between climate change and sustainable development (SD) and welcomes the 2030 agenda for the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, there is a lack of assessment approaches to ensure that climate and development goals...

  14. The Online Public Access Catalogue at the Cite des Sciences Mediatheque in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Maria

    1990-01-01

    Provides background on the holdings, services, and layout of the mediatheque (multimedia library) at the Cite des Sciences et de l'Industrie (originally the Museum of Science, Technology, and Industry) in Paris. The library's online public access catalog and use of the catalog by children and the visually handicapped are described. (four…

  15. Report of visiting Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, Universite Paris-Sud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1991-03-01

    The activities carried out by identification mission to the Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas (LPGP) of Paris-Sud University are related. The mission is part of the project of Study on Plasma wave and Plasma turbulence which is part of international agreement between CAPES and COFECUB in France. (M.C.K.)

  16. Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tackling the climate targets set by the Paris Agreement (COP 21): Green leadership empowers public hospitals to overcome obstacles and challenges in a ... To improve commitment from all involved roleplayers, political leadership, supportive government policies and financial funding is mandatory, or public hospitals will ...

  17. LITERATURA, FOTOGRAFIA E O RETRATO DA MODERNIZAÇÃO DE PARIS, A CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Fabris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss the relationship between literature and photography regarding the processes of modernization which take place in Paris in the 19th century, commenting on the artistic-photographic production of Eugène Atget and the Naturalism of Émile Zola.

  18. L’homme et la bête : chiens et politique dans Les Mohicans de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article étudie comment le recours à l’animalisation dans Les Mohicans de Paris d’Alexandre Dumas est l’espace d’une véritable réflexion sur les rapports entre l’humain et l’animal. Ceci apparaît de façon nette dans la fictionnalisation du chien qui induit un brouillage des limites séparant humain et animal, brouillage qui a pour fonction de permettre l’articulation des personnages canins aux enjeux fondamentaux du roman. De façon plus précise, la mise en scène du « meilleur ami de l’homme » sert à redoubler le projet politique au cœur des Mohicans de Paris. This paper examines how, in Les Mohicans de Paris, Alexandre Dumas assigns animalistic features to some characters to question the relations between humans and animals while portraying the various dogs in the novel in a way which blurs the limits between humans and animals. These seemingly accessory canine characters are actually closely associated with the fundamental elements of the novel. More precisely, the way “man’s best friend” is put in fiction actually repeats the political project at the heart of Les Mohicans de Paris.

  19. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes

  20. ClimasCOPe: Exploring the challenges behind the Paris Agreement - COP21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguet, Benoit; Alberola, Emilie; Afriat, Marion; Vaidyula, Manasvini; Morel, Romain; Cochran, Ian; Deheza, Mariana; Shishlov, Igor; Leseur, Alexia; Depoues, Vivian; Bordier, Cecile; Bultheel, Clement; Bellassen, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), held in Paris from November 30 to December 11 2015, I4CE - Institute for Climate Economics, in partnership with ADEME, the French Environment and Energy Management Agency, attempts to shed some light on the challenges surrounding this Paris Climate Conference 2015. They explore what can be expected from the post-2020 climate agreement in Paris. They also discuss some keys success indicators of such an agreement. Over the course of six issues, ClimasCOPe provides analysis related to carbon pricing, climate finance, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions' accounting, the role of sub-national actors, adaptation to climate change and the compatibility of government commitments with the scenario where in global mean temperatures would rise by no more than 2 deg. C. Issue 1 - Carbon pricing: a necessary tool on the agenda of solutions for climate funding (Putting a Price on Carbon, First submissions of intended Nationally Determined Contributions for Paris Agreement, 5 carbon pricing initiatives); Issue 2 - Financing the low-carbon transition: the need for coherence between regulations and ambition (Finance will be the cornerstone of the Paris accord, News, 5 initiatives for Climate Finance); Issue 3 - Three keys to effective GHG emissions monitoring for a broader climate agreement (MRV: how to hit the bull's eye when there is no silver bullet? First Climate Week and the Bonn negotiations, 3 MRV initiatives); Issue 4 - Non-state actors: pushing the climate action agenda forward (The role of cities and regions and their knock-on effects, G7 announcements and the process of adopting the SDGs, 4 non-state actor initiatives); Issue 5 - COP 21: a new approach and the launch of a process to address climate change adaptation (Adapting to climate change: taking ownership of the issues and removing barriers to implementation, First COP 21 draft

  1. The legal character and operational relevance of the Paris Agreement's temperature goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Lavanya; Werksman, Jacob

    2018-05-01

    This article assesses the legal character and operational relevance of the Paris Agreement's 1.5°C temperature goal. This article begins with a textual analysis of the 1.5°C goal. It considers whether the goal creates individual or collective obligations for Parties, and whether it is sufficiently specific to enable the tracking of individual or collective performance. Next, it assesses the operational relevance of the 1.5°C temperature goal, by considering the role it will play in the Paris Agreement's institutions and procedures. To the extent that the goal plays a role, and implies global limits on greenhouse gas emissions, this article observes that it could have implications for the sharing of the effort between Parties. Thus, this article considers the relevance of equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances, to understanding how the 1.5°C goal could be reached. In this context, this article explores whether the 1.5°C goal could play a role in the Paris Agreement's `ambition cycle'. Finally, this article asks whether there are any legal or political implications, individually or collectively under the Paris Agreement, should the Parties fail to achieve the 1.5°C goal. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  2. The role of anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction in achieving the Paris Agreement's objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienola, Anca; Pietikäinen, Joni-Pekka; O'Donnell, Declan; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Korhonen, Hannele; Laaksonen, Ari

    2017-04-01

    The Paris agreement reached in December 2015 under the auspices of the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) aims at holding the global temperature increase to well below 2◦C above preindustrial levels and "to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5◦C above preindustrial levels". Limiting warming to any level implies that the total amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) - the dominant driver of long-term temperatures - that can ever be emitted into the atmosphere is finite. Essentially, this means that global CO2 emissions need to become net zero. CO2 is not the only pollutant causing warming, although it is the most persistent. Short-lived, non-CO2 climate forcers also must also be considered. Whereas much effort has been put into defining a threshold for temperature increase and zero net carbon emissions, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the non-CO2 climate forcers, including not just the non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons etc.) but also the anthropogenic aerosols like black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulfate. This study investigates the possibility of limiting the temperature increase to 1.5◦C by the end of the century under different future scenarios of anthropogenic aerosol emissions simulated with the very simplistic MAGICC climate carbon cycle model as well as with ECHAM6.1-HAM2.2-SALSA + UVic ESCM. The simulations include two different CO2 scenarios- RCP3PD as control and a CO2 reduction leading to 1.5◦C (which translates into reaching the net zero CO2 emissions by mid 2040s followed by negative emissions by the end of the century); each CO2 scenario includes also two aerosol pollution control cases denoted with CLE (current legislation) and MFR (maximum feasible reduction). The main result of the above scenarios is that the stronger the anthropogenic aerosol emission reduction is, the more significant the temperature increase by 2100 relative to pre

  3. Influence of an urban canopy model and PBL schemes on vertical mixing for air quality modeling over Greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Sartelet, Karine; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Chazette, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Impacts of meteorological modeling in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and urban canopy model (UCM) on the vertical mixing of pollutants are studied. Concentrations of gaseous chemical species, including ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter over Paris and the near suburbs are simulated using the 3-dimensional chemistry-transport model Polair3D of the Polyphemus platform. Simulated concentrations of O3, NO2 and PM10/PM2.5 (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm/2.5 μm, respectively) are first evaluated using ground measurements. Higher surface concentrations are obtained for PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 with the MYNN PBL scheme than the YSU PBL scheme because of lower PBL heights in the MYNN scheme. Differences between simulations using different PBL schemes are lower than differences between simulations with and without the UCM and the Corine land-use over urban areas. Regarding the root mean square error, the simulations using the UCM and the Corine land-use tend to perform better than the simulations without it. At urban stations, the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are over-estimated and the over-estimation is reduced using the UCM and the Corine land-use. The ability of the model to reproduce vertical mixing is evaluated using NO2 measurement data at the upper air observation station of the Eiffel Tower, and measurement data at a ground station near the Eiffel Tower. Although NO2 is under-estimated in all simulations, vertical mixing is greatly improved when using the UCM and the Corine land-use. Comparisons of the modeled PM10 vertical distributions to distributions deduced from surface and mobile lidar measurements are performed. The use of the UCM and the Corine land-use is crucial to accurately model PM10 concentrations during nighttime in the center of Paris. In the nocturnal stable boundary layer, PM10 is relatively well modeled, although it is over-estimated on 24 May and under-estimated on 25 May. However, PM10 is

  4. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  5. Remote damage control during the attacks on Paris: Lessons learned by the Paris Fire Brigade and evolutions in the rescue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaffre, Xavier; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Violin, Yann; Frattini, Benoit; Rivet, Catherine; Stibbe, Olivier; Faure, Florian; Godefroy, Anne; Gallet, Jean-Claude; Ausset, Sylvain

    2017-06-01

    On November 13, 2015, in 40 minutes, Paris suffered four suicide bombers attacks; shootings at three different restaurant terraces; and an attack on the Bataclan concert hall, resulting in 130 dead and 495 wounded. How did the Parisian rescue system respond and how did it evolve since?We proved we could deploy quickly wide prehospital and hospital resources and teams' equipment and preparedness is being further developed. To secure a swifter initial response, we need a better integration of the operators of the rescue chain with a simpler and more robust organization as well as improved communications channels. We must continue to anticipate and prepare for possible future attacks.

  6. Technology, environmental protection and economic efficiency. Cables at the Cigre 2010 in Paris; Technik, Umwelt und Wirtschaftlichkeit. Kabeltechnik auf der Cigre 2010 in Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiznerowicz, Fred [Fachhochschule Hannover (Germany)

    2010-12-13

    Cigre (Conseil International des Grands Reseaux Electriques), founded in 1921, today has about 6,000 members in 90 countries. Their work is reflected in international standards. In consequence, the work of the Cigre is very important for the electric power industry and the public utilities. The 43th Cigre was held in Paris in late August 2010, with an attendance of more than 3,000. The German delegation consisted of more than 220 experts. The conference provided an opportunity to exchange knowledge between the various sectors of power transmission, e.g. cables, overhead transmission lines, switching stations, and environmental aspects. (orig.)

  7. The climate-problem. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement and the Marrakesh-conference; Das Klimaproblem. Bewertung nach dem Paris-Abkommen und der Marrakesch-Konferenz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eike

    2017-05-15

    The Paris-Climate-Agreement came into effect on November 4th 2016. Still, the contradiction in this agreement - ambitious goals and (presumably) inadequate commitments - has persisted. Also in the follow-up conference in Marrakesh, this discrepancy remained unresolved. 2017 the countries will meet again. However, since Donald Trump became president-elect of the United States of America, uncertainty about how the largest economy in the world will act in the future has intensified. This amplifies the pressure to clarify the true level of human influence on the climate in a scientifically consistent manner, as a basis for more reliable decisions. This paper tries to contribute to that effort.

  8. The PCNA-associated protein PARI negatively regulates homologous recombination via the inhibition of DNA repair synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkovics, Peter; Dome, Lili; Juhasz, Szilvia

    2016-01-01

    to inhibit homologous recombination (HR) events. Here, we describe a biochemical mechanism in which PARI functions as an HR regulator after replication fork stalling and during double-strand break repair. In our reconstituted biochemical system, we show that PARI inhibits DNA repair synthesis during...... recombination events in a PCNA interaction-dependent way but independently of its UvrD-like helicase domain. In accordance, we demonstrate that PARI inhibits HR in vivo, and its knockdown suppresses the UV sensitivity of RAD18-depleted cells. Our data reveal a novel human regulatory mechanism that limits...

  9. Conflict of law issues related to Switzerland's participation in the Paris Nuclear Third Party Liability Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the active role Switzerland played during the negotiation process of the Paris Convention, it only recently ratified the Convention including all its amending Protocols. The whole Paris regime will become binding for Switzerland only upon entry into force of the Protocols of 2004. Concurrently, the Federal Council will put into force a revised Swiss Nuclear Liability Act and ratify the Joint Protocol. Being a party to the Paris regime and the Joint Protocol, Switzerland will be in treaty relationships with Paris states and with Vienna states which are party to the Joint Protocol. This paper assesses the legal protection of Swiss victims and the liability risks faced by Swiss operators and other potential defendants (such as suppliers and builders) under the new legal regime with a particular view to conflict of laws issues. For the purpose of this assessment the paper examines which courts will be competent to hear claims of Swiss victims and against Swiss defendants in different scenarios, which law these courts should apply, whether or not the principle of legal channelling will apply and what the applicable liability amounts are. The assessment shows an ambiguous picture: Swiss operators, suppliers and builders clearly benefit from a higher degree of legal certainty. While in the absence of treaty relationships Swiss operators could potentially be sued before any foreign court, there will now be only one court with jurisdiction over claims of victims of convention states; Swiss suppliers and builders for their part will be protected by the principle of legal channelling, which basically exempts them from any liability risk. Swiss victims will benefit from treaty-backed entitlement to compensation from foreign operators; also, the judgements rendered in their favour will be enforceable in the whole convention territory; however, the limitation of the operator's liability in many Paris and Vienna states, raises doubts about whether the available funds

  10. Um olhar de descoberta na Paris da Belle Époque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carrascoza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ao estilo dos textos de Baudelaire sobre os flâneurs que caminhavam na cidade de Paris, descobrindo os símbolos da modernidade, este artigo narra a chegada de um estrangeiro à capital francesa no início do século XX e seu passeio pela cidade. Ao longo de um dia, ele tomará contato com as obras de importantes artistas como Toulouse-Lautrec, Murcha e Chéret, que desenharam cartazes para shows, embalagens de produtos, folhetos promocionais, entre outras manifestações artísticas exploradas pelo então nascente espírito moderno. À semelhança do romance de Umberto Eco, A misteriosa chama da rainha Loana, que reproduz imagens da cultura pop e erudita em meio à sua narrativa, o texto segue o formato de ensaio ilustrado, fundindo a ficção com os aspectos reais da Paris na efervescência da Belle Époque. A estrutura, portanto, rompe com os gêneros tradicionais dos artigos acadêmicos, apresentando conteúdo reflexivo por meios dos personagens e da trama engendrada. Palavras-chave: Paris; Belle Époque; modernidade; imagens; publicidade. ABSTRACT In the style of Baudelaire’s texts on the flâneurs who used to walk in the city of Paris, finding the symbols of modernity, this article narrates the ar- rival of a foreigner in the early 20th century in Paris, and his tour around the French capital. In the course of one day, he will be in contact with the works of important artists, such as Toulouse-Lautrec, Murcha and Chéret, who drew posters for shows, products’ packages, advertising leaflets, among other artistic manifestations, explored by the then rising modern spirit. Similar to Umberto Eco’s novel The mysterious flame of Queen Loana, which reproduces images of both pop and erudite culture in its narrative, the text follows the illustrated essay format, merging fiction and the real aspects of Paris’ effervescent Belle Époque. The structure, therefore, breaks free from the traditional genres of academic articles, presenting the

  11. Osmotic flow and over pressures within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite in the eastern part of the Paris Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croise, J. [Colenco Power Engineering AG, Groundwater Protection and Waste Disposal, Baden (Switzerland); Vinsotz, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Lab. de Recherche Souterrain RD960, 55 - Bure (France); Noya, D. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Nottingham NG (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    A middle Jurassic shale, the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite (420-560 m b.g.), is currently being intensively investigated at the ANDRA site, about 300 km eastern from Paris, and particularly with respect to its hydrogeological and hydrochemical properties. The argillite rests between the Oxfordian Limestone above and the Dogger Limestone below. Observations from the different deep boreholes located at the site can be summarized as follows: the measured apparent hydraulic head across the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite show excess values of several tens of meters in comparison to the upper and lower aquifers, a fact which is referred to as anomalous overpressure in the shale literature; the salinity of the pore water in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite and the Dogger is much larger than that of the Oxfordian. The salinity levels in the Callovo-Oxfordian and the Dogger are similar. Among all physical processes which can be proposed as explanation for the formation of overpressure in shales, osmosis driven by a chemical potential (total dissolved solids) gradient is a possible candidate. As a matter of fact, the presence of contrasts in water composition and clay minerals content, as observed here, lead to osmotic effects. This paper presents the results of simulations using steady-state approximations and transient simulations (software OSMO, a numerical simulator developed by the British Geological Survey). It is shown that based on the extensive database of argillite measurements applicable to the study (including porosity values, specific surface determinations, pore water compositions, and effective diffusion coefficients), the chemo-osmosis is a process which can at least explain partly the anomalous overpressures observed. (authors)

  12. The Rise of Massage and Medical Gymnastics in London and Paris before the First World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Grégory

    2017-01-01

    Massage and medical gymnastics experienced a rapid institutionalization across Europe and North America between 1850 and 1914. This article explores how this process took place in London and Paris. Physiotherapy developed many of the hallmarks of an independent discipline during this period, including an identified corpus of manipulations and exercises, some autonomous training courses and degrees for future practitioners, and even the creation of departments within several hospitals. The article analyzes all of the processes surrounding this rise, paying special attention to the influence of the ambassadors of Swedish gymnastics (which led to the re-invention of massage across Europe), to the installation of physiotherapy in hospitals in London and in Paris, and to the practical and institutional innovations driven by nurses in England and by doctors in France.

  13. The Frontier Speaks Back: Two Australian Artists Working in Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Margaret Speck

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian artists living and working in Paris and London in the Belle Époque and modern eras had a deep engagement with cosmopolitanism in cities that were at the frontiers of international modernism. They experienced the liberation of putting aside issues of nation, and of working in large, alienating but culturally challenging multi-nation environs in the pre and post war years. This paper will explore how two women artists, Hilda Rix in Paris, a hub of internationalism; and Nora Heysen in London, a city ill-described in the Empire language of ‘home’ for Australians, connected with and articulated cosmopolitan culture. Expatriatism facilitated an offshore variant of Australian modernism.

  14. Freshwater ecosystems could become the biggest losers of the Paris Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Virgilio

    2017-09-01

    Securing access to energy for a growing population under the international commitment of reduction of greenhouse emissions requires increasing the contribution of renewable sources to the global share. Hydropower energy, which accounts for >80% of green energy, is experiencing a boom fostered by international investment mainly in developing countries. This boom could be further accelerated by the recent climate agreement reached in Paris. Despite its flexibility, hydropower production entails social, economic and ecological risks that need to be carefully considered before investing in the development of potentially thousands of planned hydropower projects worldwide. This is especially relevant given the weak or nonexistent legislation that regulates hydropower project approval and construction in many countries. I highlight the need for adequate policy to provide the Paris Agreement with new financial and planning mechanisms to avoid further and irreversible damage to freshwater ecosystem services and biodiversity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Calculations of antiproton-nucleus quasi-bound states using the Paris N bar N potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrtánková, Jaroslava; Mareš, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    An optical potential constructed using the p bar N scattering amplitudes derived from the 2009 version of the Paris N bar N potential is applied in calculations of p bar quasi-bound states in selected nuclei across the periodic table. A proper self-consistent procedure for treating energy dependence of the amplitudes in a nucleus appears crucial for evaluating p bar binding energies and widths. Particular attention is paid to the role of P-wave amplitudes. While the P-wave potential nearly does not affect calculated p bar binding energies, it reduces considerably the corresponding widths. The Paris S-wave potential supplemented by a phenomenological P-wave term yields in dynamical calculations p bar binding energies Bpbar ≈ 200 MeV and widths Γpbar ∼ 200- 230 MeV, which is very close to the values obtained within the RMF model consistent with p bar -atom data.

  16. Economic tools to promote transparency and comparability in the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Joseph; Pizer, William; Tavoni, Massimo; Reis, Lara Aleluia; Akimoto, Keigo; Blanford, Geoffrey; Carraro, Carlo; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James; Iyer, Gokul C.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Richels, Richard; Rose, Steven; Sano, Fuminori

    2016-11-01

    The Paris Agreement culminates a six-year transition towards an international climate policy architecture based on parties submitting national pledges every five years. An important policy task will be to assess and compare these contributions. We use four integrated assessment models to produce metrics of Paris Agreement pledges, and show differentiated effort across countries: wealthier countries pledge to undertake greater emission reductions with higher costs. The pledges fall in the lower end of the distributions of the social cost of carbon and the cost-minimizing path to limiting warming to 2 °C, suggesting insufficient global ambition in light of leaders’ climate goals. Countries’ marginal abatement costs vary by two orders of magnitude, illustrating that large efficiency gains are available through joint mitigation efforts and/or carbon price coordination. Marginal costs rise almost proportionally with income, but full policy costs reveal more complex regional patterns due to terms of trade effects.

  17. Hazards of decreasing marine oxygen: the near-term and millennial-scale benefits of meeting the Paris climate targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Gianna; Joos, Fortunat

    2018-06-01

    Ocean deoxygenation is recognized as key ecosystem stressor of the future ocean and associated climate-related ocean risks are relevant for current policy decisions. In particular, benefits of reaching the ambitious 1.5 °C warming target mentioned by the Paris Agreement compared to higher temperature targets are of high interest. Here, we model oceanic oxygen, warming and their compound hazard in terms of metabolic conditions on multi-millennial timescales for a range of equilibrium temperature targets. Scenarios where radiative forcing is stabilized by 2300 are used in ensemble simulations with the Bern3D Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity. Transiently, the global mean ocean oxygen concentration decreases by a few percent under low forcing and by 40 % under high forcing. Deoxygenation peaks about a thousand years after stabilization of radiative forcing and new steady-state conditions are established after AD 8000 in our model. Hypoxic waters expand over the next millennium and recovery is slow and remains incomplete under high forcing. Largest transient decreases in oxygen are projected for the deep sea. Distinct and near-linear relationships between the equilibrium temperature response and marine O2 loss emerge. These point to the effectiveness of the Paris climate target in reducing marine hazards and risks. Mitigation measures are projected to reduce peak decreases in oceanic oxygen inventory by 4.4 % °C-1 of avoided equilibrium warming. In the upper ocean, the decline of a metabolic index, quantified by the ratio of O2 supply to an organism's O2 demand, is reduced by 6.2 % °C-1 of avoided equilibrium warming. Definitions of peak hypoxia demonstrate strong sensitivity to additional warming. Volumes of water with less than 50 mmol O2 m-3, for instance, increase between 36 % and 76 % °C-1 of equilibrium temperature response. Our results show that millennial-scale responses should be considered in assessments of ocean deoxygenation and associated

  18. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Letter of the Synod of Paris (360/1 to eastern bishops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharov Georgii

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Russian translation from Latin of the letter of the synod of Paris (360/1 to Eastern bishops which is included in Fragmenta historica of Hilarius of Poitiers is published for the first time. The text contains some important evidences on participation of Gallic bishops in the Arian controversy and also attests the high degree of consolidation of the local Churches in Gaul.

  20. The Birth of Artificial Intelligence: First Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Paris in 1951?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruderer , Herbert

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The 1956 Dartmouth conference is often considered as the cradle of artificial intelligence. There is a controversy on its origin. Some historians of computing believe that Turing or Zuse were the fathers of machine intelligence. However, the first working chess-playing automaton was developed by Torres Quevedo by 1912. Moreover, there was a large and important (but forgotten) European conference on computing and human thinking in Paris in 1951.

