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Sample records for simulated patients evaluation

  1. Evaluation of the airway of the SimMan full-scale patient simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselfeldt, R; Kristensen, M S; Rasmussen, L S

    2005-01-01

    SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated.......SimMan is a full-scale patient simulator, capable of simulating normal and pathological airways. The performance of SimMan has never been critically evaluated....

  2. Simulated patient training: Using inter-rater reliability to evaluate simulated patient consistency in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Sharon; Geddes, Fiona; Kelly, Michelle; Della, Phillip

    2018-03-01

    Simulated patients (SPs) are frequently used for training nursing students in communication skills. An acknowledged benefit of using SPs is the opportunity to provide a standardized approach by which participants can demonstrate and develop communication skills. However, relatively little evidence is available on how to best facilitate and evaluate the reliability and accuracy of SPs' performances. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of an evidenced based SP training framework to ensure standardization of SPs. The training framework was employed to improve inter-rater reliability of SPs. A quasi-experimental study was employed to assess SP post-training understanding of simulation scenario parameters using inter-rater reliability agreement indices. Two phases of data collection took place. Initially a trial phase including audio-visual (AV) recordings of two undergraduate nursing students completing a simulation scenario is rated by eight SPs using the Interpersonal Communication Assessments Scale (ICAS) and Quality of Discharge Teaching Scale (QDTS). In phase 2, eight SP raters and four nursing faculty raters independently evaluated students' (N=42) communication practices using the QDTS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were >0.80 for both stages of the study in clinical communication skills. The results support the premise that if trained appropriately, SPs have a high degree of reliability and validity to both facilitate and evaluate student performance in nurse education. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists' gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). The quality of the pharmacists' consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement.

  4. Clinical simulation as an evaluation method in health informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    Safe work processes and information systems are vital in health care. Methods for design of health IT focusing on patient safety are one of many initiatives trying to prevent adverse events. Possible patient safety hazards need to be investigated before health IT is integrated with local clinical...... work practice including other technology and organizational structure. Clinical simulation is ideal for proactive evaluation of new technology for clinical work practice. Clinical simulations involve real end-users as they simulate the use of technology in realistic environments performing realistic...... tasks. Clinical simulation study assesses effects on clinical workflow and enables identification and evaluation of patient safety hazards before implementation at a hospital. Clinical simulation also offers an opportunity to create a space in which healthcare professionals working in different...

  5. Development, implementation and pilot evaluation of a Web-based Virtual Patient Case Simulation environment--Web-SP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zary, Nabil; Johnson, Gunilla; Boberg, Jonas; Fors, Uno G H

    2006-02-21

    The Web-based Simulation of Patients (Web-SP) project was initiated in order to facilitate the use of realistic and interactive virtual patients (VP) in medicine and healthcare education. Web-SP focuses on moving beyond the technology savvy teachers, when integrating simulation-based education into health sciences curricula, by making the creation and use of virtual patients easier. The project strives to provide a common generic platform for design/creation, management, evaluation and sharing of web-based virtual patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if it was possible to develop a web-based virtual patient case simulation environment where the entire case authoring process might be handled by teachers and which would be flexible enough to be used in different healthcare disciplines. The Web-SP system was constructed to support easy authoring, management and presentation of virtual patient cases. The case authoring environment was found to facilitate for teachers to create full-fledged patient cases without the assistance of computer specialists. Web-SP was successfully implemented at several universities by taking into account key factors such as cost, access, security, scalability and flexibility. Pilot evaluations in medical, dentistry and pharmacy courses shows that students regarded Web-SP as easy to use, engaging and to be of educational value. Cases adapted for all three disciplines were judged to be of significant educational value by the course leaders. The Web-SP system seems to fulfil the aim of providing a common generic platform for creation, management and evaluation of web-based virtual patient cases. The responses regarding the authoring environment indicated that the system might be user-friendly enough to appeal to a majority of the academic staff. In terms of implementation strengths, Web-SP seems to fulfil most needs from course directors and teachers from various educational institutions and disciplines. The system is currently in

  6. An Evaluation of Navy En Route Care Training Using a High-Fidelity Medical Simulation Scenario of Interfacility Patient Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Christine A; Blackman, Virginia; Alex, John E; Reeves, Lauren; Mora, Alejandra; Perez, Crystal; Maddry, Joseph; Selby, Domenique; Walrath, Benjamin

    2018-03-14

    Military prehospital and en route care (ERC) directly impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Provider knowledge and skills are critical variables in the effectiveness of ERC. No Navy doctrine defines provider choice for patient transport or requires standardized provider training. Frequently, Search and Rescue Medical Technicians (SMTs) and Navy Nurses (ERC RNs) are tasked with this mission though physicians have also been used. Navy ERC provider training varies greatly by professional role. Historically, evaluations of ERC and patient outcomes have been based on retrospective analyses of incomplete data sets that provide limited insight on ERC practices. Little evidence exists to determine if current training is adequate to care for the most common injuries seen in combat trauma patients. Simulation technology facilitates a standardized patient encounter to enable complete, prospective data collection while studying provider type as the independent variable. Information acquired through skill performance observation can be used to make evidence-based recommendations to improve ERC training. This IRB approved multi-center study funded through a Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program grant from the Combat Casualty Care Intramural Research Joint En Route Care portfolio evaluated Navy ERC providers. The study evaluated 84 SMT, ERC RN, and physician participants in the performance of critical and secondary actions during an immersive, high-fidelity, patient transport simulation scenario focused on the care during an interfacility transfer. Simulation evaluators with military ERC expertise, blinded to participant training and background, graded each participant's performance. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's Kappa to evaluate concordance between evaluator assessments. Categorical data were reported as frequencies and percentages. Performance attempt and accuracy rates were compared with likelihood ratio chi-square or Fisher's exact test

  7. Visualization and simulation techniques for surgical simulators using actual patient's data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzky, Arne; Nürnberger, Andreas

    2002-11-01

    Because of the increasing complexity of surgical interventions research in surgical simulation became more and more important over the last years. However, the simulation of tissue deformation is still a challenging problem, mainly due to the short response times that are required for real-time interaction. The demands to hard and software are even larger if not only the modeled human anatomy is used but the anatomy of actual patients. This is required if the surgical simulator should be used as training medium for expert surgeons rather than students. In this article, suitable visualization and simulation methods for surgical simulation utilizing actual patient's datasets are described. Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of direct and indirect volume rendering for the visualization are discussed and a neuro-fuzzy system is described, which can be used for the simulation of interactive tissue deformations. The neuro-fuzzy system makes it possible to define the deformation behavior based on a linguistic description of the tissue characteristics or to learn the dynamics by using measured data of real tissue. Furthermore, a simulator for minimally-invasive neurosurgical interventions is presented that utilizes the described visualization and simulation methods. The structure of the simulator is described in detail and the results of a system evaluation by an experienced neurosurgeon--a quantitative comparison between different methods of virtual endoscopy as well as a comparison between real brain images and virtual endoscopies--are given. The evaluation proved that the simulator provides a higher realism of the visualization and simulation then other currently available simulators. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Development, implementation and pilot evaluation of a Web-based Virtual Patient Case Simulation environment – Web-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boberg Jonas

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Web-based Simulation of Patients (Web-SP project was initiated in order to facilitate the use of realistic and interactive virtual patients (VP in medicine and healthcare education. Web-SP focuses on moving beyond the technology savvy teachers, when integrating simulation-based education into health sciences curricula, by making the creation and use of virtual patients easier. The project strives to provide a common generic platform for design/creation, management, evaluation and sharing of web-based virtual patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate if it was possible to develop a web-based virtual patient case simulation environment where the entire case authoring process might be handled by teachers and which would be flexible enough to be used in different healthcare disciplines. Results The Web-SP system was constructed to support easy authoring, management and presentation of virtual patient cases. The case authoring environment was found to facilitate for teachers to create full-fledged patient cases without the assistance of computer specialists. Web-SP was successfully implemented at several universities by taking into account key factors such as cost, access, security, scalability and flexibility. Pilot evaluations in medical, dentistry and pharmacy courses shows that students regarded Web-SP as easy to use, engaging and to be of educational value. Cases adapted for all three disciplines were judged to be of significant educational value by the course leaders. Conclusion The Web-SP system seems to fulfil the aim of providing a common generic platform for creation, management and evaluation of web-based virtual patient cases. The responses regarding the authoring environment indicated that the system might be user-friendly enough to appeal to a majority of the academic staff. In terms of implementation strengths, Web-SP seems to fulfil most needs from course directors and teachers from various educational

  9. An interprofessional course using human patient simulation to teach patient safety and teamwork skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Deepti; McCulloh, Russell; Dyer, Carla; Gregory, Gretchen; Higbee, Dena

    2012-05-10

    To assess the effectiveness of human patient simulation to teach patient safety, team-building skills, and the value of interprofessional collaboration to pharmacy students. Five scenarios simulating semi-urgent situations that required interprofessional collaboration were developed. Groups of 10 to 12 health professions students that included 1 to 2 pharmacy students evaluated patients while addressing patient safety hazards. Pharmacy students' scores on 8 of 30 items on a post-simulation survey of knowledge, skills, and attitudes improved over pre-simulation scores. Students' scores on 3 of 10 items on a team building and interprofessional communications survey also improved after participating in the simulation exercise. Over 90% of students reported that simulation increased their understanding of professional roles and the importance of interprofessional communication. Simulation training provided an opportunity to improve pharmacy students' ability to recognize and react to patient safety concerns and enhanced their interprofessional collaboration and communication skills.

  10. Simulation studies for the evaluation of health information technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammenwerth, Elske; Hackl, Werner; Binzer, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    It is essential for new health information technologies (IT) to undergo rigorous evaluations to ensure they are effective and safe for use in real-world situations. However, evaluation of new health IT is challenging, as field studies are often not feasible when the technology being evaluated...... is not sufficiently mature. Laboratory-based evaluations have also been shown to have insufficient external validity. Simulation studies seem to be a way to bridge this gap. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using a simulation methodology, the impact of a new prototype of an electronic medication management...... system on the appropriateness of prescriptions and drugrelated activities, including laboratory test ordering or medication changes. This article presents the results of a controlled simulation study with 50 simulation runs, including ten doctors and five simulation patients, and discusses experiences...

  11. Use of simulated patients to evaluate combined oral contraceptive dispensing practices of community pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roque Obreli-Neto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs (with counseled audio recording visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21(® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg. The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients' medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2% agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional, and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., "do you smoke?" (n = 2 and "what is your age?" (n = 1. None of the CPs measured the patient's blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs, and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. CONCLUSION: The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure.

  12. Intern as Patient: A Patient Experience Simulation to Cultivate Empathy in Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara W. Nelson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Prior work links empathy and positive physician-patient relationships to improved healthcare outcomes. The objective of this study was to analyze a patient experience simulation for emergency medicine (EM interns as a way to teach empathy and conscientious patient care. Methods We conducted a qualitative descriptive study on an in situ, patient experience simulation held during EM residency orientation. Half the interns were patients brought into the emergency department (ED by ambulance and half were family members. Interns then took part in focus groups that discussed the experience. Data collected during these focus groups were coded by two investigators using a grounded theory approach and constant comparative methodology. Results We identified 10 major themes and 28 subthemes in the resulting qualitative data. Themes were in three broad categories: the experience as a patient or family member in the ED; application to current clinical practice; and evaluation of the exercise itself. Interns experienced firsthand the physical discomfort, emotional stress and confusion patients and families endure during the ED care process. They reflected on lessons learned, including the importance of good communication skills, frequent updates on care and timing, and being responsive to the needs and concerns of patients and families. All interns felt this was a valuable orientation experience. Conclusion Conducting a patient experience simulation may be a practical and effective way to develop empathy in EM resident physicians. Additional research evaluating the effect of participation in the simulation over a longer time period and assessing the effects on residents’ actual clinical care is warranted.

  13. Intensive care unit nurses' evaluation of simulation used for team training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballangrud, Randi; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Hedelin, Birgitta; Persenius, Mona

    2014-07-01

    To implement a simulation-based team training programme and to investigate intensive care nurses' evaluations of simulation used for team training. Simulation-based training is recommended to make health care professionals aware of and understand the importance of teamwork related to patient safety. The study was based on a questionnaire evaluation design. A total of 63 registered nurses were recruited: 53 from seven intensive care units in four hospitals in one hospital trust and 10 from an intensive care postgraduate education programme. After conducting a simulation-based team training programme with two scenarios related to emergency situations in the intensive care, the participants evaluated each simulation activity with regard to: (i) outcome of satisfaction and self-confidence in learning, (ii) implementation of educational practice and (iii) simulation design/development. Intensive care nurses were highly satisfied with their simulation-based learning, and they were mostly in agreement with the statements about self-confidence in learning. They were generally positive in their evaluation of the implementation of the educational practice and the simulation design/development. Significant differences were found with regard to scenario roles, prior simulation experience and area of intensive care practice. The study indicates a positive reception of a simulation-based programme with regard to team training in emergency situations in an intensive care unit. The findings may motivate and facilitate the use of simulation for team training to promote patient safety in intensive care and provide educators with support to develop and improve simulation-based training programmes. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  14. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  15. Clinical Simulation: A Protocol for Evaluation of Mobile Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Carey; Jensen, Sanne; Cummings, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    For mobile technology to be accepted at point of care in healthcare environments there is a need to demonstrate benefits whilst ameliorating the risks and challenges. To provide a standardised approach to evaluation of mobile technology a simulation protocol was developed to provide guidance for its use in healthcare environments. Simulated conditions provide the opportunity to assess intended and unintended consequences and identify potential workarounds when using technology. The protocol can also be used to demonstrate the importance of the development of digital professionalism by end-users prior to students entering the clinical practice setting. The mobile technology protocol was adapted from a health information systems protocol developed and used at the ITX Lab, Denmark for use in other simulation laboratories. Use case scenarios were developed to enable evaluation of mobile technology for mobile learning of nurses, nurse supervisors, students and patients. The scenarios can be used in a range of simulated environments including hospital bedside, outpatient clinic or community settings. A case study exemplar of a nurse and patient is included to demonstrate how the mobile technology protocol can be applied.

  16. Evaluating organ delineation, dose calculation and daily localization in an open-MRI simulation workflow for prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemer, Anthony; Chetty, Indrin J; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Nurushev, Teamour; Hearshen, David; Pantelic, Milan; Traughber, Melanie; Kim, Joshua; Levin, Kenneth; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Walker, Eleanor; Movsas, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study describes initial testing and evaluation of a vertical-field open Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner for the purpose of simulation in radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We have evaluated the clinical workflow of using open MRI as a sole modality for simulation and planning. Relevant results related to MRI alignment (vs. CT) reference dataset with Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) for daily localization are presented. Ten patients participated in an IRB approved study utilizing MRI along with CT simulation with the intent of evaluating the MRI-simulation process. Differences in prostate gland volume, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb were assessed with MRI and compared to CT. To evaluate dose calculation accuracy, bulk-density-assignments were mapped onto respective MRI datasets and treated IMRT plans were re-calculated. For image localization purposes, 400 CBCTs were re-evaluated with MRI as the reference dataset and daily shifts compared against CBCT-to-CT registration. Planning margins based on MRI/CBCT shifts were computed using the van Herk formalism. Significant organ contour differences were noted between MRI and CT. Prostate volumes were on average 39.7% (p = 0.002) larger on CT than MRI. No significant difference was found in seminal vesicle volumes (p = 0.454). Penile bulb volumes were 61.1% higher on CT, without statistical significance (p = 0.074). MRI-based dose calculations with assigned bulk densities produced agreement within 1% with heterogeneity corrected CT calculations. The differences in shift positions for the cohort between CBCT-to-CT registration and CBCT-to-MRI registration are −0.15 ± 0.25 cm (anterior-posterior), 0.05 ± 0.19 cm (superior-inferior), and −0.01 ± 0.14 cm (left-right). This study confirms the potential of using an open-field MRI scanner as primary imaging modality for prostate cancer treatment planning simulation, dose calculations and daily image localization

  17. Discrete event simulation modelling of patient service management with Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, Elena; Varfolomeyeva, Tatyana; Efimova, Irina; Movchan, Irina

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes the simulation modeling methodology aimed to aid in solving the practical problems of the research and analysing the complex systems. The paper gives the review of a simulation platform sand example of simulation model development with Arena 15.0 (Rockwell Automation).The provided example of the simulation model for the patient service management helps to evaluate the workload of the clinic doctors, determine the number of the general practitioners, surgeons, traumatologists and other specialized doctors required for the patient service and develop recommendations to ensure timely delivery of medical care and improve the efficiency of the clinic operation.

  18. Evaluation of patient dose using a virtual CT scanner: Applications to 4DCT simulation and Kilovoltage cone-beam imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMarco, J J; Agazaryan, N; McNitt-Gray, M F; Cagnon, C H; Angel, E; Zankl, M

    2008-01-01

    This work evaluates the effects of patient size on radiation dose from simulation imaging studies such as four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) and kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT). 4DCT studies are scans that include temporal information, frequently incorporating highly over-sampled imaging series necessary for retrospective sorting as a function of respiratory phase. This type of imaging study can result in a significant dose increase to the patient due to the slower table speed as compared with a conventional axial or helical scan protocol. Kilovoltage cone-beam imaging is a relatively new imaging technique that requires an on-board kilovoltage x-ray tube and a flat-panel detector. Instead of porting individual reference fields, the kV tube and flat-panel detector are rotated about the patient producing a cone-beam CT data set (kV-CBCT). To perform these investigations, we used Monte Carlo simulation methods with detailed models of adult patients and virtual source models of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. The GSF family of three-dimensional, voxelized patient models, were implemented as input files using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX. The adult patient models represent a range of patient sizes and have all radiosensitive organs previously identified and segmented. Simulated 4DCT scans of each voxelized patient model were performed using a multi-detector CT source model that includes scanner specific spectra, bow-tie filtration, and helical source path. Standard MCNPX tally functions were applied to each model to estimate absolute organ dose based upon an air-kerma normalization measurement for nominal scanner operating parameters

  19. Test of a Cardiology Patient Simulator with Students in Fourth-Year Electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewy, Gordon A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Students at five medical schools participated in an evaluation of a cardiology patient simulator (CPS), a life-size mannequin capable of simulating a wide variety of cardiovascular conditions. The CPS enhances learning both the knowledge and the skills necessary to perform a bedside cardiovascular evaluation. (Author/MLW)

  20. Evaluation of an improved method of simulating lung nodules in chest tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Allansdotter Johnsson, Aase; Vikgren, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Background Simulated pathology is a valuable complement to clinical images in studies aiming at evaluating an imaging technique. In order for a study using simulated pathology to be valid, it is important that the simulated pathology in a realistic way reflect the characteristics of real pathology. Purpose To perform a thorough evaluation of a nodule simulation method for chest tomosynthesis, comparing the detection rate and appearance of the artificial nodules with those of real nodules in an observer performance experiment. Material and Methods A cohort consisting of 64 patients, 38 patients with a total of 129 identified pulmonary nodules and 26 patients without identified pulmonary nodules, was used in the study. Simulated nodules, matching the real clinically found pulmonary nodules by size, attenuation, and location, were created and randomly inserted into the tomosynthesis section images of the patients. Three thoracic radiologists and one radiology resident reviewed the images in an observer performance study divided into two parts. The first part included nodule detection and the second part included rating of the visual appearance of the nodules. The results were evaluated using a modified receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results The sensitivities for real and simulated nodules were comparable, as the area under the modified ROC curve (AUC) was close to 0.5 for all observers (range, 0.43-0.55). Even though the ratings of visual appearance for real and simulated nodules overlapped considerably, the statistical analysis revealed that the observers to were able to separate simulated nodules from real nodules (AUC values range 0.70-0.74). Conclusion The simulation method can be used to create artificial lung nodules that have similar detectability as real nodules in chest tomosynthesis, although experienced thoracic radiologists may be able to distinguish them from real nodules

  1. Building patient safety in intensive care nursing : Patient safety culture, team performance and simulation-based training

    OpenAIRE

    Ballangrud, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate patient safety culture, team performance and the use of simulation-based team training for building patient safety in intensive care nursing. Methods: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. In Study I, 220 RNs from ten ICUs responded to a patient safety culture questionnaire analysed with statistics. Studies II-IV were based on an evaluation of a simulation-based team training programme. Studies II-III included 53 RNs from seven I...

  2. Systematic Review of Patient-Specific Surgical Simulation: Toward Advancing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Won Hyung A; Dharampal, Navjit; Mostafa, Ahmed E; Sharlin, Ehud; Kopp, Gail; Jacobs, William Bradley; Hurlbert, Robin John; Chan, Sonny; Sutherland, Garnette R

    Simulation-based education has been shown to be an effective tool to teach foundational technical skills in various surgical specialties. However, most of the current simulations are limited to generic scenarios and do not allow continuation of the learning curve beyond basic technical skills to prepare for more advanced expertise, such as patient-specific surgical planning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current medical literature with respect to the utilization and educational value of patient-specific simulations for surgical training. We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Embase, and Scopus focusing on themes of simulation, patient-specific, surgical procedure, and education. The study included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies published between 2005 and 2016. Two independent reviewers (W.H.R. and N.D) conducted the study appraisal, data abstraction, and quality assessment of the studies. The search identified 13 studies that met the inclusion criteria; 7 studies employed computer simulations and 6 studies used 3-dimensional (3D) synthetic models. A number of surgical specialties evaluated patient-specific simulation, including neurosurgery, vascular surgery, orthopedic surgery, and interventional radiology. However, most studies were small in size and primarily aimed at feasibility assessments and early validation. Early evidence has shown feasibility and utility of patient-specific simulation for surgical education. With further development of this technology, simulation-based education may be able to support training of higher-level competencies outside the clinical settingto aid learners in their development of surgical skills. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does the sex of a simulated patient affect CPR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Chelsea E; Wilkins, Matthew S; Davies, Jan M; Caird, Jeff K; Hallihan, Gregory M

    2015-01-01

    While males and females are equally at risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), females are less likely to be resuscitated. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) may be inhibited by socio-cultural norms about exposing female victims' chests. Empirically confirming this hypothesis is limited by lack of patient simulators modeling realistic female physiques. A commercially-available patient simulator was transformed to evaluate how physical attributes of a patient's sex might influence lay participants who were asked to resuscitate a female versus a male during simulated cardiac arrest. Sixty-nine participants consented to be in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to provide CPR and defibrillation as instructed by a commercially-available automated external defibrillator on a patient simulator presented as either a male or female experiencing cardiac arrest. Rescuers removed significantly more clothing from the male than the female, with men removing less clothing from the female. More rescuers' initial hand placements for CPR were centered between the female's breasts compared to the male, on which placement was distributed across the chest towards the nipples. While rescuers had better hand placement for CPR on the female, both men and women rescuers were reluctant to remove the female's clothing, with men significantly more hesitant. Reticence to remove clothing was often articulated relative to social norms during structured interviews. We suggest that using only male simulators will not allow trainees to experience social differences associated with the care of a female simulated patient. Realistic female patient simulators are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation of the radiography formation process from CT patient volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Verso, E.; Roccasalva Firenze, M.; Sansone, M.; Bracale, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic image formation process using volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained from 3D diagnostic CT images. Many applications, including radiographic driven surgery, virtual reality in medicine and radiologist teaching and training, may take advantage of such technique. The designed algorithm has been developed to simulate a generic radiographic equipment, whatever oriented respect to the patient. The simulated radiography is obtained considering a discrete number of X-ray paths departing from the focus, passing through the patient volume and reaching the radiographic plane. To evaluate a generic pixel of the simulated radiography, the cumulative absorption along the corresponding X-ray is computed. To estimate X-ray absorption in a generic point of the patient volume, 3D interpolation of CT data has been adopted. The proposed technique is quite similar to those employed in Ray Tracing. A computer designed test volume has been used to assess the reliability of the radiography simulation algorithm as a measuring tool. From the errors analysis emerges that the accuracy achieved by the radiographic simulation algorithm is largely confined within the sampling step of the CT volume. (authors)

  5. Using a formative simulated patient exercise for curriculum evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Margaret E

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not clear that teaching specific history taking, physical examination and patient teaching techniques to medical students results in durable behavioural changes. We used a quasi-experimental design that approximated a randomized double blinded trial to examine whether a Participatory Decision-Making (PDM educational module taught in a clerkship improves performance on a Simulated Patient Exercise (SPE in another clerkship, and how this is influenced by the time between training and assessment. Methods Third year medical students in an internal medicine clerkship were assessed on their use of PDM skills in an SPE conducted in the second week of the clerkship. The rotational structure of the third year clerkships formed a pseudo-randomized design where students had 1 completed the family practice clerkship containing a training module on PDM skills approximately four weeks prior to the SPE, 2 completed the family medicine clerkship and the training module approximately 12 weeks prior to the SPE or 3 had not completed the family medicine clerkship and the PDM training module at the time they were assessed via the SPE. Results Based on limited pilot data there were statistically significant differences between students who received PDM training approximately four weeks prior to the SPE and students who received training approximately 12 weeks prior to the SPE. Students who received training 12 weeks prior to the SPE performed better than those who received training four weeks prior to the SPE. In a second comparison students who received training four weeks prior to the SPE performed better than those who did not receive training but the differences narrowly missed statistical significance (P Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of a methodology for conducting rigorous curricular evaluations using natural experiments based on the structure of clinical rotations. In addition, it provided preliminary data

  6. Evaluating best educational practices, student satisfaction, and self-confidence in simulation: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapko, Karen A; Ferranto, Mary Lou Gemma; Blasiman, Rachael; Shelestak, Debra

    2018-01-01

    The National League for Nursing (NLN) has endorsed simulation as a necessary teaching approach to prepare students for the demanding role of professional nursing. Questions arise about the suitability of simulation experiences to educate students. Empirical support for the effect of simulation on patient outcomes is sparse. Most studies on simulation report only anecdotal results rather than data obtained using evaluative tools. The aim of this study was to examine student perception of best educational practices in simulation and to evaluate their satisfaction and self-confidence in simulation. This study was a descriptive study designed to explore students' perceptions of the simulation experience over a two-year period. Using the Jeffries framework, a Simulation Day was designed consisting of serial patient simulations using high and medium fidelity simulators and live patient actors. The setting for the study was a regional campus of a large Midwestern Research 2 university. The convenience sample consisted of 199 participants and included sophomore, junior, and senior nursing students enrolled in the baccalaureate nursing program. The Simulation Days consisted of serial patient simulations using high and medium fidelity simulators and live patient actors. Participants rotated through four scenarios that corresponded to their level in the nursing program. Data was collected in two consecutive years. Participants completed both the Educational Practices Questionnaire (Student Version) and the Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale. Results provide strong support for using serial simulation as a learning tool. Students were satisfied with the experience, felt confident in their performance, and felt the simulations were based on sound educational practices and were important for learning. Serial simulations and having students experience simulations more than once in consecutive years is a valuable method of clinical instruction. When

  7. Does teaching non-technical skills to medical students improve those skills and simulated patient outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Vera; Herbstreit, Frank; Kehren, Clemens; Chittamadathil, Jilson; Wolfertz, Sandra; Dirkmann, Daniel; Kluge, Annette; Peters, Jürgen

    2017-03-29

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of a tailor-made, non-technical skills seminar on medical student's behaviour, attitudes, and performance during simulated patient treatment. Seventy-seven students were randomized to either a non-technical skills seminar (NTS group, n=43) or a medical seminar (control group, n=34). The human patient simulation was used as an evaluation tool. Before the seminars, all students performed the same simulated emergency scenario to provide baseline measurements. After the seminars, all students were exposed to a second scenario, and behavioural markers for evaluating their non-technical skills were rated. Furthermore, teamwork-relevant attitudes were measured before and after the scenarios, and perceived stress was measured following each simulation. All simulations were also evaluated for various medical endpoints. Non-technical skills concerning situation awareness (ptechnical skills to improve student's non-technical skills. In a next step, to improve student's handling of emergencies and patient outcomes, non-technical skills seminars should be accompanied by exercises and more broadly embedded in the medical school curriculum.

  8. Enhancing Student Communication Skills Through Arabic Language Competency and Simulated Patient Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Sanah; Tarazi, Hamadeh M Khier; Halim Hilal, Dana Abdel

    2017-05-01

    Objective. To assess student communication and patient management skill with introduction of Arabic and use of simulated patient assessments to a communication and counseling course. Design. Five, 3-hour tutorials (clinical skill laboratory) were added to the course covering: listening and empathic responding, non-verbal communications, interviewing skills, assertiveness, counseling in special situations: conflict, anger, worry or rushed situations, and professional decision making. Arabic content was introduced to the course to enhance Arabic communications and competence among students. Simulated patient assessment was used to evaluate student skills. Students' feedback about course changes was evaluated. Assessment. The course now covers a wider content and Arabic language. Students' scores were similar in the assessment and other assessments within the course and between Arabic and English groups. Students favorably rated the changes in the course and provided constructive feedback on content usefulness and adequacy. Conclusion. Expanding the course to include Arabic language and content and simulated patient assessments enhanced student communication skills.

  9. A multimedia patient simulation for teaching and assessing endodontic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, John H; Demps, Elaine L; Keiser, Karl; Chatterjee, Lipika; Yuan, Cheng H; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2003-06-01

    Teaching and assessing diagnostic skills are difficult due to relatively small numbers of total clinical experiences and a shortage of clinical faculty. Patient simulations could help teach and assess diagnosis by displaying a well-defined diagnostic task, then providing informative feedback and opportunities for repetition and correction of errors. This report describes the development and initial evaluation of SimEndo I, a multimedia patient simulation program that could be used for teaching or assessing endodontic diagnosis. Students interact with a graphical interface that has four pull-down menus and related submenus. In response to student requests, the program presents patient information. Scoring is based on diagnosis of each case by endodontists. Pilot testing with seventy-four junior dental students identified numerous needed improvements to the user interface program. A multi-school field test of the interface program using three patient cases addressed three research questions: 1) How did the field test students evaluate SimEndo I? Overall mean evaluation was 8.1 on a 0 to 10 scale; 2) How many cases are needed to generate a reproducible diagnostic proficiency score for an individual student using the Rimoldi scoring procedure? Mean diagnostic proficiency scores by case ranged from .27 to .40 on a 0 to 1 scale; five cases would produce a score with a 0.80 reliability coefficient; and 3) Did students accurately diagnose each case? Mean correct diagnosis scores by case ranged from .54 to .78 on a 0 to 1 scale. We conclude that multimedia patient simulations offer a promising alternative for teaching and assessing student diagnostic skills.

  10. Measurement-based Monte Carlo simulation of high definition dose evaluation for nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated by using intensity modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.Y.; Tung, C.J.; Lee, C.C.; Lin, M.H.; Chao, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement-based Monte Carlo (MBMC) simulation using a high definition (HD) phantom was used to evaluate the dose distribution in nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Around nasopharyngeal cavity, there exists many small volume organs-at-risk (OARs) such as the optic nerves, auditory nerves, cochlea, and semicircular canal which necessitate the use of a high definition phantom for accurate and correct dose evaluation. The aim of this research was to study the advantages of using an HD phantom for MBMC simulation in NPC patients treated with IMRT. The MBMC simulation in this study was based on the IMRT treatment plan of three NPC patients generated by the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) of the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) using a calculation grid of 2 mm 2 . The NPC tumor was treated to a cumulative dose of 7000 cGy in 35 fractions using the shrinking-field sequential IMRT (SIMRT) method. The BEAMnrc MC Code was used to simulate a Varian EX21 linear accelerator treatment head. The HD phantom contained 0.5 × 0.5 × 1 mm 3 voxels for the nasopharyngeal area and 0.5 × 0.5 × 3 mm 3 for the rest of the head area. An efficiency map was obtained for the amorphous silicon aS1000 electronic portal imaging device (EPID) to adjust the weighting of each particle in the phase-space file for each IMRT beam. Our analysis revealed that small volume organs such as the eighth cranial nerve, semicircular canal, cochlea and external auditory canal showed an absolute dose difference of ≥200 cGy, while the dose difference for larger organs such as the parotid glands and tumor was negligible for the MBMC simulation using the HD phantom. The HD phantom was found to be suitable for Monte Carlo dose volume analysis of small volume organs. - Highlights: • HD dose evaluation for IMRT of NPC patients have been verified by the MC method. • MC results shows

  11. Simulation of the radiography formation process from CT patient volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bifulco, P; Cesarelli, M; Verso, E; Roccasalva Firenze, M; Sansone, M; Bracale, M [University of Naples, Federico II, Electronic Engineering Department, Bioengineering Unit, Via Claudio, 21 - 80125 Naples (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of this work is to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic image formation process using volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained from 3D diagnostic CT images. Many applications, including radiographic driven surgery, virtual reality in medicine and radiologist teaching and training, may take advantage of such technique. The designed algorithm has been developed to simulate a generic radiographic equipment, whatever oriented respect to the patient. The simulated radiography is obtained considering a discrete number of X-ray paths departing from the focus, passing through the patient volume and reaching the radiographic plane. To evaluate a generic pixel of the simulated radiography, the cumulative absorption along the corresponding X-ray is computed. To estimate X-ray absorption in a generic point of the patient volume, 3D interpolation of CT data has been adopted. The proposed technique is quite similar to those employed in Ray Tracing. A computer designed test volume has been used to assess the reliability of the radiography simulation algorithm as a measuring tool. From the errors analysis emerges that the accuracy achieved by the radiographic simulation algorithm is largely confined within the sampling step of the CT volume. (authors) 16 refs., 12 figs., 1 tabs.

  12. Patient safety and quality of care: How may clinical simulation contribute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Jensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The usability of health information technology (IT is increasingly recognized as critically important to the development of systems that ensure patient safety and quality of care. The substantial complexity of organizations, work practice and physical environments within the healthcare sector influences the development and application of health IT. When health IT is introduced in local clinical work practices, potential patient safety hazards and insufficient support of work practices need to be examined. Qualitative methods, such as clinical simulation, may be used to evaluate new technology in correlation with the clinical context and to study the interaction between users, technology and work practice. Compared with the “classic” methods, such as heuristic inspection and usability testing, clinical simulation takes the clinical context into account. Clinical simulation can be useful in many processes in the human-centred design cycle. In the requirement specification, clinical simulation can be useful to analyze user requirements and work practice as well to evaluate requirements. In the design of health IT, clinical simulation can be used to evaluate clinical information systems and serve as common ground to help to achieve a shared understanding between various communities of practice. In a public procurement process, a clinical simulation-based assessment can help give insight into different solutions and how they support work practice. Before organizational implementation, clinical simulation is a very suitable means, by which to assess an application in connection with work practice.

  13. USU Patient Simulation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — he National Capital Area (NCA) Medical Simulation Center is a state-of-the-art training facility located near the main USU campus. It uses simulated patients (i.e.,...

  14. Assessment of Robotic Patient Simulators for Training in Manual Physical Therapy Examination Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shun; Okamoto, Shogo; Isogai, Kaoru; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Naomi; Yamada, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard. PMID:25923719

  15. Assessment of robotic patient simulators for training in manual physical therapy examination techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard.

  16. Assessment of robotic patient simulators for training in manual physical therapy examination techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shun; Okamoto, Shogo; Isogai, Kaoru; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Yanagihara, Naomi; Yamada, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    Robots that simulate patients suffering from joint resistance caused by biomechanical and neural impairments are used to aid the training of physical therapists in manual examination techniques. However, there are few methods for assessing such robots. This article proposes two types of assessment measures based on typical judgments of clinicians. One of the measures involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different severities of a specified disease. Experienced clinicians were requested to rate the simulated symptoms in terms of severity, and the consistency of their ratings was used as a performance measure. The other measure involves the evaluation of how well the simulator presents different types of symptoms. In this case, the clinicians were requested to classify the simulated resistances in terms of symptom type, and the average ratios of their answers were used as performance measures. For both types of assessment measures, a higher index implied higher agreement among the experienced clinicians that subjectively assessed the symptoms based on typical symptom features. We applied these two assessment methods to a patient knee robot and achieved positive appraisals. The assessment measures have potential for use in comparing several patient simulators for training physical therapists, rather than as absolute indices for developing a standard.

  17. Learning outcomes associated with patient simulation method in pharmacotherapy education: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Suvi M; Sormunen, Marjorita S T; Jordan, Sue E; Tossavainen, Kerttu A; Turunen, Hannele E

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this systematic integrative review were to identify evidence for the use of patient simulation teaching methods in pharmacotherapy education and to explore related learning outcomes. A systematic literature search was conducted using 6 databases as follows: CINAHL, PubMed, SCOPUS, ERIC, MEDIC, and the Cochrane Library, using the key words relating to patient simulation and pharmacotherapy. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria. The earliest article was published in 2005. The selected research articles were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Patient simulation has been used in pharmacotherapy education for preregistration nursing, dental, medical, and pharmacy students and for the continuing education of nurses. Learning outcomes reported were summarized as follows: (1) commitment to pharmacotherapy learning, (2) development of pharmacotherapy evaluation skills, (3) improvement in pharmacotherapy application skills, and (4) knowledge and understanding of pharmacotherapy. To develop effective teaching methods and ensure health care professionals' competence in medication management, further research is needed to determine the educational and clinical effectiveness of simulation teaching methods.

  18. Evaluation of trainees' ability to perform obstetrical ultrasound using simulation: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalouhi, Gihad E; Bernardi, Valeria; Gueneuc, Alexandra; Houssin, Isabelle; Stirnemann, Julien J; Ville, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation of trainee's ability in obstetrical ultrasound is a time-consuming process, which requires involving patients as volunteers. With the use of obstetrical ultrasound simulators, virtual reality could help in assessing competency and evaluating trainees in this field. The objective of the study was to test the validity of an obstetrical ultrasound simulator as a tool for evaluating trainees following structured training by comparing scores obtained on obstetrical ultrasound simulator with those obtained on volunteers and by assessing correlations between scores of images and of dexterity given by 2 blinded examiners. Trainees, taking the 2013 French national examination for the practice of obstetrical ultrasound were asked to obtain standardized ultrasound planes both on volunteer pregnant women and on an obstetrical ultrasound simulator. These planes included measurements of biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length as well as reference planes for cardiac 4-chamber and outflow tracts, kidneys, stomach/diaphragm, spine, and face. Images were stored and evaluated subsequently by 2 national examiners who scored each picture according to previously established quality criteria. Dexterity was also evaluated and subjectively scored between 0 and 10. The Raghunathan's modification of Pearson, Filon's z, Spearman's rank correlation, and analysis of variance tests were used to assess correlations between the scores by the 2 examiners and scores of dexterity and also to compare the final scores between the 2 different methods. We evaluated 29 trainees. The mean dexterity scores in simulation (6.5 ± 2.0) and real examination (5.9 ± 2.3) were comparable (P = .31). Scores with an obstetrical ultrasound simulator were significantly higher than those obtained on volunteers (P = .027). Nevertheless, there was a good correlation between the scores of the 2 examiners judging on simulation (R = 0.888) and on volunteers (R = 0.873) (P = .81). An

  19. Development, implementation and pilot evaluation of a Web-based Virtual Patient Case Simulation environment – Web-SP

    OpenAIRE

    Boberg Jonas; Johnson Gunilla; Zary Nabil; Fors Uno GH

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The Web-based Simulation of Patients (Web-SP) project was initiated in order to facilitate the use of realistic and interactive virtual patients (VP) in medicine and healthcare education. Web-SP focuses on moving beyond the technology savvy teachers, when integrating simulation-based education into health sciences curricula, by making the creation and use of virtual patients easier. The project strives to provide a common generic platform for design/creation, management, e...

  20. Embedding a Virtual Patient Simulator in an Interactive Surgical lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Robert; Plum, Patrick; Heiermann, Nadine; Wahba, Roger; Chang, De-Huan; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Stippel, Dirk L

    2016-01-01

    Lectures are traditionally used for teaching declarative knowledge. One established tool for clinical education is the demonstration of a real patient. The use of real patients in the daily clinical environment is increasingly difficult. The use of a virtual patient simulator (VPS) can potentially circumvent these problems. Unlimited availability and the opportunity of an electronic feedback system could possibly enrich traditional lectures by enabling more interactivity that meets the expectations of the current student generation. As students face the consequences of their own decisions they take a more active role in the lecture. VPS links declarative knowledge with visual perception that is known to influence students' motivation. Until now, there have been no reports covering the usage and validation of interactive VPS for supporting traditional lectures. In this study, we (1) described the development of a custom-made three-dimensional (3D) VPS for supporting the traditional lecture and (2) performed a feasibility study including an initial assessment of this novel educational concept. Conceptualization included definition of curricular content, technical realization and validation. A custom-made simulator was validated with 68 students. The degree of student acceptance was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect on knowledge gain was determined by testing prelecture and postlecture performance. A custom-made simulator prototype that displays a 3D virtual clinic environment was developed and linked to a PowerPoint presentation. Students were able to connect to the simulator via electronic devices (smartphones and tablets) and to control the simulator via majority vote. The simulator was used in 6 lectures and validated in 2 lectures with 68 students each. Student acceptance and their opinion about effectiveness and applicability were determined. Students showed a high level of motivation when using the simulator as most of them had fun using it. Effect on

  1. Implementation of full patient simulation training in surgical residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Gladys L; Lee, Patrick C; Page, David W; D'Amour, Elizabeth M; Wait, Richard B; Seymour, Neal E

    2010-01-01

    -measures analysis of variance and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Residents participated in 4.5 ± 1.4 sessions per academic year. Compliance with scheduled training was 88%, 90%, and 99% over successive years. Performance data were available for 39 PGY1, 2, and 3 residents. Ten individual residents could be followed between PGY1 and PGY2. For these individuals, improvement in mean performance was detected for the PGY2 (81% ± 5% vs 86% ± 4%; p 2 standard deviations below mean for the PGY level and 5 of these had deficiencies in clinical performance noted by other evaluation methods. Patient simulation training was implemented successfully with good compliance in this medium-sized surgical residency training program, but clear challenges were encountered with issues related to the number and range of experiences available per resident, competition with other educational activities, and fidelity and realism. Initial experience suggests that the associated assessment methods can detect predictable improvements in patient management skills across successive residency years, as well as potentially deficient management. Additional work is required to determine the educational effect of this training on resident clinical competency. Copyright © 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Learning outcomes evaluation of a simulation-based introductory course to anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rábago, J L; López-Doueil, M; Sancho, R; Hernández-Pinto, P; Neira, N; Capa, E; Larraz, E; Redondo-Figuero, C G; Maestre, J M

    2017-10-01

    An increased number of errors and reduced patient safety have been reported during the incorporation of residents, as this period involves learning new skills. The objectives were to evaluate the learning outcomes of an immersive simulation boot-camp for incoming residents before starting the clinical rotations. Airway assessment, airway control with direct laryngoscopy, and epidural catheterization competencies were evaluated. Twelve first-year anaesthesiology residents participated. A prospective study to evaluate transfer of endotracheal intubation skills learned at the simulation centre to clinical practice (primary outcome) was conducted. A checklist of 28 skills and behaviours was used to assess the first supervised intubation performed during anaesthesia induction in ASA I/II patients. Secondary outcome was self-efficacy to perform epidural catheterization. A satisfaction survey was also performed. Seventy-five percent of residents completed more than 21 out of 28 skills and behaviours to assess and control the airway during their first intubation in patients. Twelve items were performed by all residents and 5 by half of them. More than 83% of participants reported a high level of self-efficacy in placing an epidural catheter. All participants would recommend the course to their colleagues. A focused intensive simulation-based boot-camp addressing key competencies required to begin anaesthesia residency was well received, and led to transfer of airway management skills learned to clinical settings when performing for first time on patients, and to increased self-reported efficacy in performing epidural catheterization. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Patient identification errors are common in a simulated setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Philip L; Fisher, Donald L; Henneman, Elizabeth A; Pham, Tuan A; Campbell, Megan M; Nathanson, Brian H

    2010-06-01

    We evaluate the frequency and accuracy of health care workers verifying patient identity before performing common tasks. The study included prospective, simulated patient scenarios with an eye-tracking device that showed where the health care workers looked. Simulations involved nurses administering an intravenous medication, technicians labeling a blood specimen, and clerks applying an identity band. Participants were asked to perform their assigned task on 3 simulated patients, and the third patient had a different date of birth and medical record number than the identity information on the artifact label specific to the health care workers' task. Health care workers were unaware that the focus of the study was patient identity. Sixty-one emergency health care workers participated--28 nurses, 16 technicians, and 17 emergency service associates--in 183 patient scenarios. Sixty-one percent of health care workers (37/61) caught the identity error (61% nurses, 94% technicians, 29% emergency service associates). Thirty-nine percent of health care workers (24/61) performed their assigned task on the wrong patient (39% nurses, 6% technicians, 71% emergency service associates). Eye-tracking data were available for 73% of the patient scenarios (133/183). Seventy-four percent of health care workers (74/100) failed to match the patient to the identity band (87% nurses, 49% technicians). Twenty-seven percent of health care workers (36/133) failed to match the artifact to the patient or the identity band before performing their task (33% nurses, 9% technicians, 33% emergency service associates). Fifteen percent (5/33) of health care workers who completed the steps to verify patient identity on the patient with the identification error still failed to recognize the error. Wide variation exists among health care workers verifying patient identity before performing everyday tasks. Education, process changes, and technology are needed to improve the frequency and accuracy of

  4. Teaching cardiopulmonary auscultation in workshops using a virtual patient simulation technology - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, D; Gomes, P; Faria, S; Cruz-Correia, R; Coimbra, M

    2016-08-01

    Auscultation is currently both a powerful screening tool, providing a cheap and quick initial assessment of a patient's clinical condition, and a hard skill to master. The teaching of auscultation in Universities is today reduced to an unsuitable number of hours. Virtual patient simulators can potentially mitigate this problem, by providing an interesting high-quality alternative to teaching with real patients or patient simulators. In this paper we evaluate the pedagogical impact of using a virtual patient simulation technology in a short workshop format for medical students, training them to detect cardiac pathologies. Results showed a significant improvement (+16%) in the differentiation between normal and pathological cases, although longer duration formats seem to be needed to accurately identify specific pathologies.

  5. Recent advancements in medical simulation: patient-specific virtual reality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaert, Willem I M; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; Cheshire, Nicholas J; Vermassen, Frank E

    2012-07-01

    Patient-specific virtual reality simulation (PSVR) is a new technological advancement that allows practice of upcoming real operations and complements the established role of VR simulation as a generic training tool. This review describes current developments in PSVR and draws parallels with other high-stake industries, such as aviation, military, and sports. A review of the literature was performed using PubMed and Internet search engines to retrieve data relevant to PSVR in medicine. All reports pertaining to PSVR were included. Reports on simulators that did not incorporate a haptic interface device were excluded from the review. Fifteen reports described 12 simulators that enabled PSVR. Medical procedures in the field of laparoscopy, vascular surgery, orthopedics, neurosurgery, and plastic surgery were included. In all cases, source data was two-dimensional CT or MRI data. Face validity was most commonly reported. Only one (vascular) simulator had undergone face, content, and construct validity. Of the 12 simulators, 1 is commercialized and 11 are prototypes. Five simulators have been used in conjunction with real patient procedures. PSVR is a promising technological advance within medicine. The majority of simulators are still in the prototype phase. As further developments unfold, the validity of PSVR will have to be examined much like generic VR simulation for training purposes. Nonetheless, similar to the aviation, military, and sport industries, operative performance and patient safety may be enhanced by the application of this novel technology.

  6. Mini Combat Trauma Patient Simulation System Defense Acquisition Challenge Program (DACP): Mini Combat Trauma Patient Simulation (Mini CTPS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... It consists of networked realistic casualty generators, patient simulators and computer-based casualty simulations, virtual patients and equipment, data and sensor recorders, and an After- Action Review System...

  7. THE SIMULATED SOCIAL-INTERACTION TEST - A PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION WITH DUTCH SOCIAL PHOBIC PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MERSCH, PPA; BREUKERS, P; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    The Simulated Social Interaction Test (SSIT) was translated and adjusted for use on a population of Dutch males and females. Seventy-four social phobic patients were assessed with the SSIT, a conversation test, and an interview with an independent observer. Results show that the SSIT is a relatively

  8. Medical student evaluation using virtual pathology echocardiography (VPE) for augmented standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; McKenzie, Frederic D

    2008-01-01

    With the increasing role played by ultrasound in clinical diagnostics, ultrasound training in medical education is becoming more important. We have developed a real-time ultrasound simulator to augment standardized patients (SPs) with a simulated echocardiogram. It enables changes in the standard of ultrasound training where the clinical routine is practiced on real patients, which limits monitored and guided examinations for medical students due to time constraints and availability of patients. This paper describes our preliminary system of a tracker-based echocardiogram simulator, the latest evaluation results, and future work.

  9. Do Simulations Enhance Student Learning? An Empirical Evaluation of an IR Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellman, Stephen M.; Turan, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    There is a nascent literature on the question of whether active learning methods, and in particular simulation methods, enhance student learning. In this article, the authors evaluate the utility of an international relations simulation in enhancing learning objectives. Student evaluations provide evidence that the simulation process enhances…

  10. Patient outcomes in simulation-based medical education: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas, Benjamin; Brydges, Ryan; Wang, Amy T; Cook, David A

    2013-08-01

    Evaluating the patient impact of health professions education is a societal priority with many challenges. Researchers would benefit from a summary of topics studied and potential methodological problems. We sought to summarize key information on patient outcomes identified in a comprehensive systematic review of simulation-based instruction. Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, key journals, and bibliographies of previous reviews through May 2011. Original research in any language measuring the direct effects on patients of simulation-based instruction for health professionals, in comparison with no intervention or other instruction. Two reviewers independently abstracted information on learners, topics, study quality including unit of analysis, and validity evidence. We pooled outcomes using random effects. From 10,903 articles screened, we identified 50 studies reporting patient outcomes for at least 3,221 trainees and 16,742 patients. Clinical topics included airway management (14 studies), gastrointestinal endoscopy (12), and central venous catheter insertion (8). There were 31 studies involving postgraduate physicians and seven studies each involving practicing physicians, nurses, and emergency medicine technicians. Fourteen studies (28 %) used an appropriate unit of analysis. Measurement validity was supported in seven studies reporting content evidence, three reporting internal structure, and three reporting relations with other variables. The pooled Hedges' g effect size for 33 comparisons with no intervention was 0.47 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.63); and for nine comparisons with non-simulation instruction, it was 0.36 (95 % CI, -0.06 to 0.78). Focused field in education; high inconsistency (I(2) > 50 % in most analyses). Simulation-based education was associated with small-moderate patient benefits in comparison with no intervention and non-simulation instruction, although the latter did not reach statistical

  11. Numerical simulation of cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics in the healing process of hydrocephalus patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, S.; Fatouraee, N.; Seddighi, A. S.; Seddighi, A.

    2017-05-01

    Three-dimensional computational models of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and brain tissue are presented for evaluation of their hydrodynamic conditions before and after shunting for seven patients with non-communicating hydrocephalus. One healthy subject is also modeled to compare deviated patients data to normal conditions. The fluid-solid interaction simulation shows the CSF mean pressure and pressure amplitude (the superior index for evaluation of non-communicating hydrocephalus) in patients at a greater point than those in the healthy subject by 5.3 and 2 times, respectively.

  12. Using a simulated patient to transfer patient-centred skills from simulated practice to real patients in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolinda Uys

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Using a simulated patient to teach administration of an intramuscular injection enhanced students’ patient-centredness when performing the procedure in practice. Recommendations include making use of a bigger sample and including a pre-test the next time research of this nature is carried out.

  13. After-hours/on-call experience during primary care nurse practitioner education utilizing standard scenarios and simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle M; Blunt, Elizabeth; Nestor, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Few nurse practitioner (NP) programs include an after-hours/on-call component in their clinical preparation of NP students. This role is expected in many primary and specialty care practices, and is one that students feel unprepared to competently navigate. Utilizing simulated callers as patients or parents, NP students participated in a simulated after-hours/on-call experience that included receiving the call, managing the patient, and submitting documentation of the encounter. Students completed pre- and postparticipation evaluations, and were evaluated by the simulated patient callers and faculty using standardized evaluation tools. NP students rated the experience as an educationally valuable experience despite feeling anxious and nervous about the experience. Several essential skills were identified including critical thinking, clear communication, self-confidence, and access to resources. After participation NP students were more receptive to an NP position with an on-call component. Inclusion of a simulated on-call experience is a feasible component of NP education and should be added to the NP curriculum. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. [Doctor-Patient Communication Training in Simulated Situations: Emotions and Perceptions of Simulated Patients during Patient-Centered Conversations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butollo, Maria Asisa; Holzinger, Anita; Wagner-Menghin, Michaela

    2018-04-13

    The use of simulated patients (SPs) for doctor-patient communication training has been established in medical curricula as an important didactic method. The study addresses the question, if patients' emotions and perceptions are represented adequately in patient-centered communication. 22 of 37 SPs of the Medical University of Vienna (12 women, 10 men) were asked openly about their feelings after having acted as an SP in a semi-structured interview, which employed the Critical Incident Technique. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, separated into situational analysis units und analyzed deductively; we used the evidence based qualities of patient-centered communication and the "Nationaler Kompetenzbasierter Lernzielkatalog Medizin" as a guideline. Out of 192 analysis units, 67 were evaluated as positive and 125 as negative. The SPs reported positive feelings, such as perceiving "stability and trust in relationships" (22%), perception of congruence (15%), acceptance (27%) and empathy (36%). As to negative feelings, SPs reported "perceiving instability" (18%), "incongruence" (11%), "lack of acceptance" (40%) and "lack of empathy" (30%). Additionally, 50% of SPs were positively affected when observing students' learning success. When SPs perceived patient-centered communication, they reported positive emotions. A lack of patient centeredness, on the contrary, provoked negative emotions. An empathic attitude, as well as a "lack of acceptance" with contrary effects had the strongest influence on the SPs' mental state. The reaction of SPs to patient centeredness is sufficiently authentic to reach learning objectives, however it is also affected by reactions of SPs to the learning success of students, which is irrelevant for the real-life doctor-patient interaction. SP reactions are affected by students' attitudes. Students should therefore be prepared well before interacting with SPs in a roleplay setting. While SPs' behavior is authentic in patient

  15. Effectiveness of Standardized Patient Simulations in Teaching Clinical Communication Skills to Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Carly T; Tilashalski, Ken R; Peterson, Dawn Taylor; White, Marjorie Lee

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dental students' long-term retention of clinical communication skills learned in a second-year standardized patient simulation at one U.S. dental school. Retention was measured by students' performance with an actual patient during their fourth year. The high-fidelity simulation exercise focused on clinical communication skills took place during the spring term of the students' second year. The effect of the simulation was measured by comparing the fourth-year clinical performance of two groups: those who had participated in the simulation (intervention group; Class of 2016) and those who had not (no intervention/control group; Class of 2015). In the no intervention group, all 47 students participated; in the intervention group, 58 of 59 students participated. Both instructor assessments and students' self-assessments were used to evaluate the effectiveness of key patient interaction principles as well as comprehensive presentation of multiple treatment options. The results showed that students in the intervention group more frequently included cost during their treatment option presentation than did students in the no intervention group. The instructor ratings showed that the intervention group included all key treatment option components except duration more frequently than did the no intervention group. However, the simulation experience did not result in significantly more effective student-patient clinical communication on any of the items measured. This study presents limited evidence of the effectiveness of a standardized patient simulation to improve dental students' long-term clinical communication skills with respect to thorough presentation of treatment options to a patient.

  16. [Innovation in healthcare processes and patient safety using clinical simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, E; Maestre, J M; Díaz-Mendi, A R; Ansorena, L; Del Moral, I

    2016-01-01

    Many excellent ideas are never implemented or generalised by healthcare organisations. There are two related paradigms: thinking that individuals primarily change through accumulating knowledge, and believing that the dissemination of that knowledge within the organisation is the key element to facilitate change. As an alternative, a description and evaluation of a simulation-based inter-professional team training program conducted in a Regional Health Service to promote and facilitate change is presented. The Department of Continuing Education completed the needs assessment using the proposals presented by clinical units and management. Skills and behaviors that could be learned using simulation were selected, and all personnel from the units participating were included. Experiential learning principles based on clinical simulation and debriefing, were used for the instructional design. The Kirkpatrick model was used to evaluate the program. Objectives included: a) decision-making and teamwork skills training in high prevalence diseases with a high rate of preventable complications; b) care processes reorganisation to improve efficiency, while maintaining patient safety; and, c) implementation of new complex techniques with a long learning curve, and high preventable complications rate. Thirty clinical units organised 39 training programs in the 3 public hospitals, and primary care of the Regional Health Service during 2013-2014. Over 1,559 healthcare professionals participated, including nursing assistants, nurses and physicians. Simulation in healthcare to train inter-professional teams can promote and facilitate change in patient care, and organisational re-engineering. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A tool for assessing case history and feedback skills in audiology students working with simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jane; Wilson, Wayne J; MacBean, Naomi; Hill, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    To develop a tool for assessing audiology students taking a case history and giving feedback with simulated patients (SP). Single observation, single group design. Twenty-four first-year audiology students, five simulated patients, two clinical educators, and three evaluators. The Audiology Simulated Patient Interview Rating Scale (ASPIRS) was developed consisting of six items assessing specific clinical skills, non-verbal communication, verbal communication, interpersonal skills, interviewing skills, and professional practice skills. These items are applied once for taking a case history and again for giving feedback. The ASPIRS showed very high internal consistency (α = 0.91-0.97; mean inter-item r = 0.64-0.85) and fair-to-moderate agreement between evaluators (29.2-54.2% exact and 79.2-100% near agreement; κ weighted up to 0.60). It also showed fair-to-moderate absolute agreement amongst evaluators for single evaluator scores (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] r = 0.35-0.59) and substantial consistency of agreement amongst evaluators for three-evaluator averaged scores (ICC r = 0.62-0.81). Factor analysis showed the ASPIRS' 12 items fell into two components, one containing all feedback items and one containing all case history items. The ASPIRS shows promise as the first published tool for assessing audiology students taking a case history and giving feedback with an SP.

