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Sample records for simplex virus capsid

  1. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  2. Scaffold expulsion and genome packaging trigger stabilization of herpes simplex virus capsids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, W.H.; Radtke, K.; Kniesmeijer, E.G.R.; Geertsema, H.J.; Sodeik, B.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) capsids undergo extensive structural changes during maturation and DNA packaging. As a result, they become more stable and competent for nuclear egress. To further elucidate this stabilization process, we used biochemical and nanoindentation approaches to analyze

  3. Scaffold expulsion and genome packaging trigger stabilization of Herpes Simplex Virus capsids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, W.H.; Radtke, K.; Kniesmeijer, E.; Geertsema, H.J.; Sodeik, B.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) capsids undergo extensive structural changes during maturation and DNA packaging. As a result, they become more stable and competent for nuclear egress. To further elucidate this stabilization process, we used biochemical and nanoindentation approaches to analyze

  4. Inner tegument proteins of Herpes Simplex Virus are sufficient for intracellular capsid motility in neurons but not for axonal targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Oliver; Ivanova, Lyudmila; Bialy, Dagmara; Pohlmann, Anja; Binz, Anne; Hegemann, Maike; Viejo-Borbolla, Abel; Rosenhahn, Bodo; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2017-01-01

    Upon reactivation from latency and during lytic infections in neurons, alphaherpesviruses assemble cytosolic capsids, capsids associated with enveloping membranes, and transport vesicles harboring fully enveloped capsids. It is debated whether capsid envelopment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is completed in the soma prior to axonal targeting or later, and whether the mechanisms are the same in neurons derived from embryos or from adult hosts. We used HSV mutants impaired in capsid envelopment to test whether the inner tegument proteins pUL36 or pUL37 necessary for microtubule-mediated capsid transport were sufficient for axonal capsid targeting in neurons derived from the dorsal root ganglia of adult mice. Such neurons were infected with HSV1-ΔUL20 whose capsids recruited pUL36 and pUL37, with HSV1-ΔUL37 whose capsids associate only with pUL36, or with HSV1-ΔUL36 that assembles capsids lacking both proteins. While capsids of HSV1-ΔUL20 were actively transported along microtubules in epithelial cells and in the somata of neurons, those of HSV1-ΔUL36 and -ΔUL37 could only diffuse in the cytoplasm. Employing a novel image analysis algorithm to quantify capsid targeting to axons, we show that only a few capsids of HSV1-ΔUL20 entered axons, while vesicles transporting gD utilized axonal transport efficiently and independently of pUL36, pUL37, or pUL20. Our data indicate that capsid motility in the somata of neurons mediated by pUL36 and pUL37 does not suffice for targeting capsids to axons, and suggest that capsid envelopment needs to be completed in the soma prior to targeting of herpes simplex virus to the axons, and to spreading from neurons to neighboring cells. PMID:29284065

  5. Residues of the UL25 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus That Are Required for Its Stable Interaction with Capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Shelley K.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Toropova, Katerina; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2011-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL25 gene product is a minor capsid component that is required for encapsidation, but not cleavage, of replicated viral DNA. UL25 is located on the capsid surface in a proposed heterodimer with UL17, where five copies of the heterodimer are found at each of the capsid vertices. Previously, we demonstrated that amino acids 1 to 50 of UL25 are essential for its stable interaction with capsids. To further define the UL25 capsid binding domain, we generated recombinant viruses with either small truncations or amino acid substitutions in the UL25 N terminus. Studies of these mutants demonstrated that there are two important regions within the capsid binding domain. The first 27 amino acids are essential for capsid binding of UL25, while residues 26 to 39, which are highly conserved in the UL25 homologues of other alphaherpesviruses, were found to be critical for stable capsid binding. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of capsids containing either a small tag on the N terminus of UL25 or the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused between amino acids 50 and 51 of UL25 demonstrate that residues 1 to 27 of UL25 contact the hexon adjacent to the penton. A second region, most likely centered on amino acids 26 to 39, contacts the triplex that is one removed from the penton. Importantly, both of these UL25 capsid binding regions are essential for the stable packaging of full-length viral genomes. PMID:21411517

  6. Importin α1 is required for nuclear import of herpes simplex virus proteins and capsid assembly in fibroblasts and neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Fenja; Rother, Franziska; Rudolph, Kathrin; Prank, Ute; Binz, Anne; Hügel, Stefanie; Hartmann, Enno; Bader, Michael; Bauerfeind, Rudolf; Sodeik, Beate

    2018-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large DNA viruses which depend on many nuclear functions, and therefore on host transport factors to ensure specific nuclear import of viral and host components. While some import cargoes bind directly to certain transport factors, most recruit importin β1 via importin α. We identified importin α1 in a small targeted siRNA screen to be important for herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) gene expression. Production of infectious virions was delayed in the absence of importin α1, but not in cells lacking importin α3 or importin α4. While nuclear targeting of the incoming capsids, of the HSV-1 transcription activator VP16, and of the viral genomes were not affected, the nuclear import of the HSV-1 proteins ICP4 and ICP0, required for efficient viral transcription, and of ICP8 and pUL42, necessary for DNA replication, were reduced. Furthermore, quantitative electron microscopy showed that fibroblasts lacking importin α1 contained overall fewer nuclear capsids, but an increased proportion of mature nuclear capsids indicating that capsid formation and capsid egress into the cytoplasm were impaired. In neurons, importin α1 was also not required for nuclear targeting of incoming capsids, but for nuclear import of ICP4 and for the formation of nuclear capsid assembly compartments. Our data suggest that importin α1 is specifically required for the nuclear localization of several important HSV1 proteins, capsid assembly, and capsid egress into the cytoplasm, and may become rate limiting in situ upon infection at low multiplicity or in terminally differentiated cells such as neurons. PMID:29304174

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us3 Deletion Mutant is Infective Despite Impaired Capsid Translocation to the Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wild

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 capsids are assembled in the nucleus bud at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, acquiring envelope and tegument. In theory, these virions are de-enveloped by fusion of the envelope with the outer nuclear membrane and re-enveloped by Golgi membranes to become infective. Us3 enables the nucleus to cytoplasm capsid translocation. Nevertheless, Us3 is not essential for the production of infective progeny viruses. Determination of phenotype distribution by quantitative electron microscopy, and calculation per mean nuclear or cell volume revealed the following: (i The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids budding at the inner nuclear membrane was significantly higher than that of wild type HSV-1; (ii The mean number of R7041(∆US3 virions per mean cell volume was 2726, that of HSV-1 virions 1460 by 24 h post inoculation; (iii 98% of R7041(∆US3 virions were in the perinuclear space; (iv The number of R7041(∆US3 capsids in the cytoplasm, including those budding at Golgi membranes, was significantly reduced. Cell associated R7041(∆US3 yields were 2.37 × 108 and HSV-1 yields 1.57 × 108 PFU/mL by 24 h post inoculation. We thus conclude that R7041(∆US3 virions, which acquire envelope and tegument by budding at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, are infective.

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us3 Deletion Mutant is Infective Despite Impaired Capsid Translocation to the Cytoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Peter; Leisinger, Sabine; de Oliveira, Anna Paula; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Kaech, Andres; Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsids are assembled in the nucleus bud at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, acquiring envelope and tegument. In theory, these virions are de-enveloped by fusion of the envelope with the outer nuclear membrane and re-enveloped by Golgi membranes to become infective. Us3 enables the nucleus to cytoplasm capsid translocation. Nevertheless, Us3 is not essential for the production of infective progeny viruses. Determination of phenotype distribution by quantitative electron microscopy, and calculation per mean nuclear or cell volume revealed the following: (i) The number of R7041(∆US3) capsids budding at the inner nuclear membrane was significantly higher than that of wild type HSV-1; (ii) The mean number of R7041(∆US3) virions per mean cell volume was 2726, that of HSV-1 virions 1460 by 24 h post inoculation; (iii) 98% of R7041(∆US3) virions were in the perinuclear space; (iv) The number of R7041(∆US3) capsids in the cytoplasm, including those budding at Golgi membranes, was significantly reduced. Cell associated R7041(∆US3) yields were 2.37 × 108 and HSV-1 yields 1.57 × 108 PFU/mL by 24 h post inoculation. We thus conclude that R7041(∆US3) virions, which acquire envelope and tegument by budding at the inner nuclear membrane into the perinuclear space, are infective. PMID:25588052

  9. Silencing herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid protein encoding genes by siRNA: a promising antiviral therapeutic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujun Jin

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, a member of the herpesviridae, causes a variety of human viral diseases globally. Although a series of antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of infection and suppression of dissemination, HSV-1 remains highly prevalent worldwide. Therefore, the development of novel antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action is a matter of extreme urgency. During the proliferation of HSV-1, capsid assembly is essential for viral growth, and it is highly conserved in all HSV-1 strains. In this study, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against the HSV-1 capsid protein were screened to explore the influence of silencing capsid expression on the replication of HSV-1. We designed and chemically synthesized siRNAs for the capsid gene and assessed their inhibitory effects on the expression of target mRNA and the total intracellular viral genome loads by quantitative real-time PCR, as well as on the replication of HSV-1 via plaque reduction assays and electron microscopy. Our results showed that siRNA was an effective approach to inhibit the expression of capsid protein encoding genes including UL18, UL19, UL26, UL26.5, UL35 and UL38 in vitro. Interference of capsid proteins VP23 (UL18 and VP5 (UL19 individually or jointly greatly affected the replication of clinically isolated acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 as well as HSV-1/F and HSV-2/333. Plaque numbers and intracellular virions were significantly reduced by simultaneous knockdown of UL18 and UL19. The total intracellular viral genome loads were also significantly decreased in the UL18 and UL19 knockdown groups compared with the viral control. In conclusion, interfering with UL18 and UL19 gene expression could inhibit HSV-1 replication efficiently in vitro. Our research offers new targets for an RNA interference-based therapeutic strategy against HSV-1.

  10. Silencing herpes simplex virus type 1 capsid protein encoding genes by siRNA: a promising antiviral therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fujun; Li, Shen; Zheng, Kai; Zhuo, Cuiqin; Ma, Kaiqi; Chen, Maoyun; Wang, Qiaoli; Zhang, Peizhuo; Fan, Jianglin; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a member of the herpesviridae, causes a variety of human viral diseases globally. Although a series of antiviral drugs are available for the treatment of infection and suppression of dissemination, HSV-1 remains highly prevalent worldwide. Therefore, the development of novel antiviral agents with different mechanisms of action is a matter of extreme urgency. During the proliferation of HSV-1, capsid assembly is essential for viral growth, and it is highly conserved in all HSV-1 strains. In this study, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against the HSV-1 capsid protein were screened to explore the influence of silencing capsid expression on the replication of HSV-1. We designed and chemically synthesized siRNAs for the capsid gene and assessed their inhibitory effects on the expression of target mRNA and the total intracellular viral genome loads by quantitative real-time PCR, as well as on the replication of HSV-1 via plaque reduction assays and electron microscopy. Our results showed that siRNA was an effective approach to inhibit the expression of capsid protein encoding genes including UL18, UL19, UL26, UL26.5, UL35 and UL38 in vitro. Interference of capsid proteins VP23 (UL18) and VP5 (UL19) individually or jointly greatly affected the replication of clinically isolated acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 as well as HSV-1/F and HSV-2/333. Plaque numbers and intracellular virions were significantly reduced by simultaneous knockdown of UL18 and UL19. The total intracellular viral genome loads were also significantly decreased in the UL18 and UL19 knockdown groups compared with the viral control. In conclusion, interfering with UL18 and UL19 gene expression could inhibit HSV-1 replication efficiently in vitro. Our research offers new targets for an RNA interference-based therapeutic strategy against HSV-1.

  11. The Major Capsid Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Affects its

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether siRNA targeting viral protein 5 (VP5) can become a new treatment for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Methods: Flow cytometry was performed to determine the ratio of siRNA and lipo2000 to reach the highest transfection efficiency. Western blot and q-PCR were performed to determine ...

  12. Pharmacological Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Impairs Nuclear Accumulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids upon Infection

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    Francisco J. Ibáñez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to physical and chemical stresses, such as ultraviolet radiation, hyperthermia, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS, as well as cytokines, among others. Its activity can be positively modulated by cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP and negatively by tin protoporphirin (SnPP. Once induced, HO-1 degrades iron-containing heme into ferrous iron (Fe2+, carbon monoxide (CO and biliverdin. Importantly, numerous products of HO-1 are cytoprotective with anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. The products of HO-1 also display antiviral properties against several viruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, influenza, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and Ebola virus. Here, we sought to assess the effect of modulating HO-1 activity over herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection in epithelial cells and neurons. There are no vaccines against HSV-2 and treatment options are scarce in the immunosuppressed, in which drug-resistant variants emerge. By using HSV strains that encode structural and non-structural forms of the green fluorescent protein (GFP, we found that pharmacological induction of HO-1 activity with CoPP significantly decreases virus plaque formation and the expression of virus-encoded genes in epithelial cells as determined by flow cytometry and western blot assays. CoPP treatment did not affect virus binding to the cell surface or entry into the cytoplasm, but rather downstream events in the virus infection cycle. Furthermore, we observed that treating cells with a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2 recapitulated some of the anti-HSV effects elicited by CoPP. Taken together, these findings indicate that HO-1 activity interferes with the replication cycle of HSV and that its antiviral effects can be recapitulated by CO.

  13. Labeling and localization of the herpes simplex virus capsid protein UL25 and its interaction with the two triplexes closest to the penton

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    Conway, James F.; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Copeland, Anna Maria; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Homa, Fred L.

    2010-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL25 protein is one of seven viral proteins that are required for DNA cleavage and packaging. Together with UL17, UL25 forms part of an elongated molecule referred to as the C-capsid-specific component or CCSC. Five copies of the CCSC are located at each of the capsid vertices on DNA-containing capsids. To study the conformation of UL25 as it is folded on the capsid surface, we identified the sequence recognized by a UL25-specific monoclonal antibody and localized the epitope on the capsid surface by immunogold electron microscopy. The epitope mapped to amino acids 99-111 adjacent to the region of the protein (amino acids 1-50) that is required for capsid binding. In addition, cryo-EM reconstructions of C-capsids in which the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused within the N-terminus of UL25 localized the point of contact between UL25 and GFP. The result confirmed the modeled location of the UL25 protein in the CCSC density as the region that is distal to the penton with the N-terminus of UL25 making contact with the triplex one removed from the penton. Immunofluorescence experiments at early times during infection demonstrated that UL25-GFP was present on capsids located within the cytoplasm and adjacent to the nucleus. These results support the view that UL25 is present on incoming capsids with the capsid binding domain of UL25 located on the surface of the mature DNA-containing capsid. PMID:20109467

  14. The C Terminus of the Herpes Simplex Virus UL25 Protein Is Required for Release of Viral Genomes from Capsids Bound to Nuclear Pores.

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    Huffman, Jamie B; Daniel, Gina R; Falck-Pedersen, Erik; Huet, Alexis; Smith, Greg A; Conway, James F; Homa, Fred L

    2017-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) capsid is released into the cytoplasm after fusion of viral and host membranes, whereupon dynein-dependent trafficking along microtubules targets it to the nuclear envelope. Binding of the capsid to the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is mediated by the capsid protein pUL25 and the capsid-tethered tegument protein pUL36. Temperature-sensitive mutants in both pUL25 and pUL36 dock at the NPC but fail to release DNA. The uncoating reaction has been difficult to study due to the rapid release of the genome once the capsid interacts with the nuclear pore. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a truncation mutant of pUL25. Live-cell imaging and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that the mutant was not impaired in penetration of the host cell or in trafficking of the capsid to the nuclear membrane. However, expression of viral proteins was absent or significantly delayed in cells infected with the pUL25 mutant virus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed capsids accumulated at nuclear pores that retained the viral genome for at least 4 h postinfection. In addition, cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of virion capsids did not detect any obvious differences in the location or structural organization for the pUL25 or pUL36 proteins on the pUL25 mutant capsids. Further, in contrast to wild-type virus, the antiviral response mediated by the viral DNA-sensing cyclic guanine adenine synthase (cGAS) was severely compromised for the pUL25 mutant. These results demonstrate that the pUL25 capsid protein has a critical role in releasing viral DNA from NPC-bound capsids. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. Early steps in infection include release of the capsid into the cytoplasm, docking of the capsid at a nuclear pore, and release of the viral genome into the nucleus

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Membrane Proteins gE/gI and US9 Act Cooperatively To Promote Transport of Capsids and Glycoproteins from Neuron Cell Bodies into Initial Axon Segments

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    Howard, Paul W.; Howard, Tiffani L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other alphaherpesviruses must move from sites of latency in ganglia to peripheral epithelial cells. How HSV navigates in neuronal axons is not well understood. Two HSV membrane proteins, gE/gI and US9, are key to understanding the processes by which viral glycoproteins, unenveloped capsids, and enveloped virions are transported toward axon tips. Whether gE/gI and US9 function to promote the loading of viral proteins onto microtubule motors in neuron cell bodies or to tether viral proteins onto microtubule motors within axons is not clear. One impediment to understanding how HSV gE/gI and US9 function in axonal transport relates to observations that gE−, gI−, or US9− mutants are not absolutely blocked in axonal transport. Mutants are significantly reduced in numbers of capsids and glycoproteins in distal axons, but there are less extensive effects in proximal axons. We constructed HSV recombinants lacking both gE and US9 that transported no detectable capsids and glycoproteins to distal axons and failed to spread from axon tips to adjacent cells. Live-cell imaging of a gE−/US9− double mutant that expressed fluorescent capsids and gB demonstrated >90% diminished capsids and gB in medial axons and no evidence for decreased rates of transport, stalling, or increased retrograde transport. Instead, capsids, gB, and enveloped virions failed to enter proximal axons. We concluded that gE/gI and US9 function in neuron cell bodies, in a cooperative fashion, to promote the loading of HSV capsids and vesicles containing glycoproteins and enveloped virions onto microtubule motors or their transport into proximal axons. PMID:23077321

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus

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    Khoddami, Maliheh; Nadji, Seyed Alireza; Dehghanian, Paria

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology and mainly affects young children. The histological feature is granuloma-like proliferation of langerhans-type dendritic cells. Although the possible role of viruses such as Epstein-Barr virus ( EBV , Human Herpes virus -4 ), Human Herpes virus-6 ( HHV-6 ), Herpes Simplex virus ( HSV ) types 1 and 2 and Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Human Herpes virus-5 ) is suggested in the pathogenesis of LCH by some investigators, its exact pathophysiology has not been cleared yet. In this study, we investigated the presence of HSV types 1 and 2 in Iranian children with LCH. In this retrospective study, we investigated the prevalence of presence of HSV types 1 and 2 (in 30 patients with LCH), using paraffin-embedded tissue samples and 30 age and tissue-matched controls (operated for reasons other than infectious diseases) from the Department of Pediatric Pathology, Tehran, Iran, by nested Polymerase Chain reaction method. No ethical issues arose in the study, because only the pathology reports were reviewed and patients were anonymous. We failed to find HSV types 1 and 2 DNA in any of the 30 patients with LCH or the control group. According to our findings, HSV types 1 and 2 do not appear to have any etiologic role in the pathogenesis of LCH in Iranian children. These results are in accordance with previous investigations with negative findings.