  1. [Two prize medals from the "Société de Pharmacie de Paris"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    1994-01-01

    The author describes two medals from the "Société de Pharmacie de Paris", proving that the medal engraved by Brenet was also used as an award by the Société at the beginning of the 19th century. It also describes for the first time the use of a medal with the effigy of Lavoisier engraved by Caqué as a thesis award from 1871 to at least 1914.

  2. Judging the Paris Agreement: A comparison with IDDRI's 10 criteria for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deprez, Alexandra; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement is universal, legally binding and differentiated. (1) It was adopted by consensus by 195 countries, implying a very strong level of global buy-in. (2) It meets the requirements for a treaty under international law, and imposes obligations upon countries regarding NDCs (submission, implementation, transparency). (3) It does not establish new Annexes (cf. Kyoto Protocol) but rather nuances countries' obligations across each of Agreement's elements (i.e. mitigation, adaptation, support), at times specifying differing obligations in line with countries' different national circumstances. The Paris Agreement is ambitious. (4) It reaffirms the goal of maintaining global temperature rise to below 2 deg. C, and operationalizes this target by establishing a goal to achieve net-zero global emissions between 2050 and 2100. It also calls for an aspirational goal of maintaining temperature under 1.5 deg. C. (5) It includes the concept of cycles, whereby countries will regularly revise their national climate ambition upward in a coordinated manner, (8) and an overarching financial objective, strongly signaling to business and investors countries' commitment toward a low-carbon future. (9) Finally, it establishes a single, unified but flexible transparency system for all countries. The Paris Agreement sets up a framework for action beyond mitigation and the UNFCCC. (6) It establishes an overarching goal on adaptation, which can help create a more 'balanced' climate regime in which mitigation and adaptation share equal footing. (7) Even though the very scientifically, legally and politically complex issues of 'liability' have not yet been fully fleshed out, the inclusion in the Paris outcome of a full article on loss and damage is more than many expected. (10) The maintaining of Non-State Actor Zone for Climate (NAZCA) platform created at COP20 to track non-state actors' initiatives shows that the UNFCCC, while remaining the center for state action, aims to help

  3. 18O and 34S in the Upper Bartonium gypsum deposits of the Paris basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, J.C.; Letolle, R.

    1976-01-01

    Isotopic analyses ( 18 O and 34 S) of the Eocene gypsum from the Paris basin show a range beyond the normal Tertiary marine values. The possibility of a reduction process during diagenesis is discussed. A hypothesis of continental origin by leaching of Permotriassic deposits is proposed for this formation on the basis of a comparison of the isotopic contents recorded from Germany and eastern France

  4. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  5. Environmental magnetism and magnetic mapping of urban metallic pollution (Paris, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isambert, Aude; Franke, Christine; Macouin, Mélina; Rousse, Sonia; Philip, Aurélio; de Villeneuve, Sybille Henry

    2017-04-01

    Airborne pollution in dense urban areas is nowadays a subject of major concern. Fine particulate pollution events are ever more frequent and represent not only an environmental and health but also a real economic issue. In urban atmosphere, the so-called PM2.5 (particulate matter pollution and determine their sources (Sagnotti et al., 2012). In this study, we report on magnetic measurements of traffic-related airborne PM in the city of Paris, France. Two distinct environments were sampled and analyzed along the Seine River: the aquatic environment in studying fluvial bank and river bed sediments and the atmospheric environment by regarding magnetic particles trapped in adjacent tree barks (Platanus hispanica). About 50 sediment samples and 350 bark samples have been collected and analysed to determine their magnetic properties (susceptibility, hysteresis parameters, IRM, frequency-dependent susceptibility) and to estimate the presence and spatial concentration of superparamagnetic or multi-domain particles for each sample type. The bark results allow proposing a high spatial resolution mapping (pollution. In addition to that, the sampling of banks and riverbed sediments of the Seine allow a global estimation on the anthropogenic versus detrital and biologic input in the city of Paris. The first results presented here show a general increase of the concentration in magnetic particles from upstream to downstream Paris probably linked to urban pollutions as previously observed for suspended particulate matter (Franke et al. 2009; Kayvantash, 2016). Sagnotti, L., & Winkler, A. (2012). On the magnetic characterization and quantification of the superparamagnetic fraction of traffic-related urban airborne PM in Rome, Italy. Atmospheric environment, 59, 131-140. Franke, C., Kissel, C., Robin, E., Bonté, P., & Lagroix, F. (2009). Magnetic particle characterization in the Seine river system: Implications for the determination of natural versus anthropogenic input

  6. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chazette Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  7. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    OpenAIRE

    Chazette Patrick; Royer Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  8. Portuguese knights-errant in nineteenth-century Paris and Rio: translation as response to exile in global cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bueno Maia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to uncover the role played by a series of picaresque novels translated into Portuguese and published in midnineteenth-century Paris in helping the Portuguese diaspora cope with the challenges of being a migrant in a global city. Through a contextual analysis, it will be argued that these novels were part of vaster cultural projects aimed at establishing solidarity networks among Portuguese exiles in Paris and, at the same time, at preserving multilingualism. By means of a textual analysis of Dom Severino Magriço ou o Dom Quichote portuguez (Paris, Pillet Fils Aîné, 1851, it will be suggested that this particular target text is committed to helping Portuguese migrants in Paris and in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, this novel illustrates ways of engaging with multiple Others, mainly through the reading and comparing of national literary canons.

  9. The Performance of a Cult of the Senses: A Feast of Fans at Jim Morrison's Grave in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margry, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the different ways fans commemorate and venerate the American rock star and poet Jim Morrison (1943-1971), at his grave at Pere Lachaise cemetary in Paris and for which the senses play an important role.

  10. “Real” Places in Marguerite Duras’s Wartime Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Willging

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the four autobiographical narratives in Marguerite Duras’s La Douleur (1985 The War (1994, over one hundred proper place names appear. While these place names all refer to real places, the relationship between these signifiers and their actual geographical referents is mediated, first by their signifieds—the reader’s mental constructs of the places mentioned—and further by their appearance in a text that necessarily creates its own, non-material world. Yet this essay argues that in this uncharacteristically realist text Duras works hard to create the illusion that the Paris there is in fact Occupied Paris, the real city in which she lived out the experiences recounted in her text. She does this, in large part, by indicating the location of each scene with meticulous precision, thus grounding the stories, quite literally, in a geographically and historically situated reality. While many of these sites are among the best-known, and literal, lieux de mémoire ‘sites of memory’ of the Paris of the Second World War, the mention of more obscure places might appear gratuitous. Yet it is precisely in their gratuity, that such details become essential elements of the forceful effet de réel ‘reality effect’ created in the text.

  11. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France: Results from the ENFAMS Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Martin-Fernandez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected. Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.

  12. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France): Results from the ENFAMS Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid. PMID:29495563

  13. Elaborating Article 15 of the Paris Agreement: Facilitating Implementation and Promoting Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biniaz, Susan

    2017-10-01

    As climate negotiations reopen on November, 6 at COP23 in Bonn to advance the concrete implementation of the different provisions of the Paris Agreement, this paper aims to take stock of the open questions of Article 15. They concern the role of the Committee responsible for 'facilitating compliance and promoting implementation'. First, the paper outlines what was already decided in Paris in 2015 as well as the issues still to be resolved by the end of 2018. These include the scope of its application, the means to initiate Article 15 as well as the outcomes that the committee can produce and the tools it should have at its disposal. Keeping in mind Paris Agreement's uniqueness and its philosophy, the author attempts to identify the added value of Article 15's mechanism and suggests ways to address the respective expectations and concerns of Parties, in order to progress towards a consensual resolution that is acceptable to a large number of Parties

  14. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  15. Food Insecurity in Homeless Families in the Paris Region (France): Results from the ENFAMS Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Chauvin, Pierre; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2018-02-28

    The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region. Among the 772 families that provided data on food security only 14.0% were with food security, whereas 43.3% were with low food security and 9.8% with very low food security (a situation where children are also affected). Stratified multivariate robust Poisson models showed that some characteristics are associated with a higher risk of food insecurity and/or of falling into very low food security, such as residential instability, single parenthood, having more than three children, depressive symptoms, housing in social hostels, and difficult access to cheap or free food locally. Given the wealth of the Paris region, resources and programs should be concentrated on improving the living situation of this vulnerable population. It needs better detection of these families, a closer social follow-up, and an increase in food aid.

  16. Hydrocarbon pollution fixed to combined sewer sediment: a case study in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Moilleron, Régis; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2004-02-01

    Over a period of two years (2000-2001), sediment samples were extracted from 40 silt traps (STs) spread through the combined sewer system of Paris. All sediment samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters (pH, organic matter content, grain size distribution), with total hydrocarbons (THs) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) selected from the priority list of the US-EPA. The two main objectives of the study were (1) to determine the hydrocarbon contamination levels in the sediments of the Paris combined sewer system and (2) to investigate the PAH fingerprints in order to assess their spatial variability and to elucidate the PAH origins. The results show that there is some important inter-site and intra-site variations in hydrocarbon contents. Despite this variability, TH and PAH contamination levels (50th percentile) in the Parisian sewer sediment are estimated at 530 and 18 microg g(-1), respectively. The investigation of the aromatic compound distributions in all of the 40 STs has underlined that there is, at the Paris sewer system scale, a homogeneous PAH background pollution. Moreover, the study of the PAH fingerprints, using specific ratios, suggests the predominance of a pyrolytic origin for those PAHs fixed to the sewer sediment.

  17. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  18. Montenegro on the Path to Paris MoU Accession: Towards Achieving a Sustainable Shipping Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikcevic

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainability of the shipping industry and marine ecosystem of Montenegro, it is necessary that Montenegro becomes a full member of the Paris Memorandum of Understanding (Paris MoU on Port State Control. The reasons for doing so are numerous: the full adoption of standards stipulated by the Memorandum in relation to ship control; continuously keeping pace with, and development of, new standards in compliance with turbulent changes in the maritime industry and operation (including the increasing scope of maritime transport; the decrease in the number of detained ships which meet the requirements stipulated in international Conventions and the elimination of substandard ships in perspective; and the prevention of environmental pollution, and sea and port incidents. This justified endeavour is supported by the fact that Montenegro is one of two countries in Europe that are not full members of the Paris MoU. Additionally, in this context it is necessary to emphasise the fact that the marine ecosystem of Montenegro is an integral part of the world ocean. Accordingly, the improvement of the quality of national legislation which is compliant with international requirements is an imperative which has positive implications on regional and global sustainability.

  19. The withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement and its impact on global climate change governance

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Xiang Zhang; Qing-Chen Chao; Qiu-Hong Zheng; Lei Huang

    2017-01-01

    The global community has prepared for the withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement since Donald Trump was elected as the president of the U.S. However, Trump's formal declaration of withdrawal still caused worldwide reaction. Trump will use the withdrawal to build his political reputation and to renegotiate the Paris Agreement despite its negative effects on the political credibility, international relationships, and potential long-term economic growth of the U.S. In general, the withd...

  20. Final Report: DoE SBIR Phase 2 Low-Cost Small Diameter NMR Technologies for In-Situ Subsurface Characterization and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David Oliver [Vista Clara Inc., Mukilteo, WA (United States)

    2010-09-03

    In this Phase 2 SBIR program, Vista Clara successfully developed and field-tested small diameter NNR logging tools for subsurface characterization and monitoring. This effort involved the design and development surface electronics, a winch with 470ft cable, and three interchangeable downhole probes: a 3.5â diameter borehole NMR probe, a 1.67â diameter borehole NMR probe, and a 2.5â diameter NMR probe that can be deployed using a Geoprobe direct push machine. The 3.5â probe was tested extensively over a 6 week period including 4â to 8â boreholes in Washington, Idaho, Nebraska, Colorado, Kansas, Connecticut and Massachusetts. The field test campaign was highly successful. The 1.67â probe was assembled, tested and calibrated in the laboratory. The 2.5â Geoprobe probe is in final assembly and testing at the time of this report. The completed Phase 2 R&D program has resulted in the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes of 4â diameter, the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed in boreholes on 2â diameter, and the first NMR logging tool that can be deployed by a direct push machine. These small diameter tools make NMR logging technically and economically feasible, for the first time. Previously available NMR logging tools were developed for oilfield applications and are prohibitively large and expensive for the majority of near surface groundwater characterization problems.

  1. Paris saponin-induced autophagy promotes breast cancer cell apoptosis via the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhan-Zhi; Li, Man-Mei; Deng, Peng-Fei; Wang, Sheng; Wang, Lei; Lu, Xue-Ping; Hu, Liu-Bing; Chen, Zui; Jie, Hui-Yang; Wang, Yi-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Zhong

    2017-02-25

    Paris saponins possess anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral effects. However, the anticancer effect of Paris saponins has not been well elucidated and the mechanisms underlying the potential function of Paris saponins in cancer therapy are needed to be further identify. In this study, we report that saponin compounds isolated from Paris polyphylla exhibited antitumor activity against breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Paris saponin XA-2 induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as evidenced by the activation of caspases and cleavage of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The ability of XA-2 to induce autophagy was confirmed by acridine orange staining, accumulation of autophagosome-bound Long chain 3 (LC3)-II, and measurement of autophagic flux. XA-2-induced autophagy was observed to promote apoptosis by the combined treatment of breast cancer cell lines with XA-2 and autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1, respectively. Moreover, we report a decrease in the levels of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway proteins, such as the phosphorylated forms of Akt, mTOR, P70S6K, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1). Taken together, these results provide important insights explaining the anticancer activity of Paris saponins and the potential development of XA-2 as a new therapeutic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Black carbon physical properties and mixing state in the European megacity Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laborde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol hygroscopicity and refractory black carbon (rBC properties were characterised during wintertime at a suburban site in Paris, one of the biggest European cities. Hygroscopic growth factor (GF frequency distributions, characterised by distinct modes of more-hygroscopic background aerosol and non- or slightly hygroscopic aerosol of local (or regional origin, revealed an increase of the relative contribution of the local sources compared to the background aerosol with decreasing particle size. BC-containing particles in Paris were mainly originating from fresh traffic emissions, whereas biomass burning only gave a minor contribution. The mass size distribution of the rBC cores peaked on average at an rBC core mass equivalent diameter of DMEV ~ 150 nm. The BC-containing particles were moderately coated (coating thickness Δcoat ~ 33 nm on average for rBC cores with DMEV = 180–280 nm and an average mass absorption coefficient (MAC of ~ 8.6 m2 g−1 at the wavelength λ = 880 nm was observed. Different time periods were selected to investigate the properties of BC-containing particles as a function of source and air mass type. The traffic emissions were found to be non-hygroscopic (GF ≈ 1.0, and essentially all particles with a dry mobility diameter (D0 larger than D0 = 110 nm contained an rBC core. rBC from traffic emissions was further observed to be uncoated within experimental uncertainty (Δcoat ~ 2 nm ± 10 nm, to have the smallest BC core sizes (maximum of the rBC core mass size distribution at DMEV ~ 100 nm and to have the smallest MAC (~ 7.3 m2g−1 at λ = 880 nm. The biomass burning aerosol was slightly more hygroscopic than the traffic emissions (with a distinct slightly-hygroscopic mode peaking at GF ≈ 1.1–1.2. Furthermore, only a minor fraction (≤ 10% of the slightly-hygroscopic particles with 1.1 ≤ GF ≤ 1.2 (and D0 = 265 nm contained a detectable rBC core. The BC-containing particles from biomass burning were

  3. La puissance prescriptive des guides à Paris The prescriptive power of tour guides in Paris. Standardizing elements of tourism ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendal Simon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Les « guide-interprètes » constituent des médiateurs entre les touristes et les espaces. Incarnant une présence physique en mesure d’aider les touristes en les informant sur la ville, ils opèrent comme prescripteurs de choses à voir et à faire. S’ils officient très diversement selon les touristes qu’ils accompagnent, ils exercent toujours leur pratique dans une logique de production de discours sur la ville. À Paris, la dimension muséale et patrimoniale constitue depuis longtemps le socle de l’attractivité touristique, qui continue de capitaliser sur des imaginaires et des pratiques liés à la grande ville d’Art et d’Histoire. Face à la constitution de ce référentiel dominant qui opère comme une force d’ « imposition », les guide-interprètes tentent néanmoins de décentrer le regard par des prescriptions délestées des symboles. C’est cette « tension » entre cet ensemble de références touristiques « à voir » et le souci de montrer la ville dans sa pluralité que nous analysons. Ces éléments nourrissent la réflexion actuelle sur les formes polarisées du tourisme à Paris et l’importance de la production de référents urbains plus contemporains que promeut la municipalité.Tour guides are mediators between tourists and spaces. As they embody a physical presence helping tourists and informing them about the city, they also act as prescribers, laying down what is supposed to be seen and to be done. If their recommendations depend on the tourists they travel with, they always mean to produce a discourse on the city. Paris’ museums and heritage have long since been two cornerstones of her enduring appeal. Confronted with this phenomenon, which tends to standardize the way of visiting a city, tour guides try to free their guidelines of symbolic references. This contribution focuses on the tension between must-see tourist references and the desire to show the city in all its diversity. These

  4. Does air-sea coupling influence model projections of the effects of the Paris Agreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Nicholas; Suckling, Emma; Sutton, Rowan; Dong, Buwen

    2017-04-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement includes the long-term goal to hold global-mean temperature to "well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels", with the further stated aim of limiting the global-mean warming to 1.5°C, in the belief that this would "significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change". However, it is not clear which risks and impacts would be avoided, or reduced, by achieving a 1.5°C warming instead of a 2.0°C warming. Initial efforts to quantify changes in risk have focused on analysis of existing CMIP5 simulations at levels of global-mean warming close to 1.5°C or 2.0°C, by taking averages over ≈20 year periods. This framework suffers from several drawbacks, however, including the effect of model internal multi-decadal variability, the influence of coupled-model systematic errors on regional circulation patterns, and the presence of a warming trend across the averaging period (i.e., the model is not in steady state). To address these issues, the "Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts" (HAPPI) project is performing large ensembles of atmosphere-only experiments with prescribed sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) for present-day and 1.5°C and 2.0°C scenarios. While these experiments reduce the complications from a limited dataset and coupled-model systematic errors, the use of atmosphere-only models neglects feedbacks between the atmosphere and ocean, which may have substantial effects on the representation of local and regional extremes, and hence on the response of these extremes to global-mean warming. We introduce a set of atmosphere-ocean coupled simulations that incorporate much of the HAPPI experiment design, yet retain a representation of air-sea feedbacks. We use the Met Office Unified Model Global Ocean Mixed Layer (MetUM-GOML) model, which comprises the MetUM atmospheric model coupled to many columns of the one-dimensional K Profile Parameterization mixed-layer ocean. Critically, the MetUM-GOML ocean mean

  5. Automobile pollution in Paris, France, influences traffic and meteorological conditions; La pollution automobile a Paris influence du trafic et des conditions meteorologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alary, Rene; Donati, Jacques; Viellard, Henri [Laboratoire Central de la Prefecture de Police, Paris (France)

    1995-06-22

    The improvement of urban air quality is a major challenge namely for NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide), a toxic pollutant controlled by the European Regulation EEC n85-203. We now know that catalytic converters reduce car emissions and we believe that a reduction in traffic (already enforced in some cities) and the restriction of vehicle road traffic, applied to some European towns, is an area for further research. In Paris, the existence of periods of serious pollution (essentially due to NO{sub 2} levels reaching >200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in periods of several hours) has made the public and public administration aware of the importance of this problem. Thus, a commitment has been made to reduce these periods of severe pollution. The study being presented deals with the search for a correlation between vehicle traffic (vehicle flow/hour) and measured concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2} and CO at two sites in Paris, in 1992. This relation has been established by plotting the traffic levels against concentrations of each gaseous effluent. When the pollutants are well dispersed it is possible to plot the concentrations of NO and NO{sub 2}. The slope is much steeper for NO than for NO{sub 2}. On the other hand, when meteorological conditions are unfavourable (high pressure zone, stability of the atmosphere, temperature inversion or strong solar radiance) no significant correlation could be observed. This proves the predominance of meteorological conditions on NO{sub 2} levels during high pollution periods. The study also confirmed that NO is a very good indicator of car pollution, taking into account the increasing number of diesel powered vehicles in France

  6. Paris agreement in the light of the objectives and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Dragoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author points to the overall context of the discussion about the problems related to Climate change. The paper analyzes the provisions of the Paris Agreement, adopted on the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (Paris, December, 2015. The overall context of the discussion is determined by the content and significance of the objectives and principles defined in the Paris Agreement in relation to the goals and principles of the contemporary policy and environmental law in general. Particular emphasis is given to the place and importance of the objectives related to human rights (the right to a healthy environment and sustainable development. The central part of the paper examines the significance of the objectives and principles in the field of the climate change that are contained in the provisions of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change with the Kyoto Protocol and other relevant international agreements relevant to climate change that were adopted prior to the Paris Agreement. Further on, the provisions of the Paris Agreement are analyzed, and in particular the parts relating to the objectives and principles. The last part of the paper gives an overview of the relevance of the solutions contained in the Paris Agreement for the Republic of Serbia. Paper provides an overview of the basic strategic and normative elements of national policy in the field of climate change, including the question of objectives and principles. In addition to that it considers the thesis that Paris agreement, aside from the elements of the continuity as the successor of the Kyoto protocol, contains a new element regarding goals and principles of international community's activities in the climate change field.

  7. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan E.; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; Kyle, Page; McFarland, James; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-11-24

    International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.

  8. Implications of possible interpretations of `greenhouse gas balance' in the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestvedt, J.; Rogelj, J.; Millar, R. J.; Allen, M.; Boucher, O.; Cain, M.; Forster, P. M.; Kriegler, E.; Shindell, D.

    2018-05-01

    The main goal of the Paris Agreement as stated in Article 2 is `holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C'. Article 4 points to this long-term goal and the need to achieve `balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases'. This statement on `greenhouse gas balance' is subject to interpretation, and clarifications are needed to make it operational for national and international climate policies. We study possible interpretations from a scientific perspective and analyse their climatic implications. We clarify how the implications for individual gases depend on the metrics used to relate them. We show that the way in which balance is interpreted, achieved and maintained influences temperature outcomes. Achieving and maintaining net-zero CO2-equivalent emissions conventionally calculated using GWP100 (100-year global warming potential) and including substantial positive contributions from short-lived climate-forcing agents such as methane would result in a sustained decline in global temperature. A modified approach to the use of GWP100 (that equates constant emissions of short-lived climate forcers with zero sustained emission of CO2) results in global temperatures remaining approximately constant once net-zero CO2-equivalent emissions are achieved and maintained. Our paper provides policymakers with an overview of issues and choices that are important to determine which approach is most appropriate in the context of the Paris Agreement. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  9. Implications of possible interpretations of "greenhouse gas balance" in the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, R.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Rogelj, J.; Allen, M. R.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Kriegler, E.; Shindell, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    The main goal of the Paris Agreement as stated in its Article 2 is "Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels…". Article 4 points to this long-term goal and the need to "… achieve balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases …". The statement on "greenhouse gas balance" is subject to interpretation, and several clarifications are needed in order to make it operational for implementation in climate policies. Here we study possible interpretations from a scientific perspective and analyze their climatic implications. We clarify how the balance referred to in Article 4 of the Paris Agreement applies to anthropogenic sources and anthropogenic sinks and how the implications for individual gases depends strongly on the emission metrics used to relate them. We also show that the way in which balance is interpreted, achieved and maintained influences the anticipated temperature outcome over time. For example, achieving and maintaining net zero CO2-equivalent emissions calculated with the widely used metric Global Warming Potential with a horizon of 100 years (GWP100) - adopted for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and in UNFCCC reporting - would result in a peak and decline in global mean temperature. Adopting a different metric, like GWP* (Allen et al., 2016), would result in global mean temperatures remaining approximately constant once net zero CO2-equivalent emissions are achieved and maintained. Policymakers should be aware of these issues and choices and determine which approach is most appropriate in the context of the goals of the Paris Agreement.Reference:Allen, Fuglestvedt, Shine, Reisinger, Pierrehumbert, Forster: New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants. Nature Climate Change (2016). doi:10

  10. Paris vs. Murchison: Impact of hydrothermal alteration on organic matter in CM chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Le Guillou, C.; Bernard, S.; Binet, L.; Cartigny, P.; Brearley, A. J.; Remusat, L.