  18. Large breast compressions: Observations and evaluation of simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, Christine; White, Mark; Guarino, Salvatore; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A.; Douek, Michael; Hawkes, David J. [Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Computer Vision Laboratory, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, UCL, London W1P 7LD (United Kingdom); Department of Imaging, UCL Hospital, London NW1 2BU (United Kingdom); Department of Surgery, UCL, London W1P 7LD (United Kingdom); Centre of Medical Image Computing, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Several methods have been proposed to simulate large breast compressions such as those occurring during x-ray mammography. However, the evaluation of these methods against real data is rare. The aim of this study is to learn more about the deformation behavior of breasts and to assess a simulation method. Methods: Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 11 breasts before and after applying a relatively large in vivo compression in the medial direction were acquired. Nonrigid registration was employed to study the deformation behavior. Optimal material properties for finite element modeling were determined and their prediction performance was assessed. The realism of simulated compressions was evaluated by comparing the breast shapes on simulated and real mammograms. Results: Following image registration, 19 breast compressions from 8 women were studied. An anisotropic deformation behavior, with a reduced elongation in the anterior-posterior direction and an increased stretch in the inferior-superior direction was observed. Using finite element simulations, the performance of isotropic and transverse isotropic material models to predict the displacement of internal landmarks was compared. Isotropic materials reduced the mean displacement error of the landmarks from 23.3 to 4.7 mm, on average, after optimizing material properties with respect to breast surface alignment and image similarity. Statistically significantly smaller errors were achieved with transverse isotropic materials (4.1 mm, P=0.0045). Homogeneous material models performed substantially worse (transverse isotropic: 5.5 mm; isotropic: 6.7 mm). Of the parameters varied, the amount of anisotropy had the greatest influence on the results. Optimal material properties varied less when grouped by patient rather than by compression magnitude (mean: 0.72 vs 1.44). Employing these optimal materials for simulating mammograms from ten MR breast images of a different cohort resulted in more realistic breast

  19. Large breast compressions: observations and evaluation of simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Christine; White, Mark; Guarino, Salvatore; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A; Douek, Michael; Hawkes, David J

    2011-02-01

    Several methods have been proposed to simulate large breast compressions such as those occurring during x-ray mammography. However, the evaluation of these methods against real data is rare. The aim of this study is to learn more about the deformation behavior of breasts and to assess a simulation method. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 11 breasts before and after applying a relatively large in vivo compression in the medial direction were acquired. Nonrigid registration was employed to study the deformation behavior. Optimal material properties for finite element modeling were determined and their prediction performance was assessed. The realism of simulated compressions was evaluated by comparing the breast shapes on simulated and real mammograms. Following image registration, 19 breast compressions from 8 women were studied. An anisotropic deformation behavior, with a reduced elongation in the anterior-posterior direction and an increased stretch in the inferior-superior direction was observed. Using finite element simulations, the performance of isotropic and transverse isotropic material models to predict the displacement of internal landmarks was compared. Isotropic materials reduced the mean displacement error of the landmarks from 23.3 to 4.7 mm, on average, after optimizing material properties with respect to breast surface alignment and image similarity. Statistically significantly smaller errors were achieved with transverse isotropic materials (4.1 mm, P=0.0045). Homogeneous material models performed substantially worse (transverse isotropic: 5.5 mm; isotropic: 6.7 mm). Of the parameters varied, the amount of anisotropy had the greatest influence on the results. Optimal material properties varied less when grouped by patient rather than by compression magnitude (mean: 0.72 vs. 1.44). Employing these optimal materials for simulating mammograms from ten MR breast images of a different cohort resulted in more realistic breast shapes than when using

  20. Large breast compressions: Observations and evaluation of simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Christine; White, Mark; Guarino, Salvatore; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A.; Douek, Michael; Hawkes, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Several methods have been proposed to simulate large breast compressions such as those occurring during x-ray mammography. However, the evaluation of these methods against real data is rare. The aim of this study is to learn more about the deformation behavior of breasts and to assess a simulation method. Methods: Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 11 breasts before and after applying a relatively large in vivo compression in the medial direction were acquired. Nonrigid registration was employed to study the deformation behavior. Optimal material properties for finite element modeling were determined and their prediction performance was assessed. The realism of simulated compressions was evaluated by comparing the breast shapes on simulated and real mammograms. Results: Following image registration, 19 breast compressions from 8 women were studied. An anisotropic deformation behavior, with a reduced elongation in the anterior-posterior direction and an increased stretch in the inferior-superior direction was observed. Using finite element simulations, the performance of isotropic and transverse isotropic material models to predict the displacement of internal landmarks was compared. Isotropic materials reduced the mean displacement error of the landmarks from 23.3 to 4.7 mm, on average, after optimizing material properties with respect to breast surface alignment and image similarity. Statistically significantly smaller errors were achieved with transverse isotropic materials (4.1 mm, P=0.0045). Homogeneous material models performed substantially worse (transverse isotropic: 5.5 mm; isotropic: 6.7 mm). Of the parameters varied, the amount of anisotropy had the greatest influence on the results. Optimal material properties varied less when grouped by patient rather than by compression magnitude (mean: 0.72 vs 1.44). Employing these optimal materials for simulating mammograms from ten MR breast images of a different cohort resulted in more realistic breast

  1. A prospective, randomized study addressing the need for physical simulation following virtual simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Waterman, Frank M.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Curran, Walter J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately implement a treatment plan obtained by virtual or CT simulation, conventional or physical simulation is still widely used. To evaluate the need for physical simulation, we prospectively randomized patients to undergo physical simulation or no additional simulation after virtual simulation. Methods and Materials: From July 1995 to September 1996, 75 patients underwent conformal four-field radiation therapy planning for prostate cancer with a commercial grade CT simulator. The patients were randomized to undergo either port filming immediately following physical simulation or port filming alone. The precision of implementing the devised plan was evaluated by comparing simulator radiographs and/or port films against the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for x, y, and z displacements of the isocenter. Changes in beam aperture were also prospectively evaluated. Results: Thirty-seven patients were randomized to undergo physical simulation and first day port filming, and 38 had first day treatment verification films only without a physical simulation. Seventy-eight simulator radiographs and 195 first day treatment port films were reviewed. There was no statistically significant reduction in treatment setup error (>5 mm) if patients underwent physical simulation following virtual simulation. No patient required a resimulation, and there was no significant difference in changes of beam aperture. Conclusions: Following virtual simulation, physical simulation may not be necessary to accurately implement the conformal four-field technique. Because port filming appears to be sufficient to assure precise and reliable execution of a devised treatment plan, physical simulation may be eliminated from the process of CT based planning when virtual simulation is available

  2. Standardised patient-simulated practice learning: A rich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the use of standardised patients (SPs) in a simulated patient interview as a learning strategy to bridge the theory-practice gap. Simulation helps students to develop skills such as communication, higher cognitive thinking, decision-making and problem-solving. There is evidence to support the use of ...

  3. Patient dose simulation in X-ray CT using a radiation treatment-planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakae, Yasuo; Oda, Masahiko; Minamoto, Takahiro

    2003-01-01

    Medical irradiation dosage has been increasing with the development of new radiological equipment and new techniques like interventional radiology. It is fair to say that patient dose has been increased as a result of the development of multi-slice CT. A number of studies on the irradiation dose of CT have been reported, and the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) is now used as a general means of determining CT dose. However, patient dose distribution in the body varies with the patient's constitution, bowel gas in the body, and conditions of exposure. In this study, patient dose was analyzed from the viewpoint of dose distribution, using a radiation treatment-planning computer. Percent depth dose (PDD) and the off-center ratio (OCR) of the CT beam are needed to calculate dose distribution by the planning computer. Therefore, X-ray CT data were measured with various apparatuses, and beam data were sent to the planning computer. Measurement and simulation doses in the elliptical phantom (Mix-Dp: water equivalent material) were collated, and the CT irradiation dose was determined for patient dose simulation. The rotational radiation treatment technique was used to obtain the patient dose distribution of CT, and patient dose was evaluated through simulation of the dose distribution. CT images of the thorax were sent to the planning computer and simulated. The result was that the patient dose distribution of the thorax was obtained for CT examination. (author)

  4. Computed tomographic simulation of craniospinal fields in pediatric patients: improved treatment accuracy and patient comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, K; Danjoux, C E; Manship, S; Makhani, N; Cardoso, M; Sixel, K E

    1998-07-15

    To reduce the time required for planning and simulating craniospinal fields through the use of a computed tomography (CT) simulator and virtual simulation, and to improve the accuracy of field and shielding placement. A CT simulation planning technique was developed. Localization of critical anatomic features such as the eyes, cribriform plate region, and caudal extent of the thecal sac are enhanced by this technique. Over a 2-month period, nine consecutive pediatric patients were simulated and planned for craniospinal irradiation. Four patients underwent both conventional simulation and CT simulation. Five were planned using CT simulation only. The accuracy of CT simulation was assessed by comparing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) to portal films for all patients and to conventional simulation films as well in the first four patients. Time spent by patients in the CT simulation suite was 20 min on average and 40 min maximally for those who were noncompliant. Image acquisition time was absence of the patient, virtual simulation of all fields took 20 min. The DRRs were in agreement with portal and/or simulation films to within 5 mm in five of the eight cases. Discrepancies of > or =5 mm in the positioning of the inferior border of the cranial fields in the first three patients were due to a systematic error in CT scan acquisition and marker contouring which was corrected by modifying the technique after the fourth patient. In one patient, the facial shield had to be moved 0.75 cm inferiorly owing to an error in shield construction. Our analysis showed that CT simulation of craniospinal fields was accurate. It resulted in a significant reduction in the time the patient must be immobilized during the planning process. This technique can improve accuracy in field placement and shielding by using three-dimensional CT-aided localization of critical and target structures. Overall, it has improved staff efficiency and resource utilization.

  5. Computed tomographic simulation of craniospinal fields in pediatric patients: improved treatment accuracy and patient comfort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Katherine; Danjoux, Cyril E.; Manship, Sharan; Makhani, Nadiya; Cardoso, Marlene; Sixel, Katharina E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the time required for planning and simulating craniospinal fields through the use of a computed tomography (CT) simulator and virtual simulation, and to improve the accuracy of field and shielding placement. Methods and Materials: A CT simulation planning technique was developed. Localization of critical anatomic features such as the eyes, cribriform plate region, and caudal extent of the thecal sac are enhanced by this technique. Over a 2-month period, nine consecutive pediatric patients were simulated and planned for craniospinal irradiation. Four patients underwent both conventional simulation and CT simulation. Five were planned using CT simulation only. The accuracy of CT simulation was assessed by comparing digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) to portal films for all patients and to conventional simulation films as well in the first four patients. Results: Time spent by patients in the CT simulation suite was 20 min on average and 40 min maximally for those who were noncompliant. Image acquisition time was <10 min in all cases. In the absence of the patient, virtual simulation of all fields took 20 min. The DRRs were in agreement with portal and/or simulation films to within 5 mm in five of the eight cases. Discrepancies of ≥5 mm in the positioning of the inferior border of the cranial fields in the first three patients were due to a systematic error in CT scan acquisition and marker contouring which was corrected by modifying the technique after the fourth patient. In one patient, the facial shield had to be moved 0.75 cm inferiorly owing to an error in shield construction. Conclusions: Our analysis showed that CT simulation of craniospinal fields was accurate. It resulted in a significant reduction in the time the patient must be immobilized during the planning process. This technique can improve accuracy in field placement and shielding by using three-dimensional CT-aided localization of critical and target structures. Overall

  6. Patient-specific surgical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Marescaux, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Technological innovations of the twentieth century have provided medicine and surgery with new tools for education and therapy definition. Thus, by combining Medical Imaging and Virtual Reality, patient-specific applications providing preoperative surgical simulation have become possible.

  7. Faculty Development for Small-Group-Teaching with Simulated Patients (SP) - Design and Evaluation of a Competency-based Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzer, Henrike; Freytag, Julia; Sonntag, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The introduction of innovative teaching formats and methods in medical education requires a specific didactic training for teachers to use complicated formats effectively. This paper describes preliminary considerations, design, implementation and evaluation of a skills-based workshop (7,5 hours long) for teaching with simulated patients. The aim is to describe the essential components for a lasting effect of the workshop so that the concept can be adapted to other contexts. Method: We present the theoretical framework, the objectives, the didactic methodology and the implementation of the workshop. The evaluation of the workshop was carried out using questionnaires. First the participants (teachers of the faculty of medicine, clinical and science subjects) were asked to estimate how well they felt prepared for small group teaching immediately after workshop. Later, after some teaching experience of their own, they gave feedback again as a part of the general evaluation of the semester. Results: In the course of three years 27 trainings were conducted and evaluated with a total of 275 participants. In the context of semester evaluation 452 questionnaires were evaluated on the quality of training. Conclusion: The evaluation shows that participants appreciate the concept of the workshop and also feel sufficiently well prepared. As a limitation it must be said that this is so far only the lecturers' self-assessment. Nevertheless, it can be stated that even a one-day workshop with a stringent teaching concept shows long term results regarding innovative teaching methods.

  8. Virtual simulation. First clinical results in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchali, A.; Dinges, S.; Koswig, S.; Rosenthal, P.; Salk, S.; Harder, C.; Schlenger, L.; Budach, V.

    1998-01-01

    Investigation of options of virtual simulation in patients with localized prostate cancer. Twenty-four patients suffering from prostate cancer were virtual simulated. The clinical target volume was contoured and the planning target volume was defined after CT scan. The isocenter of the planning target volume was determined and marked at patient's skin. The precision of patients marking was controlled with conventional simulation after physical radiation treatment planning. Mean differences of the patient's mark revealed between the 2 simulations in all room axes around 1 mm. The organs at risk were visualized in the digital reconstructed radiographs. The precise patient's mark of the isocentre by virtual simulation allows to skip the conventional simulation. The visualisation of organs at risk leeds to an unnecessarity of an application of contrast medium and to a further relieve of the patient. The personal requirement is not higher in virtual simulation than in conventional CT based radiation treatment planning. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Design and evaluation of a simulation for pediatric dentistry in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Lazaros; Pentzou, Afroditi-Evaggelia; Louloudiadis, Konstantinos; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos-Konstantinos

    2013-10-29

    Three-dimensional virtual worlds are becoming very popular among educators in the medical field. Virtual clinics and patients are already used for case study and role play in both undergraduate and continuing education levels. Dental education can also take advantage of the virtual world's pedagogical features in order to give students the opportunity to interact with virtual patients (VPs) and practice in treatment planning. The objective of this study was to design and evaluate a virtual patient as a supplemental teaching tool for pediatric dentistry. A child VP, called Erietta, was created by utilizing the programming and building tools that online virtual worlds offer. The case is about an eight-year old girl visiting the dentist with her mother for the first time. Communication techniques such as Tell-Show-Do and parents' interference management were the basic elements of the educational scenario on which the VP was based. An evaluation of the simulation was made by 103 dental students in their fourth year of study. Two groups were formed: an experimental group which was exposed to the simulation (n=52) and a control group which did not receive the simulation (n=51). At the end, both groups were asked to complete a knowledge questionnaire and the results were compared. A statistically significant difference between the two groups was found by applying a t test for independent samples (Pworld offers significant learning potential when used as a supplement to the traditional teaching techniques.

  10. Evaluation of Branched-Narrative Virtual Patients for Interprofessional Education of Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, G Lucy; Gannon, Jessica M; Ross, Clint; Brennan, Jessica L; Fabian, Tanya J; Marcsisin, Michael J; Benedict, Neal J

    2017-02-01

    This pilot study evaluated the utility of branched-narrative virtual patients in an interprofessional education series for psychiatry residents. Third-year psychiatry residents attended four interprofessional education advanced psychopharmacology sessions that involved completion of a branched-narrative virtual patient and a debriefing session with a psychiatric pharmacist. Pre- and post-assessments analyzed resident learning and were administered around each virtual patient. Simulation 4 served as a comprehensive review. The primary outcome was differences in pre- and post-assessment scores. Secondary outcomes included resident satisfaction with the virtual patient format and psychiatric pharmacist involvement. Post-test scores for simulations 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated significant improvement (p education series for advanced learners.

  11. Evaluating medical student engagement during virtual patient simulations: a sequential, mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Allgood, J Aaron; Bay, Curt; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2016-01-16

    Student engagement is an important domain for medical education, however, it is difficult to quantify. The goal of this study was to investigate the utility of virtual patient simulations (VPS) for increasing medical student engagement. Our aims were specifically to investigate how and to what extent the VPS foster student engagement. This study took place at A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (ATSU-SOMA), in the USA. First year medical students (n = 108) worked in teams to complete a series of four in-class virtual patient case studies. Student engagement was measured, defined as flow, interest, and relevance. These dimensions were measured using four data collection instruments: researcher observations, classroom photographs, tutor feedback, and an electronic exit survey. Qualitative data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Triangulation of findings between the four data sources indicate that VPS foster engagement in three facets: 1) Flow. In general, students enjoyed the activities, and were absorbed in the task at hand. 2) Interest. Students demonstrated interest in the activities, as evidenced by enjoyment, active discussion, and humor. Students remarked upon elements that caused cognitive dissonance: excessive text and classroom noise generated by multi-media and peer conversations. 3) Relevance. VPS were relevant, in terms of situational clinical practice, exam preparation, and obtaining concrete feedback on clinical decisions. Researchers successfully introduced a new learning platform into the medical school curriculum. The data collected during this study were also used to improve new learning modules and techniques associated with implementing them in the classroom. Results of this study assert that virtual patient simulations foster engagement in terms of flow, relevance, and interest.

  12. Management of queues in out-patient departments: the use of computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson-Daniel, L; Paul, R J; Hedley, A J

    1996-01-01

    Notes that patients attending public outpatient departments in Hong Kong spend a long time waiting for a short consultation, that clinics are congested and that both staff and patients are dissatisfied. Points out that experimentation of management changes in a busy clinical environment can be both expensive and difficult. Demonstrates computerized simulation modelling as a potential tool for clarifying processes occurring within such systems, improving clinic operation by suggesting possible answers to problems identified and evaluating the solutions, without interfering with the clinic routine. Adds that solutions can be implemented after they had proved to be successful on the model. Demonstrates some ways in which managers in health care facilities can benefit from the use of computerized simulation modelling. Specifically, shows the effect of changing the duration of consultation and the effect of the application of an appointment system on patients' waiting time.

  13. Application of a nonrandomized stepped wedge design to evaluate an evidence-based quality improvement intervention: a proof of concept using simulated data on patient-centered medical homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Alexis K; Lee, Martin L; Farmer, Melissa M; Rubenstein, Lisa V

    2016-10-21

    Stepped wedge designs have gained recognition as a method for rigorously assessing implementation of evidence-based quality improvement interventions (QIIs) across multiple healthcare sites. In theory, this design uses random assignment of sites to successive QII implementation start dates based on a timeline determined by evaluators. However, in practice, QII timing is often controlled more by site readiness. We propose an alternate version of the stepped wedge design that does not assume the randomized timing of implementation while retaining the method's analytic advantages and applying to a broader set of evaluations. To test the feasibility of a nonrandomized stepped wedge design, we developed simulated data on patient care experiences and on QII implementation that had the structures and features of the expected data from a planned QII. We then applied the design in anticipation of performing an actual QII evaluation. We used simulated data on 108,000 patients to model nonrandomized stepped wedge results from QII implementation across nine primary care sites over 12 quarters. The outcome we simulated was change in a single self-administered question on access to care used by Veterans Health Administration (VA), based in the United States, as part of its quarterly patient ratings of quality of care. Our main predictors were QII exposure and time. Based on study hypotheses, we assigned values of 4 to 11 % for improvement in access when sites were first exposed to implementation and 1 to 3 % improvement in each ensuing time period thereafter when sites continued with implementation. We included site-level (practice size) and respondent-level (gender, race/ethnicity) characteristics that might account for nonrandomized timing in site implementation of the QII. We analyzed the resulting data as a repeated cross-sectional model using HLM 7 with a three-level hierarchical data structure and an ordinal outcome. Levels in the data structure included patient ratings

  14. Patient safety and quality of care: how may clinical simulation contribute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The usability of health information technology (IT) is increasingly recognized as critically important to the development of systems that ensure patient safety and quality of care. The substantial complexity of organizations, work practice and physical environments within the healthcare sector...... influences the development and application of health IT. When health IT is introduced in local clinical work practices, potential patient safety hazards and insufficient support of work practices need to be examined. Qualitative methods, such as clinical simulation, may be used to evaluate new technology...

  15. Differences in Faculty and Standardized Patient Scores on Professionalism for Second-Year Podiatric Medical Students During a Standardized Simulated Patient Encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, James M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Anwar, Noreen; Hagenbucher, Jacob

    2018-03-01

    This study examined the differences between faculty and trained standardized patient (SP) evaluations on student professionalism during a second-year podiatric medicine standardized simulated patient encounter. Forty-nine second-year podiatric medicine students were evaluated for their professionalism behavior. Eleven SPs performed an assessment in real-time, and one faculty member performed a secondary assessment after observing a videotape of the encounter. Five domains were chosen for evaluation from a validated professionalism assessment tool. Significant differences were identified in the professionalism domains of "build a relationship" ( P = .008), "gather information" ( P = .001), and share information ( P = .002), where the faculty scored the students higher than the SP for 24.5%, 18.9%, and 26.5% of the cases, respectively. In addition, the faculty scores were higher than the SP scores in all of the "gather information" subdomains; however, the difference in scores was significant only in the "question appropriately" ( P = .001) and "listen and clarify" ( P = .003) subdomains. This study showed that professionalism scores for second-year podiatric medical students during a simulated patient encounter varied significantly between faculty and SPs. Further consideration needs to be given to determine the source of these differences.

  16. Evacuation of Bed-bound Patients-STEPS Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne; Dederichs, Anne Simone

    2016-01-01

    Fires in hospitals occur, and evacuation of bed-bound patients might be necessary in case of emergency. The current study concerns the evacuation of bed-bound patients from a fire section in a hospital using hospital porters. The simulations are performed using the STEPS program. The aim...... of the study is to investigate the evacuation time of bed-bound hospital patients using different walking speeds from the literature, and the influence of the number of hospital porters on the total evacuation times of bed-bound patients. Different scenarios were carried out with varying staff......-to-patient ratios that simulate the horizontal evacuation of 40 bed-bound patients into a different fire section. It was found that the staff-to-patient-ratio affects the total evacuation times. However, the total evacuation times do not decrease linearly and a saturation effect is seen at a staff-to-patient ratio...

  17. Comparison of classic simulation and virtual simulation in breast irradiation: prospective study on 14 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauduceau, O.; Pons, P.; Romero, L.; Fayolle, M.; Campana, F.; Bollet, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. - To compare conventional 2D simulation and virtual simulation on 14 patients with breast cancer. Patients and methods. - Patients were simulated for treatment using standard procedure. They subsequently underwent CT scan in the treatment position. The CTV was defined as breast tissue. The PTV was obtained by adding a 3D margin of 1 cm around CTV. Organs at risk (lungs and heart) were outlined. Ballistics and dose distribution obtained with the two planning methods were compared. Results. - With conventional simulation, 95% of CTV received 95% of the dose prescribed. Virtual simulation significantly improved dosimetric coverage of PTV without increasing irradiation volume of lung and heart. In 2D simulation, using three slices allowed optimisation by adjusting wedge angle. The five-slice plan was a much better predictor of the maximum dose regions when compared to the three-slice plan. Using entire CT data did not give any benefit. Conclusion. - Variations in CTV delineation and PTV definition limit interest of virtual simulation. In classic simulation, a 5 CT slice-plan can be used to optimise dose distribution. (author)

  18. A Monte-Carlo simulation framework for joint optimisation of image quality and patient dose in digital paediatric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menser, Bernd; Manke, Dirk; Mentrup, Detlef; Neitzel, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    In paediatric radiography, according to the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle, the imaging task should be performed with the lowest possible radiation dose. This paper describes a Monte-Carlo simulation framework for dose optimisation of imaging parameters in digital paediatric radiography. Patient models with high spatial resolution and organ segmentation enable the simultaneous evaluation of image quality and patient dose on the same simulated radiographic examination. The accuracy of the image simulation is analysed by comparing simulated and acquired images of technical phantoms. As a first application example, the framework is applied to optimise tube voltage and pre-filtration in newborn chest radiography. At equal patient dose, the highest CNR is obtained with low-kV settings in combination with copper filtration. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of the use of computed tomography versus conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation in the treatment of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darben, P.; Lim-Joon, D.; Chao, M.; Gibbs, P.; Tjandra, J.; Jones, I.T.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare and contrast the treatment fields designed using CT versus conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation in the treatment of patients with rectal cancer given preoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nine patients participated in this study. The coverage of treatment fields, the volume of treatment fields, and the position of the anorectal junction in relation to the inferior border of the obturator foramen as the delineator of the pelvic floor were evaluated in each patient using CT and conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation. The results demonstrated undercoverage of the anterior border of the lateral fields of up to 2.5 cm in seven of nine patients when conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation was compared to CT simulation. In addition, the inferior border of the obturator foramen proved to be a poor delineator of the pelvic floor with the anorectal junction situated up to 2 cm superiorly in seven of nine patients. In conclusion, CT simulation is superior to conventional orthogonal X-ray simulation when designing treatment fields for patients with rectal cancer Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  20. Standardised patient-simulated practice learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching strategies must link theory to practice, foster critical thinking, be relevant and stimulate ... Standardised patient-simulated practice learning: A rich pedagogical .... relationship for them to grow and develop from novice to expert. They.

  1. Research on simulated infrared image utility evaluation using deep representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiheng; Mu, Chengpo; Yang, Yu; Xu, Lixin

    2018-01-01

    Infrared (IR) image simulation is an important data source for various target recognition systems. However, whether simulated IR images could be used as training data for classifiers depends on the features of fidelity and authenticity of simulated IR images. For evaluation of IR image features, a deep-representation-based algorithm is proposed. Being different from conventional methods, which usually adopt a priori knowledge or manually designed feature, the proposed method can extract essential features and quantitatively evaluate the utility of simulated IR images. First, for data preparation, we employ our IR image simulation system to generate large amounts of IR images. Then, we present the evaluation model of simulated IR image, for which an end-to-end IR feature extraction and target detection model based on deep convolutional neural network is designed. At last, the experiments illustrate that our proposed method outperforms other verification algorithms in evaluating simulated IR images. Cross-validation, variable proportion mixed data validation, and simulation process contrast experiments are carried out to evaluate the utility and objectivity of the images generated by our simulation system. The optimum mixing ratio between simulated and real data is 0.2≤γ≤0.3, which is an effective data augmentation method for real IR images.

  2. Assessing the performance and satisfaction of medical residents utilizing standardized patient versus mannequin-simulated training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaad AA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali A Alsaad,1 Swetha Davuluri,2 Vandana Y Bhide,3 Amy M Lannen,4 Michael J Maniaci3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 2University of Miami, Coral Gables, 3Division of Hospital Internal Medicine, 4J. Wayne and Delores Barr Weaver Simulation Center, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Background: Conducting simulations of rapidly decompensating patients are a key part of internal medicine (IM residency training. Traditionally, mannequins have been the simulation tool used in these scenarios. Objective: To compare IM residents’ performance and assess realism in specific-simulated decompensating patient scenarios using standardized patients (SPs as compared to mannequin. Methods: Nineteen IM residents were randomized to undergo simulations using either a mannequin or an SP. Each resident in the two groups underwent four different simulation scenarios (calcium channel blocker overdose, severe sepsis, severe asthma exacerbation, and acute bacterial meningitis. Residents completed pretest and post-test evaluations as well as a questionnaire to assess the reality perception (realism score. Results: Nine residents completed mannequin-based scenarios, whereas 10 completed SP-based scenarios. Improvement in the post-test scores was seen in both groups. However, there were significantly higher post-test scores achieved with SP simulations in three out of the four scenarios (P=0.01. When compared with the mannequin group, the SP simulation group showed a significantly higher average realism score (P=0.002. Conclusions: Applying SP-based specific-simulation scenarios in IM residency training may result in better performance and a higher sense of a realistic experience by medical residents. Keywords: simulation, standardized patient, satisfaction, mannequin, assessment, resident education

  3. Exploring Simulation Utilization and Simulation Evaluation Practices and Approaches in Undergraduate Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzelsberger, Hilde; Coffey, Sue; Graham, Leslie; Papaconstantinou, Efrosini; Anyinam, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Simulation-based learning (SBL) is rapidly becoming one of the most significant teaching-learning-evaluation strategies available in undergraduate nursing education. While there is indication within the literature and anecdotally about the benefits of simulation, abundant and strong evidence that supports the effectiveness of simulation for…

  4. Nuclear power plant simulation facility evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology for evaluation of nuclear power plant simulation facilities with regard to their acceptability for use in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operator licensing exam is described. The evaluation is based primarily on simulator fidelity, but incorporates some aspects of direct operator/trainee performance measurement. The panel presentation and paper discuss data requirements, data collection, data analysis and criteria for conclusions regarding the fidelity evaluation, and summarize the proposed use of direct performance measurment. While field testing and refinement of the methodology are recommended, this initial effort provides a firm basis for NRC to fully develop the necessary methodology

  5. Hospital simulated patient programme: a guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jenny; Hodgson, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Many university courses employ simulated patients to work with students in the development of communication skills. Our challenge was to build a sustainable programme that could be adapted for medical, nursing and allied health staff, and groups of students, on our hospital campus. In recognition of the need to provide practice opportunities for junior medical staff to hone their capacity to communicate effectively with parents, we employed professional actors who are also qualified teachers. Junior doctors have multiple opportunities over their training time to work one-to-one with an actor-tutor in the role of simulated parent. The simulated parents are skilled in helping the trainees reflect on the conversation, and the trainees are given a recording of their sessions for further reflection and feedback from a colleague. This model has been adapted to meet the 'topic' needs and scheduling requirements of other staff and hospital-based student groups. In adapting the original medical staff programme, we came to appreciate not only the logistical but also the ethical considerations inherent in a simulated parent/patient programme. Our guide highlights the importance of safeguarding the educational integrity of the design, maintaining the fidelity of the simulations and ensuring the safety of all involved. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  6. Airway skills training using a human patient simulator | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of airway management skills using the simulator. Participant satisfaction was much better in the simulator group. The importance of psychomotor reinforcement should be borne in mind when designing simulation courses. Keywords: human patient simulator, simulation, airway management, psychomotor skills ...

  7. Towards a personalised virtual diabetic patient simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.H.; Tani, G.; Pul, van C.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Cottaar, E.J.E.; Haak, H.R.; Riel, van N.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    The development of a diabetes simulator, an educational software tool which can help diabetic patients to better manage their disease, is described. Education of patients with diabetes mellitus is a fundamental part of diabetes care. One of the goals of diabetes education is to support the patients

  8. Evaluation of lung recruitment maneuvers in acute respiratory distress syndrome using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anup; Cole, Oana; Chikhani, Marc; Wang, Wenfei; Ali, Tayyba; Haque, Mainul; Bates, Declan G; Hardman, Jonathan G

    2015-01-12

    Direct comparison of the relative efficacy of different recruitment maneuvers (RMs) for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) via clinical trials is difficult, due to the heterogeneity of patient populations and disease states, as well as a variety of practical issues. There is also significant uncertainty regarding the minimum values of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) required to ensure maintenance of effective lung recruitment using RMs. We used patient-specific computational simulation to analyze how three different RMs act to improve physiological responses, and investigate how different levels of PEEP contribute to maintaining effective lung recruitment. We conducted experiments on five 'virtual' ARDS patients using a computational simulator that reproduces static and dynamic features of a multivariable clinical dataset on the responses of individual ARDS patients to a range of ventilator inputs. Three recruitment maneuvers (sustained inflation (SI), maximal recruitment strategy (MRS) followed by a titrated PEEP, and prolonged recruitment maneuver (PRM)) were implemented and evaluated for a range of different pressure settings. All maneuvers demonstrated improvements in gas exchange, but the extent and duration of improvement varied significantly, as did the observed mechanism of operation. Maintaining adequate post-RM levels of PEEP was seen to be crucial in avoiding cliff-edge type re-collapse of alveolar units for all maneuvers. For all five patients, the MRS exhibited the most prolonged improvement in oxygenation, and we found that a PEEP setting of 35 cm H2O with a fixed driving pressure of 15 cm H2O (above PEEP) was sufficient to achieve 95% recruitment. Subsequently, we found that PEEP titrated to a value of 16 cm H2O was able to maintain 95% recruitment in all five patients. There appears to be significant scope for reducing the peak levels of PEEP originally specified in the MRS and hence to avoid exposing the lung to

  9. Fluid structure interaction simulations of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang K; Kim, Ki Beom; McQuilling, Mark W; Movahed, Reza

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze pharyngeal airflow using both computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and fluid structure interactions (FSI) in obstructive sleep apnea patients before and after maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery. The airflow characteristics before and after surgery were compared with both CFD and FSI. In addition, the presurgery and postsurgery deformations of the airway were evaluated using FSI. Digitized pharyngeal airway models of 2 obstructive sleep apnea patients were generated from cone-beam computed tomography scans before and after MMA surgery. CFD and FSI were used to evaluate the pharyngeal airflow at a maximum inspiration rate of 166 ml per second. Standard steady-state numeric formulations were used for airflow simulations. Airway volume increased, pressure drop decreased, maximum airflow velocity decreased, and airway resistance dropped for both patients after the MMA surgery. These findings occurred in both the CFD and FSI simulations. The FSI simulations showed an area of marked airway deformation in both patients before surgery, but this deformation was negligible after surgery for both patients. Both CFD and FSI simulations produced airflow results that indicated less effort was needed to breathe after MMA surgery. The FSI simulations demonstrated a substantial decrease in airway deformation after surgery. These beneficial changes positively correlated with the large improvements in polysomnography outcomes after MMA surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Computer Simulations for Teaching Apparel Merchandising Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Laura D.; Sisler, Grovalynn

    1988-01-01

    The study developed and evaluated computer simulations for teaching apparel merchandising concepts. Evaluation results indicated that teaching method (computer simulation versus case study) does not significantly affect cognitive learning. Student attitudes varied, however, according to topic (profitable merchandising analysis versus retailing…

  11. Does simulation enhance nurses' ability to assess deteriorating patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Maria; Aitken, Leanne M

    2018-01-01

    Recognising and responding to patient deterioration has been identified as a key skill in nursing care to ensure that care is escalated for prompt, efficient management of the potentially critically ill patient. Simulation is one teaching strategy that has been established in nurse education as a method for enhancing skills. The objective was to explore the experiences of registered nurses to ascertain whether they perceived that simulation enhanced their skills in recognising the deteriorating patient. An exploratory qualitative design was used. Data were collected from registered nurses using semi-structured interviews following a professional development course where scenario-based simulation had been used to assess the patient. Eight registered nurses were interviewed for this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face to face. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis to identify major themes. Four themes were identified: knowledge, improved assessment skills in caring for the acutely ill patient, the learning environment and decision making. The use of simulation as a strategy was perceived by nurses to improve their own ability in identifying deteriorating patients. The participants described how their knowledge was transferred to clinical practice, with the overall perception that this led to improved patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Novel Clinical-Simulated Suture Education for Basic Surgical Skill: Suture on the Biological Tissue Fixed on Standardized Patient Evaluated with Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhanlong; Yang, Fan; Gao, Pengji; Zeng, Li; Jiang, Guanchao; Wang, Shan; Ye, Yingjiang; Zhu, Fengxue

    2017-06-21

    Clinical-simulated training has shown benefit in the education of medical students. However, the role of clinical simulation for surgical basic skill training such as suturing techniques remains unclear. Forty-two medical students were asked to perform specific suturing tasks at three stations with the different settings within four minutes (Station 1: Synthetic suture pad fixed on the bench, Station 2: Synthetic suture pad fixed on the standardized patient, Station 3: Pig skin fixed on the standardized patient); the OSATS (Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill) tool was used to evaluate the performance of students. A questionnaire was distributed to the students following the examination. Mean performance score of Station 3 was significant lower than that of Station 1 and 2 in the general performance including tissue handling, time, and motion. The suturing techniques of students at Station 2 and 3 were not as accurate as that at Station 1. Inappropriate tension was applied to the knot at Station 2 compared with Station 1 and 3. On the questionnaire, 93% of students considered clinical-simulated training of basic surgical skills was necessary and may increase their confidence in future clinical work as surgeons; 98% of students thought the assessment was more objective when OSATS tool was used for evaluation. Clinical simulation examination assessed with OSATS might throw a novel light on the education of basic surgical skills and may be worthy of wider adoption in the surgical education of medical students.

  13. In Patients With Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance Is Associated With Real-life Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Mette M; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B; Unser, Ariel; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, Richard T; Matherly, Scott; Puri, Puneet; Sanyal, Arun J; Gavis, Edith A; Luketic, Velimir; Siddiqui, Muhammad S; Heuman, Douglas M; Fuchs, Michael; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2016-05-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Furthermore, not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations. We also aimed to identify features of unsafe drivers with cirrhosis and evaluated changes in simulated driving skills and MHE status after 1 year. We performed a study of outpatients with cirrhosis (n = 205; median 55 years old; median model for end-stage liver disease score, 9.5; none with overt hepatic encephalopathy or alcohol or illicit drug use within previous 6 months) seen at the Virginia Commonwealth University and McGuire Veterans Administration Medical Center, from November 2008 through April 2014. All participants were given paper-pencil tests to diagnose MHE (98 had MHE; 48%), and 163 patients completed a standardized driving simulation. Data were collected on traffic violations and automobile accidents from the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles and from participants' self-assessments when they entered the study, and from 73 participants 1 year later. Participants also completed a questionnaire about alcohol use and cessation patterns. The driving simulator measured crashes, run-time, road center and edge excursions, and illegal turns during navigation; before and after each driving simulation session, patients were asked to rate their overall driving skills. Drivers were classified as safe or unsafe based on crashes and violations reported on official driving records; simulation results were compared with real-life driving records. Multivariable regression analyses of real-life crashes and violations was performed using data on

  14. Airway skills training using a human patient simulator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thesegan Moodley

    2016-04-11

    Apr 11, 2016 ... Airway management problems may be particularly challenging to junior doctors.1 ... They respond to real-time, real-life clinical ... Keywords: human patient simulator, simulation, airway management, psychomotor skills.

  15. Evaluation of radiation dose to patients in intraoral dental radiography using Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Il; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Oh, Seung Chul; Song, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    The use of dental radiographic examinations is common although radiation dose resulting from the dental radiography is relatively small. Therefore, it is required to evaluate radiation dose from the dental radiography for radiation safety purpose. The objectives of the present study were to develop dosimetry method for intraoral dental radiography using a Monte Carlo method based radiation transport code and to calculate organ doses and effective doses of patients from different types of intraoral radiographies. Radiological properties of dental radiography equipment were characterized for the evaluation of patient radiation dose. The properties including x-ray energy spectrum were simulated using MCNP code. Organ doses and effective doses to patients were calculated by MCNP simulation with computational adult phantoms. At the typical equipment settings (60 kVp, 7 mA, and 0.12 sec), the entrance air kerma was 1.79 mGy and the measured half value layer was 1.82 mm. The half value layer calculated by MCNP simulation was well agreed with the measurement values. Effective doses from intraoral radiographies ranged from 1 μSv for maxilla premolar to 3 μSv for maxilla incisor. Oral cavity layer (23⁓82 μSv) and salivary glands (10⁓68 μSv) received relatively high radiation dose. Thyroid also received high radiation dose (3⁓47 μSv) for examinations. The developed dosimetry method and evaluated radiation doses in this study can be utilized for policy making, patient dose management, and development of low-dose equipment. In addition, this study can ultimately contribute to decrease radiation dose to patients for radiation safety

  16. Evaluation of radiation dose to patients in intraoral dental radiography using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Il; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Oh, Seung Chul; Song, Ji Young [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    The use of dental radiographic examinations is common although radiation dose resulting from the dental radiography is relatively small. Therefore, it is required to evaluate radiation dose from the dental radiography for radiation safety purpose. The objectives of the present study were to develop dosimetry method for intraoral dental radiography using a Monte Carlo method based radiation transport code and to calculate organ doses and effective doses of patients from different types of intraoral radiographies. Radiological properties of dental radiography equipment were characterized for the evaluation of patient radiation dose. The properties including x-ray energy spectrum were simulated using MCNP code. Organ doses and effective doses to patients were calculated by MCNP simulation with computational adult phantoms. At the typical equipment settings (60 kVp, 7 mA, and 0.12 sec), the entrance air kerma was 1.79 mGy and the measured half value layer was 1.82 mm. The half value layer calculated by MCNP simulation was well agreed with the measurement values. Effective doses from intraoral radiographies ranged from 1 μSv for maxilla premolar to 3 μSv for maxilla incisor. Oral cavity layer (23⁓82 μSv) and salivary glands (10⁓68 μSv) received relatively high radiation dose. Thyroid also received high radiation dose (3⁓47 μSv) for examinations. The developed dosimetry method and evaluated radiation doses in this study can be utilized for policy making, patient dose management, and development of low-dose equipment. In addition, this study can ultimately contribute to decrease radiation dose to patients for radiation safety.

  17. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo da C, E.; Ribeiro da R, L. A.; Santos B, D. V.

    2014-08-01

    Each year a considerable amount of pregnant women needs to be submitted to radiotherapeutic procedures to combat malignant tumors. Radiation therapy is often a treatment of choice for these patients. It is possible to use shielding and beam positioning such that the potential dose to the fetus can be minimized. In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. The patient was simulated by an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated using micro-rod TLD-100 detectors in two conditions, namely protecting the patients abdomen with a 7 cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the abdomen protection in reducing the fetus absorbed dose. Irradiations were performed with a Trilogy linear accelerator using x-rays of 6 MV. A total dose of 50 Gy to the target volume was delivered. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and (0.88±0.052) c Gy, corresponding to a dose reduction of 59%. The dose (0.52±0.039) c Gy is within the zone of biological tolerance for the fetus. (Author)

  18. Fetus absorbed dose evaluation in head and neck radiotherapy procedures of pregnant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo da C, E.; Ribeiro da R, L. A.; Santos B, D. V., E-mail: etieli@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria / CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, 22783-127 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Each year a considerable amount of pregnant women needs to be submitted to radiotherapeutic procedures to combat malignant tumors. Radiation therapy is often a treatment of choice for these patients. It is possible to use shielding and beam positioning such that the potential dose to the fetus can be minimized. In this work the head and neck cancer treatment of a pregnant patient was experimentally simulated. The patient was simulated by an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom and the absorbed dose to the fetus was evaluated using micro-rod TLD-100 detectors in two conditions, namely protecting the patients abdomen with a 7 cm lead layer and using no abdomen shielding. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficiency of the abdomen protection in reducing the fetus absorbed dose. Irradiations were performed with a Trilogy linear accelerator using x-rays of 6 MV. A total dose of 50 Gy to the target volume was delivered. The fetus doses evaluated with and without the lead shielding were, respectively, 0.52±0.039 and (0.88±0.052) c Gy, corresponding to a dose reduction of 59%. The dose (0.52±0.039) c Gy is within the zone of biological tolerance for the fetus. (Author)

  19. The impact of repeated simulation on health and healthcare perceptions of simulated patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerjan, M.; Boone, F.; Anthierens, S.; Weel-Baumgarten, E.M. van; Deveugele, M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of simulating medical conditions on simulated patients (SPs). Main points of interest are influence on: perception of personal health and perception of their relation with the health care provider (HCP), personal well being. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were

  20. Simulation-based multidisciplinary team training decreases time to critical operations for trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret; Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary K; Palmer, Cameron S; Hsu, Jeremy; McCloughen, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Simulation has been promoted as a platform for training trauma teams. However, it is not clear if this training has an impact on health service delivery and patient outcomes. This study evaluates the association between implementation of a simulation based multidisciplinary trauma team training program at a metropolitan trauma centre and subsequent patient outcomes. This was a retrospective review of trauma registry data collected at an 850-bed Level 1 Adult Trauma Centre in Sydney, Australia. Two concurrent four-year periods, before and after implementation of a simulation based multidisciplinary trauma team training program were compared for differences in time to critical operations, Emergency Department (ED) length of stay (LOS) and patient mortality. There were 2389 major trauma patients admitted to the hospital during the study, 1116 in the four years preceding trauma team training (the PREgroup) and 1273 in the subsequent 4 years (the POST group). There were no differences between the groups with respect to gender, body region injured, incidence of polytrauma, and pattern of arrival to ED. The POST group was older (median age 54 versus 43 years, p team training was associated with a reduction in time to critical operation while overall ED length of stay increased. Simulation is promoted as a platform for training teams; but the complexity of trauma care challenges efforts to demonstrate direct links between multidisciplinary team training and improved outcomes. There remain considerable gaps in knowledge as to how team training impacts health service delivery and patient outcomes. Retrospective comparative therapeutic/care management study, Level III evidence. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Does simulator-based team training improve patient safety?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentzsch, H; Urban, B; Sandmeyer, B; Hammer, T; Strohm, P C; Lazarovici, M

    2013-10-01

    Patient safety became paramount in medicine as well as in emergency medicine after it was recognized that preventable, adverse events significantly contributed to morbidity and mortality during hospital stay. The underlying errors cannot usually be explained by medical technical inadequacies only but are more due to difficulties in the transition of theoretical knowledge into tasks under the conditions of clinical reality. Crew Resource Management and Human Factors which determine safety and efficiency of humans in complex situations are suitable to control such sources of error. Simulation significantly improved safety in high reliability organizations, such as the aerospace industry.Thus, simulator-based team training has also been proposed for medical areas. As such training is consuming in cost, time and human resources, the question of the cost-benefit ratio obviously arises. This review outlines the effects of simulator-based team training on patient safety. Such course formats are not only capable of creating awareness and improvements in safety culture but also improve technical team performance and emphasize team performance as a clinical competence. A few studies even indicated improvement of patient-centered outcome, such as a reduced rate of adverse events but further studies are required in this respect. In summary, simulator-based team training should be accepted as a suitable strategy to improve patient safety.

  2. Evaluating Surgical Residents' Patient-Centered Communication Skills: Practical Alternatives to the "Apprenticeship Model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Anna; Trickey, Amber W; Lita, Elena; Dort, Jonathan

    2017-10-06

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires residency programs to assess communication skills and provide feedback to residents. We aimed to develop a feasible data collection process that generates objective clinical performance information to guide training activities, inform ACGME milestone evaluations, and validate assessment instruments. Residents care for patients in the surgical clinic and in the hospital, and participate in a communication curriculum providing practice with standardized patients (SPs). We measured perception of resident communication using the 14-item Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), collecting data from patients at the surgery clinic and surgical wards in the hospital, and from SP encounters during simulated training scenarios. We developed a handout of CAT example behaviors to guide patients completing the communication assessment. Independent academic medical center. General surgery residents. The primary outcome is the percentage of total items patients rated "excellent;" we collected data on 24 of 25 residents. Outpatient evaluations resulted in significantly higher scores (mean 84.5% vs. 68.6%, p communication assessments in their concurrent patient population (p = 0.017), and (2) receiving CAT example instructions was associated with a lower percentage of excellent ratings by 9.3% (p = 0.047). Our data collection process provides a model for obtaining meaningful information about resident communication proficiency. CAT evaluations of surgical residents by the inpatient population had not previously been described in the literature; our results provide important insight into relationships between the evaluations provided by inpatients, clinic patients, and SPs in simulation. Our example behaviors guide shows promise for addressing a common concern, minimizing ceiling effects when measuring physician-patient communication. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by

  3. A java based simulator with user interface to simulate ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention, which despite its use on a routine basis, poses the risk of inflicting further damage to the lung tissue if ventilator settings are chosen inappropriately. Medical decision support systems may help to prevent such injuries while providing the optimal settings to reach a defined clinical goal. In order to develop and verify decision support algorithms, a test bench simulating a patient’s behaviour is needed. We propose a Java based system that allows simulation of respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and cardiovascular dynamics of a mechanically ventilated patient. The implemented models are allowed to interact and are interchangeable enabling the simulation of various clinical scenarios. Model simulations are running in real-time and show physiologically plausible results.

  4. Performance and cost evaluation of health information systems using micro-costing and discrete-event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeb, Olfa; Pilet, Claire; Hamana, Sabri; Xie, Xiaolan; Durand, Thierry; Aloui, Saber; Doly, Anne; Biron, Pierre; Perrier, Lionel; Augusto, Vincent

    2018-06-01

    Innovation and health-care funding reforms have contributed to the deployment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve patient care. Many health-care organizations considered the application of ICT as a crucial key to enhance health-care management. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to assess the organizational impact of high-level Health Information System (HIS) on patient pathway. We propose an integrated performance evaluation of HIS approach through the combination of formal modeling using the Architecture of Integrated Information Systems (ARIS) models, a micro-costing approach for cost evaluation, and a Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) approach. The methodology is applied to the consultation for cancer treatment process. Simulation scenarios are established to conclude about the impact of HIS on patient pathway. We demonstrated that although high level HIS lengthen the consultation, occupation rate of oncologists are lower and quality of service is higher (through the number of available information accessed during the consultation to formulate the diagnostic). The provided method allows also to determine the most cost-effective ICT elements to improve the care process quality while minimizing costs. The methodology is flexible enough to be applied to other health-care systems.

  5. High-fidelity haptic and visual rendering for patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sonny; Li, Peter; Locketz, Garrett; Salisbury, Kenneth; Blevins, Nikolas H

    2016-12-01

    Medical imaging techniques provide a wealth of information for surgical preparation, but it is still often the case that surgeons are examining three-dimensional pre-operative image data as a series of two-dimensional images. With recent advances in visual computing and interactive technologies, there is much opportunity to provide surgeons an ability to actively manipulate and interpret digital image data in a surgically meaningful way. This article describes the design and initial evaluation of a virtual surgical environment that supports patient-specific simulation of temporal bone surgery using pre-operative medical image data. Computational methods are presented that enable six degree-of-freedom haptic feedback during manipulation, and that simulate virtual dissection according to the mechanical principles of orthogonal cutting and abrasive wear. A highly efficient direct volume renderer simultaneously provides high-fidelity visual feedback during surgical manipulation of the virtual anatomy. The resulting virtual surgical environment was assessed by evaluating its ability to replicate findings in the operating room, using pre-operative imaging of the same patient. Correspondences between surgical exposure, anatomical features, and the locations of pathology were readily observed when comparing intra-operative video with the simulation, indicating the predictive ability of the virtual surgical environment.

  6. In Patients with Cirrhosis, Driving Simulator Performance is Associated With Real-life Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Enok Munk; Thacker, Leroy R; White, Melanie B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been linked to higher real-life rates of automobile crashes and poor performance in driving simulation studies, but the link between driving simulator performance and real-life automobile crashes has not been clearly established. Further......, not all patients with MHE are unsafe drivers, but it is unclear how to distinguish them from unsafe drivers. We investigated the link between performance on driving simulators and real-life automobile accidents and traffic violations. We also aimed to identify features of unsafe drivers with cirrhosis...... and evaluated changes in simulated driving skills and MHE status after 1 year. METHODS: We performed a study of outpatients with cirrhosis (n=205; median 55 years old; median model for end-stage liver disease score, 9.5; none with overt hepatic encephalopathy or alcohol or illicit drug use within previous 6...

  7. Patient radiation exposure dose evaluation of whole spine scanography due to exposure direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Su; Seo, Deok Nam [Dept. of Bio-convergence Engineering, Graduate School of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Mu [Dept. of Radiologic Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Whole spine scanography (WSS) is a radiological examination that exposes the whole body of the individual being examined to x-ray radiation. WSS is often repeated during the treatment period, which results in a much greater radiation exposure than that in routine x-ray examinations. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the patient dose of WSS using computer simulation, image magnification and angulation of phantom image using different patient position. We evaluated the effective dose(ED) of 23 consecutive patients (M : F = 13:10) who underwent WSS, based on the automatic image pasting method for multiple exposure digital radiography. The Anterior-Posterior position(AP) and Posterior-Anterior position( PA) projection EDs were evaluated based on the PC based Monte Carlo simulation. We measured spine transverse process distance and angulation using DICOM measurement. For all patient, the average ED was 0.069 mSv for AP position and 0.0361 mSv for PA position. AP position calculated double exposure then PA position. For male patient, the average ED was 0.089 mSv(AP) and 0.050 mSv(PA). For female patient, the average ED was 0.0431 mSv(AP) and 0.026 mSv(PA). The transverse process of PA spine image measured 5% higher than AP but angulation of transverse process was no significant differences. In clinical practice, just by change the patient position was conformed to reduce the ED of patient. Therefore we need to redefine of protocol for digital radiography such as WSS, whole spine scanography, effective dose, patient exposure dose, exposure direction, protocol optimization.

  8. An approach to value-based simulator selection: The creation and evaluation of the simulator value index tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Deborah M; Hananel, David M; Covington, Benjamin J; Dionise, Patrick L; Nykamp, Michael T; Pederson, Melvin; Sahloul, Jamal M; Vasquez, Rachael; Seagull, F Jacob; Pinsky, Harold M; Sweier, Domenica G; Cooke, James M

    2018-04-01

    Currently there is no reliable, standardized mechanism to support health care professionals during the evaluation of and procurement processes for simulators. A tool founded on best practices could facilitate simulator purchase processes. In a 3-phase process, we identified top factors considered during the simulator purchase process through expert consensus (n = 127), created the Simulator Value Index (SVI) tool, evaluated targeted validity evidence, and evaluated the practical value of this SVI. A web-based survey was sent to simulation professionals. Participants (n = 79) used the SVI and provided feedback. We evaluated the practical value of 4 tool variations by calculating their sensitivity to predict a preferred simulator. Seventeen top factors were identified and ranked. The top 2 were technical stability/reliability of the simulator and customer service, with no practical differences in rank across institution or stakeholder role. Full SVI variations predicted successfully the preferred simulator with good (87%) sensitivity, whereas the sensitivity of variations in cost and customer service and cost and technical stability decreased (≤54%). The majority (73%) of participants agreed that the SVI was helpful at guiding simulator purchase decisions, and 88% agreed the SVI tool would help facilitate discussion with peers and leadership. Our findings indicate the SVI supports the process of simulator purchase using a standardized framework. Sensitivity of the tool improved when factors extend beyond traditionally targeted factors. We propose the tool will facilitate discussion amongst simulation professionals dealing with simulation, provide essential information for finance and procurement professionals, and improve the long-term value of simulation solutions. Limitations and application of the tool are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design, development, and performance of an adapter for simulation of ocular melanoma patients in supine position for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daftari, I.; Phillips, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    A patient assembly adapter system for ocular melanoma patient simulation was developed and its performance evaluated. The aim for the construction of the apparatus was to simulate the patients in supine position using a commercial x-ray simulator. The apparatus consists of a base plate, head immobilization holder, patient assembly system that includes fixation light and collimator system. The reproducibility of the repeated fixation was initially tested with a head phantom. Simulation and verification films were studied for seven consecutive patients treated with proton beam therapy. Patient's simulation was performed in a supine position using a dental fixation bite block and a thermoplastic head mask immobilization device with a patient adapter system. Two orthogonal x rays were used to obtain the x, y, and z coordinates of sutured tantalum rings for treatment planning with the EYEPLAN software. The verification films were obtained in treatment position with the fixation light along the central axis of the eye. The results indicate good agreement within 0.5 mm deviations. The results of this investigation showed that the same planning accuracy could be achieved by performing simulation using the adapter described above with a patient in the supine position as that obtained by performing simulation with the patient in the seated, treatment position. The adapter can also be attached to the head of the chair for simulating in the seated position using a fixed x-ray unit. This has three advantages: (1) this will save radiation therapists time; (2) it eliminates the need for arranging access to the treatment room, thus avoiding potential conflicts in treatment room usage; and (3) it allows the use of a commercial simulator

  10. Design, development, and performance of an adapter for simulation of ocular melanoma patients in supine position for proton beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftari, I.; Phillips, T. L.

    2003-06-01

    A patient assembly adapter system for ocular melanoma patient simulation was developed and its performance evaluated. The aim for the construction of the apparatus was to simulate the patients in supine position using a commercial x-ray simulator. The apparatus consists of a base plate, head immobilization holder, patient assembly system that includes fixation light and collimator system. The reproducibility of the repeated fixation was initially tested with a head phantom. Simulation and verification films were studied for seven consecutive patients treated with proton beam therapy. Patient's simulation was performed in a supine position using a dental fixation bite block and a thermoplastic head mask immobilization device with a patient adapter system. Two orthogonal x rays were used to obtain the x, y, and z coordinates of sutured tantalum rings for treatment planning with the EYEPLAN software. The verification films were obtained in treatment position with the fixation light along the central axis of the eye. The results indicate good agreement within 0.5 mm deviations. The results of this investigation showed that the same planning accuracy could be achieved by performing simulation using the adapter described above with a patient in the supine position as that obtained by performing simulation with the patient in the seated, treatment position. The adapter can also be attached to the head of the chair for simulating in the seated position using a fixed x-ray unit. This has three advantages: (1) this will save radiation therapists time; (2) it eliminates the need for arranging access to the treatment room, thus avoiding potential conflicts in treatment room usage; and (3) it allows the use of a commercial simulator.