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Share Cold Sores in Children: About the Herpes Simplex Virus Page Content ​A child's toddler and ... Cold sores (also called fever blisters or oral herpes) start as small blisters that form around the ...

  18. Chronic herpes simplex virus encephalitis in childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, W.G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Verbeek, M.M.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Although herpes simplex virus is a major cause of acute encephalitis in childhood, chronic herpes simplex virus encephalitis has only rarely been reported. This report presents a case of chronic herpes simplex virus encephalitis in a 6-year-old female. Diagnosis was based on the detection of herpes

  19. Stochastic modeling of virus capsid assembly pathways

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    Schwartz, Russell

    2009-03-01

    Virus capsids have become a key model system for understanding self-assembly due to their high complexity, robust and efficient assembly processes, and experimental tractability. Our ability to directly examine and manipulate capsid assembly kinetics in detail nonetheless remains limited, creating a need for computer models that can infer experimentally inaccessible features of the assembly process and explore the effects of hypothetical manipulations on assembly trajectories. We have developed novel algorithms for stochastic simulation of capsid assembly [1,2] that allow us to model capsid assembly over broad parameter spaces [3]. We apply these methods to study the nature of assembly pathway control in virus capsids as well as their sensitivity to assembly conditions and possible experimental interventions. [4pt] [1] F. Jamalyaria, R. Rohlfs, and R. Schwartz. J Comp Phys 204, 100 (2005). [0pt] [2] N. Misra and R. Schwartz. J Chem Phys 129, in press (2008). [0pt] [3] B. Sweeney, T. Zhang, and R. Schwartz. Biophys J 94, 772 (2008).

  20. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  1. A Dual-Modality Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaccine for Preventing Genital Herpes by Using Glycoprotein C and D Subunit Antigens To Induce Potent Antibody Responses and Adenovirus Vectors Containing Capsid and Tegument Proteins as T Cell Immunogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Mahairas, Gregory G; Shaw, Carolyn E; Huang, Meei-Li; Koelle, David M; Posavad, Christine; Corey, Lawrence; Friedman, Harvey M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated a genital herpes prophylactic vaccine containing herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoproteins C (gC2) and D (gD2) to stimulate humoral immunity and UL19 (capsid protein VP5) and UL47 (tegument protein VP13/14) as T cell immunogens. The HSV-2 gC2 and gD2 proteins were expressed in baculovirus, while the UL19 and UL47 genes were expressed from replication-defective adenovirus vectors. Adenovirus vectors containing UL19 and UL47 stimulated human and murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Guinea pigs were either (i) mock immunized; (ii) immunized with gC2/gD2, with CpG and alum as adjuvants; (iii) immunized with the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors; or (iv) immunized with the combination of gC2/gD2-CpG/alum and the UL19/UL47 adenovirus vectors. Immunization with gC2/gD2 produced potent neutralizing antibodies, while UL19 and UL47 also stimulated antibody responses. After intravaginal HSV-2 challenge, the mock and UL19/UL47 adenovirus groups developed severe acute disease, while 2/8 animals in the gC2/gD2-only group and none in the combined group developed acute disease. No animals in the gC2/gD2 or combined group developed recurrent disease; however, 5/8 animals in each group had subclinical shedding of HSV-2 DNA, on 15/168 days for the gC2/gD2 group and 13/168 days for the combined group. Lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia were positive for HSV-2 DNA and latency-associated transcripts for 5/8 animals in the gC2/gD2 group and 2/8 animals in the combined group. None of the differences comparing the gC2/gD2-only group and the combined group were statistically significant. Therefore, adding the T cell immunogens UL19 and UL47 to the gC2/gD2 vaccine did not significantly reduce genital disease and vaginal HSV-2 DNA shedding compared with the excellent protection provided by gC2/gD2 in the guinea pig model. HSV-2 infection is a common cause of genital ulcer disease and a significant public health concern. Genital herpes increases the risk of transmission and

  2. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatitis Virus Capsid Polymorph Stability Depends on Encapsulated Cargo Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, L.; Porterfield, Z.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Zlotnick, A.; Dragnea, B.

    2013-01-01

    Protein cages providing a controlled environment to encapsulated cargo are a ubiquitous presence in any biological system. Well-known examples are capsids, the regular protein shells of viruses, which protect and deliver the viral genome. Since some virus capsids can be loaded with nongenomic

  4. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Esther [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute of Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Kaech, Andres [Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Lucas, Miriam S. [Electron Microscopy ETH Zuerich (EMEZ), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias [Electron microscopy, Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Electron Microscopy, Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  5. Properties and Functions of the Dengue Virus Capsid Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, Laura A; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2016-09-29

    Dengue virus affects hundreds of millions of people each year around the world, causing a tremendous social and economic impact on affected countries. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the functions, structure, and interactions of the viral capsid protein. The primary role of capsid is to package the viral genome. There are two processes linked to this function: the recruitment of the viral RNA during assembly and the release of the genome during infection. Although particle assembly takes place on endoplasmic reticulum membranes, capsid localizes in nucleoli and lipid droplets. Why capsid accumulates in these locations during infection remains unknown. In this review, we describe available data and discuss new ideas on dengue virus capsid functions and interactions. We believe that a deeper understanding of how the capsid protein works during infection will create opportunities for novel antiviral strategies, which are urgently needed to control dengue virus infections.

  6. Structure of the Triatoma virus capsid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, Gaëlle; Pous, Joan [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Agirre, Jon [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rozas-Dennis, Gabriela S. [U.N.S., San Juan 670 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Costabel, Marcelo D. [U.N.S., Avenida Alem 1253 (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Marti, Gerardo A. [Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores (CEPAVE-CCT, La Plata, CONICET-UNLP), Calle 2 No. 584 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Navaza, Jorge; Bressanelli, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France); Guérin, Diego M. A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia, Barrio Sarriena S/N, 48940 Leioa, Bizkaia (FBB) (Spain); Unidad de Biofísica (UBF, CSIC, UPV/EHU), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rey, Felix A., E-mail: diego.guerin@ehu.es [Laboratoire de Virologie Moléculaire et Structurale, CNRS, 1 Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2013-06-01

    The crystallographic structure of TrV shows specific morphological and functional features that clearly distinguish it from the type species of the Cripavirus genus, CrPV. The members of the Dicistroviridae family are non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses pathogenic to beneficial arthropods as well as insect pests of medical importance. Triatoma virus (TrV), a member of this family, infects several species of triatomine insects (popularly named kissing bugs), which are vectors for human trypanosomiasis, more commonly known as Chagas disease. The potential use of dicistroviruses as biological control agents has drawn considerable attention in the past decade, and several viruses of this family have been identified, with their targets covering honey bees, aphids and field crickets, among others. Here, the crystal structure of the TrV capsid at 2.5 Å resolution is reported, showing that as expected it is very similar to that of Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV). Nevertheless, a number of distinguishing structural features support the introduction of a new genus (Triatovirus; type species TrV) under the Dicistroviridae family. The most striking differences are the absence of icosahedrally ordered VP4 within the infectious particle and the presence of prominent projections that surround the fivefold axis. Furthermore, the structure identifies a second putative autoproteolytic DDF motif in protein VP3, in addition to the conserved one in VP1 which is believed to be responsible for VP0 cleavage during capsid maturation. The potential meaning of these new findings is discussed.

  7. Functional Carboxy-Terminal Fluorescent Protein Fusion to Pseudorabies Virus Small Capsid Protein VP26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Ian B; Jean, Jolie; Esteves, Andrew D; Tanneti, Nikhila S; Scherer, Julian; Enquist, Lynn W

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescent protein fusions to herpesvirus capsids have proven to be a valuable method to study virus particle transport in living cells. Fluorescent protein fusions to the amino terminus of small capsid protein VP26 are the most widely used method to visualize pseudorabies virus (PRV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) particles in living cells. However, these fusion proteins do not incorporate to full occupancy and have modest effects on virus replication and pathogenesis. Recent cryoelectron microscopy studies have revealed that herpesvirus small capsid proteins bind to capsids via their amino terminus, whereas the carboxy terminus is unstructured and therefore may better tolerate fluorescent protein fusions. Here, we describe a new recombinant PRV expressing a carboxy-terminal VP26-mCherry fusion. Compared to previously characterized viruses expressing amino-terminal fusions, this virus expresses more VP26 fusion protein in infected cells and incorporates more VP26 fusion protein into virus particles, and individual virus particles exhibit brighter red fluorescence. We performed single-particle tracking of fluorescent virus particles in primary neurons to measure anterograde and retrograde axonal transport, demonstrating the usefulness of this novel VP26-mCherry fusion for the study of viral intracellular transport. IMPORTANCE Alphaherpesviruses are among the very few viruses that are adapted to invade the mammalian nervous system. Intracellular transport of virus particles in neurons is important, as this process underlies both mild peripheral nervous system infection and severe spread to the central nervous system. VP26, the small capsid protein of HSV and PRV, was one of the first herpesvirus proteins to be fused to a fluorescent protein. Since then, these capsid-tagged virus mutants have become a powerful tool to visualize and track individual virus particles. Improved capsid tags will facilitate fluorescence microscopy studies of virus particle intracellular

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and Bell's Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 infection and Bell palsy was determined in 47 children studied at Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY. Swabs of saliva and conjunctiva were taken for PCR testing.

  9. Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Completion Occurs through Error Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Zhao, Zhongchao; Pierson, Elizabeth E; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2017-11-22

    Understanding capsid assembly is important because of its role in virus lifecycles and in applications to drug discovery and nanomaterial development. Many virus capsids are icosahedral, and assembly is thought to occur by the sequential addition of capsid protein subunits to a nucleus, with the final step completing the icosahedron. Almost nothing is known about the final (completion) step because the techniques usually used to study capsid assembly lack the resolution. In this work, charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) has been used to track the assembly of the T = 4 hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid in real time. The initial assembly reaction occurs rapidly, on the time scale expected from low resolution measurements. However, CDMS shows that many of the particles generated in this process are defective and overgrown, containing more than the 120 capsid protein dimers needed to form a perfect T = 4 icosahedron. The defective and overgrown capsids self-correct over time to the mass expected for a perfect T = 4 capsid. Thus, completion is a distinct phase in the assembly reaction. Capsid completion does not necessarily occur by inserting the last building block into an incomplete, but otherwise perfect icosahedron. The initial assembly reaction can be predominently imperfect, and completion involves the slow correction of the accumulated errors.

  10. Cryo Electron Tomography of Herpes Simplex Virus during Axonal Transport and Secondary Envelopment in Primary Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiricu, Iosune; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Döhner, Katinka; Bradke, Frank; Sodeik, Beate; Grünewald, Kay

    2011-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) egress in neurons, viral particles travel from the neuronal cell body along the axon towards the synapse. Whether HSV1 particles are transported as enveloped virions as proposed by the ‘married’ model or as non-enveloped capsids suggested by the ‘separate’ model is controversial. Specific viral proteins may form a recruitment platform for microtubule motors that catalyze such transport. However, their subviral location has remained elusive. Here we established a system to analyze herpesvirus egress by cryo electron tomography. At 16 h post infection, we observed intra-axonal transport of progeny HSV1 viral particles in dissociated hippocampal neurons by live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Cryo electron tomography of frozen-hydrated neurons revealed that most egressing capsids were transported independently of the viral envelope. Unexpectedly, we found not only DNA-containing capsids (cytosolic C-capsids), but also capsids lacking DNA (cytosolic A-/B-capsids) in mid-axon regions. Subvolume averaging revealed lower amounts of tegument on cytosolic A-/B-capsids than on C-capsids. Nevertheless, all capsid types underwent active axonal transport. Therefore, even few tegument proteins on the capsid vertices seemed to suffice for transport. Secondary envelopment of capsids was observed at axon terminals. On their luminal face, the enveloping vesicles were studded with typical glycoprotein-like spikes. Furthermore, we noted an accretion of tegument density at the concave cytosolic face of the vesicle membrane in close proximity to the capsids. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that these assembly sites lacked cytoskeletal elements, but that filamentous actin surrounded them and formed an assembly compartment. Our data support the ‘separate model’ for HSV1 egress, i.e. progeny herpes viruses being transported along axons as subassemblies and not as complete virions within transport vesicles. PMID:22194682

  11. [Immune evasion by herpes simplex viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Suazo, Paula A; Garrido, Ignacio; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-02-01

    Herpes simplex viruses and humans have co-existed for tens of thousands of years. This long relationship has translated into the evolution and selection of viral determinants to evade the host immune response and reciprocally the evolution and selection of host immune components for limiting virus infection and damage. Currently there are no vaccines available to avoid infection with these viruses or therapies to cure them. Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic and reside latently in neurons at the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia, occasionally reactivating. Most viral recurrences are subclinical and thus, unnoticed. Here, we discuss the initial steps of infection by herpes simplex viruses and the molecular mechanisms they have developed to evade innate and adaptive immunity. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to evade host immunity should help us envision novel vaccine strategies and therapies that limit infection and dissemination.

  12. Targeted entry of enveloped viruses: measles and herpes simplex virus I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K; Miest, Tanner S; Carfi, Andrea; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    We compare the receptor-based mechanisms that a small RNA virus and a larger DNA virus have evolved to drive the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Both systems rely on tight control over triggering the concerted refolding of a trimeric fusion protein. While measles virus entry depends on a receptor-binding protein and a fusion protein only, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is more complex and requires four viral proteins. Nevertheless, in both viruses a receptor-binding protein is required for triggering the membrane fusion process. Moreover, specificity domains can be appended to these receptor-binding proteins to target virus entry to cells expressing a designated receptor. We discuss how principles established with measles and HSV can be applied to targeting other enveloped viruses, and alternatively how retargeted envelopes can be fitted on foreign capsids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Release of the herpes simplex virus 1 protease by self cleavage is required for proper conformation of the portal vertex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth G.; Baines, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    We identify an NLS within herpes simplex virus scaffold proteins that is required for optimal nuclear import of these proteins into infected or uninfected nuclei, and is sufficient to mediate nuclear import of GFP. A virus lacking this NLS replicated to titers reduced by 1000-fold, but was able to make capsids containing both scaffold and portal proteins suggesting that other functions can complement the NLS in infected cells. We also show that Vp22a, the major scaffold protein, is sufficient to mediate the incorporation of portal protein into capsids, whereas proper portal immunoreactivity in the capsid requires the larger scaffold protein pU L 26. Finally, capsid angularization in infected cells did not require the HSV-1 protease unless full length pU L 26 was expressed. These data suggest that the HSV-1 portal undergoes conformational changes during capsid maturation, and reveal that full length pU L 26 is required for this conformational change.

  14. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes simplex virus serological assays. (a) Identification. Herpes simplex virus serological assays are devices...