    2017-09-01

    Unravelling the origin of organic compounds that were accreted into asteroids requires better constraining the impact of asteroidal hydrothermal alteration on their isotopic signatures, molecular structures, and spatial distribution. Here, we conducted a multi-scale/multi-technique comparative study of the organic matter (OM) from two CM chondrites (that originate from the same parent body or from identical parent bodies that accreted the same mixture of precursors) and underwent a different degree of hydrothermal alteration: Paris (a weakly altered CM chondrite - CM 2.8) and Murchison (a more altered one - CM 2.5). The Paris insoluble organic matter (IOM) shows a higher aliphatic/aromatic carbon ratio, a higher radical abundance and a lower oxygen content than the Murchison IOM. Analysis of the OM in situ shows that two texturally distinct populations of organic compounds are present within the Paris matrix: sub-micrometric individual OM particles and diffuse OM finely distributed within phyllosilicates and amorphous silicates. These results indicate that hydrothermal alteration on the CM parent body induced aromatization and oxidation of the IOM, as well as a decrease in radical and nitrogen contents. Some of these observations were also reported by studies of variably altered fragment of Tagish Lake (C2), although the hydrothermal alteration of the OM in Tagish Lake was apparently much more severe. Finally, comparison with data available in the literature suggests that the parent bodies of other chondrite petrologic groups could have accreted a mixture of organic precursors different from that accreted by the parent body of CMs.

  11. The meaning of sense of place: The community of Vredefort Dome and Parys, Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Vredefort Dome was declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO in 2005. This status has led to an increase in tourism to the adjacent town of Parys and the Dome as well as an increase in developers that could change the character of the area. Therefore, the sense of place of the residents of, and tourists to the area requires consideration in order to find a balance when development takes place. Sense of place refers to the unique features that gives the area its character and the manner in which people relate to these features. This study investigated the participants’ understanding of sense of place of the area under study. The participants consisted of residents and tourists from Parys and the Dome. The non-probability sampling technique, amongst other, was used. The qualitative research method was utilised to gather data which was analysed through content analysis. Thereupon, themes were identified and interpreted. The connotation the participants attached to sense of place was categorised into three broad themes: affective, anthropogenic and the physical environment. The participants showed a special awareness towards protecting the character, nature and history of the area. Sense of place is rarely considered when development is considered. The findings of this study could be used as a guideline for developers in the area. A better understanding of the relationship between place and the attributes individuals assign to Parys and the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site may help the stakeholders to acquire enhanced approaches to address, identify and engage the community (both residents and tourists in conservation and future planning processes to ensure the well-being of all concerned.

  12. Implications of possible interpretations of 'greenhouse gas balance' in the Paris Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestvedt, J; Rogelj, J; Millar, R J; Allen, M; Boucher, O; Cain, M; Forster, P M; Kriegler, E; Shindell, D

    2018-05-13

    The main goal of the Paris Agreement as stated in Article 2 is 'holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C'. Article 4 points to this long-term goal and the need to achieve 'balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases'. This statement on 'greenhouse gas balance' is subject to interpretation, and clarifications are needed to make it operational for national and international climate policies. We study possible interpretations from a scientific perspective and analyse their climatic implications. We clarify how the implications for individual gases depend on the metrics used to relate them. We show that the way in which balance is interpreted, achieved and maintained influences temperature outcomes. Achieving and maintaining net-zero CO 2 -equivalent emissions conventionally calculated using GWP 100 (100-year global warming potential) and including substantial positive contributions from short-lived climate-forcing agents such as methane would result in a sustained decline in global temperature. A modified approach to the use of GWP 100 (that equates constant emissions of short-lived climate forcers with zero sustained emission of CO 2 ) results in global temperatures remaining approximately constant once net-zero CO 2 -equivalent emissions are achieved and maintained. Our paper provides policymakers with an overview of issues and choices that are important to determine which approach is most appropriate in the context of the Paris Agreement.This article is part of the theme issue 'The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. Implications of possible interpretations of ‘greenhouse gas balance’ in the Paris Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, R. J.; Allen, M.; Boucher, O.; Cain, M.; Forster, P. M.; Shindell, D.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the Paris Agreement as stated in Article 2 is ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C’. Article 4 points to this long-term goal and the need to achieve ‘balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases'. This statement on ‘greenhouse gas balance’ is subject to interpretation, and clarifications are needed to make it operational for national and international climate policies. We study possible interpretations from a scientific perspective and analyse their climatic implications. We clarify how the implications for individual gases depend on the metrics used to relate them. We show that the way in which balance is interpreted, achieved and maintained influences temperature outcomes. Achieving and maintaining net-zero CO2-equivalent emissions conventionally calculated using GWP100 (100-year global warming potential) and including substantial positive contributions from short-lived climate-forcing agents such as methane would result in a sustained decline in global temperature. A modified approach to the use of GWP100 (that equates constant emissions of short-lived climate forcers with zero sustained emission of CO2) results in global temperatures remaining approximately constant once net-zero CO2-equivalent emissions are achieved and maintained. Our paper provides policymakers with an overview of issues and choices that are important to determine which approach is most appropriate in the context of the Paris Agreement. This article is part of the theme issue ‘The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. PMID:29610378

  14. Impact of the new Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction on Paris flood prevention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thepot Regis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The greater Paris region faces a significant risk of flooding due to potential spill-over from the Seine and the Marne. Because the last major flood occurred in 1910, the event has faded in the collective memory. Consequently, the population and the public authorities have difficulty imagining that such a catastrophe might repeat itself. In parallel, widespread urban expansion into flood zones has considerably aggravated the foreseeable damage if an event of a comparable intensity were to hit the region.In response to this situation, the EPTB Seine Grands Lacs – a public territorial basin establishment– decided to take action to reduce this risk.It began by commissioning a study from the OECD on flood risk prevention in the Seine Basin. This study was presented in January 2014 and highlighted the considerable risk of flooding in or near Paris, which could, affect a total of nearly 5 million people, cause up to €30 billion in direct damage and affect up to 400.000 jobs. It also put forward 14 recommendations that are being implemented by the public authorities, at either the national, basin or local level.The EPTB launched in partnership with the government a second initiative for which it steers and coordinates a coherent, balanced, relevant and gradual programme of 78 flood prevention actions. As a new post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction was adopted in Sendai in March 2015 taking in account lessons learned during the 2005-2015 period, gaps identified and future challenges, this paper addresses the question of the impact of this new international framework on the implementation of the flood prevention of Paris region. One of the main points developed is the necessity to increase public awareness, to enhance disaster preparedness for effective response and to “build back better” in recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.

  15. Long-term damage to glass in Paris in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Anda; Lefèvre, Roger-Alexandre; Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2012-08-01

    Glass weathering depends mainly on its chemical composition: Si-Ca-K mediaeval glass is low durable, while Si-Ca-Na Roman as well as modern glass are very durable. Mediaeval glass is subject to the superficial leaching of K and Ca ions leading to the formation of a hydrated silica-gel layer. Both types of glass develop a superficial stratum of deposited atmospheric particles cemented by crystals of gypsum (and syngenite in the case of Si-Ca-K glass), leading to an impairment of the optical properties: decrease of transparency and increase of haze. Dose-response functions established for the two types of glass reveal that haze depends only on pollution parameters (PM, SO(2), NO(2)), while leaching depends both on pollution and climate parameters (RH, T, SO(2), NO(2)). Instrumental records are available for temperature in Paris from 1800. Air pollution in Paris was estimated from statistics of fuel use from 1875 to 1943, measurements that started in the 1950s and projections across the 21st century. The estimated annual rate of haze development indicates a gradual rise from the 16th century. The increasing importance of coal as a fuel through the 19th century and enhanced sulphur dioxide concentration make a rapid increase in haze formation, which reaches a peak about 1950. The likely damage to mediaeval glass follows a rather similar pattern. The period of damage from aggressive pollutants looks later and for a briefer time in Paris than in London. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Daily Life of a Grantee in Paris. Attitudes, Perceptions, Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ BUTOI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the importance of the 1932-1934 Paris scholarship of Ştefania Cristescu (one of the most important monographists of the Gustian School, viewed both as a personal strategic choice meant to consolidate her status as an academic researcher and as an occasion for us to learn about the daily life of the interwar Romanian students in Western Europe. I discuss in this paper why it is important to develop a social history of the academic formation of the intellectual elites of modern Romania through scholarships in foreign countries.

  17. PARIS project: Radiolytic oxidation of molecular iodine in containment during a nuclear reactor severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosland, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR - CEN Cadarache, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: loic.bosland@irsn.fr; Funke, F. [AREVA NP GmbH, Technical Center, P.O. Box 1109, D-91001 Erlangen (Germany); Girault, N. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR - CEN Cadarache, BP 3, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Langrock, G. [AREVA NP GmbH, Technical Center, P.O. Box 1109, D-91001 Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear LWR (light water reactor), the high radiation fields reached in the reactor containment building due to the release of fission products from the reactor core could induce air radiolysis. The air radiolysis products could, in turn, oxidise gaseous molecular iodine into aerosol-borne iodine-oxygen-nitrogen compounds. Thereby, this reaction involves a change of iodine speciation and a decrease of iodine volatility in the reactor containment atmosphere. Kinetic data were produced within the PARIS project on the air radiolysis products formation and destruction, and on their reaction with molecular iodine, with the objective of developing and validating existing kinetic models. The current paper includes the non-iodine tests of the PARIS project whose objective was to determine the rates of formation and destruction of air radiolysis products in the presence of both structural containment surfaces (decontamination coating ('paint') and stainless steel), aerosol particles such as silver rich particles (issued from the control rods) in boundary conditions representative for LWR or PHEBUS facility containments. It is found that the air radiolysis products concentration increases with dose and tend to approach saturation levels at doses higher than about 1 kGy. This behaviour is more evident in oxygen/steam atmospheres, producing ozone, than in air/30% (v/v) steam atmospheres, the latter favouring the model-predicted on-going production of nitrogen dioxide even at very high doses. No significant effect of temperature, dose rate and hydrogen addition (4%, v/v) was observed. Furthermore, the inserted surfaces do not exhibit significant effects on the air radiolysis concentrations. However, these 'non-noticeable influence' could be due to a masking of small effects by the appreciable scattering of the experimental air radiolysis product concentrations. The PARIS results are then analysed using two

  18. Feasibility of CO2 storage in geothermal reservoirs example of the Paris Basin - France. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, J.; Robelin, C.; Kervevan, C.; Thiery, D.; Menjoz, A.; Matray, J.M.; Cotiche, C.; Herbrich, B.

    2003-01-01

    This study is realized in the framework of GESCO project, which aims to provide the first documentation that, for emission sources within selected key areas, sufficient geological storage capacity is available. Then the BRGM/ANTEA/CFG took care to provide: an inventory of the CO 2 emitters in France, an inventory of the main deep aquifers present in the Paris basin, an evaluation of the storage capacities of CO 2 in one of the four principal case-study, technical solutions for CO 2 injection in geothermal aquifers and an evaluation of the cost of CO 2 storage in such an aquifer. (A.L.B.)

  19. THE DAILY LIFE OF A GRANTEE IN PARIS. ATTITUDES, PERCEPTIONS, PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lecturer IONUŢ BUTOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the importance of the 1932–1934 Paris scholarship of Ştefania Cristescu (one of the most important monographists of the Gustian School, viewed both as a personal strategic choice meant to consolidate her status as an academic researcher and as an occasion for us to learn about the daily life of the interwar Romanian students in Western Europe. I discuss in this paper why it is important to develop a social history of the academic formation of the intellectual elites of modern Romania through scholarships in foreign countries

  20. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  1. Fatigue crack growth behavior of RAFM steel in Paris and threshold regimes at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, M. Nani; Sasikala, G., E-mail: gsasi@igcar.gov.in; Dutt, B. Shashank; Venugopal, S.; Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-04-01

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of a reduced activation ferritic martensitic (indigenous RAFM) steel has been evaluated at 300, 653 and 823 K in Paris and threshold regimes. The effect of temperature on threshold stress intensity factor range and associated crack closure mechanisms is highlighted. The FCG results were compared with those for EUROFER 97. Further, crack tip effective stress intensity factor ranges (ΔK{sub tip,eff}) have been evaluated by taking crack tip shielding into account in order to examine the effect of temperature on true intrinsic FCG behavior.

  2. Greenlite™: a year of carbon dioxide monitoring over paris, france, and recent progress in monitoring methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy; Zaccheo, T. Scott; Pernini, Timothy; Blume, Nathan; Braun, Michael

    2018-04-01

    GreenLITE™ is a ground-based laser absorption spectroscopy system capable of measuring and mapping CO2 concentrations over areas up to 25 km2. The system was deployed for COP21 as a demonstration and has now completed a year of CO2 measurements over the city of Paris, France. We will discuss lessons learned and relevant data from the year-long deployment. Recently, the system has demonstrated the same measurement capability for CH4, and results from preliminary testing are presented.

  3. AMERICAN MANUFACTURING, AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY AND THE LABOR QUESTION AT THE PARIS EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE OF 1867

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Zieren

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Exposition Universelle of 1867 was devoted to the theme, “The History of Labor,” and awarded special prizes to firms with paternalistic labor policies to promote harmony between workers and employers. The guiding spirit of the Exposition and its labor theme was the French social thinker, Frédéric Le Play. American technology was a second trend on view at the Exposition, and American firms, including the Pacific Mills of Lawrence,MA won gold medals and international recognition.

  4. Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China: Implementing the Paris climate change agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Duo-Quan, Wang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-10-01

    China still depends on coal for more than 60% of its power despite big investments in the process of shifting to nuclear, solar and wind power renewable energy resources alignment with Paris climate change agreement (Paris CCA). Chinese government through the Communist Party Central Committee (CPCC) ascribes great importance and commitment to Paris CCA legacy and history landmark implementation at all levels. As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on "SMART" pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies development. Furthermore, ongoing CPCC improved environmental initiatives, implemented strict regulations and penalties on local companies and firms' pollution production management, massive infrastructures such as highways to reduce CO2 expansion of seven regional emissions trading markets and programs for CO2 emissions and other pollutants are being documented. Maximizing on the centralized nature of the China's government, implemented Chinese pollution, climate changes mitigation and adaptation initiatives, "SMART" strategies and credible measures are promising. A good and practical example is the interactive and dynamic website and database covering 367 Chinese cities and providing real time information on environmental and pollution emissions AQI. Also, water quality index (WQI), radiation and nuclear safety monitoring and management systems over time and space. These are ongoing Chinese

  5. Imidž značky Kérastase Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Petra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the diploma thesis is to determine a perception of the brand Kérastase Paris by consumers in Czech republic and Slovakia and compare it with the identity of the brand. I want to expose consumer habbits in the field of hair care and find out opinion about marketing communication of the brand Kérastase, that is supposed to correspondent with the brand strategy. I also want to expose main characteristics of loyal customer of the brand and propose some marketing recommendation for the ...

  6. Marketingové komunikace značky L´Oréal Paris

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thanh Hang

    2016-01-01

    Diploma thesis is focused on marketing communication of a brand Loréal Paris in decorative cosmetics. Marketing strategy and commercial communications mix is described in theoretical part. As well as what brand stands for, what values does is hold and other brand elements. Practical part is aimed on international cosmetics market and analysis of Czech decorative cosmetics market. Thesis also covers introduction of Loréal company and its portfolio. We will have a chance to get to know Loréal P...

  7. The climate-problem. Evaluation after the Paris-agreement and the Marrakesh-conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Eike

    2017-01-01

    The Paris-Climate-Agreement came into effect on November 4th 2016. Still, the contradiction in this agreement - ambitious goals and (presumably) inadequate commitments - has persisted. Also in the follow-up conference in Marrakesh, this discrepancy remained unresolved. 2017 the countries will meet again. However, since Donald Trump became president-elect of the United States of America, uncertainty about how the largest economy in the world will act in the future has intensified. This amplifies the pressure to clarify the true level of human influence on the climate in a scientifically consistent manner, as a basis for more reliable decisions. This paper tries to contribute to that effort.

  8. European Anarchism and its Early Influences in Mexico after the Paris Commune: 1871- 1881

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E. Lida

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the links between European anarchism and social and agrarian movements in Mexico  after the Paris Commune. During those years, while anarchists remained in clandestinity, they developed new revolutionary theories and practices. These included the organization in freely federated autonomous communes, and the right to the land and the product of labor. Occasionally, such reivindications intertwined with those of the agrarian communities in Mexico allowing for European anarchism and Mexican social and peasant groups to come in contact with each other.

  9. PARIS project: Radiolytic oxidation of molecular iodine in containment during a nuclear reactor severe accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosland, L.; Funke, F.; Girault, N.; Langrock, G.

    2008-01-01

    In case of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear LWR (light water reactor), the high radiation fields reached in the reactor containment building due to the release of fission products from the reactor core could induce air radiolysis. The air radiolysis products could, in turn, oxidise gaseous molecular iodine into aerosol-borne iodine-oxygen-nitrogen compounds. Thereby, this reaction involves a change of iodine speciation and a decrease of iodine volatility in the reactor containment atmosphere. Kinetic data were produced within the PARIS project on the air radiolysis products formation and destruction, and on their reaction with molecular iodine, with the objective of developing and validating existing kinetic models. The current paper includes the non-iodine tests of the PARIS project whose objective was to determine the rates of formation and destruction of air radiolysis products in the presence of both structural containment surfaces (decontamination coating ('paint') and stainless steel), aerosol particles such as silver rich particles (issued from the control rods) in boundary conditions representative for LWR or PHEBUS facility containments. It is found that the air radiolysis products concentration increases with dose and tend to approach saturation levels at doses higher than about 1 kGy. This behaviour is more evident in oxygen/steam atmospheres, producing ozone, than in air/30% (v/v) steam atmospheres, the latter favouring the model-predicted on-going production of nitrogen dioxide even at very high doses. No significant effect of temperature, dose rate and hydrogen addition (4%, v/v) was observed. Furthermore, the inserted surfaces do not exhibit significant effects on the air radiolysis concentrations. However, these 'non-noticeable influence' could be due to a masking of small effects by the appreciable scattering of the experimental air radiolysis product concentrations. The PARIS results are then analysed using two different kinetic models

  10. Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A Booster to Enable Sustainable Global Development and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2016-11-14

    The global warming and its adverse effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere are obvious. Based on this fact, the international community is fully convinced that we need to fix the problem urgently for our survival, good health, and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to promote the awareness about the United Nations (UN) historic 'Paris Agreement on Climate Change (PACC)' which entered into-force on 4 November 2016. The expected impact of PACC on the global average temperature rise by 2100 as well as its role in enabling accomplishment of global sustainable development goals (SDGs) for the people and planet is also highlighted.

  11. CHARGING THE WEIGHT OF WORDS AND THE CLASH OF IMAGES: Historical mapping of editorial features of Paris Match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Bachega Casadei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A revista francesa Paris Match foi uma influência decisiva na modulação dos projetos editoriais de muitas revistas brasileiras importantes, como O Cruzeiro e Manchete. Não obstante isso, são poucos os trabalhos que exploram os aspectos editoriais da publicação francesa. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente artigo é, a partir de uma revisão bibliográfica, realizar um mapeamento histórico dos aspectos editoriais de Paris Match, bem como a forma como eles foram sendo modificados ao longo do tempo.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Paris Match; história; projeto editorial.   ABSTRACT The French magazine Paris Match had a decisive influence on the modulation of editorial projects of many important Brazilian magazines such as O Cruzeiro and Manchete. Nevertheless, there are few works that explore the editorial aspects of this French publication. Thus, the purpose of this article is from a literature review, conduct a historical mapping of the editorial aspects of Paris Match, as well as the way they were being modified over time.   KEYWORDS: Paris Match; history; editorial project.     RESUMEN La revista francesa Paris Match tuve una influencia decisiva en la modulación de los proyectos editoriales de varias revistas brasileñas importantes tales como O Cruzeiro y Manchete. Sin embargo, son escasos los trabajos que exploran los aspectos editorialies de la publicación francesa. Por lo tanto, el propósito de este artículo es, de una revisión de la literatura, llevar a cabo una asignación histórica de los aspectos editoriales de Paris Match, así como la forma en que se están modificando con el tiempo.   PALABRAS CLAVE: Paris Match; historia; proyecto editorial. Arquivamento e preservação de longo prazo do arquivo em: OpenDepot / Edina (The University of Edinburgh:  em processo de inclusão/indexação SSOAR-GESIS – Leibniz-Institut (Alemanha:  HAL (França: em processo de inclusão/indexação

  12. L'espace touristique de la grande ville : une approche par les pratiques et les mobilités touristiques. Le cas de la destination Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Lepan , Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Paris is an important tourism destination in the world with more than 20 millions of tourists every year. While studies are still relatively absent on tourism in Paris, we purpose to contribute to the discussion. After a state of art to identify the main themes addressed in the tourism and the city, and the Paris case, we chose to focus this PHD on tourists through their practices and mobilities. At a time where many are discussing on the metropolitan scale of Paris, we wanted to think of Par...