  11. Use of simulated patients to develop communication skills in nursing education: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Sharon; Kelly, Michelle; Geddes, Fiona; Della, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Registered nurses are expected to communicate effectively with patients. To improve on this skill education programmes in both hospital and tertiary settings are increasingly turning to simulation modalities when training undergraduate and registered nurses. The roles simulated patients (SPs) assume can vary according to training purposes and approach. The first aim is to analyse how SPs are used in nursing education to develop communication skills. The second aim is to evaluate the evidence that is available to support the efficacy of using SPs for training nurses in communication skills and finally to review the SP recruitment and training procedure. An Integrative review. A search was conducted on CINAHL, Psych-info, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Ovid, Medline, and ProQuest databases. Keywords and inclusion/exclusion criteria were determined and applied to the search strategy. The integrative review included Nineteen studies from 2006-2016. Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) method of evaluation was utilised. Emergent themes were extracted with similar and divergent perspectives. Analysis identified seven clinical contexts for communication skills training (CST) and two SP roles from the eighteen studies. SPs were either directly involved in the teaching of communication (active role) or used in the evaluation of the effectiveness of a communication skills program (passive role). A majority of studies utilised faculty-designed measurement instruments. The evidence presented in the 19 articles indicates that the use of SPs to teach nurse-patient communication skills targets more challenging clinical interactions. Engaging SPs in both CST program facilitation and course evaluation provides nurse educators with a strong foundation to develop further pedagogical and research capacity. Expanding the utilisation of SPs to augment nurses' communication skills and ability to engage with patients in a broader range of clinical contexts with increased

  12. Simulation in mental health nurse education: The development, implementation and evaluation of an educational innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Anne; Wright, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    Simulation is an important learning approach for the development of skills for healthcare practice. However, it remains under used in the education of mental health practitioners. This article examines the development, implementation and evaluation of a simulated learning experience for final year undergraduate BSc mental health nursing students in the UK. Scenarios involving managing care in an acute in patient ward and community older persons' team were designed to enable students to develop their complex decision making skills. An evaluation of the simulation experience was undertaken. This was informed by the principles of improvement science methodology and data was collected from the student participants using questionnaires. The findings indicated that simulation provided a realistic environment in which students were able to develop skills and manage clinical situations autonomously without fear of being assessed or making mistakes. Reflecting Dieckmann et al.'s (2007) position that simulation is a social situation in itself, the learning approach enabled mental health students to both experience the safety of the Higher Education setting and also the reality of clinical practice. Simulation may therefore provide an important tool to prepare students for the responsibilities of a qualified nurse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Sampling for Patient Exit Interviews: Assessment of Methods Using Mathematical Derivation and Computer Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Fink, Günther; Vaikath, Maria; Bärnighausen, Till

    2018-02-01

    (1) To evaluate the operational efficiency of various sampling methods for patient exit interviews; (2) to discuss under what circumstances each method yields an unbiased sample; and (3) to propose a new, operationally efficient, and unbiased sampling method. Literature review, mathematical derivation, and Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations show that in patient exit interviews it is most operationally efficient if the interviewer, after completing an interview, selects the next patient exiting the clinical consultation. We demonstrate mathematically that this method yields a biased sample: patients who spend a longer time with the clinician are overrepresented. This bias can be removed by selecting the next patient who enters, rather than exits, the consultation room. We show that this sampling method is operationally more efficient than alternative methods (systematic and simple random sampling) in most primary health care settings. Under the assumption that the order in which patients enter the consultation room is unrelated to the length of time spent with the clinician and the interviewer, selecting the next patient entering the consultation room tends to be the operationally most efficient unbiased sampling method for patient exit interviews. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. An integrative literature review on preparing nursing students through simulation to recognize and respond to the deteriorating patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Duana; King, Lindy

    2013-11-01

    To synthesize studies that explored simulation as preparation of nursing students for recognition and response to the deteriorating patient. New graduate nurses are expected to have the skills to recognize and respond to rapidly deteriorating patient conditions. To this end, education programmes have turned increasingly to simulation to assist students to gain the necessary skills. Integrative review. CINAHL, Informit, ProQuest, Ovid MEDLINE, SAGE Journals and Web of Knowledge electronic databases, keywords and inclusion/exclusion criteria were searched. Eighteen studies published between 2004-2012 were found. Studies were appraised using recognized evaluation tools. Thematic analysis was undertaken and emergent themes were extracted with similar and divergent perspectives sought. Six themes were identified namely, 'transferability of simulation skills to clinical practice', 'exposure to broader range of experiences', 'confidence levels in relation to simulation training', 'competence/performance', 'clinical judgment' and 'student perceptions of preparedness for practice following simulation'. Simulation exposes students to a broader range of experiences whilst in a safe environment with transference of skills to clinical practice occurring. Confidence, clinical judgement, knowledge and competence, all vital in the care of a deteriorating patient, were enhanced. However, evidence of simulation used specifically to prepare nursing students to recognize and respond to the deteriorating patient appeared limited. This educational field appears rich for interprofessional collaboration and further research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Manufacturing plant performance evaluation by discrete event simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Darmawan; Mohd Rasid Osman; Rosnah Mohd Yusuff; Napsiah Ismail; Zulkiflie Leman

    2002-01-01

    A case study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a manufacturing plant using discrete event simulation technique. The study was carried out on animal feed production plant. Sterifeed plant at Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Selangor, Malaysia. The plant was modelled base on the actual manufacturing activities recorded by the operators. The simulation was carried out using a discrete event simulation software. The model was validated by comparing the simulation results with the actual operational data of the plant. The simulation results show some weaknesses with the current plant design and proposals were made to improve the plant performance. (Author)

  16. Exercise evaluation and simulation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meitzler, W.D.; Jaske, R.T.

    1983-12-01

    The Exercise Evaluation and Simulation Facility (EESF) is a mini computer based system that will serve as a tool to aid FEMA in the evaluation of radiological emergency plans and preparedness around commercial nucler power facilities. The EESF integrates the following resources: a meteorological model, dose model, evacuation model, map information, and exercise information into a single system. Thus the user may access these various resources concurrently, and on completion display the results on a color graphic display or hardcopy unit. A unique capability made possible by the integration of these models is the computation of estimated total dose to the population

  17. A prospective study to determine the need for physical simulation following virtual simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, R.K.; Waterman, F.M.; Corn, B.W.; Sweet, J.; Curran, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Virtual simulation is CT based planning utilizing computed digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) in a manner similar to conventional fluoroscopic simulation. However, conventional or physical simulation is still widely used to assure precise implementation of the devised plan. To evaluate the need for performing physical simulation, we prospectively studied patients undergoing virtual simulation who either had or did not have a subsequent physical simulation. Materials and Methods: From July, 1995 to February, 1996, 48 patients underwent conformal 4-field radiation therapy for prostate cancer using a commercial grade spiral CT simulator. All patients were immobilized in a foam body cast and positioned by using a fiducial laser marking system. Following prostate and seminal vesicle definition on a slice-by-slice basis, virtual simulation was performed. The isocenter defined by this process was marked on both the patient and the immobilization device before leaving the CT simulator room. The isocenter position of the devised plan was evaluated by three verification methods: physical simulation, first day treatment port filming, and port filming immediately following physical simulation. Simulator radiographs and port films were compared against DRRs for x, y, and z deviations of the isocenter. These deviations were used as a measure of the implementation precision achieved by each verification method. Results: Thirty-seven patients underwent physical simulation and first day port filming. Eleven had first day treatment verification films only and never had a physical simulation. A total of 79 simulator radiographs and 126 first day treatment port films were reviewed. The tabulation of all deviations is as follows: There was significantly more setup error (≥ 5 mm) observed when the devised treatment was implemented in the treatment room as opposed to the physical simulator. The physical simulator did not lead to a significant reduction in setup error

  18. Utilization of simulated patients to assess diabetes and asthma counseling practices among community pharmacists in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravattil, Bridget; Kheir, Nadir; Yousif, Adil

    2017-08-01

    Background Patient counseling is one of the most important services a pharmacist can provide to patients. Studies have shown that counseling provided by pharmacists may prevent medication related problems and improve adherence to medication therapy. Objective To explore counseling practices among community pharmacists using simulated patients and to determine if patient, pharmacist, and pharmacy characteristics influence the counseling provided by community pharmacists. Setting Private community pharmacies within Qatar. Method This is a randomized, cross sectional study where simulated patients visited community pharmacies and presented the pharmacist with a new prescription or requested a refill for either a diabetes or asthma medication. Pharmacists completed a questionnaire at the end of the simulated interaction, which was utilized to determine if patient, pharmacist, or pharmacy characteristics had any influence on the counseling provided to patients. A scoring system was devised to assess the pharmacist's counseling practices. Main outcome measure To evaluate the type of information provided by community pharmacists to the simulated patient regarding diabetes and asthma. Results One hundred and twenty-nine pharmacists were enrolled in the study. Eighty one percent of pharmacists had a score master of pharmacy degree provided significantly better counseling (f = 3.261; p = 0.042). Many pharmacists (65%) provided hypoglycemia management to patients, however, 63% referred the patient to the physician when the patient experienced hypoglycemia from inappropriate medication administration. Only 2 (7%) pharmacists correctly counseled the patient on all 8 inhaler administration steps. Majority of pharmacists (50%) educated on the role of the rescue and controller therapy in asthma, however, 33% referred the patient to the physician when the patient inquired about controller therapy use. Conclusion Patient counseling was substandard with the majority of community

  19. Implementation and evaluation of a simulation curriculum for paediatric residency programs including just-in-time in situ mock codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Jonathan; Pierse, Michael; Al-Qahtani, Abdullah; Cheng, Adam

    2012-02-01

    To develop, implement and evaluate a simulation-based acute care curriculum in a paediatric residency program using an integrated and longitudinal approach. Curriculum framework consisting of three modular, year-specific courses and longitudinal just-in-time, in situ mock codes. Paediatric residency program at BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia. The three year-specific courses focused on the critical first 5 min, complex medical management and crisis resource management, respectively. The just-in-time in situ mock codes simulated the acute deterioration of an existing ward patient, prepared the actual multidisciplinary code team, and primed the surrounding crisis support systems. Each curriculum component was evaluated with surveys using a five-point Likert scale. A total of 40 resident surveys were completed after each of the modular courses, and an additional 28 surveys were completed for the overall simulation curriculum. The highest Likert scores were for hands-on skill stations, immersive simulation environment and crisis resource management teaching. Survey results also suggested that just-in-time mock codes were realistic, reinforced learning, and prepared ward teams for patient deterioration. A simulation-based acute care curriculum was successfully integrated into a paediatric residency program. It provides a model for integrating simulation-based learning into other training programs, as well as a model for any hospital that wishes to improve paediatric resuscitation outcomes using just-in-time in situ mock codes.

  20. Facility/equipment performance evaluation using microcomputer simulation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.

    1985-08-01

    A computer simulation analysis model was developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assist in assuring the adequacy of the Monitored Retrievable Storage facility design to meet the specified spent nuclear fuel throughput requirements. The microcomputer-based model was applied to the analysis of material flow, equipment capability and facility layout. The simulation analysis evaluated uncertainties concerning both facility throughput requirements and process duration times as part of the development of a comprehensive estimate of facility performance. The evaluations provided feedback into the design review task to identify areas where design modifications should be considered

  1. An evaluation of dental operative simulation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Hong; Foster Page, Lyndie; Purton, David

    2012-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the performance of different materials used in dental operative simulation and compare them with those of natural teeth. Three typical phantom teeth materials were compared with extracted permanent teeth by a nanoindentation system and evaluated by students and registered dentists on the drilling sensation of the materials. Moreover, the tool life (machinability) of new cylindrical diamond burs on cutting the sample materials was tested and the burs were observed. Although student and dentist evaluations were scattered and inconclusive, it was found that elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) were not the main factors in determining the drilling sensation of the materials. The sensation of drilling is a reflection of cutting force and power consumption.An ideal material for dental simulation should be able to generate similar drilling resistance to that of natural tooth, which is the machinability of the material.

  2. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Joanna L

    2015-09-01

    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.

  3. Web-based multimedia courseware for emergency cardiac patient management simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosiadou, V; Compton, T; Panchal, T; Polovina, S

    2000-01-01

    This is a multidisciplinary inter-departmental/faculty project between the departments of computer science, electronic, communications and electrical engineering and nursing and paramedic sciences. The objective is to develop a web based multimedia front end to existing simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria. It will be used firstly in the teaching of nurses. The University of Hertfordshire is the only University in Britain using simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria for nurse and paramedic science education and therefore this project will add the multimedia dimension in distributed courses over the web and will assess the improvement in the educational process. The use of network and multimedia technologies, provide interactive learning, immediate feedback to students' responses, individually tailored instructions, objective testing and entertaining delivery. The end product of this project will serve as interactive material to enhance experiential learning for nursing students using the simulations of cardiac emergency scenaria. The emergency treatment simulations have been developed using VisSim and may be compiled as C code. The objective of the project is to provide a web based user friendly multimedia interface in order to demonstrate the way in which patients may be managed in critical situations by applying advanced technological equipment and drug administration. Then the user will be able to better appreciate the concepts involved by running the VisSim simulations. The evaluation group for the proposed software will be the Department of Nursing and Paramedic Sciences About 200 nurses use simulations every year for training purposes as part of their course requirements.

  4. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator has a base on which all of the instruments for the aligning and calibrating are mounted. Laser directs beam at double right prism which is attached to pivoting support on base. The pivot point of the prism is located at the design eye point (DEP) of simulator during the aligning and calibrating. The objective lens in the base is movable on a track to follow the laser beam at different angles within the field of vision at the DEP. An eyepiece and a precision diopter are movable into a position behind the prism during the scene evaluation. A photometer or illuminometer is pivotable about the pivot into and out of position behind the eyepiece.

  5. Simulation and Evaluation of Ethernet Passive Optical Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah A. Jaro Alabady

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available      This paper studies simulation and evaluation of Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON system, IEEE802.3ah based OPTISM 3.6 simulation program. The simulation program is used in this paper to build a typical ethernet passive optical network, and to evaluate the network performance when using the (1580, 1625 nm wavelength instead of (1310, 1490 nm that used in Optical Line Terminal (OLT and Optical Network Units (ONU's in system architecture of Ethernet passive optical network at different bit rate and different fiber optic length. The results showed enhancement in network performance by increase the number of nodes (subscribers connected to the network, increase the transmission distance, reduces the received power and reduces the Bit Error Rate (BER.   

  6. A hippotherapy simulator is effective to shift weight bearing toward the affected side during gait in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju; Yu, Byong-Kyu; Kim, Kyeong-Mi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether a hippotherapy simulator has influence on symmetric body weight bearing during gait in patients with stroke. Stroke patients were divided into a control group (n = 10) that received conventional rehabilitation for 60 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks and an experimental group (n = 10) that used a hippotherapy simulator for 15 min/day, 5 times/week for 4 weeks after conventional rehabilitation for 45 min/day. Temporospatial gait assessed using OptoGait and trunk muscles (abdominis and erector spinae on affected side) activity evaluated using surface electromyography during sit-to-stand and gait. Prior to starting the experiment, pre-testing was performed. At the end of the 4-week intervention, we performed post-testing. Activation of the erector spinae in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group (p hippotherapy simulator compared to control group (p hippotherapy simulator to patients with stroke can improve asymmetric weight bearing by influencing trunk muscles.

  7. Observer variability when evaluating patient movement from electronic portal images of pelvic radiotherapy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraint Lewis, D.; Ryan, Karen R.; Smith, Cyril W.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: A study has been performed to evaluate inter-observer variability when assessing pelvic patient movement using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Materials and methods: Four patient image sets were used with 3-6 portal images per set. The observer group consisted of nine radiographers with 3-18 months clinical EPID experience. The observers outlined bony landmarks on a digital simulator image and used matching software to evaluate field placement errors (FPEs) on each portal image relative to the reference simulator image. Data were evaluated statistically, using a two-component analysis of variance technique, to quantify both the inter-observer variability in evaluating FPEs and inter-fraction variability in patient position relative to the residuals of the analysis. Intra-observer variability was also estimated using four of the observers carrying out three sets of repeat readings. Results: Eight sets of variance data were analysed, based on FPEs in two orthogonal directions for each of the four patient image sets studied. Initial analysis showed that both inter-observer variation and inter-fraction-patient position variation were statistically significant (P<0.05) in seven of the eight cases evaluated. The averaged root-mean-square (RMS) deviation of the observers from the group mean was 1.1 mm, with a maximum deviation of 5.0 mm recorded for an individual observer. After additional training and re-testing of two of the observers who recorded the largest deviations from the group mean, a subsequent analysis showed the inter-observer variability for the group to be significant in only three of the eight cases, with averaged RMS deviation reduced to 0.5 mm, with a maximum deviation of 2.7 mm. The intra-observer variability was 0.5 mm, averaged over the four observers tested. Conclusions: We have developed a quantitative approach to evaluate inter-observer variability in terms of its statistical significance compared to inter

  8. Computers in radiology. The sedation, analgesia, and contrast media computerized simulator: a new approach to train and evaluate radiologists' responses to critical incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.S.; Racadio, J.M.; Schwid, H.A.

    2000-01-01

    Background. Awareness and preparedness to handle sedation, analgesia, and contrast-media complications are key in the daily radiology practice. Objective. The purpose is to create a computerized simulator (PC-Windows-based) that uses a graphical interface to reproduce critical incidents in pediatric and adult patients undergoing a wide spectrum of radiologic sedation, analgesia and contrast media complications. Materials and methods. The computerized simulator has a comprehensive set of physiologic and pharmacologic models that predict patient response to management of sedation, analgesia, and contrast-media complications. Photorealistic images, real-time monitors, and mouse-driven information demonstrate in a virtual-reality fashion the behavior of the patient in crisis. Results. Thirteen pediatric and adult radiology scenarios are illustrated encompassing areas such as pediatric radiology, neuroradiology, interventional radiology, and body imaging. The multiple case scenarios evaluate randomly the diagnostic and management performance of the radiologist in critical incidents such as oversedation, anaphylaxis, aspiration, airway obstruction, apnea, agitation, bronchospasm, hypotension, hypertension, cardiac arrest, bradycardia, tachycardia, and myocardial ischemia. The user must control the airway, breathing and circulation, and administer medications in a timely manner to save the simulated patient. On-line help is available in the program to suggest diagnostic and treatment steps to save the patient, and provide information about the medications. A printout of the case management can be obtained for evaluation or educational purposes. Conclusion. The interactive computerized simulator is a new approach to train and evaluate radiologists' responses to critical incidents encountered during radiologic sedation, analgesia, and contrast-media administration. (orig.)

  9. Five years of simulator evaluation - a contribution to safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, G.J.; Spindler, B.; Kruip, J.

    2001-01-01

    Simulator training has been an important component in education and advanced training at a high level of nuclear power plant personnel for more than 25 years. From the beginning of simulator training, checking on the objectives of learning and feedback have been part and parcel of the effort. In the course of the revision of the 1990 Directive on Expertise of Licensed Personnel in Nuclear Power Plants composed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU), the type and organization of evaluations and the inclusion of qualified simulator trainers were expressed in even more concrete terms. Simulator evaluation serves the purpose of assessing, on the basis of the goals of practical exercises and courses established jointly with nuclear power plant operators, the performance and the behavior of individual participants so as to obtain information and guidance for further work. In addition, both simulator trainers, the Simulator Center, and the operators are to receive feedback with respect to the courses held and for checking against plans. First experience since the introduction of simulator evaluation has shown a basically positive assessment by all participants, i.e. attendees, operators, and the Simulator Center, expressing important aspects in support of training. As new simulators were commissioned in the mid-nineties, this met one of the major requests by course participants for a realistic model of their working environment. The experience accumulated also helps optimum training by means of simulators and thus ultimately also contributes to the safety culture in German nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  10. Optimal learning in a virtual patient simulation of cranial nerve palsies: the interaction between social learning context and student aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa R; Lyons, Rebecca; Chuah, Joon Hao; Kopper, Regis; Lok, Benjamin C; Cendan, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Simulation in medical education provides students with opportunities to practice interviews, examinations, and diagnosis formulation related to complex conditions without risks to patients. To examine differences between individual and team participation on learning outcomes and student perspectives through use of virtual patients (VPs) for teaching cranial nerve (CN) evaluation. Fifty-seven medical students were randomly assigned to complete simulation exercises either as individuals or as members of three-person teams. Students interviewed, examined, and diagnosed VPs with possible CN damage in the neurological exam rehearsal virtual environment (NERVE). Knowledge of CN abnormalities was assessed pre- and post-simulation. Student perspectives of system usability were evaluated post-simulation. An aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effect was detected; at pre-test scores ≤ 50%, students in teams scored higher (83%) at post-test than did students as individuals (62%, p = 0.02). Post-simulation, students in teams reported greater confidence in their ability to diagnose CN abnormalities than did students as individuals (p = 0.02; mean rating = 4.0/5.0 and 3.4/5.0, respectively). The ATI effect allows us to begin defining best practices for the integration of VP simulators into the medical curriculum. We are persuaded to implement future NERVE exercises with small teams of medical students.

  11. Optimal learning in a virtual patient simulation of cranial nerve palsies: The interaction between social learning context and student aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, TERESA R.; LYONS, REBECCA; CHUAH, JOON HAO; KOPPER, REGIS; LOK, BENJAMIN C.; CENDAN, JUAN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulation in medical education provides students with opportunities to practice interviews, examinations, and diagnosis formulation related to complex conditions without risks to patients. Aim To examine differences between individual and team participation on learning outcomes and student perspectives through use of virtual patients (VPs) for teaching cranial nerve (CN) evaluation. Methods Fifty-seven medical students were randomly assigned to complete simulation exercises either as individuals or as members of three-person teams. Students interviewed, examined, and diagnosed VPs with possible CN damage in the Neurological Exam Rehearsal Virtual Environment (NERVE). Knowledge of CN abnormalities was assessed pre- and post-simulation. Student perspectives of system usability were evaluated post-simulation. Results An aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) effect was detected; at pre-test scores ≤50%, students in teams scored higher (83%) at post-test than did students as individuals (62%, p = 0.02). Post-simulation, students in teams reported greater confidence in their ability to diagnose CN abnormalities than did students as individuals (p = 0.02; mean rating = 4.0/5.0 and 3.4/5.0, respectively). Conclusion The ATI effect allows us to begin defining best practices for the integration of VP simulators into the medical curriculum. We are persuaded to implement future NERVE exercises with small teams of medical students. PMID:22938679

  12. Rheological evaluation of simulated neutralized current acid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fow, C.L.; McCarthy, D.; Thornton, G.T.

    1986-06-01

    A byproduct of the Purex process is an aqueous waste stream that contains fission products. This waste stream, called current acid waste, is chemically neutralized and stored in double shell tanks on the Hanford Site. This neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) will be transported by pipe to B-Plant, a processing plant on the Hanford Site. Rheological and transport properties of NCAW slurry were evaluated. First, researchers conducted lab rheological evaluations of simulated NCAW. The results of these evaluations were then correlated with classical rheological models and scaled up to predict the performance that is likely to occur in the full-scale system. The NCAW in the tank will either be retrieved as is, i.e., no change in the concentration presently in the tank, or will be slightly concentrated before retrieval. Sluicing may be required to retrieve the solids. Three concentrations of simulated NCAW were evaluated that would simulate the different retrieval options: NCAW in the concentration that is presently in the tank; a slightly concentrated NCAW, called NCAW5.5; and equal parts of NCAW settled solids and water (simulating the sluicing stage), called NCAW1:1. The physical and rheological properties of three samples of each concentration at 25 and 100 0 C were evaluated in the laboratory. The properties displayed by NCAW and NCAW5.5 at 25 and 100 0 C allowed it to be classified as a pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. NCAW1:1 at 25 and 100 0 C displayed properties of a yield-pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid. The classical non-Newtonian models for pseudoplastic and yield-pseudoplastic fluids were used with the laboratory data to predict the full-scale pump-pipe network parameters

  13. Preoperative planning with three-dimensional reconstruction of patient's anatomy, rapid prototyping and simulation for endoscopic mitral valve repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardari Nia, Peyman; Heuts, Samuel; Daemen, Jean; Luyten, Peter; Vainer, Jindrich; Hoorntje, Jan; Cheriex, Emile; Maessen, Jos

    2017-02-01

    Mitral valve repair performed by an experienced surgeon is superior to mitral valve replacement for degenerative mitral valve disease; however, many surgeons are still deterred from adapting this procedure because of a steep learning curve. Simulation-based training and planning could improve the surgical performance and reduce the learning curve. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-specific simulation for mitral valve repair and provide a proof of concept of personalized medicine in a patient prospectively planned for mitral valve surgery. A 65-year old male with severe symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation was referred to our mitral valve heart team. On the basis of three-dimensional (3D) transoesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography, 3D reconstructions of the patient's anatomy were constructed. By navigating through these reconstructions, the repair options and surgical access were chosen (minimally invasive repair). Using rapid prototyping and negative mould fabrication, we developed a process to cast a patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica for preoperative repair in a high-fidelity simulator. Mitral valve and negative mould were printed in systole to capture the pathology when the valve closes. A patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica was casted and mounted in the simulator. All repair techniques could be performed in the simulator to choose the best repair strategy. As the valve was printed in systole, no special testing other than adjusting the coaptation area was required. Subsequently, the patient was operated, mitral valve pathology was validated and repair was successfully done as in the simulation. The patient-specific simulation and planning could be applied for surgical training, starting the (minimally invasive) mitral valve repair programme, planning of complex cases and the evaluation of new interventional techniques. The personalized medicine could be a possible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility

  14. Clinical treatment planning for stereotactic radiotherapy, evaluation by Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairn, T.; Aland, T.; Kenny, J.; Knight, R.T.; Crowe, S.B.; Langton, C.M.; Franich, R.D.; Johnston, P.N.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: This study uses re-evaluates the doses delivered by a series of clinical stereotactic radiotherapy treatments, to test the accuracy of treatment planning predictions for very small radiation fields. Stereotactic radiotherapy treatment plans for meningiomas near the petrous temporal bone and the foramen magnum (incorp rating fields smaller than I c m2) were examined using Monte Carlo simulations. Important differences between treatment planning predictions and Monte Carlo calculations of doses delivered to stereotactic radiotherapy patients are apparent. For example, in one case the Monte Carlo calculation shows that the delivery a planned meningioma treatment would spare the patient's critical structures (eyes, brainstem) more effectively than the treatment plan predicted, and therefore suggests that this patient could safely receive an increased dose to their tumour. Monte Carlo simulations can be used to test the dose predictions made by a conventional treatment planning system, for dosimetrically challenging small fields, and can thereby suggest valuable modifications to clinical treatment plans. This research was funded by the Wesley Research Institute, Australia. The authors wish to thank Andrew Fielding and David Schlect for valuable discussions of aspects of this work. The authors are also grateful to Muhammad Kakakhel, for assisting with the design and calibration of our linear accelerator model, and to the stereotactic radiation therapy team at Premion, who designed the treatment plans. Computational resources and services used in this work were provided by the HPC and Research Support Unit, QUT, Brisbane, Australia. (author)

  15. Enhancing Care Transitions for Older People through Interprofessional Simulation: A Mixed Method Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Sykes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The educational needs of the health and social care workforce for delivering effective integrated care are important. This paper reports on the development, pilot and evaluation of an interprofessional simulation course, which aimed to support integrated care models for care transitions for older people from hospital to home. Theory and methods: The course development was informed by a literature review and a scoping exercise with the health and social care workforce. The course ran six times and was attended by health and social care professionals from hospital and community (n = 49. The evaluation aimed to elicit staff perceptions of their learning about care transfers of older people and to explore application of learning into practice and perceived outcomes. The study used a sequential mixed method design with questionnaires completed pre (n = 44 and post (n = 47 course and interviews (n = 9 2–5 months later. Results: Participants evaluated interprofessional simulation as a successful strategy. Post-course, participants identified learning points and at the interviews, similar themes with examples of application in practice were: Understanding individual needs and empathy; Communicating with patients and families; Interprofessional working; Working across settings to achieve effective care transitions. Conclusions and discussion: An interprofessional simulation course successfully brought together health and social care professionals across settings to develop integrated care skills and improve care transitions for older people with complex needs from hospital to home.

  16. Simulation research to enhance patient safety and outcomes: recommendations of the Simnovate Patient Safety Domain Group

    OpenAIRE

    Pucher, PH; Tamblyn, R; Boorman, D; Dixon-Woods, Mary Margaret; Donaldson, L; Draycott, T; Forster, A; Nadkarni, V; Power, C; Sevdalis, N; Aggarwal, R

    2017-01-01

    The use of simulation-based training has established itself in healthcare but its implementation has been varied and mostly limited to technical and non-technical skills training. This article discusses the possibilities of the use of simulation as part of an overarching approach to improving patient safety, and represents the views of the Simnovate Patient Safety Domain Group, an international multidisciplinary expert group dedicated to the improvement of patient safety. The application and ...

  17. Evaluation of the BreastSimulator software platform for breast tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettivier, G.; Bliznakova, K.; Sechopoulos, I.; Boone, J. M.; Di Lillo, F.; Sarno, A.; Castriconi, R.; Russo, P.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the software BreastSimulator, a breast x-ray imaging simulation software, as a tool for the creation of 3D uncompressed breast digital models and for the simulation and the optimization of computed tomography (CT) scanners dedicated to the breast. Eight 3D digital breast phantoms were created with glandular fractions in the range 10%-35%. The models are characterised by different sizes and modelled realistic anatomical features. X-ray CT projections were simulated for a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner and reconstructed with the FDK algorithm. X-ray projection images were simulated for 5 mono-energetic (27, 32, 35, 43 and 51 keV) and 3 poly-energetic x-ray spectra typically employed in current CT scanners dedicated to the breast (49, 60, or 80 kVp). Clinical CT images acquired from two different clinical breast CT scanners were used for comparison purposes. The quantitative evaluation included calculation of the power-law exponent, β, from simulated and real breast tomograms, based on the power spectrum fitted with a function of the spatial frequency, f, of the form S(f)  =  α/f   β . The breast models were validated by comparison against clinical breast CT and published data. We found that the calculated β coefficients were close to that of clinical CT data from a dedicated breast CT scanner and reported data in the literature. In evaluating the software package BreastSimulator to generate breast models suitable for use with breast CT imaging, we found that the breast phantoms produced with the software tool can reproduce the anatomical structure of real breasts, as evaluated by calculating the β exponent from the power spectral analysis of simulated images. As such, this research tool might contribute considerably to the further development, testing and optimisation of breast CT imaging techniques.

  18. Patient-specific surgical simulator for the pre-operative planning of single-incision laparoscopic surgery with bimanual robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turini, Giuseppe; Moglia, Andrea; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco

    2012-01-01

    The trend of surgical robotics is to follow the evolution of laparoscopy, which is now moving towards single-incision laparoscopic surgery. The main drawback of this approach is the limited maneuverability of the surgical tools. Promising solutions to improve the surgeon's dexterity are based on bimanual robots. However, since both robot arms are completely inserted into the patient's body, issues related to possible unwanted collisions with structures adjacent to the target organ may arise. This paper presents a simulator based on patient-specific data for the positioning and workspace evaluation of bimanual surgical robots in the pre-operative planning of single-incision laparoscopic surgery. The simulator, designed for the pre-operative planning of robotic laparoscopic interventions, was tested by five expert surgeons who evaluated its main functionalities and provided an overall rating for the system. The proposed system demonstrated good performance and usability, and was designed to integrate both present and future bimanual surgical robots.

  19. Validity evidence and reliability of a simulated patient feedback instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Claudia; Woermann, Ulrich; Rethans, Jan-Joost; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-27

    In the training of healthcare professionals, one of the advantages of communication training with simulated patients (SPs) is the SP's ability to provide direct feedback to students after a simulated clinical encounter. The quality of SP feedback must be monitored, especially because it is well known that feedback can have a profound effect on student performance. Due to the current lack of valid and reliable instruments to assess the quality of SP feedback, our study examined the validity and reliability of one potential instrument, the 'modified Quality of Simulated Patient Feedback Form' (mQSF). Content validity of the mQSF was assessed by inviting experts in the area of simulated clinical encounters to rate the importance of the mQSF items. Moreover, generalizability theory was used to examine the reliability of the mQSF. Our data came from videotapes of clinical encounters between six simulated patients and six students and the ensuing feedback from the SPs to the students. Ten faculty members judged the SP feedback according to the items on the mQSF. Three weeks later, this procedure was repeated with the same faculty members and recordings. All but two items of the mQSF received importance ratings of > 2.5 on a four-point rating scale. A generalizability coefficient of 0.77 was established with two judges observing one encounter. The findings for content validity and reliability with two judges suggest that the mQSF is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the quality of feedback provided by simulated patients.

  20. Evaluation of leadership skills during the simulation education course for the initial management of blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Eric; Brautigam, Robert T; Smola, Jacqueline; Burns, Karyl J

    2012-04-01

    Leadership skills of senior residents, trauma fellows, and a nurse practitioner were assessed during simulation training for the initial management of blunt trauma. This was a pilot, observational study, that in addition to skill development and assessment also sought to determine the need for a dedicated leadership training course for surgical residents. The study evaluated the leadership skills and adherence to Advance Trauma Life Support (ATLS) guidelines of the team leaders during simulation training. The team leaders' performances on criteria regarding prearrival planning, critical actions based on ATLS, injury identification, patient management, and communication were evaluated for each of five blunt-trauma scenarios. Although there was a statistically significant increase in leadership skills for performing ATLS critical actions, P skills for team leadership willbe a worthwhile endeavor at our institution.

  1. Dr. Tulp attends the soft machine: patient simulators, user involvement and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimens, Alex; Lewis, Robin; Brewster, Jacqui

    2012-09-01

    Simulation as a way to teach clinical skills attracts much critical attention. Its benefits, however, might be significantly reduced when the simulation model used relies exclusively on patient simulators. This is particularly true if the intended patient population for students taught is characterized by intellectual disability. Learning to care for people with intellectual disability might be better supplemented when the simulation model used incorporates input from 'real' people. If these people themselves have intellectual disabilities then the verisimilitude of the simulation will be higher and the outcomes for learners and potential patients will also be improved.

  2. A novel approach to evaluate and compare computational snow avalanche simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-T. Fischer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An innovative approach for the analysis and interpretation of snow avalanche simulation in three dimensional terrain is presented. Snow avalanche simulation software is used as a supporting tool in hazard mapping. When performing a high number of simulation runs the user is confronted with a considerable amount of simulation results. The objective of this work is to establish an objective, model independent framework to evaluate and compare results of different simulation approaches with respect to indicators of practical relevance, providing an answer to the important questions: how far and how destructive does an avalanche move down slope. For this purpose the Automated Indicator based Model Evaluation and Comparison (AIMEC method is introduced. It operates on a coordinate system which follows a given avalanche path. A multitude of simulation runs is performed with the snow avalanche simulation software SamosAT (Snow Avalanche MOdelling and Simulation – Advanced Technology. The variability of pressure-based run out and avalanche destructiveness along the path is investigated for multiple simulation runs, varying release volume and model parameters. With this, results of deterministic simulation software are processed and analysed by means of statistical methods. Uncertainties originating from varying input conditions, model parameters or the different model implementations are assessed. The results show that AIMEC contributes to the interpretation of avalanche simulations with a broad applicability in model evaluation, comparison as well as examination of scenario variations.

  3. Training simulated patients: evaluation of a training approach using self-assessment and peer/tutor feedback to improve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Jennifer; Perera, Joachim; Abdullah, Juriah; Lee, Nagarajah

    2009-06-29

    Most medical schools use simulated patients (SPs) for teaching. In this context the authenticity of role play and quality of feedback provided by SPs is of paramount importance. The available literature on SP training mostly addresses instructor led training where the SPs are given direction on their roles. This study focuses on the use of peer and self evaluation as a tool to train SPs. SPs at the medical school participated in a staff development and training programme which included a) self-assessment of their performance while observing video-tapes of their role play using a structured guide and b) peer group assessment of their performance under tutor guidance. The pre and post training performance in relation to authenticity of role play and quality of feedback was blindly assessed by students and tutors using a validated instrument and the scores were compared. A focus group discussion and a questionnaire assessed acceptability of the training programme by the SPs. The post-training performance assessment scores were significantly higher (p performance. More studies on these methods of training may further refine SP training and lead to improvement of SP performance which in turn may positively impact medical education.

  4. Comparison of the medical students' perceived self-efficacy and the evaluation of the observers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Holst, René; Øvrehus, Anne Lindebo Holm; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2013-04-08

    The accuracy of self-assessment has been questioned in studies comparing physicians' self-assessments to observed assessments; however, none of these studies used self-efficacy as a method for self-assessment. The aim of the study was to investigate how medical students' perceived self-efficacy of specific communication skills corresponds to the evaluation of simulated patients and observers. All of the medical students who signed up for an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) were included. As a part of the OSCE, the student performance in the "parent-physician interaction" was evaluated by a simulated patient and an observer at one of the stations. After the examination the students were asked to assess their self-efficacy according to the same specific communication skills. The Calgary Cambridge Observation Guide formed the basis for the outcome measures used in the questionnaires. A total of 12 items was rated on a Likert scale from 1-5 (strongly disagree to strongly agree). We used extended Rasch models for comparisons between the groups of responses of the questionnaires. Comparisons of groups were conducted on dichotomized responses. Eighty-four students participated in the examination, 87% (73/84) of whom responded to the questionnaire. The response rate for the simulated patients and the observers was 100%. Significantly more items were scored in the highest categories (4 and 5) by the observers and simulated patients compared to the students (observers versus students: -0.23; SE:0.112; p=0.002 and patients versus students:0.177; SE:0.109; p=0.037). When analysing the items individually, a statistically significant difference only existed for two items. This study showed that students scored their communication skills lower compared to observers or simulated patients. The differences were driven by only 2 of 12 items. The results in this study indicate that self-efficacy based on the Calgary Cambridge Observation guide seems to be a reliable

  5. Automated electronic intruder simulator for evaluation of odd frequency microwave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A microwave intruder simulator for testing motion detection sensors is described. This simulator can be used to evaluate a variety of microwave sensors regardless of the value of the center frequency of the signal utilized. Representative curves from the evaluation of one microwave sensor are also presented

  6. Effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Koorosh; Sedaghat, Mohammad; Safdarian, Mahdi; Hashemian, Amir-Masoud; Nezamdoust, Zahra; Vaseie, Mohammad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-01-01

    Since appropriate and time-table methods in trauma care have an important impact on patients'outcome, we evaluated the effect of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) program on medical interns' performance in simulated trauma patient management. A descriptive and analytical study before and after the training was conducted on 24 randomly selected undergraduate medical interns from Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran. On the first day, we assessed interns' clinical knowledge and their practical skill performance in confronting simulated trauma patients. After 2 days of ATLS training, we performed the same study and evaluated their score again on the fourth day. The two findings, pre- and post- ATLS periods, were compared through SPSS version 15.0 software. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Our findings showed that interns'ability in all the three tasks improved after the training course. On the fourth day after training, there was a statistically significant increase in interns' clinical knowledge of ATLS procedures, the sequence of procedures and skill performance in trauma situations (P less than 0.001, P equal to 0.016 and P equal to 0.01 respectively). ATLS course has an important role in increasing clinical knowledge and practical skill performance of trauma care in medical interns.

  7. Addressing Dual Patient and Staff Safety Through A Team-Based Standardized Patient Simulation for Agitation Management in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ambrose H; Auerbach, Marc A; Ruppel, Halley; Crispino, Lauren J; Rosenberg, Alana; Iennaco, Joanne D; Vaca, Federico E

    2018-06-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) have seen harm rise for both patients and health workers from an increasing rate of agitation events. Team effectiveness during care of this population is particularly challenging because fear of physical harm leads to competing interests. Simulation is frequently employed to improve teamwork in medical resuscitations but has not yet been reported to address team-based behavioral emergency care. As part of a larger investigation of agitated patient care, we designed this secondary study to examine the impact of an interprofessional standardized patient simulation for ED agitation management. We used a mixed-methods approach with emergency medicine resident and attending physicians, Physician Assistants (PAs) and Advanced Practice Registered Nurses (APRNs), ED nurses, technicians, and security officers at two hospital sites. After a simulated agitated patient encounter, we conducted uniprofessional and interprofessional focus groups. We undertook structured thematic analysis using a grounded theory approach. Quantitative data consisted of responses to the KidSIM Questionnaire addressing teamwork and simulation-based learning attitudes before and after each session. We reached data saturation with 57 participants. KidSIM scores revealed significant improvements in attitudes toward relevance of simulation, opportunities for interprofessional education, and situation awareness, as well as four of six questions for roles/responsibilities. Two broad themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) a team-based agitated patient simulation addressed dual safety of staff and patients simultaneously and (2) the experience fostered interprofessional discovery and cooperation in agitation management. A team-based simulated agitated patient encounter highlighted the need to consider the dual safety of staff and patients while facilitating interprofessional dialog and learning. Our findings suggest that simulation may be effective to enhance teamwork in

  8. Validation of Patient-Specific Cerebral Blood Flow Simulation Using Transcranial Doppler Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Groen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a validation study comparing results from a patient-specific lattice-Boltzmann simulation to transcranial Doppler (TCD velocity measurements in four different planes of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. As part of the study, we compared simulations using a Newtonian and a Carreau-Yasuda rheology model. We also investigated the viability of using downscaled velocities to reduce the required resolution. Simulations with unscaled velocities predict the maximum flow velocity with an error of less than 9%, independent of the rheology model chosen. The accuracy of the simulation predictions worsens considerably when simulations are run at reduced velocity, as is for example the case when inflow velocities from healthy individuals are used on a vascular model of a stroke patient. Our results demonstrate the importance of using directly measured and patient-specific inflow velocities when simulating blood flow in MCAs. We conclude that localized TCD measurements together with predictive simulations can be used to obtain flow estimates with high fidelity over a larger region, and reduce the need for more invasive flow measurement procedures.

  9. Using Simulation as an Investigational Methodology to Explore the Impact of Technology on Team Communication and Patient Management: A Pilot Evaluation of the Effect of an Automated Compression Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Matthew; Brolliar, Sarah M; Grand, James A; Nichol, Graham; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2017-06-01

    This pilot study used a simulation-based platform to evaluate the effect of an automated mechanical chest compression device on team communication and patient management. Four-member emergency department interprofessional teams were randomly assigned to perform manual chest compressions (control, n = 6) or automated chest compressions (intervention, n = 6) during a simulated cardiac arrest with 2 phases: phase 1 baseline (ventricular tachycardia), followed by phase 2 (ventricular fibrillation). Patient management was coded using an Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support-based checklist. Team communication was categorized in the following 4 areas: (1) teamwork focus; (2) huddle events, defined as statements focused on re-establishing situation awareness, reinforcing existing plans, and assessing the need to adjust the plan; (3) clinical focus; and (4) profession of team member. Statements were aggregated for each team. At baseline, groups were similar with respect to total communication statements and patient management. During cardiac arrest, the total number of communication statements was greater in teams performing manual compressions (median, 152.3; interquartile range [IQR], 127.6-181.0) as compared with teams using an automated compression device (median, 105; IQR, 99.5-123.9). Huddle events were more frequent in teams performing automated chest compressions (median, 4.0; IQR, 3.1-4.3 vs. 2.0; IQR, 1.4-2.6). Teams randomized to the automated compression intervention had a delay to initial defibrillation (median, 208.3 seconds; IQR, 153.3-222.1 seconds) as compared with control teams (median, 63.2 seconds; IQR, 30.1-397.2 seconds). Use of an automated compression device may impact both team communication and patient management. Simulation-based assessments offer important insights into the effect of technology on healthcare teams.

  10. [Simulation-based intervention to improve anesthesiology residents communication with families of critically ill patients--preliminary prospective evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkenstadt, Haim; Perlson, Daria; Shalomson, Orit; Tuval, Atalia; Haviv-Yadid, Yael; Ziv, Amitai

    2013-08-01

    Although effective communication with families of critically ill patients is a vital component of quality care, training in this field is neglected. The article aims to validate communication skills training program for anesthesiology residents in the intensive care set up. Ten anesthesia residents, following 3 months of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) rotation, had 4 hours of lectures and one day simulation-based communication skills training with families of critically ill patients. Participants completed an attitude questionnaire over 3 time periods--before training [t1], immediately following training (t2) and three months following training (t3). The participants' communication skills were assessed by two blinded independent observers using the SEGUE framework while performing a simulation-based scenario at t1 and t3. Seven participants finished the study protocol. Participants ndicated communication importance as 3.68 +/- 0.58 (t1), 4.05 +/- 0.59 (t2), 4.13 +/- 0.64 (t3); their communication ability as 3.09 +/- 0.90 (t1), 3.70 +/- 0.80 (t2), 3.57 +/- 0.64 (t3); the contribution of lecture to communication 3.04 +/- 0.43 (t1), 3.83 +/- 0.39 (t2), 3.87 +/- 0.51 (t3), and contribution of simulation training to communication 3.00 +/- 0.71 (t1), 4.04 +/- 0.52 (t2), 3.84 +/- 0.31 (t3). The differences did not reach statistical significance. Objective assessment of the communication skills using the SEGUE framework indicated that 6/7 participants improved their communication skills, with communication ability before training at 2.66 +/- 0.83 and 1 month following training it was 3.38 +/- 0.78 (p = 0.09). This preliminary study demonstrates the value of communication skills training in the intensive care environment.

  11. Strengthening student communication through pediatric simulated patient encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Whitt

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As medical students enter the role of physician, clinical outcomes not only rely on their mastery of clinical knowledge, but also on the effectiveness in which they can communicate with patients and family members. While students typically have numerous opportunities to practice clinical communication with adult patients, such practice in pediatric settings is limited. This study examines if simulated patient (SP encounters strengthen third-year medical students’ communication skills during the pediatrics clerkship. During 2011-2013, three SP encounters (comprising 3 pediatric scenarios were incorporated into a pediatrics clerkship at one United States medical school to give students a safe venue to practice advanced communication with observation and direct feedback. Third-year medical students engaged in the scenarios and received both written and oral feedback from an evaluator observing the encounter. With IRB approval, students’ self-perceived confidence and abilities at performing the advanced communication skills were measured using an eightitem, Likert scale questionnaire administered pre and post the SP encounter. Pre- and post-questionnaires (n = 215; response rate, 96% analyzed using a Wilcoxon-matched pairs signed-rank test demonstrated statistically significant increases in students’ perception of their confidence and abilities regarding their performance (P < 0.05; Bonferroni correction, P < 0.006. There was an increases in student confidence and self-perceived ability in: first, communicating with children and family members of young patients; second, managing confrontational situations involving parents; third, performing a thorough psychosocial history with an adolescent; and fourth, using Evidence Based Medicine to motivate parents.

  12. [Patient evaluation and outcome measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Pol, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Both the initial evaluation and follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis require systematic evaluation of the indicators that provide information on the degree of involvement of the disease and allow its quantification. Reliable measures of disease progression help decision-making by clinicians and provide valid information on treatment response and the effectiveness of the distinct therapeutic interventions. The instruments recommended in research, as outcome measures in osteoarthritis, are pain evaluation, assessment of physical function, and self-reported global evaluation. In studies lasting more than 1 year, structural changes are evaluated through simple X-ray. Self-reported quality of life assessment and physician global assessment are also recommended as options. These indicators should be incorporated into routine clinical practice for adequate evaluation and correct follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. The recommended pain evaluation method for use in clinical practice is the visual analog scale (VAS). The best instrument to evaluate physical function in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis is the WOMAC scale (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index). For patient-reported global assessment in routine practice, the recommended scales are VAS or the SF-12 (12-item short-form health survey). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Five Topics Health Care Simulation Can Address to Improve Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Dieckman, Peter; Aase, Karina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is little knowledge about which elements of health care simulation are most effective in improving patient safety. When empirical evidence is lacking, a consensus statement can help define priorities in, for example, education and research. A consensus process was therefore...... initiated to define priorities in health care simulation that contribute the most to improve patient safety.  METHODS: An international group of experts took part in a 4-stage consensus process based on a modified nominal group technique. Stages 1 to 3 were based on electronic communication; stage 4 was a 2......-day consensus meeting at the Utstein Abbey in Norway. The goals of stage 4 were to agree on the top 5 topics in health care simulation that contribute the most to patient safety, identify the patient safety problems they relate to, and suggest solutions with implementation strategies...

  14. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  15. Simulation in undergraduate paediatric nursing curriculum: Evaluation of a complex 'ward for a day' education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Andree S

    2017-03-01

    Simulation in health education has been shown to increase confidence, psychomotor and professional skills, and thus positively impact on student preparedness for clinical placement. It is recognised as a valuable tool to expose and engage students in realistic patient care encounters without the potential to cause patient harm. Although inherent challenges exist in the development and implementation of simulation, variability in clinical placement time, availability and quality dictates the need to provide students with learning opportunities they may otherwise not experience. With this, and a myriad of other issues providing the impetus for improved clinical preparation, 28 final semester undergraduate nursing students in a paediatric nursing course were involved in an extended multi-scenario simulated clinical shift prior to clinical placement. The simulation focussed on a complex ward experience, giving students the opportunity to demonstrate a variety of psychomotor skills, decision making, leadership, team work and other professional attributes integral for successful transition into the clinical arena. Evaluation data were collected at 3 intermittent points; post-simulation, post clinical placement, and 3 months after commencing employment as a Registered Nurse. Quantitative and qualitative analysis suggested positive impacts on critical nursing concepts and psychomotor skills resulted for participants in both clinical placement and beyond into the first months of employment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crisis management on surgical wards: a simulation-based approach to enhancing technical, teamwork, and patient interaction skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sonal; Hull, Louise; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Sevdalis, Nick; Birnbach, David J

    2015-05-01

    To establish the efficacy of simulation-based training for improving residents' management of postoperative complications on a surgical ward. Effective postoperative care is a crucial determinant of patient outcome, yet trainees learn this through the Halstedian approach. Little evidence exists on the efficacy of simulation in this safety-critical environment. A pre-/postintervention design was employed with 185 residents from 5 hospitals. Residents participated in 2 simulated ward-based scenarios consisting of a deteriorating postoperative patient. A debriefing intervention was implemented between scenarios. Resident performance was evaluated by calibrated, blinded assessors using the validated Global Assessment Toolkit for Ward Care. This included an assessment of clinical skills (checklist of 35 tasks), team-working skills (score range 1-6 per skill), and physician-patient interaction skills. Excellent interrater reliability was achieved in all assessments (reliability 0.89-0.99, P pre = 73.7% vs post = 94.8%, P pre = 21.1% vs post = 84.2% P pre = 42.1% vs post = 100%, P pre = 36.8% vs post = 89.8%, P pre = 1.75 vs post = 3.43), leadership (pre = 2.43 vs post = 4.20), and decision-making skills (pre = 2.20 vs post = 3.81, P < 0.001). Finally, residents improved in all elements of interaction with patients: empathy, organization, and verbal and nonverbal expression (Ps < 0.001). The study provides evidence for the efficacy of ward-based team training using simulation. Such exercises should be formally incorporated into training curricula to enhance patient safety in the high-risk surgical ward environment.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Halkes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality in many ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover, many studies on the accuracy of simulation have studied either the physical layer and per link effects or routing protocol effects. To the best of our knowledge, no other work has focused on the study of the simulation abstractions with respect to MAC protocol performance. In this paper, we present the results of an experimental study of two often used abstractions in the simulation of WSN MAC protocols. We show that a simple SNR-based reception model can provide quite accurate results for metrics commonly used to evaluate MAC protocols. Furthermore, we provide an analysis of what the main sources of deviation are and thereby how the simulations can be improved to provide even better results.

  18. SU-F-T-50: Evaluation of Monte Carlo Simulations Performance for Pediatric Brachytherapy Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzipapas, C; Kagadis, G [University Patras, Rion, Ahaia (Greece); Papadimitroulas, P [BET Solutions, Athens, Attiki (Greece); Loudos, G [Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Egaleo, Attiki (Greece); Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Pediatric tumors are generally treated with multi-modal procedures. Brachytherapy can be used with pediatric tumors, especially given that in this patient population low toxicity on normal tissues is critical as is the suppression of the probability for late malignancies. Our goal is to validate the GATE toolkit on realistic brachytherapy applications, and evaluate brachytherapy plans on pediatrics for accurate dosimetry on sensitive and critical organs of interest. Methods: The GATE Monte Carlo (MC) toolkit was used. Two High Dose Rate (HDR) 192Ir brachytherapy sources were simulated (Nucletron mHDR-v1 and Varian VS2000), and fully validated using the AAPM and ESTRO protocols. A realistic brachytherapy plan was also simulated using the XCAT anthropomorphic computational model .The simulated data were compared to the clinical dose points. Finally, a 14 years old girl with vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma was modelled based on clinical procedures for the calculation of the absorbed dose per organ. Results: The MC simulations resulted in accurate dosimetry in terms of dose rate constant (Λ), radial dose gL(r) and anisotropy function F(r,θ) for both sources.The simulations were executed using ∼1010 number of primaries resulting in statistical uncertainties lower than 2%.The differences between the theoretical values and the simulated ones ranged from 0.01% up to 3.3%, with the largest discrepancy (6%) being observed in the dose rate constant calculation.The simulated DVH using an adult female XCAT model was also compared to a clinical one resulting in differences smaller than 5%. Finally, a realistic pediatric brachytherapy simulation was performed to evaluate the absorbed dose per organ and to calculate DVH with respect to heterogeneities of the human anatomy. Conclusion: GATE is a reliable tool for brachytherapy simulations both for source modeling and for dosimetry in anthropomorphic voxelized models. Our project aims to evaluate a variety of pediatric

  19. Empowering the registered nurses of tomorrow: students' perspectives of a simulation experience for recognising and managing a deteriorating patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michelle A; Forber, Jan; Conlon, Lisa; Roche, Michael; Stasa, Helen

    2014-05-01

    Recognising and responding to patients who are deteriorating are key aspects to improving outcomes. Simulations provide students with exposure to deteriorating patient scenarios and the role of nurses in such events. The number of programmes seeking to provide best possible simulation experiences is growing exponentially. Robust evaluation of these experiences is crucial to ensure maximum benefit. To assess the impact of a deteriorating patient simulation experience on students' technical and communication skills; and to determine if differing study programmes and years of previous nursing experience influenced students' responses and experiences. A convenience sample of final year nursing students (N=57) in a medical-surgical course at a large urban university completed a descriptive pre/post simulation survey rating their technical skills and communication abilities in recognising and responding to patient deterioration. Changes in pre/post scores were analysed including influence of study programme (3-year, 2-year Enrolled Nurse, 2-year Graduate Entry); gender; and years nursing experience (beyond course clinical practicum). Statistically significant improvements in post-simulation survey scores were demonstrated for combined student group data. Students with greater years of nursing experience had statistically higher scores than those with less experience in both pre- and post-surveys. Specific improvements were identified for: assessing a deteriorating patient; and in seeking help from the medical officer or external service. All student groups gained benefit in participating in a deteriorating patient simulation. For this group, greater years of prior nursing experience led to higher pre- and post-survey scores. The learning activity provided students an experience of the importance of recognising and responding to an acute situation in a timely manner which may be recalled in subsequent clinical situations. © 2013.

  20. Survey of Australian schools of nursing use of human patient (mannequin) simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Denise Elizabeth; Cashin, Andrew; Fowler, Cathrine

    2014-11-01

    Rapid adoption of high-fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation has occurred in Australian Schools of Nursing in recent years, as it has internationally. This paper reports findings from a 2012 online survey of Australian Schools of Nursing and builds on findings of earlier studies. The survey design allowed direct comparison with a previous study from the USA but limited its scope to the pre-registration (pre-service Bachelor of Nursing) curriculum. It also included extra mental health specific questions. Australian patterns of adoption and application of high-fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation in the pre-registration nursing curriculum share features with experiences reported in previous US and Australian surveys. A finding of interest in this survey was a small number of Schools of Nursing that reported no current use of high-fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation and no plans to adopt it, in spite of a governmental capital funding support programme. In-line with prior surveys, mental health applications were meagre. There is an absence of clearly articulated learning theory underpinnings in the use of high-fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation generally. It appears the first stage of implementation of high-fidelity human patient (mannequin) simulation into the pre-registration nursing curriculum has occurred and the adoption of this pedagogy is entering a new phase.

  1. Correction for FDG PET dose extravasations: Monte Carlo validation and quantitative evaluation of patient studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesús, E-mail: jesus.silva.rodriguez@sergas.es; Aguiar, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.aguiar.fernandez@sergas.es [Fundación Ramón Domínguez, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Sánchez, Manuel; Mosquera, Javier; Luna-Vega, Víctor [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Cortés, Julia; Garrido, Miguel [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia, Spain and Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Pombar, Miguel [Servicio de Radiofísica y Protección Radiológica, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Ruibal, Álvaro [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Complexo Hospitalario Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15782, Galicia (Spain); Grupo de Imaxe Molecular, Instituto de Investigación Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, 15706, Galicia (Spain); Fundación Tejerina, 28003, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Current procedure guidelines for whole body [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) state that studies with visible dose extravasations should be rejected for quantification protocols. Our work is focused on the development and validation of methods for estimating extravasated doses in order to correct standard uptake value (SUV) values for this effect in clinical routine. Methods: One thousand three hundred sixty-seven consecutive whole body FDG-PET studies were visually inspected looking for extravasation cases. Two methods for estimating the extravasated dose were proposed and validated in different scenarios using Monte Carlo simulations. All visible extravasations were retrospectively evaluated using a manual ROI based method. In addition, the 50 patients with higher extravasated doses were also evaluated using a threshold-based method. Results: Simulation studies showed that the proposed methods for estimating extravasated doses allow us to compensate the impact of extravasations on SUV values with an error below 5%. The quantitative evaluation of patient studies revealed that paravenous injection is a relatively frequent effect (18%) with a small fraction of patients presenting considerable extravasations ranging from 1% to a maximum of 22% of the injected dose. A criterion based on the extravasated volume and maximum concentration was established in order to identify this fraction of patients that might be corrected for paravenous injection effect. Conclusions: The authors propose the use of a manual ROI based method for estimating the effectively administered FDG dose and then correct SUV quantification in those patients fulfilling the proposed criterion.