  15. Nuclear entry of hepatitis B virus capsids involves disintegration to protein dimers followed by nuclear reassociation to capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Rabe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Assembly and disassembly of viral capsids are essential steps in the viral life cycle. Studies on their kinetics are mostly performed in vitro, allowing application of biochemical, biophysical and visualizing techniques. In vivo kinetics are poorly understood and the transferability of the in vitro models to the cellular environment remains speculative. We analyzed capsid disassembly of the hepatitis B virus in digitonin-permeabilized cells which support nuclear capsid entry and subsequent genome release. Using gradient centrifugation, size exclusion chromatography and immune fluorescence microscopy of digitonin-permeabilized cells, we showed that capsids open and close reversibly. In the absence of RNA, capsid re-assembly slows down; the capsids remain disintegrated and enter the nucleus as protein dimers or irregular polymers. Upon the presence of cellular RNA, capsids re-assemble in the nucleus. We conclude that reversible genome release from hepatitis B virus capsids is a unique strategy different from that of other viruses, which employs irreversible capsid destruction for genome release. The results allowed us to propose a model of HBV genome release in which the unique environment of the nuclear pore favors HBV capsid disassembly reaction, while both cytoplasm and nucleus favor capsid assembly.

  16. Nuclear Import of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids and Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Lara; Kann, Michael

    2017-01-21

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped pararetrovirus with a DNA genome, which is found in an up to 36 nm-measuring capsid. Replication of the genome occurs via an RNA intermediate, which is synthesized in the nucleus. The virus must have thus ways of transporting its DNA genome into this compartment. This review summarizes the data on hepatitis B virus genome transport and correlates the finding to those from other viruses.

  17. [Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppen, T; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Schild, R L; Enders, G; Hansmann, M; Rister, M; Bartmann, P

    2001-01-01

    Early fetal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely documented. Only the minority of affected fetuses survive this condition. At 19 weeks of gestation the first episode of a genital HSV-infection of a pregnant woman was treated with local interferon beta. At 34 weeks of gestation hydrocephalus with secondary microcephaly and microphthalmia of both eyes was detected by ultrasonography. In the amniotic fluid HSV type 2 (HSV-2) was isolated and HSV-2-DNA was detected by PCR. The serum of the mother proved positive for HSV-2 (glycoprotein G2)-specific IgG-antibodies. No other infectious causes were apparent on further testing. At 35 + 4 weeks gestation a small-for-gestational-age neonate (2130 g) with microcephaly (29 cm head circumference) was born by spontaneous vaginal delivery. Scarce ulcerative skin lesions and vesicles, hepatosplenomegaly and microphthalmia were diagnosed. Furthermore, encephalomalacia with parenchymal destruction, cataract of both eyes and aplasia of the maculae and papillae were found. HSV-2-PCR was tested positive in chorionic cells and an umbilical segment of the placenta as well as in swabs from both eyes, throat, and a herpetic skin lesion collected during the first 5 days of life. HSV-IgM-antibodies were found in the umbilical cord blood. Local and intravenous treatment with aciclovir was started. The infant exhibited signs of a severely malfunctioning central nervous system. At the age of 4 months the boy suffered from generalised cerebral seizures. He died at the age of 9 months as a consequence of respiratory insufficiency with consecutive circulation failure. The case of an intrauterine HSV-2-infection is presented. The time of onset of fetal infection was most probably at the time of the maternal disease (19 weeks of gestation). Inspite of the very early infection the fetus did not die in utero. Especially, if a primary genital HSV-2-infection of a pregnant woman is suspected, which can be proven by serological means only

  18. Antiviral drug resistance of herpes simplex virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stranska, Ruzena

    2004-01-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) usually have an asymptomatic or benign course. However, severe infections do occur, particularly in HIV/AIDS patients or transplant recipients, and may be life-threatening unless adequate antiviral therapy is given. Since its introduction in the early

  19. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical…

  20. A study of variability of capsid protein genes of Radish mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    HOLÁ, Marcela

    2008-01-01

    The part of RNA2 genome segment of several isolates of Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) including capsid protein genes was sequenced. Variability of capsid protein genes among the isolates of Radish mosaic virus was studied.

  1. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X from Pakistan. Arshad Jamal, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Bushra Tabassum, Muhammad Tariq, Abdul Munim Farooq, Zahida Qamar, Mohsin Ahmad Khan, Nadeem Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad Saleem Haider, M. Arshad Javed, Tayyab Husnain ...

  2. [Herpes simplex virus infections in Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguenni, S; Djenaoui, T; Bendib, A; Bouhadjar, H; Lalliam, N; Allouache, A; Bouguermouh, A

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus antibodies among the population in Algiers. Anti-bodies to HSV1 are acquired rapidly between the ages of 1 and 6 years and 81.25% of the population is HSV1 seropositive by 15 years of age. Patients suffering from genital disorders possess HSV type 2 antibodies at a rate significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than in the control group.

  3. Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Nonionic Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asculai, Samuel S.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rancourt, Martha W.; Kupferberg, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonionic surface-active agents possessing ether or amide linkages between the hydrophillic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule rapidly inactivated the infectivity of herpes simplex viruses. The activity stemmed from the ability of nonionic surfactants to dissolve lipid-containing membranes. This was confirmed by observing surfactant destruction of mammalian cell plasma membranes and herpes simplex virus envelopes. Proprietary vaginal contraceptive formulations containing nonionic surfactants also inactivated herpes simplex virus infectivity. This observation suggests that nonionic surfactants in appropriate formulation could effectively prevent herpes simplex virus transmission. Images PMID:208460

  4. Periodic table of virus capsids: implications for natural selection and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannige, Ranjan V; Brooks, Charles L

    2010-03-04

    For survival, most natural viruses depend upon the existence of spherical capsids: protective shells of various sizes composed of protein subunits. So far, general evolutionary pressures shaping capsid design have remained elusive, even though an understanding of such properties may help in rationally impeding the virus life cycle and designing efficient nano-assemblies. This report uncovers an unprecedented and species-independent evolutionary pressure on virus capsids, based on the the notion that the simplest capsid designs (or those capsids with the lowest "hexamer complexity", C(h)) are the fittest, which was shown to be true for all available virus capsids. The theories result in a physically meaningful periodic table of virus capsids that uncovers strong and overarching evolutionary pressures, while also offering geometric explanations to other capsid properties (rigidity, pleomorphy, auxiliary requirements, etc.) that were previously considered to be unrelatable properties of the individual virus. Apart from describing a universal rule for virus capsid evolution, our work (especially the periodic table) provides a language with which highly diverse virus capsids, unified only by geometry, may be described and related to each other. Finally, the available virus structure databases and other published data reiterate the predicted geometry-derived rules, reinforcing the role of geometry in the natural selection and design of virus capsids.

  5. Modelling the self-assembly of virus capsids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Iain G.; Louis, Ard A.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.

    2010-03-01

    We use computer simulations to study a model, first proposed by Wales (2005 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 363 357), for the reversible and monodisperse self-assembly of simple icosahedral virus capsid structures. The success and efficiency of assembly as a function of thermodynamic and geometric factors can be qualitatively related to the potential energy landscape structure of the assembling system. Even though the model is strongly coarse-grained, it exhibits a number of features also observed in experiments, such as sigmoidal assembly dynamics, hysteresis in capsid formation and numerous kinetic traps. We also investigate the effect of macromolecular crowding on the assembly dynamics. Crowding agents generally reduce capsid yields at optimal conditions for non-crowded assembly, but may increase yields for parameter regimes away from the optimum. Finally, we generalize the model to a larger triangulation number T = 3, and observe assembly dynamics more complex than that seen for the original T = 1 model.

  6. Assembly of recombinant Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyuan Ren

    Full Text Available The dicistrovirus Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV has been implicated in the worldwide decline of honey bees. Studies of IAPV and many other bee viruses in pure culture are restricted by available isolates and permissive cell culture. Here we show that coupling the IAPV major structural precursor protein ORF2 to its cognate 3C-like processing enzyme results in processing of the precursor to the individual structural proteins in a number of insect cell lines following expression by a recombinant baculovirus. The efficiency of expression is influenced by the level of IAPV 3C protein and moderation of its activity is required for optimal expression. The mature IAPV structural proteins assembled into empty capsids that migrated as particles on sucrose velocity gradients and showed typical dicistrovirus like morphology when examined by electron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies raised to recombinant capsids were configured into a diagnostic test specific for the presence of IAPV. Recombinant capsids for each of the many bee viruses within the picornavirus family may provide virus specific reagents for the on-going investigation of the causes of honeybee loss.

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 Infection among Females in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection is life long with manifestation in a small proportion of those infected. It has presented public health concern because of its progressively increasing prevalence which some authorities say is of epidemic proportion in developing countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 has ...

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 and Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Type 2 (HSV-2) and its association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in rural Kilimanjaro Tanzania. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Oria village from March to June 2005 involving all individuals aged 15-44 years ...

  9. RNA folding inside a virus capsid and dimensional reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafouri, Rouzbeh; Bruinsma, Robijn; Rudnick, Joseph

    2006-03-01

    As RNA folds on itself , in certain conditions, it takes the form of a branched polymer. So the problem of RNA folding in a virus capsid is essentially the problem of a branched polymer in a confined environment. In this paper we attack the problem using the technique of dimensional reduction which relates a branched polymer with self interation in D dimension to a hardcore classical gas in (D-2) dimension. We look for phase transitions and intersting physical quantities such as pressure.

  10. Management of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozbahani, Mehdi; Hammersmith, Kristin M

    2018-04-24

    To review recent advancements in the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) epithelial keratitis. Trifluridine eye drop, acyclovir (ACV) ointment, ganciclovir gel, and oral ACV are still the main therapeutic agents. Cryopreserved amniotic membrane has been recently used as an adjuvant treatment. Resistance to ACV has become a concerning issue. The animal models of HSV vaccine are able to reduce HSV keratitis. New antivirals are under development. Current cases of HSV epithelial keratitis are manageable with available medications, but new advancements are required to decrease disease burden in the future. HSV vaccine can be revolutionary.

  11. How to disassemble a virus capsid: a computacional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Piedade, Claudio Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Bioquímica (Bioquímica) Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências 2016 Viruses are one of the main subjects of study in science due to the amount of diseases and deaths they cause, not only in humans, but also in other organisms, such as plants, other mammals, insects and microorganisms. This raises the need to understand the mechanisms of host infection. Capsids surround the genetic information of viruses and many experimental and theoretical studies have been done t...

  12. Completely assembled virus particles detected by transmission electron microscopy in proximal and mid-axons of neurons infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and pseudorabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialing; Lazear, Helen M; Friedman, Harvey M

    2011-01-05

    The morphology of alphaherpesviruses during anterograde axonal transport from the neuron cell body towards the axon terminus is controversial. Reports suggest that transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids and envelope proteins occurs in separate compartments and that complete virions form at varicosities or axon termini (subassembly transport model), while transport of a related alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV) occurs as enveloped capsids in vesicles (assembled transport model). Transmission electron microscopy of proximal and mid-axons of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was used to compare anterograde axonal transport of HSV-1, HSV-2 and PRV. SCG cell bodies were infected with HSV-1 NS and 17, HSV-2 2.12 and PRV Becker. Fully assembled virus particles were detected intracellularly within vesicles in proximal and mid-axons adjacent to microtubules after infection with each virus, indicating that assembled virions are transported anterograde within axons for all three alphaherpesviruses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Completely assembled virus particles detected by transmission electron microscopy in proximal and mid-axons of neurons infected with herpes simplex virus type 1, herpes simplex virus type 2 and pseudorabies virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jialing; Lazear, Helen M.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    2011-01-01

    The morphology of alphaherpesviruses during anterograde axonal transport from the neuron cell body towards the axon terminus is controversial. Reports suggest that transport of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) nucleocapsids and envelope proteins occurs in separate compartments and that complete virions form at varicosities or axon termini (subassembly transport model), while transport of a related alphaherpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV) occurs as enveloped capsids in vesicles (assembled transport model). Transmission electron microscopy of proximal and mid-axons of primary superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons was used to compare anterograde axonal transport of HSV-1, HSV-2 and PRV. SCG cell bodies were infected with HSV-1 NS and 17, HSV-2 2.12 and PRV Becker. Fully assembled virus particles were detected intracellularly within vesicles in proximal and mid-axons adjacent to microtubules after infection with each virus, indicating that assembled virions are transported anterograde within axons for all three alphaherpesviruses.

  14. A Multiscale Model for Virus Capsid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are infectious agents that can cause epidemics and pandemics. The understanding of virus formation, evolution, stability, and interaction with host cells is of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, a virus complex in association with its aquatic environment poses a fabulous challenge to theoretical description and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry-based multiscale paradigm to model complex biomolecule systems. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum domain of the fluid mechanical description of the aquatic environment from the microscopic discrete domain of the atomistic description of the biomolecule. A multiscale action functional is constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales. We show that the classical Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid dynamics and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived from the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows.

  15. A multiscale model for virus capsid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun; Saxena, Rishu; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are infectious agents that can cause epidemics and pandemics. The understanding of virus formation, evolution, stability, and interaction with host cells is of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, a virus complex in association with its aquatic environment poses a fabulous challenge to theoretical description and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry-based multiscale paradigm to model complex biomolecule systems. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum domain of the fluid mechanical description of the aquatic environment from the microscopic discrete domain of the atomistic description of the biomolecule. A multiscale action functional is constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales. We show that the classical Navier-Stokes equation for the fluid dynamics and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived from the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows.

  16. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis: neuroradiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Reith, W.

    2000-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent viral encephalitis, as a rule with the starting point and centre within the temporal lobe. If untreated, HSE is usually fatal, thus diagnosis has to be established rapidly. Treatment with Acyclovir should begin as soon possible. As MRI is extremely sensitive in detecting the early inflammatory changes, it should be initially performed, especially as in the early stadium CT may be unspecific. We recommend the following examination protocol: coronar T1-weighted MR imaging before and after administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine, coronar FLAIR sequence and axial T2-weighted imaging. The diagnostic proof is to show the evidence of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal liquor. (orig.) [de

  17. Antigenic structure of the capsid protein of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Cortes, Elena; Vela, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) causes an important disease in rabbits. The virus capsid is composed of a single 60 kDa protein. The capsid protein gene was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system, and the antigenic structure of RHDV VP60 was dissected using 11 monoclonal...

  18. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H.; Murray, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia

  19. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, he...

  20. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David C; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria; Voellmy, Richard

    2015-10-01

    We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate, stringent regulation of

  1. Release of the herpes simplex virus 1 protease by self cleavage is required for proper conformation of the portal vertex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Baines, Joel D., E-mail: jdb11@cornell.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We identify an NLS within herpes simplex virus scaffold proteins that is required for optimal nuclear import of these proteins into infected or uninfected nuclei, and is sufficient to mediate nuclear import of GFP. A virus lacking this NLS replicated to titers reduced by 1000-fold, but was able to make capsids containing both scaffold and portal proteins suggesting that other functions can complement the NLS in infected cells. We also show that Vp22a, the major scaffold protein, is sufficient to mediate the incorporation of portal protein into capsids, whereas proper portal immunoreactivity in the capsid requires the larger scaffold protein pU{sub L}26. Finally, capsid angularization in infected cells did not require the HSV-1 protease unless full length pU{sub L}26 was expressed. These data suggest that the HSV-1 portal undergoes conformational changes during capsid maturation, and reveal that full length pU{sub L}26 is required for this conformational change.

  2. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-02-26

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors' binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules.

  3. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons

  4. Biophysical characterization of the feline immunodeficiency virus p24 capsid protein conformation and in vitro capsid assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Serrière

    Full Text Available The Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV capsid protein p24 oligomerizes to form a closed capsid that protects the viral genome. Because of its crucial role in the virion, FIV p24 is an interesting target for the development of therapeutic strategies, although little is known about its structure and assembly. We defined and optimized a protocol to overexpress recombinant FIV capsid protein in a bacterial system. Circular dichroism and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that the structure of the purified FIV p24 protein was comprised mainly of α-helices. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and cross-linking experiments demonstrated that p24 was monomeric at low concentration and dimeric at high concentration. We developed a protocol for the in vitro assembly of the FIV capsid. As with HIV, an increased ionic strength resulted in FIV p24 assembly in vitro. Assembly appeared to be dependent on temperature, salt concentration, and protein concentration. The FIV p24 assembly kinetics was monitored by DLS. A limit end-point diameter suggested assembly into objects of definite shapes. This was confirmed by electron microscopy, where FIV p24 assembled into spherical particles. Comparison of FIV p24 with other retroviral capsid proteins showed that FIV assembly is particular and requires further specific study.

  5. Serological profiles of Herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) is the major cause of genital ulcer diseases (GUD) consequently a significant factor for the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite its importance there is paucity of data regarding the magnitude of HSV-2 in non-HIV infected population in ...

  6. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  7. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Herpes simplex virus type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    momtaz

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the main cause of recurrent genital infection (Slomka, 1996). Most infections are asymptomatic. The virus establishes latent infection in the local ganglia and is reactivated and shed frequently. Antibodies to HSV infections become detectable in serum samples (Koelle ...