  13. Modelling transport of storm-water pollutants using the distributed Multi-Hydro platform on an urban catchment near Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasingly use of vehicles causes expanding contaminated storm-water runoff from roads and the associated quarters. Besides, the current utilization of city's separated sewer systems underlines the needs for evaluating precisely the growing impact of these polluted effluents on receiving water bodies. Nevertheless, traditional means of water quality modelling had shown its limits (Kanso, 2004), more accurate modelling schemes are hence required. In this paper, we found that the application of physically based and fully distributed model coupled with detailed high-resolution data is a promising approach to reproduce the various dynamics and interactions of water quantity/quality processes in urban or peri-urban environment. Over recent years, the physically based and spatially distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This platform is particularly adapted for representing the hydrological processes for medium size watersheds, including the surface runoff, drainage water routing and the infiltrations on permeable zones. It is formed by the interactive coupling of several independent modules, which depend on generally used open-access models. In the framework of the ANR (French National Agency for Research) Trafipollu project, a new extension of MH, MH-quality, was set up for the water-quality modelling. MH-quality was used for the simulation of pollutant transport on a peri-urban and highly trafficked catchment located near Paris (Le Perreux-sur-Marne, 0.2 km2). The set-up of this model is based on the detailed description of urban land use features. For this purpose, 15 classes of urban land uses relevant to water quality modelling were defined in collaboration with the National Institute of Geography of France (IGN) using Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (5cm). The delimitation of the urban catchment was then performed

  14. Nuclear liability: Joint protocol relating to the application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention was adopted by the Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention, which met in Vienna, at the Headquarters of the International Atomic Energy Agency on 21 September 1988. The Joint Protocol establishes a link between the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 1963. The Joint Protocol will extend to the States adhering to it the coverage of the two Conventions. It will also resolve potential conflicts of law, which could result from the simultaneous application of the two Conventions to the same nuclear accident. The Conference on the Relationship between the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention was jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This publication contains the text of the Final Act of the Conference in the six authentic languages, the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention, also in the six authentic languages and an explanatory note, prepared by the IAEA and NEA Secretariats, providing background information on the content of the Joint Protocol

  15. Solar geoengineering as part of an overall strategy for meeting the 1.5°C Paris target

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Ricke, Katharine L.; Keith, David W.

    2018-05-01

    Solar geoengineering refers to deliberately reducing net radiative forcing by reflecting some sunlight back to space, in order to reduce anthropogenic climate changes; a possible such approach would be adding aerosols to the stratosphere. If future mitigation proves insufficient to limit the rise in global mean temperature to less than 1.5°C above preindustrial, it is plausible that some additional and limited deployment of solar geoengineering could reduce climate damages. That is, these approaches could eventually be considered as part of an overall strategy to manage the risks of climate change, combining emissions reduction, net-negative emissions technologies and solar geoengineering to meet climate goals. We first provide a physical-science review of current research, research trends and some of the key gaps in knowledge that would need to be addressed to support informed decisions. Next, since few climate model simulations have considered these limited-deployment scenarios, we synthesize prior results to assess the projected response if solar geoengineering were used to limit global mean temperature to 1.5°C above preindustrial in an overshoot scenario that would otherwise peak near 3°C. While there are some important differences, the resulting climate is closer in many respects to a climate where the 1.5°C target is achieved through mitigation alone than either is to the 3°C climate with no geoengineering. This holds for both regional temperature and precipitation changes; indeed, there are no regions where a majority of models project that this moderate level of geoengineering would produce a statistically significant shift in precipitation further away from preindustrial levels. This article is part of the theme issue `The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'.

  16. Solar geoengineering as part of an overall strategy for meeting the 1.5°C Paris target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Ricke, Katharine L; Keith, David W

    2018-05-13

    Solar geoengineering refers to deliberately reducing net radiative forcing by reflecting some sunlight back to space, in order to reduce anthropogenic climate changes; a possible such approach would be adding aerosols to the stratosphere. If future mitigation proves insufficient to limit the rise in global mean temperature to less than 1.5°C above preindustrial, it is plausible that some additional and limited deployment of solar geoengineering could reduce climate damages. That is, these approaches could eventually be considered as part of an overall strategy to manage the risks of climate change, combining emissions reduction, net-negative emissions technologies and solar geoengineering to meet climate goals. We first provide a physical-science review of current research, research trends and some of the key gaps in knowledge that would need to be addressed to support informed decisions. Next, since few climate model simulations have considered these limited-deployment scenarios, we synthesize prior results to assess the projected response if solar geoengineering were used to limit global mean temperature to 1.5°C above preindustrial in an overshoot scenario that would otherwise peak near 3°C. While there are some important differences, the resulting climate is closer in many respects to a climate where the 1.5°C target is achieved through mitigation alone than either is to the 3°C climate with no geoengineering. This holds for both regional temperature and precipitation changes; indeed, there are no regions where a majority of models project that this moderate level of geoengineering would produce a statistically significant shift in precipitation further away from preindustrial levels.This article is part of the theme issue 'The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  17. Global mean sea-level rise in a world agreed upon in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittermann, Klaus; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Kopp, Robert E.; Kemp, Andrew C.

    2017-12-01

    Although the 2015 Paris Agreement seeks to hold global average temperature to ‘well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels’, projections of global mean sea-level (GMSL) rise commonly focus on scenarios in which there is a high probability that warming exceeds 1.5 °C. Using a semi-empirical model, we project GMSL changes between now and 2150 CE under a suite of temperature scenarios that satisfy the Paris Agreement temperature targets. The projected magnitude and rate of GMSL rise varies among these low emissions scenarios. Stabilizing temperature at 1.5 °C instead of 2 °C above preindustrial reduces GMSL in 2150 CE by 17 cm (90% credible interval: 14-21 cm) and reduces peak rates of rise by 1.9 mm yr-1 (90% credible interval: 1.4-2.6 mm yr-1). Delaying the year of peak temperature has little long-term influence on GMSL, but does reduce the maximum rate of rise. Stabilizing at 2 °C in 2080 CE rather than 2030 CE reduces the peak rate by 2.7 mm yr-1 (90% credible interval: 2.0-4.0 mm yr-1).

  18. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement.

  19. Effects on traffic of a magnetic levitation system Frankfurt -96 Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A; Keimel, H; Wuerdemann, G; Halten, W

    1982-01-01

    The study is based on an analysis and forecast of the volume and structure of passenger travel in the region under consideration for a situation without a Maglev system. For the case with a Maglev line Frankfurt-Paris, both the substitutional effects of this system on the travel demand of aeroplane, train and car and the newly generated traffic are estimated. As a result for 1990 a total of 6.6 million passenger trips per year on the Maglev system is expected, most of these (c. 60%) coming from original passenger train traffic. On account of feeder services to the Maglev system, demand for the existing rail system (in passenger kilometers) is diminished by only 20%. 15-20% of the total demand for the Maglev system between Frankfurt and Paris is estimated to originate from O-D-air-travel in the corridor (which is supposed to be totally substitutionable) and another 10-15% both from substituted car travel and from newly generated travel. Balances are struck for travel cost, travel time, and trip kilometers spent in the without- and with-case. Sensitivity analysis have been carried out for supply variants of the Maglev system and the classic rail system. Beside the study method there are some statements regarding inspected travel market shares which are supposed to be transferable to other planning cases.

  20. Paris, "enfer" or "paradis"? On Gérard de Nerval's "cercles inextricables"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Costantin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Paris constituted the scenario in which Gérard de Nerval grew up both personally and artistically. He passed his life in the city and recounted his experience there, transfering to his books a true melange of the sensory and experiential. A fundamental characteristic of his writing, and, more generally, of his method of thinking about the work of writing,was that he did not write of himself or of conventional space and time, but rather he investigated a much more complex universe, composed of a spiritual and psychological space, often mysterious and subjective. The consequent reality is a constant metamorphasis that demonstrates the imprint of Nerval’s internal world, and the myths and archetypes that populate his dreams; his vision of an alternative reality. Paris changes because Nerval himself changes, both internally and along with the city: light and music in the happy years he passed in his apartment on Doyenne street in the company of his bohemian friends, and darkness and claustrophobia in the pages of Aurélia, when the city described by Gerard was full of insurmountable anxiety and muted solitude.

  1. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  2. The tragedy of global warming: From the fifth IPCC report to the 2015 Paris Climate Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) always signal a new step in the fight against climate change. The first report, in 1990, led to the adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The second one, released in 1996, prepared the way for the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. The third, in 2000, emphasized 'adaptation', an idea taken up during subsequent negotiations. The fourth report in 2007 made a step toward setting at 2 deg. C the maximum increase in temperature and opened the way to the non-binding Copenhagen Accord and then to Cancun. What consequences will the fifth IPCC report of October 2014 have? Will it help finalize the Paris agreement? Or will it be considered to be one report too many - repeating what has oft been stated over the last twenty years? Before replying, the major points raised in this report are discussed; and questions, asked about some of the conclusions. Lessons are drawn for the worldwide agreement on the table in Paris

  3. Sinemurian–Pliensbachian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotope stratigraphy in the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Clemence, Marie-Emilie

    2017-01-01

    The biostratigraphy of Sinemurian to lower Toarcian calcareous nannofossils has been investigated in the Sancerre-Couy core (Paris Basin), which contains a mixed assemblage of species with affinities to the northern and southern areas of the peri-tethyan realm, thus allowing for the use and calib......The biostratigraphy of Sinemurian to lower Toarcian calcareous nannofossils has been investigated in the Sancerre-Couy core (Paris Basin), which contains a mixed assemblage of species with affinities to the northern and southern areas of the peri-tethyan realm, thus allowing for the use...... organic carbon isotope curve based on 385 data points. The main bioevents, i.e. the first occurrences of Parhabdolithus liasicus, Crepidolithus pliensbachensis, Crepidolithus crassus, Mitrolithus lenticularis, Similiscutum cruciulus sensu lato, Lotharingius hauffii, Crepidolithus cavus and Lotharingius...... between the different domains. In addition to the nine main bioevents used for the biozonation of the core, we document an additional 50 distinct bioevents, evaluate their reliability and discuss their potential significance by comparison to previous studies. A total of five significant negative organic...

  4. On the inter relationship between fatigue crack growth parameters in Paris regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasikala, G.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on fatigue crack growth behaviour of several steels and their welds for nuclear applications have been characterized in the author's laboratory in the past decade as a part of (i) creating the required database for integrity assessment of components, (ii) providing inputs for materials development, and (iii) understanding the crack growth behaviour in the light of basic mechanisms of cyclic deformation and damage. These include, effects of test variables (such as temperature, load ratio R) and material conditions (such as base and weld materials in as received, as welded or after subjecting to different ageing conditions). Different steels investigated include the ferritic grades modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (P91) and reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, and austenitic grade SS 316L(N) and its weld. A common observation in the FCG literature is the inverse relationship between the Paris constant (log C) and exponent m, which has attracted considerable attention of the researchers in the field. The present paper attempts a fresh look at the inter relationship between Paris parameters obtained in the FCG studies on the above materials including the effect of crack closure and crack tip shielding. Further, some observed deviations from the inter relationship will be discussed in the light of changes in material properties and crack growth mechanisms. (author)

  5. Global justice and environmental governance: an analysis of the Paris Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Based on the major normative political theory contributions on global climate justice, the present paper analyzes the new international agreement on climate change, adopted at COP 21 in Paris (2015. Therefore, a literary review of the extensive normative theoretical discussion about global climate justice is made, with special attention to the two approaches that have permeated multilateral political negotiations - historical responsibility and equal per capita emissions. From this normative discussion, this paper recalls the global climate change negotiation process, focusing on the Kyoto Protocol. Next, the analysis emphasizes on the Paris Agreement in an effort to evaluate the normative questions on justice and equity within the environmental governance regime. Finally, the set of conclusions indicates that, although the flexibility of the Agreement has encompassed some dimensions of responsibility, necessity and ability to bear the costs, the most complex dimensions of justice and equity has not been completely solved, which may hinder the operation of environmental governance in a near future.

  6. Paris Saponin I Sensitizes Gastric Cancer Cell Lines to Cisplatin via Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuichuan; Du, Leiwen; Jiang, Hao; Zhu, Xinhai; Li, Jinhui; Xu, Ji

    2016-10-18

    BACKGROUND Dose-related toxicity is the major restriction of cisplatin and cisplatin-combination chemotherapy, and is a challenge for advanced gastric cancer treatment. We explored the possibility of using Paris saponin I as an agent to sensitize gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, and examined the underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Growth inhibition was detected by MTT assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis were detected using flow cytometry and Annexin V/PI staining. The P21waf1/cip1, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 protein expression were detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results revealed that PSI sensitized gastric cancer cells to cisplatin, with low toxicity. The IC50 value of cisplatin in SGC-7901 cell lines was decreased when combined with PSI. PSI promoted cisplatin-induced G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis in a cisplatin concentration-dependent manner. Bcl-2 protein expression decreased, but Bax, caspase-3, and P21waf1/cip1 protein expression increased with PSI treatment. CONCLUSIONS The underlying mechanism of Paris saponin I may be related to targeting the apoptosis pathway and cell cycle blocking, which suggests that PSI is a potential therapeutic sensitizer for cisplatin in treating gastric cancer.

  7. Extinction of Light during the Fog Life Cycle: a Result from the ParisFog Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, T.; Haeffelin, M.; Drobinski, P.; Gomes, L.; Rangognio, J.; Bergot, T.; Chazette, P.; Raut, J.-C.; Colomb, M.

    2009-01-01

    Data set acquired by five particle-dedicated instruments set up on the SIRTA experimental site during the ParisFog field campaign are exploited to document microphysical properties of particles contributing to extinction of visible radiation in variable situations. The case study is a 48-hour period when atmospheric conditions are highly variable: relative humidity changes between 50 and 100%, visibility ranges between 35000 and 65 m, the site is either downwind Paris area either under maritime influence. A dense and homogeneous fog formed by radiative cooling during the 18-19 February night. In 7 hours, visibility decreases from 26 000 m to 65 m, because of transported pollution (factor 3 in visibility reduction), aerosol hydration (factor 20) and aerosol activation (factor 6). According to Mie theory, extinction in clear-sky polluted and unpolluted regimes is due equally to Aitken and accumulation modes. Extinction in haze is due to hydrated aerosols distributed in the accumulation mode, for diameter smaller than 2 μm. Hydrated aerosols of the accumulation mode still contribute to 20-30% extinction in the fog. Measurements show that fog droplets, with diameter included between 2 and 10 μm, contribute to 40% extinction during the first hours of the fog.

  8. U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement: Reasons, impacts, and China's response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Bin Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying qualitative and quantitative methods, this article explains the driving forces behind U.S. President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, assesses the impacts of this withdrawal on the compliance prospects of the agreement, and proposes how China should respond. The withdrawal undercuts the foundation of global climate governance and upsets the process of climate cooperation, and the impacts are manifold. The withdrawal undermines the universality of the Paris Agreement and impairs states' confidence in climate cooperation; it aggravates the leadership deficit in addressing global climate issues and sets a bad precedent for international climate cooperation. The withdrawal reduces other countries' emission space and raises their emission costs, and refusal to contribute to climate aid makes it more difficult for developing countries to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Cutting climate research funding will compromise the quality of future IPCC reports and ultimately undermine the scientific authority of future climate negotiations. China faces mounting pressure from the international community to assume global climate leadership after the U.S. withdraws, and this article proposes that China should reach the high ends of its domestic climate targets under the current Nationally Determined Contributions; internationally, China should facilitate the rebuilding of shared climate leadership, replacing the G2 with C5. Meanwhile, China needs to keep the U.S. engaged in climate cooperation.

  9. The complete chloroplast genome of traditional Chinese medical plants Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yun; Xu, Jin; Chen, NaiZhong; Li, MingFu

    2017-03-01

    Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a perennial medical plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The genome is 157 675 bp in length including a small single-copy region (SSC, 18 319 bp) and a large single-copy region (LSC, 84 108 bp) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27 624 bp). The genome contained 115 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 2 contained a couple of introns. The overall G + C content of the cpDNA is 37.4%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 35.71%, 31.43%, and 41.87%, respectively. A Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis suggested that genus Trillium, Paris, Fritillaria, and Lilium were strongly supported as monophyletic and the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is closely related to Trillium.

  10. The Paris Convention for the prevention of marine pollution from land-based sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkloh, L.; Braun, H.

    1983-01-01

    The Paris Convention of 1974 which entered into force at an international level in 1978 is an important instrument to protect the North Sea and the North Atlantic against pollution from land-based sources. Contracting Parties are practically all riparian states of its scope of application - 13 states on the whole - as well as the EC. There is a survey of the functions, organization and working method, the instruments and results so far achieved in the framework of the Convention. Priority was so far given to the following substances or, respectively, groups of substances: oil, mercury, cadmium, drines, PCB's and PCT's as well as titanium dioxide. In this respect, it was above all agreed on: emission and immission standards (or guide values, respectively), recommendations for measures reducing emissions and a number of obligations to report. Studies and discussions on organosilicone compounds, radioactivity, water pollution through the atmosphere and eutrophication phenomena are relatively new. The opportunities offered by the Paris Convention have not yet been fully used. (orig.) [de

  11. [Management of wheezing disorders in infants participating in the PARIS birth cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, M; Nikasinovic, L; Foucault, C; Le Marec, A M; Giordanella, J P; Just, J; Momas, I

    2012-01-01

    While wheezing disorders are common in preschool children, their management is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the use of medical health care resources due to wheezing disorders in infants aged 18 months followed up in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medication on account of respiratory disorders during the previous 12 months were collected with a standardized questionnaire, administered by a paediatrician, during the health check offered to every child aged 18 months included in the PARIS birth cohort. The prevalence of wheezing disorders during the past 12 months amounted to 560/1974 (28.4%). Among wheezers, 493 (89.3%) required a medical visit because of difficult breathing; 61 (11.0%) went to the emergency room, 35 (6.4%) were admitted to the hospital and 375 (67.2%) received an inhaled anti-asthmatic medication. Recourse to chest physiotherapy was reported in 472 of them (85.1%). This study confirms the high use of healthcare resources because of wheezing disorders in infants and suggests a higher use of anti-asthmatic medications in France compared to other European countries. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite: Insights into the most primitive CM chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant

    2015-05-01

    The Paris meteorite is one of the most primitive carbonaceous chondrites. It is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite, and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism. We have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of this pristine meteorite by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When plotting the relative amino acids abundances of several CM chondrites according to the increasing hydrothermal scale (petrologic subtypes), from the CM2.7/2.8 Paris to the CM2.0 MET 01070, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15), which fits with the relative abundances of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration for CM chondrites. These results confirm the influence of aqueous alteration on the amino acid abundances and distribution. The amino acid analysis shows that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L = 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess = 0.35 ± 0.5%; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess = -1.4 ± 2.6%). The identified hydrocarbons show that Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring nonalkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be also related to this low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body. The extraterrestrial hydrocarbon content, suggested by the absence of any biomarker, may well have a presolar origin. The chemistry of the Paris meteorite may thus be closely related to the early stages of the solar nebula with a contribution from interstellar (molecular cloud) precursors.

  13. Discrimination of Wild Paris Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Combined with Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tianjun; Shen, Tao; Li, Wei; Yang, Shihua; Hou, Ying; Wang, Yuanzhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Different geographical origins and species of Paris obtained from southwestern China were discriminated by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate analysis. The NIR parameter settings were scanning (64 times), resolution (4 cm−1), scanning range (10000 cm−1∼4000 cm−1) and parallel collection (3 times). NIR spectrum was optimized by TQ 8.6 software, and the ranges 7455∼6852 cm−1 and 5973∼4007 cm−1 were selected according to the spectrum standard deviation. The contents of polyphyllin I, polyphyllin II, polyphyllin VI, and polyphyllin VII and total steroid saponins were detected by HPLC. The contents of chemical components data matrix and spectrum data matrix were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). From the PLS-DA model of NIR spectrum, Paris samples were separated into three groups according to the different geographical origins. The R2X and Q2Y described accumulative contribution rates were 99.50% and 94.03% of the total variance, respectively. The PLS-DA model according to 12 species of Paris described 99.62% of the variation in X and predicted 95.23% in Y. The results of the contents of chemical components described differences among collections quantitatively. A multivariate statistical model of PLS-DA showed geographical origins of Paris had a much greater influence on Paris compared with species. NIR and HPLC combined with multivariate analysis could discriminate different geographical origins and different species. The quality of Paris showed regional dependence. PMID:24558477

  14. ‘Images of Globalisation: Paris 1889’. Review of Beat Wyss, Bilder von der Globalisierung. Die Weltausstellung von Paris 1889. Berlin: Insel Verlag, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Rampley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This review analyses the study of the Paris World’s Fair of 1889 by Beat Wyss. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of Wyss’s interpretation, but also examines it in the larger context of literature on world fairs. It argues that Wyss’s book exemplifies a common pattern in scholarly studies of world fairs during the nineteenth century, namely, a tendency to focus on their function as forms of cultural representation, i.e. their role in advancing specific notions of regional, national and imperial identity. The review does not dispute that this was a central aspect of the world fairs, but it also points towards the omissions in such studies. Not only were the world fairs founded as a means of promoting liberal ideas of free trade, they were also used to display the latest technologies in a wide array of activities, such as industrial manufacturing, forestry and farming. These subjects are almost never examined in any depth in the literature on world fairs, the result of a partial and limited approach to world fairs. The review argues that for all its strengths, Wyss’s book exemplifies this approach.

  15. Deuteron form factors and e-d polarization observables for the Paris and Graz-II potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.; Plessas, W.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1983-01-01

    Elastic e-d scattering is studied employing the meson-theoretical Paris potential and the non-local separable Graz-II potential. Electric and magnetic form factors are calculated with inclusion of meson-exchange currents and compared to existing experimental data. Deuteron vector and tensor polarizations are predicted and discussed in relation to the deuteron wave functions of the potential models considered. Thereby the off-shell behaviour of the Graz-II interaction is found to be close to that one of the Paris potential over the most important domain of low and moderate off-shell moments. (Author)

  16. A separable approximation of the NN-Paris-potential in the framework of the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.; Haidenbauer, J.; Froehlich, J.

    1985-09-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved with a separable kernel for the most important nucleon-nucleon partial wave states. We employ the Ernst Shakin-Thaler method in the framework of minimal relativity (Blankenbeckler-Sugar equation) to generate a separable representation of the meson-theoretical Paris potential. These separable interactions, which closely approximate the on-shell- and half-off-shell behaviour of the Paris potential, are then cast into a covariant form for application in the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The role of relativistic effects is discussed with respect to on-shell and off-shell properties of the NN-system. (Author)

  17. On the constitutive law of environment assisted fatigue: The physical meaning of the Paris type equations. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausz, K.; Wu Xijia; Krausz, A.S.; Lian Zhiwen

    1992-01-01

    Environment assisted fatigue crack growth is a complex of thermally activated processes. Accordingly, the framework for the expression of rational constitutive law is developed from fracture kinetics theory. The correlation of the constitutive law with the Paris equation is discussed and the empirical parameters in the Paris equation are expressed explicitly in terms of activation energy, stress intensity factor range, temperature, stress ratio, and other physically rigorous engineering quantities. The theory assures and facilitates, the rigorous quantitative evaluation of the effects of the microstructure: the constitutive law gives guidance to its measurement and expresses it in terms of energy-related quantities. (orig.) [de

  18. Experimental and theoretical study of the atmospheric boundary layer over the paris area; Etude experimentale et theorique de la couche limite atmospherique en agglomeration parisienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L

    1997-12-15

    This thesis studied the urban boundary layer dynamic behaviour over the Paris area by comparing urban (Paris) and suburban (Palaiseau) dynamic data such as lidars, sodars, sonic anemometers. All the data were obtained during the ECLAP experiment, specifically performed to characterize the differences between a city and its near environment. (author)

  19. The Politics of Deception and the French Lais in the Roman de Fauvel, Manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinescu, R.C.I.