  2. Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkes, G.P.; Langendoen, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation ofMAC protocols forWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is often performed through simulation. These simulations necessarily abstract away from reality inmany ways. However, the impact of these abstractions on the results of the simulations has received only limited attention. Moreover,

  3. Software Platform Evaluation - Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. J. Jacobson; D. E. Shropshire; W. B. West

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this Software Platform Evaluation (SPE) is to document the top-level evaluation of potential software platforms on which to construct a simulation model that satisfies the requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). See the Software Requirements Specification for Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model (INEEL/EXT-05-02643, Rev. 0) for a discussion of the objective and scope of the VISION model. VISION is intended to serve as a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies. This document will serve as a guide for selecting the most appropriate software platform for VISION. This is a ''living document'' that will be modified over the course of the execution of this work

  4. Implementing economic evaluation in simulation-based medical education: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yiqun; Cheng, Adam; Hecker, Kent; Grant, Vincent; Currie, Gillian R

    2018-02-01

    Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is now ubiquitous at all levels of medical training. Given the substantial resources needed for SBME, economic evaluation of simulation-based programmes or curricula is required to demonstrate whether improvement in trainee performance (knowledge, skills and attitudes) and health outcomes justifies the cost of investment. Current literature evaluating SBME fails to provide consistent and interpretable information on the relative costs and benefits of alternatives. Economic evaluation is widely applied in health care, but is relatively scarce in medical education. Therefore, in this paper, using a focus on SBME, we define economic evaluation, describe the key components, and discuss the challenges associated with conducting an economic evaluation of medical education interventions. As a way forward to the rigorous and state of the art application of economic evaluation in medical education, we outline the steps to gather the necessary information to conduct an economic evaluation of simulation-based education programmes and curricula, and describe the main approaches to conducting an economic evaluation. A properly conducted economic evaluation can help stakeholders (i.e., programme directors, policy makers and curriculum designers) to determine the optimal use of resources in selecting the modality or method of assessment in simulation. It also helps inform broader decision making about allocation of scarce resources within an educational programme, as well as between education and clinical care. Economic evaluation in medical education research is still in its infancy, and there is significant potential for state-of-the-art application of these methods in this area. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  5. 3D immersive patient simulators and their impact on learning success: a thematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Robert; Wahba, Roger; Chang, De-Hua; Plum, Patrick; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Stippel, Dirk L

    2015-04-08

    Immersive patient simulators (IPSs) combine the simulation of virtual patients with a three-dimensional (3D) environment and, thus, allow an illusionary immersion into a synthetic world, similar to computer games. Playful learning in a 3D environment is motivating and allows repetitive training and internalization of medical workflows (ie, procedural knowledge) without compromising real patients. The impact of this innovative educational concept on learning success requires review of feasibility and validity. It was the aim of this paper to conduct a survey of all immersive patient simulators currently available. In addition, we address the question of whether the use of these simulators has an impact on knowledge gain by summarizing the existing validation studies. A systematic literature search via PubMed was performed using predefined inclusion criteria (ie, virtual worlds, focus on education of medical students, validation testing) to identify all available simulators. Validation testing was defined as the primary end point. There are currently 13 immersive patient simulators available. Of these, 9 are Web-based simulators and represent feasibility studies. None of these simulators are used routinely for student education. The workstation-based simulators are commercially driven and show a higher quality in terms of graphical quality and/or data content. Out of the studies, 1 showed a positive correlation between simulated content and real content (ie, content validity). There was a positive correlation between the outcome of simulator training and alternative training methods (ie, concordance validity), and a positive coherence between measured outcome and future professional attitude and performance (ie, predictive validity). IPSs can promote learning and consolidation of procedural knowledge. The use of immersive patient simulators is still marginal, and technical and educational approaches are heterogeneous. Academic-driven IPSs could possibly enhance the

  6. Developing, implementing and evaluating a simulation learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The training of undergraduate midwifery students to identify and manage post-partum haemorrhage, is an essential skill in midwifery. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a simulation learning package (SLP) on post-partum haemorrhage for undergraduate midwifery students ...

  7. Fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sinead; O'Rourke, Malachy

    2012-04-01

    This article describes the use of fluid, solid and fluid-structure interaction simulations on three patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. All simulations were carried out using OpenFOAM, which uses the finite volume method to solve both fluid and solid equations. Initially a fluid-only simulation was carried out on a single patient-based geometry and results from this simulation were compared with experimental results. There was good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and numerical results, suggesting that OpenFOAM is capable of predicting the main features of unsteady flow through a complex patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometry. The intraluminal thrombus and arterial wall were then included, and solid stress and fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed on this, and two other patient-based abdominal aortic aneurysm geometries. It was found that the solid stress simulations resulted in an under-estimation of the maximum stress by up to 5.9% when compared with the fluid-structure interaction simulations. In the fluid-structure interaction simulations, flow induced pressure within the aneurysm was found to be up to 4.8% higher than the value of peak systolic pressure imposed in the solid stress simulations, which is likely to be the cause of the variation in the stress results. In comparing the results from the initial fluid-only simulation with results from the fluid-structure interaction simulation on the same patient, it was found that wall shear stress values varied by up to 35% between the two simulation methods. It was concluded that solid stress simulations are adequate to predict the maximum stress in an aneurysm wall, while fluid-structure interaction simulations should be performed if accurate prediction of the fluid wall shear stress is necessary. Therefore, the decision to perform fluid-structure interaction simulations should be based on the particular variables of interest in a given

  8. Simulation of patient encounters using a virtual patient in periodontology instruction of dental students: design, usability, and learning effects in history-taking skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janda, M.S.; Mattheos, N.; Nattestad, A.

    2004-01-01

    computer-assisted learning, effectiveness of learning, health education, patient simulation, virtual patient......computer-assisted learning, effectiveness of learning, health education, patient simulation, virtual patient...

  9. Current concepts in simulation-based trauma education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Robert A; Ali, Jameel

    2008-11-01

    The use of simulation-based technology in trauma education has focused on providing a safe and effective alternative to the more traditional methods that are used to teach technical skills and critical concepts in trauma resuscitation. Trauma team training using simulation-based technology is also being used to develop skills in leadership, team-information sharing, communication, and decision-making. The integration of simulators into medical student curriculum, residency training, and continuing medical education has been strongly recommended by the American College of Surgeons as an innovative means of enhancing patient safety, reducing medical errors, and performing a systematic evaluation of various competencies. Advanced human patient simulators are increasingly being used in trauma as an evaluation tool to assess clinical performance and to teach and reinforce essential knowledge, skills, and abilities. A number of specialty simulators in trauma and critical care have also been designed to meet these educational objectives. Ongoing educational research is still needed to validate long-term retention of knowledge and skills, provide reliable methods to evaluate teaching effectiveness and performance, and to demonstrate improvement in patient safety and overall quality of care.

  10. On the practice of ignoring center-patient interactions in evaluating hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varewyck, Machteld; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Eriksson, Marie; Goetghebeur, Els

    2016-01-30

    We evaluate the performance of medical centers based on a continuous or binary patient outcome (e.g., 30-day mortality). Common practice adjusts for differences in patient mix through outcome regression models, which include patient-specific baseline covariates (e.g., age and disease stage) besides center effects. Because a large number of centers may need to be evaluated, the typical model postulates that the effect of a center on outcome is constant over patient characteristics. This may be violated, for example, when some centers are specialized in children or geriatric patients. Including interactions between certain patient characteristics and the many fixed center effects in the model increases the risk for overfitting, however, and could imply a loss of power for detecting centers with deviating mortality. Therefore, we assess how the common practice of ignoring such interactions impacts the bias and precision of directly and indirectly standardized risks. The reassuring conclusion is that the common practice of working with the main effects of a center has minor impact on hospital evaluation, unless some centers actually perform substantially better on a specific group of patients and there is strong confounding through the corresponding patient characteristic. The bias is then driven by an interplay of the relative center size, the overlap between covariate distributions, and the magnitude of the interaction effect. Interestingly, the bias on indirectly standardized risks is smaller than on directly standardized risks. We illustrate our findings by simulation and in an analysis of 30-day mortality on Riksstroke. © 2015 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Validity evidence and reliability of a simulated patient feedback instrument.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, C.; Woermann, U.; Rethans, J.J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the training of healthcare professionals, one of the advantages of communication training with simulated patients (SPs) is the SP's ability to provide direct feedback to students after a simulated clinical encounter. The quality of SP feedback must be monitored, especially because it

  12. A trial of e-simulation of sudden patient deterioration (FIRST2ACT WEB) on student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogossian, Fiona E; Cooper, Simon J; Cant, Robyn; Porter, Joanne; Forbes, Helen

    2015-10-01

    High-fidelity simulation pedagogy is of increasing importance in health professional education; however, face-to-face simulation programs are resource intensive and impractical to implement across large numbers of students. To investigate undergraduate nursing students' theoretical and applied learning in response to the e-simulation program-FIRST2ACT WEBTM, and explore predictors of virtual clinical performance. Multi-center trial of FIRST2ACT WEBTM accessible to students in five Australian universities and colleges, across 8 campuses. A population of 489 final-year nursing students in programs of study leading to license to practice. Participants proceeded through three phases: (i) pre-simulation-briefing and assessment of clinical knowledge and experience; (ii) e-simulation-three interactive e-simulation clinical scenarios which included video recordings of patients with deteriorating conditions, interactive clinical tasks, pop up responses to tasks, and timed performance; and (iii) post-simulation feedback and evaluation. Descriptive statistics were followed by bivariate analysis to detect any associations, which were further tested using standard regression analysis. Of 409 students who commenced the program (83% response rate), 367 undergraduate nursing students completed the web-based program in its entirety, yielding a completion rate of 89.7%; 38.1% of students achieved passing clinical performance across three scenarios, and the proportion achieving passing clinical knowledge increased from 78.15% pre-simulation to 91.6% post-simulation. Knowledge was the main independent predictor of clinical performance in responding to a virtual deteriorating patient R(2)=0.090, F(7, 352)=4.962, plearning. The web-based e-simulation program FIRST2ACTTM effectively enhanced knowledge, virtual clinical performance, and self-assessed knowledge, skills, confidence, and competence in final-year nursing students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of therapeutic patient education

    OpenAIRE

    D'Ivernois , Jean-François; Gagnayre , Rémi; Assal , Jean-Philippe; Golay , Alain; Libion , France; Deccache , Alain

    2006-01-01

    9 pages; These guidelines mainly focus on the principles of evaluating Therapeutic Patient Education; Over the past thirty years, therapeutic patient education (TPE) has become an essential part of the treatment of long-term diseases. Evaluations of this new practice are expected, and are sometimes imposed according to protocols and criteria that do not always reflect the complexity of changes taking place within patients and healthcare providers. Sometimes, expected results are not achieved ...

  14. Simulation evaluation of quantitative myocardial perfusion assessment from cardiac CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.

    2014-03-01

    Contrast enhancement on cardiac CT provides valuable information about myocardial perfusion and methods have been proposed to assess perfusion with static and dynamic acquisitions. There is a lack of knowledge and consensus on the appropriate approach to ensure 1) sufficient diagnostic accuracy for clinical decisions and 2) low radiation doses for patient safety. This work developed a thorough dynamic CT simulation and several accepted blood flow estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of perfusion assessment across a range of acquisition and estimation scenarios. Cardiac CT acquisitions were simulated for a range of flow states (Flow = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 ml/g/min, cardiac output = 3,5,8 L/min). CT acquisitions were simulated with a validated CT simulator incorporating polyenergetic data acquisition and realistic x-ray flux levels for dynamic acquisitions with a range of scenarios including 1, 2, 3 sec sampling for 30 sec with 25, 70, 140 mAs. Images were generated using conventional image reconstruction with additional image-based beam hardening correction to account for iodine content. Time attenuation curves were extracted for multiple regions around the myocardium and used to estimate flow. In total, 2,700 independent realizations of dynamic sequences were generated and multiple MBF estimation methods were applied to each of these. Evaluation of quantitative kinetic modeling yielded blood flow estimates with an root mean square error (RMSE) of ~0.6 ml/g/min averaged across multiple scenarios. Semi-quantitative modeling and qualitative static imaging resulted in significantly more error (RMSE = ~1.2 and ~1.2 ml/min/g respectively). For quantitative methods, dose reduction through reduced temporal sampling or reduced tube current had comparable impact on the MBF estimate fidelity. On average, half dose acquisitions increased the RMSE of estimates by only 18% suggesting that substantial dose reductions can be employed in the context of quantitative myocardial

  15. Using simulated fluorescence cell micrographs for the evaluation of cell image segmentation algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesmann, Veit; Bergler, Matthias; Palmisano, Ralf; Prinzen, Martin; Franz, Daniela; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2017-03-18

    Manual assessment and evaluation of fluorescent micrograph cell experiments is time-consuming and tedious. Automated segmentation pipelines can ensure efficient and reproducible evaluation and analysis with constant high quality for all images of an experiment. Such cell segmentation approaches are usually validated and rated in comparison to manually annotated micrographs. Nevertheless, manual annotations are prone to errors and display inter- and intra-observer variability which influence the validation results of automated cell segmentation pipelines. We present a new approach to simulate fluorescent cell micrographs that provides an objective ground truth for the validation of cell segmentation methods. The cell simulation was evaluated twofold: (1) An expert observer study shows that the proposed approach generates realistic fluorescent cell micrograph simulations. (2) An automated segmentation pipeline on the simulated fluorescent cell micrographs reproduces segmentation performances of that pipeline on real fluorescent cell micrographs. The proposed simulation approach produces realistic fluorescent cell micrographs with corresponding ground truth. The simulated data is suited to evaluate image segmentation pipelines more efficiently and reproducibly than it is possible on manually annotated real micrographs.

  16. Working as simulated patient has effects on real patient life – Preliminary insights from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Persons who simulate patients during medical education understand the routines and the underlying script of medical consultations better. We aimed to explore how simulated patients (SPs integrated this new understanding into their daily life, how this work affected their private life as patients, and what we can learn from these changes for concepts of empowerment.Design, setting, and participants: A qualitative interview study. All SPs of Göttingen medical school who had been working longer than three semesters (n=14 were invited and agreed to take part in an open interview about their daily experience with real doctors. Documentary method was used to identify the main issues. Several cases were chosen according to maximum contrast and analysed by in-depth analysis to provide vivid examples of how simulations may affect the real life of the SPs as patients.Results: Our analysis revealed three main changes in the behaviour of SPs as real patients. They were more attentive, had a better understanding of the circumstances under which doctors work, and acted more self-confidently. From the selected cases it became apparent that working as a SP may lead to a constant and significant decrease of fear of hospitals and medical procedures or, in other cases, may enable the SPs to develop new abilities for giving feedback, questioning procedures, and explanations for real doctors.Conclusion: working as a simulated patient seems to be well-suited to understand own progression of diseases, to increase self-responsibility and to a confident attitude as patient.

  17. Evaluation of articulation simulation system using artificial maxillectomy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbashti, M E; Hattori, M; Sumita, Y I; Taniguchi, H

    2015-09-01

    Acoustic evaluation is valuable for guiding the treatment of maxillofacial defects and determining the effectiveness of rehabilitation with an obturator prosthesis. Model simulations are important in terms of pre-surgical planning and pre- and post-operative speech function. This study aimed to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of voice generated by an articulation simulation system using a vocal tract model with or without artificial maxillectomy defects. More specifically, we aimed to establish a speech simulation system for maxillectomy defect models that both surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists can use in guiding treatment planning. Artificially simulated maxillectomy defects were prepared according to Aramany's classification (Classes I-VI) in a three-dimensional vocal tract plaster model of a subject uttering the vowel /a/. Formant and nasalance acoustic data were analysed using Computerized Speech Lab and the Nasometer, respectively. Formants and nasalance of simulated /a/ sounds were successfully detected and analysed. Values of Formants 1 and 2 for the non-defect model were 675.43 and 976.64 Hz, respectively. Median values of Formants 1 and 2 for the defect models were 634.36 and 1026.84 Hz, respectively. Nasalance was 11% in the non-defect model, whereas median nasalance was 28% in the defect models. The results suggest that an articulation simulation system can be used to help surgeons and maxillofacial prosthodontists to plan post-surgical defects that will be facilitate maxillofacial rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Effects of Moderate- and High-Fidelity Patient Simulator Use on Critical Thinking in Associate Degree Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieck, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of moderate- and high-fidelity patient simulator use on the critical thinking skills of associate degree nursing students. This quantitative study used a quasi-experimental design and the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) to evaluate the critical thinking skills of third semester nursing…

  19. Design and evaluation of new overview screens for the LABIHS simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Almeida, Jose C.S.; Jaime, Guilherme D.G.; Augusto, Silas C.

    2015-01-01

    The development and evaluation of Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) for control rooms is a research area at the Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). The main objective of this laboratory is to develop and evaluate projects of HSIs for industrial plants using different methodology construction. The evaluation of the interfaces is carried out in the LABIHS simulator at the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN). Previous evaluation of the overview screen of the nuclear power plant (NPP) simulator of the LABIHS showed the necessity of additional information to reduce the operator workload. To overcome this issue, a set of three 52-inch LCD TV was acquired to replace the projector in the task of showing the overview screen to the simulator operators. A new set of screens was developed to gather information in the three LCD screens. The approach used on the development of the new screens was based on human factors guidelines and recommendations. The objective of this work is present the design of these new overview screens and to evaluate their contribution to reduce the operators mental workload in this new scenario. (author)

  20. Evaluation of full-scope simulator testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, M.P.; Moray, N.; Senders, J.W.; Biron, K.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the use of full scope nuclear power plant simulators in licensing examinations for Unit First Operators of CANDU reactors. The existing literature is reviewed, and an annotated bibliography of the more important sources provided. Since existing methods are judged inadequate, conceptual bases for designing a system for licensing are discussed, and a method proposed which would make use of objective scoring methods based on data collection in full-scope simulators. A field trial of such a method is described. The practicality of such a method is critically discussed and possible advantages of subjective methods of evaluation considered. (author). 32 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  1. Evaluation of full-scope simulator testing methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, M P; Moray, N; Senders, J W; Biron, K [Human Factors North Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the use of full scope nuclear power plant simulators in licensing examinations for Unit First Operators of CANDU reactors. The existing literature is reviewed, and an annotated bibliography of the more important sources provided. Since existing methods are judged inadequate, conceptual bases for designing a system for licensing are discussed, and a method proposed which would make use of objective scoring methods based on data collection in full-scope simulators. A field trial of such a method is described. The practicality of such a method is critically discussed and possible advantages of subjective methods of evaluation considered. (author). 32 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  2. Knowledge-Driven Design of Virtual Patient Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Victor; Caudell, Thomas; Goldsmith, Timothy; Panaiotis; Alverson, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Virtual worlds provide unique opportunities for instructors to promote, study, and evaluate student learning and comprehension. In this article, Victor Vergara, Thomas Caudell, Timothy Goldsmith, Panaiotis, and Dale Alverson explore the advantages of using virtual reality environments to create simulations for medical students. Virtual simulations…

  3. Simulating clinical trial visits yields patient insights into study design and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim SS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available S Sam Lim,1 Alan J Kivitz,2 Doug McKinnell,3 M Edward Pierson,4 Faye S O’Brien4 1Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Altoona Center for Clinical Research, Altoona, PA, USA; 3Deloitte Life Sciences Advisory, Basel, Switzerland; 4Clinical Operations, Global Medicines Development, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: We elicited patient experiences from clinical trial simulations to aid in future trial development and to improve patient recruitment and retention.Patients and methods: Two simulations of draft Phase II and Phase III anifrolumab studies for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE/lupus nephritis (LN were performed involving African-American patients from Grady Hospital, an indigent care hospital in Atlanta, GA, USA, and white patients from Altoona Arthritis and Osteoporosis Center in Altoona, PA, USA. The clinical trial simulation included an informed consent procedure, a mock screening visit, a mock dosing visit, and a debriefing period for patients and staff. Patients and staff were interviewed to obtain sentiments and perceptions related to the simulated visits.Results: The Atlanta study involved 6 African-American patients (5 female aged 27–60 years with moderate to severe SLE/LN. The Altoona study involved 12 white females aged 32–75 years with mild to moderate SLE/LN. Patient experiences had an impact on four patient-centric care domains: 1 information, communication, and education; 2 responsiveness to needs; 3 access to care; and 4 coordination of care; and continuity and transition. Patients in both studies desired background material, knowledgeable staff, family and friend support, personal results, comfortable settings, shorter wait times, and greater scheduling flexibility. Compared with the Altoona study patients, Atlanta study patients reported greater preferences for information from the Internet, need for strong community and online support, difficulties in

  4. Fast evaluation of patient set-up during radiotherapy by aligning features in portal and simulator images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijhold, J.; Herk, M. van; Vijlbrief, R.; Lebesque, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    A new fast method is presented for the quantification of patient set-up errors during radiotherapy with external photon beams. The set-up errors are described as deviations in relative position and orientation of specified anatomical structures relative to specified field shaping devices. These deviations are determined from parameters of the image transformations that make their features in a portal image align with the corresponding features in a simulator image. Knowledge of some set-up parameters during treatment simulation is required. The method does not require accurate knowledge about the position of the portal imaging device as long as the positions of some of the field shaping devices are verified independently during treatment. By applying this method, deviations in a pelvic phantom set-up can be measured with a precision of 2 mm within 1 minute. Theoretical considerations and experiments have shown that the method is not applicable when there are out-of-plane rotations larger than 2 degrees or translations larger than 1 cm. Inter-observer variability proved to be a source of large systematic errors, which could be reduced by offering a precise protocol for the feature alignment. (author)

  5. The effects of a simulated laughter programme on mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Eun Hwa; Kim, Sehyun; Park, Hye-Ja; Kil, Suk Yong

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a simulated laughter programme on mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients. Forty participants were randomly assigned to a laughter group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Eleven participants completed the laughter programme after haemodialysis sessions and 18 control participants remained. The 4-week simulated laughter programme included weekly 60 min group sessions of simulated laughter, breathing, stretching exercises, and meditation, as well as daily 15 s individual laughter sessions administered via telephone. Mood, cortisol levels, and health-related quality of life were analysed using the rank analysis of covariance, and Wilcoxon's signed rank test. The laughter group exhibited improvements in mood, symptoms, social interaction quality, and role limitations due to physical health. The simulated laughter programme may help improve mood and health-related quality of life among haemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of patient absorbed dose in a PET-CT test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra P, F.; Mourao F, A. P.; Santana, P. C.

    2017-10-01

    Images of PET-CT has important diagnostic applications, especially in oncology. This equipment allows overlapping of functional images obtained from the administration of radionuclides and anatomical, generated by X-rays. The PET-CT technique may generate higher doses in patients due to the fact that two diagnostic modalities are used in a single examination. A whole body CT scan is performed and in sequence, a capture of the signal generated by the photons emitted is done. In this study, the absorbed and effective doses generated by the CT scan and incorporated by the administration of the radionuclide were evaluated in 19 organs. To evaluate the CT dose, 32 radiochromic film strips were correctly positioned into the anthropomorphic male phantom. The CT protocol performed was whole-body scanning and a high-resolution lung scan. This protocol is currently used in most services. The calculation of the effective dose from the injected activity in the patient was performed using the ICRP 106 Biokinetic model (ICRP 106, 2008). The activity to be injected may vary according to the patients body mass and with the sensitivity of the detector. The mass of the simulator used is 73.5 kg, then the simulation with and injected activity of 244.76 MBq was used. It was observed that 87.4% of the effective dose in examination PET/CT comes from the CT scans, being 63.8% of the whole body scan and 23.6% of high resolution lung scan. Using activity of 0.09 mCi x kg 18 F-FDG radiopharmaceutical contributes only 12.6% of the final effective dose. As a conclusion, it was observed that the dose in patients submitted to the 18 F-FDG PET-CT examination is high, being of great value efforts for its reduction, such as the use of appropriate image acquisition techniques and promoting the application of the principle of optimization of practice. (Author)

  7. Evaluation of patient absorbed dose in a PET-CT test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra P, F.; Mourao F, A. P. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, CEP 31270-901, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Santana, P. C., E-mail: fgpaiva92@gmail.com [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Medical School, Av. Prof. Alfredo Balena 190, CEP 30123970, Santa Efigenia, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    Images of PET-CT has important diagnostic applications, especially in oncology. This equipment allows overlapping of functional images obtained from the administration of radionuclides and anatomical, generated by X-rays. The PET-CT technique may generate higher doses in patients due to the fact that two diagnostic modalities are used in a single examination. A whole body CT scan is performed and in sequence, a capture of the signal generated by the photons emitted is done. In this study, the absorbed and effective doses generated by the CT scan and incorporated by the administration of the radionuclide were evaluated in 19 organs. To evaluate the CT dose, 32 radiochromic film strips were correctly positioned into the anthropomorphic male phantom. The CT protocol performed was whole-body scanning and a high-resolution lung scan. This protocol is currently used in most services. The calculation of the effective dose from the injected activity in the patient was performed using the ICRP 106 Biokinetic model (ICRP 106, 2008). The activity to be injected may vary according to the patients body mass and with the sensitivity of the detector. The mass of the simulator used is 73.5 kg, then the simulation with and injected activity of 244.76 MBq was used. It was observed that 87.4% of the effective dose in examination PET/CT comes from the CT scans, being 63.8% of the whole body scan and 23.6% of high resolution lung scan. Using activity of 0.09 mCi x kg {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical contributes only 12.6% of the final effective dose. As a conclusion, it was observed that the dose in patients submitted to the {sup 18}F-FDG PET-CT examination is high, being of great value efforts for its reduction, such as the use of appropriate image acquisition techniques and promoting the application of the principle of optimization of practice. (Author)

  8. A Study on Evaluation of Training Program for MCR Operators of SMART Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Joon Ku; Jeong, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    It is important to develop a training program by simulators in main control room of nuclear power plants because there is no an operation expert and no operating experience in the pre-construction phase of nuclear power plants. It is also necessary to develop a training program and its evaluation method taking human error into account. The purpose of this study is developing evaluation model of simulators. In a training program, once training requirements are selected, evaluation of training is as important as its implementation. Training effectiveness is available value in a simulator-based environment. The main control room of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is consist of workstation, visual display units such as LDP and FPD based on digital systems. Cognitive behaviors of a high level are required to operators in these man-machine interface system (MMIS). Therefore, it is essential to identify training requirements and to develop its evaluation model. Virtual Environments such as a simulator have utilized by a lot of industries and companies for training and accident prevention. Simulators have three primary benefits. The first is that training by simulators is less expensive than those in real environment. The second is that simulators enable safety enhancement using systematic training program. The third is that simulators provide a preliminary to prevent human error. It is significant to apply TER, TCR, TCE in evaluation of training effect. It is expected that these could be applied to revise training criteria and enable to consider efficiency in terms of cost and benefit.

  9. A Study on Evaluation of Training Program for MCR Operators of SMART Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Lee, Joon Ku; Jeong, Kwang Il

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop a training program by simulators in main control room of nuclear power plants because there is no an operation expert and no operating experience in the pre-construction phase of nuclear power plants. It is also necessary to develop a training program and its evaluation method taking human error into account. The purpose of this study is developing evaluation model of simulators. In a training program, once training requirements are selected, evaluation of training is as important as its implementation. Training effectiveness is available value in a simulator-based environment. The main control room of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) is consist of workstation, visual display units such as LDP and FPD based on digital systems. Cognitive behaviors of a high level are required to operators in these man-machine interface system (MMIS). Therefore, it is essential to identify training requirements and to develop its evaluation model. Virtual Environments such as a simulator have utilized by a lot of industries and companies for training and accident prevention. Simulators have three primary benefits. The first is that training by simulators is less expensive than those in real environment. The second is that simulators enable safety enhancement using systematic training program. The third is that simulators provide a preliminary to prevent human error. It is significant to apply TER, TCR, TCE in evaluation of training effect. It is expected that these could be applied to revise training criteria and enable to consider efficiency in terms of cost and benefit

  10. Developing, implementing and evaluating a simulation learning package on post-partum haemorrhage for undergraduate midwifery students in KwaZulu-Natal*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafaza B. Amod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The training of undergraduate midwifery students to identify and manage post-partum haemorrhage, is an essential skill in midwifery. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a simulation learning package (SLP on post-partum haemorrhage for undergraduate midwifery students using high fidelity simulation without risks to real-life patients. Methods: An exploratory sequential mixed methodology was used in this study. The study was made up of three phases namely; the development, implementation and evaluation of the learning package. The research participants were fourth year baccalaureate of nursing midwifery students and midwifery experts involved in teaching midwifery. Data was collected using an evaluation checklist for experts, a student satisfaction survey and focus group sessions. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS Version 23.0 and the qualitative data was analysed using content analysis as described by Graneheim and Lundman(2004. Results: The evaluation checklist for experts revealed that the developed SLP was considered suitable for undergraduate students. It encouraged active learning, teamwork and accommodated diverse learning styles. The package was easy to use and offered opportunities for student feedback. The student satisfaction survey revealed that the pre-simulation support received was adequate and helpful, and the post simulation outcomes showed that using high fidelity simulation improved clinical skills, knowledge, critical thinking, self-confidence and satisfaction. The focus group sessions revealed that the SLP was an innovative and interactive method of learning; it improved the student's perception of their clinical competence, stimulated critical thinking and increased self-confidence. Conclusion: A simulation learning package, that uses high fidelity simulation, can be an innovative and interactive method to teach midwifery emergencies.

  11. A SAS-based solution to evaluate study design efficiency of phase I pediatric oncology trials via discrete event simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Patel, Dimple; Skolnik, Jeffrey M

    2008-06-01

    Previous exploration of oncology study design efficiency has focused on Markov processes alone (probability-based events) without consideration for time dependencies. Barriers to study completion include time delays associated with patient accrual, inevaluability (IE), time to dose limiting toxicities (DLT) and administrative and review time. Discrete event simulation (DES) can incorporate probability-based assignment of DLT and IE frequency, correlated with cohort in the case of DLT, with time-based events defined by stochastic relationships. A SAS-based solution to examine study efficiency metrics and evaluate design modifications that would improve study efficiency is presented. Virtual patients are simulated with attributes defined from prior distributions of relevant patient characteristics. Study population datasets are read into SAS macros which select patients and enroll them into a study based on the specific design criteria if the study is open to enrollment. Waiting times, arrival times and time to study events are also sampled from prior distributions; post-processing of study simulations is provided within the decision macros and compared across designs in a separate post-processing algorithm. This solution is examined via comparison of the standard 3+3 decision rule relative to the "rolling 6" design, a newly proposed enrollment strategy for the phase I pediatric oncology setting.

  12. Power distribution system reliability evaluation using dagger-sampling Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Y.; Zhao, S.; Ma, Y. [North China Electric Power Univ., Hebei (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-03-11

    A dagger-sampling Monte Carlo simulation method was used to evaluate power distribution system reliability. The dagger-sampling technique was used to record the failure of a component as an incident and to determine its occurrence probability by generating incident samples using random numbers. The dagger sampling technique was combined with the direct sequential Monte Carlo method to calculate average values of load point indices and system indices. Results of the 2 methods with simulation times of up to 100,000 years were then compared. The comparative evaluation showed that less computing time was required using the dagger-sampling technique due to its higher convergence speed. When simulation times were 1000 years, the dagger-sampling method required 0.05 seconds to accomplish an evaluation, while the direct method required 0.27 seconds. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Emotion in Stories: Facial EMG Evidence for Both Mental Simulation and Moral Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn 't Hart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial electromyography research shows that corrugator supercilii (“frowning muscle” activity tracks the emotional valence of linguistic stimuli. Grounded or embodied accounts of language processing take such activity to reflect the simulation or “reenactment” of emotion, as part of the retrieval of word meaning (e.g., of “furious” and/or of building a situation model (e.g., for “Mark is furious”. However, the same muscle also expresses our primary emotional evaluation of things we encounter. Language-driven affective simulation can easily be at odds with the reader's affective evaluation of what language describes (e.g., when we like Mark being furious. To examine what happens in such cases, we independently manipulated simulation valence and moral evaluative valence in short narratives. Participants first read about characters behaving in a morally laudable or objectionable fashion: this immediately led to corrugator activity reflecting positive or negative affect. Next, and critically, a positive or negative event befell these same characters. Here, the corrugator response did not track the valence of the event, but reflected both simulation and moral evaluation. This highlights the importance of unpacking coarse notions of affective meaning in language processing research into components that reflect simulation and evaluation. Our results also call for a re-evaluation of the interpretation of corrugator EMG, as well as other affect-related facial muscles and other peripheral physiological measures, as unequivocal indicators of simulation. Research should explore how such measures behave in richer and more ecologically valid language processing, such as narrative; refining our understanding of simulation within a framework of grounded language comprehension.

  14. Development of three-dimensional patient face model that enables real-time collision detection and cutting operation for a dental simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamada, Yuya; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Noborio, Hiroshi; Imazato, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The virtual reality (VR) simulator is a useful tool to develop dental hand skill. However, VR simulations with reactions of patients have limited computational time to reproduce a face model. Our aim was to develop a patient face model that enables real-time collision detection and cutting operation by using stereolithography (STL) and deterministic finite automaton (DFA) data files. We evaluated dependence of computational cost and constructed the patient face model using the optimum condition for combining STL and DFA data files, and assessed the computational costs for operation in do-nothing, collision, cutting, and combination of collision and cutting. The face model was successfully constructed with low computational costs of 11.3, 18.3, 30.3, and 33.5 ms for do-nothing, collision, cutting, and collision and cutting, respectively. The patient face model could be useful for developing dental hand skill with VR.

  15. The Multiple-Patient Simulation Toolkit: Purpose, Process, and Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beroz, Sabrina; Sullivan, Nancy; Kramasz, Vanessa; Morgan, Patricia

    Educating nursing students to safely care for multiple patients has become an important but challenging focus for nurse educators. New graduate nurses are expected to manage care for multiple patients in a complex and multifaceted health care system. With patient safety as a priority, multiple-patient assignments are necessary in order for nursing students to learn how to effectively prioritize and delegate care. The purpose of this project was the construction of an adaptable and flexible template for the development of multiple-patient simulations. Through utilization, the template moved to a toolkit adding an operational guide, sample-populated template, and bibliography.

  16. Reduction of radiation-induced xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma using CT simulation with laser patient marking and three-field irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Takeshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takuro; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitahara, Toshihiro; Oomori, Keiichi; Yasuda, Motoyuki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Inuyama, Yukio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor control and reduction of postirradiation xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the three-field irradiation technique based on the CT-based simulation with laser patient marking was investigated. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with NPC were consecutively treated between 1983 and 1993. In 33 patients treated before 1987, target volume was determined using a conventional x-ray simulator with a reference of CT images, and the primary site was treated by the conventional parallel-opposed two-field technique (Group I). In 45 patients treated from 1987, target volume was determined using a CT simulator slice by slice, the treatment field was projected onto the patient's skin by a laser beam projector mounted on a C-arm, and the primary site was irradiated by a three-fields (anterior and bilateral) technique (Group II). In Group II, the shape of each field was determined using a beam's eye view to reduce the dose to the bilateral parotid glands. The three-field technique reduced the dose to the superficial lobe of parotid gland to about two-thirds of the dose given by the two-field technique. Radiation-induced xerostomia was evaluated by clinical symptoms and radio-isotope sialography. Results: The 5-year survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 46.6 and 31.2% in Group I, and 46.8 and 46.5% in Group II. A large variation in the volume of parotid glands were demonstrated, ranging from 9 cm 3 to 61 cm 3 among patients treated with CT simulation. Forty percent of the patients in Group II showed no or mild xerostomia, whereas all of the patients in Group I showed moderate to severe xerostomia (p < 0.01). The radioisotope sialography study showed that the mean secretion ratio by acid stimulation was improved from 3.8% in the Group I to 15.2% in the Group II (p < 0.01). Conclusions: CT simulation was useful to determine the size and shape of each field to reduce the dose to the parotid gland, of which size varies

  17. Training simulated patients: evaluation of a training approach using self-assessment and peer/tutor feedback to improve performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Juriah

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most medical schools use simulated patients (SPs for teaching. In this context the authenticity of role play and quality of feedback provided by SPs is of paramount importance. The available literature on SP training mostly addresses instructor led training where the SPs are given direction on their roles. This study focuses on the use of peer and self evaluation as a tool to train SPs. Methods SPs at the medical school participated in a staff development and training programme which included a self-assessment of their performance while observing video-tapes of their role play using a structured guide and b peer group assessment of their performance under tutor guidance. The pre and post training performance in relation to authenticity of role play and quality of feedback was blindly assessed by students and tutors using a validated instrument and the scores were compared. A focus group discussion and a questionnaire assessed acceptability of the training programme by the SPs. Results The post-training performance assessment scores were significantly higher (p Conclusion Use of structured self-reflective and peer-interactive, practice based methods of SP training is recommended to improve SP performance. More studies on these methods of training may further refine SP training and lead to improvement of SP performance which in turn may positively impact medical education.

  18. Design and implementation of a simulation exercise for teaching confidentiality of patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J R

    1982-05-01

    Allied health students, making the transition from a purely academic to a professional school setting, are suddenly faced with judgment decisions about disclosure of medical information. Obscure guidelines and new interpersonal relationships with other members of the health care team complicate this transition and pose a threat to confidentiality of patient information. This article describes the design and implementation of a simulation exercise to reinforce lecture guidelines specifying disclosure of medical information without risk to the patient or student. The simulation is comprised of 10 critical incidents calling for responses ranging from logical to judgmental. Although written primarily for medical technologists, with emphasis on limitations governing release of patient laboratory data, the simulation approach is presented here as a model for other allied health professions. The use of a latent image format provides learners with positive or negative reinforcement as they learn the consequences of their decisions. The simulation activity described is easily adapted to small group discussion or computer-assisted instruction. While the simulation appears to be an accurate representation of reality, peer and real-life pressures could not be totally simulated.

  19. Creation and Delphi-method refinement of pediatric disaster triage simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Mark X; Brown, Linda; Overly, Frank; Yarzebski, Jorge; Meckler, Garth; Fuchs, Susan; Tomassoni, Anthony; Aghababian, Richard; Chung, Sarita; Garrett, Andrew; Fagbuyi, Daniel; Adelgais, Kathleen; Goldman, Ran; Parker, James; Auerbach, Marc; Riera, Antonio; Cone, David; Baum, Carl R

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for rigorously designed pediatric disaster triage (PDT) training simulations for paramedics. First, we sought to design three multiple patient incidents for EMS provider training simulations. Our second objective was to determine the appropriate interventions and triage level for each victim in each of the simulations and develop evaluation instruments for each simulation. The final objective was to ensure that each simulation and evaluation tool was free of bias toward any specific PDT strategy. We created mixed-methods disaster simulation scenarios with pediatric victims: a school shooting, a school bus crash, and a multiple-victim house fire. Standardized patients, high-fidelity manikins, and low-fidelity manikins were used to portray the victims. Each simulation had similar acuity of injuries and 10 victims. Examples include children with special health-care needs, gunshot wounds, and smoke inhalation. Checklist-based evaluation tools and behaviorally anchored global assessments of function were created for each simulation. Eight physicians and paramedics from areas with differing PDT strategies were recruited as Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) for a modified Delphi iterative critique of the simulations and evaluation tools. The modified Delphi was managed with an online survey tool. The SMEs provided an expected triage category for each patient. The target for modified Delphi consensus was ≥85%. Using Likert scales and free text, the SMEs assessed the validity of the simulations, including instances of bias toward a specific PDT strategy, clarity of learning objectives, and the correlation of the evaluation tools to the learning objectives and scenarios. After two rounds of the modified Delphi, consensus for expected triage level was >85% for 28 of 30 victims, with the remaining two achieving >85% consensus after three Delphi iterations. To achieve consensus, we amended 11 instances of bias toward a specific PDT strategy and corrected 10

  20. General practitioners' experience and benefits from patient evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Frede

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has now for many years been recognised that patient evaluations should be undertaken as an integral part of the complex task of improving the quality of general practice care. Yet little is known about the general practitioners' (GPs' benefit from patient evaluations. Aim 1 was to study the impact on the GPs of a patient evaluation and subsequent feedback of results presented at a plenary session comprising a study guide for the results and group discussions. Aim 2 was to study possible facilitators and barriers to the implementations of the results raised by the patient evaluation process. Methods A patient evaluation survey of 597 voluntarily participating GPs was performed by means of the EUROPEP questionnaire. Evaluation results were fed back to the GPs as written reports at a single feedback meeting with group discussions of the results. Between 3 and 17 months after the feedback, the 597 GPs received a questionnaire with items addressing their experience with and perceived benefit from the evaluations. Results 79.4% of the GPs responded. 33% of the responding GPs reported that the patient evaluation had raised their attention to the patient perspective on the quality of general practice care. Job satisfaction had improved among 26%, and 21% had developed a more positive attitude to patient evaluations. 77% of the GPs reported having learnt from the evaluation. 54% had made changes to improve practice, 82% would recommend a patient evaluation to a colleague and 75% would do another patient evaluation if invited. 14% of the GPs had become less positive towards patient evaluations, and job satisfaction had decreased among 3%. Conclusions We found a significant impact on the GPs regarding satisfaction with the process and attitude towards patient evaluations, GPs' attention to the patients' perspective on care quality and their job satisfaction. Being benchmarked against the average seemed to raise barriers to the

  1. Qualitative Evaluation of a Role Play Bullying Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Gordon L; Brown, Kathryn; Grubb, Paula; Shay, Amy; Montoya, Karen

    Bullying against nurses is becoming a pervasive problem. In this article, a role play simulation designed for undergraduate nursing students is described. In addition, the evaluation findings from a subsample of students who participated in a role play simulation addressing bullying behaviors are reported. Focus group sessions were completed with a subset of eight students who participated in the intervention. Sessions were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using Colaizzi's procedural steps for qualitative analysis. Themes derived from the data were "The Experience of Being Bullied", "Implementation of the Program", "Desired Outcome of the Program", and "Context of Bullying in the Nursing Profession". Role play simulation was an effective and active learning strategy to diffuse education on bullying in nursing practice. Bullying in nursing was identified as a problem worthy of incorporation into the undergraduate nursing curriculum. To further enhance the learning experience with role play simulation, adequate briefing instructions, opportunity to opt out of the role play, and comprehensive debriefing are essential.

  2. Evaluation of irradiation position in respiratory-gated radiotherapy using a phantom system simulating patient respiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Masaya; Ueda, Takashi; Kitoh, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Goka, Tomonori; Ogino, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Respiratory-gated (RG) radiotherapy is useful for minimizing the irradiated volume of normal tissues resulting from the shifting of internal structures caused by respiratory movement. The present study was conducted to evaluate the treatment field in RG radiotherapy using a phantom system simulating patient respiration. A phantom system consisting of a 3-cm ball-shaped dummy tumor and film placed in a cork lung phantom was used (THK Co., Ltd.). RG radiotherapy was employed in the expiratory phase. The phantom movement distance was set to 2 cm, and the gating signals from a respiratory-gating system (AZ-733V, Anzai Medical) were varied. The settings used for irradiation were an X-ray energy of 6 MV (PRIMUS, Toshiba Medical Systems), treatment field of 5 cm x 7 cm, and X-ray dose of 100 MU. Images were acquired using an electric portal-imaging device (EPID, OPTIVUE 500), and the X-ray dose distribution was measured by the film method. In images acquired using the EPID, the tumor margins became less clear when the gating signals were increased, and the ITVs were determined to be 3.6 cm, 3.7 cm, 4.2 cm, and 5.1 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gate, respectively. With regard to the X-ray dose distribution measured by the film method, the dose profile in the cephalocaudal direction was shifted toward the expiratory phase, and the degree of shift became greater when the gating signals were increased. In addition, the optimal treatment fields in the cephalocaudal direction were determined to be 5.2 cm, 5.2 cm, 5.6 cm, and 7.0 cm at gating rates of 10%, 25%, 50%, and no gating, respectively. Although RG radiotherapy is useful for improving the accuracy of radiotherapy, the characteristics of the RG radiotherapy technique and the radiotherapy system must be clearly understood when this method is to be employed in clinical practice. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is now assuming a central role in radiotherapy, and properly identifying internal margins is an

  3. Evaluating the Benefits of Collaboration in Simulation Games: The Case of Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Ricky

    2014-01-01

    Background Organizations have used simulation games for health promotion and communication. To evaluate how simulation games can foster collaboration among stakeholders, this paper develops two social network measures. Objective The paper aims to initiate two specific measures that facilitate organizations and researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based simulation games in fostering collaboration. Methods The two measures are: (1) network density and (2) network diversity. They mea...

  4. Situation awareness in undergraduate nursing students managing simulated patient deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Missen, Karen; Cooper, Simon; Bogossian, Fiona; Bucknall, Tracey; Cant, Robyn

    2014-06-01

    Nursing work often occurs in complex and potentially hazardous settings. Awareness of patient and practice environments is an imperative for nurses in practice. To explore nursing students' situation awareness while engaging in simulated patient deterioration scenarios. The educational process of FIRST(2)ACT was the model for the nurse intervention. Situation awareness was measured quantitatively using the Situation Awareness Global Assessment tool. Four domains were measured: physiological perception (patient parameters), global perception (surroundings), comprehension (interpretation of information), and projection (forecasting outcomes). Clinical laboratories at each of three participating universities. Ninety-seven nursing students from three Australian universities. Between March and July 2012, students participated in three video-recorded simulation events, in which a trained actor played patient roles and groups of three students worked as teams. To measure situation awareness, following the simulation each team leader was taken to a separate room and asked to report on a question set regarding the patient's vital signs, bedside setting and medical diagnosis. Overall, situation awareness was low (41%). Of the four domains, physiological perceptions scored the lowest (26%) and projection the highest (59%). Final year nursing students may not have well developed situation awareness skills, especially when dealing with these types of scenarios. Education providers need to consider ways to assist students to fully develop this attribute. Findings suggest that this is an aspect of undergraduate nursing education that requires significant consideration by curriculum developers. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preoperative patient education: evaluating postoperative patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, B J

    1994-04-01

    Preoperative teaching is an important part of patient care and can prevent complications, as well as promote patient fulfillment during hospitalization. A study was conducted at Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation in New Orleans, LA, in 1989, to determine the impact of a preoperative teaching program on the incidence of postoperative atelectasis and patient satisfaction. Results showed no significant difference of postoperative complications and patient gratification after participating in a structured preoperative teaching program. As part of this study, it was identified that a patient evaluation tool for a preoperative teaching class needed to be developed. The phases of this process are explained in the following article.

  6. Efficacy of CT portography in the evaluation of cirrhotic patients for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, J.H. III; Baron, R.L.; Dodd, G.D. III; Carr, B.I.; Van Thiel, D.

    1991-01-01

    CT portography (CTAP) is sensitive in the detection of liver neoplasms. However, this paper reports on a high technical failure rate in cirrhotic patients and the authors review the usefulness of CTAP in these patients at risk for hepatoma. To date, the authors have evaluated 43 cirrhotic patients with CTAP with use of 120-150 mL of 60% iodinated contrast material at 1.0-1.5 mL/sec. Scans were evaluated for the presence and enhancement of collateral vessels. Lover parenchyma enhancement was evaluated as homogeneous or heterogeneous. The degree of enhancement was categorized as poor, moderate, or good based on maximal postcontrast attenuation. A determination of the presence and location of flow artifacts simulating thrombus in the portal vein was made. Twenty of 43 examination were technical failures, with 6 portosystemic shunts and large varices siphoning contrast material in 7. In 7 of the failures, no varices or shunts were present. Twenty-three of 43 examinations had acceptable enhancement, but 9 had heterogeneous regions of decreased enhancement, not due to tumor, that could obscure or be confused with small tumor foci

  7. Establishing an individual dosing system for patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization: Radiochromic film and Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Li, Yang-Ying; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Less invasive imaging-guided vascular interventions with fluoroscopy and digital subtraction angiography have recently become widespread and have been successfully used for treating various diseases. However, interventional fluoroscopy procedures may present deterministic and stochastic radiation risks. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Food and Drug Administration have requested identifying procedures that may involve patient doses greater than the recommended thresholds. In this study, radiochromic dosimetric media, known as self-developing films, and measurement-based Monte Carlo simulations were used to establish an interventional radiology dosing system for individual patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization. The peak skin dose, evaluated from the entrance surface dose distribution, was 21% less than the cumulated dose reported from the console. A 3D dose map incorporated into CT images was established. The organ doses and effective doses for individual patients were evaluated using this dosing system. This system could be applied very well to other fluoroscopic or interventional procedures for patient dose management.

  8. An approach to evaluate the cutting time for the nuclear dismantling simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Hyun, Dongjun; Kang, Sinyoung; Kim, Ikjune; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) decommissioning involves various processes and technologies. Decommissioning should be performed after a comprehensive review of the information related to these processes and technologies. There are various means of prior examination and evaluation to ensure the feasibility and safety of the decommissioning process plan. Our dismantling simulation system aims to simulate and evaluate whole processes related to the dismantlement of core equipment of NPP such as the device preparation, cutting operation, waste transfer, and so on. This paper introduces the estimation methodology of the time required for the cutting processes based on real cutting conditions in order to provide effective economic evaluation functionalities used for the system. The methodology to estimate the time required for the remote cutting process in the nuclear dismantling simulation system was proposed. Among the factors which mainly determine the time, the cutting trace was directly calculated from the simulation system and the continuous cutting speed was obtained by proper order of the spline fitting with constraint conditions.

  9. Investigation of realistic PET simulations incorporating tumor patient's specificity using anthropomorphic models: Creation of an oncology database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Efthimiou, Nikos; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C.; Loudos, George; Le Maitre, Amandine; Hatt, Mathieu; Tixier, Florent; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    heterogeneous activity distribution for visual assessment.Results: The accuracy of the simulated database was assessed against the original clinical images. The PVC simulated images matched the clinical ones best. Local, regional, and global features extracted from the PVC simulated images were closest to the clinical measurements, with the exception of the size zone variability and the mean intensity values, where heterogeneous tumors showed better reproducibility. The profiles on PVC simulated tumors after postfiltering seemed to represent the more realistic heterogeneous regions with respect to the clinical reference.Conclusions: In this study, the authors investigated the input activity map heterogeneity in the GATE simulations of tumors with heterogeneous activity distribution. The most realistic heterogeneous tumors were obtained by inserting PVC activity distributions from the clinical image into the activity map of the simulation. Partial volume effect (PVE) can play a crucial role in the quantification of heterogeneity within tumors and have an important impact on applications such as patient follow-up during treatment and assessment of tumor response to therapy. The development of such a database incorporating patient anatomical and functional variability can be used to evaluate new image processing or analysis algorithms, while providing control of the ground truth, which is not available when dealing with clinical datasets. The database includes all images used and generated in this study, as well as the sinograms and the attenuation phantoms for further investigation. It is freely available to the interested reader of the journal at http://www.med.upatras.gr/oncobase/

  10. Bio-imaging and visualization for patient-customized simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiongbiao; Li, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2013 workshop Bio-Imaging and Visualization for Patient-Customized Simulations (MWBIVPCS 2013). MWBIVPCS 2013 brought together researchers representing several fields, such as Biomechanics, Engineering, Medicine, Mathematics, Physics and Statistic. The contributions included in this book present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques, including the finite element method, similarity metrics, optimization processes, graphs, hidden Markov models, sensor calibration, fuzzy logic, data mining, cellular automation, active shape models, template matching and level sets. These serve as tools to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modelling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis.  This boo...

  11. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  12. TH-CD-207A-08: Simulated Real-Time Image Guidance for Lung SBRT Patients Using Scatter Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redler, G; Cifter, G; Templeton, A; Lee, C; Bernard, D; Liao, Y; Zhen, H; Turian, J; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a comprehensive Monte Carlo-based model for the acquisition of scatter images of patient anatomy in real-time, during lung SBRT treatment. Methods: During SBRT treatment, images of patient anatomy can be acquired from scattered radiation. To rigorously examine the utility of scatter images for image guidance, a model is developed using MCNP code to simulate scatter images of phantoms and lung cancer patients. The model is validated by comparing experimental and simulated images of phantoms of different complexity. The differentiation between tissue types is investigated by imaging objects of known compositions (water, lung, and bone equivalent). A lung tumor phantom, simulating materials and geometry encountered during lung SBRT treatments, is used to investigate image noise properties for various quantities of delivered radiation (monitor units(MU)). Patient scatter images are simulated using the validated simulation model. 4DCT patient data is converted to an MCNP input geometry accounting for different tissue composition and densities. Lung tumor phantom images acquired with decreasing imaging time (decreasing MU) are used to model the expected noise amplitude in patient scatter images, producing realistic simulated patient scatter images with varying temporal resolution. Results: Image intensity in simulated and experimental scatter images of tissue equivalent objects (water, lung, bone) match within the uncertainty (∼3%). Lung tumor phantom images agree as well. Specifically, tumor-to-lung contrast matches within the uncertainty. The addition of random noise approximating quantum noise in experimental images to simulated patient images shows that scatter images of lung tumors can provide images in as fast as 0.5 seconds with CNR∼2.7. Conclusions: A scatter imaging simulation model is developed and validated using experimental phantom scatter images. Following validation, lung cancer patient scatter images are simulated. These simulated

  13. Computer-Assisted Orthognathic Surgery for Patients with Cleft Lip/Palate: From Traditional Planning to Three-Dimensional Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonic, Daniel; Pai, Betty Chien-Jung; Yamaguchi, Kazuaki; Chortrakarnkij, Peerasak; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2016-01-01

    Background Although conventional two-dimensional (2D) methods for orthognathic surgery planning are still popular, the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulation is steadily increasing. In facial asymmetry cases such as in cleft lip/palate patients, the additional information can dramatically improve planning accuracy and outcome. The purpose of this study is to investigate which parameters are changed most frequently in transferring a traditional 2D plan to 3D simulation, and what planning parameters can be better adjusted by this method. Patients and Methods This prospective study enrolled 30 consecutive patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (mean age 18.6±2.9 years, range 15 to 32 years). All patients received two-jaw single-splint orthognathic surgery. 2D orthodontic surgery plans were transferred into a 3D setting. Severe bony collisions in the ramus area after 2D plan transfer were noted. The position of the maxillo-mandibular complex was evaluated and eventually adjusted. Position changes of roll, midline, pitch, yaw, genioplasty and their frequency within the patient group were recorded as an alternation of the initial 2D plan. Patients were divided in groups of no change from the original 2D plan and changes in one, two, three and four of the aforementioned parameters as well as subgroups of unilateral, bilateral cleft lip/palate and isolated cleft palate cases. Postoperative OQLQ scores were obtained for 20 patients who finished orthodontic treatment. Results 83.3% of 2D plans were modified, mostly concerning yaw (63.3%) and midline (36.7%) adjustments. Yaw adjustments had the highest mean values in total and in all subgroups. Severe bony collisions as a result of 2D planning were seen in 46.7% of patients. Possible asymmetry was regularly foreseen and corrected in the 3D simulation. Conclusion Based on our findings, 3D simulation renders important information for accurate planning in complex cleft lip/palate cases involving facial asymmetry that is

  14. An ARM data-oriented diagnostics package to evaluate the climate model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Xie, S.

    2016-12-01

    A set of diagnostics that utilize long-term high frequency measurements from the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is developed for evaluating the regional simulation of clouds, radiation and precipitation in climate models. The diagnostics results are computed and visualized automatically in a python-based package that aims to serve as an easy entry point for evaluating climate simulations using the ARM data, as well as the CMIP5 multi-model simulations. Basic performance metrics are computed to measure the accuracy of mean state and variability of simulated regional climate. The evaluated physical quantities include vertical profiles of clouds, temperature, relative humidity, cloud liquid water path, total column water vapor, precipitation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, radiative fluxes, aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Process-oriented diagnostics focusing on individual cloud and precipitation-related phenomena are developed for the evaluation and development of specific model physical parameterizations. Application of the ARM diagnostics package will be presented in the AGU session. This work is performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, IM release number is: LLNL-ABS-698645.