  8. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Half of the Traffic Controller UL37 from Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsberg, Andrea L; Heldwein, Ekaterina E

    2017-10-15

    Inner tegument protein UL37 is conserved among all three subfamilies of herpesviruses. Studies of UL37 homologs from two alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), have suggested that UL37 plays an essential albeit poorly defined role in intracellular capsid trafficking. At the same time, HSV and PRV homologs cannot be swapped, which suggests that in addition to a conserved function, UL37 homologs also have divergent virus-specific functions. Accurate dissection of UL37 functions requires detailed maps in the form of atomic-resolution structures. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of the N-terminal half of UL37 (UL37N) from PRV. Here, we report the crystal structure of HSV-1 UL37N. Comparison of the two structures reveals that UL37 homologs differ in their overall shapes, distributions of surface charges, and locations of projecting loops. In contrast, the previously identified R2 surface region is structurally conserved. We propose that within the N-terminal half of UL37, functional conservation is centered within the R2 surface region, whereas divergent structural elements pinpoint regions mediating virus-specific functions and may engage different binding partners. Together, the two structures can now serve as templates for a structure-guided exploration of both conserved and virus-specific functions of UL37. IMPORTANCE The ability to move efficiently within host cell cytoplasm is essential for replication in all viruses. It is especially important in the neuroinvasive alphaherpesviruses, such as human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and veterinarian pseudorabies virus (PRV), that infect the peripheral nervous system and have to travel long distances along axons. Capsid movement in these viruses is controlled by capsid-associated tegument proteins, yet their specific roles have not yet been defined. Systematic exploration of the roles of tegument proteins in capsid trafficking requires detailed navigational

  9. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Half of the Traffic Controller UL37 from Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsberg, Andrea L.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M.

    2017-08-02

    Inner tegument protein UL37 is conserved among all three subfamilies of herpesviruses. Studies of UL37 homologs from two alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), have suggested that UL37 plays an essential albeit poorly defined role in intracellular capsid trafficking. At the same time, HSV and PRV homologs cannot be swapped, which suggests that in addition to a conserved function, UL37 homologs also have divergent virus-specific functions. Accurate dissection of UL37 functions requires detailed maps in the form of atomic-resolution structures. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of the N-terminal half of UL37 (UL37N) from PRV. Here, we report the crystal structure of HSV-1 UL37N. Comparison of the two structures reveals that UL37 homologs differ in their overall shapes, distributions of surface charges, and locations of projecting loops. In contrast, the previously identified R2 surface region is structurally conserved. We propose that within the N-terminal half of UL37, functional conservation is centered within the R2 surface region, whereas divergent structural elements pinpoint regions mediating virus-specific functions and may engage different binding partners. Together, the two structures can now serve as templates for a structure-guided exploration of both conserved and virus-specific functions of UL37.

    IMPORTANCEThe ability to move efficiently within host cell cytoplasm is essential for replication in all viruses. It is especially important in the neuroinvasive alphaherpesviruses, such as human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and veterinarian pseudorabies virus (PRV), that infect the peripheral nervous system and have to travel long distances along axons. Capsid movement in these viruses is controlled by capsid-associated tegument proteins, yet their specific roles have not yet been defined. Systematic exploration of the roles of tegument proteins in capsid trafficking requires

  10. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Straface

    2012-01-01

    The greatest risk of transmission to the fetus and the newborn occurs in case of an initial maternal infection contracted in the second half of pregnancy. The risk of transmission of maternal-fetal-neonatal herpes simplex can be decreased by performing a treatment with antiviral drugs or resorting to a caesarean section in some specific cases. The purpose of this paper is to provide recommendations on management of herpes simplex infections in pregnancy and strategies to prevent transmission from mother to fetus.

  12. Pityriasis Lichenoides Chronica Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Javier González Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare, acquired spectrum of skin conditions of an unknown etiology. Case Report. A 28-year-old man presented with recurrent outbreaks of herpes simplex virus associated with the onset of red-to-brown maculopapules located predominantly in trunk in each recurrence. Positive serologies to herpes simplex virus type 2 were detected. Histopathological examination of one of the lesions was consistent with a diagnosis of pityriasis lichenoides chronica. Discussion. Pityriasis lichenoides is a rare cutaneous entity of an unknown cause which includes different clinical presentations. A number of infectious agents have been implicated based on the clustering of multiple outbreaks and elevated serum titers to specific pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and herpes simplex virus. In our patient, resolution of cutaneous lesions coincided with the administration of antiviral drugs and clinical improvement in each genital herpes recurrence. In conclusion, we report a case in which cutaneous lesions of pityriasis lichenoides chronica and a herpes simplex virus-type 2-mediated disease have evolved concomitantly.

  13. The Impact of Capsid Proteins on Virus Removal and Inactivation During Water Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Yang, Yu; Gerrity, Daniel W; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of the amino acid composition of protein capsids on virus inactivation using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and titanium dioxide photocatalysis, and physical removal via enhanced coagulation using ferric chloride. Although genomic damage is likely more extensive than protein damage for viruses treated using UV, proteins are still substantially degraded. All amino acids demonstrated significant correlations with UV susceptibility. The hydroxyl radicals produced during photocatalysis are considered nonspecific, but they likely cause greater overall damage to virus capsid proteins relative to the genome. Oxidizing chemicals, including hydroxyl radicals, preferentially degrade amino acids over nucleotides, and the amino acid tyrosine appears to strongly influence virus inactivation. Capsid composition did not correlate strongly to virus removal during physicochemical treatment, nor did virus size. Isoelectric point may play a role in virus removal, but additional factors are likely to contribute.

  14. Evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim, Joel O; Smith, Martin D; Smith, Davey M; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L

    2014-09-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Pt, Co–Pt and Fe–Pt alloy nanoclusters encapsulated in virus capsids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, M; Eloi, J-C; Jones, S E Ward; Schwarzacher, W; Verwegen, M; Cornelissen, J J L M

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured Pt-based alloys show great promise, not only for catalysis but also in medical and magnetic applications. To extend the properties of this class of materials, we have developed a means of synthesizing Pt and Pt-based alloy nanoclusters in the capsid of a virus. Pure Pt and Pt-alloy nanoclusters are formed through the chemical reduction of [PtCl 4 ] − by NaBH 4 with/without additional metal ions (Co or Fe). The opening and closing of the ion channels in the virus capsid were controlled by changing the pH and ionic strength of the solution. The size of the nanoclusters is limited to 18 nm by the internal diameter of the capsid. Their magnetic properties suggest potential applications in hyperthermia for the Co–Pt and Fe–Pt magnetic alloy nanoclusters. This study introduces a new way to fabricate size-restricted nanoclusters using virus capsid. (paper)

  16. Crystal Structure of the Capsid Protein from Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zifang; Song, Hao; Shi, Yi; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F

    2018-03-30

    Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged as a global public health concern and is distinct from other flaviviruses in many aspects, for example, causing transplacental infection, fetal abnormalities and vector-independent transmission through body fluids in humans. The capsid (C) protein is a multifunctional protein, since it binds to viral RNA in the process of nucleocapsid assembly and plays important roles in virus infection processes by interacting with cellular proteins, modulating cellular metabolism, apoptosis and immune response. Here we solved the crystal structure of ZIKV C protein at a resolution of 1.9Å. The ZIKV C protein structure contains four α helices with a long pre-α1 loop and forms dimers. The unique long pre-α1 loop in ZIKV C contributes to the tighter association of dimeric assembly and renders a divergent hydrophobic feature at the lipid bilayer interface in comparison with the known C structures of West Nile and dengue viruses. We reported the interaction between the ZIKV C protein and lipid droplets through confocal microscopy analysis. Substitutions of key amino acids in the pre-α1 loop of ZIKV C disrupted the interaction with lipid droplets, indicating that the loop is critical for membrane association. We also recognized that ZIKV C protein possesses broad binding capability to different nucleotide types, including single-stranded and double-stranded RNAs or DNAs. Furthermore, the highly positively charged interface, mainly formed by α4 helix, is proposed to be responsible for nucleotide binding. These findings will greatly enhance our understanding of ZIKV C protein, providing information for anti-ZIKV drug design targeting the C protein. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Screening for the Location of RNA using the Chloride Ion Distribution in Simulations of Virus Capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Daniel S D; van der Spoel, David

    2012-07-10

    The complete structure of the genomic material inside a virus capsid remains elusive, although a limited amount of symmetric nucleic acid can be resolved in the crystal structure of 17 icosahedral viruses. The negatively charged sugar-phosphate backbone of RNA and DNA as well as the large positive charge of the interior surface of the virus capsids suggest that electrostatic complementarity is an important factor in the packaging of the genomes in these viruses. To test how much packing information is encoded by the electrostatic and steric envelope of the capsid interior, we performed extensive all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of virus capsids with explicit water molecules and solvent ions. The model systems were two small plant viruses in which significant amounts of RNA has been observed by X-ray crystallography: satellite tobacco mosaic virus (STMV, 62% RNA visible) and satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV, 34% RNA visible). Simulations of half-capsids of these viruses with no RNA present revealed that the binding sites of RNA correlated well with regions populated by chloride ions, suggesting that it is possible to screen for the binding sites of nucleic acids by determining the equilibrium distribution of negative ions. By including the crystallographically resolved RNA in addition to ions, we predicted the localization of the unresolved RNA in the viruses. Both viruses showed a hot-spot for RNA binding at the 5-fold symmetry axis. The MD simulations were compared to predictions of the chloride density based on nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) calculations with mobile ions. Although the predictions are superficially similar, the PBE calculations overestimate the ion concentration close to the capsid surface and underestimate it far away, mainly because protein dynamics is not taken into account. Density maps from chloride screening can be used to aid in building atomic models of packaged virus genomes. Knowledge of the principles of

  18. On the Mutation Rate of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Drake, John W.; Hwang, Charles B. C.

    2005-01-01

    All seven DNA-based microbes for which carefully established mutation rates and mutational spectra were previously available displayed a genomic mutation rate in the neighborhood of 0.003 per chromosome replication. The pathogenic mammalian DNA virus herpes simplex type 1 has an estimated genomic mutation rate compatible with that value.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean-Pieper, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 is described. The development of a suitable radioimmunoassay for the detection of anti-HSV-2 antibodies, and the selection of an optimal immunisation schedule, is given. Three assay systems are described and their reliability and sensitivity compared. (Auth.)

  20. Determination of human herpes simplex virus in clear cerebrospinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to test CSF obtained from different regions of Rwanda for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) type 1 and 2 using a commercial multiplex PCR kit. CSF samples were obtained from patients with clinical suspicion of meningitis and encephalitis which may be caused by different microorganisms ...

  1. Two step culture for production of recombinant herpes simplex virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was the major cause of genital herpes in humans. The HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD2) had been proved to be a potentially effective vaccine for treatment of genital herpes. The present study was to develop a two step culture to express the recombinant gD2 protein using the immobilized ...

  2. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, J; Skiest, D J

    1994-06-01

    A patient with herpes simplex virus encephalitis is described. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the diagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. PCR allows the rapid diagnosis of many infectious organisms, such as HSV, in which prompt diagnosis is essential.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction for detection of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Aslanzadeh, J; Skiest, D J

    1994-01-01

    A patient with herpes simplex virus encephalitis is described. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to confirm the diagnosis in cerebrospinal fluid. PCR allows the rapid diagnosis of many infectious organisms, such as HSV, in which prompt diagnosis is essential.

  4. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus infections of the cornea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe identification of human herpes virus (HHV) infections can be traced back to ancient Greece where Herpes simplex vims (HSV) infections in humans were first documented. Hippocrates used the word "herpes", meaning to creep or crawl, to describe spreading skin lesions. Although the

  5. Recurrent herpes simplex virus keratitis in a young Nigerian male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comprehensive case history and slit lamp examination revealed the presence of dendritic ulcer in the left eye of the patient. The patient was diagnosed with recurrent herpes simplex virus keratitis. An aggressive multi-treatment plan involving the use of antiviral, antibiotics, and anti inflammatory drugs was administered to ...

  6. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to budgerigar fledgling disease virus major capsid protein VP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattaey, A.; Lenz, L.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Eleven hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against intact budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) virions were produced and characterized. These antibodies were selected for their ability to react with BFD virions in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Each of these antibodies was reactive in the immunofluorescent detection of BFD virus-infected cells. These antibodies immunoprecipitated intact virions and specifically recognized the major capsid protein, VP1, of the dissociated virion. The MAbs were found to preferentially recognize native BFD virus capsid protein when compared with denatured virus protein. These MAbs were capable of detecting BFD virus protein in chicken embryonated cell-culture lysates by dot-blot analysis.

  7. Varicella-zoster virus induces the formation of dynamic nuclear capsid aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrun, Marielle [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Thelen, Nicolas; Thiry, Marc [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Neurosciences, Laboratory of Cellular and Tissular Biology, Liege (Belgium); Riva, Laura; Ote, Isabelle; Condé, Claude; Vandevenne, Patricia [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Di Valentin, Emmanuel [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Viral Vectors Platform, Liege (Belgium); Bontems, Sébastien [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium); Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine, E-mail: csadzot@ulg.ac.be [University of Liege (ULg), GIGA-Infection Immunity and Inflammation, Laboratory of Virology and Immunology, Liege (Belgium)

    2014-04-15

    The first step of herpesviruses virion assembly occurs in the nucleus. However, the exact site where nucleocapsids are assembled, where the genome and the inner tegument are acquired, remains controversial. We created a recombinant VZV expressing ORF23 (homologous to HSV-1 VP26) fused to the eGFP and dually fluorescent viruses with a tegument protein additionally fused to a red tag (ORF9, ORF21 and ORF22 corresponding to HSV-1 UL49, UL37 and UL36). We identified nuclear dense structures containing the major capsid protein, the scaffold protein and maturing protease, as well as ORF21 and ORF22. Correlative microscopy demonstrated that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates and time-lapse video imaging showed that they appear prior to the accumulation of cytoplasmic capsids, presumably undergoing the secondary egress, and are highly dynamic. Our observations suggest that these structures might represent a nuclear area important for capsid assembly and/or maturation before the budding at the inner nuclear membrane. - Highlights: • We created a recombinant VZV expressing the small capsid protein fused to the eGFP. • We identified nuclear dense structures containing capsid and procapsid proteins. • Correlative microscopy showed that the structures correspond to capsid aggregates. • Procapsids and partial capsids are found within the aggregates of WT and eGFP-23 VZV. • FRAP and FLIP experiments demonstrated that they are dynamic structures.

  8. Radiation enhaced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, K.B.; Lytle, C.D.; Bockstahler, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since caffeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation

  9. Radiation enhanced reactivation of herpes simplex virus: effect of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, K B; Lytle, C D; Bockstahler, L E

    1976-09-01

    Ultaviolet enhanced (Weigle) reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cell monolayers was decreased by caffeine. X-ray enhanced reactivation of UV-irradiated virus in X-irradiated monolayers (X-ray reactivation) and UV- or X-ray-inactivated capacity of the cells to support unirradiated virus plaque formation were unaffected by caffeine. The results suggest that a caffeine-sensitive process is necessary for the expression of Weigle reactivation for herpes virus. Since cafeine did not significantly affect X-ray reactivation, different mechanisms may be responsible for the expression of Weigle reactivation and X-ray reactivation.

  10. Immobilization and one-dimensional arrangement of virus capsids with nanoscale precision using DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Liu, Minghui; Tong, Gary J; Li, Zhe; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao; Francis, Matthew B

    2010-07-14

    DNA origami was used as a scaffold to arrange spherical virus capsids into one-dimensional arrays with precise nanoscale positioning. To do this, we first modified the interior surface of bacteriophage MS2 capsids with fluorescent dyes as a model cargo. An unnatural amino acid on the external surface was then coupled to DNA strands that were complementary to those extending from origami tiles. Two different geometries of DNA tiles (rectangular and triangular) were used. The capsids associated with tiles of both geometries with virtually 100% efficiency under mild annealing conditions, and the location of capsid immobilization on the tile could be controlled by the position of the probe strands. The rectangular tiles and capsids could then be arranged into one-dimensional arrays by adding DNA strands linking the corners of the tiles. The resulting structures consisted of multiple capsids with even spacing (approximately 100 nm). We also used a second set of tiles that had probe strands at both ends, resulting in a one-dimensional array of alternating capsids and tiles. This hierarchical self-assembly allows us to position the virus particles with unprecedented control and allows the future construction of integrated multicomponent systems from biological scaffolds using the power of rationally engineered DNA nanostructures.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  12. Dengue virus capsid protein usurps lipid droplets for viral particle formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M Samsa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is responsible for the highest rates of disease and mortality among the members of the Flavivirus genus. Dengue epidemics are still occurring around the world, indicating an urgent need of prophylactic vaccines and antivirals. In recent years, a great deal has been learned about the mechanisms of dengue virus genome amplification. However, little is known about the process by which the capsid protein recruits the viral genome during encapsidation. Here, we found that the mature capsid protein in the cytoplasm of dengue virus infected cells accumulates on the surface of ER-derived organelles named lipid droplets. Mutagenesis analysis using infectious dengue virus clones has identified specific hydrophobic amino acids, located in the center of the capsid protein, as key elements for lipid droplet association. Substitutions of amino acid L50 or L54 in the capsid protein disrupted lipid droplet targeting and impaired viral particle formation. We also report that dengue virus infection increases the number of lipid droplets per cell, suggesting a link between lipid droplet metabolism and viral replication. In this regard, we found that pharmacological manipulation of the amount of lipid droplets in the cell can be a means to control dengue virus replication. In addition, we developed a novel genetic system to dissociate cis-acting RNA replication elements from the capsid coding sequence. Using this system, we found that mislocalization of a mutated capsid protein decreased viral RNA amplification. We propose that lipid droplets play multiple roles during the viral life cycle; they could sequester the viral capsid protein early during infection and provide a scaffold for genome encapsidation.