    2014-01-01

    The interpolated version of the French allegorical satire, the Roman de Fauvel, transmitted in manuscript Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, fonds français 146 (produced in Paris ca. 1317), targets the corruption within the French royal court in the last years of the rule of King Philip IV of

  20. Negative Emissions Technologies, the Paris Agreement, and the Need for a Human-Rights Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change contemplates that its prospective Parties will balance emissions and sinks by 2050 as a means to effectuate the goal of holding temperature increases to well below 2°C from pre-industrial levels, as well as the more aspirational goal of holding temperature increases to 1.5°C. Most of the IPCC's AR5 scenarios that achieve these objectives contemplate the large-scale deployment of so-called "negative emissions technologies," with an emphasis on bioenergy and carbon capture and storage (BECCS), and to a lesser degree afforestation. BECCS could assuredly help society avoid passing critical climatic thresholds, or address overshoot scenarios in this century and beyond. However, it could also profound implications for food production, the status of forests, access to lands for livelihoods by vulnerable populations, and the integrity of critical ecosystems. This, in turn could have serious ramifications for human rights of some of the world's most vulnerable populations, including the rights to food, water, livelihoods and the benefits of biodiversity. The Preamble to the Paris Agreement acknowledges the need to take into consideration the potential impact of responses to climate change, providing that "Parties should, when taking action to address climate change, respect, promote and consider their respective obligations on human rights." This presentation will outline how application of a human rights-based approach to assessing such options could help to reconcile the objectives of ameliorating potential climatic impacts while protecting the human rights of potentially affected individuals and groups. This will include the potential role of Human Rights Impacts Assessments and potential configuration of HRIAs at the national and international level. It will also briefly suggest how to operationalize this approach within the Paris Agreement framework, including institutional

  1. Volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds in suburban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Grand, N.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Sauvage, S.; Fronval, I.; Leonardis, T.; Locoge, N.; Gouw, J.A. de; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Lopez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in suburban Paris. Measurements comprise primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scale, and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and suburban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other mega-cities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and suburban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (≤ 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt), which cannot be explained by the gas-particle partitioning theory. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I/VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an integrated approach based on emission ratios and SOA yields, 38% of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by the measured concentrations of I/VOCs, with a 2% contribution by C12-C16 n-alkane IVOCs. From the results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the average IVOC contribution to SOA formation is estimated to be 7 %, which is half of the average contribution of the traditional aromatic compounds (15 %). Both

  2. Urban dew and rain in Paris, France: Occurrence and physico-chemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beysens, D.; Mongruel, A.; Acker, K.

    2017-06-01

    This paper summarizes one year (April 2011 to March 2012) measurements on planar condensing surfaces of dew and rain events and related physico-chemical characteristics in the urban environment of Paris (city center). Yearly collected water was 3.48 mm for dew (63 events) and 593 mm for rain (146 events). The latter value compares well with rain data (547 mm and 107 events) collected within 12 km at Paris-Orly airport. An estimation of dew yield based on meteo data gives 2.35 mm and 74 events, to be compared with 17.11 mm and 196 events at Paris-Orly. These differences highlight the large reduction in dew events and dew yields in an urban area as compared to a close rural-like area. This reduction is not due to a sky view reduction but to heat island that increases air temperature and decreases relative humidity. Analysis of dew (34) and rain (77) samples were done concerning pH, electrical conductivity (EC), major anions and cations as well as selected trace metals and other minor ions. Mean pH values are found similar for both, dew (6.5) and rain (6.1), rain being slightly more acidic than dew. The mean dew total ionic content (TIC 1.8 meq/l) and EC value (124 μS/cm) are about four times that of rain (0.45 meq/l; 35 μS/cm), meaning that total dissolved solids in dew is nearly four times that in rain. Sulfate and nitrate are the most acidifying components, calcium the most neutralizing constituent with ratio of mean total acidity/total alkalinity comparable for dew and rain ( 0.9). Sulfate and nitrate have mainly anthropogenic sources, whereas chloride and magnesium are mostly connected with marine air masses. Dew is a considerable factor of wet deposition of pollutants; dew and rain ion concentrations, however, meet the WHO requirements for drinking water.

  3. The OCAPI collaborative platform: study of two particle pollution episodes in 2016 in Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret, Gilles; Michoud, Vincent; Formenti, Paola; Gratien, Aline; Beekmann, Matthias; Peinado, Florian; Favez, Olivier; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Bodichon, Renaud; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Meleux, Frédérik; Xuéref-Rémy, Irène

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution and its impacts are subject to an expanded interest since the middle of the 20th century, especially in urban areas which gathered an important part of emission sources. These polluted urban air masses are composed by a complex mixture of gases and aerosols coming from various emission sources (vehicular traffic, industries, residential heating, agricultural activities, natural sources) or chemical processes. To efficiently reduce this pollution and its impacts on population, it is important to understand its drivers, its sources and its impact on human health. To get some insights in Paris air pollution, a collaborative measurement platform called OCAPI ("Observation de la Composition Atmosphérique Parisienne de l'IPSL") has been built and implies several Parisian research laboratories of IPSL institute (CEREA, LSCE, LMD, LISA, LATMOS, LERMA and METIS) as well as public agencies and institutes in charge of Paris air pollution monitoring (AIRPARIF, INERIS). OCAPI platform aims at gathering skills and instruments of these laboratories to measure the composition and dynamics of Paris atmosphere. In this framework, multi-site measurements were performed during two intense particle pollution episodes which occurred in March 2016 and between November and December 2016. These two episodes were characterized by different meteorological conditions and different type of emission sources. Indeed, March episode was related to intense agricultural activities and high ammonium nitrate contribution to aerosol composition; while end of year episode was related to low wind speed, cold conditions and thin boundary layer which favoured the stagnation of locally emitted pollutants. This latter episode was characterized by large contribution of organics in aerosol composition. In this presentation, a study of these two episodes will be presented. We will first present the context and the OCAPI platform. Then, first results of dynamics and aerosol composition

  4. Paris in the spring: A review of the trade, conservation and opportunities in the shift from wild harvest to cultivation of Paris polyphylla (Trilliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A B; Brinckmann, J A; Bi, Y-F; Pei, S-J; Schippmann, U; Luo, P

    2018-08-10

    P. polyphylla Smith is used in traditional medicine in China, India and Nepal and is likely to be similarly used through most of its geographic range. China is at the centre of demand for P. polyphylla where it is used as an ingredient in several very successful Chinese medicinal herbal formulations. The Chinese e-commerce platform 'alibaba.com', for example, lists 97 P. polyphylla items offered by 46 Asian suppliers, of which 21 are situated in the Chinese mainland, 12 in Nepal, 7 in India, 2 in Pakistan, and 1 each in Bhutan, Hong Kong, Thailand, and Vietnam. Products offered include the crude drug (dried whole or cut rhizomes), extracts and formulations containing this herbal drug. The aims of this review were to assess the scale of the P. polyphylla trade, reviewing evidence on the impacts of wild harvest on P. polyphylla populations and on the role of cultivation as an alternative to wild harvest. Firstly, we reviewed published information on Paris population biology and studies on impacts of wild P. polyphylla harvest from across the geographic range of this species. Secondly, global trade data for P. polyphylla were analysed. Thirdly, we reviewed published information on P. polyphylla cultivation and made field visits to P. polyphylla cultivation areas in Yunnan and Sichuan. Since the 1980s, there has been a 400-fold increase in the market price paid in China for P. polyphylla rhizomes, from 2.7 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per kg in the 1980s to market prices up to 1100 CNY per kg in 2017. Cross-border trade in dried P. polyphylla rhizomes occurs at three different scales. Firstly, an internal, national trade of P. polyphylla rhizomes within countries (such as India, Nepal and China). Secondly, trade in P. polyphylla rhizomes from Nepal (and possibly from Bhutan) to the two range states that have the largest traditional medicine trade in the world: China and India. Thirdly, trade in processed herbal products. In China, for example, P. polyphylla is widely used as

  5. The indissociable unity of psyche and soma: a view from the Paris Psychosomatic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenstein, Marilia

    2006-06-01

    Depending on whether or not psyche/soma is seen as singular or dual, one may construct different systems explaining man and the world, life and death. In the author's view, the discoveries of psychoanalysis offer a perfectly cogent and unique solution to the famous mind/body problem. In transferring the duality psyche/soma on to the duality of drives, psychoanalysis places the origin of the thought process in the body. In Beyond the pleasure principle, Freud discusses the drastic effect of a painful somatic illness on the distribution and modalities of the libido. He provides a starting point for the Paris Psychosomatic School's psychoanalytical approach to patients afflicted with somatic illnesses. To illustrate the technical implications of this theory the author relates two clinical cases.

  6. Insurance considerations arising from the revision of the Paris and Brussels conventions on nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    The work being undertaken by the 14 countries, party to the 1960 Paris Convention in preparing a revised instrument will or so it is to be hoped provide a more comprehensive scope of liability and a larger compensatory fund for the protection of potential victims. Both these developments have serious implications for insurers or other providers of financial security. Equally they are of concern to society itself as it will be necessary to balance the needs of the individual for example, in obtaining redress for injury or damage to personal property with the need to provide for the ''common good''. The author's paper will attempt to explore these avenues, to point to perceived difficulties and, perhaps, to acceptable solutions. (author)

  7. Powszechna Wystawa Światowa w Paryżu w 1900 roku. Splendory Trzeciej Republiki

    OpenAIRE

    Jedlińska, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Publikacja Eleonory Jedlińskiej „Powszechna Wystawa Światowa w Paryżu w 1900 roku. Splendory Trzeciej Republiki” to obszerna monografia jednej z najważniejszych wystaw światowych schyłku XIX w., prowadzących w wiek XX. Dziewiętnastowieczne wystawy, swoisty fenomen cywilizacji europejskiej, służyły głównie pokazaniu osiągnięć nauki i jej zastosowań w przemyśle, choć ważnym ich elementem były dzieła sztuki, traktowane jako wyraz syntezy materii i ducha nowych czasów. Eksponowały osiągnięcia te...

  8. [An artist at the Medical School of Paris: Isabelle Pinson (1769-1855)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulinier, G

    1997-01-01

    Born in Paris in 1769, Isabelle Proteau, the future Mrs. Pinson, was the daughter of a couple of servants of a famous family: her father was the footman of the marquis de Jaucourt, and her mother, the maid of Isabelle, both brother and sister of the encyclopedist Louis de Jaucourt. She lost her father very early, but thanks to her godmother Isabelle de Jaucourt, she received a good education and could become a talented painter. Especially a portraitist, she was a pupil of the academicians Vincent (1746-1816) and Regnault (1754-1829), and participated to many exhibitions at the Louvre's Salons from 1796 to 1812. In 1792, she married the artist and anatomist André Pierre Pinson (1746-1828). Among the witnesses were the surgeon Dezoteux and the famous sculptor Houdon. ...

  9. Parameters controlling fracturing distribution: example of an Upper Jurassic marly-calcareous formation (eastern Paris Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y.; Proudhon, B.

    2006-01-01

    Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)

  10. New steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi and their cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Xiangrong; Hua, Dong; Cheng, Guang; Wang, Kaixing; Zhang, Lihan; Tang, Haifeng; Wang, Minchang

    2016-06-01

    Four new furostanol saponins, named padelaosides C-F (1-4), together with four known spirostanol saponins 5-8 were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi Franchet. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidences. The discovery of the new compounds 1-4 extended the diversity and complexity of this furostanol saponin family. The cytotoxicity of all the saponins was evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human glioblastoma U87MG and human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep-G2 cell lines. The known spirostanol saponins 7 and 8 exhibited notable cytotoxicity against the two tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 1.13 and 3.42μM, respectively, while the new furostanol saponins 3 and 4 showed moderate cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 15.28 to 16.98μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measures of social segregation in the context of Warsaw, Berlin and Paris metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorczyk Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social segregation is a subject common in contemporary studies of metropolitan areas. Until recently, studies of segregation focused on the distribution of ethnic groups, immigrants, and the poor. Today, they also cover additional indicators such as demographic properties, education, and affiliation with social and professional categories, which can also serve to determine the causes of the segregation (including the self-segregation of the rich. This article aims to point out the measures of segregation that present the segregation levels in the most complete manner, along with their application in the context of three European metropolitan areas: Warsaw, Berlin, and Paris. The first part of the article is a review of the existing approaches to segregation measures, followed by the selection of research method, presentation of the analysis’ results, and evaluation of the applied methods; presenting the opportunities and limitations in research of the social segregation phenomenon.

  12. Legal nature of the crimes at Paris. Terrorism or war crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl F. Campusano Droguett

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this text we analyse from a legal point of view, the crimes committed in Paris on November 13th of 2015 by the criminal organization ISIS. As a general perception, these acts are understood as “acts of terrorism”, witch we think it is not the best option, not only because there is not an international definition of “acts of terrorism”, but also because the definitions domestic legislation use for such kind of acts are technically wrong and usually affect the due process of law. We think, as a second option, that these acts are actually war crimes under the Rome Statute of 1998 and the Geneva Convention with their Additional Protocols, which could become an effective option under procedure law.

  13. Transposition into swiss law of the Paris convention and the Brussels supplementary convention, as amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.; Daina, S.

    2004-01-01

    Apart from the considerable increase in the amounts of cover, two basic factors lie behind the Swiss government decision to propose shortly to parliament a draft revised L.R.C.N.(federal act on nuclear third party liability). These are, firstly, that the revised Paris/Brussels system still incorporates the principle of the limited liability of the operator of a nuclear installation but now contains a minimum liability amount (liability threshold) and no longer a maximum amount (liability ceiling), and secondly, that the States parties are allowed to provide in their national legislation for the unlimited liability of operators. One of the aims of ratifying the revised conventions is to enable most victims to obtain fair compensation on an egalitarian basis for damage caused by a nuclear incident, and also to join an international system for compensating nuclear damage based on solidarity between states, most of them nuclear. (N.C.)

  14. Un cinéaste antifasciste à Paris : Slatan Dudow (1934-1939)

    OpenAIRE

    Trugeon, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    Réfugié à Paris après l’arrivée de Hitler au pouvoir en Allemagne, le metteur en scène de théâtre et cinéaste bulgare Slatan Dudow poursuit son travail militant sur scène, à la radio et sur les écrans dans la capitale française jusqu’à son expulsion en 1939-1940 où il trouve alors refuge en Suisse. À partir d’un riche fonds d’archives déposé aux Archives Nationales, inexploité à ce jour, cet article retrace les conditions et les aléas de cette activité artistique et politique, en particulier ...

  15. Climate change: The 2015 Paris Agreement thresholds and Mediterranean basin ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiot, Joel; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-10-28

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Paris Agreement of December 2015 aims to maintain the global average warming well below 2°C above the preindustrial level. In the Mediterranean basin, recent pollen-based reconstructions of climate and ecosystem variability over the past 10,000 years provide insights regarding the implications of warming thresholds for biodiversity and land-use potential. We compare scenarios of climate-driven future change in land ecosystems with reconstructed ecosystem dynamics during the past 10,000 years. Only a 1.5°C warming scenario permits ecosystems to remain within the Holocene variability. At or above 2°C of warming, climatic change will generate Mediterranean land ecosystem changes that are unmatched in the Holocene, a period characterized by recurring precipitation deficits rather than temperature anomalies. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Obras y noticias de Paris Bordón en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Manero, José María

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Si dejamos a un lado el «Retrato de una joven» de la Colección Thyssen-Bomemisza —desde hace poco en nuestro país y creído por la crítica de su mano— las otras dos obras que hasta el momento se han relacionado en España con Paris Bordón a mi juicio no le pertenecen; se trata de un supuesto «Autorretrato» (Museo del Prado y de una «Psiquis» (Palacio de Liria, considerada por Tormo obra notable. En cuanto al supuesto «Autorretrato» (L. 104 X 76 (Fig. 1, fueron Allende-Salazar y Sánchez Cantón quienes identificaron al retratado con París Bordón basándose en el parecido que sin duda tiene con…

  17. Louis-Eugène Varlin e a Comuna de Paris (1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alberto da Costa Pinto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe uma breve notícia sobre a trajetória política de Louis-Eugène Varlin (1839 - 1871, operário francês (encadernador de livros radicado em Paris (1852 - 1871, intelectual autodidata, um dos principais organizadores da seção francesa da AIT (Associação Internacional dos Trabalhadores a partir de 1865. Personagem emblemático nas lutas sociais acontecidas no período de setembro de 1870 a maio de 1871, quando do cerco à cidade pelas tropas prussianas e depois pelas tropas do governo Thiers, motivos que o levaram à participação no Comitê Central da Guarda Nacional, assim como à organização dos comitês distritais da Comuna (março a maio de 1871.     

  18. The new nucleon-nucleon scattering data and the Paris potential predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.; Cote, J.; Pires, P.

    1980-11-01

    New data (cross section, polarization, Wolfenstein parameters and spin-correlations) on proton-proton and neutron-proton scattering have been recently published by different groups. These include high precision and/or original measurements covering the energy range 6 MeV < Tsub(lab)< 800 MeV. A direct comparison of these data with the values produced by the Paris NN potential for energies Tsub(lab) < 350 MeV is reported here. The agreement between theory and experiment is very satisfactory both for low and medium energies. The total chi-squared for the world NN data set for Tsub(lab) < 350 MeV is also reported and compared with those given by the Arndt et al. phase shift-analysis and by the phenomenological Reid soft-core potential

  19. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be.

  20. [Innovations in medical undergraduate pathology education: The Paris Descartes medicine faculty experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Pierre-Alexandre; Verkarre, Virginie; Mansuet-Lupo, Audrey; Rabant, Marion; Daniliuc, Cristina; Radenen, Brigitte; Harent, Marion; Cassanelli, Lucien; Cherel, Éric; Javaux, Hubert; Tesniere, Antoine; Terris, Benoît; Badoual, Cécile

    2016-08-01

    At the Paris Descartes medicine faculty, we tested some newly developed tools to enhance the pedagogic value of the pathology teaching. In our faculty, this teaching is largely multidisciplinary and integrated in various teaching units; a large part is dedicated to practice works with thirteen 90min sessions. Virtual slides have been used for years in numerous medicine faculties; we successfully implemented this tool by adding contextual annotations, which facilitate students revising. We showed that rewarding students' assiduity enhanced their exam success. To do so, we now propose a short continuous assessment exam at the beginning of each practice session in the form of electronic multi-choice questions. Finally, we now propose a completely computerized final exam, on touchpads, that enhanced its docimologic value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The Asia-Pacific Region on the Paris Agreement against Climate Change: Geopolitics and Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bertha Cuevas Tello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity surrounding climate change, it is argued that the willingness to cooperate on the part of the States is based on one of the faces that, for the climate field, can offer geopolitics: strengths or weaknesses (understood as vulnerability of geographical conditions, location and territory. That is, the physical, geographic, economic and demographic factors of each State influence the decision making of the foreign climate policy, which induces them to cooperate or the abstention of it. This paper will address, broadly speaking, the participation of the main economies of the Asia-Pacific region in the institutionalization of climate change in the International Agenda; the importance of the economies of the Asia-Pacific region with regard to the Paris Agreement; and the geopolitical strengths and weaknesses that explain the cooperative or non-cooperative behavior of the region in the fight against climate change.

  2. Hearing Pygmalion's Kiss: A Scientific Object at the Paris Opéra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    In 1748, in his acte de ballet Pygmalion, composer and music theorist Jean-Philippe Rameau arranged the Paris Opéra orchestra to play "nature's chord," harmonies that reproduced the overtones an expert ear could detect in every natural musical vibrating body. The following year Rameau presented his music theory to the French Royal Academy of Sciences for their endorsement. Disillusionment with the promise of Cartesian mechanics as a source of a unified understanding of nature opened up the possibility that matter might have properties beyond extension and motion, such as aversion, desire, and memory. Speculations about this material sensibility also coincided with increasing claims about the authority of spontaneous emotion and feeling. The experience of music at the opera was a significant resource for claims about the cultural authority of sensibility.

  3. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  4. Prescription period in the revised Paris convention and its consequences for insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the high level of safety and technical improvements achieved in nuclear industry over more than thirty years of operation, the original reasons for which this industry enjoys a special liability regime are still valid. ''The possibility remains that incidents capable of causing considerable damage should occur'' and Common law is still not well adapted to deal with the specific problems in this field. Consequently, whatever the conclusions of the Paris Convention revision exercise in progress at the NEA of the OECD may be, it is likely that the future specific liability regime will still need limits both in amount and in time for insurance purposes at least. While, at present, insurers can cope with a 10-year prescription period in their Nuclear Third Party Liability policies, the possible extension of this period to thirty years for personal injuries would not be acceptable without clear provisions in the Protocol and in National legislation. (author)

  5. Paris Agreement on Climate Change: A Booster to Enable Sustainable Global Development and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Janardhan Bhore

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The global warming and its adverse effects on the atmosphere, the biosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere are obvious. Based on this fact, the international community is fully convinced that we need to fix the problem urgently for our survival, good health, and wellbeing. The aim of this article is to promote the awareness about the United Nations (UN historic ‘Paris Agreement on Climate Change (PACC’ which entered into-force on 4 November 2016. The expected impact of PACC on the global average temperature rise by 2100 as well as its role in enabling accomplishment of global sustainable development goals (SDGs for the people and planet is also highlighted.

  6. Air pollution and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris: exploring sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Canal, D J; Chardon, B; Lefranc, A; Gremy, I

    2005-01-01

    The subject of sex and gender differences is relevant to the study of health effects of environmental exposures. In this study the authors aim at assessing the differences that may exist between males and females regarding short-term air pollution health effects. They studied the short-term relationships between air pollution levels and respiratory hospital admissions in greater Paris area for patients older than 15 years between 2000 and 2003. They also conducted time series analyses by using generalized additive models. For an increase of 10 microg/m3 in the air pollutant levels, the increase in relative risk of hospitalization was higher for males than for females and was significant only for males. These differences may not result solely from differences in biological susceptibility to air pollution because other factors related to gender (differences in individual exposures, in health care management, and so on) may play a role.