  15. A Student Assessment Tool for Standardized Patient Simulations (SAT-SPS): Psychometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Yuste, Cristina; García-Cabanillas, María José; Rodríguez-Cornejo, María Jesús; Carnicer-Fuentes, Concepción; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Moreno-Corral, Luis Javier

    2018-05-01

    The evaluation of the level of clinical competence acquired by the student is a complex process that must meet various requirements to ensure its quality. The psychometric analysis of the data collected by the assessment tools used is a fundamental aspect to guarantee the student's competence level. To conduct a psychometric analysis of an instrument which assesses clinical competence in nursing students at simulation stations with standardized patients in OSCE-format tests. The construct of clinical competence was operationalized as a set of observable and measurable behaviors, measured by the newly-created Student Assessment Tool for Standardized Patient Simulations (SAT-SPS), which was comprised of 27 items. The categories assigned to the items were 'incorrect or not performed' (0), 'acceptable' (1), and 'correct' (2). 499 nursing students. Data were collected by two independent observers during the assessment of the students' performance at a four-station OSCE with standardized patients. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the variables. The difficulty levels and floor and ceiling effects were determined for each item. Reliability was analyzed using internal consistency and inter-observer reliability. The validity analysis was performed considering face validity, content and construct validity (through exploratory factor analysis), and criterion validity. Internal reliability and inter-observer reliability were higher than 0.80. The construct validity analysis suggested a three-factor model accounting for 37.1% of the variance. These three factors were named 'Nursing process', 'Communication skills', and 'Safe practice'. A significant correlation was found between the scores obtained and the students' grades in general, as well as with the grades obtained in subjects with clinical content. The assessment tool has proven to be sufficiently reliable and valid for the assessment of the clinical competence of nursing students using standardized patients

  16. Development and evaluation of a new simulation model for interactive training of the medical response to major incidents and disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennquist Montán, K; Hreckovski, B; Dobson, B; Örtenwall, P; Montán, C; Khorram-Manesh, A; Lennquist, S

    2014-08-01

    The need for and benefit of simulation models for interactive training of the response to major incidents and disasters has been increasingly recognized during recent years. One of the advantages with such models is that all components of the chain of response can be trained simultaneously. This includes the important communication/coordination between different units, which has been reported as the most common cause of failure. Very few of the presently available simulation models have been suitable for the simultaneous training of decision-making on all levels of the response. In this study, a new simulation model, originally developed for the scientific evaluation of methodology, was adapted to and developed for the postgraduate courses in Medical Response to Major Incidents (MRMI) organized under the auspices of the European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ESTES). The aim of the present study was to describe this development process, the model it resulted in, and the evaluation of this model. The simulation model was based on casualty cards giving all information normally available for the triage and primary management of traumatized patients. The condition of the patients could be changed by the instructor according to the time passed since the time of injury and treatments performed. Priority of the casualties as well as given treatments could be indicated on the cards by movable markers, which also gave the time required for every treatment. The exercises were run with real consumption of time and resources for all measures performed. The magnetized cards were moved by the trainees through the scene, through the transport lines, and through the hospitals where all functions were trained. For every patient was given the definitive diagnosis and the times within certain treatments had to be done to avoid preventable mortality and complications, which could be related to trauma-scores. The methodology was tested in nine MRMI courses with a total of

  17. Development of nuclear power plant operator simulator for man-machine interface evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Nakatani, Yoshio; Sasaki, Kazunori; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Furuta, Tomihiko; Hasegawa, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The operational safety in nuclear power plants depends strongly on man machine interfaces (MMI), such as assignment of equipment on control boards and operation procedures in emergency situations. Therefore, the evaluation and analysis methods for the MMI are important. In order for the methods to be practical, the methods should be executed in each step of design and be easy for designers to use. We aim to develop SEAMAID system: a computer supported system for evaluating and analyzing the MMI by simulating the interaction between the operator and the machine. In this paper, we discuss problems of the conventional methods and the required functions of the operator simulator for the SEAMAID. The operator simulator executes not human errors but correct behavior which follows the operational procedure. The SEAMAID evaluates the MMI by finding potential human errors which could occur in the simulated interactions and points out the problematic interaction parts which could induce human errors. We construct the operator simulator by combining the human model which was proposed by Prof. Reason, and the knowledge base model based on the Petri net model. This simulator can treat frequency parameter which represents the degree of frequency of using a certain knowledge. We conduct two sample simulations in different frequency parameters in the same scenario. These simulation results show that even if the operator behaves correctly following the procedure, there are alternative task sequences. We verify that the simulated interactions are in good agreement with the actual one. Also, we propose the method to point out the problematic parts in the interactions based on the working memory consumption. (author)

  18. Development of nuclear power plant operator simulator for man-machine interface evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Nakatani, Yoshio; Sasaki, Kazunori [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Amagasaki, Hyogo (Japan). Industrial Electronics and Systems Development Lab.; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Furuta, Tomihiko; Hasegawa, Akira

    1997-08-01

    The operational safety in nuclear power plants depends strongly on man machine interfaces (MMI), such as assignment of equipment on control boards and operation procedures in emergency situations. Therefore, the evaluation and analysis methods for the MMI are important. In order for the methods to be practical, the methods should be executed in each step of design and be easy for designers to use. We aim to develop SEAMAID system: a computer supported system for evaluating and analyzing the MMI by simulating the interaction between the operator and the machine. In this paper, we discuss problems of the conventional methods and the required functions of the operator simulator for the SEAMAID. The operator simulator executes not human errors but correct behavior which follows the operational procedure. The SEAMAID evaluates the MMI by finding potential human errors which could occur in the simulated interactions and points out the problematic interaction parts which could induce human errors. We construct the operator simulator by combining the human model which was proposed by Prof. Reason, and the knowledge base model based on the Petri net model. This simulator can treat frequency parameter which represents the degree of frequency of using a certain knowledge. We conduct two sample simulations in different frequency parameters in the same scenario. These simulation results show that even if the operator behaves correctly following the procedure, there are alternative task sequences. We verify that the simulated interactions are in good agreement with the actual one. Also, we propose the method to point out the problematic parts in the interactions based on the working memory consumption. (author)

  19. Preirradiation evaluation and technical assessment of involved-field radiotherapy using computed tomographic (CT) simulation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for intracranial germinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Sawamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Keishiro; Ikeda, Jun; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the importance of preirradiation mental and endocrinological evaluation, and the effectiveness of involved-field radiotherapy following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Following etoposide and cisplatin with or without ifosfamide, 13 patients with nondisseminated disease received involved-field irradiation of 24 Gy in 12 fractions within 3 weeks and 2 patients with disseminated germinoma received 24 Gy craniospinal irradiation (CSI). CT simulation was used to cover the tumor bed. Results: Full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) tests given at the time of the initial radiotherapy showed less than 90 in 7 of 11 patients who had tumors involving the neurohypophyseal region, but the 4 patients who had solitary pineal tumors showed higher scores. Panhypopituitarism was observed in 9 patients with tumors involving the neurohypophyseal region. All patients are alive without disease, with a median follow-up period of 40 months. No in-field relapse was noted after the involved-field radiotherapy. One patient experienced a recurrence outside of the planning target volume. Conclusion: Decline of neurocognitive and endocrine functions were often seen in patients with tumors involving the hypophyseal region, but not in patients with solitary pineal germinoma before radiotherapy. Involved-field radiotherapy using 24 Gy is effective with the help of CT simulation and neoadjuvant chemotherapy

  20. Pulse contour analysis of arterial waveform in a high fidelity human patient simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persona, Paolo; Saraceni, Elisabetta; Facchin, Francesca; Petranzan, Enrico; Parotto, Matteo; Baratto, Fabio; Ori, Carlo; Rossi, Sandra

    2017-10-03

    The measurement of cardiac output (CO) may be useful to improve the assessment of hemodynamics during simulated scenarios. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of introducing an uncalibrated pulse contour device (MostCare, Vytech, Vygon, Padova, Italy) into the simulation environment. MostCare device was plugged to a clinical monitor and connected to the METI human patient simulator (HPS) to obtain a continuous arterial waveform analysis and CO calculation. In six different simulated clinical scenarios (baseline, ventricular failure, vasoplegic shock, hypertensive crisis, hypovolemic shock and aortic stenosis), the HPS-CO and the MostCare-CO were simultaneously recorded. The level of concordance between the two methods was assessed by the Bland and Altman analysis. 150-paired CO values were obtained. The HPS-CO values ranged from 2.3 to 6.6 L min -1 and the MostCare-CO values from 2.8 to 6.4 L min -1 . The mean difference between HPS-CO and MostCare-CO was - 0.3 L min -1 and the limits of agreement were - 1.5 and 0.9 L min -1 . The percentage of error was 23%. A good correlation between HPS-CO and MostCare-CO was observed in each scenario of the study (r = 0.88). Although MostCare-CO tended to underestimate the CO over the study period, good agreements were found between the two methods. Therefore, a pulse contour device can be integrated into the simulation environment, offering the opportunity to create new simulated clinical settings.

  1. Multi-bed patient room architectural evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Sklavou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leveraging the physical environment’s merits is crucial in healthcare settings towards fostering sustainable healing conditions. In the future, the need to retrofit hospitals already appears more probable than to build new facilities. In Greece, holistic healthcare architecture has significant potential and room to develop. Aim: The architectural research of multi-bed patient room environment. Method: A sample of multi-bed patient rooms of a Greek hospital was studied per architectural documentation and user evaluation survey. Beyond recording the existing situation and user experience, user group differences and the influence of window proximity were studied. The survey sample was based on convenience and comprised 160 patients and 136 visitors. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS 20, using chi-square exact tests of independence. The chosen level of significance was p < 0.05. Results: Architectural documentation showed that the building morphology had a positive impact in patient rooms, with regard to sunlight penetration and view. Further solar daylight control was deemed necessary, to facilitate overall environmental comfort conditions. High spatial density and considerable disadvantages of the middle patient bed, compared to the one bedside the window and the one further in the back of the room, were also ascertained. User groups did not evaluate their surroundings significantly different, with the exception of ease of access to the view. Window proximity influenced both patients and visitors in evaluating ease of access to the view and visual discomfort. Patients were further affected on window size evaluation and visitors on view related aspects. Conclusions: Synergy between building form and function contributes in creating holistic sustainable healing environments. User evaluation can deviate from objective documentation. Patients and visitors experienced the patient room in a similar manner. The middle bed was

  2. A review and comparison of methods for recreating individual patient data from published Kaplan-Meier survival curves for economic evaluations: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaomin; Peng, Liubao; Li, Yuanjian

    2015-01-01

    In general, the individual patient-level data (IPD) collected in clinical trials are not available to independent researchers to conduct economic evaluations; researchers only have access to published survival curves and summary statistics. Thus, methods that use published survival curves and summary statistics to reproduce statistics for economic evaluations are essential. Four methods have been identified: two traditional methods 1) least squares method, 2) graphical method; and two recently proposed methods by 3) Hoyle and Henley, 4) Guyot et al. The four methods were first individually reviewed and subsequently assessed regarding their abilities to estimate mean survival through a simulation study. A number of different scenarios were developed that comprised combinations of various sample sizes, censoring rates and parametric survival distributions. One thousand simulated survival datasets were generated for each scenario, and all methods were applied to actual IPD. The uncertainty in the estimate of mean survival time was also captured. All methods provided accurate estimates of the mean survival time when the sample size was 500 and a Weibull distribution was used. When the sample size was 100 and the Weibull distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method; however, more biases were identified in the traditional methods. When a lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method generated noticeably less bias and a more accurate uncertainty compared with the Hoyle and Henley method. The traditional methods should not be preferred because of their remarkable overestimation. When the Weibull distribution was used for a fitted model, the Guyot et al. method was almost as accurate as the Hoyle and Henley method. However, if the lognormal distribution was used, the Guyot et al. method was less biased compared with the Hoyle and Henley method.

  3. Performance evaluation by simulation and analysis with applications to computer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ken

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the most used methodologies for performance evaluation: simulation using specialized software and mathematical modeling. An important part is dedicated to the simulation, particularly in its theoretical framework and the precautions to be taken in the implementation of the experimental procedure.  These principles are illustrated by concrete examples achieved through operational simulation languages ​​(OMNeT ++, OPNET). Presented under the complementary approach, the mathematical method is essential for the simulation. Both methodologies based largely on the theory of

  4. Semi-Automated Processing of Trajectory Simulator Output Files for Model Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ARL-TR-8284 ● JAN 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Semi-Automated Processing of Trajectory Simulator Output Files for Model...Semi-Automated Processing of Trajectory Simulator Output Files for Model Evaluation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...although some minor changes may be needed. The program processes a GTRAJ output text file that contains results from 2 or more simulations , where each

  5. The case of "Miss Jacobs": adolescent simulated patients and the quality of their role playing, feedback, and personal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokken, Lonneke; van Dalen, Jan; Rethans, Jan-Joost

    2010-12-01

    Adolescents as standardized patients are relatively new in medical education. Studies have mostly explored the impact of role playing on adolescents trained to perform standardized patient roles for assessment purposes. No studies were found with regard to the quality of adolescents' role playing. We evaluated the effects of performing a patient role on adolescents trained as simulated patients (SPs) for teaching purposes (in contrast to standardized patients) and evaluated the quality of adolescent SPs' role playing and feedback. Nine young women, aged 16 to 18 years, were trained to portray roles of adolescents asking their general practitioner for an oral contraceptive. Three adolescent men were trained to portray roles of some of the girls' boyfriends. Each role was developed in consultation with the individual adolescent and was largely based on her own personal experience. Students rated the quality of the adolescent SP's role playing and feedback after each SP encounter on a previously validated questionnaire (the Maastricht Assessment of Simulated Patients). Both the adolescent SPs and faculty teachers both completed questionnaires on their experiences. Three hundred forty-one students rated the quality of the SPs' role playing and feedback with a mean score of 7.5 of 10. The faculty teachers were also generally positive about the role playing and feedback. Nevertheless, there were some concerns about the quality of the feedback. Adolescent SPs reported no negative effects because of their performance. Generally, students and teachers were satisfied with the quality of the role playing and feedback provided by the adolescent SPs. The adolescent SPs experienced no negative effects related to their performance, which confirms earlier findings among adolescent standardized patients.

  6. SU-F-T-619: Dose Evaluation of Specific Patient Plans Based On Monte Carlo Algorithm for a CyberKnife Stereotactic Radiosurgery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao, J [PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); PLA 302 Hospital, Beijing (China); Xu, S [PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wu, Z; Liu, Y [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Li, Y [Beihang University, Beijing (China); Qu, B [PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China); Duan, X [PLA 302 Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study will use Monte Carlo to simulate the Cyberknife system, and intend to develop the third-party tool to evaluate the dose verification of specific patient plans in TPS. Methods: By simulating the treatment head using the BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc software, the comparison between the calculated and measured data will be done to determine the beam parameters. The dose distribution calculated in the Raytracing, Monte Carlo algorithms of TPS (Multiplan Ver4.0.2) and in-house Monte Carlo simulation method for 30 patient plans, which included 10 head, lung and liver cases in each, were analyzed. The γ analysis with the combined 3mm/3% criteria would be introduced to quantitatively evaluate the difference of the accuracy between three algorithms. Results: More than 90% of the global error points were less than 2% for the comparison of the PDD and OAR curves after determining the mean energy and FWHM.The relative ideal Monte Carlo beam model had been established. Based on the quantitative evaluation of dose accuracy for three algorithms, the results of γ analysis shows that the passing rates (84.88±9.67% for head,98.83±1.05% for liver,98.26±1.87% for lung) of PTV in 30 plans between Monte Carlo simulation and TPS Monte Carlo algorithms were good. And the passing rates (95.93±3.12%,99.84±0.33% in each) of PTV in head and liver plans between Monte Carlo simulation and TPS Ray-tracing algorithms were also good. But the difference of DVHs in lung plans between Monte Carlo simulation and Ray-tracing algorithms was obvious, and the passing rate (51.263±38.964%) of γ criteria was not good. It is feasible that Monte Carlo simulation was used for verifying the dose distribution of patient plans. Conclusion: Monte Carlo simulation algorithm developed in the CyberKnife system of this study can be used as a reference tool for the third-party tool, which plays an important role in dose verification of patient plans. This work was supported in part by the grant

  7. A computer-simulated liver phantom (virtual liver phantom) for multidetector computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funama, Yoshinori [Kumamoto University, Department of Radiological Sciences, School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Awai, Kazuo; Nakayama, Yoshiharu; Liu, Da; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu; Goto, Taiga [Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Hori, Shinichi [Gate Tower Institute of Image Guided Therapy, Osaka (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    The purpose of study was to develop a computer-simulated liver phantom for hepatic CT studies. A computer-simulated liver phantom was mathematically constructed on a computer workstation. The computer-simulated phantom was calibrated using real CT images acquired by an actual four-detector CT. We added an inhomogeneous texture to the simulated liver by referring to CT images of chronically damaged human livers. The mean CT number of the simulated liver was 60 HU and we added numerous 5-to 10-mm structures with 60{+-}10 HU/mm. To mimic liver tumors we added nodules measuring 8, 10, and 12 mm in diameter with CT numbers of 60{+-}10, 60{+-}15, and 60{+-}20 HU. Five radiologists visually evaluated similarity of the texture of the computer-simulated liver phantom and a real human liver to confirm the appropriateness of the virtual liver images using a five-point scale. The total score was 44 in two radiologists, and 42, 41, and 39 in one radiologist each. They evaluated that the textures of virtual liver were comparable to those of human liver. Our computer-simulated liver phantom is a promising tool for the evaluation of the image quality and diagnostic performance of hepatic CT imaging. (orig.)

  8. Patients setup verification tool for RT (PSVTs): DRR, simulation, portal and digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk; Seong, Jin Sil; Chu, Sung Sil; Lee, Chang Geol; Suh, Chang Ok; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    To develop a patients' setup verification tool (PSVT) to verify the alignment of the machine and the target isocenters, and the reproducibility of patients' setup for three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (MRT). The utilization of this system is evaluated through phantom and patient case studies. We developed and clinically tested a new method for patients' setup verification, using digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR), simulation, portal and digital images. The PSVT system was networked to a Pentium PC for the transmission of the acquired images to the PC for analysis. To verify the alignment of the machine and target isocenters, orthogonal pairs of simulation images were used as verification images. Errors in the isocenter alignment were measured by comparing the verification images with DRR of CT images. Orthogonal films were taken of all the patients once a week. These verification films were compared with the DRR were used for the treatment setup. By performing this procedure every treatment, using humanoid phantom and patient cases, the errors of localization can be analyzed, with adjustments made from the translation. The reproducibility of the patients' setup was verified using portal and digital images. The PSVT system was developed to verify the alignment of the machine and the target isocenters, and the reproducibility of the patients' setup for 3DCRT and IMRT The results show that the localization errors are 0.8±0.2 mm (AP) and 1.0±0.3 mm (Lateral) in the cases relating to the brain and 1.1± 0.5 mm (AP) and 1.0±0.6 mm (Lateral) in the cases relating to the pelvis. The reproducibility of the patients' setup was verified by visualization, using real-time image acquisition, leading to the practical utilization of our software. A PSVT system was developed for the verification of the alignment between machine and the target isocenters, and the reproducibility of the patients' setup in 3DCRT and IMRT

  9. Predictive validity of driving-simulator assessments following traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Henry L; Poole, John H; Lee, Eun Ha; Jaffe, David L; Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Brodd, Edward

    2005-03-01

    To evaluate whether driving simulator and road test evaluations can predict long-term driving performance, we conducted a prospective study on 11 patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Sixteen healthy subjects were also tested to provide normative values on the simulator at baseline. At their initial evaluation (time-1), subjects' driving skills were measured during a 30-minute simulator trial using an automated 12-measure Simulator Performance Index (SPI), while a trained observer also rated their performance using a Driving Performance Inventory (DPI). In addition, patients were evaluated on the road by a certified driving evaluator. Ten months later (time-2), family members observed patients driving for at least 3 hours over 4 weeks and rated their driving performance using the DPI. At time-1, patients were significantly impaired on automated SPI measures of driving skill, including: speed and steering control, accidents, and vigilance to a divided-attention task. These simulator indices significantly predicted the following aspects of observed driving performance at time-2: handling of automobile controls, regulation of vehicle speed and direction, higher-order judgment and self-control, as well as a trend-level association with car accidents. Automated measures of simulator skill (SPI) were more sensitive and accurate than observational measures of simulator skill (DPI) in predicting actual driving performance. To our surprise, the road test results at time-1 showed no significant relation to driving performance at time-2. Simulator-based assessment of patients with brain injuries can provide ecologically valid measures that, in some cases, may be more sensitive than a traditional road test as predictors of long-term driving performance in the community.

  10. Computer-Assisted Orthognathic Surgery for Patients with Cleft Lip/Palate: From Traditional Planning to Three-Dimensional Surgical Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lonic

    Full Text Available Although conventional two-dimensional (2D methods for orthognathic surgery planning are still popular, the use of three-dimensional (3D simulation is steadily increasing. In facial asymmetry cases such as in cleft lip/palate patients, the additional information can dramatically improve planning accuracy and outcome. The purpose of this study is to investigate which parameters are changed most frequently in transferring a traditional 2D plan to 3D simulation, and what planning parameters can be better adjusted by this method.This prospective study enrolled 30 consecutive patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (mean age 18.6±2.9 years, range 15 to 32 years. All patients received two-jaw single-splint orthognathic surgery. 2D orthodontic surgery plans were transferred into a 3D setting. Severe bony collisions in the ramus area after 2D plan transfer were noted. The position of the maxillo-mandibular complex was evaluated and eventually adjusted. Position changes of roll, midline, pitch, yaw, genioplasty and their frequency within the patient group were recorded as an alternation of the initial 2D plan. Patients were divided in groups of no change from the original 2D plan and changes in one, two, three and four of the aforementioned parameters as well as subgroups of unilateral, bilateral cleft lip/palate and isolated cleft palate cases. Postoperative OQLQ scores were obtained for 20 patients who finished orthodontic treatment.83.3% of 2D plans were modified, mostly concerning yaw (63.3% and midline (36.7% adjustments. Yaw adjustments had the highest mean values in total and in all subgroups. Severe bony collisions as a result of 2D planning were seen in 46.7% of patients. Possible asymmetry was regularly foreseen and corrected in the 3D simulation.Based on our findings, 3D simulation renders important information for accurate planning in complex cleft lip/palate cases involving facial asymmetry that is regularly missed in conventional 2D

  11. Integrating usability testing and think-aloud protocol analysis with "near-live" clinical simulations in evaluating clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice C; Kannry, Joseph L; Kushniruk, Andre; Chrimes, Dillon; McGinn, Thomas G; Edonyabo, Daniel; Mann, Devin M

    2012-11-01

    Usability evaluations can improve the usability and workflow integration of clinical decision support (CDS). Traditional usability testing using scripted scenarios with think-aloud protocol analysis provide a useful but incomplete assessment of how new CDS tools interact with users and clinical workflow. "Near-live" clinical simulations are a newer usability evaluation tool that more closely mimics clinical workflow and that allows for a complementary evaluation of CDS usability as well as impact on workflow. This study employed two phases of testing a new CDS tool that embedded clinical prediction rules (an evidence-based medicine tool) into primary care workflow within a commercial electronic health record. Phase I applied usability testing involving "think-aloud" protocol analysis of 8 primary care providers encountering several scripted clinical scenarios. Phase II used "near-live" clinical simulations of 8 providers interacting with video clips of standardized trained patient actors enacting the clinical scenario. In both phases, all sessions were audiotaped and had screen-capture software activated for onscreen recordings. Transcripts were coded using qualitative analysis methods. In Phase I, the impact of the CDS on navigation and workflow were associated with the largest volume of negative comments (accounting for over 90% of user raised issues) while the overall usability and the content of the CDS were associated with the most positive comments. However, usability had a positive-to-negative comment ratio of only 0.93 reflecting mixed perceptions about the usability of the CDS. In Phase II, the duration of encounters with simulated patients was approximately 12 min with 71% of the clinical prediction rules being activated after half of the visit had already elapsed. Upon activation, providers accepted the CDS tool pathway 82% of times offered and completed all of its elements in 53% of all simulation cases. Only 12.2% of encounter time was spent using the

  12. Development and evaluation of a decision-based simulation for assessment of team skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Brandon; Plachta, Stephen; Salud, Lawrence; Pugh, Carla M

    2012-08-01

    There is a need to train and evaluate a wide variety of nontechnical surgical skills. The goal of this project was to develop and evaluate a decision-based simulation to assess team skills. The decision-based exercise used our previously validated Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia simulator and a newly developed team evaluation survey. Five teams of 3 surgical residents (N = 15) were tasked with repairing a 10 × 10-cm right upper quadrant hernia. During the simulation, independent observers (N = 6) completed a 6-item survey assessing: (1) work quality; (2) communication; and (3) team effectiveness. After the simulation, team members self-rated their performance by using the same survey. Survey reliability revealed a Cronbach's alpha of r = .811. Significant differences were found when we compared team members' (T) and observers' (O) ratings for communication (T = 4.33/5.00 vs O = 3.00/5.00, P work quality (T = 4.33/5.00 vs O = 3.33/5.00, P performance on the simulator. Our current and previous work provides strong evidence that nontechnical and team related skills can be assessed without simulating a crisis situation. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A structured framework improves clinical patient assessment and nontechnical skills of early career emergency nurses: a pre-post study using full immersion simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Belinda; Curtis, Kate; Murphy, Margaret; Strachan, Luke; Considine, Julie; Hardy, Jennifer; Wilson, Mark; Ruperto, Kate; Fethney, Judith; Buckley, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the new evidence-informed nursing assessment framework HIRAID (History, Identify Red flags, Assessment, Interventions, Diagnostics, reassessment and communication) on the quality of patient assessment and fundamental nontechnical skills including communication, decision making, task management and situational awareness. Assessment is a core component of nursing practice and underpins clinical decisions and the safe delivery of patient care. Yet there is no universal or validated system used to teach emergency nurses how to comprehensively assess and care for patients. A pre-post design was used. The performance of thirty eight emergency nurses from five Australian hospitals was evaluated before and after undertaking education in the application of the HIRAID assessment framework. Video recordings of participant performance in immersive simulations of common presentations to the emergency department were evaluated, as well as participant documentation during the simulations. Paired parametric and nonparametric tests were used to compare changes from pre to postintervention. From pre to postintervention, participant performance increases were observed in the percentage of patient history elements collected, critical indicators of urgency collected and reported to medical officers, and patient reassessments performed. Participants also demonstrated improvement in each of the four nontechnical skills categories: communication, decision making, task management and situational awareness. The HIRAID assessment framework improves clinical patient assessments performed by emergency nurses and has the potential to enhance patient care. HIRAID should be considered for integration into clinical practice to provide nurses with a systematic approach to patient assessment and potentially improve the delivery of safe patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Eleven-Year Retrospective Report of Super-Selective Venous Sampling for the Evaluation of Recurrent or Persistent Hyperparathyroidism in 32 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibollahi, Peiman; Shin, Benjamin; Shamchi, Sara P; Wachtel, Heather; Fraker, Douglas L; Trerotola, Scott O

    2018-01-01

    Parathyroid venous sampling (PAVS) is usually reserved for patients with persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism after parathyroidectomy with inconclusive noninvasive imaging studies. A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of super-selective PAVS (SSVS) in patients needing revision neck surgery with inconclusive imaging. Patients undergoing PAVS between 2005 and 2016 due to persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism following surgery were reviewed. PAVS was performed in all patients using super-selective technique. Single-value measurements within central neck veins performed as part of super-selective PAVS were used to simulate selective venous sampling (SVS) and allow for comparison to data, which might be obtained in a non-super-selective approach. 32 patients (mean age 51 ± 15 years; 8 men and 24 women) met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of SSVS for localizing the source of elevated PTH to a limited area in the neck or chest was 96 and 84%, respectively. Simulated SVS, on the other hand, had a sensitivity of 28% and a PPV of 89% based on the predefined gold standard. SSVS had a significantly higher sensitivity compared to simulated SVS (p localizing the source of hyperparathyroidism in patients undergoing revision surgery for hyperparathyroidism in whom noninvasive imaging studies are inconclusive. SSVS data had also markedly higher sensitivity for localizing disease in these patients compared to simulated SVS.

  15. Prediction and evaluation method of wind environment in the early design stage using BIM-based CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sumi; Song, Doosam

    2010-01-01

    Drastic urbanization and manhattanization are causing various problems in wind environment. This study suggests a CFD simulation method to evaluate wind environment in the early design stage of high-rise buildings. The CFD simulation of this study is not a traditional in-depth simulation, but a method to immediately evaluate wind environment for each design alternative and provide guidelines for design modification. Thus, the CFD simulation of this study to evaluate wind environments uses BIM-based CFD tools to utilize building models in the design stage. This study examined previous criteria to evaluate wind environment for pedestrians around buildings and selected evaluation criteria applicable to the CFD simulation method of this study. Furthermore, proper mesh generation method and CPU time were reviewed to find a meaningful CFD simulation result for determining optimal design alternative from the perspective of wind environment in the design stage. In addition, this study is to suggest a wind environment evaluation method through a BIM-based CFD simulation.

  16. Evaluation of Cost Leadership Strategy in Shipping Enterprises with Simulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfeli, Maria V.; Vaxevanou, Anthi Z.; Damianos, Sakas P.

    2009-08-01

    The present study will attempt the evaluation of cost leadership strategy that prevails in certain shipping enterprises and the creation of simulation models based on strategic model STAIR. The above model is an alternative method of strategic applications evaluation. This is held in order to be realised if the strategy of cost leadership creates competitive advantage [1] and this will be achieved via the technical simulation which appreciates the interactions between the operations of an enterprise and the decision-making strategy in conditions of uncertainty with reduction of undertaken risk.

  17. IMPROVING MEDICAL EDUCATION: SIMULATING CHANGES IN PATIENT ANATOMY USING DYNAMIC HAPTIC FEEDBACK

    OpenAIRE

    Yovanoff, Mary; Pepley, David; Mirkin, Katelin; Moore, Jason; Han, David; Miller, Scarlett

    2016-01-01

    Virtual simulation is an emerging field in medical education. Research suggests that simulation reduces complication rates and improves learning gains for medical residents. One benefit of simulators is their allowance for more realistic and dynamic patient anatomies. While potentially useful throughout medical education, few studies have explored the impact of dynamic haptic simulators on medical training. In light of this research void, this study was developed to examine how a Dynamic-Hapt...

  18. SU-E-J-90: MRI-Based Treatment Simulation and Patient Setup for Radiation Therapy of Brain Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, AA (United States); Cao, M; Han, F; Santhanam, A; Neylon, J; Gomez, C; Kaprealian, T; Sheng, K; Agazaryan, N; Low, D; Hu, P

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Traditional radiation therapy of cancer is heavily dependent on CT. CT provides excellent depiction of the bones but lacks good soft tissue contrast, which makes contouring difficult. Often, MRIs are fused with CT to take advantage of its superior soft tissue contrast. Such an approach has drawbacks. It is desirable to perform treatment simulation entirely based on MRI. To achieve MR-based simulation for radiation therapy, bone imaging is an important challenge because of the low MR signal intensity from bone due to its ultra-short T2 and T1, which presents difficulty for both dose calculation and patient setup in terms of digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) generation. Current solutions will either require manual bone contouring or multiple MR scans. We present a technique to generate DRR using MRI with an Ultra Short Echo Time (UTE) sequence which is applicable to both OBI and ExacTrac 2D patient setup. Methods: Seven brain cancer patients were scanned at 1.5 Tesla using a radial UTE sequence. The sequence acquires two images at two different echo times. The two images were processed using in-house software. The resultant bone images were subsequently loaded into commercial systems to generate DRRs. Simulation and patient clinical on-board images were used to evaluate 2D patient setup with MRI-DRRs. Results: The majority bones are well visualized in all patients. The fused image of patient CT with the MR bone image demonstrates the accuracy of automatic bone identification using our technique. The generated DRR is of good quality. Accuracy of 2D patient setup by using MRI-DRR is comparable to CT-based 2D patient setup. Conclusion: This study shows the potential of DRR generation with single MR sequence. Further work will be needed on MR sequence development and post-processing procedure to achieve robust MR bone imaging for other human sites in addition to brain.

  19. Using Simulated Patients to Teach Clinical Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J. Gregory; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Clinical Nutrition in an Interdisciplinary Setting" is a course designed to introduce basic nutrition knowledge and concepts of nutritional assessment, counseling, and intervention in the clinical care of patients. Provides a brief course overview and descriptions of its development, use, and preliminary evaluation of the patient simulation…

  20. A simulation-based approach for evaluating logging residue handling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Bruce Bare; Benjamin A. Jayne; Brian F. Anholt

    1976-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation model for evaluating logging residue handling systems. The flow of resources is traced through a prespecified combination of operations including yarding, chipping, sorting, loading, transporting, and unloading. The model was used to evaluate the feasibility of converting logging residues to chips that could be used, for example, to...

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of garment assembly line with simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Thomassey, S.; Chen, Y.; Zeng, X.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation system is established to assess the garment production performance. It is based on performance indicators and supported with the corresponding results obtained by manual calculation or computer simulation. The assembly lines of a typical men’s shirt are taken as the study objects. With the comprehensive evaluation results, garments production arrangement scenarios are better analysed and then the appropriate one is supposed to be put into actual production. This will be a guidance given to companies on quick decision-making and multi-objective optimization of garment production.

  2. Impaired driving simulation in patients with Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieteling, Esther W.; Bakker, Marije S.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Maurits, Natasha M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.

    Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is considered to be responsible for increased collision rate and impaired driving simulator performance in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) patients. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) patients also frequently report EDS and may also have

  3. Utilization of the Nursing Process to Foster Clinical Reasoning During a Simulation Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lambie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nursing practice includes complex reasoning and multifaceted decision making with minimal standardized guidance in how to evaluate this phenomenon among nursing students. Learning outcomes related to the clinical reasoning process among novice baccalaureate nursing students during a simulation experience were evaluated. Nursing process records were utilized to evaluate and foster the development of clinical reasoning in a high-fidelity medical-surgical simulation experience. Students were unable to describe and process pertinent patient information appropriately prior to the simulation experience. Students’ ability to identify pertinent patient cues and plan appropriate patient care improved following the simulation. The learning activity afforded a structured opportunity to identify cues, prioritize the proper course of nursing interventions, and engage in collaboration among peers. The simulation experience provides faculty insight into the students’ clinical reasoning processes, while providing students with a clear framework for successfully accomplishing learning outcomes.

  4. Reproductive Health Services Discrete-Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sungjoo; Giles, Denise F.; Goldsman, David; Cook, Douglas A.; Mishra, Ninad; McCarthy, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Low resource healthcare environments are often characteristic of patient flow patterns with varying patient risks, extensive patient waiting times, uneven workload distributions, and inefficient service delivery. Models from industrial and systems engineering allow for a greater examination of processes by applying discrete-event computer simulation techniques to evaluate and optimize hospital performance.

  5. Core discrete event simulation model for the evaluation of health care technologies in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vataire, Anne-Lise; Aballéa, Samuel; Antonanzas, Fernando; Roijen, Leona Hakkaart-van; Lam, Raymond W; McCrone, Paul; Persson, Ulf; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-03-01

    A review of existing economic models in major depressive disorder (MDD) highlighted the need for models with longer time horizons that also account for heterogeneity in treatment pathways between patients. A core discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate health and cost outcomes associated with alternative treatment strategies. This model simulated short- and long-term clinical events (partial response, remission, relapse, recovery, and recurrence), adverse events, and treatment changes (titration, switch, addition, and discontinuation) over up to 5 years. Several treatment pathways were defined on the basis of fictitious antidepressants with three levels of efficacy, tolerability, and price (low, medium, and high) from first line to third line. The model was populated with input data from the literature for the UK setting. Model outputs include time in different health states, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and costs from National Health Service and societal perspectives. The codes are open source. Predicted costs and QALYs from this model are within the range of results from previous economic evaluations. The largest cost components from the payer perspective were physician visits and hospitalizations. Key parameters driving the predicted costs and QALYs were utility values, effectiveness, and frequency of physician visits. Differences in QALYs and costs between two strategies with different effectiveness increased approximately twofold when the time horizon increased from 1 to 5 years. The discrete event simulation model can provide a more comprehensive evaluation of different therapeutic options in MDD, compared with existing Markov models, and can be used to compare a wide range of health care technologies in various groups of patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation and development the routing protocol of a fully functional simulation environment for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Azhar Tareq; Warip, Mohd Nazri Mohd; Yaakob, Naimah; Abduljabbar, Waleed Khalid; Atta, Abdu Mohammed Ali

    2017-11-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) is an area of wireless technologies that is attracting a great deal of interest. There are still several areas of VANETS, such as security and routing protocols, medium access control, that lack large amounts of research. There is also a lack of freely available simulators that can quickly and accurately simulate VANETs. The main goal of this paper is to develop a freely available VANETS simulator and to evaluate popular mobile ad-hoc network routing protocols in several VANETS scenarios. The VANETS simulator consisted of a network simulator, traffic (mobility simulator) and used a client-server application to keep the two simulators in sync. The VANETS simulator also models buildings to create a more realistic wireless network environment. Ad-Hoc Distance Vector routing (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) were initially simulated in a city, country, and highway environment to provide an overall evaluation.

  7. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulea, D.; Cosma, C.

    2006-01-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several methods which

  8. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulea, D [Institute of Public Health ' Prof.Dr.Iuliu Moldovan' , Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cosma, C [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several methods which

  9. Use of clinical simulations for patient education: targeting an untapped audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwe, Karin; Berterö, Carina; Pugh, Carla; Wijma, Barbro

    2009-01-01

    In most cases, the health professional has been the target for simulation based learning curricula. We have developed a simulation based curriculum for patient education. In our curriculum lay-women learn how to perform the clinical female pelvic examination using a manikin-based trainer. Learner assessments show that prior negative expectations turned into positive expectations regarding future pelvic examinations.

  10. Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, Whitney A.; Caruso, Dominique M.; Zyka, Enela L.; Schroff, Stuart T.; Evans, Charles H., Jr.; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.

    2006-01-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design,…

  11. Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping Surgery Simulation Using Patient-Specific 3D Printing and Silicone Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Justin R; Almefty, Kaith K; Nakaji, Peter; Frakes, David H

    2016-04-01

    Neurosurgery simulator development is growing as practitioners recognize the need for improved instructional and rehearsal platforms to improve procedural skills and patient care. In addition, changes in practice patterns have decreased the volume of specific cases, such as aneurysm clippings, which reduces the opportunity for operating room experience. The authors developed a hands-on, dimensionally accurate model for aneurysm clipping using patient-derived anatomic data and three-dimensional (3D) printing. Design of the model focused on reproducibility as well as adaptability to new patient geometry. A modular, reproducible, and patient-derived medical simulacrum was developed for medical learners to practice aneurysmal clipping procedures. Various forms of 3D printing were used to develop a geometrically accurate cranium and vascular tree featuring 9 patient-derived aneurysms. 3D printing in conjunction with elastomeric casting was leveraged to achieve a patient-derived brain model with tactile properties not yet available from commercial 3D printing technology. An educational pilot study was performed to gauge simulation efficacy. Through the novel manufacturing process, a patient-derived simulacrum was developed for neurovascular surgical simulation. A follow-up qualitative study suggests potential to enhance current educational programs; assessments support the efficacy of the simulacrum. The proposed aneurysm clipping simulator has the potential to improve learning experiences in surgical environment. 3D printing and elastomeric casting can produce patient-derived models for a dynamic learning environment that add value to surgical training and preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using simulation to evaluate the performance of resilience strategies and process failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Scott N.; Topp, Bryan Embry; Arnold, Dorian C; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Widener, Patrick; Hoefler, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Fault-tolerance has been identified as a major challenge for future extreme-scale systems. Current predictions suggest that, as systems grow in size, failures will occur more frequently. Because increases in failure frequency reduce the performance and scalability of these systems, significant effort has been devoted to developing and refining resilience mechanisms to mitigate the impact of failures. However, effective evaluation of these mechanisms has been challenging. Current systems are smaller and have significantly different architectural features (e.g., interconnect, persistent storage) than we expect to see in next-generation systems. To overcome these challenges, we propose the use of simulation. Simulation has been shown to be an effective tool for investigating performance characteristics of applications on future systems. In this work, we: identify the set of system characteristics that are necessary for accurate performance prediction of resilience mechanisms for HPC systems and applications; demonstrate how these system characteristics can be incorporated into an existing large-scale simulator; and evaluate the predictive performance of our modified simulator. We also describe how we were able to optimize the simulator for large temporal and spatial scales-allowing the simulator to run 4x faster and use over 100x less memory.

  13. Hemodynamic Evaluation of a Biological and Mechanical Aortic Valve Prosthesis Using Patient-Specific MRI-Based CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmeier, Florian; Nordmeyer, Sarah; Yevtushenko, Pavlo; Bruening, Jan; Berger, Felix; Kuehne, Titus; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kelm, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Modeling different treatment options before a procedure is performed is a promising approach for surgical decision making and patient care in heart valve disease. This study investigated the hemodynamic impact of different prostheses through patient-specific MRI-based CFD simulations. Ten time-resolved MRI data sets with and without velocity encoding were obtained to reconstruct the aorta and set hemodynamic boundary conditions for simulations. Aortic hemodynamics after virtual valve replacement with a biological and mechanical valve prosthesis were investigated. Wall shear stress (WSS), secondary flow degree (SFD), transvalvular pressure drop (TPD), turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and normalized flow displacement (NFD) were evaluated to characterize valve-induced hemodynamics. The biological prostheses induced significantly higher WSS (medians: 9.3 vs. 8.6 Pa, P = 0.027) and SFD (means: 0.78 vs. 0.49, P = 0.002) in the ascending aorta, TPD (medians: 11.4 vs. 2.7 mm Hg, P = 0.002), TKE (means: 400 vs. 283 cm 2 /s 2 , P = 0.037), and NFD (means: 0.0994 vs. 0.0607, P = 0.020) than the mechanical prostheses. The differences between the prosthesis types showed great inter-patient variability, however. Given this variability, a patient-specific evaluation is warranted. In conclusion, MRI-based CFD offers an opportunity to assess the interactions between prosthesis and patient-specific boundary conditions, which may help in optimizing surgical decision making and providing additional guidance to clinicians. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of OPPS model for plant operator's task simulation with Micro-SAINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo

    1991-03-01

    The development of a computer simulation method for cognitive behavior of operators under emergency conditions in nuclear power plant are being conducted at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). As one of activities in this project, the task network modeling and simulation method has been evaluated with reproduced OPPS model using Micro-SAINT which is a PC software for task network analysis. OPPS is an operator's task simulation model developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Operator's tasks under the condition of failure open of a safety relief valve in a BWR power plant has been analyzed as a sample problem with Micro-SAINT version of OPPS for the evaluation of task network analysis method. Furthermore, the fundamental capabilities of Micro-SAINT has been evaluated, and the task network in OPPS model has been also examined. As the results of this study, it has been clarified that random seed numbers in Micro-SAINT affect the probabilistic branching ratio and the distribution of task execution time calculated by Monte Carlo simulations, and the expression of network for a repeated task in the OPPS model leads to incorrect standard deviation in the case that a task execution time has some distribution. (author)

  15. An Innovative Tool for Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiotherapy Simulation and Planning: Description and Initial Evaluation by Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascau, Javier, E-mail: jpascau@mce.hggm.es [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Santos Miranda, Juan Antonio [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Oncologia, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Bouche, Ana; Morillo, Virgina [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castellon, Castellon (Spain); Gonzalez-San Segundo, Carmen [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Lopez Tarjuelo, Juan [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castellon, Castellon (Spain); and others

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) involves a modified strategy of conventional radiation therapy and surgery. The lack of specific planning tools limits the spread of this technique. The purpose of the present study is to describe a new simulation and planning tool and its initial evaluation by clinical users. Methods and Materials: The tool works on a preoperative computed tomography scan. A physician contours regions to be treated and protected and simulates applicator positioning, calculating isodoses and the corresponding dose-volume histograms depending on the selected electron energy. Three radiation oncologists evaluated data from 15 IOERT patients, including different tumor locations. Segmentation masks, applicator positions, and treatment parameters were compared. Results: High parameter agreement was found in the following cases: three breast and three rectal cancer, retroperitoneal sarcoma, and rectal and ovary monotopic recurrences. All radiation oncologists performed similar segmentations of tumors and high-risk areas. The average applicator position difference was 1.2 {+-} 0.95 cm. The remaining cancer sites showed higher deviations because of differences in the criteria for segmenting high-risk areas (one rectal, one pancreas) and different surgical access simulated (two rectal, one Ewing sarcoma). Conclusions: The results show that this new tool can be used to simulate IOERT cases involving different anatomic locations, and that preplanning has to be carried out with specialized surgical input.

  16. Managing emergency department overcrowding via ambulance diversion: a discrete event simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hao; Kao, Chung-Yao; Huang, Chong-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Ambulance diversion (AD) is considered one of the possible solutions to relieve emergency department (ED) overcrowding. Study of the effectiveness of various AD strategies is prerequisite for policy-making. Our aim is to develop a tool that quantitatively evaluates the effectiveness of various AD strategies. A simulation model and a computer simulation program were developed. Three sets of simulations were executed to evaluate AD initiating criteria, patient-blocking rules, and AD intervals, respectively. The crowdedness index, the patient waiting time for service, and the percentage of adverse patients were assessed to determine the effect of various AD policies. Simulation results suggest that, in a certain setting, the best timing for implementing AD is when the crowdedness index reaches the critical value, 1.0 - an indicator that ED is operating at its maximal capacity. The strategy to divert all patients transported by ambulance is more effective than to divert either high-acuity patients only or low-acuity patients only. Given a total allowable AD duration, implementing AD multiple times with short intervals generally has better effect than having a single AD with maximal allowable duration. An input-throughput-output simulation model is proposed for simulating ED operation. Effectiveness of several AD strategies on relieving ED overcrowding was assessed via computer simulations based on this model. By appropriate parameter settings, the model can represent medical resource providers of different scales. It is also feasible to expand the simulations to evaluate the effect of AD strategies on a community basis. The results may offer insights for making effective AD policies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The use of vestibular models for design and evaluation of flight simulator motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussolari, Steven R.; Young, Laurence R.; Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative models for the dynamics of the human vestibular system are applied to the design and evaluation of flight simulator platform motion. An optimal simulator motion control algorithm is generated to minimize the vector difference between perceived spatial orientation estimated in flight and in simulation. The motion controller has been implemented on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames Research Center and evaluated experimentally through measurement of pilot performance and subjective rating during VTOL aircraft simulation. In general, pilot performance in a longitudinal tracking task (formation flight) did not appear to be sensitive to variations in platform motion condition as long as motion was present. However, pilot assessment of motion fidelity by means of a rating scale designed for this purpose, were sensitive to motion controller design. Platform motion generated with the optimal motion controller was found to be generally equivalent to that generated by conventional linear crossfeed washout. The vestibular models are used to evaluate the motion fidelity of transport category aircraft (Boeing 727) simulation in a pilot performance and simulator acceptability study at the Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility at NASA Ames Research Center. Eighteen airline pilots, currently flying B-727, were given a series of flight scenarios in the simulator under various conditions of simulator motion. The scenarios were chosen to reflect the flight maneuvers that these pilots might expect to be given during a routine pilot proficiency check. Pilot performance and subjective rating of simulator fidelity was relatively insensitive to the motion condition, despite large differences in the amplitude of motion provided. This lack of sensitivity may be explained by means of the vestibular models, which predict little difference in the modeled motion sensations of the pilots when different motion conditions are imposed.

  18. Dose Titration of Pregabalin in Patients with Painful Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Simulation Based on Observational Study Patients Enriched with Data from Randomized Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Joe; Edwards, Roger A; Manca, Luigi; Grugni, Roberto; Bonfanti, Gianluca; Emir, Birol; Whalen, Edward; Watt, Stephen; Parsons, Bruce

    2018-03-01

    Achieving a therapeutic response to pregabalin in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN) requires adequate upward dose titration. Our goal was to identify relationships between titration and response to pregabalin in patients with pDPN. Data were integrated from nine randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials as well as one 6-week open-label observational study conducted by 5808 physicians (2642 patients with pDPN) in standard outpatient settings in Germany. These studies evaluated pregabalin for treatment of pDPN. Using these data, we examined "what if" scenarios using a microsimulation platform that integrates data from randomized and observational sources as well as autoregressive-moving-average with exogenous inputs models that predict pain outcomes, taking into account weekly changes in pain, sleep interference, dose, and other patient characteristics that were unchanging. Final pain levels were significantly different depending on dose changes (P titration regardless of baseline pain severity. Altogether, 78.5% of patients with pDPN had 0-1 dose change, and 15.2% had ≥ 2 dose changes. Simulation demonstrated that the 4.8% of inadequately titrated patients who did not improve/very much improve their pain levels would have benefited from ≥ 2 dose changes. Patient satisfaction with tolerability (range 90.3-96.2%) was similar, regardless of baseline pain severity, number of titrations, or extent of improvement, suggesting that tolerability did not influence treatment response patterns. Upward dose titration reduced pain in patients with pDPN who actually received it. Simulation also predicted pain reduction in an inadequately titrated nonresponder subgroup of patients had they actually received adequate titration. The decision not to uptitrate must have been driven by factors other than tolerability. Pfizer, Inc.

  19. Comprehensive Performance Evaluation for Hydrological and Nutrients Simulation Using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran in a Mesoscale Monsoon Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaofu; Luo, Chuan; Jiang, Kaixia; Wan, Rongrong; Li, Hengpeng

    2017-12-19

    The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) is a hydrological and water quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Comprehensive performance evaluations were carried out for hydrological and nutrient simulation using the HSPF model in the Xitiaoxi watershed in China. Streamflow simulation was calibrated from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2007 and then validated from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 using daily observed data, and nutrient simulation was calibrated and validated using monthly observed data during the period from July 2009 to July 2010. These results of model performance evaluation showed that the streamflows were well simulated over the study period. The determination coefficient ( R ²) was 0.87, 0.77 and 0.63, and the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (Ens) was 0.82, 0.76 and 0.65 for the streamflow simulation in annual, monthly and daily time-steps, respectively. Although limited to monthly observed data, satisfactory performance was still achieved during the quantitative evaluation for nutrients. The R ² was 0.73, 0.82 and 0.92, and the Ens was 0.67, 0.74 and 0.86 for nitrate, ammonium and orthophosphate simulation, respectively. Some issues may affect the application of HSPF were also discussed, such as input data quality, parameter values, etc. Overall, the HSPF model can be successfully used to describe streamflow and nutrients transport in the mesoscale watershed located in the East Asian monsoon climate area. This study is expected to serve as a comprehensive and systematic documentation of understanding the HSPF model for wide application and avoiding possible misuses.

  20. Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Philips Healthcare System, Cleveland, Ohio 44143 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The {gamma} pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose

  1. Debriefing after Human Patient Simulation and Nursing Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhuri, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Human Patient Simulation (HPS) exercises with life-like computerized manikins provide clinical experiences for nursing students in a safe environment followed by debriefing that promotes learning. Quantitative research in techniques to support learning from debriefing is limited. The purpose of the quantitative quasi-experimental study using a…

  2. Artificial skin and patient simulator comprising the artificial skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to an artificial skin (10, 12, 14), and relates to a patient simulator (100) comprising the artificial skin. The artificial skin is a layered structure comprising a translucent cover layer (20) configured for imitating human or animal skin, and comprising a light emitting layer

  3. A simulation training evaluation method for distribution network fault based on radar chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of automatic evaluation of dispatcher fault simulation training in distribution network, a simulation training evaluation method based on radar chart for distribution network fault is proposed. The fault handling information matrix is established to record the dispatcher fault handling operation sequence and operation information. The four situations of the dispatcher fault isolation operation are analyzed. The fault handling anti-misoperation rule set is established to describe the rules prohibiting dispatcher operation. Based on the idea of artificial intelligence reasoning, the feasibility of dispatcher fault handling is described by the feasibility index. The relevant factors and evaluation methods are discussed from the three aspects of the fault handling result feasibility, the anti-misoperation correctness and the operation process conciseness. The detailed calculation formula is given. Combining the independence and correlation between the three evaluation angles, a comprehensive evaluation method of distribution network fault simulation training based on radar chart is proposed. The method can comprehensively reflect the fault handling process of dispatchers, and comprehensively evaluate the fault handling process from various angles, which has good practical value.

  4. Evaluation of the Inertial Response of Variable-Speed Wind Turbines Using Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Xiao [Northeastern University; Gao, Wenzhong [University of Denver; Yan, Weihang [University of Denver; Wang, Jianhui [Northeastern University

    2017-08-09

    In this paper, we focus on the temporary frequency support effect provided by wind turbine generators (WTGs) through the inertial response. With the implemented inertial control methods, the WTG is capable of increasing its active power output by releasing parts of the stored kinetic energy when the frequency excursion occurs. The active power can be boosted temporarily above the maximum power points, but the rotor speed deceleration follows and an active power output deficiency occurs during the restoration of rotor kinetic energy. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the inertial response induced by two distinct inertial control methods using advanced simulation. In the first stage, the proposed inertial control methods are analyzed in offline simulation. Using an advanced wind turbine simulation program, FAST with TurbSim, the response of the researched wind turbine is comprehensively evaluated under turbulent wind conditions, and the impact on the turbine mechanical components are assessed. In the second stage, the inertial control is deployed on a real 600-kW wind turbine, the three-bladed Controls Advanced Research Turbine, which further verifies the inertial control through a hardware-in-the-loop simulation. Various inertial control methods can be effectively evaluated based on the proposed two-stage simulation platform, which combines the offline simulation and real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The simulation results also provide insights in designing inertial control for WTGs.

  5. Single and Multiple UAV Cyber-Attack Simulation and Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Y. Javaid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Usage of ground, air and underwater unmanned vehicles (UGV, UAV and UUV has increased exponentially in the recent past with industries producing thousands of these unmanned vehicles every year.With the ongoing discussion of integration of UAVs in the US National Airspace, the need of a cost-effective way to verify the security and resilience of a group of communicating UAVs under attack has become very important. The answer to this need is a simulation testbed which can be used to simulate the UAV Network (UAVNet. One of these attempts is - UAVSim (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Simulation testbed developed at the University of Toledo. It has the capability of simulating large UAV networks as well as small UAV networks with large number of attack nodes. In this paper, we analyse the performance of the simulation testbed for two attacks, targeting single and multiple UAVs. Traditional and generic computing resource available in a regular computer laboratory was used. Various evaluation results have been presented and analysed which suggest the suitability of UAVSim for UAVNet attack and swarm simulation applications.

  6. An evaluation of different setups for simulating lighting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salters, Bart; Murdoch, Michael; Sekulovksi, Dragan; Chen, Shih-Han; Seuntiens, Pieter

    2012-03-01

    The advance of technology continuously enables new luminaire designs and concepts. Evaluating such designs has traditionally been done using actual prototypes, in a real environment. The iterations needed to build, verify, and improve luminaire designs incur substantial costs and slow down the design process. A more attractive way is to evaluate designs using simulations, as they can be made cheaper and quicker for a wider variety of prototypes. However, the value of such simulations is determined by how closely they predict the outcome of actual perception experiments. In this paper, we discuss an actual perception experiment including several lighting settings in a normal office environment. The same office environment also has been modeled using different software tools, and photo-realistic renderings have been created of these models. These renderings were subsequently processed using various tonemapping operators in preparation for display. The total imaging chain can be considered a simulation setup, and we have executed several perception experiments on different setups. Our real interest is in finding which imaging chain gives us the best result, or in other words, which of them yields the closest match between virtual and real experiment. To answer this question, first of all an answer has to be found to the question, "which simulation setup matches the real world best?" As there is no unique, widely accepted measure to describe the performance of a certain setup, we consider a number of options and discuss the reasoning behind them along with their advantages and disadvantages.

  7. The cost of harm and savings through safety: using simulated patients for leadership decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Charles R; Guilloteau, Franck R

    2012-09-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is to provide an approach to understanding and communicating health-care harm and cost to compel health-care provider leadership teams to vote "yes" to investments in patient safety initiatives, with the confidence that clinical, financial, and operational performance will be improved by such programs. Through a coordinated combination of literature evaluations, careful mapping of high impact scenarios using simulated patients and consensus review of clinical, operational, and financial factors, we confirmed value in such approaches to decision support information for hospital leadership teams to invest in patient safety projects. The study resulted in the following preliminary findings: ·Communication between hospital quality and finance departments can be much improved by direct collaborative relationships through regular meetings to help both clarify direct costs, indirect costs, and the savings of waste and harm to patients by avoidance of infections. ·Governance leaders and the professional administrative leaders should consider establishing the structures and systems necessary to act on risks and hazards as they evolve to deploy resources to areas of harm and risk. ·Quality and Infection Control Professionals can best wage their war on healthcare waste and harm by keeping abreast of the latest literature regarding the latest measures, standards, and safe practices for healthcare-acquired infections and hospital-acquired conditions. ·Regular reviews of patients with health-careYassociated infections, with direct attention to the attributable cost of treatment and how financial waste and harm to patients may be avoided, may provide hospital leaders with new insights for improvement. ·If hospitals developed their own risk scenarios to determine impact of harm and waste from hospital-acquired conditions in addition to impact scenarios for specific processes through technology and process innovations, they would have

  8. Patient flow improvement for an ophthalmic specialist outpatient clinic with aid of discrete event simulation and design of experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chong; Zhang, Dali; Kon, Audrey Wan Mei; Wai, Charity Sue Lea; Ang, Woo Boon

    2015-06-01

    Continuous improvement in process efficiency for specialist outpatient clinic (SOC) systems is increasingly being demanded due to the growth of the patient population in Singapore. In this paper, we propose a discrete event simulation (DES) model to represent the patient and information flow in an ophthalmic SOC system in the Singapore National Eye Centre (SNEC). Different improvement strategies to reduce the turnaround time for patients in the SOC were proposed and evaluated with the aid of the DES model and the Design of Experiment (DOE). Two strategies for better patient appointment scheduling and one strategy for dilation-free examination are estimated to have a significant impact on turnaround time for patients. One of the improvement strategies has been implemented in the actual SOC system in the SNEC with promising improvement reported.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of models and modelling tools simulating nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelfeldt, Stina; Fritzson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    with Modelica 2.1 (Wiley-IEEE Press, USA, 2004).] and an associated tool. The differences and similarities between the MathModelica Model Editor and three other ecological modelling tools have also been evaluated. The results show that the models can well be modelled and simulated in the MathModelica Model...... Editor, and that nitrogen decrease in a constructed treatment wetland should be described and simulated using the Nitrification/Denitrification model as this model has the highest overall quality score and provides a more variable environment.......In this paper, two ecological models of nitrogen processes in treatment wetlands have been evaluated and compared. These models were implemented, simulated, and visualized using the Modelica modelling and simulation language [P. Fritzson, Principles of Object-Oriented Modelling and Simulation...

  10. Quality of life in patients with dental conditions: comparing patients' and providers' evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampogna, F; Johansson, V; Axtelius, B; Abeni, D; Söderfeldt, B

    2009-12-01

    To measure the agreement between patients and their caregivers in evaluating patients' oral quality of life. Cross-sectional study. Data collected in four Swedish dental clinics in 2004. Consecutive patients. Data were completed for 444 patients. Fifteen dentists and 12 dental hygienists agreed to participate. For each patient, the patient him/herself and his/her caregiver completed the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a specific instrument used to measure quality of life in oral conditions, with higher scores indicating a worse quality of life. Information on personal and clinical characteristics of patients were also collected. Median OHIP-14 scores given by caregivers and patients were calculated and compared in different subgroups of patients. Cohen's kappa was calculated to measure the agreement between the evaluation of patients and caregivers. OHIP-14 scores median values were 3.0 among patients and 9.0 among caregivers. Caregivers always gave a higher score than patients, especially in older patients and patients with lower education. The concordance between patients' and caregivers' evaluation was very low (for different OHIP-14 cutoffs: Cohen's kappa from 0.10 to 0.15). In this study, great discrepancies were observed between patients and caregivers in the evaluation of patients' oral quality of life, with caregivers overestimating the burden of dental conditions on patients. It is important to improve patient-caregiver communication, in order to increase patient satisfaction and provide better care. A good patient-caregiver relationship is essential for the patients' well-being and their adherence to treatment.