  13. The molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Michael P; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is a neurotropic herpesvirus that establishes latency within sensory neurones. Following primary infection, the virus replicates productively within mucosal epithelial cells and enters sensory neurones via nerve termini. The virus is then transported to neuronal cell bodies where latency can be established. Periodically, the virus can reactivate to resume its normal lytic cycle gene expression programme and result in the generation of new virus progeny that are transported axonally back to the periphery. The ability to establish lifelong latency within the host and to periodically reactivate to facilitate dissemination is central to the survival strategy of this virus. Although incompletely understood, this review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of latency that centre on the functions of the virus-encoded latency-associated transcripts (LATs), epigenetic regulation of the latent virus genome and the molecular events that precipitate reactivation. This review considers current knowledge and hypotheses relating to the mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and reactivation herpes simplex virus latency. PMID:22150699

  14. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Suazo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency.

  15. Evasion of early antiviral responses by herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suazo, Paula A; Ibañez, Francisco J; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency.

  16. Vibrating virus capsids and interactions with short light pulses -- picking up good vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Otto; Benson, Daryn

    2009-10-01

    Viruses are the simplest ``life'' form. They reproduce by borrowing the machinery of their host cell. Viruses consist of an outer coat (capsid) that protects its genomic material inside. They are pathogenic to plants, bacteria, animals, and of course humans. Experimental studies at ASU by Tsen et al. have discovered that ultra-short laser pulses are capable of ``inactivating'' viruses. One potential mechanism is the coupling of light to the soft dynamical modes of the capsid. We describe theoretical modeling of this effect.

  17. Photodynamic treatment of Herpes simplex virus infection in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Hester, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of photodynamic action on in vitro herpes simplex virus infections of CV-1 monkey kidney fibroblasts or human skin fibroblasts were determined using proflavine sulfate and white fluorescent lamps. Photodynamic treatment of confluent cell monolayers prior to virus infection inactivated cell capacity, i.e. the capacity of the treated cells to support subsequent virus growth as measured by plaque formation. The capacity of human cells was more sensitive to inactivation than the capacity of monkey cells when 6 μM proflavine was used. Treated cell monolayers recovered the capacity to support virus plaque formation when virus infection was delayed four days after the treatment. Experiments in which the photodynamically treated monolayers were infected with UV-irradiated virus demonstrated that this treatment induced Weigle reactivation in both types of cells. This reactivation occurred for virus infection just after treatment or 4 days later. A Luria-Latarjet-type experiment was also performed in which cultures infected with unirradiated virus were photodynamically treated at different times after the start of infection. The results showed that for the first several hours of the virus infection the infected cultures were more sensitive to inactivation by photodynamic treatment than cell capacity. By the end of the eclipse period the infected cultures were less sensitive to inactivation than cell capacity. Results from extracellular inactivation of virus growth in monkey cells at 6 μM proflavine indicated that at physiological pH the virus has a sensitivity to photodynamic inactivation similar to that for inactivation of cell capacity. The combined data indicated that photodynamic treatment of the cell before or after virus infection could prevent virus growth. Thus, photodynamic inactivation of infected and uninfected cells may be as important as inactivation of virus particles when considering possible mechanisms in clinical photodynamic therapy for herpes

  18. Limited cross-reactivity of mouse monoclonal antibodies against Dengue virus capsid protein among four serotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noda M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Noda,1 Promsin Masrinoul,1 Chaweewan Punkum,1 Chonlatip Pipattanaboon,2,3 Pongrama Ramasoota,2,4 Chayanee Setthapramote,2,3 Tadahiro Sasaki,6 Mikiko Sasayama,1 Akifumi Yamashita,1,5 Takeshi Kurosu,6 Kazuyoshi Ikuta,6 Tamaki Okabayashi11Mahidol-Osaka Center for Infectious Diseases, 2Center of Excellence for Antibody Research, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 4Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 5Graduate School of Life Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi, 6Department of Virology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, JapanBackground: Dengue illness is one of the important mosquito-borne viral diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. Four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 are classified in the Flavivirus genus of the family Flaviviridae. We prepared monoclonal antibodies against DENV capsid protein from mice immunized with DENV-2 and determined the cross-reactivity with each serotype of DENV and Japanese encephalitis virus.Methods and results: To clarify the relationship between the cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies and the diversity of these viruses, we examined the situations of flaviviruses by analyses of phylogenetic trees. Among a total of 60 prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for DENV, five monoclonal antibodies stained the nuclei of infected cells and were found to be specific to the capsid protein. Three were specific to DENV-2, while the other two were cross-reactive with DENV-2 and DENV-4. No monoclonal antibodies were cross-reactive with all four serotypes. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV amino acid sequences of the capsid protein revealed that DENV-2 and DENV-4 were clustered in the same branch, while DENV-1 and DENV-3 were clustered in the other branch. However, these classifications of the capsid protein were different from those of the

  19. Computed tomography in young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, T.; Woo, M.; Okazaki, H.; Nishida, N.; Hara, T.; Yasuhara, A.; Kasahara, M.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained from eight infants and young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. In two cases the initial scan showed diffuse edematous changes as a mass effect without laterality. Unilateral localized low attenuation in the initial scan was evident 4 days after the onset in one patient, and high attenuation in the initial scan appeared on the 6th day in another patient, but in general, it was not possible to establish an early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis from CT scan. In the longitudinal study the calcification with ventriculomegaly appeared in 3 of 5 survivors, and gyriform calcification in 2 of 3 patients, respectively. The appearance of multicystic encephalomalacia was evident in one patient 6 months after the onset of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. It is shown that the CT findings of neonates and young children with herpes simplex encephalitis are different from those of older children and adults, and the importance of longitudinal CT studies was stressed in clarifying the pathophysiology of the central nervous system involvement in survivors. (orig.)

  20. Structural rigidity in the capsid assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hespenheide, B M [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Jacobs, D J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-8268 (United States); Thorpe, M F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Arizona State University, PO Box 871504, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2004-11-10

    The cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) has a protein cage, or capsid, which encloses its genetic material. The structure of the capsid consists of 180 copies of a single protein that self-assemble inside a cell to form a complete capsid with icosahedral symmetry. The icosahedral surface can be naturally divided into pentagonal and hexagonal faces, and the formation of either of these faces has been proposed to be the first step in the capsid assembly process. We have used the software FIRST to analyse the rigidity of pentameric and hexameric substructures of the complete capsid to explore the viability of certain capsid assembly pathways. FIRST uses the 3D pebble game to determine structural rigidity, and a brief description of this algorithm, as applied to body-bar networks, is given here. We find that the pentameric substructure, which corresponds to a pentagonal face on the icosahedral surface, provides the best structural properties for nucleating the capsid assembly process, consistent with experimental observations.

  1. Structure of the capsid of Kilham rat virus from small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wobbe, C.R.; Mitra, S.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    1984-12-18

    The structure of empty capsids of Kilham rat virus, an autonomous parvovirus with icosahedral symmetry, was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. From the forward scatter, the molecular weight was determined to be 4.0 x 10(6), and from the Guinier region, the radius of gyration was found to be 105 A in D2O and 104 A in H/sub 2/O. On the basis of the capsid molecular weight and the molecular weights and relative abundances of the capsid proteins, the authors propose that the capsid has a triangulation number of 1. Extended scattering curves and mathematical modeling revealed that the capsid consists of two shells of protein, the inner shell extending from 58 to 91 A in D2O and from 50 to 91 A in H/sub 2/O and containing 11% of the capsid scattering mass, and the outer shell extending to 121 A in H/sub 2/O and D2O. The inner shell appears to have a higher content of basic amino acids than the outer shell, based on its lower scattering density in D2O than in H/sub 2/O. The authors propose that all three capsid proteins contribute to the inner shell and that this basic region serves DNA binding and partial charge neutralization functions.

  2. A molecular breadboard: Removal and replacement of subunits in a hepatitis B virus capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lye Siang; Brunk, Nicholas; Haywood, Daniel G; Keifer, David; Pierson, Elizabeth; Kondylis, Panagiotis; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Jacobson, Stephen C; Jarrold, Martin F; Zlotnick, Adam

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is a model system for studying assembly and disassembly of icosahedral structures. Controlling disassembly will allow re-engineering the 120 subunit HBV capsid, making it a molecular breadboard. We examined removal of subunits from partially crosslinked capsids to form stable incomplete particles. To characterize incomplete capsids, we used two single molecule techniques, resistive-pulse sensing and charge detection mass spectrometry. We expected to find a binomial distribution of capsid fragments. Instead, we found a preponderance of 3 MDa complexes (90 subunits) and no fragments smaller than 3 MDa. We also found 90-mers in the disassembly of uncrosslinked HBV capsids. 90-mers seem to be a common pause point in disassembly reactions. Partly explaining this result, graph theory simulations have showed a threshold for capsid stability between 80 and 90 subunits. To test a molecular breadboard concept, we showed that missing subunits could be refilled resulting in chimeric, 120 subunit particles. This result may be a means of assembling unique capsids with functional decorations. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  3. SCHEMA computational design of virus capsid chimeras: calibrating how genome packaging, protection, and transduction correlate with calculated structural disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle L; Adler, Benjamin A; Torre, Michael L; Silberg, Jonathan J; Suh, Junghae

    2013-12-20

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) recombination can result in chimeric capsid protein subunits whose ability to assemble into an oligomeric capsid, package a genome, and transduce cells depends on the inheritance of sequence from different AAV parents. To develop quantitative design principles for guiding site-directed recombination of AAV capsids, we have examined how capsid structural perturbations predicted by the SCHEMA algorithm correlate with experimental measurements of disruption in seventeen chimeric capsid proteins. In our small chimera population, created by recombining AAV serotypes 2 and 4, we found that protection of viral genomes and cellular transduction were inversely related to calculated disruption of the capsid structure. Interestingly, however, we did not observe a correlation between genome packaging and calculated structural disruption; a majority of the chimeric capsid proteins formed at least partially assembled capsids and more than half packaged genomes, including those with the highest SCHEMA disruption. These results suggest that the sequence space accessed by recombination of divergent AAV serotypes is rich in capsid chimeras that assemble into 60-mer capsids and package viral genomes. Overall, the SCHEMA algorithm may be useful for delineating quantitative design principles to guide the creation of libraries enriched in genome-protecting virus nanoparticles that can effectively transduce cells. Such improvements to the virus design process may help advance not only gene therapy applications but also other bionanotechnologies dependent upon the development of viruses with new sequences and functions.

  4. Structure of a Human Astrovirus Capsid-Antibody Complex and Mechanistic Insights into Virus Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanoff, Walter A.; Campos, Jocelyn; Perez, Edmundo I.; Yin, Lu; Alexander, David L.; DuBois, Rebecca M. (UCSC)

    2016-11-02

    ABSTRACT

    Human astroviruses (HAstVs) are a leading cause of viral diarrhea in young children, the immunocompromised, and the elderly. There are no vaccines or antiviral therapies against HAstV disease. Several lines of evidence point to the presence of protective antibodies in healthy adults as a mechanism governing protection against reinfection by HAstV. However, development of anti-HAstV therapies is hampered by the gap in knowledge of protective antibody epitopes on the HAstV capsid surface. Here, we report the structure of the HAstV capsid spike domain bound to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody PL-2. The antibody uses all six complementarity-determining regions to bind to a quaternary epitope on each side of the dimeric capsid spike. We provide evidence that the HAstV capsid spike is a receptor-binding domain and that the antibody neutralizes HAstV by blocking virus attachment to cells. We identify patches of conserved amino acids that overlap the antibody epitope and may comprise a receptor-binding site. Our studies provide a foundation for the development of therapies to prevent and treat HAstV diarrheal disease.

    IMPORTANCEHuman astroviruses (HAstVs) infect nearly every person in the world during childhood and cause diarrhea, vomiting, and fever. Despite the prevalence of this virus, little is known about how antibodies in healthy adults protect them against reinfection. Here, we determined the crystal structure of a complex of the HAstV capsid protein and a virus-neutralizing antibody. We show that the antibody binds to the outermost spike domain of the capsid, and we provide evidence that the antibody blocks virus attachment to human cells. Importantly, our findings suggest that a subunit-based vaccine focusing the immune system on the HAstV capsid spike domain could be effective in protecting children against HAstV disease.

  5. Quasicrystalline and crystalline types of local protein order in capsids of small viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevtsova, O. V.; Pimonov, V. V.; Lorman, V. L.; Rochal, S. B.

    2017-07-01

    Like metal alloys and micellar systems in soft matter, the viral capsid structures can be of crystalline and quasicrystalline types. We reveal the local quasicrystalline order of proteins in small spherical viral capsids using their nets of dodecahedral type. We show that the structure of some of the viral shells is well described in terms of a chiral pentagonal tiling, whose nodes coincide with centers of mass of protein molecules. The chiral protein packing found in these capsids originates from the pentagonal Penrose tiling (PPT), due to a specific phason reconstruction needed to fit the protein order at the adjacent dodecahedron faces. Via examples of small spherical viral shells and geminate capsid of a Maize Streak virus, we discuss the benefits and shortcomings of the usage of a dodecahedral net in comparison to icosahedral one, which is commonly applied for the modeling of viral shells with a crystalline local order.

  6. Herpes simplex virus bronchiolitis in a cannabis user

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV lower respiratory tract infections in adults are uncommon. We present a case of HSV bronchiolitis and pneumonitis in an immunocompetent individual, likely linked to chronic habitual marijuana use and a herpetic orolabial ulcer. The case serves as a reminder to consider HSV as a potential unusual cause of lower respiratory tract infection/inflammation in individuals with chronic habitual marijuana use.

  7. Dual-surface modified virus capsids for targeted delivery of photodynamic agents to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Nicholas; Tong, Gary J; Hsiao, Sonny C; Francis, Matthew B

    2010-10-26

    Bacteriophage MS2 was used to construct a targeted, multivalent photodynamic therapy vehicle for the treatment of Jurkat leukemia T cells. The self-assembling spherical virus capsid was modified on the interior surface with up to 180 porphyrins capable of generating cytotoxic singlet oxygen upon illumination. The exterior of the capsid was modified with ∼20 copies of a Jurkat-specific aptamer using an oxidative coupling reaction targeting an unnatural amino acid. The capsids were able to target and selectively kill more than 76% of the Jurkat cells after only 20 min of illumination. Capsids modified with a control DNA strand did not target Jurkat cells, and capsids modified with the aptamer were found to be specific for Jurkat cells over U266 cells (a control B cell line). The doubly modified capsids were also able to kill Jurkat cells selectively even when mixed with erythrocytes, suggesting the possibility of using our system to target blood-borne cancers or other pathogens in the blood supply.

  8. Characterization of the mode of action of a potent dengue virus capsid inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturro, Pietro; Trist, Iuni Margaret Laura; Paul, David; Kumar, Anil; Acosta, Eliana G; Byrd, Chelsea M; Jordan, Robert; Brancale, Andrea; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2014-10-01

    Dengue viruses (DV) represent a significant global health burden, with up to 400 million infections every year and around 500,000 infected individuals developing life-threatening disease. In spite of attempts to develop vaccine candidates and antiviral drugs, there is a lack of approved therapeutics for the treatment of DV infection. We have previously reported the identification of ST-148, a small-molecule inhibitor exhibiting broad and potent antiviral activity against DV in vitro and in vivo (C. M. Byrd et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:15-25, 2013, doi:10 .1128/AAC.01429-12). In the present study, we investigated the mode of action of this promising compound by using a combination of biochemical, virological, and imaging-based techniques. We confirmed that ST-148 targets the capsid protein and obtained evidence of bimodal antiviral activity affecting both assembly/release and entry of infectious DV particles. Importantly, by using a robust bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay, we observed an ST-148-dependent increase of capsid self-interaction. These results were corroborated by molecular modeling studies that also revealed a plausible model for compound binding to capsid protein and inhibition by a distinct resistance mutation. These results suggest that ST-148-enhanced capsid protein self-interaction perturbs assembly and disassembly of DV nucleocapsids, probably by inducing structural rigidity. Thus, as previously reported for other enveloped viruses, stabilization of capsid protein structure is an attractive therapeutic concept that also is applicable to flaviviruses. Dengue viruses are arthropod-borne viruses representing a significant global health burden. They infect up to 400 million people and are endemic to subtropical and tropical areas of the world. Currently, there are neither vaccines nor approved therapeutics for the prophylaxis or treatment of DV infections, respectively. This study reports the characterization of the

  9. Spectroscopic Studies of Mosquito Iridescent Virus, its Capsid Proteins, Lipids, and DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, V.M.; Rud, Yu.P.; Buchatski, L.P.; Melnik, V.I.; Mogylchak, K.Yu.; Ladan, S.P.; Yashchuk, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito iridescent virus (MIV) is an icosahedric lipid-containing virus which affects mosquitoes of Aedes, Culex, Culizeta genera. Apart from mosquitoes and other insects, iridoviruses cause the mass death of fish and can cause huge losses for industrial fish breedings. The MIV virion consists of a core of the genetic material (double-stranded viral DNA) surrounded by a capsid (icosahedral protein shell) and further encased in a lipid envelope. The aim of the work was to determine the role of MIV virion constituents (lipids, capsid proteins, and viral DNA) in the formation of spectral properties of the whole MIV virions. Measured are UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and phosphorescence spectra of MIV virions, their capsid proteins, lipids, and viral DNA dissolved in various buffers. It is shown that the UV absorption of MIV virions is caused by the absorption of all virion constituents such as capsid proteins, lipids, and viral DNA. The fluorescence of MIV virions at room temperature is mainly due to the fluorescence of capsid proteins. The spectra measured at low temperatures make it possible to identify the type of a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) inside the virion thanks to the fact that the DNA and RNA phosphorescence spectra are radically different.