  7. Assessment of trace metal air pollution in Paris using slurry-TXRF analysis on cemetery mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Marco; Zanella, Augusto; Rankovic, Aleksandar; Banas, Damien; Cantaluppi, Chiara; Abbadie, Luc; Lata, Jean -Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Mosses are useful, ubiquitous accumulation biomonitors and as such can be used for biomonitoring surveys. However, the biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution can be compromised in urban contexts if the targeted biomonitors are regularly disturbed, irregularly distributed, or are difficult to access. Here, we test the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled mosses growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. We focused on Grimmia pulvinata (Hedwig) Smith, a species abundantly found in all studied cemeteries and very common in Europe. The concentration of Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sr, Ti, and Zn was determined by a total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique coupled with a slurry sampling method (slurry-TXRF). This method avoids a digestion step, reduces the risk of sample contamination, and works even at low sample quantities. Elemental markers of road traffic indicated that the highest polluted cemeteries were located near the highly frequented Parisian ring road and under the influence of prevailing winds. The sites with the lowest pollution were found not only in the peri-urban cemeteries, adjoining forest or farming landscapes, but also in the large and relatively wooded cemeteries located in the center of Paris. Our results suggest that (1) slurry-TXRF might be successfully used with moss material, (2) G. pulvinata might be a good biomonitor of trace metals air pollution in urban context, and (3) cemetery moss sampling could be a useful complement for monitoring urban areas. Graphical abstract We tested the hypothesis that cemeteries are appropriate moss sampling sites for the evaluation of air pollution in urban areas. We sampled 110 moss cushions (Grimmia pulvinata) growing on gravestones in 21 urban and peri-urban cemeteries in the Paris metropolitan area. The concentration of 20

  8. The Paris Climate Conference: What kind of international agreement in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmet, Sylvie; Watkinson, Paul; Navizet, Damien

    2015-01-01

    At stake during the 21. Climate Conference (COP21) to be held in Paris in 2015 is the adoption of a worldwide agreement that can be applied to all countries. This agreement, which will take effect by 2020, will focus not only on reducing greenhouse gases and adapting to climate change but also on funding and concrete actions for sustainable, resilient economic development. Throughout the coming year, France, which hosts and chairs the COP21, must see to it that a transparent, inclusive process allows all parties to express their viewpoints and be heard. An agreement is not the only result expected of this conference. For the sake of fairness and in order to limit global warming to 2 deg. C, pledges and commitments, including financial ones, from countries in favor of protecting the climate are expected too. International recognition will also have to be provided to climate-related initiatives that have already been launched

  9. Origin of channel systems in the Upper Cretaceous chalk group of the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmerode, E. V.; Surlyk, Finn

    2009-01-01

    the presence of at least two distinct intra-chalk discordant reflections: a Top Santonian and a Mid-Campanian reflection. These reflections are in places associated with up to 120-m-deep channel-like structures trending preferentially N-S and NW-SE. The Mid-Campanian reflection is also sporadically associated...... with a massive secondary dolomite layer, the thicknesses of which may reach 110 m. Diagenesis does not seem to account for the formation of the discordant reflections, as there is neither a one-to-one relationship between the dolomite and discordant reflections, nor are there signs of systematic collapse...... is suggested due to the uninterrupted deep-marine chalk facies below and above both unconformities, and the unrealistically large sea-level drop of more than 200 m, which would be necessary for subaerial exposure of the central Paris Basin during the Campanian. The channels are oriented parallel to the margins...

  10. Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems : 17th International Workshop, FMICS 2012, Paris, France, August 27-28, 2012. Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, Mariëlle; Pinger, Ralf

    This volume contains the papers presented at FMICS 2012, the 17th International Workshop on Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems, taking place August 27–28, 2012, in Paris, France. The aim of the FMICS workshop series is to provide a forum for researchers who are interested in the

  11. Portuguese knights-errant in nineteenth-century Paris and Rio: translation as response to exile in global cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Bueno Maia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2017v37n1p159 This article aims to uncover the role played by a series of picaresque novels translated into Portuguese and published in midnineteenth-century Paris in helping the Portuguese diaspora cope with the challenges of being a migrant in a global city. Through a contextual analysis, it will be argued that these novels were part of vaster cultural projects aimed at establishing solidarity networks among Portuguese exiles in Paris and, at the same time, at preserving multilingualism. By means of a textual analysis of Dom Severino Magriço ou o Dom Quichote portuguez (Paris, Pillet Fils Aîné, 1851, it will be suggested that this particular target text is committed to helping Portuguese migrants in Paris and in Rio de Janeiro. Furthermore, this novel illustrates ways of engaging with multiple Others, mainly through the reading and comparing of national literary canons.

  12. Deciphering the colon cancer genes--report of the InSiGHT-Human Variome Project Workshop, UNESCO, Paris 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Macrae, Finlay; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Integration and Implementation Meeting at UNESCO in Paris, to review the progress of this pilot program. A wide range of topics were covered, including issues relating to genotype-phenotype data submission to the InSiGHT Colon Cancer Gene Variant Databases (chromium.liacs.nl/LOVD2/colon_cancer/home.php...

  13. The withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement and its impact on global climate change governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xiang Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The global community has prepared for the withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement since Donald Trump was elected as the president of the U.S. However, Trump's formal declaration of withdrawal still caused worldwide reaction. Trump will use the withdrawal to build his political reputation and to renegotiate the Paris Agreement despite its negative effects on the political credibility, international relationships, and potential long-term economic growth of the U.S. In general, the withdrawal of the U.S. from the Paris Agreement will not change the development of low-carbon technologies and the transformation trend of the global climate governance regime. However, the long-term goals and international cooperation on climate change will be affected by budget cuts in American climate change research and the cancelation of donations from the multilateral environmental fund of the U.S. If the Paris Agreement is renegotiated, the common but differentiated principle of responsibility of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change will be challenged again. Nevertheless, climate change governance remains a main theme of future sustainable development. Instead of national governments, local governments and non-governmental organizations will develop strategies for technical innovation and emphasize pragmatic cooperation, thus expanding their roles in climate change governance. The capacity building on climate change research and public awareness should be enhanced as a long-term objective of global climate change governance.

  14. Beyond headline mitigation numbers : we need more transparent and comparable NDCs to achieve the Paris Agreement on climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauw, W.P.; Klein, Richard; Mbeva, Kennedy; Dzebo, A.; Cassanmagnago, Davide; Rudloff, Anna

    Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) were key to reaching the Paris Agreement and will be instrumental in implementing it. Research was quick to identify the ‘headline numbers’ of NDCs: if these climate action plans were fully implemented, global mean warming by 2100 would be reduced from

  15. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pari... INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.11 What are the minimum internal control... documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  16. Danish sponsors, English lead, Vikings, and a new roof for the church of Sainte-Geneviève in Paris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2010-01-01

    Dansk-franske forbindelse i 2. halvdel af 1100-årene, eksemplificeres ved forsøg fra abbed Stefan fra St. Geneviève i Paris på sponsorat til blytag til hans kirke fra det danske toparistokrati....

  17. Queer Virginity: Leïla Maraoune’s La Vie sexuelle d’un islamiste à Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosello, M.

    2013-01-01

    There is something deceptively binary about Leïla Marouane's novel, The Sexual Life of an Islamist in Paris: her male protagonist is a forty-year old virgin who wishes to "conquer" Western female bodies for whom procreation, marriage and commitment are (he hopes) irrelevant. At the same time, he

  18. The Making of Comparability: Education Indicator Research from Jullien De Paris to the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Manuel; Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2017-01-01

    The authors examine indicator research over three periods and discuss shifts in policy usage over time. The study compares influential actors that reflect discursive shifts in how, and for what purpose, indicators were used: (1) Jullien de Paris, (2) faculty at Teachers College at Columbia University in the early-twentieth century (notably Paul…

  19. [Comparative study on specific chromatograms and main active components of wild and cultivated rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Ke; Gao, Yu-Ming; Cui, Gan; Liu, Jie; Guo, Li-Nong; Zheng, Jian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    The present study is to compare specific chromatograms and main acitive components between wild and cultivated rhizomes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis by HPLC. HPLC analysis was performed on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 C₁₈ clumn (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (A)-water (B) at a flow rate of 1 mL•min⁻¹ (0-50 min,30%-50%A;50-80 min,50% A,80-85 min,50%-30%A;85-100 min,30% A). The detection wavelength was 203 nm and the column temperature was controlled at 30 ℃, and the injection volume was 10 μL. HPLC specific chromatograms of wild and cultivated rhizomes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were established and nine steroidal saponins were simultaneously determined by the above method. The mean contents of paris saponin Ⅶ, paris saponin H and total average contents of four pennogenyl saponins in Rhizomes of wild samples were significantly higher than those of cultivated ones. However, this result is opposite from the average content of paris saponin Ⅰ and total average contents of five dioscins in the wild and cultivated samples. Because the significant differences occurred for the specific chromatograms and main active components between the wild and cultivated P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, much more pharmacological and clinical researches are therefore necessary. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Theoretical value of Newtonian constant G confirmed by the International Bureau of Weights & Measures in Paris, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2015-01-01

    World oldest authority for scientific constants and the keeper of the original metre standard, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris, France has accomplished a historic confirmation of the Omerbashich's (first-ever) scientific prediction of value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G.

  1. Using the Bergman-Paris Question to screen seniors in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, Antoine; Voyer, Philippe; Ouellet, Marie-Christine; Boucher, Vale Rie; Giroux, Marianne; Pelletier, Mathieu; Gouin, E Milie; Daoust, Raoul; Berthelot, Simon; Morin, Miche le; Minh Vu, Thien Tuong; Lee, Jacques; Brousseau, Audrey-Anne; Sirois, Marie-Jose E; E Mond, Marcel

    2017-10-16

    In the fast pace of the Emergency Department (ED), clinicians are in need of tailored screening tools to detect seniors who are at risk of adverse outcomes. We aimed to explore the usefulness of the Bergman-Paris Question (BPQ) to expose potential undetected geriatric syndromes in community-living seniors presenting to the ED. This is a planned sub-study of the INDEED multicentre prospective cohort study, including independent or semi-independent seniors (≥65 years old) admitted to hospital after an ED stay ≥8 hours and who were not delirious. Patients were assessed using validated screening tests for 3 geriatric syndromes: cognitive and functional impairment, and frailty. The BPQ was asked upon availability of a relative at enrolment. BPQ's sensitivity and specificity analyses were used to ascertain outcomes. A response to the BPQ was available for 171 patients (47% of the main study's cohort). Of this number, 75.4% were positive (suggesting impairment), and 24.6% were negative. To detect one of the three geriatric syndromes, the BPQ had a sensitivity of 85.4% (95% CI [76.3, 92.0]) and a specificity of 35.4% (95% CI [25.1, 46.7]). Similar results were obtained for each separate outcome. Odds ratio demonstrated a higher risk of presence of geriatric syndromes. The Bergman-Paris Question could be an ED screening tool for possible geriatric syndrome. A positive BPQ should prompt the need of further investigations and a negative BPQ possibly warrants no further action. More research is needed to validate the usefulness of the BPQ for day-to-day geriatric screening by ED professionals or geriatricians.

  2. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan E.; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; Kyle, Page; McFarland, James; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-12-01

    The international community has set a goal to limit global warming to 2 °C. Limiting global warming to 2 °C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. As part of the work toward this goal, countries have been submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030, in advance of the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015. In this paper, we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to analyze the near versus long-term energy and economic-cost implications of these INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031-2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34%, respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the INDCs delivered for COP21 in Paris will have important contributions in reducing the challenges of achieving the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C.

  3. Characteristics and health of homeless families: the ENFAMS survey in the Paris region, France 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Le Méner, Erwan; Oppenchaim, Nicolas; Arnaud, Amandine; Jangal, Candy; Caum, Carme; Vuillermoz, Cécile; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Lioret, Sandrine; Roze, Mathilde; Le Strat, Yann; Guyavarch, Emmanuelle

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to estimate the size of homeless family population in Paris region, to describe their living conditions and health and to analyse the impact of homelessness on children's growth and development, which was never investigated in France. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in 2013. Families were interviewed in 17 languages and a nurse took anthropometric measures, blood samples and collected health data from child health reports. The population size was estimated at 10 280 families. Half were single-parent female families and 94% were born outside France. Most families had experienced housing instability and 94% were living below the poverty line (828 euros/month). Malnutrition was a major problem: the prevalence of food insecurity was high (77% of parents and 69% of children), as well as anaemia (50% of mothers and 38% of children), overweight (38% of mothers and 22% of children) and obesity (32% of mothers and 4% of children). High rates of depressive disorders were found in 30% of homeless mothers and 20% of children had signs of possible mental health disorders. These first results highlight the important number of families among the homeless population in Paris region. Families differed from other homeless people regarding social characteristics such as birthplace, single-parent status and residential instability that are likely to influence schooling, social ties, health and access to care. These results demonstrate the need for urgent actions targeting homeless families, in terms of reducing housing instability and providing adequate care, especially for children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Transmental Sheherazade on the interwar avant-garde balls in Belgrade and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Bojan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In expert circles, attention has been drawn to the “1002nd Night Ball” created by the protagonists of Yugoslav and Serbian avant-garde, in particular on its dance and musical segments, moreover, the ballet “Le balai du valet” by Marko Ristić and Miloje Milojević, as well as the ensuing series of balls related to the Association of Friends of Art “Cvijeta Zuzorić”. On the other hand, it is an (almost completely unknown fact that Rade Drainac’s original idea to throw a ball for the benefit of artists and writers that needed financial assistance because of difficult financial situation (later replaced with an initiative to raise funds to build an art pavilion “Cvijeta Zuzorić” matched the idea of the Union of Russian artists in Paris to organize a ball with the aim of contributing to mutual aid. The ball in Paris, with the participation of the most prominent avant-garde artists, took place exactly one week after the Belgrade ball, which also suggests the possible connection / synchronization of these two artistic events. Having this in mind, I offer a brief analysis of the concept and scope of the aforementioned artistic events from the perspective of the intermedia and multimedia strategies. I demonstrate that the Belgrade spectacle was envisioned and performed far more ambitiously than the Parisian one, and the thoroughness of the interweaving of various arts ranks it among those works (including Parade by Cocteau, Picasso and Satie, Skating-Rink by Canudo, Leger, and Honegger, La creation du monde by Cendrars, Léger and Milhaud, with Russian and Swedish Ballet that aimed to achieve a Gesamtkunstwerk, i.e. a total work of avant-garde art. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON 178008: Srpska književnost u evropskom kulturnom prostoru

  5. Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Ferrari, Luc; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Tiberguent, Aziz; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. This cross sectional study will compare exposed sewage workers to non-exposed office workers. Both are voluntaries from Paris municipality, males, aged (20–60) years, non-smokers since at least six months, with no history of chronic or recent illness, and have similar socioeconomic status. After at least 3 days of consecutive work, blood sample and a 24-hour urine will be collected. A caffeine test will be performed, by administering coffee and collecting urines three hours after. Subjects will fill in self-administered questionnaires; one covering the professional and lifestyle habits while the a second one is alimentary. The blood sample will be used to assess DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes. The 24-hour urine to assess urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxy-Guanosine (8-oxo-dG), and the in vitro genotoxicity tests (comet and micronucleus) using HeLa S3 or HepG2 cells. In parallel, occupational air sampling will be conducted for some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds. A weekly sampling chronology at the offices of occupational medicine in Paris city during the regular medical visits will be followed. This protocol has been accepted by the French Est III Ethical Comitee with the number 2007-A00685-48. Biomarkers of exposure and of early biological effects may help overcome the limitations of environmental exposure assessment in very complex occupational or environmental settings

  6. SBIR-Long fluoride fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Raymond E.; Vacha, Lubos J.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes results obtained under a program aimed at developing new techniques for fabricating long lengths of heavy metal fluoride glass (HMFG) optical fiber. A new method for overcladding conventional HMFG preforms with a low melting oxide glass was developed, and improvements in the rotational casting method were made to increase preform length. The resulting composite glass canes consist of a fluoride glass overcoat layer to enhance strength and chemical durability. To show feasibility, prototype optical fiber preforms up to 1.6 cm in diameter with lengths of 22 cm were fabricated. These were drawn into optical fibers with lengths up to 900 meters.

  7. Global Governance of Climate Change The Paris Agreement as a New Component of the UN Climate Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wirth

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paris Agreement, which was adopted in December 2015 and entered into force less than a year later, is the newest instrument to be adopted in the United Nations-sponsored global climate regime. The Paris Agreement takes its place under the 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change and next to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and 2012 Doha Amendment. After describing the historical evolution of the UN climate regime employing the tools of international law, this Article explores the structural, institutional, and legal relationships between the new Paris Agreement and the prior development and content of UN-sponsored efforts on climate protection under the auspices of the 1992 Framework Convention. The need for such an analysis is particularly urgent because the new instrument was purposely not identified as a “protocol,” and its relationship to the prior Kyoto Protocol is unclear. This Article consequently traces the development of the universal, UN-anchored climate regime from its origins in the 1990s to the present moment, with particular attention to the structural relationship among its various components and historical junctures. The Article then examines the text and structure of the Paris Agreement, along with its context, against this background. The significance of the Agreement’s status as an instrument other than a “protocol,” and its uncertain textual and institutional relationship to the prior Kyoto Protocol, receive particular scrutiny. The Article concludes that the Paris Agreement, from a structural and institutional point of view, represents both a break with the past designed to initiate a new, globally-inclusive multilateral approach to climate protection, but also contains indications of continuity with prior questions of global climate policy.

  8. [Defusing of victims of the terrorist attacks in Paris. Elements of assessment one-month post-event].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, N; Cheucle, E; Faure, P; Digard, F; Dalphin, C; Pachiaudi, V; Simond, M; Darbon, R; Collinet, C; Habibi, R; Gueugniaud, P-Y

    2018-04-01

    The terrorist attacks (fusillades and suicide attacks) in Paris on 13 November 2015 have had a major psychic impact on all individuals directly or secondarily exposed to them. Medico-psychological unit (CUMP) of the Paris Île-de-France region's immediate care services were immediately mobilized and rapidly strengthened by all regional medico-psychological units (CUMP) throughout the country. Psychological assistance has been provided in several key points of Paris and specifically in the 11th district City Hall of Paris where Lyon's Medico-psychological unit was located. These specific immediate psychological assistances, referred to as a "defusing process" by the medico-psychological unit (CUMP), are mostly devoted to provide the victims with an entry point to a psychological healthcare relationship and give them a first sense of soothing and relief even though they do not prevent further psychological care follow up for the victims. Nonetheless, the potential therapeutic effect of this "defusing process" has not yet been sufficiently established nor demonstrated by any scientific study. A phoning survey was carried out one-month post-terrorist attacks and interviewed the 129 victims who benefited from the "defusing process" conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in order to collect data and assess its effects. These people, whether directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses, whose average age is 35, are mostly living in the Île-de-France region. Most of them present a high score on the IES-R scale, whether they were directly exposed, bereaved relatives or witnesses. Almost all of them (96.5%) experienced at least one medical care contact within this one-month post-trauma period with psychotropic medication for 37% of them. Regarding the defusing conducted by Lyon's medico-psychological unit (CUMP) in the 11th district City Hall of Paris, it appears that 93% of the victims who were looked after indicated that they were satisfied and 87.4% of

  9. Accounting of GHG emissions and removals from forest management: a long road from Kyoto to Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Joachim H A

    2018-01-03

    Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. There have also been strong arguments not to include forests into the accounting system by considering large uncertainties, procedural challenges and a fear of unearned credits corrupting the overall accounting system, among others. This paper reflects the development of respective accounting approaches and reviews the progress made on core challenges and resulting incentives. The historic development of forest management accounting rules is analysed in the light of the Paris Agreement. Pros and cons of different approaches are discussed with specific focus on the challenge to maintain integrity of the accounting approach and on resulting incentives for additional human induced investments to increase growth for future substitution and increased C storage by forest management. The review is solely based on scientific publications and official IPCC and UNFCC documents. Some rather political statements of non-scientific stakeholders are considered to reflect criticism. Such sources are indicated accordingly. Remaining and emerging requirements for an accounting system for post 2030 are highlighted. The Paris Agreement is interpreted as a "game changer" for the role of forests in climate change mitigation. Many countries rely on forests in their NDCs to achieve their self-set targets. In fact, the agreement "to achieve a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century" puts pressure on the entire land sector to contribute to overall

  10. EU Energy Market Development in Light of Fulfilling Obligations from the Paris Climate Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdarevic, N.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Paris Climate Agreement, the Union has set an ambitious goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent below the 1990 level until year 2050. The climate and energy frame of the EU defines goals for 2030 that include at least 40 percent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in comparison with the 1990 level, as well as achieving at least 27 percent share of RES in energy consumption for the entire Union and at least 27 percent improvement of energy efficiency. It is expected that the power sector will give a decisive contribution to decarbonization. It is estimated that, in order to fulfil such goals, the share of low-carbon technologies in energy mix will have to increase from the current 45 percent to 60 percent in 2020, through fulfilling the goal with the RES share, then to 75-80 percent in 2030 and eventually to almost 100 percent in 2050. The bulk of that share will be investments to RES with a variable production (wind and solar power plants; further on addressed as variable RES producers). For the fulfilment of said goals, a structural change of electricity generation sector will be necessary to achieve a significant level of decarbonization in 2030, which will have significant repercussions on the electricity market considering the participation of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. Therefore, it is necessary to start with the transition as soon as possible and to send signals about the vitality of lowering investments into high-carbon technologies to a minimum in the next two decades. In that context, this paper is dedicated to the restructure of electricity generation sector and the reform of electricity market with the purpose of achieving high share of variable RES producers on the wholesale market. After the introduction, the base setting of the Paris Agreement will be pointed out and its influence on the EU electricity market will be examined. After that, the achieved level of electricity market development in the

  11. Phosphorus management in cropping systems of the Paris Basin: From farm to regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Noë, Julia; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    The sustainability of phosphorus (P) fertilization in cropping systems is an important issue because P resources on earth are limited and excess P in soils can lead to ecological damage such as eutrophication. Worldwide, there is an increasing interest in organic farming (OF) due to its good environmental performance. However, organic cropping systems are suspected of generating negative P budgets, which questions their ability to provide sustainable P management. The design of agricultural systems at a broader scale also largely influences the shape of the P cycle and the possibility of its recycling to cropland. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of (i) OF versus conventional farming (CF) practices and (ii) the structure of agro-food systems at the regional scale, on P cycling and availability on cropland. For this purpose, we examined P budgets and soil P status of 14 organic and conventional cropping systems in commercial farms located in the Paris Basin. Available P was analyzed using two different methods: resin P and Olsen P. The results revealed no significant differences between CF and OF in available P stocks. Phosphorus budgets were always negative and significantly lower in CF systems, indicating that P was mined from soil reserves. In parallel, we estimated P budgets over cropland in all French regions for two distinct periods, 2004-2014 and 1970-1981, and showed that specialized intensive cropping systems in the Paris Basin led to a high, positive P budget in the latter period. However, this trend was reversed in the 2004-2014 period due to a sharp reduction of the mineral fertilizer application rate. The shift from very high P budgets to much lower and sometimes negative P budgets would not be a threat for agriculture due to the current high level of Olsen P in these regions, which was consistent with our measurements at the plot scale. Overall, these results suggest that OF would not lead to more P deficiency

  12. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were studied. • Speleothems are

  13. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige, E-mail: epons@lsce.ipsl.fr [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe [CEREMA, 12 rue Teisserenc de Bort, 78190 Trappes (France); Douville, Eric [LSCE (UMR8212, CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Bâtiment 12, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Dumont, Emmanuel [CEREMA, rue de l' égalité Prolongée, 93352, Le Bourget cedex 319 (France)

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th–18th centuries ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.180 +/− 0.003). The mean {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181 +/− 0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183 +/− 0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172 +/− 0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975 +/− 15 years) deposit ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.148 +/− 0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.181 +/− 0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore). - Highlights: • Urban speleothems from underground aqueduct in Paris, France were

  14. Les vitraux de l’École de Pharmacie de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Gatouillat

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L’École de Pharmacie bâtie par Charles-Jean Laisné de 1877 à 1882 le long de l’avenue de l’Observatoire (Paris, 6e a reçu un décor soigné comprenant sculptures, peintures murales et vitraux. L’architecte obtint que la commande des vitraux soit adressée à Émile Hirsch, un peintre verrier parisien avec lequel il avait collaboré régulièrement sur d’autres chantiers. Hirsch livra en 1884 quatre verrières évoquant l’histoire de l’institution, mises en place dans les deux escaliers, et en 1888 un grand vitrail allégorique destiné au fond du vestibule central de l’établissement, depuis déposé. Un complément du décor vitré de cette grande salle avait été prévu pour les fenêtres latérales mais fut finalement abandonné, après que le peintre Albert Besnard, auteur des peintures murales, eût dessiné en 1889 huit vitraux à sujets animaliers. On doit cependant à des initiatives privées la réalisation par Henri Carot de deux verrières tirées des cartons de Besnard.Built from 1877 to 1882 by Charles-Jean Laisné, the main façade of the École de Pharmacie opens onto the Avenue de l’Observatoire (Paris, 6th arr.. The new school was richly decorated with sculpture, wall-painting and stained-glass. According to the architect’s wishes, Émile Hirsch, his collaborator on previous restoration operations, was commissioned for the stained-glass windows. In 1884, the parisian glazier delivered four windows with historical subjects related to the institution, which took place in the two stairways, and in 1888 an allegorical stained-glass for the main hall, now removed. Laisné intended to complete the decoration of this hall with eight new windows, representating animals in their natural surroundings. Designed in 1889 by Albert Besnard, the painter who decorated the walls of this room, they were in fact not executed. But two of them were realized later by Henri Carot for private commissioners.