  11. A study of the use of simulated work task situations in interactive information retrieval evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of how the test instrument of a simulated work task situation is used in empirical evaluations of interactive information retrieval (IIR) and reported in the research literature. In particular, the author is interested to learn whether....... The paper addresses the need to carefully design and tailor simulated work task situations to suit the test participants in order to obtain the intended authentic and realistic IIR under study. Keywords Interactive information retrieval study, IIR study, Test design, Simulated work task situations, Meta-evaluation...... situations in IIR evaluations. In particular, with respect to the design and creation of realistic simulated work task situations. There is a lack of tailoring of the simulated work task situations to the test participants. Likewise, the requirement to include the test participants’ personal information...

  12. Investigation of realistic PET simulations incorporating tumor patient's specificity using anthropomorphic models: Creation of an oncology database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Efthimiou, Nikos; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece); Loudos, George [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Le Maitre, Amandine; Hatt, Mathieu; Tixier, Florent; Visvikis, Dimitris [Medical Information Processing Laboratory (LaTIM), National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), 29609 Brest (France)

    2013-11-15

    with heterogeneous activity distribution for visual assessment.Results: The accuracy of the simulated database was assessed against the original clinical images. The PVC simulated images matched the clinical ones best. Local, regional, and global features extracted from the PVC simulated images were closest to the clinical measurements, with the exception of the size zone variability and the mean intensity values, where heterogeneous tumors showed better reproducibility. The profiles on PVC simulated tumors after postfiltering seemed to represent the more realistic heterogeneous regions with respect to the clinical reference.Conclusions: In this study, the authors investigated the input activity map heterogeneity in the GATE simulations of tumors with heterogeneous activity distribution. The most realistic heterogeneous tumors were obtained by inserting PVC activity distributions from the clinical image into the activity map of the simulation. Partial volume effect (PVE) can play a crucial role in the quantification of heterogeneity within tumors and have an important impact on applications such as patient follow-up during treatment and assessment of tumor response to therapy. The development of such a database incorporating patient anatomical and functional variability can be used to evaluate new image processing or analysis algorithms, while providing control of the ground truth, which is not available when dealing with clinical datasets. The database includes all images used and generated in this study, as well as the sinograms and the attenuation phantoms for further investigation. It is freely available to the interested reader of the journal at http://www.med.upatras.gr/oncobase/.

  13. The Evaluation of Undergraduate Nursing Students' Knowledge of Post-op Pain Management after Participation in Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cecile B; Mixon, Diana K

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to assess undergraduate nursing students' pain knowledge after participation in a simulation scenario. The Knowledge and Attitudes of Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) was used to assess pain knowledge. In addition, reflective questions related to the simulation were examined. Student preferences for education method and reactions to the simulation (SIM) were described. Undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of pain management is reported as inadequate. An emerging pedagogy used to educate undergraduate nurses in a safe, controlled environment is simulation. Literature reports of simulation to educate students' about pain management are limited. As part of the undergraduate nursing student clinical coursework, a post-operative pain management simulation, the SIM was developed. Students were required to assess pain levels and then manage the pain for a late adolescent male whose mother's fear of addiction was a barrier to pain management. The students completed an anonymous written survey that included selected questions from the KASRP and an evaluation of the SIM experience. The students' mean KASRP percent correct was 70.4% ± 8.6%. Students scored the best on items specific to pain assessment and worst on items specific to opiate equivalents and decisions on PRN orders. The students' overall KASRP score post simulation was slightly better than previous studies of nursing students. These results suggest that educators should consider simulations to educate about pain assessment and patient/family education. Future pain simulations should include more opportunities for students to choose appropriate pain medications when provided PRN orders. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Real time Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of patient doses involved in radiological examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulea, D. [Institute of Public Health ' Prof.Dr.Iuliu Moldovan' , Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cosma, C. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    In order to apply the Monte Carlo simulation technique for usual radiological examinations we developed a Pc program, 'IradMed', written entirely in Java. The main purpose of this program is to compute the organ doses and the effective dose of patients, which are exposed at a X-ray beam having photon energies in 10 to 150 keV radiodiagnostic range. Three major radiological procedures are considered, namely mammography, radiography and CT. The fluoroscopy implies an irregular geometry and therefore it is neglected. Nevertheless, a gross estimation of patient doses can be made taking into account the fluoroscopy as being composed of several radiographic examinations applied in different anatomical regions. The interactions between radiation and matter are well-known, and the accuracy of the calculation is limited by the accuracy of the anatomical model used to describe actual patients and by characterisation of the radiation field applied. In this version of IradMed, it is assumed that the absorbed dose is equal with kerma for all tissues. No procedure has been used to take account of the finite range of the secondary electrons that are produced by photoelectric or Compton interactions. These ranges are small compared with the dimensions of the organs, and the absorbed dose will not change abruptly with distance except at boundary where composition and density change. However these boundary effects would have little effect in the determination of the average doses to almost all organs, except the active bone marrow which is treated separately. Another justification for this kerma approximation is the fact that the sum of all electron energies that exit the organ is statistically equal with the sum of all electron energies that enter in that particular organ. In this version of program, it is considered the following interactions: the Rayleigh scattering, the Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect. The Compton scattering is modeled by several

  15. Evaluation of the patient with spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornes, Susannah Brock; Shih, Tina

    2011-10-01

    : The neurologic consultant is frequently called to evaluate the patient with transient neurologic deficits, or spells. Spells can present with a broad array of clinical features, making a systematic evaluation challenging. Familiarity with a variety of key features for different spell types will help the consultant create an appropriate differential diagnosis to guide the diagnostic evaluation. : Recent practice parameters outline the appropriate evaluation for patients presenting with first unprovoked seizure, and an update in the International League Against Epilepsy classification scheme for seizures has shifted the terminology used to describe these spells. When a spell cannot be unambiguously identified as a seizure, recent studies propose features to help distinguish syncope, sleep disorders, and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. For patients who are critically ill, extended EEG monitoring is increasingly available, and there is a growing appreciation for the high burden of seizures and status epilepticus in the intensive care unit population. : This article reviews the most common paroxysmal spell types encountered on the acute care ward and in the intensive care unit, discusses clinical features that help distinguish various spell types, and proposes a systematic evaluation for use by the neurologic consultant.

  16. Images created in a model eye during simulated cataract surgery can be the basis for images perceived by patients during cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Uchida, A; Shinoda, K; Taira, Y; Noda, T; Ohnuma, K; Bissen-Miyajima, H; Hirakata, A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the images created in a model eye during simulated cataract surgery. Patients and methods This study was conducted as a laboratory investigation and interventional case series. An artificial opaque lens, a clear intraocular lens (IOL), or an irrigation/aspiration (I/A) tip was inserted into the ‘anterior chamber' of a model eye with the frosted posterior surface corresponding to the retina. Video images were recorded of the posterior surface of the model eye from the rear during simulated cataract surgery. The video clips were shown to 20 patients before cataract surgery, and the similarity of their visual perceptions to these images was evaluated postoperatively. Results The images of the moving lens fragments and I/A tip and the insertion of the IOL were seen from the rear. The image through the opaque lens and the IOL without moving objects was the light of the surgical microscope from the rear. However, when the microscope light was turned off after IOL insertion, the images of the microscope and operating room were observed by the room illumination from the rear. Seventy percent of the patients answered that the visual perceptions of moving lens fragments were similar to the video clips and 55% reported similarity with the IOL insertion. Eighty percent of the patients recommended that patients watch the video clip before their scheduled cataract surgery. Conclusions The patients' visual perceptions during cataract surgery can be reproduced in the model eye. Watching the video images preoperatively may help relax the patients during surgery. PMID:24788007

  17. The impact of rural hospital closures on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Masatoshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequent and long-term commuting is a requirement for dialysis patients. Accessibility thus affects their quality of lives. In this paper, a new model for accessibility measurement is proposed in which both geographic distance and facility capacity are taken into account. Simulation of closure of rural facilities and that of capacity transfer between urban and rural facilities are conducted to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on equity of accessibility among dialysis patients. Methods Post code information as of August 2011 of all the 7,374 patients certified by municipalities of Hiroshima prefecture as having first or third grade renal disability were collected. Information on post code and the maximum number of outpatients (capacity of all the 98 dialysis facilities were also collected. Using geographic information systems, patient commuting times were calculated in two models: one that takes into account road distance (distance model, and the other that takes into account both the road distance and facility capacity (capacity-distance model. Simulations of closures of rural and urban facilities were then conducted. Results The median commuting time among rural patients was more than twice as long as that among urban patients (15 versus 7 minutes, p  Conclusions Closures of dialysis facilities in rural areas have a substantially larger impact on equity of commuting times among dialysis patients than closures of urban facilities. The accessibility simulations using thecapacity-distance model will provide an analytic framework upon which rational resource distribution policies might be planned.

  18. Validity of proxies and correction for proxy use when evaluating social determinants of health in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Sánchez, Brisa N; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Garcia, Nelda M; Smith, Melinda A; Brown, Devin L; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate stroke patient-proxy agreement with respect to social determinants of health, including depression, optimism, and spirituality, and to explore approaches to minimize proxy-introduced bias. Stroke patient-proxy pairs from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project were interviewed (n=34). Evaluation of agreement between patient-proxy pairs included calculation of intraclass correlation coefficients, linear regression models (ProxyResponse=alpha(0)+alpha(1)PatientResponse+delta, where alpha(0)=0 and alpha(1)=1 denotes no bias) and kappa statistics. Bias introduced by proxies was quantified with simulation studies. In the simulated data, we applied 4 approaches to estimate regression coefficients of stroke outcome social determinants of health associations when only proxy data were available for some patients: (1) substituting proxy responses in place of patient responses; (2) including an indicator variable for proxy use; (3) using regression calibration with external validation; and (4) internal validation. Agreement was fair for depression (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.41) and optimism (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.48) and moderate for spirituality (kappa, 0.48 to 0.53). Responses of proxies were a biased measure of the patients' responses for depression, with alpha(0)=4.88 (CI, 2.24 to 7.52) and alpha(1)=0.39 (CI, 0.09 to 0.69), and for optimism, with alpha(0)=3.82 (CI, -1.04 to 8.69) and alpha(1)=0.81 (CI, 0.41 to 1.22). Regression calibration with internal validation was the most accurate method to correct for proxy-induced bias. Fair/moderate patient-proxy agreement was observed for social determinants of health. Stroke researchers who plan to study social determinants of health may consider performing validation studies so corrections for proxy use can be made.

  19. Stimulation of a turbofan engine for evaluation of multivariable optimal control concepts. [(computerized simulation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldner, K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of control systems for jet engines requires a real-time computer simulation. The simulation provides an effective tool for evaluating control concepts and problem areas prior to actual engine testing. The development and use of a real-time simulation of the Pratt and Whitney F100-PW100 turbofan engine is described. The simulation was used in a multi-variable optimal controls research program using linear quadratic regulator theory. The simulation is used to generate linear engine models at selected operating points and evaluate the control algorithm. To reduce the complexity of the design, it is desirable to reduce the order of the linear model. A technique to reduce the order of the model; is discussed. Selected results between high and low order models are compared. The LQR control algorithms can be programmed on digital computer. This computer will control the engine simulation over the desired flight envelope.

  20. Evaluating simulant materials for understanding cranial backspatter from a ballistic projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Raj; Collins, Alistair; Verma, Anurag; Fernandez, Justin; Taylor, Michael

    2015-05-01

    In cranial wounds resulting from a gunshot, the study of backspatter patterns can provide information about the actual incidents by linking material to surrounding objects. This study investigates the physics of backspatter from a high-speed projectile impact and evaluates a range of simulant materials using impact tests. Next, we evaluate a mesh-free method called smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) to model the splashing mechanism during backspatter. The study has shown that a projectile impact causes fragmentation at the impact site, while transferring momentum to fragmented particles. The particles travel along the path of least resistance, leading to partial material movement in the reverse direction of the projectile motion causing backspatter. Medium-density fiberboard is a better simulant for a human skull than polycarbonate, and lorica leather is a better simulant for a human skin than natural rubber. SPH is an effective numerical method for modeling the high-speed impact fracture and fragmentations. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Simulation Training: Evaluating the Instructor's Contribution to a Wizard of Oz Simulator in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Aric; Tepper, Ronnie; Shtub, Avraham

    2017-04-21

    Workplaces today demand graduates who are prepared with field-specific knowledge, advanced social skills, problem-solving skills, and integration capabilities. Meeting these goals with didactic learning (DL) is becoming increasingly difficult. Enhanced training methods that would better prepare tomorrow's graduates must be more engaging and game-like, such as feedback based e-learning or simulation-based training, while saving time. Empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of advanced learning methods is lacking. Objective quantitative research comparing advanced training methods with DL is sparse. This quantitative study assessed the effectiveness of a computerized interactive simulator coupled with an instructor who monitored students' progress and provided Web-based immediate feedback. A low-cost, globally accessible, telemedicine simulator, developed at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel-was used. A previous study in the field of interventional cardiology, evaluating the efficacy of the simulator to enhanced learning via knowledge exams, presented promising results of average scores varying from 94% after training and 54% before training (n=20) with Padvantage (P=.01) was found in favor of the WOZ training approach. Content type and training audience were not significant. This study evaluated the contribution of an integrated teaching environment using a computerized interactive simulator, with an instructor providing immediate Web-based immediate feedback to trainees. Involvement of an instructor in the simulation-based training process provided better learning outcomes that varied training content and trainee populations did not affect the overall learning gains. ©Aric Katz, Ronnie Tepper, Avraham Shtub. Originally published in JMIR Medical Education (http://mededu.jmir.org), 21.04.2017.

  2. Validation of an Integrated Airframe and Turbofan Engine Simulation for Evaluation of Propulsion Control Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T Shane; Liu, Yuan; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed independent airframe and engine models that have been integrated into a single real-time aircraft simulation for piloted evaluation of propulsion control algorithms. In order to have confidence in the results of these evaluations, the integrated simulation must be validated to demonstrate that its behavior is realistic and that it meets the appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification requirements for aircraft. The paper describes the test procedures and results, demonstrating that the integrated simulation generally meets the FAA requirements and is thus a valid testbed for evaluation of propulsion control modes.

  3. Advancing interprofessional education through the use of high fidelity human patient simulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kane-Gill SL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern medical care increasingly requires coordinated teamwork and communication between healthcare professionals of different disciplines. Unfortunately, healthcare professional students are rarely afforded the opportunity to learn effective methods of interprofessional (IP communication and teamwork strategies during their education. The question of how to best incorporate IP interactions in the curricula of the schools of health professions remains unanswered.Objective: We aim to solve the lack of IP education in the pharmacy curricula through the use of high fidelity simulation (HFS to allow teams of medical, pharmacy, nursing, physician assistant, and social work students to work together in a controlled environment to solve cases of complex medical and social issues.Methods: Once weekly for a 4-week time period, students worked together to complete complex simulation scenarios in small IP teams consisting of pharmacy, medical, nursing, social work, and physician assistant students. Student perception of the use of HFS was evaluated by a survey given at the conclusion of the HFS sessions. Team communication was evaluated through the use of Communication and Teamwork Skills (CATS Assessment by 2 independent evaluators external to the project.Results: The CATS scores improved from the HFS sessions 1 to 2 (p = 0.01, 2 to 3 (p = 0.035, and overall from 1 to 4 (p = 0.001. The inter-rater reliability between evaluators was high (0.85, 95% CI 0.71, 0.99. Students perceived the HFS improved: their ability to communicate with other professionals (median =4; confidence in patient care in an IP team (median=4. It also stimulated student interest in IP work (median=4.5, and was an efficient use of student time (median=4.5Conclusion: The use of HFS improved student teamwork and communication and was an accepted teaching modality. This method of exposing students of the health sciences to IP care should be incorporated throughout the

  4. Simulation training for medical emergencies in the dental setting using an inexpensive software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, N; Mukai, N; Honda, Y; Hirata, Y; Tanaka, M; Momota, Y

    2017-11-09

    Every dental provider needs to be educated about medical emergencies to provide safe dental care. Simulation training is available with simulators such as advanced life support manikins and robot patients. However, the purchase and development costs of these simulators are high. We have developed a simulation training course on medical emergencies using an inexpensive software application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the educational effectiveness of this course. Fifty-one dental providers participated in this study from December 2014 to March 2015. Medical simulation software was used to simulate a patient's vital signs. We evaluated participants' ability to diagnose and treat vasovagal syncope or anaphylaxis with an evaluation sheet and conducted a questionnaire before and after the scenario-based simulation training. The median evaluation sheet score for vasovagal syncope increased significantly from 7/9 before to 9/9 after simulation training. The median score for anaphylaxis also increased significantly from 8/12 to 12/12 (P simulation training. This simulation course improved participants' ability to diagnose and treat medical emergencies and improved their confidence. This course can be offered inexpensively using a software application. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The role of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Kazuma; Sakai, Tetsuro

    2018-03-09

    An increasing number of reports indicate the efficacy of simulation training in anesthesiology resident education. Simulation education helps learners to acquire clinical skills in a safe learning environment without putting real patients at risk. This useful tool allows anesthesiology residents to obtain medical knowledge and both technical and non-technical skills. For faculty members, simulation-based settings provide the valuable opportunity to evaluate residents' performance in scenarios including airway management and regional, cardiac, and obstetric anesthesiology. However, it is still unclear what types of simulators should be used or how to incorporate simulation education effectively into education curriculums. Whether simulation training improves patient outcomes has not been fully determined. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the status of simulation in anesthesiology resident education, encourage more anesthesiologists to get involved in simulation education to propagate its influence, and stimulate future research directed toward improving resident education and patient outcomes.

  6. Simulation in pediatric anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; Honkanen, Anita; Murray, David J

    2012-10-01

    Simulation-based training, research and quality initiatives are expanding in pediatric anesthesiology just as in other medical specialties. Various modalities are available, from task trainers to standardized patients, and from computer-based simulations to mannequins. Computer-controlled mannequins can simulate pediatric vital signs with reasonable reliability; however the fidelity of skin temperature and color change, airway reflexes and breath and heart sounds remains rudimentary. Current pediatric mannequins are utilized in simulation centers, throughout hospitals in-situ, at national meetings for continuing medical education and in research into individual and team performance. Ongoing efforts by pediatric anesthesiologists dedicated to using simulation to improve patient care and educational delivery will result in further dissemination of this technology. Health care professionals who provide complex, subspecialty care to children require a curriculum supported by an active learning environment where skills directly relevant to pediatric care can be developed. The approach is not only the most effective method to educate adult learners, but meets calls for education reform and offers the potential to guide efforts toward evaluating competence. Simulation addresses patient safety imperatives by providing a method for trainees to develop skills and experience in various management strategies, without risk to the health and life of a child. A curriculum that provides pediatric anesthesiologists with the range of skills required in clinical practice settings must include a relatively broad range of task-training devises and electromechanical mannequins. Challenges remain in defining the best integration of this modality into training and clinical practice to meet the needs of pediatric patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Minimizing patient waiting time in emergency department of public hospital using simulation optimization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ireen Munira; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Ahmad, Norazura; Najmuddin, Ahmad Farid

    2017-04-01

    Emergency department (ED) is the main unit of a hospital that provides emergency treatment. Operating 24 hours a day with limited number of resources invites more problems to the current chaotic situation in some hospitals in Malaysia. Delays in getting treatments that caused patients to wait for a long period of time are among the frequent complaints against government hospitals. Therefore, the ED management needs a model that can be used to examine and understand resource capacity which can assist the hospital managers to reduce patients waiting time. Simulation model was developed based on 24 hours data collection. The model developed using Arena simulation replicates the actual ED's operations of a public hospital in Selangor, Malaysia. The OptQuest optimization in Arena is used to find the possible combinations of a number of resources that can minimize patients waiting time while increasing the number of patients served. The simulation model was modified for improvement based on results from OptQuest. The improvement model significantly improves ED's efficiency with an average of 32% reduction in average patients waiting times and 25% increase in the total number of patients served.

  8. Comprehensive Performance Evaluation for Hydrological and Nutrients Simulation Using the Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran in a Mesoscale Monsoon Watershed, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaofu Li; Chuan Luo; Kaixia Jiang; Rongrong Wan; Hengpeng Li

    2017-01-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) is a hydrological and water quality computer model that was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Comprehensive performance evaluations were carried out for hydrological and nutrient simulation using the HSPF model in the Xitiaoxi watershed in China. Streamflow simulation was calibrated from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2007 and then validated from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 using daily observed data, and nu...

  9. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Evaluating a Sexual Health Patient Education Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzo, Marianne; Troup, Sandi; Hijjazi, Kamal; Ferrell, Betty

    2015-01-01

    This article shares the findings of an evaluation of a patient teaching resource for sexual health entitled Everything Nobody Tells You About Cancer Treatment and Your Sex Life: From A to Z, which was accomplished through systematic conceptualization, construction, and evaluation with women diagnosed with breast or gynecologic cancer. This resource, which has evolved from patient-focused research and has been tested in the clinical setting, can be used in patient education and support. Oncology professionals are committed to addressing quality-of-life concerns for patients across the trajectory of illness. Sexuality is a key concern for patients and impacts relationships and overall quality of life. Through careful assessment, patient education, and support, clinicians can ensure that sexuality is respected as an essential part of patient-centered care.

  11. Simulator to evaluate and optimise driver assistance systems; Ein Simulator zur Bewertung und Optimierung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locher, J. [Hella KG Hueck and Co., Paderborn (Germany); Kleinkes, M. [Hella KG Hueck and Co., Lippstadt (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    For a short time now, the L-LAB (Light-LABoratory), a joint research facility of Hella KG and the University of Paderborn, has had a simulator available which allows the evaluation of driver assistance systems and the optimisation of man-machine interfaces. It is an interactive night driver simulator, which can be used to visualise any type of headlamp beam pattern true to the original. A Smart is used as the input medium; image projection is via a 3-channel high-performance beamer projection system onto large screens. Alongside synthetic roads, there is also a digitalised course available, approx. 10 km long, the original of which is actually used by Hella as a proving ground. Road safety indicators can be recorded directly and indirectly. For example, obstacles which suddenly appear force drivers to apply the brakes. The stopping distance required can be interpreted as a direct indicator for safety. In addition, an eye tracking system is used to record the eye movements of the test subjects, which allows additional road safety indicators to be derived. Comparative investigations between the digitalised proving ground and reality allow validation of the simulator. This year, a comprehensive study will be made to optimise the man-machine interface in connection with infrared vision systems in vehicles. The advantages of simulation are not only in the economical implementation possibilities and control of the variables, but also the fact that properties of driver assistance systems can be evaluated which are not even technically possible yet in reality. The use of the simulator developed here is not limited to tests connected with the visibility of obstacles, however. Rather, it allows the investigation and evaluation of a large range of potential driver assistance systems. (orig.) [German] Dem L-LAB (Light-LABoratory), einer gemeinsamen Forschungseinrichtung der Universitaet Paderborn und der Firma Hella KG in Lippstadt, steht seit kurzer Zeit ein Simulator zur

  12. SU-E-T-64: CG-Based Radiation Therapy Simulator with Physical Modeling for Avoidance of Collisions Between Gantry and Couch Or Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, M; Arimura, H; Yuda, I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: It is time-consuming and might cause re-planning to check couch-gantry and patient-gantry collisions on a radiotherapy machine when using couch rotations for non-coplanar beam angles. The aim of this study was to develop a computer-graphics (CG)-based radiation therapy simulator with physical modeling for avoidance of collisions between gantry and couch or patient on a radiotherapy machine. Methods: The radiation therapy simulator was three-dimensionally constructed including a radiotherapy machine (Clinac iX, Varian Medical Systems), couch, and radiation treatment room according to their designs by using a physical-modeling-based computer graphics software (Blender, free and open-source). Each patient was modeled by applying a surface rendering technique to their planning computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 16-slice CT scanner (BrightSpeed, GE Healthcare). Immobilization devices for patients were scanned by the CT equipment, and were rendered as the patient planning CT images. The errors in the collision angle of the gantry with the couch or patient between gold standards and the estimated values were obtained by fixing the gantry angle for the evaluation of the proposed simulator. Results: The average error of estimated collision angles to the couch head side was -8.5% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and -5.5% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Moreover, the average error of estimated collision angles to the couch foot side was -1.1% for gantry angles of 60 to 135 degree, and 1.4% for gantry angles of 225 to 300 degree. Conclusion: The CG-based radiation therapy simulator could make it possible to estimate the collision angle between gantry and couch or patient on the radiotherapy machine without verifying the collision angles in the radiation treatment room

  13. Comparative evaluations of the Monte Carlo-based light propagation simulation packages for optical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in turbid medium has been studied for years. A number of software packages have been developed to handle with such issue. However, it is hard to compare these simulation packages, especially for tissues with complex heterogeneous structures. Here, we first designed a group of mesh datasets generated by Iso2Mesh software, and used them to cross-validate the accuracy and to evaluate the performance of four Monte Carlo-based simulation packages, including Monte Carlo model of steady-state light transport in multi-layered tissues (MCML, tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator (TIMOS, Molecular Optical Simulation Environment (MOSE, and Mesh-based Monte Carlo (MMC. The performance of each package was evaluated based on the designed mesh datasets. The merits and demerits of each package were also discussed. Comparative results showed that the TIMOS package provided the best performance, which proved to be a reliable, efficient, and stable MC simulation package for users.

  14. Using CONFIG for Simulation of Operation of Water Recovery Subsystems for Advanced Control Software Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Flores, Luis; Fleming, Land; Throop, Daiv

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid discrete/continuous simulation tool, CONFIG, has been developed to support evaluation of the operability life support systems. CON FIG simulates operations scenarios in which flows and pressures change continuously while system reconfigurations occur as discrete events. In simulations, intelligent control software can interact dynamically with hardware system models. CONFIG simulations have been used to evaluate control software and intelligent agents for automating life support systems operations. A CON FIG model of an advanced biological water recovery system has been developed to interact with intelligent control software that is being used in a water system test at NASA Johnson Space Center

  15. Evaluation of body simulator for chest and abdomen in digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sidney S.; Cardoso, Gabriela P.; Oliveira, Giovanni Antônio P.; Batista, Adriana S.M.; Pereira, Esther Lorrayne M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of body simulators to control the quality of X-ray images is a practice that guarantees the control of essential parameters for diagnosis by the technique. The evolution of the equipment, between the analogue, digital computerized radiology (CR) and direct radiography (DR), requires evaluation of the equivalence in grayscale, of simulators, for an adjustment according to the specific technology of obtaining the image. In this sense, the present work presents the evaluation of a body simulator with regard to the representation of mean values of signal, noise and contrast obtained in chest radiographs and panoramic of the abdomen. For the thorax the cardiac region was considered as simulation target and for the abdomen simulation of the liver and small intestine. We used a retrospective study of images obtained with X-ray equipment - CR system, in which the images were studied using the ImageJ program, generating a data catalog. These were subsequently compared with those obtained experimentally using gel filled polymer body simulator. For the validation of the simulator, it was observed the gel equivalence of filling of the polymer box required to reach the image parameters of the cataloged radiographs. The results are discussed as to the physical principles of radiation interaction with biological and equivalent tissues

  16. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Collis, Jon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  17. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  18. Evaluation and Treatment of the Patient with Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscock, Michael E. III; Haynes, David S.

    1997-01-01

    The sensation of vertigo is a complex symptom that patients find difficult to describe, and physicians often find evaluating and treating patients with the vertigo a difficult task. This article outlines types and causes of vertigo and the work up, evaluation, and treatment of a patient with vertigo. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  19. 3D Printed Surgical Instruments Evaluated by a Simulated Crew of a Mars Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julielynn Y; Pfahnl, Andreas C

    2016-09-01

    The first space-based fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printer became operational in 2014. This study evaluated whether Mars simulation crewmembers of the Hawai'i Space Exploration Analog and Simulation (HI-SEAS) II mission with no prior surgical experience could utilize acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic surgical instruments FDM 3D printed on Earth to complete simulated surgical tasks. This study sought to examine the feasibility of using 3D printed surgical tools when the primary crew medical officer is incapacitated and the back-up crew medical officer must conduct a surgical procedure during a simulated extended space mission. During a 4 mo duration ground-based analog mission, five simulation crewmembers with no prior surgical experience completed 16 timed sets of simulated prepping, draping, incising, and suturing tasks to evaluate the relative speed of using four ABS thermoplastic instruments printed on Earth compared to conventional instruments. All four simulated surgical tasks were successfully performed using 3D printed instruments by Mars simulation crewmembers with no prior surgical experience. There was no substantial difference in time to completion of simulated tasks with control vs. 3D printed sponge stick, towel clamp, scalpel handle, and toothed forceps. These limited findings support further investigation into the creation of an onboard digital catalog of validated 3D printable surgical instrument design files to support autonomous, crew-administered healthcare on Mars missions. Future work could include addressing sterility, biocompatibility, and having astronaut crew medical officers test a wider range of surgical instruments printed in microgravity during actual surgical procedures. Wong JY, Pfahnl AC. 3D printed surgical instruments evaluated by a simulated crew of a Mars mission. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(9):806-810.

  20. Simulation-based decision support for evaluating operational plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe simulation-based decision support techniques for evaluation of operational plans within effects-based planning. Using a decision support tool, developers of operational plans are able to evaluate thousands of alternative plans against possible courses of events and decide which of these plans are capable of achieving a desired end state. The objective of this study is to examine the potential of a decision support system that helps operational analysts understand the consequences of numerous alternative plans through simulation and evaluation. Operational plans are described in the effects-based approach to operations concept as a set of actions and effects. For each action, we examine several different alternative ways to perform the action. We use a representation where a plan consists of several actions that should be performed. Each action may be performed in one of several different alternative ways. Together these action alternatives make up all possible plan instances, which are represented as a tree of action alternatives that may be searched for the most effective sequence of alternative actions. As a test case, we use an expeditionary operation with a plan of 43 actions and several alternatives for these actions, as well as a scenario of 40 group actors. Decision support for planners is provided by several methods that analyze the impact of a plan on the 40 actors, e.g., by visualizing time series of plan performance. Detailed decision support for finding the most influential actions of a plan is presented by using sensitivity analysis and regression tree analysis. Finally, a decision maker may use the tool to determine the boundaries of an operation that it must not move beyond without risk of drastic failure. The significant contribution of this study is the presentation of an integrated approach for evaluation of operational plans.

  1. High-fidelity simulation among bachelor students in simulation groups and use of different roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thidemann, Inger-Johanne; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-12-01

    Cost limitations might challenge the use of high-fidelity simulation as a teaching-learning method. This article presents the results of a Norwegian project including two simulation studies in which simulation teaching and learning were studied among students in the second year of a three-year bachelor nursing programme. The students were organised into small simulation groups with different roles; nurse, physician, family member and observer. Based on experiences in different roles, the students evaluated the simulation design characteristics and educational practices used in the simulation. In addition, three simulation outcomes were measured; knowledge (learning), Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning. The simulation was evaluated to be a valuable teaching-learning method to develop professional understanding and insight independent of roles. Overall, the students rated the Student Satisfaction and Self-confidence in Learning as high. Knowledge about the specific patient focus increased after the simulation activity. Students can develop practical, communication and collaboration skills, through experiencing the nurse's role. Assuming the observer role, students have the potential for vicarious learning, which could increase the learning value. Both methods of learning (practical experience or vicarious learning) may bridge the gap between theory and practice and contribute to the development of skills in reflective and critical thinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of rural hospital closures on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Takahiko; Kashima, Saori; Takeuchi, Keisuke

    2012-07-23

    Frequent and long-term commuting is a requirement for dialysis patients. Accessibility thus affects their quality of lives. In this paper, a new model for accessibility measurement is proposed in which both geographic distance and facility capacity are taken into account. Simulation of closure of rural facilities and that of capacity transfer between urban and rural facilities are conducted to evaluate the impacts of these phenomena on equity of accessibility among dialysis patients. Post code information as of August 2011 of all the 7,374 patients certified by municipalities of Hiroshima prefecture as having first or third grade renal disability were collected. Information on post code and the maximum number of outpatients (capacity) of all the 98 dialysis facilities were also collected. Using geographic information systems, patient commuting times were calculated in two models: one that takes into account road distance (distance model), and the other that takes into account both the road distance and facility capacity (capacity-distance model). Simulations of closures of rural and urban facilities were then conducted. The median commuting time among rural patients was more than twice as long as that among urban patients (15 versus 7 minutes, psimulation, when five rural public facilitiess were closed, Gini coefficient of commuting times among the patients increased by 16%, indicating a substantial worsening of equity, and the number of patients with commuting times longer than 90 minutes increased by 72 times. In contrast, closure of four urban public facilities with similar capacities did not affect these values. Closures of dialysis facilities in rural areas have a substantially larger impact on equity of commuting times among dialysis patients than closures of urban facilities. The accessibility simulations using the capacity-distance model will provide an analytic framework upon which rational resource distribution policies might be planned.

  3. Evaluation of a simulation tool in ophthalmology: application in teaching funduscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Elise Androwiki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Eye Retinopathy Trainer® as a teaching tool for direct ophthalmoscopy examination by comparing it with the traditional method using volunteers. Methods: Fourth year medical students received training in direct ophthalmoscopy using a simulation tool and human volunteers. Ninety students were randomized into a Simulation Group or a Control Group by the inclusion or absence of the simulation model in classroom practice. Differences between the groups were analyzed using unpaired Student’s t-test. Results: The Simulation Group was superior to the Control Group, with 51.06% successful in performing fundus examination in both the anatomical model simulation and the human model in comparison with 21.15% in the Control Group. Conclusion: The Eye Retinopathy Trainer® appears to be an effective teaching tool for practice and improvement of ophthalmologic examination among fourth year medical students.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of ozone and selected climate parameters in a set of EMAC simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Righi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Four simulations with the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC model have been evaluated with the Earth System Model Validation Tool (ESMValTool to identify differences in simulated ozone and selected climate parameters that resulted from (i different setups of the EMAC model (nudged vs. free-running and (ii different boundary conditions (emissions, sea surface temperatures (SSTs and sea ice concentrations (SICs. To assess the relative performance of the simulations, quantitative performance metrics are calculated consistently for the climate parameters and ozone. This is important for the interpretation of the evaluation results since biases in climate can impact on biases in chemistry and vice versa. The observational data sets used for the evaluation include ozonesonde and aircraft data, meteorological reanalyses and satellite measurements. The results from a previous EMAC evaluation of a model simulation with nudging towards realistic meteorology in the troposphere have been compared to new simulations with different model setups and updated emission data sets in free-running time slice and nudged quasi chemistry-transport model (QCTM mode. The latter two configurations are particularly important for chemistry-climate projections and for the quantification of individual sources (e.g., the transport sector that lead to small chemical perturbations of the climate system, respectively. With the exception of some specific features which are detailed in this study, no large differences that could be related to the different setups (nudged vs. free-running of the EMAC simulations were found, which offers the possibility to evaluate and improve the overall model with the help of shorter nudged simulations. The main differences between the two setups is a better representation of the tropospheric and stratospheric temperature in the nudged simulations, which also better reproduce stratospheric water vapor concentrations, due to the improved

  5. Nuclear power plant human computer interface design incorporating console simulation, operations personnel, and formal evaluation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.; Goldberg, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    New CRT-based information displays which enhance the human machine interface are playing a very important role and are being increasingly used in control rooms since they present a higher degree of flexibility compared to conventional hardwired instrumentation. To prototype a new console configuration and information display system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), an iterative process of console simulation and evaluation involving operations personnel is being pursued. Entire panels including selector switches and information displays are simulated and driven by plant dynamical simulations with realistic responses that reproduce the actual cognitive and physical environment. Careful analysis and formal evaluation of operator interaction while using the simulated console will be conducted to determine underlying principles for effective control console design for this particular group of operation personnel. Additional iterations of design, simulation, and evaluation will then be conducted as necessary

  6. Evaluating TCMS Train-to-Ground communication performances based on the LTE technology and discreet event simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaziz, Maha; Yan, Ying; Kassab, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    is shared between the train and different passengers. The simulation is based on the discrete-events network simulator Riverbed Modeler. Next, second step focusses on a co-simulation testbed, to evaluate performances with real traffic based on Hardware-In-The-Loop and OpenAirInterface modules. Preliminary...... (Long Term Evolution) network as an alternative communication technology, instead of GSM-R (Global System for Mobile communications-Railway) because of some capacity and capability limits. First step, a pure simulation is used to evaluate the network load for a high-speed scenario, when the LTE network...... simulation and co-simulation results show that LTE provides good performance for the TCMS traffic exchange in terms of packet delay and data integrity...

  7. Evaluation of breastfeeding Web sites for patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Barbara A; Oermann, Marilyn H

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of Web sites on breastfeeding for patient education. Descriptive study of 30 Web sites on breastfeeding for patient education, evaluated based on the Health Information Technology Institute (HITI) criteria, readability, and eight content criteria from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement on breastfeeding. The mean Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level for readability of the 30 sites was 9.2. Seven of the sites included all eight of the content criteria from the AAP, and three sites did not include any of the information recommended by the AAP content criteria. Nurses should be able to recommend best patient education materials for their patients. The five best Web sites for breastfeeding education are identified for patient teaching, and the HITI criteria are explained for nurses to learn how to evaluate Web sites for themselves and their patients.

  8. Simulated human patients and patient-centredness: The uncanny hybridity of nursing education, technology, and learning to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Aileen V

    2017-01-01

    Positioned within a hybrid of the human and technology, professional nursing practice has always occupied a space that is more than human. In nursing education, technology is central in providing tools with which practice knowledge is mobilized so that students can safely engage with simulated human patients without causing harm to real people. However, while there is an increased emphasis on deploying these simulated humans as emissaries from person-centred care to demonstrate what it is like to care for real humans, the nature of what is really going on in simulation-what is real and what is simulated-is very rarely discussed and poorly understood. This paper explores how elements of postcolonial critical thought can aid in understanding the challenges of educating nurses to provide person-centred care within a healthcare culture that is increasingly reliant on technology. Because nursing education is itself a hybrid of real and simulated practice, it provides an appropriate case study to explore the philosophical question of technology in healthcare discourse, particularly as it relates to the relationship between the human patient and its uncanny simulated double. Drawing on postcolonial elements such as the uncanny, diaspora, hybridity, and créolité, the hybrid conditions of nursing education are examined in order to open up new possibilities of thinking about how learning to care is entangled with this technological space to assist in shaping professional knowledge of person-centred care. Considering these issues through a postcolonial lens opens up questions about the nature of the difficulty in using simulated human technologies in clinical education, particularly with the paradoxical aim of providing person-centred care within a climate that increasingly characterized as posthuman. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Relevance of a driving simulator in the assessment of handicapped individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroz, A; Comte, P-A; Nicolo, D; Dériaz, O; Vuadens, P

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the value of our driving simulator in deciding whether or not to allow patients with physical and/or cognitive deficits to resuming driving and to analyze whether or not the medical expert's final decision is based more on the results of the driving simulator than those of the neuropsychological examination. One hundred and twenty-three patients were evaluated with the driving simulator. Thirty-five of those with cognitive deficits also underwent a neuropsychological examination prior to the medical expert's decision on driving aptitude. In cases of uncertainty or disagreement, a driving assessment in real conditions was performed by a driving instructor. In cases of physical handicap, the medical expert's decision concurred with that of the occupational therapist. For brain-injured patients, there was a significant correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the occupational therapist (kappa=0.33; P=0.01). However, the sensibility and specificity were only 55 and 80%, respectively. The correlation between an occupational therapy decision based on the driving simulator and that of the medical expert was very significant (kappa=0.81; Psensibility and specificity were 84 and 100%, respectively. In contrast, these values were lower (63 and 71%, respectively) for the correlation between the neuropsychologist's opinion and that of the medical expert. Our driving simulator enables the danger-free evaluation of driving aptitude. The results mirror an in situ assessment and are more sensitive than neuropsychological examination. In fact, the neuropsychologist's opinion often is more negative or uncertain with respect to the patient's real driving aptitude. When taking a decision on a patient's driving aptitude, the medical expert is more inclined to trust the results of the driving simulator.

  10. Initial Evaluation of Patients with Presumed Syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Can, MD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is a common clinical problem, but nevertheless is but one element of the broader issue of ‘transient loss of consciousness’ (TLOC. The first step is to ascertain whether the patient actually suffered a syncopal episode, and thereafter the goal must be to determine the basis of symptoms with sufficient confidence to assess prognosis and initiate an effective treatment strategy. The initial evaluation of these patients, which usually takes place in an emergency department (ED. or acute care facility, is challenging since patients are usually asymptomatic when they come for medical attention, may have little or no recall of the event, and witnesses, if any, often cannot provide reliable information. Given these circumstances, it is understandable that frontline physicians often tend to take a seemingly ‘safe’ approach, and admit both high-risk and intermediate-risk syncope patients to hospital. This strategy has many implications, including life-style and economic concerns for the patient, and health care management issues for physicians, hospital administrators and the overall health care system. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC. guidelines and several clinical studies provide helpful advice regarding “risk stratification” to help guide physicians in selecting patients for either early hospital admission or later oupatient subspeciality evaluation. The utility of syncope management units in the ED, and a guideline-based approach to the syncope patient, has tended to both diminish the number of undiagnosed cases and reduce the hospital admission rate. In this review, we have attempted to both highlight a cost-effective diagnostic pathway beginning with the initial evaluation of the patient with suspected syncope, and to provide criteria which may help frontline physicians better base their decisions regarding need for in-hospital versus outpatient clinic evaluation of syncope patients.

  11. Fluid Structure Interaction simulation of heart prosthesis in patient-specific left-ventricle/aorta anatomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung; Borazjani, Iman; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2009-11-01

    In order to test and optimize heart valve prosthesis and enable virtual implantation of other biomedical devices it is essential to develop and validate high-resolution FSI-CFD codes for carrying out simulations in patient-specific geometries. We have developed a powerful numerical methodology for carrying out FSI simulations of cardiovascular flows based on the CURVIB approach (Borazjani, L. Ge, and F. Sotiropoulos, Journal of Computational physics, vol. 227, pp. 7587-7620 2008). We have extended our FSI method to overset grids to handle efficiently more complicated geometries e.g. simulating an MHV implanted in an anatomically realistic aorta and left-ventricle. A compliant, anatomic left-ventricle is modeled using prescribed motion in one domain. The mechanical heart valve is placed inside the second domain i.e. the body-fitted curvilinear mesh of the anatomic aorta. The simulations of an MHV with a left-ventricle model underscore the importance of inflow conditions and ventricular compliance for such simulations and demonstrate the potential of our method as a powerful tool for patient-specific simulations.

  12. A virtual-reality simulator and force sensation combined catheter operation training system and its preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Shuxiang; Tamiya, Takashi; Hirata, Hideyuki; Ishihara, Hidenori; Yin, Xuanchun

    2017-09-01

    Endovascular surgery benefits patients because of its superior short convalescence and lack of damage to healthy tissue. However, such advantages require the operator to be equipped with dexterous skills for catheter manipulation without resulting in collateral damage. To achieve this goal, a training system is in high demand. A training system integrating a VR simulator and a haptic device has been developed within this context. The VR simulator is capable of providing visual cues which assist the novice for safe catheterization. In addition, the haptic device cooperates with VR simulator to apply sensations at the same time. The training system was tested by non-medical subjects over a five days training session. The performance was evaluated in terms of safety criteria and task completion time. The results demonstrate that operation safety is improved by 15.94% and task completion time is cut by 18.80 s maximum. Moreover, according to subjects' reflections, they are more confident in operation. The proposed training system constructs a comprehensive training environment that combines visualization and force sensation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A comparison of global rating scale and checklist scores in the validation of an evaluation tool to assess performance in the resuscitation of critically ill patients during simulated emergencies (abbreviated as "CRM simulator study IB").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John; Neilipovitz, David; Cardinal, Pierre; Chiu, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Crisis resource management (CRM) skills are a set of nonmedical skills required to manage medical emergencies. There is currently no gold standard for evaluation of CRM performance. A prior study examined the use of a global rating scale (GRS) to evaluate CRM performance. This current study compared the use of a GRS and a checklist as formal rating instruments to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. First-year and third-year residents participated in two simulator scenarios each. Three raters then evaluated resident performance in CRM using edited video recordings using both a GRS and a checklist. The Ottawa GRS provides a seven-point anchored ordinal scale for performance in five categories of CRM, and an overall performance score. The Ottawa CRM checklist provides 12 items in the five categories of CRM, with a maximum cumulative score of 30 points. Construct validity was measured on the basis of content validity, response process, internal structure, and response to other variables. T-test analysis of Ottawa GRS scores was conducted to examine response to the variable of level of training. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) scores were used to measure inter-rater reliability for both scenarios. Thirty-two first-year and 28 third-year residents participated in the study. Third-year residents produced higher mean scores for overall CRM performance than first-year residents (P CRM checklist (P CRM checklist. Users indicated a strong preference for the Ottawa GRS given ease of scoring, presence of an overall score, and the potential for formative evaluation. Construct validity seems to be present when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist to evaluate CRM performance during simulated emergencies. Data also indicate the presence of moderate inter-rater reliability when using both the Ottawa GRS and CRM checklist.

  14. Ventriculostomy Simulation Using Patient-Specific Ventricular Anatomy, 3D Printing, and Hydrogel Casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Justin R; Chen, Tsinsue; Nakaji, Peter; Frakes, David H; Gonzalez, L Fernando

    2015-11-01

    Educational simulators provide a means for students and experts to learn and refine surgical skills. Educators can leverage the strengths of medical simulators to effectively teach complex and high-risk surgical procedures, such as placement of an external ventricular drain. Our objective was to develop a cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum for cerebral lateral ventriculostomy. A cost-effective, patient-derived medical simulacrum was developed for placement of an external lateral ventriculostomy. Elastomeric and gel casting techniques were used to achieve realistic brain geometry and material properties. 3D printing technology was leveraged to develop accurate cranial properties and dimensions. An economical, gravity-driven pump was developed to provide normal and abnormal ventricular pressures. A small pilot study was performed to gauge simulation efficacy using a technology acceptance model. An accurate geometric representation of the brain was developed with independent lateral cerebral ventricular chambers. A gravity-driven pump pressurized the ventricular cavities to physiologic values. A qualitative study illustrated that the simulation has potential as an educational tool to train medical professionals in the ventriculostomy procedure. The ventricular simulacrum can improve learning in a medical education environment. Rapid prototyping and multi-material casting techniques can produce patient-derived models for cost-effective and realistic surgical training scenarios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrete Event Simulation of Patient Admissions to a Neurovascular Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hahn-Goldberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence exists that clinical outcomes improve for stroke patients admitted to specialized Stroke Units. The Toronto Western Hospital created a Neurovascular Unit (NVU using beds from general internal medicine, Neurology and Neurosurgery to care for patients with stroke and acute neurovascular conditions. Using patient-level data for NVU-eligible patients, a discrete event simulation was created to study changes in patient flow and length of stay pre- and post-NVU implementation. Varying patient volumes and resources were tested to determine the ideal number of beds under various conditions. In the first year of operation, the NVU admitted 507 patients, over 66% of NVU-eligible patient volumes. With the introduction of the NVU, length of stay decreased by around 8%. Scenario testing showed that the current level of 20 beds is sufficient for accommodating the current demand and would continue to be sufficient with an increase in demand of up to 20%.

  16. Evaluation of simulation learning materials use to fill the gap in Japanese dental English education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Naoko; Moross, Janelle; Sunaga, Masayo; Hobo, Koki; Miyoshi, Tomoe; Nitta, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiro; Morio, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    Even though English is most frequently the common language when the patient's native language differs from that of a dentist, the opportunities for Japanese undergraduate dental students to learn dental English are now quite limited. The purposes of our study were to investigate: the effectiveness and feasibility of the computer-assisted simulation materials as one solution strategy for dental English education in Japan, and the needs and demands for dental English from the learners' side. Interactive simulation materials for medical interviews in English and clinical cases which were translated to English, were delivered via Learning Management System (LMS) to nineteen trainee residents of dentistry (residents). Evaluation for the materials, learners' knowledge and interests in the contents, and ease of operation were obtained by post-questionnaire (response rates were 100% and 95%, respectively). Both questionnaire-surveys received positive feedback toward the materials, yet 47% answered that they lacked the level of knowledge about contents of the medical interview in English. Results were sufficient to suggest that the residents would like to have the opportunity to study or practice medical interview in English, or English related to dentistry, and that the simulation materials could be one of the solution strategies for opportunity provision.

  17. Simulation reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger L

    2016-01-01

    Simulation is firmly established as a mainstay of clinical education, and extensive research has demonstrated its value. Current practice uses inanimate simulators (with a range of complexity, sophistication and cost) to address the patient 'as body' and trained actors or lay people (Simulated Patients) to address the patient 'as person'. These approaches are often separate.Healthcare simulation to date has been largely for the training and assessment of clinical 'insiders', simulating current practices. A close coupling with the clinical world restricts access to the facilities and practices of simulation, often excluding patients, families and publics. Yet such perspectives are an essential component of clinical practice. This paper argues that simulation offers opportunities to move outside a clinical 'insider' frame and create connections with other individuals and groups. Simulation becomes a bridge between experts whose worlds do not usually intersect, inviting an exchange of insights around embodied practices-the 'doing' of medicine-without jeopardising the safety of actual patients.Healthcare practice and education take place within a clinical frame that often conceals parallels with other domains of expert practice. Valuable insights emerge by viewing clinical practice not only as the application of medical science but also as performance and craftsmanship.Such connections require a redefinition of simulation. Its essence is not expensive elaborate facilities. Developments such as hybrid, distributed and sequential simulation offer examples of how simulation can combine 'patient as body' with 'patient as person' at relatively low cost, democratising simulation and exerting traction beyond the clinical sphere.The essence of simulation is a purposeful design, based on an active process of selection from an originary world, abstraction of what is criterial and re - presentation in another setting for a particular purpose or audience. This may be done within

  18. Performance evaluation of sea surface simulation methods for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Renjie; Wu, Xin; Yang, Chen; Han, Yiping; Zhang, Jianqi

    2017-11-01

    With the fast development of sea surface target detection by optoelectronic sensors, machine learning has been adopted to improve the detection performance. Many features can be learned from training images by machines automatically. However, field images of sea surface target are not sufficient as training data. 3D scene simulation is a promising method to address this problem. For ocean scene simulation, sea surface height field generation is the key point to achieve high fidelity. In this paper, two spectra-based height field generation methods are evaluated. Comparison between the linear superposition and linear filter method is made quantitatively with a statistical model. 3D ocean scene simulating results show the different features between the methods, which can give reference for synthesizing sea surface target images with different ocean conditions.

  19. Acknowledging patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation : a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutters, Janneke P C; Sculpher, Mark; Briggs, Andrew H; Severens, Johan L; Candel, Math J; Stahl, James E; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Boer, Albert; Ramaekers, Bram L T; Joore, Manuela A

    2013-02-01

    Patient heterogeneity is the part of variability that can be explained by certain patient characteristics (e.g. age, disease stage). Population reimbursement decisions that acknowledge patient heterogeneity could potentially save money and increase population health. To date, however, economic evaluations pay only limited attention to patient heterogeneity. The objective of the present paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluation of healthcare programmes. A systematic literature review was performed to identify methodological papers on the topic of patient heterogeneity in economic evaluation. Data were obtained using a keyword search of the PubMed database and manual searches. Handbooks were also included. Relevant data were extracted regarding potential sources of patient heterogeneity, in which of the input parameters of an economic evaluation these occur, methods to acknowledge patient heterogeneity and specific concerns associated with this acknowledgement. A total of 20 articles and five handbooks were included. The relevant sources of patient heterogeneity (demographics, preferences and clinical characteristics) and the input parameters where they occurred (baseline risk, treatment effect, health state utility and resource utilization) were combined in a framework. Methods were derived for the design, analysis and presentation phases of an economic evaluation. Concerns related mainly to the danger of false-positive results and equity issues. By systematically reviewing current knowledge regarding patient heterogeneity within economic evaluations of healthcare programmes, we provide guidance for future economic evaluations. Guidance is provided on which sources of patient heterogeneity to consider, how to acknowledge them in economic evaluation and potential concerns. The improved acknowledgement of patient heterogeneity in future economic evaluations may well improve the

  20. Comparison of the medical students? perceived self-efficacy and the evaluation of the observers and patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ammentorp, Jette; Thomsen, Janus Laust; Jarb?l, Dorte Ejg; Holst, Ren?; ?vrehus, Anne Lindebo Holm; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background The accuracy of self-assessment has been questioned in studies comparing physicians? self-assessments to observed assessments; however, none of these studies used self-efficacy as a method for self-assessment. The aim of the study was to investigate how medical students? perceived self-efficacy of specific communication skills corresponds to the evaluation of simulated patients and observers. Methods All of the medical students who signed up for an Objective Structured Clinical Exa...

  1. The role of simulation in mixed-methods research: a framework & application to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Hansen, Matthew; Lambert, William; O'Brien, Kerth

    2017-05-04

    Research in patient safety is an important area of health services research and is a national priority. It is challenging to investigate rare occurrences, explore potential causes, and account for the complex, dynamic context of healthcare - yet all are required in patient safety research. Simulation technologies have become widely accepted as education and clinical tools, but have yet to become a standard tool for research. We developed a framework for research that integrates accepted patient safety models with mixed-methods research approaches and describe the performance of the framework in a working example of a large National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded R01 investigation. This worked example of a framework in action, identifies the strengths and limitations of qualitative and quantitative research approaches commonly used in health services research. Each approach builds essential layers of knowledge. We describe how the use of simulation ties these layers of knowledge together and adds new and unique dimensions of knowledge. A mixed-methods research approach that includes simulation provides a broad multi-dimensional approach to health services and patient safety research.

  2. Simulation on the consumption-oriented evaluation of ventilation concepts for buses; Simulation zur verbrauchsorientierten Bewertung von Omnibus-Klimatisierungskonzepten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Christian; Foersterling, Sven; Strupp, Christian; Lemke, Nicholas [TLK Thermo GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Sonnekalb, Michael [Konvekta AG, Schwalmstadt (Germany); Koehler, Juergen [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents different air conditioning system and climate control concepts for buses. These concepts are investigated based on a complete vehicle simulation in order to perform a close-to-reality assessment. The effects of various control strategies are examined in a comparative approach using boundary conditions which are based on on-the-road-relevant test cycles and climatic conditions. The focus of this study is the evaluation of the total energy consumption. Moreover, an analysis of air conditioning systems with conventional and natural refrigerants is presented (R-134a and R-744). Based on simulation results, a high fuel-saving concept is developed and tested in a virtual test drive, in order to present a specific method of control strategy evaluation with transient boundary and environmental conditions. (orig.)

  3. Do Simulation-Based Skill Exercises and Post-Encounter Notes Add Additional Value to a Standardized Patient-Based Clinical Skills Examination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Prislin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Standardized patient (SP clinical assessments have limited utility in assessing higher-level clinical competencies. This study explores the value of including simulation exercises and postencounter notes in an SP clinical skills examination. Methods. Two exercises involving cardiac auscultation and ophthalmic funduscopy simulations along with written post encounter notes were added to an SP-based performance examination. Descriptive analyses of students' performance and correlations with SP-based performance measures were obtained. Results. Students' abilities to detect abnormalities on physical exam were highly variable. There were no correlations between SP-based and simulation-derived measures of physical examination competency. Limited correlations were found between students' abilities to perform and document physical examinations and their formulation of appropriate differential diagnoses. Conclusions. Clinical simulation exercises add depth to SP-based assessments of performance. Evaluating the content of post encounter notes offers some insight into students' integrative abilities, and this appears to be improved by the addition of simulation-based post encounter skill exercises. However, further refinement of this methodology is needed.

  4. Central venous catheterization training: current perspectives on the role of simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffler, Morgan I; Hayes, Margaret M; Smith, C Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Simulation is a popular and effective training modality in medical education across a variety of domains. Central venous catheterization (CVC) is commonly undertaken by trainees, and carries significant risk for patient harm when carried out incorrectly. Multiple studies have evaluated the efficacy of simulation-based training programs, in comparison with traditional training modalities, on learner and patient outcomes. In this review, we discuss relevant adult learning principles that support simulation-based CVC training, review the literature on simulation-based CVC training, and highlight the use of simulation-based CVC training programs at various institutions. PMID:29872360

  5. Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, L; Smith, T; Havsager, A M

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic yield and to describe the spectrum of diagnosis encountered by evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of chronic polyneuropathy. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 198 patients referred to a department of neurology...... with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy. The evaluation included nerve conduction studies with near-nerve technique, quantitative examination of temperature sensation, blood tests, chest x-rays, and skin biopsies as well as diagnostic tests for differential diagnoses. RESULTS: Polyneuropathy was found in 147......%), drugs (5%), connective tissue disease (3%), and a number of less frequent conditions. A previously undiagnosed condition was found in 30% of the patients with polyneuropathy. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of patients with symptoms suggestive of polyneuropathy reveals a high fraction of patients with previously...

  6. Evaluation of the impact of carotid artery bifurcation angle on hemodynamics by use of computational fluid dynamics: a simulation and volunteer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saho, Tatsunori; Onishi, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the hemodynamics of carotid artery bifurcation with various geometries using simulated and volunteer models based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was analyzed by use of OpenFOAM. The velocity distribution, streamline, and wall shear stress (WSS) were evaluated in a simulated model with known bifurcation angles (30°, 40°, 50°, 60°, derived from patients' data) and in three-dimensional (3D) healthy volunteer models. Separated flow was observed at the outer side of the bifurcation, and large bifurcation models represented upstream transfer of the point. Local WSS values at the outer bifurcation [both simulated (100 Pa). The bifurcation angle had a significant negative correlation with the WSS value (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the carotid artery bifurcation angle is related to the WSS value. This suggests that hemodynamic stress can be estimated based on the carotid artery geometry. The construction of a clinical database for estimation of developing atherosclerosis is warranted.