  10. Production of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins by the TEV protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckette, Michael; Smith, Justin D; Gabbert, Lindsay; Schutta, Christopher; Barrera, José; Clark, Benjamin A; Neilan, John G; Rasmussen, Max

    2018-03-23

    Protective immunity to viral pathogens often includes production of neutralizing antibodies to virus capsid proteins. Many viruses produce capsid proteins by expressing a precursor polyprotein and related protease from a single open reading frame. The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) expresses a 3C protease (3Cpro) that cleaves a P1 polyprotein intermediate into individual capsid proteins, but the FMDV 3Cpro also degrades many host cell proteins and reduces the viability of host cells, including subunit vaccine production cells. To overcome the limitations of using the a wild-type 3Cpro in FMDV subunit vaccine expression systems, we altered the protease restriction sequences within a FMDV P1 polyprotein to enable production of FMDV capsid proteins by the Tobacco Etch Virus NIa protease (TEVpro). Separate TEVpro and modified FMDV P1 proteins were produced from a single open reading frame by an intervening FMDV 2A sequence. The modified FMDV P1 polyprotein was successfully processed by the TEVpro in both mammalian and bacterial cells. More broadly, this method of polyprotein production and processing may be adapted to other recombinant expression systems, especially plant-based expression. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Expression and purification of capsid proteins of Aichi virus and in vitro reassembly of empty virion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smola, Miroslav; Dubánková, Anna; Šilhán, Jan; Bouřa, Evžen

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 284, Suppl 1 (2017), s. 107 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /42./ From Molecules to Cells and Back. 10.09.2017-14.09.2017, Jerusalem] R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-21030Y; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Aichi virus * capsid proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  12. Nanofluidic Devices with Two Pores in Series for Resistive-Pulse Sensing of Single Virus Capsids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Zachary D.; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André

    2011-01-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of nanochannel devices with two nanopores in series for resistive-pulse sensing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids. The nanochannel and two pores are patterned by electron beam lithography between two microchannels and etched by reactive ion etching...

  13. RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Amanda Perse da; Lopes, Juliana Freitas; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RNA interference to inhibit herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro. For herpes simplex virus type-1 gene silencing, three different small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 gene (sequence si-UL 39-1, si-UL 39-2, and si-UL 39-3) were used, which encode the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis. Herpes simplex virus type-1 was isolated from saliva samples and mucocutaneous lesions from infected patients. All mucocutaneous lesions' samples were positive for herpes simplex virus type-1 by real-time PCR and by virus isolation; all herpes simplex virus type-1 from saliva samples were positive by real-time PCR and 50% were positive by virus isolation. The levels of herpes simplex virus type-1 DNA remaining after siRNA treatment were assessed by real-time PCR, whose results demonstrated that the effect of siRNAs on gene expression depends on siRNA concentration. The three siRNA sequences used were able to inhibit viral replication, assessed by real-time PCR and plaque assays and among them, the sequence si-UL 39-1 was the most effective. This sequence inhibited 99% of herpes simplex virus type-1 replication. The results demonstrate that silencing herpes simplex virus type-1 UL39 expression by siRNAs effectively inhibits herpes simplex virus type-1 replication, suggesting that siRNA based antiviral strategy may be a potential therapeutic alternative. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Ultrastructural Visualization of Individual Tegument Protein Dissociation during Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Human and Rat Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anupriya; Boadle, Ross A.; Kelly, Barbara J.; Diefenbach, Russell J.; Alam, Waafiqa; Cunningham, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) enters neurons primarily by fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell plasma membrane, leading to the release of the capsid into the cytosol. The capsid travels via microtubule-mediated retrograde transport to the nuclear membrane, where the viral DNA is released for replication in the nucleus. In the present study, the composition and kinetics of incoming HSV-1 capsids during entry and retrograde transport in axons of human fetal and dissociated rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons were examined by wide-field deconvolution microscopy and transmission immunoelectron microscopy (TIEM). We show that HSV-1 tegument proteins, including VP16, VP22, most pUL37, and some pUL36, dissociated from the incoming virions. The inner tegument proteins, including pUL36 and some pUL37, remained associated with the capsid during virus entry and transit to the nucleus in the neuronal cell body. By TIEM, a progressive loss of tegument proteins, including VP16, VP22, most pUL37, and some pUL36, was observed, with most of the tegument dissociating at the plasma membrane of the axons and the neuronal cell body. Further dissociation occurred within the axons and the cytosol as the capsids moved to the nucleus, resulting in the release of free tegument proteins, especially VP16, VP22, pUL37, and some pUL36, into the cytosol. This study elucidates ultrastructurally the composition of HSV-1 capsids that encounter the microtubules in the core of human axons and the complement of free tegument proteins released into the cytosol during virus entry. PMID:22457528

  15. Recidiverende erythema multiforme udløst af herpes simplex-virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård Grejsen, Dorthe; Henningsen, Emil

    2012-01-01

    We describe two cases of recurrent erythema multiforme, both associated to infection with herpes simplex virus. The importance of subclinical herpes is illustrated. Antiviral and additional treatment is described.......We describe two cases of recurrent erythema multiforme, both associated to infection with herpes simplex virus. The importance of subclinical herpes is illustrated. Antiviral and additional treatment is described....

  16. Herpes simplex virus 1 pneumonia: conventional chest radiograph pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umans, U.; Golding, R.P.; Duraku, S.; Manoliu, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the findings on plain chest radiographs in patients with herpes simplex virus pneumonia (HSVP). The study was based on 17 patients who at a retrospective search have been found to have a monoinfection with herpes simplex virus. The diagnosis was established by isolation of the virus from material obtained during fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) which also included broncho-alveolar lavage and tissue sampling. Fourteen patients had a chest radiograph performed within 24 h of the date of the FOB. Two radiographs showed no abnormalities of the lung parenchyma. The radiographs of the other 12 patients showed lung opacification, predominantly lobar or more extensive and always bilateral. Most patients presented with a mixed airspace and interstitial pattern of opacities, but 11 of 14 showed at least an airspace consolidation. Lobar, segmental, or subsegmental atelectasis was present in 7 patients, and unilateral or bilateral pleural effusion in 8 patients, but only in 1 patient was it a large amount. In contradiction to the literature which reports a high correlation between HSVP and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 11 of 14 patients did not meet the pathophysiological criteria for ARDS. The radiologist may suggest the diagnosis of HSVP when bilateral airspace consolidation or mixed opacities appear in a susceptible group of patients who are not thought to have ARDS or pulmonary edema. The definite diagnosis of HSV pneumonia can be established only on the basis of culture of material obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage. (orig.)

  17. An Unusual Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Boyapati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 65-year-old man with an acute alteration in mental state that was initially diagnosed as a functional psychiatric condition. After extensive workup, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was detected in the patient’s cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and he responded rapidly to treatment with acyclovir. The case illustrates the importance of actively excluding organic causes in such patients, the need to have a low threshold of suspicion for HSV encephalitis, and the central role of CSF PCR testing for the diagnosis of HSV encephalitis, even in the absence of CSF biochemical abnormalities.

  18. Exploiting Herpes Simplex Virus Entry for Novel Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Shukla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes Simplex virus (HSV is associated with a variety of diseases such as genital herpes and numerous ocular diseases. At the global level, high prevalence of individuals who are seropositive for HSV, combined with its inconspicuous infection, remains a cause for major concern. At the molecular level, HSV entry into a host cell involves multiple steps, primarily the interaction of viral glycoproteins with various cell surface receptors, many of which have alternate substitutes. The molecular complexity of the virus to enter a cell is also enhanced by the existence of different modes of viral entry. The availability of many entry receptors, along with a variety of entry mechanisms, has resulted in a virus that is capable of infecting virtually all cell types. While HSV uses a wide repertoire of viral and host factors in establishing infection, current therapeutics aimed against the virus are not as diversified. In this particular review, we will focus on the initial entry of the virus into the cell, while highlighting potential novel therapeutics that can control this process. Virus entry is a decisive step and effective therapeutics can translate to less virus replication, reduced cell death, and detrimental symptoms.

  19. Structural Model of the Tubular Assembly of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Capsid Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jaekyun; Qiao, Xin; Hung, Ivan; Mitra, Alok K; Desfosses, Ambroise; Huang, Daniel; Gor'kov, Peter L; Craven, Rebecca C; Kingston, Richard L; Gan, Zhehong; Zhu, Fangqiang; Chen, Bo

    2017-02-08

    The orthoretroviral capsid protein (CA) assembles into polymorphic capsids, whose architecture, assembly, and stability are still being investigated. The N-terminal and C-terminal domains of CA (NTD and CTD, respectively) engage in both homotypic and heterotypic interactions to create the capsid. Hexameric turrets formed by the NTD decorate the majority of the capsid surface. We report nearly complete solid-state NMR (ssNMR) resonance assignments of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA, assembled into hexamer tubes that mimic the authentic capsid. The ssNMR assignments show that, upon assembly, large conformational changes occur in loops connecting helices, as well as the short 3 10 helix initiating the CTD. The interdomain linker becomes statically disordered. Combining constraints from ssNMR and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), we establish an atomic resolution model of the RSV CA tubular assembly using molecular dynamics flexible fitting (MDFF) simulations. On the basis of comparison of this MDFF model with an earlier-derived crystallographic model for the planar assembly, the induction of curvature into the RSV CA hexamer lattice arises predominantly from reconfiguration of the NTD-CTD and CTD trimer interfaces. The CTD dimer and CTD trimer interfaces are also intrinsically variable. Hence, deformation of the CA hexamer lattice results from the variable displacement of the CTDs that surround each hexameric turret. Pervasive H-bonding is found at all interdomain interfaces, which may contribute to their malleability. Finally, we find helices at the interfaces of HIV and RSV CA assemblies have very different contact angles, which may reflect differences in the capsid assembly pathway for these viruses.

  20. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  1. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus replication by tobacco extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, J M; Svennerholm, B; Vahlne, A

    1984-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with the genesis of leukoplakias, epithelial atypia, and oral cancer. Tobacco habits, such as snuff dipping, are also definitely correlated with this type of lesion. The normal cytolytic HSV-1 infection can, after in vitro inactivation, transform cells. Extracts of snuff were prepared and assayed for their ability to inhibit HSV-1 replication. Plaque formation assays of HSV-1 in the presence of snuff extract showed that a reduced number of plaques was formed. Different batches of one brand of snuff were tested for inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) production. More than 99% inhibition of 24-hr HSV production was obtained with undiluted batches. The 1:5 dilutions of snuff had an inhibitory effect of 85% and 1:25 dilutions, 39%. In agreement, the attachment of the virus to the host cell and penetration of the virus to the cell nuclei were found to be inhibited as was the synthesis of viral DNA. Nicotine had an inhibitory effect, while aromatic additions to snuff were found to have no major inhibitory effect on HSV replication. Snuff extracts were prepared from different brands of snuff reported to contain high and low quantities of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Brands with reported high levels of tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines had significantly greater ability to inhibit HSV replication. In conclusion, this study has shown that extracts of snuff have inhibitory effects on the production of cytolytic HSV-1 infections. A chronic snuff dipper keeps tobacco in the mouth for the major part of the day. Thus, virus shed in the oral cavity in connection with a reactivated latent HSV-1 infection has great possibilities of being affected by snuff or derivatives of snuff. It is suggested that an interaction between tobacco products and HSV-1 might be involved in the development of dysplastic lesions in the oral cavity.

  2. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Functional analysis of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc, a virus decoration protein from T4-like bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathaliyawala, Taheri; Islam, Mohammad Z; Li, Qin; Fokine, Andrei; Rossmann, Michael G; Rao, Venigalla B

    2010-07-01

    Bacteriophage T4 is decorated with 155 copies of the highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc. The Hoc molecule (40 kDa) is present at the centre of each hexameric capsomer and provides a good platform for surface display of pathogen antigens. Biochemical and modelling studies show that Hoc consists of a string of four domains, three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like and one non-Ig domain at the C-terminus. Biochemical data suggest that the Hoc protein has two functional modules, a capsid binding module containing domains 1 and 4 and a solvent-exposed module containing domains 2 and 3. This model is consistent with the dumbbell-shaped cryo-EM density of Hoc observed in the reconstruction of the T4 capsid. Mutagenesis localized the capsid binding site to the C-terminal 25 amino acids, which are predicted to form two beta-strands flanking a capsid binding loop. Mutations in the loop residues, ESRNG, abolished capsid binding, suggesting that these residues might interact with the major capsid protein, gp23*. With the conserved capsid binding module forming a foothold on the virus and the solvent-exposed module able to adapt to bind to a variety of surfaces, Hoc probably provides survival advantages to the phage, such as increasing the virus concentration near the host, efficient dispersion of the virus and exposing the tail for more efficient contact with the host cell surface prior to infection.

  4. Detection of late intermediates in virus capsid assembly by charge detection mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth E; Keifer, David Z; Selzer, Lisa; Lee, Lye Siang; Contino, Nathan C; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2014-03-05

    The assembly of hundreds of identical proteins into an icosahedral virus capsid is a remarkable feat of molecular engineering. How this occurs is poorly understood. Key intermediates have been anticipated at the end of the assembly reaction, but it has not been possible to detect them. In this work we have used charge detection mass spectrometry to identify trapped intermediates from late in the assembly of the hepatitis B virus T = 4 capsid, a complex of 120 protein dimers. Prominent intermediates are found with 104/105, 110/111, and 117/118 dimers. Cryo-EM observations indicate the intermediates are incomplete capsids and, hence, on the assembly pathway. On the basis of their stability and kinetic accessibility we have proposed plausible structures. The prominent trapped intermediate with 104 dimers is attributed to an icosahedron missing two neighboring facets, the 111-dimer species is assigned to an icosahedron missing a single facet, and the intermediate with 117 dimers is assigned to a capsid missing a ring of three dimers in the center of a facet.

  5. Unusual Initial Presentation of Herpes Simplex Virus as Inguinal Lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Fleming

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV infections are a common cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy. However, surgical excision of enlarged inguinal nodes is almost never performed to initially diagnose genital herpes simplex virus, due to the distinct external presentation of genital herpetic vesicles that usually occur with the first symptoms of infection. Therefore, the histologic and immunophenotypic features of HSV-associated inguinal lymphadenopathy are unfamiliar to most pathologists. The current report describes the lymph node pathology of two immunocompetent patients, whose initial HSV diagnosis was established through surgical excision of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes. Histologic examination showed features consistent with viral lymphadenopathy, including florid follicular hyperplasia, monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia, and paracortical hyperplasia without extensive necrosis. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV antigens, using polyclonal anti-HSV I and II antibodies, demonstrate strong immunoreactivity for HSV in a small number of cells in the subcapsular sinuses, especially in areas with monocytoid B-cell hyperplasia. Rare scattered HSV-positive cells also are identified in paracortical areas and germinal centers. We conclude that an initial diagnosis of genital HSV infection may be established by inguinal lymph node biopsy.

  6. Empiric acyclovir for neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpluym, Christina; Tawfik, Gerda; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Kellner, James; Robinson, Joan L

    2012-08-01

    Because neonatal herpes simplex virus (NHSV) infection is difficult to diagnose, there has been a move towards using more empiric acyclovir (ACV). The purpose of this study was to review the use of ACV to optimize future management of NHSV. Charts were reviewed for infants started on intravenous ACV up to day 43 of life--January 2001 through February 2007--at five hospitals in Edmonton and Calgary. ACV was started for possible (N = 115) or proven (N = 3) herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Six of the infants with possible HSV infection later had proven HSV infection. Seizures (34%), hemodynamic instability (29%) and skin lesions (24%) were the most common indications for ACV. Among the 118 infants, 106 (90%) had cerebrospinal fluid obtained and 82 (69%) had at least one surface swab for HSV but 4 (3%) had no specimens submitted for HSV detection. ACV was continued for 3.9 ± 3.5 days in the infants with no proven HSV disease. Possible nephrotoxicity from ACV was recorded in 3 of these 109 infants and in none of the infants with proven HSV disease. Clinicians in Alberta primarily consider the diagnosis of NHSV infection when confronted with a neonate with seizures, hemodynamic instability or suspicious skin lesions, but need to consider the diagnosis more often if all cases are to be treated at first presentation. They often perform incomplete investigations to rule out NHSV infection. Adverse events from ACV appear to be uncommon when the drug is used for suspected NHSV disease.