  15. An Astronomer In The Classroom: Observatoire de Paris's Partnership Between Teachers and Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doressoundiram, A.; Barban, C.

    2006-08-01

    The Observatoire de Paris is offering a partnership between teachers and astronomers. The principle is simple: any teacher wishing to undertake a pedagogical project in astronomy, in the classroom or involving the entire school, can request the help of a mentor. An astronomer from the Observatoire de Paris will then follow the teacher's project progress and offer advice and scientific support throughout the school year. The projects may take different forms: construction projects (models, instruments), lectures, posters, exhibitions, etc. The type of assistance offered is as varied as the projects: lecture(s) in class, telephone and e-mail exchanges, visits to the Observatoire; an almost made-to-measure approach that delighted the thirty or so groups that benefited such partnership in the 2005-2006 academic year. And this number is continuously growing. There was a rich variety of projects undertaken, from mounting a show and building a solar clock to visiting a high altitude observatory, or resolving the mystery of Jupiter's great red spot. The Universe and its mysteries fascinate the young (and the not so- young) and provide a multitude of scientific topics that can be exploited in class. Astronomy offers the added advantage of being a multidisciplinary field. Thus, if most projects are generally initiated by a motivated teacher, they are often taken over by teachers in other subjects: Life and Earth Sciences (SVT), history, mathematics, French, and so forth. The project may consist in an astronomy workshop or be part of the school curriculum. Whatever the case, the astronomer's task is not to replace the teacher or the textbooks, but to propose activities or experiments that are easy to implement. Representing the Solar system on a school-yard scale, for instance, is a perfect way to make youngsters realize that the Universe consists mostly of empty space. There is no shortage of topics, and the students' enthusiasm, seldom absent, is the best reward for the

  16. China's Coming of Age on Climate Change. Just in time for Paris?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure-Schuyer, Aurelie; Seaman, John

    2015-05-01

    The upcoming Paris climate conference (COP21) is opening the door to a new post-2020 climate regime in which China and other large emitters will have to provide strong evidence of their domestic efforts in addressing global warming in the next century. China's domestic climate policy remains consistent in favoring robust action to reduce the country's projected emissions trajectory and its impact on climate change. An increased emphasis on environmental protection at the political level, the identification of clean energy technologies as new strategic industries for China and a push to restructure the country's economy towards less energy-intensive sectors, provide an outlook scenario for a peak in CO 2 emissions by 2030. This was ultimately the target offered by China in its landmark climate agreement with the US in November 2014, which also saw China agreeing to achieve 20% of its energy production from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030. Nevertheless, there are doubts regarding China's willingness to make commitments beyond what it has already announced in the November agreement and the role it will ultimately play in Paris this December. On the one hand, its remaining domestic challenges provide a hefty degree of uncertainty about whether it can achieve the commitments it has already made. A strong political will to combat pollution, for example, does not always translate into decreased emissions at the national level. Moreover, it remains uncertain whether China's vast anti-corruption campaign will ultimately facilitate strong reforms by reinforcing the central government's power, stall the country's bureaucratic machine and thus weaken momentum for reforms, or perhaps even lead to a longer-term political instability. Each of these scenarios will have a different affect on the country's ability to implement climate policy. China's position is also complicated by a unique international stance between an increasingly

  17. Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790–1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barles

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse metabolic interaction between Paris and the Seine during the industrial era, 1790–1970, a period marked by strong population growth, technological changes, and the absence of specific legislation on environmental issues. The viewpoint focuses on exchanges of waters and wastes between city and river, quantifying them and tracing their evolution in the light of the strategies implemented by the stakeholders in charge. The study combines industrial ecology, local history and the history of technology. From 1790 to 1850, waste matters, and especially excreta, were considered as raw materials, not refuse: they generated real profits. The removal of human excreta aimed not only at improving urban hygiene, but at producing the fertilizers needed in rural areas. Discharging them into the river was out of the question. But after the 1860s, several factors upset this exploitation, notably domestic water supply: night soil became more and more liquid, difficult to handle and to turn into fertilizer; once utilised, the water had to be removed from the house; at the same time, the sewerage system developed and had negative impacts on the river. Even so, Parisian engineers continued to process sewage using techniques that would not only ensure hygiene but also conciliate economic and agricultural interests: combined sewerage system and sewage farms. Both of these early periods are thus noteworthy for a relative limitation of the river's deterioration by urban wastes. Not until the 1920s, when domestic water supply had become the standard and excreta came to be considered as worthless waste, was the principle of valorisation abandoned. This led to important and long-lasting pollution of the Seine (despite the construction of a treatment plant, aggravating the industrial pollution that had been in evidence since the 1840s. Analysing the priorities that led to the adoption of one principle or another in matters of urban

  18. Act No. 160 of 17 March 1979 containing regulations approving the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy and its Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 as well as the Brussels Convention of 31 January 1963 supplementary to the Paris Convention and its Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    By this Act the Netherlands approved the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, as well as the Brussels Convention of 1963 Supplementary to that Convention. This Act came into force on 28 December 1979 thus bringing into force on that date the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the Netherlands. (NEA) [fr

  19. Les Vietnamiens de Paris: L’Integration sans l’Assimilation et la Conservation de l’Identite Culturelle (The Vietnamese of Paris: Integration without Assimilation and Conservation of Cultural Identity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-11

    d’une pouss6e de xinophoble, les Asiatiques, vivant A l’abri des citeis interdites miniatures qu’ils ont recre𔃾es notamment a Paris--((Chinatown...du style et de la tradition du Vietnam. Les participants etaient habillegs en costumes tradi- tionnelles en matture de sole avec des couleurs vivantes ...pend du ministehe de l𔄀ducation nationale est l’((apprentissage du vietnamien en tant que langue vivante )>.99 Puisque le crit’ere qui determine le

  20. Simulation of ultrasound propagation in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jonathan J.; Luo, Gangming; Siffert, Robert S.

    2004-10-01

    Ultrasound has been proposed as a means to noninvasively assess bone and, particularly, bone strength and fracture risk, as for example in osteoporosis. Because strength is a function of both mineral density and architecture, ultrasound has the potential to provide more accurate measurement of bone integrity than, for example, with x-ray absorptiometric methods. Although some of this potential has already been realized-a number of clinical devices are presently available-there is still much that is unknown regarding the interaction of ultrasound with bone. Because of the inherent complexity of the propagation medium, few analytic solutions exist with practical application. For this reason, ultrasound simulation techniques have been developed and applied to a number of different problems of interest in ultrasonic bone assessment. Both 2D and 3D simulation results will be presented, including the effects of architecture and density on the received waveform, propagation effects of both cortical and trabecular bone, and the relative contributions of scattering and absorption to attenuation in trabecular bone. The results of these simulation studies should lead to improved understanding and ultimately to more effective clinical devices for ultrasound bone assessment. [This work was supported by The Carroll and Milton Petrie Foundation and by SBIR Grant No. 1R43RR16750 from the National Center for Research Resources of the NIH.

  1. Prediction of fatigue crack growth behaviour of an α-β titanium alloy in Paris-regime using LCF properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, V.K.; Saxena, V.K.; Srinivas, M.

    1993-01-01

    A model has been developed in the recent past to predict fatigue crack growth (FCG) behaviour in the Paris-regime of various steels by employing low cycle fatigue (LCF) properties. The model forms its basis on the assumption that the cyclic damage process immediately ahead of a crack-tip, restricted in a small zone termed as process zone, is identical to those experienced in the LCF loading of a smooth specimen. Within the process zone, fatigue damage has been assumed in terms of product of stress and plastic strain which is analogous to the plastic strain energy density of the smooth specimen under fatigue loading. In this paper the model developed by Kujawski and Ellyin has been used to predict the FCG behaviour of an α-β titanium alloy in the Paris-regime by employing the experimentally obtained LCF properties. The FCG behaviour thus theoretically predicted was compared with the experimentally determined FCG behaviour

  2. Édit de mars 1667 créant la charge de lieutenant de police de Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Denis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available L’édit de mars 1667 créant une charge de « lieutenant de police » à Paris est un document marquant dans l’histoire de la police à plus d’un titre (lire le texte.Le contexte de cette réforme est bien connu. Les disparitions successives du lieutenant criminel du Châtelet puis du lieutenant civil, Dreux d’Aubray, en 1665 et 1666, c’est-à-dire des deux plus importants magistrats du Châtelet de Paris, rendait possible une réforme de grande ampleur de la police dans la capitale. Une section du Con...

  3. Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xueref-Remy, Irène; Dieudonné, Elsa; Vuillemin, Cyrille; Lopez, Morgan; Lac, Christine; Schmidt, Martina; Delmotte, Marc; Chevallier, Frédéric; Ravetta, François; Perrussel, Olivier; Ciais, Philippe; Bréon, François-Marie; Broquet, Grégoire; Ramonet, Michel; Spain, T. Gerard; Ampe, Christophe

    2018-03-01

    Most of the global fossil fuel CO2 emissions arise from urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010-2011, the first atmospheric in situ CO2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, began operating with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast-southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (Traînou - TRN; Montgé-en-Goële - MON), two are peri-urban (Gonesse - GON; Gif-sur-Yvette - GIF) and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel Tower). In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in situ CO2 measurements over nearly 1 year (8 August 2010-13 July 2011). We compare these datasets with remote CO2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD) on the Atlantic coast of Ireland and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH) observations made in the center of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle and the proximity to urban CO2 emissions. Differences of several µmol mol-1 (ppm) can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly residential and commercial heating, and traffic), the more the CO2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two sites with inlets high above ground level (EIF and TRN) show a phase shift of the CO2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends on the time of the day and on

  4. Notes about the Palais des Machines of 1889 in Paris: space, structure and ornament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Linares de la Torre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Palais des Machines of the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889, designed by the architect Charles Louis Ferdinand Dutert (1845-1906 and the engineer Victor Contamin (1840-1893, is undoubtedly an icon of the 19th century architecture: its powerful spatiality, its portentous structure and its straightforward tectonics have rightly received high praise by critics and architects from the second half of the 20th century. However, critical tradition and historiography from the end of the last century have frequently offered a biased interpretation of this work, aimed at underlining certain architectonic values for then presenting them as a direct product of the author’s will. The aim of this article is to explain, altogether and with maximum transparency, how the conjunction between certain circumstantial issues and the will/ability of both authors made possible the construction of one of the most important works of the nineteenth-century architecture. To achieve this, the three most celebrated architectural aspects of the building are analysed: the huge scale of the central space, the particular structural system chosen and the uneven usage of ornament.

  5. The king's animals and the king's books: the illustrations for the Paris Academy's Histoire des animaux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Anita

    2010-07-01

    This essay explores the place of natural philosophy among the patronage projects of Louis XIV, focusing on the Mémoires pour servir a l'histoire naturelle des animaux (or Histoire des animaux) of the 1670s, one of a number of works of natural philosophy to issue from Louis XIV's printing house. Questions particular to the Histoire des animaux include the interaction between text and image, the credibility and authority of images of exotic animals, and the relationship between comparative anatomy and natural history, and between human and animal anatomy. At the same time that the Histoire des animaux contributed to Jean-Baptiste Colbert's management of patronage and of Louis's image, it was a work of natural philosophy, representing the collaborative efforts of the new Paris Academy of Sciences. It examined natural history and comparative anatomy in new ways, and its illustrations broke new ground in their depiction of animals in a natural setting. However, the lavishly formatted books were presentation volumes and did not gain wide circulation until their republication in 1733. Sources consulted include Colbert's manuscript memoires on the royal printers and engravers.

  6. The meaning of city noises: Investigating sound quality in Paris (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniele; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie; Guastavino, Catherine; Maffiolo, Valerie

    2004-05-01

    The sound quality of Paris (France) was investigated by using field inquiries in actual environments (open questionnaires) and using recordings under laboratory conditions (free-sorting tasks). Cognitive categories of soundscapes were inferred by means of psycholinguistic analyses of verbal data and of mathematical analyses of similarity judgments. Results show that auditory judgments mainly rely on source identification. The appraisal of urban noise therefore depends on the qualitative evaluation of noise sources. The salience of human sounds in public spaces has been demonstrated, in relation to pleasantness judgments: soundscapes with human presence tend to be perceived as more pleasant than soundscapes consisting solely of mechanical sounds. Furthermore, human sounds are qualitatively processed as indicators of human outdoor activities, such as open markets, pedestrian areas, and sidewalk cafe districts that reflect city life. In contrast, mechanical noises (mainly traffic noise) are commonly described in terms of physical properties (temporal structure, intensity) of a permanent background noise that also characterizes urban areas. This connotes considering both quantitative and qualitative descriptions to account for the diversity of cognitive interpretations of urban soundscapes, since subjective evaluations depend both on the meaning attributed to noise sources and on inherent properties of the acoustic signal.

  7. Revised Paris and Vienna Nuclear Liability Conventions - Challenges for Nuclear Insurers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2006-01-01

    The revisions recently implemented to both the Vienna and Paris nuclear liability Conventions are intended to widen significantly the amount and scope of compensation payable in the event of a nuclear accident. Whilst this is a laudable objective, the final extent of the revisions leaves nuclear site operators and their insurers with greater uncertainty as a result of the wider and unquantifiable nature of some aspects of the revised nuclear damage definition, in particular where reference is made to environmental reinstatement and extended prescription periods. Incorporating broader definitions in the Convention revisions will therefore leave gaps in the insurance cover where insurers are unable to insure the new, wider scope of cover. If no insurance is available, then the liability for the revised scope of cover must fall upon either the operator or the national Government. This presentation will give an overview of where and why the major gaps in nuclear liability insurance cover will occur in the revised Conventions; it will also examine the problems in defining the revised scope of cover and will look at where these unquantifiable risks should now reside, to ensure there is equity between the liabilities imposed on the nuclear industry and those imposed on other industrial sectors. (author)

  8. [Poisoning with Jatropha curcas: 24 cases reported to Paris and Marseille Poisons Centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Médernach, C; Schmitt, C; Blanc-Brisset, I; Villa, A F; de Haro, L; Garnier, R

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is an inedible plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family that is growing in subtropical zones of all continents. We report a series of 24 cases of poisoning with J. curcas seeds or fruits reported to poison centers in Paris and Marseille between December 2000 and June 2014. Fifteen adults and 9 children ingested J. curcas seeds or fruits. All patients experienced gastrointestinal disorders, within the first hours following ingestion: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Laboratory investigations performed in 10 patients revealed minor abnormalities: CK elevation (8 cases), dehydration (5 cases) with moderate elevation of serum creatinine levels (3 cases), and mildly increased serum bilirubin (8 cases). Complete remission of all clinical signs was observed within 48 hours in the 20 cases for which the outcome was known. Previously published cases of J. curcas poisoning were very similar to ours: As in our series, gastrointestinal disorders were always present. They were sometimes associated with neurological or cardiovascular signs, and hepatic or renal disorders; these were generally interpreted as complications of severe gastroenteritis, although direct toxic effects could not be formally excluded. In most cases, simple supportive measures were sufficient to ensure complete recovery within 24-48 hours. J Curcas poisoning incidence is certainly increasing because the plant is cultivated to produce biodiesel and is now largely present in most subtropical countries. As a consequence, local health professionals should be informed of the toxic properties of this plant.

  9. The pillar of metropolitan greatness: The long making of archeological objects in Paris (1711-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stéphane

    2017-09-01

    Over three centuries after the 1711 discovery in the choir of Notre-Dame in Paris of a square-section stone bas-relief (the Pillar of the Boatmen) with depictions of several deities, both Gaulish and Roman, the blocks comprising it were analyzed as a symbol of Parisian power, if not autonomy, vis-à-vis the Roman Empire. Variously considered as local, national, or imperial representations, the blocks were a constant object of admiration, interrogation, and speculation among antiquarians of the Republic of Letters. They were also boundary objects - products of the emergence of a Parisian archeology dated from 1711. If this science reflected the tensions and ambiguities of a local regime of knowledge situated in a national context, it also helped to coordinate archeological work between different institutions and actors. This paper would like to assess the specific role played by the Pillar of the Boatmen as a fetish object in this process. To what extent could an archeological artifact influence this reshaping of urban representation, this change of scales? By following the three-century career of the pillar's blocks as composite objects, which some have identified as merely stones or a column, it is possible to understand the multiple dimensions that defined the object as archeological - as an artifact that contributed to the relocating of the historical city center - and the multiple approaches that transform existing remains into knowledgeable objects.

  10. Injuries and illnesses during the 2011 Paris European Athletics Indoor Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, P; Depiesse, F; Hertert, P; Branco, P; Alonso, J-M

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to record and analyse incidence and characteristics of injuries and illnesses incurred during the Indoor Athletics Championships. During the 2011 European Indoor Athletics Championships in Paris, incidence and characteristics of new injuries and illnesses were recorded prospectively by physicians and physiotherapists from national teams and local organizing committee in 631 registered athletes. Around 70% of athletes were covered by the medical teams (response rate: 84%). Thirty injuries, including eight time-loss injuries, were reported, representing an incidence of 47.5 injuries and 29.4 time-loss injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Injury and time-loss injury risk were highest in heptathlon and hurdles. Three-quarters of injuries affected the lower extremity. Thigh strain was the most common diagnosis (n = 7; 23%). Noncontact trauma (n = 9; 30%) was the predominant cause. A total of 18 illnesses were reported. Incidence of illnesses was 28.5 per 1000 registered athletes, with 17% resulting in time lost from sport. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common diagnosis (n = 8; 44%) followed by upper respiratory tract allergy (n = 3; 17%) and gastroenteritis (n = 3; 17%). Injury and illness incidence and severity were lower during the 2011 European Indoor Athletics Championships than during outdoor championships, probably due to the shorter duration, the fewer number of events, and shorter sprint distances. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Crystal structure studies with the Paris-Edinburgh cell: Neutron scattering aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, J. S.; Wilson, R. M.; Nelmes, R. J.; Besson, J. M.; Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Hull, S.

    1994-07-01

    The count rates achieved in neutron powder diffraction experiments create difficulties for high-pressure experiments because large sample volumes (˜100 mm3) must be used. Until recently it has been difficult to build suitable pressure cells with such large volumes and hence the maximum pressure for neutron diffraction has remained at the relatively low value of 3 GPa. We have now developed a pressure cell (the Paris-Edinburgh cell) which is capable of exceeding 10 GPa with a sample volume of ˜100 mm3 for use at the U.K. spallation source ISIS. Considerable effort has been devoted to the opimization of the cell, shielding, and detector geometry to enable the best possible data to be recorded. Finite-element calculations to correct for the systematic errors introduced by the attenuation of the pressure-cell materials have been developed and tested. As a result of this work we are now able to obtain accurate structural data to ˜12 GPa and recent studies of phase IV of ND3, the behaviour of the O-D bondlength in D2O ice VIII, and the structural pressure dependence of B4C illustrate the importance of the extension of neutron-diffraction studies to such pressures.

  12. THE EUROPEAN CONGRESS OF RHEUMATOLOGY (PARIS, 11–14 JUNE 2014: PROBLEMS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 15th annual European Congress of Rheumatology took place in Paris in June 2014. Its program was extremely diverse and included a discussion of new data pertinent to the diagnosis and treatment of the most common rheumatic diseases and problems of their etiology and pathogenesis, personified therapy, and many others. The Congress focused on the problems of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A number of papers concerned the efficiency and safety of different therapy regimens for RA at its onset, the discontinuation of biological therapy after achievement of remission, and the maintenance of drug-free RA remission. The Congress discussed new results of the tREACH trial comparing three treatment regimens for early inflammatory arthritis: combined therapy with methotrexate (MT, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine in conjunction with intramuscular glucocorticoids (GC; combined therapy with these drugs in conjunction with oral GC; and MT monotherapy with oral GC. A large number of reports dealt with the use of tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, the evaluation of their immunogenicity, and theanalysis of reasons for therapy discontinuation and adverse reactions. Some aspects of therapy with disease-difying antirheumatic drugs were discussed. A number of reports concerned the application of novel laboratory biomarkers for RA.Thus, sufficiently many new data that will be able to optimize therapy for common rheumatic disease, such as RA, were presented at the Congress.

  13. Health impact of urban air pollution: the case of the metropolitan Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrto, V.; Menut, L.; Chatignoux, E.

    2011-01-01

    Urban meteorology and atmospheric composition has become an issue of great public concern. Mega-cities are areas of great population density and also of high rates of gaseous and particulate matter emission. The health of the residents of such large agglomerations will potentially be influenced by the local air-pollution, its formation and dispersion. Efforts are made to link air-pollution and health. Several questions are open: what is the relative contribution of the ambient air-pollution compared to all other exposure factors? What is the 'real' level of exposure reaching the individuals of a population? Can we distinguish the health effects of multiple- pollutants? To answer to these questions we have developed a modeling framework that maps the exposure of the Parisian population to ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particles at hourly resolution. This integrated model incorporates a meteorological model, a three-dimensional Eulerian air-quality model and a human exposure module. The first results of this modeling effort suggest new epidemiological evidence of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels and mortality over the city of Paris. (authors)

  14. O espaço público do Marais - Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquilino Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PUBLIC SPACE AND URBAN CREATIVITY. THE CASE OF MARAIS, PARIS. The socio-territorial innovation of contemporary cities is forged, to a large extent, in its public spaces. It is mainly there that urban creative milieus are produced. This article discusses the urban creativity generated in urban public space, seen as symbolic resource of local identity as well as a place for meeting, debate, confrontation of ideas and practices. The classic metaphor of the door, which should always be open to allow communication and interaction, is of particular significance in the context of the Parisian Marais neighbourhood, where the public space actually seems to have the door opened, ie, to be the essence of creative milieus developed there. We propose a reading of Marais that emphasizes the sociocultural diversity and tolerance as key factors in the production of relational capital and local socioeconomic dynamics. We stress the intense neighbourly relationships, stimulated by the characteristics of public space, by the creative activities that take place in it and by the modes of governance configuring the neighbourhood. We further underline the important role of virtual social networks in empowerment, recognition and cohesion of the local community.