  7. Evaluating the benefits of collaboration in simulation games: the case of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ricky

    2014-01-28

    Organizations have used simulation games for health promotion and communication. To evaluate how simulation games can foster collaboration among stakeholders, this paper develops two social network measures. The paper aims to initiate two specific measures that facilitate organizations and researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based simulation games in fostering collaboration. The two measures are: (1) network density and (2) network diversity. They measure the level of connectedness and communication evenness within social networks. To illustrate how these measures may be used, a hypothetical game about health policy is outlined. Web-based games can serve as an effective platform to engage stakeholders because interaction among them is quite convenient. Yet, systematic evaluation and planning are necessary to realize the benefits of these games. The paper suggests directions for testing how the social network dimension of Web-based games can augment individual-level benefits that stakeholders can obtain from playing simulation games. While this paper focuses on measuring the structural properties of social networks in Web-based games, further research should focus more attention on the appropriateness of game contents. In addition, empirical research should cover different geographical areas, such as East Asian countries where video games are very popular.

  8. Design and evaluation of simulation scenarios for a program introducing patient safety, teamwork, safety leadership, and simulation to healthcare leaders and managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jeffrey B; Singer, Sara J; Hayes, Jennifer; Sales, Michael; Vogt, Jay W; Raemer, Daniel; Meyer, Gregg S

    2011-08-01

    We developed a training program to introduce managers and informal leaders of healthcare organizations to key concepts of teamwork, safety leadership, and simulation to motivate them to act as leaders to improve safety within their sphere of influence. This report describes the simulation scenario and debriefing that are core elements of that program. Twelve teams of clinician and nonclinician managers were selected from a larger set of volunteers to participate in a 1-day, multielement training program. Two simulation exercises were developed: one for teams of nonclinicians and the other for clinicians or mixed groups. The scenarios represented two different clinical situations, each designed to engage participants in discussions of their safety leadership and teamwork issues immediately after the experience. In the scenarios for nonclinicians, participants conducted an anesthetic induction and then managed an ethical situation. The scenario for clinicians simulated a consulting visit to an emergency room that evolved into a problem-solving challenge. Participants in this scenario had a limited time to prepare advice for hospital leadership on how to improve observed safety and cultural deficiencies. Debriefings after both types of scenarios were conducted using principles of "debriefing with good judgment." We assessed the relevance and impact of the program by analyzing participant reactions to the simulation through transcript data and facilitator observations as well as a postcourse questionnaire. The teams generally reported positive perceptions of the relevance and quality of the simulation with varying types and degrees of impact on their leadership and teamwork behaviors. These kinds of clinical simulation exercises can be used to teach healthcare leaders and managers safety leadership and teamwork skills and behaviors.

  9. Simulation Pedagogy With Nurse Practitioner Students: Impact of Receiving Immediate Individualized Faculty Feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Sheila; Conelius, Jaclyn

    2015-01-01

    Family nurse practitioner (FNP) students must achieve basic competency in managing patients' primary care needs across the lifespan. Students in the FNP program have simulations integrated throughout their clinical theory courses to increase practice time with various patient cases. Students who received individualized faculty feedback immediately after self-evaluation of simulation performance showed statistically significantly increased knowledge (as evidenced by higher grades in course examinations and preceptor evaluations) than a control group of students who received feedback in a group class via a rubric grading guide 2-4 weeks after all students completed their individual simulations.

  10. Qualitative evaluation of antibiotic usage in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hindra Irawan Satari; Agus Firmansyah; Theresia Theresia

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotics are among the most commonly prescribed drug for pediatric patients. Inappropriate use of antibiotics can increase morbidity, mortality, patient cost and bacterial antibiotic resistence. Antibiotic uses can be evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. Objective To qualitatively evaluate antibiotic use in patients using Gyssens algorithm. Methods We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of matient medical records of those admitted to the pediatric ward fro...

  11. Preparing teachers for the performance and evaluation of gaming-simulation in experiential learning climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, P; Norman, I

    1989-02-01

    Gaming-simulation exercises have become an established teaching strategy for nursing education. This paper suggests that nurse educators must now attempt to evaluate their effect on learning. Problems of evaluation are discussed and alternative approaches critically considered. The dominant 'classical' approach is rejected in favour of 'illuminative' evaluation and the approach of 'new paradigm research'. Nurse teachers are encouraged to apply the principles of therapeutic community practice and 'gestalt awareness' to the learning environment to enhance gains from experiential approaches. Finally the need to prepare teachers is examined. It is suggested that personal and interpersonal sensitivity, plus the ability to meaningfully facilitate groupwork are necessary prerequisites for effective gaming-simulation and its qualitative evaluation.

  12. Development of the tunneling junction simulation environment for scanning tunneling microscope evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, Krzysztof; Piasecki, Tomasz; Kopiec, Daniel; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2017-01-01

    Proper configuration of scanning tunneling microscope electronics plays an important role in the atomic scale resolution surface imaging. Device evaluation in the tunneling contact between scanning tip and sample may be prone to the surface quality or mechanical disturbances. Thus the use of tunneling junction simulator makes electronics testing more reliable and increases its repeatability. Here, we present the theoretical background enabling the proper selection of electronic components circuitry used as a tunneling junction simulator. We also show how to simulate mechanics related to the piezoelectric scanner, which is applied in real experiments. Practical use of the proposed simulator and its application in metrological characterization of the developed scanning tunneling microscope is also shown. (paper)

  13. Solving the patient zero inverse problem by using generalized simulated annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menin, Olavo H.; Bauch, Chris T.

    2018-01-01

    Identifying patient zero - the initially infected source of a given outbreak - is an important step in epidemiological investigations of both existing and emerging infectious diseases. Here, the use of the Generalized Simulated Annealing algorithm (GSA) to solve the inverse problem of finding the source of an outbreak is studied. The classical disease natural histories susceptible-infected (SI), susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS), susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) in a regular lattice are addressed. Both the position of patient zero and its time of infection are considered unknown. The algorithm performance with respect to the generalization parameter q˜v and the fraction ρ of infected nodes for whom infection was ascertained is assessed. Numerical experiments show the algorithm is able to retrieve the epidemic source with good accuracy, even when ρ is small, but present no evidence to support that GSA performs better than its classical version. Our results suggest that simulated annealing could be a helpful tool for identifying patient zero in an outbreak where not all cases can be ascertained.

  14. Possibilities and limitations of novel in-vitro knee simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Matthias A; Victor, Jan

    2015-09-18

    The ex-vivo evaluation of knee kinematics remains vital to understand the impact of surgical treatments such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA). To that extent, knee simulators have been developed. However, these simulators have mainly focused on the simulation of a squatting motion. The relevance of this motion pattern for patients' activities of daily living is however questionable as squatting is difficult for elderly patients. Walking, stairs and cycling are more relevant motion patterns. This paper presents the design and control of a simulator that allows to independently control the applied kinematic and kinetic boundary conditions to simulate these daily life activities. Thereby, the knee is left with five degrees of freedom; only the knee flexion is actively controlled. From a kinetic point of view, the quadriceps and hamstring muscles are loaded. Optionally, a varus/valgus moment can be applied, facilitating a dynamic evaluation of the knee's stability. The simulator is based on three control loops, whose synchronization appears satisfactory. The input for these control loops can be determined from either musculoskeletal simulations or in accordance to literature data for traditional knee simulators. This opens the door towards an improved understanding of the knee biomechanics and comparison between different applied motion and force patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluations of CMIP5 simulations over cropland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Cropland is one of major sources of carbon lost to the atmosphere and directly contributes to the emissions of greenhouse gases. There is, however, large potential for cropland to reduce its carbon flux to the atmosphere and sequester soil carbon through conservative agriculture management including no-tillage, perennial and/or deep root crops, irrigation, and organic fertilization etc. But these estimations on carbon emissions and sequestrations over cropland under future climate changes and variability remain largest uncertain among all other terrestrial biomes. Global climate and earth system models are an effective tool to study the cropland responses and feedbacks to present and future climate, yet most models in the latest couple model intercomparsion project phase 5 (CMIP5), generally treat cropland similarly as grassland with tuned parameters and do not account for realistic crop phenology, physiology, and management. In this study, we will evaluate the limitations and deficiencies of the CMIP5 models without process-based crop growth models over cropland by comparing their simulations against FLUXNET observations at eight cropland sites. The results show that: (1) the observed and simulated annual cycles generally are not consistent in either phase or amplitude; (2) the MPI and IPSL model families have better skills in the annual cycles of gross primary product (GPP), net ecosystem production (NEP), and terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) than other models at the corn/soybean and cereal sites respectively; (3) none of the CMIP5 models successfully simulate the observed two-peak pattern in the annual cycles of sensible heat fluxes at the corn/soybean sites; (4) the simulated GPPs and NEPs of the CESM1, BCC model families and NorESM1-M are much smaller than the observations for entire year; (5) model members from same model family normally simulate similar annual cycles both in phase and magnitude, but the model members from the CESM1 model family with

  16. Using the building energy simulation test (BESTEST) to evaluate CHENATH, the Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme Simulation Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsante, A.E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Highett, VIC (Australia). Div. of Building Construction and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The Nationwide House Energy Rating Scheme (NatHERS) uses a simulation program as its reference tool to evaluate the energy demand of buildings. The Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) developed software called CHENATH, is a significantly enhanced version of the CHEETAH simulation program. As part of the NatHERS development process, it was considered important to subject CHENATH to further testing. Two separate evaluation projects were undertaken. This paper describes one of these projects. CHENATH was compared with a reference set of eight internationally recognized simulation programs using the BESTEST methodology. Annual heating and cooling energy requirements were compared for a specified set of variations on a simple double-glazed building. Annual incident and transmitted solar radiation was also compared, for which CHENATH agreed very well with the reference set. It also agreed well for heating energy, but tended to over-predict cooling energy. This is largely because it controls an environmental temperature rather than the required air temperature. For the same reason CHENATH over-predicted heating and cooling demands. No major discrepancies were found that would suggest bugs in the program. (author). 4 tabs., 10 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Using screen-based simulation of inhaled anaesthetic delivery to improve patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, J H

    2015-12-01

    Screen-based simulation can improve patient care by giving novices and experienced clinicians insight into drug behaviour. Gas Man(®) is a screen-based simulation program that depicts pictorially and graphically the anaesthetic gas and vapour tension from the vaporizer to the site of action, namely the brain and spinal cord. The gases and vapours depicted are desflurane, enflurane, ether, halothane, isoflurane, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, and xenon. Multiple agents can be administered simultaneously or individually and the results shown on an overlay graph. Practice exercises provide in-depth knowledge of the subject matter. Experienced clinicians can simulate anaesthesia occurrences and practices for application to their clinical practice, and publish the results to benefit others to improve patient care. Published studies using this screen-based simulation have led to a number of findings, as follows: changing from isoflurane to desflurane toward the end of anaesthesia does not accelerate recovery in humans; vital capacity induction can produce loss of consciousness in 45 s; simulated context-sensitive decrement times explain recovery profiles; hyperventilation does not dramatically speed emergence; high fresh gas flow is wasteful; fresh gas flow and not the vaporizer setting should be reduced during intubation; re-anaesthetization can occur with severe hypoventilation after extubation; and in re-anaesthetization, the anaesthetic redistributes from skeletal muscle. Researchers using screen-based simulations can study fewer subjects to reach valid conclusions that impact clinical care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Evaluating Simulation in Training for Arthroscopic Knee Surgery: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetaimish, Bandar; Elbadawi, Hussein; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the reported outcomes for measuring the effectiveness of simulation during knee arthroscopy training and determine the consistency of reporting and validation of simulation used in knee arthroscopy training. Four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) were screened for studies involving knee arthroscopy simulation training. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the searched studies, and a quality assessment was completed for included studies. The reviewers searched the references list in each of the eligible studies to identify other relevant studies that was not captured by our search strategy. We identified 13 eligible studies. The mean number of participants per study was 24 (range: 9 to 42 participants). The 3 most commonly reported surgical skills were the mean time to perform the task (100%), the visualization and probing tasks (77%), and the number of cartilage collisions with measurement of the surgical force (46%). The most commonly described measurement instruments included the Simulation Built-In Scoring System (54%), motion analysis system (23%), and Basic Arthroscopic Knee Skill Scoring System global rating scale (15%). The most frequently reported type of validity for the simulator was construct validity (54%) and concurrent validity (31%). Moreover, construct validity (69%) and concurrent validity (54%) were the most commonly reported type of validity for the measurement instrument. There is significant variation in reported learning outcomes and measurement instruments for evaluating the effectiveness of knee arthroscopic simulation-based education. Despite this, time to perform a task was the most commonly reported skill-evaluating outcome of simulation. The included studies in this review were of variable strength in terms of their evidence and methodologic quality. This study highlights the need for consistent outcome reporting after arthroscopic simulation training. Level IV

  19. Simulation Training: Evaluating the Instructor’s Contribution to a Wizard of Oz Simulator in Obstetrics and Gynecology Ultrasound Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Ronnie

    2017-01-01

    Background Workplaces today demand graduates who are prepared with field-specific knowledge, advanced social skills, problem-solving skills, and integration capabilities. Meeting these goals with didactic learning (DL) is becoming increasingly difficult. Enhanced training methods that would better prepare tomorrow’s graduates must be more engaging and game-like, such as feedback based e-learning or simulation-based training, while saving time. Empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of advanced learning methods is lacking. Objective quantitative research comparing advanced training methods with DL is sparse. Objectives This quantitative study assessed the effectiveness of a computerized interactive simulator coupled with an instructor who monitored students’ progress and provided Web-based immediate feedback. Methods A low-cost, globally accessible, telemedicine simulator, developed at the Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel—was used. A previous study in the field of interventional cardiology, evaluating the efficacy of the simulator to enhanced learning via knowledge exams, presented promising results of average scores varying from 94% after training and 54% before training (n=20) with Pe-learning in the field of Ob-Gyn. Results from objective knowledge tests were analyzed using hypothesis testing and model fitting. Results A significant advantage (P=.01) was found in favor of the WOZ training approach. Content type and training audience were not significant. Conclusions This study evaluated the contribution of an integrated teaching environment using a computerized interactive simulator, with an instructor providing immediate Web-based immediate feedback to trainees. Involvement of an instructor in the simulation-based training process provided better learning outcomes that varied training content and trainee populations did not affect the overall learning gains. PMID:28432039

  20. Using a Radiofrequency Identification System for Improving the Patient Discharge Process: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Sung J; Kumar, Arun; Jiao, Roger

    2016-01-01

    A hospital is considering deploying a radiofrequency identification (RFID) system and setting up a new "discharge lounge" to improve the patient discharge process. This study uses computer simulation to model and compare the current process and the new process, and it assesses the impact of the RFID system and the discharge lounge on the process in terms of resource utilization and time taken in the process. The simulation results regarding resource utilization suggest that the RFID system can slightly relieve the burden on all resources, whereas the RFID system and the discharge lounge together can significantly mitigate the nurses' tasks. The simulation results in terms of the time taken demonstrate that the RFID system can shorten patient wait times, staff busy times, and bed occupation times. The results of the study could prove helpful to others who are considering the use of an RFID system in the patient discharge process in hospitals or similar processes.

  1. [Simulation in surgical training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, A; Schipper, J

    2017-01-01

    Patient safety during operations hinges on the surgeon's skills and abilities. However, surgical training has come under a variety of restrictions. To acquire dexterity with decreasingly "simple" cases, within the legislative time constraints and increasing expectations for surgical results is the future challenge. Are there alternatives to traditional master-apprentice learning? A literature review and analysis of the development, implementation, and evaluation of surgical simulation are presented. Simulation, using a variety of methods, most important physical and virtual (computer-generated) models, provides a safe environment to practice basic and advanced skills without endangering patients. These environments have specific strengths and weaknesses. Simulations can only serve to decrease the slope of learning curves, but cannot be a substitute for the real situation. Thus, they have to be an integral part of a comprehensive training curriculum. Our surgical societies have to take up that challenge to ensure the training of future generations.

  2. Treatment simulations with a statistical deformable motion model to evaluate margins for multiple targets in radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thörnqvist, Sara; Hysing, Liv B.; Zolnay, Andras G.; Söhn, Matthias; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Muren, Ludvig P.; Bentzen, Lise; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Deformation and correlated target motion remain challenges for margin recipes in radiotherapy (RT). This study presents a statistical deformable motion model for multiple targets and applies it to margin evaluations for locally advanced prostate cancer i.e. RT of the prostate (CTV-p), seminal vesicles (CTV-sv) and pelvic lymph nodes (CTV-ln). Material and methods: The 19 patients included in this study, all had 7–10 repeat CT-scans available that were rigidly aligned with the planning CT-scan using intra-prostatic implanted markers, followed by deformable registrations. The displacement vectors from the deformable registrations were used to create patient-specific statistical motion models. The models were applied in treatment simulations to determine probabilities for adequate target coverage, e.g. by establishing distributions of the accumulated dose to 99% of the target volumes (D 99 ) for various CTV–PTV expansions in the planning-CTs. Results: The method allowed for estimation of the expected accumulated dose and its variance of different DVH parameters for each patient. Simulations of inter-fractional motion resulted in 7, 10, and 18 patients with an average D 99 >95% of the prescribed dose for CTV-p expansions of 3 mm, 4 mm and 5 mm, respectively. For CTV-sv and CTV-ln, expansions of 3 mm, 5 mm and 7 mm resulted in 1, 11 and 15 vs. 8, 18 and 18 patients respectively with an average D 99 >95% of the prescription. Conclusions: Treatment simulations of target motion revealed large individual differences in accumulated dose mainly for CTV-sv, demanding the largest margins whereas those required for CTV-p and CTV-ln were comparable

  3. Long-term effect of galantamine on cognitive function in patients with Alzheimer’s disease versus a simulated disease trajectory: an observational study in the clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryoko Nakagawa,1 Takashi Ohnishi,1 Hisanori Kobayashi,1 Toshio Yamaoka,2 Tsutomu Yajima,3 Ai Tanimura,4 Toshiya Kato,4 Kazutake Yoshizawa1 1Evidence Generation Department, Medical Affairs Division, 2Clinical Data Management Department, R&D Division, 3Biostatistics Department, Quantitative Science Division, 4Drug Surveillance Department, R&D Division, Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K., Tokyo, Japan Background: Long-term maintenance of cognitive function is an important goal of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but evidence about the long-term efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors is sparse. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of galantamine for AD in routine clinical practice, we conducted a 72-week post-marketing surveillance study. The effect of galantamine on cognitive function was estimated in comparison with a simulated disease trajectory. Patients and methods: Patients with mild-to-moderate AD received flexible dosing of galantamine (16–24 mg/day during this study. Cognitive function was assessed by the mini mental state examination (MMSE and the clinical status was determined by the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I. Changes of the MMSE score without treatment were estimated in each patient using Mendiondo’s model. Generalized linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the simulated MMSE scores with the actual scores. Results: Of the 661 patients who were enrolled, 642 were evaluable for safety and 554 were assessed for efficacy. The discontinuation rate was 46.73%. Cognitive decline indicated by the mean change of actual MMSE scores was significantly smaller than the simulated decline. Individual analysis demonstrated that >70% of patients had better actual MMSE scores than their simulated scores. Significant improvement of CGI-I was also observed during the observation period. Adverse events occurred in 28.5% of patients and were serious in 8.41%. The reported events generally corresponded with the

  4. Inverse simulation system for evaluating handling qualities during rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanmeng; Wang, Hua; Thomson, Douglas; Tang, Guojin; Zhang, Fan

    2017-08-01

    The traditional method used for handling qualities assessment of manned space vehicles is too time-consuming to meet the requirements of an increasingly fast design process. In this study, a rendezvous and docking inverse simulation system to assess the handling qualities of spacecraft is proposed using a previously developed model-predictive-control architecture. By considering the fixed discrete force of the thrusters of the system, the inverse model is constructed using the least squares estimation method with a hyper-ellipsoidal restriction, the continuous control outputs of which are subsequently dispersed by pulse width modulation with sensitivity factors introduced. The inputs in every step are deemed constant parameters, and the method could be considered as a general method for solving nominal, redundant, and insufficient inverse problems. The rendezvous and docking inverse simulation is applied to a nine-degrees-of-freedom platform, and a novel handling qualities evaluation scheme is established according to the operation precision and astronauts' workload. Finally, different nominal trajectories are scored by the inverse simulation and an established evaluation scheme. The scores can offer theoretical guidance for astronaut training and more complex operation missions.

  5. [Evaluation of patient doses in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropolo, R; Rampado, O; Isoardi, P; Gandini, G; Rabbia, C; Righi, D

    2001-01-01

    To verify the suitability of indicative quantities to evaluate the risk related to patient exposure, in abdominal and vascular interventional radiology, by the study of correlations between dosimetric quantities and other indicators. We performed in vivo measurements of entrance skin dose (ESD) and dose area product (DAP) during 48 procedures to evaluate the correlation among dosimetric quantities, and an estimation of spatial distribution of exposure and effective dose (E). To measure DAP we used a transmission ionization chamber and to evaluate ESD and its spatial distribution we used radiographic film packed in a single envelope and placed near the patient's skin. E was estimated by a calculation software using data from film digitalisation. From the data derived for measurements in 27 interventional procedures on 48 patients we obtained a DAP to E conversion factor of 0.15 mSv / Gy cm2, with an excellent correlation (r=.99). We also found a good correlation between DAP and exposure parameters such as fluoroscopy time and number of images. The greatest effective dose was evaluated for a multiple procedure in the hepatic region, with a DAP value of 425 Gy cm2. The greatest ESD was about 550 mGy. For groups of patients undergoing similar interventional procedures the correlation between ESD and DAP had conversion factors from 6 to 12 mGy Gy-1 cm-2. The evaluation of ESD and E by slow films represents a valid method for patient dosimetry in interventional radiology. The good correlation between DAP and fluoroscopy time and number of images confirm the suitability of these indicators as basic dosimetric information. All the ESD values found are lower than threshold doses for deterministic effects.

  6. IMPROVING MEDICAL EDUCATION: SIMULATING CHANGES IN PATIENT ANATOMY USING DYNAMIC HAPTIC FEEDBACK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanoff, Mary; Pepley, David; Mirkin, Katelin; Moore, Jason; Han, David; Miller, Scarlett

    2016-09-01

    Virtual simulation is an emerging field in medical education. Research suggests that simulation reduces complication rates and improves learning gains for medical residents. One benefit of simulators is their allowance for more realistic and dynamic patient anatomies. While potentially useful throughout medical education, few studies have explored the impact of dynamic haptic simulators on medical training. In light of this research void, this study was developed to examine how a Dynamic-Haptic Robotic Trainer (DHRT) impacts medical student self-efficacy and skill gains compared to traditional simulators developed to train students in Internal Jugular Central Venous Catheter (IJ CVC) placement. The study was conducted with 18 third year medical students with no prior CVC insertion experience who underwent a pre-test, simulator training (manikin, robotic, or mixed) and post-test. The results revealed the DHRT as a useful method for training CVC skills and supports further research on dynamic haptic trainers in medical education.

  7. Performance Evaluation of UML2-Modeled Embedded Streaming Applications with System-Level Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpinen Tero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an efficient method to capture abstract performance model of streaming data real-time embedded systems (RTESs. Unified Modeling Language version 2 (UML2 is used for the performance modeling and as a front-end for a tool framework that enables simulation-based performance evaluation and design-space exploration. The adopted application meta-model in UML resembles the Kahn Process Network (KPN model and it is targeted at simulation-based performance evaluation. The application workload modeling is done using UML2 activity diagrams, and platform is described with structural UML2 diagrams and model elements. These concepts are defined using a subset of the profile for Modeling and Analysis of Realtime and Embedded (MARTE systems from OMG and custom stereotype extensions. The goal of the performance modeling and simulation is to achieve early estimates on task response times, processing element, memory, and on-chip network utilizations, among other information that is used for design-space exploration. As a case study, a video codec application on multiple processors is modeled, evaluated, and explored. In comparison to related work, this is the first proposal that defines transformation between UML activity diagrams and streaming data application workload meta models and successfully adopts it for RTES performance evaluation.

  8. Veterans Like Me: Formative evaluation of a patient decision aid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Bryan; Butler, Jorie; Doyon, Katherine; Ellington, Lee; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Patient decision aids are tools intended to facilitate shared decision-making. Currently development of a patient decision aid is resource intensive: it requires a decision-specific review of the scientific literature by experts to ascertain the potential outcomes under different treatments. The goal of this project was to conduct a formative evaluation of a generalizable, scalable decision aid component we call Veterans Like Me (VLme). VLme mines EHR data to present the outcomes of individuals "like you" on different treatments to the user. These outcome are presented through a combination of an icon array and simulated narratives. Twenty-six patients participated in semi-structured interviews intended to elicit feedback on the tool's functional and interface design. The interview focused on the filters users desired with which to make cases similar to them, the kinds of outcomes they wanted presented, and their envisioned use of the tool. The interview also elicited participants information needs and salient factors related to the therapeutic decision. The interview transcripts were analyzed using an iteratively refined coding schema and content analysis. . Participants generally expressed enthusiasm for the tool's design and functionality. Our analysis identified desired filters for users to view patients like themselves, outcome types that should be included in future iterations of the tool (e.g. patient reported outcomes), and information needs that need to be addressed for patients to effectively participate in shared decision making. Implications for the integration of our findings into the design of patient decision aids are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Learning from mistakes in a simulated nursing leadership laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Anne; Shinnick, Mary Ann; Judson, Lorie H

    2012-09-01

    Human patient simulation in nursing education has become an accepted and expected form of pedagogy. Research on the use of human patient simulation to evaluate student performance, however, is still at an early stage. The vast majority of these sources report the unit of analysis as the nurse-patient dyad (one nurse-one patient) situated in an infrequently occurring, high-risk, or costly event such as a code blue, and the literature reveals little evidence on the efficacy of the use of simulation for the care of multiple patients. The teaching innovation, discussed herein, involving a simulation, used a leadership scenario of a routine day in an acute-care hospital unit. The aim of the project was to provide a high-fidelity simulation of the competing demands on a nurse's time and attention while caring for multiple patients. Working as a team, using principles of prioritization, delegation, scope of practice, and communication, senior baccalaureate nursing students assumed the various roles of interdisciplinary team members as they moved through staged sequences of changing patient and unit conditions. This was followed by debriefing session that prompted the students to identify their errors in judgment, including sending the wrong patient to the operating room, failing to rescue a patient, and failing to delegate critical tasks to other nursing team members.

  10. Study on applicability of numerical simulation to evaluation of gas entrainment due to free surface vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kei; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    An onset condition of gas entrainment (GE) due to free surface vortex has been studied to establish a design of sodium-cooled fast reactor with a higher coolant velocity than conventional designs. Numerous investigations have been conducted experimentally and theoretically; however, the universal onset condition of the GE has not been determined yet due to the nonlinear characteristics of the GE. Recently, we have been studying numerical simulation methods as a promising method to evaluate GE, instead of the reliable but costly real-scale tests. In this paper, the applicability of the numerical simulation methods to the evaluation of the GE is discussed. For the purpose, a quasi-steady vortex in a cylindrical tank and a wake vortex (unsteady vortex) in a rectangular channel were numerically simulated using the volume-of-fluid type two-phase flow calculation method. The simulated velocity distributions and free surface shapes of the quasi-steady vortex showed good (not perfect, however) agreements with experimental results when a fine mesh subdivision and a high-order discretization scheme were employed. The unsteady behavior of the wake vortex was also simulated with high accuracy. Although the onset condition of the GE was slightly underestimated in the simulation results, the applicability of the numerical simulation methods to the GE evaluation was confirmed. (author)

  11. Assessment of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhn EG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Endale Gebreegziabher Gebremedhn, Vidhya Nagaratnam Department of Anesthesia, School of Medicine, Gondar College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: The evaluation of patient satisfaction is a core aspect of the continuous quality improvement in anesthesia service that can be affected by the preoperative anesthetist visit. This visit enables the anesthetist to know about the patient's general health status and the nature of surgery, to choose the type of anesthesia, and to discuss perioperative complications and their management with the patient. Patients have sometimes complained about the information given during the preoperative anesthetic evaluation in the University of Gondar teaching and referral hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the level of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2013. All consecutive elective patients who were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period were interviewed 24 hours after operation. A pretested questionnaire and checklists, which were developed based on the hospital's anesthetic evaluation sheet, were used for data collection. Results: A total of 116 elective patients were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period. Of these, 102 patients were included in our study, with a response rate of 87.9%. Anesthetists introduced themselves to ~24% patients; provided information about anesthesia to ~32%, postoperative complications to ~21%, postoperative analgesia to ~18, and postoperative nausea and vomiting to ~21%; and spent adequate time with ~74%. Patients' questions were answered by the anesthetist in ~65% of cases, and ~65% of patients had reduced anxiety after the anesthetist visit. The patients' overall satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit was ~65%. Conclusion and recommendation: Patient satisfaction with the

  12. Automated element identification for EDS spectra evaluation using quantification and integrated spectra simulation approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, F

    2010-01-01

    This work describes first real automated solution for qualitative evaluation of EDS spectra in X-ray microanalysis. It uses a combination of integrated standardless quantitative evaluation, computation of analytical errors to a final uncertainty, and parts of recently developed simulation approaches. Multiple spectra reconstruction assessments and peak searches of the residual spectrum are powerful enough to solve the qualitative analytical question automatically for totally unknown specimens. The integrated quantitative assessment is useful to improve the confidence of the qualitative analysis. Therefore, the qualitative element analysis becomes a part of integrated quantitative spectrum evaluation, where the quantitative results are used to iteratively refine element decisions, spectrum deconvolution, and simulation steps.

  13. Development of Reliable and Validated Tools to Evaluate Technical Resuscitation Skills in a Pediatric Simulation Setting: Resuscitation and Emergency Simulation Checklist for Assessment in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faudeux, Camille; Tran, Antoine; Dupont, Audrey; Desmontils, Jonathan; Montaudié, Isabelle; Bréaud, Jean; Braun, Marc; Fournier, Jean-Paul; Bérard, Etienne; Berlengi, Noémie; Schweitzer, Cyril; Haas, Hervé; Caci, Hervé; Gatin, Amélie; Giovannini-Chami, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    To develop a reliable and validated tool to evaluate technical resuscitation skills in a pediatric simulation setting. Four Resuscitation and Emergency Simulation Checklist for Assessment in Pediatrics (RESCAPE) evaluation tools were created, following international guidelines: intraosseous needle insertion, bag mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, and cardiac massage. We applied a modified Delphi methodology evaluation to binary rating items. Reliability was assessed comparing the ratings of 2 observers (1 in real time and 1 after a video-recorded review). The tools were assessed for content, construct, and criterion validity, and for sensitivity to change. Inter-rater reliability, evaluated with Cohen kappa coefficients, was perfect or near-perfect (>0.8) for 92.5% of items and each Cronbach alpha coefficient was ≥0.91. Principal component analyses showed that all 4 tools were unidimensional. Significant increases in median scores with increasing levels of medical expertise were demonstrated for RESCAPE-intraosseous needle insertion (P = .0002), RESCAPE-bag mask ventilation (P = .0002), RESCAPE-endotracheal intubation (P = .0001), and RESCAPE-cardiac massage (P = .0037). Significantly increased median scores over time were also demonstrated during a simulation-based educational program. RESCAPE tools are reliable and validated tools for the evaluation of technical resuscitation skills in pediatric settings during simulation-based educational programs. They might also be used for medical practice performance evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation experience enhances physical therapist student confidence in managing a patient in the critical care environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Patricia J; Lazarus, Marcilene; Schillo, Rebecca; Rosen, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Rehabilitation of patients in critical care environments improves functional outcomes. This finding has led to increased implementation of intensive care unit (ICU) rehabilitation programs, including early mobility, and an associated increased demand for physical therapists practicing in ICUs. Unfortunately, many physical therapists report being inadequately prepared to work in this high-risk environment. Simulation provides focused, deliberate practice in safe, controlled learning environments and may be a method to initiate academic preparation of physical therapists for ICU practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in simulation-based management of a patient with critical illness in an ICU setting on levels of confidence and satisfaction in physical therapist students. A one-group, pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design was used. Physical therapist students (N=43) participated in a critical care simulation experience requiring technical (assessing bed mobility and pulmonary status), behavioral (patient and interprofessional communication), and cognitive (recognizing a patient status change and initiating appropriate responses) skill performance. Student confidence and satisfaction were surveyed before and after the simulation experience. Students' confidence in their technical, behavioral, and cognitive skill performance increased from "somewhat confident" to "confident" following the critical care simulation experience. Student satisfaction was highly positive, with strong agreement the simulation experience was valuable, reinforced course content, and was a useful educational tool. Limitations of the study were the small sample from one university and a control group was not included. Incorporating a simulated, interprofessional critical care experience into a required clinical course improved physical therapist student confidence in technical, behavioral, and cognitive performance measures and was associated with high

  15. Cray XT4: An Early Evaluation for Petascale Scientific Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Sadaf R.; Barrett, Richard F.; Fahey, Mark R.; Kuehn, Jeffery A.; Sankaran, Ramanan; Worley, Patrick H.; Larkin, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    The scientific simulation capabilities of next generation high-end computing technology will depend on striking a balance among memory, processor, I/O, and local and global network performance across the breadth of the scientific simulation space. The Cray XT4 combines commodity AMD dual core Opteron processor technology with the second generation of Cray's custom communication accelerator in a system design whose balance is claimed to be driven by the demands of scientific simulation. This paper presents an evaluation of the Cray XT4 using microbenchmarks to develop a controlled understanding of individual system components, providing the context for analyzing and comprehending the performance of several petascale-ready applications. Results gathered from several strategic application domains are compared with observations on the previous generation Cray XT3 and other high-end computing systems, demonstrating performance improvements across a wide variety of application benchmark problems.

  16. Functional requirements for an Exercise Evaluation and Simulation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The Exercise Evaluation and Simulation Facility (EESF) is a computer-based resource that will improve FEMA's capabilities for evaluating radiological emergency plans and preparedness around commercial nuclear sites. The EESF is being designed from the perspective of the organizations involved (i.e., FEMA Regional and National, and state and local response teams) and takes into account the evolution of radiological and other emergency preparedness activities. Like radiological emergency planning, EESF will evolve to suit FEMA (National and Regional) needs and interests and will be increasingly useful as a resource for radiological emergency planning and evaluation. Table ES-1 briefly describes seven functions for which EESF is currently being designed. They are listed in the approximate order in which they will be designed, developed, and implemented. The only exception is the data base function, which will be developed parallel with the other six functions and enhanced to support these functions, as well as be a source of information on sites, plans, exercises, and evaluations

  17. The need for psycho-oncological support for melanoma patients: Central role of patients' self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Simone; Teufel, Martin; Schaeffeler, Norbert; Keim, Ulrike; Garbe, Claus; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Zipfel, Stephan; Forschner, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    Despite an increasing number of promising treatment options, only a limited number of studies concerning melanoma patients' psycho-oncological distress have been carried out. However, multiple screening tools are in use to assess the need for psycho-oncological support. This study aimed first to identify parameters in melanoma patients that are associated with a higher risk for being psycho-oncologically distressed and second to compare patients' self-evaluation concerning the need for psycho-oncological support with the results of established screening tools.We performed a cross-sectional study including 254 melanoma patients from the Center for Dermatooncology at the University of Tuebingen. The study was performed between June 2010 and February 2013. Several screening instruments were included: the Distress Thermometer (DT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the patients' subjective evaluation concerning psycho-oncological support. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify factors that indicate the need for psycho-oncological support.Patients' subjective evaluation concerning the need for psycho-oncological support, female gender, and psychotherapeutic or psychiatric treatment at present or in the past had the highest impact on values above threshold in the DT. The odds ratio of patients' self-evaluation (9.89) was even higher than somatic factors like female gender (1.85), duration of illness (0.99), or increasing age (0.97). Patients' self-evaluation concerning the need for psycho-oncological support indicated a moderate correlation with the results of the screening tools included.In addition to the results obtained by screening tools like the DT, we could demonstrate that patients' self-evaluation is an important instrument to identify patients who need psycho-oncological support.

  18. Three-dimensional prototyping for procedural simulation of transcatheter mitral valve replacement in patients with mitral annular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sabbagh, Abdallah; Eleid, Mackram F; Matsumoto, Jane M; Anavekar, Nandan S; Al-Hijji, Mohammed A; Said, Sameh M; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Foley, Thomas A

    2018-01-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) prototyping is a novel technology which can be used to plan and guide complex procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). Eight patients with severe mitral annular calcification (MAC) underwent TMVR. 3D digital models with digital balloon expandable valves were created from pre-procedure CT scans using dedicated software. Five models were printed. These models were used to assess prosthesis sizing, anchoring, expansion, paravalvular gaps, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, and other potential procedure pitfalls. Results of 3D prototyping were then compared to post procedural imaging to determine how closely the achieved procedural result mirrored the 3D modeled result. 3D prototyping simulated LVOT obstruction in one patient who developed it and in another patient who underwent alcohol septal ablation prior to TMVR. Valve sizing correlated with actual placed valve size in six out of the eight patients and more than mild paravalvular leak (PVL) was simulated in two of the three patients who had it. Patients who had mismatch between their modeled valve size and post-procedural imaging were the ones that had anterior leaflet resection which could have altered valve sizing and PVL simulation. 3D printed model of one of the latter patients allowed modification of anterior leaflet to simulate surgical resection and was able to estimate the size and location of the PVL after inserting a valve stent into the physical model. 3D prototyping in TMVR for severe MAC is feasible for simulating valve sizing, apposition, expansion, PVL, and LVOT obstruction. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluative Conditioning with Facial Stimuli in Dementia Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Blessing, Andreas; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Weierstall, Roland; Dammann, Gerhard; Martin, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a study investigating evaluative learning in dementia patients with a classic evaluative conditioning paradigm. Picture pairs of three unfamiliar faces with liked, disliked, or neutral faces, that were rated prior to the presentation, were presented 10 times each to a group of dementia patients (N = 15) and healthy controls (N = 14) in random order. Valence ratings of all faces were assessed before and after presentation. In contrast to controls, dementia patients chan...

  20. Quantitative Simulations Predict Treatment Strategies Against Fungal Infections in Virtual Neutropenic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Sandra; Lehnert, Teresa; Prauße, Maria T E; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    The condition of neutropenia, i.e., a reduced absolute neutrophil count in blood, constitutes a major risk factor for severe infections in the affected patients. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are opportunistic pathogens and the most prevalent fungal species in the human microbiota. In immunocompromised patients, they can become pathogenic and cause infections with high mortality rates. In this study, we use a previously established approach that combines experiments and computational models to investigate the innate immune response during blood stream infections with the two fungal pathogens C. albicans and C. glabrata . First, we determine immune-reaction rates and migration parameters under healthy conditions. Based on these findings, we simulate virtual patients and investigate the impact of neutropenic conditions on the infection outcome with the respective pathogen. Furthermore, we perform in silico treatments of these virtual patients by simulating a medical treatment that enhances neutrophil activity in terms of phagocytosis and migration. We quantify the infection outcome by comparing the response to the two fungal pathogens relative to non-neutropenic individuals. The analysis reveals that these fungal infections in neutropenic patients can be successfully cleared by cytokine treatment of the remaining neutrophils; and that this treatment is more effective for C. glabrata than for C. albicans .

  1. Evaluative Conditioning with Facial Stimuli in Dementia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Andreas; Zöllig, Jacqueline; Weierstall, Roland; Dammann, Gerhard; Martin, Mike

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a study investigating evaluative learning in dementia patients with a classic evaluative conditioning paradigm. Picture pairs of three unfamiliar faces with liked, disliked, or neutral faces, that were rated prior to the presentation, were presented 10 times each to a group of dementia patients (N = 15) and healthy controls (N = 14) in random order. Valence ratings of all faces were assessed before and after presentation. In contrast to controls, dementia patients changed their valence ratings of unfamiliar faces according to their pairing with either a liked or disliked face, although they were not able to explicitly assign the picture pairs after the presentation. Our finding suggests preserved evaluative conditioning in dementia patients. However, the result has to be considered preliminary, as it is unclear which factors prevented the predicted rating changes in the expected direction in the control group.

  2. Blended learning in surgery using the Inmedea Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Katrin; Bonrath, Esther; Mardin, Wolf Arif; Becker, Jan Carl; Haier, Joerg; Senninger, Norbert; Vowinkel, Thorsten; Hoelzen, Jens Peter; Mees, Soeren Torge

    2013-02-01

    Recently, medical education in surgery has experienced several modifications. We have implemented a blended learning module in our teaching curriculum to evaluate its effectiveness, applicability, and acceptance in surgical education. In this prospective study, the traditional face-to-face learning of our teaching curriculum for fourth-year medical students (n = 116) was augmented by the Inmedea Simulator, a web-based E-learning system, with six virtual patient cases. Student results were documented by the system and learning success was determined by comparing patient cases with comparable diseases (second and sixth case). The acceptance among the students was evaluated with a questionnaire. After using the Inmedea Simulator, correct diagnoses were found significantly (P blended learning (score 2.5 ± 1.2) to conventional teaching. The blended learning approach using the Inmedea Simulator was highly appreciated by our medical students and resulted in a significant learning success. Blended learning appears to be a suitable tool to complement traditional teaching in surgery.

  3. A 4D digital phantom for patient-specific simulation of brain CT perfusion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, Rieneke; Manniesing, Rashindra; Oei, Marcel T H; van der Woude, Willem-Jan; Smit, Ewoud J; Laue, Hendrik O A; van Ginneken, Bram; Prokop, Mathias

    2014-07-01

    Optimizing CT brain perfusion protocols is a challenge because of the complex interaction between image acquisition, calculation of perfusion data, and patient hemodynamics. Several digital phantoms have been developed to avoid unnecessary patient exposure or suboptimum choice of parameters. The authors expand this idea by using realistic noise patterns and measured tissue attenuation curves representing patient-specific hemodynamics. The purpose of this work is to validate that this approach can realistically simulate mean perfusion values and noise on perfusion data for individual patients. The proposed 4D digital phantom consists of three major components: (1) a definition of the spatial structure of various brain tissues within the phantom, (2) measured tissue attenuation curves, and (3) measured noise patterns. Tissue attenuation curves were measured in patient data using regions of interest in gray matter and white matter. By assigning the tissue attenuation curves to the corresponding tissue curves within the phantom, patient-specific CTP acquisitions were retrospectively simulated. Noise patterns were acquired by repeatedly scanning an anthropomorphic skull phantom at various exposure settings. The authors selected 20 consecutive patients that were scanned for suspected ischemic stroke and constructed patient-specific 4D digital phantoms using the individual patients' hemodynamics. The perfusion maps of the patient data were compared with the digital phantom data. Agreement between phantom- and patient-derived data was determined for mean perfusion values and for standard deviation in de perfusion data using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and a linear fit. ICCs ranged between 0.92 and 0.99 for mean perfusion values. ICCs for the standard deviation in perfusion maps were between 0.86 and 0.93. Linear fitting yielded slope values between 0.90 and 1.06. A patient-specific 4D digital phantom allows for realistic simulation of mean values and

  4. Simulation with standardized patients to prepare undergraduate nursing students for mental health clinical practice: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øgård-Repål, Anita; De Presno, Åsne Knutson; Fossum, Mariann

    2018-04-22

    To evaluate the available evidence supporting the efficacy of using simulation with standardized patients to prepare nursing students for mental health clinical practice. Integrative literature review. A systematic search of the electronic databases CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SveMed+ was conducted to identify empirical studies published until November 2016. Multiple search terms were used. Original empirical studies published in English and exploring undergraduate nursing students' experiences of simulation with standardized patients as preparation for mental health nursing practice were included. A search of reference lists and gray literature was also conducted. In total, 1677 studies were retrieved; the full texts of 78 were screened by 2 of the authors, and 6 studies reminded in the review. The authors independently reviewed the studies in three stages by screening the titles, abstracts, and full texts, and the quality of the included studies was assessed in the final stage. Design-specific checklists were used for quality appraisal. The thematic synthesizing method was used to summarize the findings of the included studies. The studies used four different research designs, both qualitative and quantitative. All studies scored fairly low in the quality appraisal. The five themes identified were enhanced confidence, clinical skills, anxiety regarding the unknown, demystification, and self-awareness. The findings of this study indicate that simulation with standardized patients could decrease students' anxiety level, shatter pre-assumptions, and increase self-confidence and self-awareness before entering clinical practice in mental health. More high-quality studies with larger sample sizes are required because of the limited evidence provided by the six studies in the present review. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS USING A SOLAR SIMULATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Norhafana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar water heating systems is one of the applications of solar energy. One of the components of a solar water heating system is a solar collector that consists of an absorber. The performance of the solar water heating system depends on the absorber in the solar collector. In countries with unsuitable weather conditions, the indoor testing of solar collectors with the use of a solar simulator is preferred. Thus, this study is conducted to use a multilayered absorber in the solar collector of a solar water heating system as well as to evaluate the performance of the solar collector in terms of useful heat of the multilayered absorber using the multidirectional ability of a solar simulator at several values of solar radiation. It is operated at three variables of solar radiation of 400 W/m2, 550 W/m2 and 700 W/m2 and using three different positions of angles at 0º, 45º and 90º. The results show that the multilayer absorber in the solar collector is only able to best adapt at 45° of solar simulator with different values of radiation intensity. At this angle the maximum values of useful heat and temperature difference are achieved. KEYWORDS: solar water heating system; solar collector; multilayered absorber; solar simulator; solar radiation 

  6. Virtual patient simulation in psychiatric care - A pilot study of digital support for collaborate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Karlsson, Karin; Lindell, Lisbeth; Fors, Uno

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric and mental health nursing is built on a trusted nurse and patient relationship. Therefore communication and clinical reasoning are two important issues. Our experiences as teachers in psychiatric educational programmes are that the students feel anxiety and fear before they start their clinical practices in psychiatry. Therefore there is a need for bridging over the fear. Technology enhanced learning might support such activities so we used Virtual patients (VPs), an interactive computer simulations of real-life clinical scenarios. The aim of this study was to investigate 4th term nursing students' opinions on the use of Virtual Patients for assessment in a Mental Health and Ill-health course module. We asked 24 volunteering students to practise with five different VP cases during almost 10 weeks before the exam. The participants were gathered together for participating in a written and an oral evaluation. The students were positive to the use of VPs in psychiatry and were very positive to use VPs in their continued nursing education. It seems that Virtual Patients can be an activity producing pedagogic model promoting students' independent knowledge development, critical thinking, reflection and problem solving ability for nurse students in psychiatric care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quasi-monte carlo simulation and variance reduction techniques substantially reduce computational requirements of patient-level simulation models: An application to a discrete event simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treur, M.; Postma, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Patient-level simulation models provide increased flexibility to overcome the limitations of cohort-based approaches in health-economic analysis. However, computational requirements of reaching convergence is a notorious barrier. The objective was to assess the impact of using

  8. Teaching Workflow Analysis and Lean Thinking via Simulation: A Formative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert James; Gantt, Laura; Congdon, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the rationale for the design and development of a video simulation used to teach lean thinking and workflow analysis to health services and health information management students enrolled in a course on the management of health information. The discussion includes a description of the design process, a brief history of the use of simulation in healthcare, and an explanation of how video simulation can be used to generate experiential learning environments. Based on the results of a survey given to 75 students as part of a formative evaluation, the video simulation was judged effective because it allowed students to visualize a real-world process (concrete experience), contemplate the scenes depicted in the video along with the concepts presented in class in a risk-free environment (reflection), develop hypotheses about why problems occurred in the workflow process (abstract conceptualization), and develop solutions to redesign a selected process (active experimentation). PMID:19412533

  9. Effects of a Simulation Exercise on Nursing Students' End-of-Life Care Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Linda; Hoebeke, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    Students consider end-of-life care content in their nursing curricula to be inadequate and deficient in promoting the development of the necessary attitudes to care for dying patients. Research identifies simulation as an effective teaching strategy to examine nursing students' attitudes toward end-of-life care. An end-of-life care simulation was developed, implemented, and evaluated. Attitudes toward caring for dying patients were measured pre- and postsimulation on a convenience sample of 57 sophomore nursing students using the Frommelt Attitudes Toward Care of the Dying Scale-Form B. Repeated measures of ANOVA on outcome variables evaluated student attitudes toward end-of-life care. Participation in an end-of-life care simulation resulted in more positive student attitudes toward caring for dying patients (p life care in nursing curricula and improve student attitudes toward caring for dying patients. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(12):701-705.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. A simulation framework for mapping risks in clinical processes: the case of in-patient transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Adam G; Ong, Mei-Sing; Westbrook, Johanna I; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico; Wobcke, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    To model how individual violations in routine clinical processes cumulatively contribute to the risk of adverse events in hospital using an agent-based simulation framework. An agent-based simulation was designed to model the cascade of common violations that contribute to the risk of adverse events in routine clinical processes. Clinicians and the information systems that support them were represented as a group of interacting agents using data from direct observations. The model was calibrated using data from 101 patient transfers observed in a hospital and results were validated for one of two scenarios (a misidentification scenario and an infection control scenario). Repeated simulations using the calibrated model were undertaken to create a distribution of possible process outcomes. The likelihood of end-of-chain risk is the main outcome measure, reported for each of the two scenarios. The simulations demonstrate end-of-chain risks of 8% and 24% for the misidentification and infection control scenarios, respectively. Over 95% of the simulations in both scenarios are unique, indicating that the in-patient transfer process diverges from prescribed work practices in a variety of ways. The simulation allowed us to model the risk of adverse events in a clinical process, by generating the variety of possible work subject to violations, a novel prospective risk analysis method. The in-patient transfer process has a high proportion of unique trajectories, implying that risk mitigation may benefit from focusing on reducing complexity rather than augmenting the process with further rule-based protocols.

  11. Using an integrative mock-up simulation approach for evidence-based evaluation of operating room design prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramzadeh, Sara; Joseph, Anjali; Allison, David; Shultz, Jonas; Abernathy, James

    2018-07-01

    This paper describes the process and tools developed as part of a multidisciplinary collaborative simulation-based approach for iterative design and evaluation of operating room (OR) prototypes. Full-scale physical mock-ups of healthcare spaces offer an opportunity to actively communicate with and to engage multidisciplinary stakeholders in the design process. While mock-ups are increasingly being used in healthcare facility design projects, they are rarely evaluated in a manner to support active user feedback and engagement. Researchers and architecture students worked closely with clinicians and architects to develop OR design prototypes and engaged clinical end-users in simulated scenarios. An evaluation toolkit was developed to compare design prototypes. The mock-up evaluation helped the team make key decisions about room size, location of OR table, intra-room zoning, and doors location. Structured simulation based mock-up evaluations conducted in the design process can help stakeholders visualize their future workspace and provide active feedback. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cone-beam computed tomography-based diagnosis and treatment simulation for a patient with a protrusive profile and a gummy smile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Toshihiro; Kokai, Satoshi; Ono, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    For patients with bimaxillary protrusion, significant retraction and intrusion of the anterior teeth are sometimes essential to improve the facial profile. However, severe root resorption of the maxillary incisors occasionally occurs after treatment because of various factors. For instance, it has been reported that approximation or invasion of the incisive canal by the anterior tooth roots during retraction may cause apical root damage. Thus, determination of the position of the maxillary incisors is key for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning in such cases. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) may be useful for simulating the post-treatment position of the maxillary incisors and surrounding structures in order to ensure safe teeth movement. Here, we present a case of Class II malocclusion with bimaxillary protrusion, wherein apical root damage due to treatment was minimized by pretreatment evaluation of the anatomical structures and simulation of the maxillary central incisor movement using CBCT. Considerable retraction and intrusion of the maxillary incisors, which resulted in a significant improvement in the facial profile and smile, were achieved without severe root resorption. Our findings suggest that CBCT-based diagnosis and treatment simulation may facilitate safe and dynamic orthodontic tooth movement, particularly in patients requiring maximum anterior tooth retraction. PMID:29732305

  13. Evaluating clinical simulations for learning procedural skills: a theory-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Roger

    2005-06-01

    Simulation-based learning is becoming widely established within medical education. It offers obvious benefits to novices learning invasive procedural skills, especially in a climate of decreasing clinical exposure. However, simulations are often accepted uncritically, with undue emphasis being placed on technological sophistication at the expense of theory-based design. The author proposes four key areas that underpin simulation-based learning, and summarizes the theoretical grounding for each. These are (1) gaining technical proficiency (psychomotor skills and learning theory, the importance of repeated practice and regular reinforcement), (2) the place of expert assistance (a Vygotskian interpretation of tutor support, where assistance is tailored to each learner's needs), (3) learning within a professional context (situated learning and contemporary apprenticeship theory), and (4) the affective component of learning (the effect of emotion on learning). The author then offers four criteria for critically evaluating new or existing simulations, based on the theoretical framework outlined above. These are: (1) Simulations should allow for sustained, deliberate practice within a safe environment, ensuring that recently-acquired skills are consolidated within a defined curriculum which assures regular reinforcement; (2) simulations should provide access to expert tutors when appropriate, ensuring that such support fades when no longer needed; (3) simulations should map onto real-life clinical experience, ensuring that learning supports the experience gained within communities of actual practice; and (4) simulation-based learning environments should provide a supportive, motivational, and learner-centered milieu which is conducive to learning.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Multithreaded Geant4 Simulations Using an Intel Xeon Phi Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Schweitzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the performances of Intel Xeon Phi hardware accelerators for Geant4 simulations, especially for multithreaded applications. We present the complete methodology to guide users for the compilation of their Geant4 applications on Phi processors. Then, we propose series of benchmarks to compare the performance of Xeon CPUs and Phi processors for a Geant4 example dedicated to the simulation of electron dose point kernels, the TestEm12 example. First, we compare a distributed execution of a sequential version of the Geant4 example on both architectures before evaluating the multithreaded version of the Geant4 example. If Phi processors demonstrated their ability to accelerate computing time (till a factor 3.83 when distributing sequential Geant4 simulations, we do not reach the same level of speedup when considering the multithreaded version of the Geant4 example.

  15. Radiologic evaluation of the myelomeningocele patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, S.E.; Radkowski, M.A.; McLone, D.G.; Storrs, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    The only radiologic procedure that is useful in the newborn with a fresh myelomeningocele is US or CT of the head to evaluate ventricular size. The imaging procedures become extremely important in the evaluation of the postoperative patient with myelomeningocele. US and/or CT is used to evaluate for hydrocephalus. MR is used to evaluate the spinal axis to determine the position of the cervicomedullary kink, hydromyelia, arachnoid cyst, inclusion epidermoids, and tethering of the spinal cord. US and myelography with CT are needed in subtle cases of tethering, diastematomyelia, arachnoid cyst, and severe scoliosis

  16. Evaluation of alternative methods of simulating asymmetric bulk heating in fusion reactor blanket/shield components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deis, G.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Wadkins, R.P.; Wessol, D.E.

    1981-10-01

    As a part of Phase O, Test Program Element-II of the Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program, a study was conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., to identify, characterize, and recommend alternative approaches for simulating fusion bulk heating in blanket/shield components. This is the report on that effort. Since the usefulness of any simulation approach depends upon the particular experiment considered, classes of problem types (thermal-hydraulic, thermomechanical, etc.) and material types (structure, solid breeder, etc.) are developed. The evaluation of the various simulation approaches is performed for the various significant combinations of problem class and material class. The simulation approaches considered are discrete-source heating, direct resistance, electromagnetic induction, microwave heating, and nuclear heating. From the evaluations performed for each experiment type, discrete - source heating emerges as a good approach for bulk heating simulation in thermal - hydraulics experiments, and nuclear heating appears to be a good approach in experiments addressing thermomechanics and combined thermal-hydraulic/thermomechanics

  17. MBRRACE in simulation: an evaluation of a multi-disciplinary simulation training for medical emergencies in obstetrics (MEmO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Abthorpe, Jennifer; Simpson, Thomas; Reedy, Gabriel; Little, Fiona; Banerjee, Anita

    2018-03-21

    The majority of maternal deaths in the UK are due to pre-existing or new-onset medical conditions, known as 'indirect deaths'. The MBRRACE report identified serious gaps in clinicians' human factors skills, including communication, leadership and teamwork, which contributed to maternal death. In response, we developed the first multi-disciplinary simulation-based training programme designed to address Medical Emergencies in Obstetrics (MEmO). Employing a mixed methods design, this study evaluated the educational impact of this training programme on the healthcare staff (n = 140), including the medical doctors (n = 91) and the midwives (n = 49). The training improved participants' clinical management of medical deterioration in pregnancy (p=.003) alongside improving their human factors skills (p=.004). Furthermore, participants reported the translation of these skills to their routine clinical practice. This flexible training is responsive to the changing national needs and contextualises the MBRRACE findings for healthcare staff. It is a promising avenue for reducing the rates of in-direct death in pregnancy. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The majority of maternal deaths in the UK are due to pre-existing or new-onset medical conditions. The management of medical conditions in pregnancy relies on a multi-professional approach. However, serious gaps in clinicians' human factors skills, highlighted by the MBRRACE report, may contribute to maternal death. What do the results of this study add? This study evaluated the first multi-disciplinary, simulation-based training programme designed to address Medical Emergencies in Obstetrics (MEmO). Training significantly improved participants' management of medical deterioration in pregnancy and human factors skills, particularly in the areas of leadership, communication and teamwork. Moreover, the participants learning translated into their clinical practice. What are the implications of

  18. Towards a benchmark simulation model for plant-wide control strategy performance evaluation of WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppsson, Ulf; Rosen, Christian; Alex, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The COST/IWA benchmark simulation model has been available for seven years. Its primary purpose has been to create a platform for control strategy benchmarking of activated sludge processes. The fact that the benchmark has resulted in more than 100 publications, not only in Europe but also...... worldwide, demonstrates the interest in such a tool within the research community In this paper, an extension of the benchmark simulation model no 1 (BSM1) is proposed. This extension aims at facilitating control strategy development and performance evaluation at a plant-wide level and, consequently...... the changes, the evaluation period has been extended to one year. A prolonged evaluation period allows for long-term control strategies to be assessed and enables the use of control handles that cannot be evaluated in a realistic fashion in the one-week BSM1 evaluation period. In the paper, the extended plant...