  7. Bioactive natural products with anti-herpes simplex virus properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Masarčíková, Radka; Berchová, Kateřina

    2015-10-01

    In this review, we highlight and summarise the most promising extracts, fractions and pure compounds as potential anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) agents derived from microorganisms, marine organisms, fungi, animals and plants. The role of natural products in the development of anti-HSV drugs will be discussed. Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2) are common human pathogens that remain a serious threat to human health. In recent years, a great interest has been devoted to the search for integrated management of HSV infections. Acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues have been licensed for the therapy that target viral DNA polymerase. Although these drugs are currently effective against HSV infections, the intensive use of these drugs has led to the problem of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the search for new sources to develop new antiherpetic agents has gained major priority to overcome the problem. Natural products as potential, new anti-HSV drugs provide several advantages such as reduced side effects, less resistance, low toxicity and various mechanisms of action. This paper aims to provide an overview of natural products that possess antiviral activity against HSV. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. [Role of Herpes simplex virus in the immune stromal keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, C; Martínez, M J; Vogel, M; Traipe, L; Stoppel, J; Squella, O; Srur, M; Charlín, R

    2001-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the cornea is a leading cause of blindness in occidental countries and a common recurrent manifestation of it is the immune stromal keratitis (ISK). However, it is not known whether active viral replication occurs during the acute phase of the disease, because isolation of the virus by conventional culture techniques has not been accomplished. To establish the presence of HSV in patients with ISK. Fourteen corneal swabbing samples, from active diseased eyes of patients with clinical diagnosis of ISK, were submitted to Herpchek and PCR for the identification of HSV antigens and genome. All ISK samples were negative by both techniques. It was not possible to identify HSV antigens nor their genome by the methodology used. It is likely that, they can't be detected in corneal superficial layers or probably there is no viral replication at this stage of the disease, so antiviral therapy should be reconsidered.

  9. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The herpes simplex virus 1 U{sub S}3 regulates phospholipid synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Peter, E-mail: pewild@access.uzh.ch [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Oliveira, Anna Paula de [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Sonda, Sabrina [Institute for Parasitology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Schraner, Elisabeth M. [Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland); Ackermann, Mathias; Tobler, Kurt [Institute of Virology, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear and Golgi membranes for envelopment by phospholipid bilayers. In the absence of U{sub S}3, nuclear membranes form multiple folds harboring virions that suggests disturbance in membrane turnover. Therefore, we investigated phospholipid metabolism in cells infected with the U{sub S}3 deletion mutant R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), and quantified membranes involved in viral envelopment. We report that (i) [{sup 3}H]-choline incorporation into nuclear membranes and cytoplasmic membranes was enhanced peaking at 12 or 20 h post inoculation with wild type HSV-1 and R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3), respectively, (ii) the surface area of nuclear membranes increased until 24 h of R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection forming folds that equaled {approx}45% of the nuclear surface, (iii) the surface area of viral envelopes between nuclear membranes equaled {approx}2400 R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) virions per cell, and (iv) during R7041({Delta}U{sub S}3) infection, the Golgi complex expanded dramatically. The data indicate that U{sub S}3 plays a significant role in regulation of membrane biosynthesis.

  11. Transient Bluetongue virus serotype 8 capsid protein expression in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertha R. van Zyl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue virus (BTV causes severe disease in domestic and wild ruminants, and has recently caused several outbreaks in Europe. Current vaccines include live-attenuated and inactivated viruses; while these are effective, there is risk of reversion to virulence by mutation or reassortment with wild type viruses. Subunit or virus-like particle (VLP vaccines are safer options: VLP vaccines produced in insect cells by expression of the four BTV capsid proteins are protective against challenge; however, this is a costly production method. We investigated production of BTV VLPs in plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, an inexpensive production system very well suited to developing country use. Leaves infiltrated with recombinant pEAQ-HT vectors separately encoding the four BTV-8 capsid proteins produced more proteins than recombinant pTRA vectors. Plant expression using the pEAQ-HT vector resulted in both BTV-8 core-like particles (CLPs and VLPs; differentially controlling the concentration of infiltrated bacteria significantly influenced yield of the VLPs. In situ localisation of assembled particles was investigated by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and it was shown that a mixed population of core-like particles (CLPs, consisting of VP3 and VP7 and VLPs were present as paracrystalline arrays in the cytoplasm of plant cells co-expressing all four capsid proteins.

  12. Controlled immobilisation of active enzymes on the cowpea mosaic virus capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2012-08-01

    Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors.Immobilisation of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOX) via covalent attachment of modified enzyme carbohydrate to the exterior of the cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) capsid gave high retention of enzymatic activity. The number of enzymes bound per virus was determined to be about eleven for HRP and 2-3 for GOX. This illustrates that relatively large biomacromolecules can be readily coupled to the virus surface using simple conjugation strategies. Virus-biomacromolecule hybrids have great potential for uses in catalysis, diagnostic assays or biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Alternative conjugation strategies, agarose gel electrophoresis of CPMV and CPMV-HRP conjugates, UV-vis spectrum of HRP-ADHCPMV, agarose gel electrophoresis of GOX-ADHCPMV particles and corresponding TEM image, calibration curves for HRP-ADHCPMV and GOX-ADHCPMV, DLS data for GOX-ADHCPMV are made available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31485a

  13. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  14. Surgical excision for recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) anogenital infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Folasade; Shaver, Aaron; Raffanti, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with HIV who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. He initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. The lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical excision, which led to resolution without recurrences. Our case highlights the importance of surgical excision as a treatment option in refractory herpes simplex virus anogenital infections.

  15. Breaking a virus: Identifying molecular level failure modes of a viral capsid by multiscale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamani, V.; Globisch, C.; Peter, C.; Deserno, M.

    2016-10-01

    We use coarse-grained (CG) simulations to study the deformation of empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsids under uniaxial compression, from the initial elastic response up to capsid breakage. Our CG model is based on the MARTINI force field and has been amended by a stabilizing elastic network, acting only within individual proteins, that was tuned to capture the fluctuation spectrum of capsid protein dimers, obtained from all atom simulations. We have previously shown that this model predicts force-compression curves that match AFM indentation experiments on empty CCMV capsids. Here we investigate details of the actual breaking events when the CCMV capsid finally fails. We present a symmetry classification of all relevant protein contacts and show that they differ significantly in terms of stability. Specifically, we show that interfaces which break readily are precisely those which are believed to form last during assembly, even though some of them might share the same contacts as other non-breaking interfaces. In particular, the interfaces that form pentamers of dimers never break, while the virtually identical interfaces within hexamers of dimers readily do. Since these units differ in the large-scale geometry and, most noticeably, the cone-angle at the center of the 5- or 6-fold vertex, we propose that the hexameric unit fails because it is pre-stressed. This not only suggests that hexamers of dimers form less frequently during the early stages of assembly; it also offers a natural explanation for the well-known β-barrel motif at the hexameric center as a post-aggregation stabilization mechanism. Finally, we identify those amino acid contacts within all key protein interfaces that are most persistent during compressive deformation of the capsid, thereby providing potential targets for mutation studies aiming to elucidate the key contacts upon which overall stability rests.

  16. Cellular Cholesterol Facilitates the Postentry Replication Cycle of Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudiri, George A; Nicola, Anthony V

    2017-07-15

    Cholesterol is an essential component of cell membranes and is required for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) entry (1-3). Treatment of HSV-1-infected Vero cells with methyl beta-cyclodextrin from 2 to 9 h postentry reduced plaque numbers. Transport of incoming viral capsids to the nuclear periphery was unaffected by the cholesterol reduction, suggesting that cell cholesterol is important for the HSV-1 replicative cycle at a stage(s) beyond entry, after the arrival of capsids at the nucleus. The synthesis and release of infectious HSV-1 and cell-to-cell spread of infection were all impaired in cholesterol-reduced cells. Propagation of HSV-1 on DHCR24 -/- fibroblasts, which lack the desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, resulted in the generation of infectious extracellular virions (HSV des ) that lack cholesterol and likely contain desmosterol. The specific infectivities (PFU per viral genome) of HSV chol and HSV des were similar, suggesting cholesterol and desmosterol in the HSV envelope support similar levels of infectivity. However, infected DHCR24 -/- fibroblasts released ∼1 log less infectious HSV des and ∼1.5 log fewer particles than release of cholesterol-containing particles (HSV chol ) from parental fibroblasts, suggesting that the hydrocarbon tail of cholesterol facilitates viral synthesis. Together, the results suggest multiple roles for cholesterol in the HSV-1 replicative cycle. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 infections are associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations that are of public health importance. Cholesterol is a key player in the complex interaction between viral and cellular factors that allows HSV-1 to enter host cells and establish infection. Previous reports have demonstrated a role for cellular cholesterol in the entry of HSV-1 into target cells. Here, we employed both chemical treatment and cells that were genetically defined to synthesize only desmosterol to demonstrate that cholesterol is important at stages following the

  17. Prevalence of herpes simplex, Epstein Barr and human papilloma viruses in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Benay; Sengüven, Burcu; Demir, Cem

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Herpes Simplex virus, Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus -16 in oral lichen planus cases and to evaluate whether any clinical variant, histopathological or demographic feature correlates with these viruses. The study was conducted on 65 cases. Viruses were detected immunohistochemically. We evaluated the histopathological and demographic features and statistically analysed correlation of these features with Herpes Simplex virus, Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus-16 positivity. Herpes Simplex virus was positive in six (9%) cases and this was not statistically significant. The number of Epstein Barr virus positive cases was 23 (35%) and it was statistically significant. Human Papilloma virus positivity in 14 cases (21%) was statistically significant. Except basal cell degeneration in Herpes Simplex virus positive cases, we did not observe any significant correlation between virus positivity and demographic or histopathological features. However an increased risk of Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus infection was noted in oral lichen planus cases. Taking into account the oncogenic potential of both viruses, oral lichen planus cases should be detected for the presence of these viruses.

  18. Rapid increase of near atomic resolution virus capsid structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Phuong T; Reddy, Vijay S

    2018-01-01

    The recent technological advances in electron microscopes, detectors, as well as image processing and reconstruction software have brought single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) into prominence for determining structures of bio-molecules at near atomic resolution. This has been particularly true for virus capsids, ribosomes, and other large assemblies, which have been the ideal specimens for structural studies by cryo-EM approaches. An analysis of time series metadata of virus structures on the methods of structure determination, resolution of the structures, and size of the virus particles revealed a rapid increase in the virus structures determined by cryo-EM at near atomic resolution since 2010. In addition, the data highlight the median resolution (∼3.0 Å) and size (∼310.0 Å in diameter) of the virus particles determined by X-ray crystallography while no such limits exist for cryo-EM structures, which have a median diameter of 508 Å. Notably, cryo-EM virus structures in the last four years have a median resolution of 3.9 Å. Taken together with minimal sample requirements, not needing diffraction quality crystals, and being able to achieve similar resolutions of the crystal structures makes cryo-EM the method of choice for current and future virus capsid structure determinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection Mimicking Bullous Disease in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L.Y. Lecluse

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficient patients are at risk of developing extended or atypical herpes simplex virus infections, which can be easily misdiagnosed. We present the case of a 79-year-old, treatment-induced (oral corticosteroid, immunocompromised female with an extensive atypical herpes simplex virus infection. This patient presented with multiple erosions and vesicles on the trunk with a subacute onset. The clinical differential diagnosis was herpes simplex infection, herpes zoster infection, pemphigus vulgaris or bullous pemphigoid. Due to the atypical clinical presentation and negative Tzanck test, suspicion of viral infection was low. High-dose steroid treatment was initiated. Subsequent histopathology, however, showed a herpes simplex virus infection. After discontinuing steroid treatment and initiating antiviral treatment, the patient recovered within a week. Emphasis must be placed on the importance of clinical awareness of extended and clinically atypical herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients. A negative Tzanck test does not rule out the possibility of a herpes infection.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Interaction with Myeloid Cells In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkumar, Maitreyi; Lawler, Clara; Milho, Ricardo; Stevenson, Philip G

    2016-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) enters mice via olfactory epithelial cells and then colonizes the trigeminal ganglia (TG). Most TG nerve endings are subepithelial, so this colonization implies subepithelial viral spread, where myeloid cells provide an important line of defense. The outcome of infection of myeloid cells by HSV-1 in vitro depends on their differentiation state; the outcome in vivo is unknown. Epithelial HSV-1 commonly infected myeloid cells, and Cre-Lox virus marking showed nose and lung infections passing through LysM-positive (LysM(+)) and CD11c(+) cells. In contrast, subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSMs) exposed to lymph-borne HSV-1 were permissive only when type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling was blocked; normally, their infection was suppressed. Thus, the outcome of myeloid cell infection helped to determine the HSV-1 distribution: subepithelial myeloid cells provided a route of spread from the olfactory epithelium to TG neurons, while SSMs blocked systemic spread. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects most people and can cause severe disease. This reflects its persistence in nerve cells that connect to the mouth, nose, eye, and face. Established infection seems impossible to clear. Therefore, we must understand how it starts. This is difficult in humans, but mice show HSV-1 entry via the nose and then spread to its preferred nerve cells. We show that this spread proceeds in part via myeloid cells, which normally function in host defense. Myeloid infection was productive in some settings but was efficiently suppressed by interferon in others. Therefore, interferon acting on myeloid cells can stop HSV-1 spread, and enhancing this defense offers a way to improve infection control. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gD function in a redundant fashion to promote secondary envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David C; Wisner, Todd W; Wright, Catherine C

    2011-05-01

    Egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other herpesviruses from cells involves extensive modification of cellular membranes and sequential envelopment and deenvelopment steps. HSV glycoproteins are important in these processes, and frequently two or more glycoproteins can largely suffice in any step. Capsids in the nucleus undergo primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), and then enveloped virus particles undergo deenvelopment by fusing with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). Capsids delivered into the cytoplasm then undergo secondary envelopment, involving trans-Golgi network (TGN) membranes. The deenvelopment step involves HSV glycoproteins gB and gH/gL acting in a redundant fashion. This fusion has features common to the fusion that occurs between the virion envelope and cellular membranes when HSV enters cells, a process requiring gB, gD, and gH/gL. Whether HSV gD also participates (in a redundant fashion with gB or gH/gL) in deenvelopment has not been characterized. Secondary envelopment in the cytoplasm is known to involve HSV gD and gE/gI, also acting in a redundant fashion. Whether gB might also contribute to secondary envelopment, collaborating with gD and gE/gI, is also not clear. To address these questions, we constructed an HSV double mutant lacking gB and gD. The HSV gB(-)/gD(-) mutant exhibited no substantial defects in nuclear egress. In contrast, secondary envelopment was markedly reduced, and there were numerous unenveloped capsids that accumulated in the cytoplasm, as well as increased numbers of partially enveloped capsids and morphologically aberrant enveloped particles with thicker, oblong tegument layers. These defects were different from those observed with HSV gD(-)/gE(-)/gI(-) mutants, which accumulated capsids in large, aggregated masses in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest that HSV gB functions in secondary envelopment, apparently acting downstream of gE/gI.

  2. Role of heat-shock protein 90 in hepatitis E virus capsid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Miao, Ji; Zhao, Min; Tang, Ming; Yeo, Anthony E T; Yu, Hai; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2010-07-01

    p239 is a virus-like particle constituted from hepatitis E virus (HEV) recombinant proteins. It can be used as a surrogate for HEV and as an investigative tool to study cellular interactions because of its ability to adsorb to and penetrate HepG2 cellular membranes. Our objective was to use p239 to define the role of HEV capsid proteins during the early stages of infection. Pull-down and MALDI-TOF MS experiments identified three host-cell proteins, Grp 78/Bip, alpha-tubulin and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and the latter was investigated further. Antibodies to p239 alone or HSP90 alone could detect p239 or HSP90, suggesting the formation of a complex between p239 and HSP90. In the HepG2 cell, geldanamycin (GA), an HSP90-specific inhibitor, blocked intracellular transportation of p239, but had no effect on the binding and cellular entry of p239, suggesting that HSP90 was important for HEV capsid intracellular transportation. RT-PCR results showed that the efficiency of wild-type HEV infection was inhibited significantly by GA treatment, suggesting the importance of HSP90 in virus infectivity. It was concluded that HSP90 plays a crucial role in the intracellular transportation of viral capsids in the early stage of HEV infection.

  3. Dengue virus capsid protein binds core histones and inhibits nucleosome formation in human liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya M Colpitts

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (reemerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection.

  4. Dengue virus capsid protein binds core histones and inhibits nucleosome formation in human liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M; Barthel, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (re)emerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C) is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection.

  5. Dengue Virus Capsid Protein Binds Core Histones and Inhibits Nucleosome Formation in Human Liver Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Barthel, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Fikrig, Erol

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a member of the Flaviviridae and a globally (re)emerging pathogen that causes serious human disease. There is no specific antiviral or vaccine for dengue virus infection. Flavivirus capsid (C) is a structural protein responsible for gathering the viral RNA into a nucleocapsid that forms the core of a mature virus particle. Flaviviral replication is known to occur in the cytoplasm yet a large portion of capsid protein localizes to the nucleus during infection. The reasons for the nuclear presences of capsid are not completely understood. Here, we expressed mature DENV C in a tandem affinity purification assay to identify potential binding partners in human liver cells. DENV C targeted the four core histones, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. DENV C bound recombinant histones in solution and colocalized with histones in the nucleus and cytoplasm of liver cells during DENV infection. We show that DENV C acts as a histone mimic, forming heterodimers with core histones, binding DNA and disrupting nucleosome formation. We also demonstrate that DENV infection increases the amounts of core histones in livers cells, which may be a cellular response to C binding away the histone proteins. Infection with DENV additionally alters levels of H2A phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. The interactions of C and histones add an interesting new role for the presence of C in the nucleus during DENV infection. PMID:21909430

  6. Prevalence of intrathecal acyclovir resistant virus in herpes simplex encephalitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Mitterreiter (Johanna G.); M.J. Titulaer (Maarten); G.P. van Nierop (Gijs); J.J.A. van Kampen (Jeroen); G.I. Aron (Georgina); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner )

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHerpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a life-threatening complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Acyclovir (ACV) is the antiviral treatment of choice, but may lead to emergence of ACV-resistant (ACVR) HSV due to mutations in the viral UL23 gene encoding for the ACV-targeted

  7. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara P Blevins

    Full Text Available We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency.