  15. DOCUMENTARY LETTER OF CREDIT IN THE REGULATION OF 600-PARIS PUBLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILE NEMES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2007 was adopted the Publication no. 600 of Paris regarding the Rules and the Uniform Practices for documentary letters of credit which replaced the Publication no. 500. Publication no. 600 (UCP 600 is applied to all the irrevocable documentary letters of credit when the parties make express reference to these Rules. The Publication no. 600 includes uniform rules, international practices and standards of irrevocable documentary letters of credit. The new Publication has brought a number of changes on the issues regarding the performance of the letters of credit, both in the relationship with the nonbanking institutions participants and in the relationship between the credit institutions participating in the performance of the letter of credit. This study, without being exhaustive, aims to capture the main aspects of novelty brought by the publication no. 600 and their legal approach to the new perspective of the international trade relations. It has in view, in particular, the irrevocable character of the letter of credit, the elaboration method and procedure of the letter of credit, the participants to the unfolding of the specific relationship of the letter of credit and the main duties of the involved credit institutions.

  16. From Paris to Beijing, a 12,000-km cycle tour to see the Olympic Games !

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Two members of CERN’s cycling club have taken up an incredible challenge - that of travelling to the Chinese capital for the inauguration of the Olympic Games this summer by pedal power alone! Peter Dreesen (on the left) and Raymond Cambarrat training in 2007, with the CERN Velo Club. At the Moldova-Ukraine border, on 18 April.Peter Dreesen, an engineer in CERN’s AB-PO Group, and Raymond Cambarrat, a safety officer in TS-AS3, set off "on their own two wheels" from the esplanade of the Trocadéro in Paris, on 16 March. Although approaching retirement, both these members of CERN’s Velo Club are well-trained athletes and have the ambition of completing the 12,000-km journey on their bikes from start to finish, crossing twelve countries on their way and arriving in Beijing five days before the start of the Games. It would all seem a rather hair-brained scheme if it were not for the meticulo...

  17. De Paris a Buenos Aires: imprensa, ideias e intelectuais no Le Monde Diplomatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Sayuri Ogassawara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende expor as relações entre os intelectuais e jornalistas imbricados nas edições latino-americanas e a edição francesa do periódico Le Monde Diplomatique. Fundado em maio de 1954, em Paris, por Hubert Beuve-Méry, Le Monde Diplomatique viu suas páginas e suas ideias se alastrarem mundo afora – em 2013, o magazine tinha 47 edições internacionais, considerado um fenômeno único na imprensa mundial. Ao longo de sua trajetória, Le Monde Diplomatique teve sua linha editorial marcada por diretrizes politizadas, declaradamente antiimperialistas e antineoliberais. A tese desenvolvida focou a versão publicada em Buenos Aires, considerada a principal edição latino-americana, fundada por iniciativa do argentino Carlos Gabetta, diretor de Le Monde Diplomatique Edición Cono Sur entre 1999 e 2011. Ancorado na história dos intelectuais e na história do tempo presente, este artigo aborda as relações entre intelectuais franceses e argentinos na consolidação de uma experiência singular da imprensa.

  18. Implication of Paris Agreement in the context of long-term climate mitigation goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Su, Xuanming; Liu, Jing-Yu; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko; Takimi, Maho

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement confirmed the global aim to achieve a long-term climate goal, in which the global increase in mean temperature is kept below 2 °C compared to the preindustrial level. We investigated the implications of the near-term emissions targets (for around the year 2030) in the context of the long-term climate mitigation goal using the Asia-Pacific Integrated Model framework. To achieve the 2 °C goal, a large greenhouse gas emissions reduction is required, either in the early or latter half of this century. In the mid-term (from 2030 to 2050), it may be necessary to consider rapid changes to the existing energy or socioeconomic systems, while long-term measures (after 2050) will rely on the substantial use of biomass combined with carbon capture and storage technology or afforestation, which will eventually realize so-called negative CO2 emissions. With respect to the policy context, two suggestions are provided here. The first is the review and revision of the nationally determined contributions (NDCs) in 2020, with an additional reduction target to the current NDCs being one workable alternative. The second suggestion is a concrete and numerical mid-term emissions reduction target, for example to be met by 2040 or 2050, which could also help to achieve the long-term climate goal.

  19. Local-scale projections of coral reef futures and implications of the Paris Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooidonk, Ruben; Maynard, Jeffrey; Tamelander, Jerker; Gove, Jamison; Ahmadia, Gabby; Raymundo, Laurie; Williams, Gareth; Heron, Scott F; Planes, Serge

    2016-12-21

    Increasingly frequent severe coral bleaching is among the greatest threats to coral reefs posed by climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) project great spatial variation in the timing of annual severe bleaching (ASB) conditions; a point at which reefs are certain to change and recovery will be limited. However, previous model-resolution projections (~1 × 1°) are too coarse to inform conservation planning. To meet the need for higher-resolution projections, we generated statistically downscaled projections (4-km resolution) for all coral reefs; these projections reveal high local-scale variation in ASB. Timing of ASB varies >10 years in 71 of the 87 countries and territories with >500 km 2 of reef area. Emissions scenario RCP4.5 represents lower emissions mid-century than will eventuate if pledges made following the 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference (COP21) become reality. These pledges do little to provide reefs with more time to adapt and acclimate prior to severe bleaching conditions occurring annually. RCP4.5 adds 11 years to the global average ASB timing when compared to RCP8.5; however, >75% of reefs still experience ASB before 2070 under RCP4.5. Coral reef futures clearly vary greatly among and within countries, indicating the projections warrant consideration in most reef areas during conservation and management planning.

  20. Committed sea-level rise under the Paris Agreement and the legacy of delayed mitigation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Matthias; Nauels, Alexander; Rogelj, Joeri; Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich

    2018-02-20

    Sea-level rise is a major consequence of climate change that will continue long after emissions of greenhouse gases have stopped. The 2015 Paris Agreement aims at reducing climate-related risks by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to net zero and limiting global-mean temperature increase. Here we quantify the effect of these constraints on global sea-level rise until 2300, including Antarctic ice-sheet instabilities. We estimate median sea-level rise between 0.7 and 1.2 m, if net-zero greenhouse gas emissions are sustained until 2300, varying with the pathway of emissions during this century. Temperature stabilization below 2 °C is insufficient to hold median sea-level rise until 2300 below 1.5 m. We find that each 5-year delay in near-term peaking of CO 2 emissions increases median year 2300 sea-level rise estimates by ca. 0.2 m, and extreme sea-level rise estimates at the 95th percentile by up to 1 m. Our results underline the importance of near-term mitigation action for limiting long-term sea-level rise risks.

  1. Nucleaire et Energies Nr 63 - June 2014. 18 months before the Paris Climate Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, Bernard; Ducroux, Guy; Lamorlette, Guy; Seyve, Claude; Simonnet, Jacques; Justin, Francois; Darricau, Aime; Blanc, Jacques; Salanave, Jean-Luc; Raisonnier, Daniele; Deleigne, Francoise

    2014-06-01

    After a first article which evokes the perspective and challenges of the Paris Climate Conference, two articles address energy issues: a discussion of the evolution of the energy sector (challenge of energy transition, evolutions of the energy mix in different countries, shale gases in the USA, Europe and France, electricity prices in France, situation and projects of French energy companies) and an overview of news in the renewable energy sector (in Morocco, Germany and the UK, the second bidding for offshore wind projects in France). Three articles deal with nuclear energy: agreements and projects in Niger, news about various fuel production sites in different countries, overview of the situation of reactors (EPR, China) and decisions on projects and investments in different countries, overview of activities and events related to the back-end of the fuel cycle (notably in different Areva sites) and to decommissioning in different countries. Four articles address societal issues related to nuclear safety and environment (relationships between French nuclear operators and Safety Authorities, the situation of populations around Fukushima, Greenpeace in Fessenheim, the issue of fuel sheath wear, use of rare earth materials in wind turbines), a positive perception of the presence of Areva (after Cogema) in Niger, a scenario for Fessenheim, and the deep disposal Cigeo project

  2. Jaromir Krejcar, technique’s apology. Czechoslovak pavilion at the International Exhibition, Paris 1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pura Moreno Moreno

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available L'Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans les Temps Modernes in Paris (1937 offered, across the construction of their pavilions to each country the opportunity to materialize their technological progress and also to show socio-political factors referred to the art’s integration or aesthetic formalization of their ideologies. In the Czechoslovakian pavilion, made by the architect Jaromir Krejcar, crystallized architectural postulates from the purism, cubism, and new objectivity close to technical aspects driven by the russian constructivism that had been developed during the first decades of the twentieth century in the architecture of the new Czech Republic. Its geographical location, at the crossroads of Europe, had favored the knowledge of avant-garde movements of its two flanks: the Eastern Europe –France, Germany, Austria and Netherlands— on one hand, and the other the Soviet Union. This article will recognize the architectural thought of Krejcar’s generation across the decisions of the pavilion’s project. The characteristics of its emplacement, combined with the moral obligation of showing the high technological level of his country, managed to place it as one of the best examples of that exhibition. Its materialization represent the culmination of previous architectural researches in Czechoslovakia that were truncated from 1939 by the political circumstances.

  3. French Society of Microscopies, 11. Colloquium. SFM Paris 2009. Compilation of summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The 11. conference of the SFM (French Society of Microscopies), held in Paris in 2009, was divided into 14 symposiums, 4 GN-MEBA symposiums, and 10 workshops. The titles of the symposiums are: homage to Nicolas Boisset, advanced microscopies, alternative microscopies, new optical and plasmonic imaging microscopies, dynamic and quantitative microscopy of the living matter, photonic and correlative electronic microscopy, near field microscopy, molecular and cellular electronic cryo-microscopy, cellular compartmentation and dynamics (CFPU), microscopy and materials, dynamical microscopy in materials science, minerals/bio-minerals and environment, structure and properties of nano-materials, sub-eV and sub-nm chemical bonds imaging. The titles of the GN-MEBA symposiums are: microscopy and metals, microscopy and minerals, microscopy and living beings, microscopy and new materials. The titles of the workshops are: Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy (CLEM), Cryo and electronic tomography in cellular biology, Cryo electronic microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), ULTRASTEM, Digital Micrograph programming, Cryo-Microscopy and molecular tomography, Cryo-ultra-microtomy and immuno-marking, FIB, ASTAR(EBSD-MET) - rapid mapping of crystalline orientations and phases

  4. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wang; Zhang Di; Fan Tongxiang; Ding Jian; Gu Jiajun; Guo Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas

  5. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wang [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Zhang Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn; Fan Tongxiang; Ding Jian; Gu Jiajun [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Guo Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas.

  6. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  7. BRAND “BALI SHANTI” PADA MEDIA PROMOSI PARIWISATA PEMERINTAH INDONESIA DI PARIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Erinda Putri Moniaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines promotional print media on Bali in form of pamphlet and folder made by the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia to Paris and the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy of the Republic of Indonesia. The aims were to recognize the messages conveyed by both medias and whether the meaning of Bali’s branding, Bali Shanti (Bali Peace, could be delivered or not. The method used in this research were discourse analysis with semiotical approach, and Barthes’s semiotics theory was used as primary theory. The message of Bali Shanti brand is about peace and harmony, since this brand was created to restore the image of the island of Gods after the Bali Bombing in 2002 and 2005. After the analysis, it was found that the pamphlet conveyed to the readers that Bali is a peaceful island with unique culture based on Balinese Hindu religion, thus, this media could transmit the message of Bali Shanti. Meanwhile, the folder expressed Bali as an island with lots of beautiful nature destinations and has exceptional culture, but the message of Bali Shanti brand could not be delivered to the audience.

  8. [Social problems encountered during prenatal care in a Paris maternity ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguler, A; Alfaro, C; Bonniaus, G; Renders, P; Blot, P; Brodin, M; Lombrail, P

    1998-06-01

    In 1993, about 2,600 children are born in Robert Debré Hospital (RDH), a hospital specialized in pediatrics and obstetrics located in Paris. One hundred and seventy nine of the mothers contacted the hospital social service during pregnancy. The main goal of this study was to describe the social problems encountered by these women and the solutions proposed by the social service of RDH. The second aim was to describe the socio-demographic profile and medical problems of this population. At first contact, 45% of the women had no social coverage, and only 18% had a steady job. Most social problems were related to administrative procedures. Financial and housing problems were more difficult to solve in this context. These figures reflect the growing problem of precarity, with its consequences. A hospital social service is not the right place to solve these very complex problems. The most worrisome point is that the living conditions of newborn children are often unknown after delivery.

  9. A retrospective study of daptomycin use in a Paris teaching-hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, F; Esquirol, C; Papy, E; Longuet, P; Armand-Lefevre, L; Rioux, C; Diamantis, S; Dumortier, C; Bourgeois-Nicolaos, N; Lucet, J-C; Wolff, M; Arnaud, P

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively studied daptomycin use during 2010 at the Bichat-Claude-Bernard teaching-hospital (Paris) to observe the evolution of daptomycin prescriptions. Twenty-one patients were included and several parameters were documented: site of infection, bacterial species involved, reason for daptomycin use, dose and clinical outcome. Ninety-five percent of daptomycin prescritions were off-label and most did not comply with local guidelines. Fifteen of the 21 patients were cured (71%), including 9 patients of the 12 with off-label and off-local recommendation prescriptions (75%). Osteitis and Enterococcus spp endocarditis were the new indications. Daptomycin was increasingly used at higher doses: 52% of our patients were given doses above 6mg/kg. Staphylococcus spp. was the most frequent pathogen responsible for infection is our patients, followed by Enterococcus spp. Daptomycin use is likely to evolve because of its effectiveness in the treatment of osteitis, left-sided and Enterococcus spp. infective endocarditis. It is generally used at higher doses, which are well tolerated. However, therapeutic monitoring needs to be developed. The antibiotic commission of our hospital gave new recommendations for daptomycin use in 2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary inadequacies observed in homeless men visiting an emergency night shelter in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, N; Coupel, J; Deheeger, M; Briend, A

    2001-04-01

    To assess the dietary intake and the nutritional status of homeless men. A night emergency shelter in Paris, France. Dietary survey (48-h) including alcohol intake and a questionnaire on age, duration of homelessness, smoking habits. Subjects were also weighed and measured. Ninety-seven men aged 18-72 years (mean 43.3), of whom 54% were homeless for more than 18 months, 82% were smokers and 53% were regular and/or excessive drinkers. The BMI distribution was shifted towards low values, the percentage of wasted persons being four times higher than in the reference population. The mean total energy intake was 2376 kcal and included a high and highly variable percentage of energy derived from alcohol (12.0% Among drinkers, the mean ethanol intake was 90 g and there was a significant negative correlation between ethanol and non-alcoholic energy intakes. The median intakes of potassium, calcium, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, and niacin were lower than European Population Reference Intakes but only the mean intake of vitamin B1 was significantly lower. Eighty percent of non-alcoholic energy was provided by charitable organisations. For most nutrients, the nutritional density of the shelter ration was not significantly different from the density of the foods purchased by the homeless. These data suggest that the content of some nutrients should be increased in existing food assistance programs for homeless people in France.

  11. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  12. Epidemiological Profile of Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Patients in Northern Paris: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senard, Olivia; Burdet, Charles; Visseaux, Benoit; Charpentier, Charlotte; Le Gac, Sylvie; Julia, Zélie; Lariven, Sylvie; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Yeni, Patrick; Joly, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    In attempt to identify the factors associated with delayed diagnosis during HIV infection, we studied retrospectively the epidemiological profile of HIV-infected patients diagnosed between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 and followed in our clinical center in Paris. Data were compared to those obtained at the same site during the year 2003. One hundred eighty-six patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria: 49 (26%) had a CD4 count HIV diagnosis (45% vs. 3%), had been infected more often through heterosexual contact (69% vs. 44%), had less frequently past HIV testing (23% vs. 63%), and tended to live in less favorable conditions. A higher proportion of these patients initiated antiretroviral therapy in the 3 months following diagnosis (93.9% vs. 48.1%). Compared to data obtained in 161 patients in 2003, the proportions of advanced patients were similar between the two periods (26% vs. 22%). There was a significant increase from year 2003 to the 2012-2013 period in the proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) (50% vs. 27%) and in the percentage of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B (48% vs. 27%) and with positive syphilis serology (22% vs. 8%). Our data show that (1) HIV screening should be extended to populations with the following characteristics: older age, heterosexuality, and low socioeconomic level, and (2) HIV transmission continues to progress in MSM, arguing for the value of preexposure prophylaxis.

  13. Diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of atmospheric CO2 in the Paris megacity area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Xueref-Remy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global fossil fuel CO2 emissions arise from urbanized and industrialized areas. Bottom-up inventories quantify them but with large uncertainties. In 2010–2011, the first atmospheric in situ CO2 measurement network for Paris, the capital of France, began operating with the aim of monitoring the regional atmospheric impact of the emissions coming from this megacity. Five stations sampled air along a northeast–southwest axis that corresponds to the direction of the dominant winds. Two stations are classified as rural (Traînou – TRN; Montgé-en-Goële – MON, two are peri-urban (Gonesse – GON; Gif-sur-Yvette – GIF and one is urban (EIF, located on top of the Eiffel Tower. In this study, we analyze the diurnal, synoptic and seasonal variability of the in situ CO2 measurements over nearly 1 year (8 August 2010–13 July 2011. We compare these datasets with remote CO2 measurements made at Mace Head (MHD on the Atlantic coast of Ireland and support our analysis with atmospheric boundary layer height (ABLH observations made in the center of Paris and with both modeled and observed meteorological fields. The average hourly CO2 diurnal cycles observed at the regional stations are mostly driven by the CO2 biospheric cycle, the ABLH cycle and the proximity to urban CO2 emissions. Differences of several µmol mol−1 (ppm can be observed from one regional site to the other. The more the site is surrounded by urban sources (mostly residential and commercial heating, and traffic, the more the CO2 concentration is elevated, as is the associated variability which reflects the variability of the urban sources. Furthermore, two sites with inlets high above ground level (EIF and TRN show a phase shift of the CO2 diurnal cycle of a few hours compared to lower sites due to a strong coupling with the boundary layer diurnal cycle. As a consequence, the existence of a CO2 vertical gradient above Paris can be inferred, whose amplitude depends

  14. "Zweckoptimismus" and the Paris process will not save the world from climate catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clémençon, Raymond

    2018-03-01

    Politicians, government officials, business representatives, and nongovernmental climate activists all in various ways emphasize what they see as progress being made in the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, even if they continue to warn of the dire consequences of business as usual. Indeed, there is no lack of encouraging private and public sector initiatives on climate change. Some macro trends seem to be moving in the right direction, as well. But, closer scrutiny shows that these positive trends are still far from adding up to the necessary fundamental shift in the global energy economy. Furthermore, the public may greatly overestimate the advancement of renewable solar and wind energy technology, which contributes to a false sense of progress and lessens political urgency. Without determined and reinvigorated political leadership from the European Union (EU), there is little hope that necessary emission reduction goals to stay below 2 °C above preindustrial levels can be met. The EU has driven international climate policy from the beginning of climate negotiations, and there is unfortunately no other source of leadership in sight. It will require difficult political decisions to be taken sooner rather than later to force a much quicker domestic energy transition and to raise financing to help developing countries with their own energy transition and adaptation to a rapidly warming world. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:198-201. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  15. Tales of Two Cities: Architecture, Print and Early Guidebooks to Paris and London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McKellar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This pioneering paper is the first to consider the contribution of a new type of urban literature to perceptions and portrayals of the city in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It focuses on London and Parisian guidebooks, a genre that has been little studied to date, particularly those of: Germaine Brice, Description nouvelle de ce qui’il ya de plus remarquable dans la Ville de Paris (1684; F. Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693; and Edward Hatton, A New View of London (1708. The article is the first to establish the significance of language primers as source for tourist guidebooks and the prevalence of lexicographers among those producing them. It examines the modern type of non-antiquarian urban guidebook as part of the new urban consumer culture. It also explores the genre’s contribution to a novel form in the writing and understanding of the city in the period focussed on the contemporary and the experiential, rather than the traditional orientation towards the historical and the monumental.

  16. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  17. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  18. [Violence for educational purpose: Representations of general practitioners in the Paris area, France. A qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brie, Claire; Piet, Emmanuelle; Chariot, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Violence for educational purpose refers to a modality of education that includes threats, verbal abuse, physical abuse and humiliations. Twenty European countries, not including France, have abolished corporal punishment through explicit laws and regulations. The position of general practitioners in the screening and care of violence for educational purpose in France is unknown. In this study, we aimed to assess the representations of this form of violence among general practitioners. We have performed semi-directed interviews of general practitioners in the Paris, France region (Île-de-France). Interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed by two investigators. Interviews were conducted with 20 physicians (November 2015-January 2016). General practitioners considered that physical, verbal or psychological abuse had possible negative consequences on children. Uncertainty regarding the consequences of violence was a cause of tolerance towards violence for educational purpose, depending on the act committed and the context, as perceived by nearly all practitioners. General practitioners expressed interest in the field. They cited their own education and experience as the main obstacles to action. Most of them expressed a feeling of failure when they screened or took care of violence for educational purpose. This study suggests that doctors can participate in supporting the parents in the prevention of violence for educational purpose. Support to parents would need specific medical training as well as a societal change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Pseudo-radar algorithms with two extremely wet months of disdrometer data in the Paris area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2018-05-01

    Disdrometer data collected during the two extremely wet months of May and June 2016 at the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech are used to get insights on radar algorithms. The rain rate and pseudo-radar quantities (horizontal and vertical reflectivity, specific differential phase shift) are all estimated over several durations with the help of drop size distributions (DSD) collected at 30 s time steps. The pseudo-radar quantities are defined with simplifying hypotheses, in particular on the DSD homogeneity. First it appears that the parameters of the standard radar relations Zh - R, R - Kdp and R - Zh - Zdr for these pseudo-radar quantities exhibit strong variability between events and even within an event. Second an innovative methodology that relies on checking the ability of a given algorithm to reproduce the good scale invariant multifractal behaviour (on scales 30 s - few h) observed on rainfall time series is implemented. In this framework, the classical hybrid model (Zh - R for low rain rates and R - Kdp for great ones) performs best, as well as the local estimates of the radar relations' parameters. However, we emphasise that due to the hypotheses on which they rely these observations cannot be straightforwardly extended to real radar quantities.

  20. Studies of the impact of gas turbines in the Paris region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millancourt, B

    1993-02-01

    Studies of the impact of gas turbines in the Paris region: Assessment of the current air quality on the Vitry/Seine, Vaires/Marne and Champagne/Oise sites. Environmental impact assessments concerning gas turbines must include an air quality evaluation of the sites used as reference state (`zero point`). The criteria selected are based on terms covered by the regulations in force, i.e., firstly: - the annual mean and median (for SO{sub 2}); - the frequency with which the limit is exceeded during one year (for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}) and, secondly, the characteristics of pollution peaks which could occur during periods in which the gas turbines are in operation: the amplitude of hourly peaks and the times at which these peaks occur. These factors were determined, when available files contained adequate information, for the three potential sites at Vitry, Vaires and Champagne/Oise using data from three multi-parameter stations in the AIRPARIF network (Creteil, Vitry/Seine and Champs/Marne) and that from the ``strong acidity`` network used to monitor the atmosphere around the Champagne/Oise power plant. (author). 6 annexes. tabs.