  19. Modeling and simulation of sexual activity daily diary data of patients with female sexual arousal disorder treated with sildenafil citrate (Viagra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Laurent; Cox, Eugene H; McFadyen, Lynn; Pidgen, Alwyn; Johnson, Patrick J; Haughie, Scott; Boolell, Mitra; Bruno, Rene

    2006-08-01

    To develop a model to explore the dose-response of sildenafil citrate in patients with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) based on telephone sexual activity daily diary (TSADD) data obtained in double-blind, placebo controlled clinical studies. Data were available on 614 patients with FSAD. A parametric model (Weibull distribution) was developed to describe the probability density function of the time between sexual events. Orgasm satisfaction scores and overall sexual satisfaction scores were simultaneously modeled as ordered categorical variables. Simulations were performed to evaluate the expected clinical response in patients with FSAD. The expected time between sexual events was approximately 3.5 days. Satisfaction scores increased with time to achieve a plateau after 3 to 4 weeks on treatment. The expected probability of satisfying orgasm (score of 3 and higher) ranged from 34.7% for placebo to 41.6% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate. Treatment effect (difference from placebo) was 6.9% for 100 mg sildenafil citrate, ranging from 0.6 to 24.7% for testosterone levels of 0.1 to 4.0 pg/ml. The treatment effect in postmenopausal women was larger than in premenopausal women. A modeling and simulation framework to support drug development in FSAD was developed. Sildenafil citrate demonstrated a dose-dependent effect in patients with FSAD.

  20. Evaluation of the process of recording patient education, consistency of record-keeping with perception, and patient satisfaction after implementing clinical supervision: An embedded evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorasani Parvaneh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Currently, patient education has been considered in medical centers. Clinical provision, which is one of the legal tools with training-support dimensions, can evaluate the consistency between the implemented procedures and the planned ones. This study aimed to evaluate the process of recording patient education, consistency of record-keeping with perception, and patient satisfaction after implementing clinical supervision. Materials and Methods: This longitudinal, embedded study was conducted during 2013-2015 in three stages of designing, implementation, and evaluation of the supervision program using randomized convenience sampling on 786 monitoring units (medical records of patients being discharged at Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. In the designing stage, the checklists for supervision of recording patient education and consistency of patient perception with the recorded trainings and the patient satisfaction questionnaire were designed and their valididty and reliability were established. In the implementation stage, structure of the monitoring program was designed with the cooperation of eight supervisors. During 12 months, 2333 checklists and questionnaires were completed at the time of hospital discharge in the evaluation stage. Data analysis was performed in SPSS, version 18, using One-way ANOVA. Results: After 12 months of embedded evaluation, the mean score of recording patient education was 88.5±21.75, and the mean scores of patient satisfaction with the training process and consistency between patients’ perception and the recorded trainings were 47.17±21.48 and 73±25.13, respectively. The mean scores of recording patient training and consistency between patients’ perception and the recorded trainings had an increasing trend (P<0.001, while the mean score of patient satisfaction reduced (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results of clinical supervision during

  1. Evaluation and operationalization of a novel forest detrainment modeling approach for computational snow avalanche simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, M.; Feistl, T.; Fischer, J.; Bartelt, P.; Bebi, P.; Christen, M.; Grêt-Regamey, A.

    2013-12-01

    Two-dimensional avalanche simulation software operating in three-dimensional terrain are widely used for hazard zoning and engineering to predict runout distances and impact pressures of snow avalanche events. Mountain forests are an effective biological protection measure; however, the protective capacity of forests to decelerate or even to stop avalanches that start within forested areas or directly above the treeline is seldom considered in this context. In particular, runout distances of small- to medium-scale avalanches are strongly influenced by the structural conditions of forests in the avalanche path. This varying decelerating effect has rarely been addressed or implemented in avalanche simulation. We present an evaluation and operationalization of a novel forest detrainment modeling approach implemented in the avalanche simulation software RAMMS. The new approach accounts for the effect of forests in the avalanche path by detraining mass, which leads to a deceleration and runout shortening of avalanches. The extracted avalanche mass caught behind trees stops immediately and, therefore, is instantly subtracted from the flow and the momentum of the stopped mass is removed from the total momentum of the avalanche flow. This relationship is parameterized by the empirical detrainment coefficient K [Pa] which accounts for the braking power of different forest types per unit area. To define K dependent on specific forest characteristics, we simulated 40 well-documented small- to medium-scale avalanches which released in and ran through forests with varying K-values. Comparing two-dimensional simulation results with one-dimensional field observations for a high number of avalanche events and simulations manually is however time consuming and rather subjective. In order to process simulation results in a comprehensive and standardized way, we used a recently developed automatic evaluation and comparison method defining runout distances based on a pressure

  2. Simulation and evaluation of urban rail transit network based on multi-agent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urban rail transit is a complex and dynamic system, which is difficult to be described in a global mathematical model for its scale and interaction. In order to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of passenger flow distribution and evaluate the effectiveness of transportation strategies, a new and comprehensive method depicted such dynamic system should be given. This study therefore aims at using simulation approach to solve this problem for subway network. Design/methodology/approach: In this thesis a simulation model based on multi-agent approach has been proposed, which is a well suited method to design complex systems. The model includes the specificities of passengers’ travelling behaviors and takes into account of interactions between travelers and trains. Findings: Research limitations/implications: We developed an urban rail transit simulation tool for verification of the validity and accuracy of this model, using real passenger flow data of Beijing subway network to take a case study, results show that our simulation tool can be used to analyze the characteristic of passenger flow distribution and evaluate operation strategies well. Practical implications: The main implications of this work are to provide decision support for traffic management, making train operation plan and dispatching measures in emergency. Originality/value: A new and comprehensive method to analyze and evaluate subway network is presented, accuracy and computational efficiency of the model has been confirmed and meet with the actual needs for large-scale network.

  3. Evaluation of xerostomia following 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Je; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Won; Ju, Sang Gyu; Nam, Hee Rim; Oh, Dong Ryul; Park, Hee Chul

    2006-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the xerostomia following 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) in nasopharynx cancer patients using the xerostomia questionnaire score (XQS). Questionnaire study was done on 51 patients with nasopharynx cancer who received 3D CRT from Dec. 2000 to Aug. 2005. 3D CRT technique is based on 'serial shrinking field' concept by 3 times of computed tomography (CT) simulation. Total target dose to the primary tumor was 72 Gy with 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Xerostomia was assessed with 4-questions XQS, and the associations between XQS and time elapsed after RT, age, sex, stage, concurrent chemotherapy, an parotid dose were analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was given to 40 patients and RT alone was given to 11 patients. The median time elapsed after 3D CRT was 20 (1 ∼ 58) months and the mean XQS of all 51 patients was 8.4 ± 1.9 (6 ∼ 14). XQS continuously and significantly decreased over time after 3D CRT (χ 2 -0.484, ρ < 0.05). There was no significant difference in XQS according to sex, age, and stag. However, XQS of concurrent chemotherapy patients was significantly higher than RT alone patients (ρ = 0.001). XQS of patients receiving total mean parotid dose ≥ 35 Gy was significantly higher than < 35 Gy (ρ = 0.05). Decreasing tendency of XQS over time after 3D CRT was observed. Concurrent chemotherapy and total mean parotid dose ≥ 35 Gy were suggested to adversely affect radiation-induced xerostomia

  4. The Evaluation of ERP Sandtable Simulation Based on AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan

    Due to the trend of world globalization, many enterprises have extended their business to operate globally. Enterprise resource planning is a powerful management system providing the best business resources information. This paper proposed the theory of AHP, and presented ERP sandtable simulation evaluation to discuss how to make a decision using AHP. Using this method can make enterprises consider factors influence operation of enterprise adequately, including feedback and dependence among the factors.

  5. Development of virtual CT DICOM images of patients with tumors: application for TPS and Monte Carlo dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milian, F. M.; Attili, A.; Russo, G; Marchetto, F.; Cirio, R.; Bourhaleb, F.

    2013-01-01

    A novel procedure for the generation of a realistic virtual Computed Tomography (CT) image of a patient, using the advanced Boundary RE Presentation (BREP)-based model MASH, has been implemented. This method can be used in radiotherapy assessment. It is shown that it is possible to introduce an artificial cancer, which can be modeled using mesh surfaces. The use of virtual CT images based on BREP models presents several advantages with respect to CT images of actual patients, such as automation, control and flexibility. As an example, two artificial cases, namely a brain and a prostate cancer, were created through the generation of images and tumor/organ contours. As a secondary objective, the described methodology has been used to generate input files for treatment planning system (TPS) and Monte Carlo code dose evaluation. In this paper, we consider treatment plans generated assuming a dose delivery via an active proton beam scanning performed with the INFN-IBA TPS kernel. Additionally, Monte Carlo simulations of the two treatment plans were carried out with GATE/GEANT4. The work demonstrates the feasibility of the approach based on the BREP modeling to produce virtual CT images. In conclusion, this study highlights the benefits in using digital phantom model capable of representing different anatomical structures and varying tumors across different patients. These models could be useful for assessing radiotherapy treatment planning systems (TPS) and computer simulations for the evaluation of the adsorbed dose. (author)

  6. Using Instrument Simulators and a Satellite Database to Evaluate Microphysical Assumptions in High-Resolution Simulations of Hurricane Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Chao, Y.; Chau, A. H.; Haddad, Z. S.; Knosp, B.; Lambrigtsen, B.; Li, P.; Martin, J. M.; Poulsen, W. L.; Rodriguez, E.; Stiles, B. W.; Turk, J.; Vu, Q.

    2009-12-01

    Improving forecasting of hurricane intensity remains a significant challenge for the research and operational communities. Many factors determine a tropical cyclone’s intensity. Ultimately, though, intensity is dependent on the magnitude and distribution of the latent heating that accompanies the hydrometeor production during the convective process. Hence, the microphysical processes and their representation in hurricane models are of crucial importance for accurately simulating hurricane intensity and evolution. The accurate modeling of the microphysical processes becomes increasingly important when running high-resolution models that should properly reflect the convective processes in the hurricane eyewall. There are many microphysical parameterizations available today. However, evaluating their performance and selecting the most representative ones remains a challenge. Several field campaigns were focused on collecting in situ microphysical observations to help distinguish between different modeling approaches and improve on the most promising ones. However, these point measurements cannot adequately reflect the space and time correlations characteristic of the convective processes. An alternative approach to evaluating microphysical assumptions is to use multi-parameter remote sensing observations of the 3D storm structure and evolution. In doing so, we could compare modeled to retrieved geophysical parameters. The satellite retrievals, however, carry their own uncertainty. To increase the fidelity of the microphysical evaluation results, we can use instrument simulators to produce satellite observables from the model fields and compare to the observed. This presentation will illustrate how instrument simulators can be used to discriminate between different microphysical assumptions. We will compare and contrast the members of high-resolution ensemble WRF model simulations of Hurricane Rita (2005), each member reflecting different microphysical assumptions

  7. Safety evaluation model of urban cross-river tunnel based on driving simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqi; Lu, Linjun; Lu, Jian John

    2017-09-01

    Currently, Shanghai urban cross-river tunnels have three principal characteristics: increased traffic, a high accident rate and rapidly developing construction. Because of their complex geographic and hydrological characteristics, the alignment conditions in urban cross-river tunnels are more complicated than in highway tunnels, so a safety evaluation of urban cross-river tunnels is necessary to suggest follow-up construction and changes in operational management. A driving risk index (DRI) for urban cross-river tunnels was proposed in this study. An index system was also constructed, combining eight factors derived from the output of a driving simulator regarding three aspects of risk due to following, lateral accidents and driver workload. Analytic hierarchy process methods and expert marking and normalization processing were applied to construct a mathematical model for the DRI. The driving simulator was used to simulate 12 Shanghai urban cross-river tunnels and a relationship was obtained between the DRI for the tunnels and the corresponding accident rate (AR) via a regression analysis. The regression analysis results showed that the relationship between the DRI and the AR mapped to an exponential function with a high degree of fit. In the absence of detailed accident data, a safety evaluation model based on factors derived from a driving simulation can effectively assess the driving risk in urban cross-river tunnels constructed or in design.

  8. Population pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of the respiratory effect of acetazolamide in decompensated COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Heming

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients may develop metabolic alkalosis during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Acetazolamide is one of the treatments used to reverse metabolic alkalosis.619 time-respiratory (minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate and 207 time-PaCO2 observations were obtained from 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients. We modeled respiratory responses to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated COPD patients and then simulated the effect of increased amounts of the drug.The effect of acetazolamide on minute ventilation and PaCO2 levels was analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect model. The effect of different ventilatory modes was assessed on the model. Only slightly increased minute ventilation without decreased PaCO2 levels were observed in response to 250 to 500 mg of acetazolamide administered twice daily. Simulations indicated that higher acetazolamide dosage (>1000 mg daily was required to significantly increase minute ventilation (P0.75 L min(-1 in 60% of the population. The model also predicts that 45% of patients would have a decrease of PaCO2>5 mmHg with doses of 1000 mg per day.Simulations suggest that COPD patients might benefit from the respiratory stimulant effect after the administration of higher doses of acetazolamide.

  9. Managing medical emergencies in mental health settings using an interprofessional in-situ simulation training programme: A mixed methods evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Mary; Attoe, Chris; Tritschler, Christina; Cross, Sean

    2017-12-01

    In the UK, people with severe mental illness die up to 20years earlier than the general population, prompting increased focus on physical health in mental illness. However, training for mental health inpatient staff to meet patients' physical health needs has not received the same attention, with physical health training often being reactive and lacking evidence of effectiveness. To evaluate an interprofessional, in situ, simulation training intervention for managing medical deterioration in mental health settings. Investigating the impact of training on: 1. Participants' knowledge, confidence, and attitudes towards managing medical deterioration; and 2. Incident reporting, as an objective index of incident management. Participants' perceptions of the impact on their practice were qualitatively explored. This evaluation employed a mixed-methods pre-post intervention design. Fifty-three healthcare professionals participated including: mental health nurses, psychiatrists, healthcare assistants, and activity co-ordinators from two busy psychiatric triage wards in South London, UK. The intervention comprised eight half-day sessions delivered weekly across two wards. Structured surveys assessed participants' knowledge, confidence, and attitudes towards medical deterioration pre and post training. Participants' experience of training was qualitatively captured through post-course surveys and focus groups three months post training. Incident reporting rates for seven-month periods pre and post training were compared. Following training, participants showed significant improvement in knowledge (ptraining. Participants' reported improved confidence in managing medical deterioration, better understanding of effective communication, improved self-reflection and team working, and an increased sense of responsibility for patients' physical health. Interprofessional, in situ simulation training for medical deterioration yielded promising outcomes for individuals and teams

  10. Evaluation of high-fidelity simulation training in radiation oncology using an outcomes logic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gillan, Caitlin; Wong, Olive; Harnett, Nicole; Milne, Emily; Moseley, Doug; Thompson, Robert; Catton, Pamela; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and educational value of high-fidelity, interprofessional team-based simulation in radiation oncology. The simulation event was conducted in a radiation oncology department during a non-clinical day. It involved 5 simulation scenarios that were run over three 105 minute timeslots in a single day. High-acuity, low-frequency clinical situations were selected and included HDR brachytherapy emergency, 4D CT artifact management, pediatric emergency clinical mark-up, electron scalp trial set-up and a cone beam CT misregistration incident. A purposive sample of a minimum of 20 trainees was required to assess recruitment feasibility. A faculty radiation oncologist (RO), medical physicist (MP) or radiation therapist (RTT), facilitated each case. Participants completed a pre event survey of demographic data and motivation for participation. A post event survey collected perceptions of familiarity with the clinical content, comfort with interprofessional practice, and event satisfaction, scored on a 1–10 scale in terms of clinical knowledge, clinical decision making, clinical skills, exposure to other trainees and interprofessional communication. Means and standard deviations were calculated. Twenty-one trainees participated including 6 ROs (29%), 6 MPs (29%), and 9 RTTs (43%). All 12 cases (100%) were completed within the allocated 105 minutes. Nine faculty facilitators, (3MP, 2 RO, 4 RTTs) were required for 405 minutes each. Additional costs associated with this event were 154 hours to build the high fidelity scenarios, 2 standardized patients (SPs) for a total of 15.5 hours, and consumables.The mean (±SD) educational value score reported by participants with respect to clinical knowledge was 8.9 (1.1), clinical decision making 8.9 (1.3), clinical skills 8.9 (1.1), exposure to other trainees 9.1 (2.3) and interprofessional communication 9.1 (1.0). Fifteen (71%) participants reported the cases were of an appropriate complexity. The importance

  11. Evaluation of Therapy Management and Patient Compliance in Postmenopausal Patients with Hormone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer Receiving Letrozole Treatment: The EvaluateTM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, P. A.; Fehm, T.; Kellner, S.; de Waal, J.; Rezai, M.; Baier, B.; Baake, G.; Kolberg, H.-C.; Guggenberger, M.; Warm, M.; Harbeck, N.; Würstlein, R.; Deuker, J.-U.; Dall, P.; Richter, B.; Wachsmann, G.; Brucker, C.; Siebers, J. W.; Fersis, N.; Kuhn, T.; Wolf, C.; Vollert, H.-W.; Breitbach, G.-P.; Janni, W.; Landthaler, R.; Kohls, A.; Rezek, D.; Noesslet, T.; Fischer, G.; Henschen, S.; Praetz, T.; Heyl, V.; Kühn, T.; Krauß, T.; Thomssen, C.; Kümmel, S.; Hohn, A.; Tesch, H.; Mundhenke, C.; Hein, A.; Rauh, C.; Bayer, C. M.; Jacob, A.; Schmidt, K.; Belleville, E.; Hadji, P.; Wallwiener, D.; Grischke, E.-M.; Beckmann, M. W.; Brucker, S. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The EvaluateTM study (Evaluation of therapy management and patient compliance in postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients receiving letrozole treatment) is a prospective, non-interventional study for the assessment of therapy management and compliance in the routine care of postmenopausal women with invasive hormone receptor-positive breast cancer receiving letrozole. The parameters for inclusion in the study are presented and discussed here. Material and Methods: Between January 2008 and December 2009 a total of 5045 patients in 310 study centers were recruited to the EvaluateTM study. Inclusion criteria were hormone receptor-positive breast cancer and adjuvant treatment or metastasis. 373 patients were excluded from the analysis for various reasons. Results: A total of 4420 patients receiving adjuvant treatment and 252 patients with metastasis receiving palliative treatment were included in the study. For 4181 patients receiving adjuvant treatment, treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole commenced immediately after surgery (upfront). Two hundred patients had initially received tamoxifen and started aromatase inhibitor treatment with letrozole at 1–5 years after diagnosis (switch), und 39 patients only commenced letrozole treatment 5–10 years after diagnosis (extended endocrine therapy). Patient and tumor characteristics were within expected ranges, as were comorbidities and concurrent medication. Conclusion: The data from the EvaluateTM study will offer a good overview of therapy management in the routine care of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Planned analyses will look at therapy compliance and patient satisfaction with how information is conveyed and the contents of the conveyed information. PMID:25568468

  12. Undergraduate nursing students' performance in recognising and responding to sudden patient deterioration in high psychological fidelity simulated environments: an Australian multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogossian, Fiona; Cooper, Simon; Cant, Robyn; Beauchamp, Alison; Porter, Joanne; Kain, Victoria; Bucknall, Tracey; Phillips, Nicole M

    2014-05-01

    Early recognition and situation awareness of sudden patient deterioration, a timely appropriate clinical response, and teamwork are critical to patient outcomes. High fidelity simulated environments provide the opportunity for undergraduate nursing students to develop and refine recognition and response skills. This paper reports the quantitative findings of the first phase of a larger program of ongoing research: Feedback Incorporating Review and Simulation Techniques to Act on Clinical Trends (FIRST2ACTTM). It specifically aims to identify the characteristics that may predict primary outcome measures of clinical performance, teamwork and situation awareness in the management of deteriorating patients. Mixed-method multi-centre study. High fidelity simulated acute clinical environment in three Australian universities. A convenience sample of 97 final year nursing students enrolled in an undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing or combined Bachelor of Nursing degree were included in the study. In groups of three, participants proceeded through three phases: (i) pre-briefing and completion of a multi-choice question test, (ii) three video-recorded simulated clinical scenarios where actors substituted real patients with deteriorating conditions, and (iii) post-scenario debriefing. Clinical performance, teamwork and situation awareness were evaluated, using a validated standard checklist (OSCE), Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) score sheet and Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT). A Modified Angoff technique was used to establish cut points for clinical performance. Student teams engaged in 97 simulation experiences across the three scenarios and achieved a level of clinical performance consistent with the experts' identified pass level point in only 9 (1%) of the simulation experiences. Knowledge was significantly associated with overall teamwork (p=.034), overall situation awareness (p=.05) and clinical performance in two of the three scenarios

  13. Evaluation of snowmelt simulation in the Weather Research and Forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiming; Wen, Lijuan

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to better understand and improve snowmelt simulations in the advanced Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model by coupling it with the Community Land Model (CLM) Version 3.5. Both WRF and CLM are developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The automated Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) station data over the Columbia River Basin in the northwestern United States are used to evaluate snowmelt simulations generated with the coupled WRF-CLM model. These SNOTEL data include snow water equivalent (SWE), precipitation, and temperature. The simulations cover the period of March through June 2002 and focus mostly on the snowmelt season. Initial results show that when compared to observations, WRF-CLM significantly improves the simulations of SWE, which is underestimated when the release version of WRF is coupled with the Noah and Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) land surface schemes, in which snow physics is oversimplified. Further analysis shows that more realistic snow surface energy allocation in CLM is an important process that results in improved snowmelt simulations when compared to that in Noah and RUC. Additional simulations with WRF-CLM at different horizontal spatial resolutions indicate that accurate description of topography is also vital to SWE simulations. WRF-CLM at 10 km resolution produces the most realistic SWE simulations when compared to those produced with coarser spatial resolutions in which SWE is remarkably underestimated. The coupled WRF-CLM provides an important tool for research and forecasts in weather, climate, and water resources at regional scales.

  14. Standardized patient simulation versus didactic teaching alone for improving residents' communication skills when discussing goals of care and resuscitation: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downar, James; McNaughton, Nancy; Abdelhalim, Tarek; Wong, Natalie; Lapointe-Shaw, Lauren; Seccareccia, Dori; Miller, Kim; Dev, Shelly; Ridley, Julia; Lee, Christie; Richardson, Lisa; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Knickle, Kerry

    2017-02-01

    Communication skills are important when discussing goals of care and resuscitation. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of standardized patients for teaching medical trainees to communicate about goals of care. To determine whether standardized patient simulation offers benefit over didactic sessions alone for improving skill and comfort discussing goals of care. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial of didactic teaching plus standardized patient simulation versus didactic teaching alone. First-year internal medicine residents. Changes in communication comfort and skill between baseline and 2 months post-training assessed using the Consultation and Relational Empathy measure. We enrolled 94 residents over a 2-year period. Both groups reported a significant improvement in comfort when discussing goals of care with patients. There was no difference in Consultation and Relational Empathy scores following the workshop ( p = 0.79). The intervention group showed a significant increase in Consultation and Relational Empathy scores post-workshop compared with pre-workshop (35.0 vs 31.7, respectively; p = 0.048), whereas there was no improvement in Consultation and Relational Empathy scores in the control group (35.6 vs 36.0; p = 0.4). However, when the results were adjusted for baseline differences in Consultation and Relational Empathy scores in a multivariable regression analysis, group assignment was not associated with an improvement in Consultation and Relational Empathy score. Improvement in comfort scores and perception of benefit were not associated with improvements in Consultation and Relational Empathy scores. Simulation training may improve communication skill and comfort more than didactic training alone, but there were important confounders in this study and further studies are needed to determine whether simulation is better than didactic training for this purpose.

  15. A simulation framework for mapping risks in clinical processes: the case of in-patient transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Westbrook, Johanna I; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico; Wobcke, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To model how individual violations in routine clinical processes cumulatively contribute to the risk of adverse events in hospital using an agent-based simulation framework. Design An agent-based simulation was designed to model the cascade of common violations that contribute to the risk of adverse events in routine clinical processes. Clinicians and the information systems that support them were represented as a group of interacting agents using data from direct observations. The model was calibrated using data from 101 patient transfers observed in a hospital and results were validated for one of two scenarios (a misidentification scenario and an infection control scenario). Repeated simulations using the calibrated model were undertaken to create a distribution of possible process outcomes. The likelihood of end-of-chain risk is the main outcome measure, reported for each of the two scenarios. Results The simulations demonstrate end-of-chain risks of 8% and 24% for the misidentification and infection control scenarios, respectively. Over 95% of the simulations in both scenarios are unique, indicating that the in-patient transfer process diverges from prescribed work practices in a variety of ways. Conclusions The simulation allowed us to model the risk of adverse events in a clinical process, by generating the variety of possible work subject to violations, a novel prospective risk analysis method. The in-patient transfer process has a high proportion of unique trajectories, implying that risk mitigation may benefit from focusing on reducing complexity rather than augmenting the process with further rule-based protocols. PMID:21486883

  16. Integrating Soft Set Theory and Fuzzy Linguistic Model to Evaluate the Performance of Training Simulation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance-performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system.

  17. Evaluation of regional climate simulations over the Great Lakes region driven by three global data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan Zhong; Xiuping Li; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; L. Ruby Leung; William I. Jr. Gustafson

    2012-01-01

    The performance of regional climate simulations is evaluated for the Great Lakes region. Three 10-year (1990-1999) current-climate simulations are performed using the MM5 regional climate model (RCM) with 36-km horizontal resolution. The simulations employed identical configuration and physical parameterizations, but different lateral boundary conditions and sea-...

  18. Additional patient outcomes and pathways in evaluations of testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Before medical tests are introduced into practice, they should be properly evaluated. Randomized trials and other comprehensive evaluations of tests and test strategies can best be designed based on an understanding of how tests can benefit or harm patients. Tests primarily affect patients' health

  19. An Electronic Competency-Based Evaluation Tool for Assessing Humanitarian Competencies in a Simulated Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrea B; Hulme, Jennifer M; Nugus, Peter; Cranmer, Hilarie H; Coutu, Melanie; Johnson, Kirsten

    2017-06-01

    The evaluation tool was first derived from the formerly Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies' (CBHA; United Kingdom), now "Start Network's," Core Humanitarian Competency Framework and formatted in an electronic data capture tool that allowed for offline evaluation. During a 3-day humanitarian simulation event, participants in teams of eight to 10 were evaluated individually at multiple injects by trained evaluators. Participants were assessed on five competencies and a global rating scale. Participants evaluated both themselves and their team members using the same tool at the end of the simulation exercise (SimEx). All participants (63) were evaluated. A total of 1,008 individual evaluations were completed. There were 90 (9.0%) missing evaluations. All 63 participants also evaluated themselves and each of their teammates using the same tool. Self-evaluation scores were significantly lower than peer-evaluations, which were significantly lower than evaluators' assessments. Participants with a medical degree, and those with humanitarian work experience of one month or more, scored significantly higher on all competencies assessed by evaluators compared to other participants. Participants with prior humanitarian experience scored higher on competencies regarding operating safely and working effectively as a team member. This study presents a novel electronic evaluation tool to assess individual performance in five of six globally recognized humanitarian competency domains in a 3-day humanitarian SimEx. The evaluation tool provides a standardized approach to the assessment of humanitarian competencies that cannot be evaluated through knowledge-based testing in a classroom setting. When combined with testing knowledge-based competencies, this presents an approach to a comprehensive competency-based assessment that provides an objective measurement of competency with respect to the competencies listed in the Framework. There is an opportunity to advance the use of

  20. Evaluation of the Quality of Online Information for Patients with Rare Cancers: Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Ulrike; Monga Sindeu, Tabea; Schroth, Sarah; Huebner, Jutta; Herth, Natalie

    2017-01-24

    The Internet offers an easy and quick access to a vast amount of patient information. However, several studies point to the poor quality of many websites and the resulting hazards of false information. The aim of this study was to assess quality of information on thyroid cancer. A patients' search for information about thyroid cancer on German websites was simulated using the search engine Google and the patient portal "Patienten-Information.de". The websites were assessed using a standardized instrument with formal and content aspects from the German Cancer Society. Supporting the results of prior studies that analysed patient information on the Internet, the data showed that the quality of patient information on thyroid cancer is highly heterogeneous depending on the website providers. The majority of website providers are represented by media and health providers other than health insurances, practices and professionals offering patient information of relatively poor quality. Moreover, most websites offer patient information of low-quality content. Only a few trustworthy, high-quality websites exist. Especially Google, a common search engine, focuses more on the dissemination of information than on quality aspects. In order to improve the patient information from the Internet, the visibility of high-quality websites must be improved. For that, education programs to improve patients' eHealth literacy are needed. A quick and easy evaluation tool for online information suited for patients should be implemented, and patients should be taught to integrate such a tool into their research process.

  1. Perpheral bronchopleural fistula: CT evaluation in 22 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ye Ri; Kim, Min Young; Choi, Seong Hee; Kim, Eung Jo; Lee, Jin Joo; Kim, Oak

    1999-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of CT for the evaluation of peripheral bronchopleural fistulas. CT scans of 22 patients with persistent air leak, as seen on serial chest PA, and a clinical history, were retrospectively evaluated. We determined the visibility of direct communication between the lung and pleural space, and the frequency and location of this, and if direct communications were not visualized the probable cause. A bronchopleural fistula(n=13) or its probable cause(n=6) was visualized in 19 patients(86%). Direct communications between the lung and pleural space were seen in 13 patients(59%) ; there were six cases of tuberculous empyema, three of tuberculosis, two of necrotizing empyema, one of trauma, and one of postobstructive pneumonitis. In six patients, bronchiectatic change in peripheral lung adjacent to the pleural cavity was noted, and although this was seen as a probable cause of bronchopleural fistula, direct communication was invisible. Bronchopleural fistula or its probable cause was multiple in 18 of 19 patients, involving the upper and lower lobe in eight, the upper in nine, and the lower in two. CT is useful for evaluating the presence of bronchopleural fistula, and its frequency and location, and in patients in whom the fistula is not directly visualized, the cause of this

  2. Evaluation of the FOCUS (Feedback on Counseling Using Simulation) instrument for assessment of client-centered nutrition counseling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Beverly W; Smith, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    To develop an instrument to assess client-centered counseling behaviors (skills) of student-counselors in a standardized patient (SP) exercise. Descriptive study of the accuracy and utility of a newly developed counseling evaluation instrument. Study participants included 11 female student-counselors at a Midwestern university-10 Caucasian, 1 African-American-for the simulated counseling sessions, in which the Feedback on Counseling Using Simulation (FOCUS) instrument was applied in 2 SP scenarios (cardiovascular disease and diabetes). FOCUS ratings of student-counselors by 4 SPs during 22 sessions were compared with ratings from a 3-member panel of experts who independently viewed the 22 videotaped sessions. Quantitative analysis of instrument validity included inter-rater reliability by computing generalizability coefficients, Pearson correlations, and Spearman rank-order correlations. FOCUS criteria encompassed relevant dimensions of nutrition counseling based in a client-centered perspective. The critical points of information gathering and counseling behaviors showed internal consistency overall and good inter-rater reliability with the cardiovascular disease scenario. For both scenarios, pooled ratings of 3 experts agreed with ratings carried out by SPs. Initial findings suggest that the FOCUS instrument with client-centered criteria may enhance evaluation of counseling skills in SP exercises, meriting further study with larger groups.

  3. Clinical evaluation of patients with patellofemoral disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, W R

    1999-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of patients with patellofemoral disorders is the cornerstone of effective treatment. This article defines how a careful history and physical examination can direct strategies for nonoperative and operative management. A critical analysis of traditional methods of evaluation and a streamlined rational approach to clinical evaluation is presented. Key questions and important physical findings that affect treatment decisions are emphasized.

  4. Towards evaluation and prediction of building sustainability using life cycle behaviour simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzouk Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays researchers and practitioners are oriented towards questioning how effective are the different building life cycle activities contribution to preserving the environment and fulfilling the need for equilibrium. Terminologies such as Building sustainability and Green Buildings have long been adopted yet the evaluation of such has been driven through the use of rating systems. LEED of the United States, BREEAM of the United Kingdom, and Pearl of the United Arab Emirates are namely good examples of these rating systems. This paper introduces a new approach for evaluation of building life cycle sustainability through simulation of activities interaction and studying its behaviour. The effort focuses on comprehending impact and effect of suitability related activities over the whole building life cycle or period of time. The methodology includes gathering a pool of parameters through benchmarking of five selected rating systems, analytical factorization for the gathered parameters is used to elect the most influencing parameters. Followed by simulation modelling using System dynamics to capture the interaction of the considered parameters. The resulting behaviour obtained from simulation is studied and used in designing a tool for prediction of sustainability.

  5. Performance of uncertainty quantification methodologies and linear solvers in cardiovascular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jongmin; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Marsden, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Cardiovascular simulations are increasingly used in clinical decision making, surgical planning, and disease diagnostics. Patient-specific modeling and simulation typically proceeds through a pipeline from anatomic model construction using medical image data to blood flow simulation and analysis. To provide confidence intervals on simulation predictions, we use an uncertainty quantification (UQ) framework to analyze the effects of numerous uncertainties that stem from clinical data acquisition, modeling, material properties, and boundary condition selection. However, UQ poses a computational challenge requiring multiple evaluations of the Navier-Stokes equations in complex 3-D models. To achieve efficiency in UQ problems with many function evaluations, we implement and compare a range of iterative linear solver and preconditioning techniques in our flow solver. We then discuss applications to patient-specific cardiovascular simulation and how the problem/boundary condition formulation in the solver affects the selection of the most efficient linear solver. Finally, we discuss performance improvements in the context of uncertainty propagation. Support from National Institute of Health (R01 EB018302) is greatly appreciated.

  6. Development and Validation of Simulated Virtual Patients to Impart Early Clinical Exposure in Endocrine Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Akriti; Singh, Satendra; Khaliq, Farah; Dhaliwal, Upreet; Madhu, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    In the country presently, preclinical medical students are not routinely exposed to real patients. Thus, when they start clinical postings, they are found to have poor clinical reasoning skills. Simulated virtual patients (SVPs) can improve clinical skills without endangering real patients. This pilot study describes the development of two SVPs in…

  7. Evaluation of a high-resolution regional climate simulation over Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebre, Filip [Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vito - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Integral Environmental Studies, Mol (Belgium); Fettweis, Xavier; Ypersele, Jean-Pascal van; Marbaix, Philippe [Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Gallee, Hubert [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Geophysique de l' Environnement, Grenoble (France); Greuell, Wouter [Utrecht University, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht (Netherlands); Calanca, Pierluigi [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    A simulation of the 1991 summer has been performed over south Greenland with a coupled atmosphere-snow regional climate model (RCM) forced by the ECMWF re-analysis. The simulation is evaluated with in-situ coastal and ice-sheet atmospheric and glaciological observations. Modelled air temperature, specific humidity, wind speed and radiative fluxes are in good agreement with the available observations, although uncertainties in the radiative transfer scheme need further investigation to improve the model's performance. In the sub-surface snow-ice model, surface albedo is calculated from the simulated snow grain shape and size, snow depth, meltwater accumulation, cloudiness and ice albedo. The use of snow metamorphism processes allows a realistic modelling of the temporal variations in the surface albedo during both melting periods and accumulation events. Concerning the surface albedo, the main finding is that an accurate albedo simulation during the melting season strongly depends on a proper initialization of the surface conditions which mainly result from winter accumulation processes. Furthermore, in a sensitivity experiment with a constant 0.8 albedo over the whole ice sheet, the average amount of melt decreased by more than 60%, which highlights the importance of a correctly simulated surface albedo. The use of this coupled atmosphere-snow RCM offers new perspectives in the study of the Greenland surface mass balance due to the represented feedback between the surface climate and the surface albedo, which is the most sensitive parameter in energy-balance-based ablation calculations. (orig.)

  8. Using Simulation to Train Junior Psychiatry Residents to Work with Agitated Patients: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigman, Daniel; Young, Meredith; Chalk, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the benefit and feasibility of introducing a new, simulation-based learning intervention for junior psychiatry residents. Method: Junior psychiatry residents were invited to participate in a new simulation-based learning intervention focusing on agitated patients. Questionnaires were used to explore the success of…

  9. Using Simulations to Improve Electronic Health Record Use, Clinician Training and Patient Safety: Recommendations From A Consensus Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Vishnu; Woodcock, Deborah; McGrath, Karess; Scholl, Gretchen; Pranaat, Robert; Doberne, Julie W.; Chase, Dian A.; Gold, Jeffrey A.; Ash, Joan S.

    2017-01-01

    A group of informatics experts in simulation, biomedical informatics, patient safety, medical education, and human factors gathered at Corbett, Oregon on April 30 and May 1, 2015. Their objective: to create a consensus statement on best practices for the use of electronic health record (EHR) simulations in education and training, to improve patient safety, and to outline a strategy for future EHR simulation work. A qualitative approach was utilized to analyze data from the conference and gene...

  10. An experimental apparatus to simulate body-powered prosthetic usage: Development and preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Rodriguez, Johanan; Kapp, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Harness fitting in the body-powered prosthesis remains more art than science due to a lack of consistent and quantitative evaluation. The aim of this study was to develop a mechanical, human-body-shaped apparatus to simulate body-powered upper limb prosthetic usage and evaluate its capability of quantitative examination of harness configuration. The apparatus was built upon a torso of a wooden mannequin and integrated major mechanical joints to simulate terminal device operation. Sensors were used to register cable tension, cable excursion, and grip force simultaneously. The apparatus allowed the scapula to move up to 127 mm laterally and the load cell can measure the cable tension up to 445 N. Our preliminary evaluation highlighted the needs and importance of investigating harness configurations in a systematic and controllable manner. The apparatus allows objective, systematic, and quantitative evaluation of effects of realistic harness configurations and will provide insightful and working knowledge on harness fitting in upper limb amputees using body-powered prosthesis. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  11. Collaborative learning in nursing simulation: near-peer teaching using standardized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Amy M; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2014-03-01

    Simulation in nursing education uses specific patient scenarios to provide students with hands-on learning experiences. A near-peer teaching experience, using upper-level nursing students as standardized patients, was created as an educational intervention. The premises of social cognitive theory, which include cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors, were incorporated into this teaching activity. The upper-level students played the role of a patient, while they also practiced leadership, teaching, and mentoring of first-semester nursing students. In the scenario, the first-semester students provided care to the patient, while focusing on safety, identifying the problem, and practicing clinical decision making. Faculty were present to provide guidance and promote communication in debriefing. Near-peer teaching provided a learning opportunity for all students, facilitated teamwork, and encouraged knowledge and skills attainment. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Medical images of patients in voxel structures in high resolution for Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boia, Leonardo S.; Menezes, Artur F.; Silva, Ademir X.

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to present a computational process of conversion of tomographic and MRI medical images from patients in voxel structures to an input file, which will be manipulated in Monte Carlo Simulation code for tumor's radiotherapic treatments. The problem's scenario inherent to the patient is simulated by such process, using the volume element (voxel) as a unit of computational tracing. The head's voxel structure geometry has voxels with volumetric dimensions around 1 mm 3 and a population of millions, which helps - in that way, for a realistic simulation and a decrease in image's digital process techniques for adjustments and equalizations. With such additional data from the code, a more critical analysis can be developed in order to determine the volume of the tumor, and the protection, beside the patients' medical images were borrowed by Clinicas Oncologicas Integradas (COI/RJ), joined to the previous performed planning. In order to execute this computational process, SAPDI computational system is used in a digital image process for optimization of data, conversion program Scan2MCNP, which manipulates, processes, and converts the medical images into voxel structures to input files and the graphic visualizer Moritz for the verification of image's geometry placing. (author)

  13. Identification and simulation evaluation of an AH-64 helicopter hover math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J. A.; Watson, D. C.; Tischler, M. B.; Eshow, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Frequency-domain parameter-identification techniques were used to develop a hover mathematical model of the AH-64 Apache helicopter from flight data. The unstable AH-64 bare-airframe characteristics without a stability-augmentation system were parameterized in the convectional stability-derivative form. To improve the model's vertical response, a simple transfer-function model approximating the effects of dynamic inflow was developed. Additional subcomponents of the vehicle were also modeled and simulated, such as a basic engine response for hover and the vehicle stick dynamic characteristics. The model, with and without stability augmentation, was then evaluated by AH-64 pilots in a moving-base simulation. It was the opinion of the pilots that the simulation was a satisfactory representation of the aircraft for the tasks of interest. The principal negative comment was that height control was more difficult in the simulation than in the aircraft.

  14. Using soft systems methodology to develop a simulation of out-patient services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehaney, B; Paul, R J

    1994-10-01

    Discrete event simulation is an approach to modelling a system in the form of a set of mathematical equations and logical relationships, usually used for complex problems, which are difficult to address by using analytical or numerical methods. Managing out-patient services is such a problem. However, simulation is not in itself a systemic approach, in that it provides no methodology by which system boundaries and system activities may be identified. The investigation considers the use of soft systems methodology as an aid to drawing system boundaries and identifying system activities, for the purpose of simulating the outpatients' department at a local hospital. The long term aims are to examine the effects that the participative nature of soft systems methodology has on the acceptability of the simulation model, and to provide analysts and managers with a process that may assist in planning strategies for health care.

  15. Study on Evaluation Indicators System of Crowd Management for Transfer Stations Based on Pedestrian Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghou Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving safety and convenience of transfer is one of the most vital tasks in subway system planning, design and operation management. Because of complicated space layout and crowded pedestrian, crowd control is a big challenge for management of transfer stations. Thus, a quantitative evaluation should be done before improvement measures are carried out. Literature review showed that present evaluation indicators about crowd management in subway system were all based on fixed value or experience. Dynamic effect caused by pedestrian congestion and various facility combination cannot be represented based on these indicators. Thus, in this paper, based on the pedestrian simulation tool, dynamic evaluation indicators system of crowd management was established from the point of safety, cost-effectiveness and comfort. In order to aid decision makers to identify the most appropriate scenario to improve the effectiveness of crowd management, Matter-Element Analysis (MEA was used to rate different scenarios. A pedestrian simulation model of a designing intermodal transfer station was built and four different scenarios were tested to demonstrate how to use this indicators system. Simulation results were evaluated based on the dynamic indicators system and MEA. The application results show that the dynamic evaluation indicators system is operational and can reflect level of the crowd management in transfer station comprehensively and precisely.

  16. Integrating Medical Simulation Into the Physician Assistant Physiology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Lopes, John; Zhou, Joseph Yi; Xu, Biao

    2016-12-01

    Medical simulation has recently been used in medical education, and evidence indicates that it is a valuable tool for teaching and evaluation. Very few studies have evaluated the integration of medical simulation in medical physiology education, particularly in PA programs. This study was designed to assess the value of integrating medical simulation into the PA physiology curriculum. Seventy-five students from the PA program at Central Michigan University participated in this study. Mannequin-based simulation was used to simulate a patient with hemorrhagic shock and congestive heart failure to demonstrate the Frank-Starling force and cardiac function curve. Before and after the medical simulation, students completed a questionnaire as a self-assessment. A knowledge test was also delivered after the simulation. Our study demonstrated a significant improvement in student confidence in understanding congestive heart failure, hemorrhagic shock, and the Frank-Starling curve after the simulation. Medical simulation may be an effective way to enhance basic science learning experiences for students and an ideal supplement to traditional, lecture-based teaching in PA education.

  17. Computational model to simulate the interplay effect in dynamic IMRT delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoganathan, S A; Maria Das, K J; Kumar, Shaleen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and experimentally verify a patient specific model for simulating the interplay effect in a DMLC based IMRT delivery. A computational model was developed using MATLAB program to incorporate the interplay effect in a 2D beams eye view fluence of dynamic IMRT fields. To simulate interplay effect, the model requires two inputs: IMRT field (DMLC file with dose rate and MU) and the patient specific respiratory motion. The interplay between the DMLC leaf motion and target was simulated for three lung patients. The target trajectory data was acquired using RPM system during the treatment simulation. The model was verified experimentally for the same patients using Imatrix 2D array device placed over QUASAR motion platform in CL2100 linac. The simulated fluences and measured fluences were compared with the TPS generated static fluence (no motion) using an in-house developed gamma evaluation program (2%/2mm). The simulated results were well within agreement with the measured. Comparison of the simulated and measured fluences with the TPS static fluence resulted 55.3% and 58.5% pixels passed the gamma criteria. A patient specific model was developed and validated for simulating the interplay effect in the dynamic IMRT delivery. This model can be clinically used to quantify the dosimetric uncertainty due to the interplay effect prior to the treatment delivery.

  18. Recognizing and managing a deteriorating patient: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of clinical simulation in improving clinical performance in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayt, Louise Caroline; Merriman, Clair; Ricketts, Barry; Morton, Sean; Simpson, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    To report the results of a randomized controlled trial which explored the effectiveness of clinical simulation in improving the clinical performance of recognizing and managing an adult deteriorating patient in hospital. There is evidence that final year undergraduate nurses may lack knowledge, clinical skills and situation awareness required to manage a deteriorating patient competently. The effectiveness of clinical simulation as a strategy to teach the skills required to recognize and manage the early signs of deterioration needs to be evaluated. This study was a two centre phase II single, randomized, controlled trial with single blinded assessments. Data were collected in July 2013. Ninety-eight first year nursing students were randomized either into a control group, where they received a traditional lecture, or an intervention group where they received simulation. Participants completed a pre- and postintervention objective structured clinical examination. General Perceived Self Efficacy and Self-Reported Competency scores were measured before and after the intervention. Student satisfaction with teaching was also surveyed. The intervention group performed significantly better in the post-objective structured clinical examination. There was no significant difference in the postintervention General Perceived Self Efficacy and Self-Reported Competency scores between the control and intervention group. The intervention group was significantly more satisfied with their teaching method. Simulation-based education may be an effective educational strategy to teach nurses the skills to effectively recognize and manage a deteriorating patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of element migration from food plastic packagings into simulated solutions using radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez; Saiki, Mitiko; Wiebeck, Helio

    2005-01-01

    In the present study a radiometric method was established to determine the migration of elements from food plastic packagings to a simulated acetic acid solution. This radiometric method consisted of irradiating plastic samples with neutrons at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor for a period of 16 hours under a neutron flux of 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 and, then to expose them to the element migration into a simulated solution. The radioactivity of the activated elements transferred to the solutions was measured to evaluate the migration. The experimental conditions were: time of exposure of 10 days at 40 deg C and 3% acetic acid solution was used as simulated solution, according to the procedure established by the National Agency of Sanitary Monitoring (ANVISA). The migration study was applied for plastic samples from soft drink and juice packagings. The results obtained indicated the migration of elements Co, Cr and Sb. The advantage of this methodology was no need to analyse the blank of simulantes, as well as the use of high purity simulated solutions. Besides, the method allows to evaluate the migration of the elements into the food content instead of simulated solution. The detention limits indicated high sensitivity of the radiometric method. (author)

  20. A Novel Cast Removal Training Simulation to Improve Patient Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubacher, Jacob W; Karg, Jeffrey; Weinstock, Peter; Bae, Donald S

    2016-01-01

    Cast application and removal are essential to orthopedics and performed by providers of variable training. Simulation training and practice of proper cast application and removal may reduce injury, optimize outcomes, and reduce health care costs. The purpose of this educational initiative was to develop, validate, and implement a novel simulation trainer and curriculum to improve safety during cast removal. In all, 30 thermocouples (Omega, Stamford, CT) were applied to a radius fracture model (Sawbones, Vashon, WA). After reduction and cast application, a saw (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI) was used to cut the cast with temperature recording. Both "good" and "poor" techniques-as established by consensus best practices-were used. Maximal temperatures were compared to known thresholds for thermal injury; humans experience pain at temperatures exceeding 47°C and contact temperatures exceeding 60°C may lead to epidermal necrosis. Construct validity was evaluated by assessing novice (postgraduate year 1), intermediate (postgraduate year 3), and expert (pediatric orthopedic attending) performance. With the "good" technique, mean peak temperatures were 43°C + 4.3°C. The highest recorded was 51.9°C. With the "poor" technique, mean peak temperature was 75.2°C + 17.3°C. The maximum temperature recorded with the "poor" technique was 112.4°C. Construct validity testing showed that novices had the highest increases in temperatures (12.9°C). There was a decline in heat generation as experience increased with the intermediate group (9.7°C), and the lowest heat generation was seen in the expert group (5.0°C). A novel task simulator and curriculum have been developed to assess competency and enhance performance in the application and removal of casts. There was a 32.2°C temperature decrease when the proper cast saw technique was used. Furthermore, the "poor" technique consistently achieved temperatures that would cause epidermal necrosis in patients. Clinical experience was a

  1. Design and evaluation of an augmented reality simulator using leap motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Trinette; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2017-10-01

    Advances in virtual and augmented reality (AR) are having an impact on the medical field in areas such as surgical simulation. Improvements to surgical simulation will provide students and residents with additional training and evaluation methods. This is particularly important for procedures such as the endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which residents perform regularly. Simulators such as NeuroTouch, have been designed to aid in training associated with this procedure. The authors have designed an affordable and easily accessible ETV simulator, and compare it with the existing NeuroTouch for its usability and training effectiveness. This simulator was developed using Unity, Vuforia and the leap motion (LM) for an AR environment. The participants, 16 novices and two expert neurosurgeons, were asked to complete 40 targeting tasks. Participants used the NeuroTouch tool or a virtual hand controlled by the LM to select the position and orientation for these tasks. The length of time to complete each task was recorded and the trajectory log files were used to calculate performance. The resulting data from the novices' and experts' speed and accuracy are compared, and they discuss the objective performance of training in terms of the speed and accuracy of targeting accuracy for each system.

  2. Design and evaluation of an augmented reality simulator using leap motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Advances in virtual and augmented reality (AR) are having an impact on the medical field in areas such as surgical simulation. Improvements to surgical simulation will provide students and residents with additional training and evaluation methods. This is particularly important for procedures such as the endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV), which residents perform regularly. Simulators such as NeuroTouch, have been designed to aid in training associated with this procedure. The authors have designed an affordable and easily accessible ETV simulator, and compare it with the existing NeuroTouch for its usability and training effectiveness. This simulator was developed using Unity, Vuforia and the leap motion (LM) for an AR environment. The participants, 16 novices and two expert neurosurgeons, were asked to complete 40 targeting tasks. Participants used the NeuroTouch tool or a virtual hand controlled by the LM to select the position and orientation for these tasks. The length of time to complete each task was recorded and the trajectory log files were used to calculate performance. The resulting data from the novices' and experts' speed and accuracy are compared, and they discuss the objective performance of training in terms of the speed and accuracy of targeting accuracy for each system. PMID:29184667

  3. Monte Carlo simulation tool for online treatment monitoring in hadrontherapy with in-beam PET: A patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorina, E; Ferrero, V; Pennazio, F; Baroni, G; Battistoni, G; Belcari, N; Cerello, P; Camarlinghi, N; Ciocca, M; Del Guerra, A; Donetti, M; Ferrari, A; Giordanengo, S; Giraudo, G; Mairani, A; Morrocchi, M; Peroni, C; Rivetti, A; Da Rocha Rolo, M D; Rossi, S; Rosso, V; Sala, P; Sportelli, G; Tampellini, S; Valvo, F; Wheadon, R; Bisogni, M G

    2018-05-07

    Hadrontherapy is a method for treating cancer with very targeted dose distributions and enhanced radiobiological effects. To fully exploit these advantages, in vivo range monitoring systems are required. These devices measure, preferably during the treatment, the secondary radiation generated by the beam-tissue interactions. However, since correlation of the secondary radiation distribution with the dose is not straightforward, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are very important for treatment quality assessment. The INSIDE project constructed an in-beam PET scanner to detect signals generated by the positron-emitting isotopes resulting from projectile-target fragmentation. In addition, a FLUKA-based simulation tool was developed to predict the corresponding reference PET images using a detailed scanner model. The INSIDE in-beam PET was used to monitor two consecutive proton treatment sessions on a patient at the Italian Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy (CNAO). The reconstructed PET images were updated every 10 s providing a near real-time quality assessment. By half-way through the treatment, the statistics of the measured PET images were already significant enough to be compared with the simulations with average differences in the activity range less than 2.5 mm along the beam direction. Without taking into account any preferential direction, differences within 1 mm were found. In this paper, the INSIDE MC simulation tool is described and the results of the first in vivo agreement evaluation are reported. These results have justified a clinical trial, in which the MC simulation tool will be used on a daily basis to study the compliance tolerances between the measured and simulated PET images. Copyright © 2018 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic evaluation in patient safety: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende, Bruna Alves; Or, Zeynep; Com-Ruelle, Laure; Michel, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    Patient safety practices, targeting organisational changes for improving patient safety, are implemented worldwide but their costs are rarely evaluated. This paper provides a review of the methods used in economic evaluation of such practices. International medical and economics databases were searched for peer-reviewed publications on economic evaluations of patient safety between 2000 and 2010 in English and French. This was complemented by a manual search of the reference lists of relevant papers. Grey literature was excluded. Studies were described using a standardised template and assessed independently by two researchers according to six quality criteria. 33 articles were reviewed that were representative of different patient safety domains, data types and evaluation methods. 18 estimated the economic burden of adverse events, 3 measured the costs of patient safety practices and 12 provided complete economic evaluations. Healthcare-associated infections were the most common subject of evaluation, followed by medication-related errors and all types of adverse events. Of these, 10 were selected that had adequately fulfilled one or several key quality criteria for illustration. This review shows that full cost-benefit/utility evaluations are rarely completed as they are resource intensive and often require unavailable data; some overcome these difficulties by performing stochastic modelling and by using secondary sources. Low methodological transparency can be a problem for building evidence from available economic evaluations. Investing in the economic design and reporting of studies with more emphasis on defining study perspectives, data collection and methodological choices could be helpful for strengthening our knowledge base on practices for improving patient safety.

  5. Evaluation of B1 inhomogeneity effect on DCE-MRI data analysis of brain tumor patients at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anirban; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Anup

    2017-12-02

    Dynamic-contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI data acquired using gradient echo based sequences is affected by errors in flip angle (FA) due to transmit B 1 inhomogeneity (B 1 inh). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of B 1 inh on quantitative analysis of DCE-MRI data of human brain tumor patients and to evaluate the clinical significance of B 1 inh correction of perfusion parameters (PPs) on tumor grading. An MRI study was conducted on 35 glioma patients at 3T. The patients had histologically confirmed glioma with 23 high-grade (HG) and 12 low-grade (LG). Data for B 1 -mapping, T 1 -mapping and DCE-MRI were acquired. Relative B 1 maps (B 1rel ) were generated using the saturated-double-angle method. T 1 -maps were computed using the variable flip-angle method. Post-processing was performed for conversion of signal-intensity time (S(t)) curve to concentration-time (C(t)) curve followed by tracer kinetic analysis (K trans , Ve, Vp, Kep) and first pass analysis (CBV, CBF) using the general tracer-kinetic model. DCE-MRI data was analyzed without and with B 1 inh correction and errors in PPs were computed. Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed on HG and LG patients. Simulations were carried out to understand the effect of B 1 inhomogeneity on DCE-MRI data analysis in a systematic way. S(t) curves mimicking those in tumor tissue, were generated and FA errors were introduced followed by error analysis of PPs. Dependence of FA-based errors on the concentration of contrast agent and on the duration of DCE-MRI data was also studied. Simulations were also done to obtain K trans of glioma patients at different B 1rel values and see whether grading is affected or not. Current study shows that B 1rel value higher than nominal results in an overestimation of C(t) curves as well as derived PPs and vice versa. Moreover, at same B 1rel values, errors were large for larger values of C(t). Simulation results showed that grade of patients can change

  6. Simulation based virtual learning environment in medical genetics counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Bonde, Mads T.; Wulff, Julie S. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simulation based learning environments are designed to improve the quality of medical education by allowing students to interact with patients, diagnostic laboratory procedures, and patient data in a virtual environment. However, few studies have evaluated whether simulation based...... the perceived relevance of medical educational activities. The results suggest that simulations can help future generations of doctors transfer new understanding of disease mechanisms gained in virtual laboratory settings into everyday clinical practice....... learning environments increase students' knowledge, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy, and help them generalize from laboratory analyses to clinical practice and health decision-making. METHODS: An entire class of 300 University of Copenhagen first-year undergraduate students, most with a major...

  7. Sonographic evaluation of penile in patients with erectile dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena Trigueros, Christian

    2012-01-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge is made on sonographic evaluation of penile in patients with erectile dysfunction. This sonography is developed with high resolution ultrasound on gray scale, combined with color Doppler ultrasonography; which the arteries of penile are examined before and during the erection. The penile ultrasonography has meant an important tool in the evaluation of specific patients who have submitted erectile dysfunction, particularly, in those with record of trauma and history of Peyronie's disease. In addition, through a sonographic evaluation has permitted to prove manifestations of the pathophysiological phenomena of the patient in order to establish their classification and guide their treatment [es

  8. The establishment of Digital Image Capture System(DICS) using conventional simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Sung; Park, Jong Il; Byun, Young Sik; Shin, Hyun Kyoh

    2004-01-01

    The simulator is used to determine patient field and ensure the treatment field, which encompasses the required anatomy during patient normal movement such as during breathing. The latest simulator provide real time display of still, fluoroscopic and digitalized image, but conventional simulator is not yet. The purpose of this study is to introduce digital image capture system(DICS) using conventional simulator and clinical case using digital captured still and fluoroscopic image. We connect the video signal cable to the video terminal in the back up of simulator monitor, and connect the video jack to the A/D converter. After connection between the converter jack and computer, We can acquire still image and record fluoroscopic image with operating image capture program. The data created with this system can be used in patient treatment, and modified for verification by using image processing software. (j.e. photoshop, paintshop) DICS was able to establish easy and economical procedure. DCIS image was helpful for simulation. DICS imaging was powerful tool in the evaluation of the department specific patient positioning. Because the commercialized simulator based of digital capture is very expensive, it is not easily to establish DICS simulator in the most hospital. DICS using conventional simulator enable to utilize the practical use of image equal to high cost digitalized simulator and to research many clinical cases in case of using other software program.