  8. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Tamara P; Mitchell, Michelle C; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A; Belshe, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency.

  9. Inhibition of multiplication of herpes simplex virus by caffeic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiko; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Nishide, Mitsunori; Suzuki, Yukiko; Koyama, A Hajime; Yamasaki, Hisashi

    2011-10-01

    Hot water extracts of coffee grinds and commercial instant coffee solutions have been shown to exhibit marked antiviral and virucidal activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Specifically, it has been shown that caffeine and N-methyl-pyridinium formate inhibit the multiplication of HSV-1 in HEp-2 cells. The present study examined the virological properties and the antiviral activity of caffeic acid against HSV-1. Caffeic acid inhibited the multiplication of HSV-1 in vitro, while chlorogenic acid, a caffeic acid ester with quinic acid, did not. These reagents did not have a direct virucidal effect. The one-step growth curve of HSV-1 showed that the addition of caffeic acid at 8 h post infection (h p.i.) did not significantly affect the formation of progeny viruses. An analysis of the influence of the time of caffeic acid addition, revealed that addition at an early time post infection remarkably inhibited the formation of progeny infectious virus in the infected cells, but its addition after 6 h p.i. (i.e., the time of the completion of viral genome replication) did not efficiently inhibit this process. These results indicate that caffeic acid inhibits HSV-1 multiplication mainly before the completion of viral DNA replication, but not thereafter. Although caffeic acid showed some cytotoxicity by prolonged incubation, the observed antiviral activity is likely not the secondary result of the cytotoxic effect of the reagent, because the inhibition of the virus multiplication was observed before appearance of the notable cytotoxicity.

  10. Structures of foot and mouth disease virus pentamers: Insight into capsid dissociation and unexpected pentamer reassociation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayab Malik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV belongs to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae, a family of small, icosahedral, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. It is a highly infectious pathogen and is one of the biggest hindrances to the international trade of animals and animal products. FMDV capsids (which are unstable below pH6.5 release their genome into the host cell from an acidic compartment, such as that of an endosome, and in the process dissociate into pentamers. Whilst other members of the family (enteroviruses have been visualized to form an expanded intermediate capsid with holes from which inner capsid proteins (VP4, N-termini (VP1 and RNA can be released, there has been no visualization of any such state for an aphthovirus, instead the capsid appears to simply dissociate into pentamers. Here we present the 8-Å resolution structure of isolated dissociated pentamers of FMDV, lacking VP4. We also found these pentamers to re-associate into a rigid, icosahedrally symmetric assembly, which enabled their structure to be solved at higher resolution (5.2 Å. In this assembly, the pentamers unexpectedly associate 'inside out', but still with their exposed hydrophobic edges buried. Stabilizing interactions occur between the HI loop of VP2 and its symmetry related partners at the icosahedral 3-fold axes, and between the BC and EF loops of VP3 with the VP2 βB-strand and the CD loop at the 2-fold axes. A relatively extensive but subtle structural rearrangement towards the periphery of the dissociated pentamer compared to that in the mature virus provides insight into the mechanism of dissociation of FMDV and the marked difference in antigenicity.

  11. Capsid coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease viruses are determinants of pathogenicity in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Louise; Jackson, Terry; Bøtner, Anette

    2012-01-01

    compared the pathogenicity of different FMDVs in young pigs. In total 32 pigs, 7-weeks-old, were exposed to virus, either by direct inoculation or through contact with inoculated pigs, using cell culture adapted (O1K B64), chimeric (O1K/A-TUR and O1K/O-UKG) or field strain (O-UKG/34/2001) viruses. The O1K...... B64 virus and the two chimeric viruses are identical to each other except for the capsid coding region. Animals exposed to O1K B64 did not exhibit signs of disease, while pigs exposed to each of the other viruses showed typical clinical signs of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). All pigs infected...... coding sequences are determinants of FMDV pathogenicity in pigs....

  12. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameeta Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV types 1 and 2 cause genital herpes infections and are the most common cause of genital ulcer disease in industrialized nations. Although these infections are very common, the majority of them remain underdiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or unrecognized. A clinical diagnosis of genital herpes should always be confirmed by laboratory testing; this can be accomplished through the use of direct tests for viral isolation, the detection of antigen or, more recently, the detection of HSV DNA using molecular diagnostic techniques. Testing for serotypes is recommended because of the different prognostic and counselling implications. Type-specific HSV serology is becoming more readily available and will enhance the ability to make the diagnosis and guide clinical management in select patients.

  13. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  14. A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for Therapy of Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2004-01-01

    The tasks that were originally planned for the first year of this 3 year project are to demonstrate that the fusogenic oncolytic herpes simplex viruses are potent anti-tumor agents for advanced ovarian cancer...

  15. Molecular Characterization of Prostate Cancer Cell Oncolysis by Herpes Simplex Virus ICP0 Mutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossman, Karen

    2005-01-01

    .... Briefly, the goals of the proposal were to characterize the oncolytic capacity of Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICPO mutants in prostate cancer cells given the relationship between ICPO and two tumor...

  16. Molecular Characterization of Prostate Cancer Cell Oncolysis by Herpes Simplex Virus ICP0 Mutants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossman, Karen

    2006-01-01

    .... Briefly, the goals of the proposal were to characterize the oncolytic capacity of Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 mutants in prostate cancer cells given the relationship between ICP0 and two tumor...

  17. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation

  18. Adenovirus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infection in a lung transplant recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nagarakanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft infections post lung transplantation have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. We report a rare case of triple viral infection with adenovirus, Herpes Simplex virus (HSV and Cytomegalovirus (CMV in a lung transplant recipient.

  19. Hierarchical Assembly of Plasmonic Nanostructures using Virus Capsid Scaffolds on DNA Origami Tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Debin; Capehart, Stacy L.; Pal, Suchetan; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Lei; Schuck, P. J.; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao; Francis, Matthew B.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2014-07-07

    Plasmonic nanoarchitectures using biological scaffolds have shown the potential to attain controllable plasmonic fluorescence via precise spatial arrangement of fluorophores and plasmonic antennae. However, previous studies report a predominance of fluorescence quenching for small metal nanoparticles (less than ~60 nm) due to their small scattering cross-sections. In this work, we report the design and performance of fluorescent plasmonic structures composed of fluorophore-modified virus capsids and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembled on DNA origami tiles. The virus capsid creates a scaffold for control over the three dimensional arrangement of the fluorophores, whereas the DNA origami tile provides precise control over the distance between the capsid and the AuNP. Using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations and multimodal single-particle imaging measurements, we show that the judicial design of these structures places the dye molecules near the hot spot of the AuNP. This effectively increases the fluorescence intensity in the quenching regime of the AuNP, with an enhancement factor that increases with increasing AuNP size. This strategy of using biological scaffolds to control fluorescence paves the way for exploring the parameters that determine plasmonic fluorescence. It may lead to a better understanding of the antenna effects of photon absorption and emission, enabling the construction of multicomponent plasmonic systems.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection Associated with Atrial Myxoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanwen; Pan, Zhigang; Ji, Yuan; Sheppard, Mary; Jeffries, Donald J.; Archard, Leonard C.; Zhang, Hongyi

    2003-01-01

    Some findings suggest an infectious factor in cardiac myxoma and certain histopathological features indicate herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. We hypothesized that HSV-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac myxoma. Paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 17 patients with atrial myxoma were investigated for HSV-1 antigen by immunohistochemistry and viral genomic DNA by nested polymerase chain reaction. The histogenesis and oncogenesis of atrial myxoma were assessed by the expression of calretinin, Ki67, and p53 protein, respectively. Autopsy myocardial samples, including endocardium from 12 patients who died by accident or other conditions, were used for comparison. HSV-1 antigen was detected in atrial myxoma from 12 of 17 patients: 8 of these 12 samples were positive also for HSV-1 DNA. No HSV-1 antigen or DNA was found in tissue from the comparison group. Antigens of HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus were not found in atrial myxoma. Calretinin was found in myxoma cells of all 17 cases but Ki67 was present only in smooth muscle cells or infiltrating cells in some cases. p53 was not detectable in any myxoma. Most infiltrating cells were cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These data suggest that HSV-1 infection is associated with some cases of sporadic atrial myxoma and that these may result from a chronic inflammatory lesion of endocardium. PMID:14633612

  1. Bioreactor production of recombinant herpes simplex virus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, David R; Harrell, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Serotypical application of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to gene therapy (type 1) and prophylactic vaccines (types 1 and 2) has garnered substantial clinical interest recently. HSV vectors and amplicons have also been employed as helper virus constructs for manufacture of the dependovirus adeno-associated virus (AAV). Large quantities of infectious HSV stocks are requisite for these therapeutic applications, requiring a scalable vector manufacturing and processing platform comprised of unit operations which accommodate the fragility of HSV. In this study, production of a replication deficient rHSV-1 vector bearing the rep and cap genes of AAV-2 (denoted rHSV-rep2/cap2) was investigated. Adaptation of rHSV production from T225 flasks to a packed bed, fed-batch bioreactor permitted an 1100-fold increment in total vector production without a decrease in specific vector yield (pfu/cell). The fed-batch bioreactor system afforded a rHSV-rep2/cap2 vector recovery of 2.8 x 10(12) pfu. The recovered vector was concentrated by tangential flow filtration (TFF), permitting vector stocks to be formulated at greater than 1.5 x 10(9) pfu/mL.

  2. Structural organization of pregenomic RNA and the carboxy-terminal domain of the capsid protein of hepatitis B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C-Y Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV double-stranded DNA genome is reverse transcribed from its RNA pregenome (pgRNA within the virus core (or capsid. Phosphorylation of the arginine-rich carboxy-terminal domain (CTD of the HBV capsid protein (Cp183 is essential for pgRNA encapsidation and reverse transcription. However, the structure of the CTD remains poorly defined. Here we report sub-nanometer resolution cryo-EM structures of in vitro assembled empty and pgRNA-filled Cp183 capsids in unphosphorylated and phosphorylation-mimic states. In empty capsids, we found unexpected evidence of surface accessible CTD density partially occluding pores in the capsid surface. We also observed that CTD organization changed substantively as a function of phosphorylation. In RNA-filled capsids, unphosphorylated CTDs favored thick ropes of RNA, while the phosphorylation-mimic favored a mesh of thin, high-density strands suggestive of single stranded RNA. These results demonstrate that the CTD can regulate nucleic acid structure, supporting the hypothesis that the HBV capsid has a functional role as a nucleic acid chaperone.

  3. Atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a patient after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, E M; Karp, D L; Wu, T C; Corio, R L

    1994-01-01

    An atypical oral presentation of herpes simplex virus infection in a 49-year-old woman after orthotopic liver transplantation is reported. Clinically, the differential diagnosis included chronic hyperplastic candidiasis, nodular leukoplakia of undetermined etiology, and malignant neoplasm. An excisional biopsy revealed herpesvirus infection, and immunoperoxidase staining confirmed herpes simplex virus infection. This report describes the clinical and histologic appearance of these lesions and the course and treatment of the patient.

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 2: Cluster of unrelated cases in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troché, Gilles; Marque Juillet, Stephanie; Burrel, Sonia; Boutolleau, David; Bédos, Jean-Pierre; Legriel, Stephane

    2016-10-01

    Herpes simplex viruses, which are associated with various clinical manifestations, can be transmitted to critically ill patients from other patients or health care staff. We report an apparent outbreak of mucocutaneous herpes simplex virus 2 infections (5 cases in 10 weeks). An epidemiologic investigation and genotype analysis showed no connections among the 5 cases. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular characterization of capsid protein gene of potato virus X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sami siraj

    2012-09-13

    Sep 13, 2012 ... 2Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. 3Institute of Agricultural ... first report on the molecular characterization of full length PVX coat protein sequence infecting potato from Pakistan. ... sensitive and reliable detection methods (Salazar, 1994). Potato virus X ...

  6. Polarized DNA Ejection from the Herpesvirus Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, William W.; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Homa, Fred L.; Brown, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Ejection of DNA from the capsid is an early step in infection by all herpesviruses. Ejection or DNA uncoating occurs after a parental capsid has entered the host cell cytoplasm, migrated to the nucleus and bound to a nuclear pore. DNA exits the capsid through the portal vertex and proceeds by way of the nuclear pore complex into the nucleoplasm where it is transcribed and replicated. Here we describe use of an in vitro uncoating system to determine which genome end exits first from the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) capsid. Purified DNA-containing capsids were bound to a solid surface and warmed under conditions in which some, but not all, of the DNA was ejected. Restriction endonuclease digestion was then used to identify the genomic origin of the ejected DNA. The results support the view that the S segment end exits the capsid first. Preferential release at the S end demonstrates that herpesvirus DNA uncoating conforms to the paradigm in dsDNA bacteriophage where the last end packaged is the first to be ejected. Release of HSV-1 DNA beginning at the S end causes the first gene to enter the host cell nucleus to be α4, a transcription factor required for expression of early genes. PMID:19631662

  7. Adaptive mutations in the JC virus protein capsid are associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamil R Sunyaev

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available PML is a progressive and mostly fatal demyelinating disease caused by JC virus infection and destruction of infected oligodendrocytes in multiple brain foci of susceptible individuals. While JC virus is highly prevalent in the human population, PML is a rare disease that exclusively afflicts only a small percentage of immunocompromised individuals including those affected by HIV (AIDS or immunosuppressive drugs. Viral- and/or host-specific factors, and not simply immune status, must be at play to account for the very large discrepancy between viral prevalence and low disease incidence. Here, we show that several amino acids on the surface of the JC virus capsid protein VP1 display accelerated evolution in viral sequences isolated from PML patients but not in sequences isolated from healthy subjects. We provide strong evidence that at least some of these mutations are involved in binding of sialic acid, a known receptor for the JC virus. Using statistical methods of molecular evolution, we performed a comprehensive analysis of JC virus VP1 sequences isolated from 55 PML patients and 253 sequences isolated from the urine of healthy individuals and found that a subset of amino acids found exclusively among PML VP1 sequences is acquired via adaptive evolution. By modeling of the 3-D structure of the JC virus capsid, we showed that these residues are located within the sialic acid binding site, a JC virus receptor for cell infection. Finally, we go on to demonstrate the involvement of some of these sites in receptor binding by demonstrating a profound reduction in hemagglutination properties of viral-like particles made of the VP1 protein carrying these mutations. Collectively, these results suggest that a more virulent PML causing phenotype of JC virus is acquired via adaptive evolution that changes viral specificity for its cellular receptor(s.

  8. Gaussian fluctuation of the diffusion exponent of virus capsid in a living cell nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itto, Yuichi

    2018-05-01

    In their work [4], Bosse et al. experimentally showed that virus capsid exhibits not only normal diffusion but also anomalous diffusion in nucleus of a living cell. There, it was found that the distribution of fluctuations of the diffusion exponent characterizing them takes the Gaussian form, which is, quite remarkably, the same form for two different types of the virus. This suggests high robustness of such fluctuations. Here, the statistical property of local fluctuations of the diffusion exponent of the virus capsid in the nucleus is studied. A maximum-entropy-principle approach (originally proposed for a different virus in a different cell) is applied for obtaining the fluctuation distribution of the exponent. Largeness of the number of blocks identified with local areas of interchromatin corrals is also examined based on the experimental data. It is shown that the Gaussian distribution of the local fluctuations can be derived, in accordance with the above form. In addition, it is quantified how the fluctuation distribution on a long time scale is different from the Gaussian distribution.

  9. Cryphonectria nitschkei virus 1 structure shows that the capsid protein of chrysoviruses is a duplicated helix-rich fold conserved in fungal double-stranded RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Blanco, Josué; Luque, Daniel; González, José M; Carrascosa, José L; Alfonso, Carlos; Trus, Benes; Havens, Wendy M; Ghabrial, Said A; Castón, José R

    2012-08-01

    Cryoelectron microscopy reconstruction of Cryphonectria nitschkei virus 1, a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, shows that the capsid protein (60 copies/particle) is formed by a repeated helical core, indicative of gene duplication. This unusual organization is common to chrysoviruses. The arrangement of many of these putative α-helices is conserved in the totivirus L-A capsid protein, suggesting a shared motif. Our results indicate that a 120-subunit T=1 capsid is a conserved architecture that optimizes dsRNA replication and organization.

  10. Pneumomediastinum and Pneumothorax Associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Xavier Colón; González Monroig, Hernán A.; Puebla, Juan Garcia

    2018-01-01

    Patient: Male, 37 Final Diagnosis: HSV pneumonia Symptoms: Cough • fever • sob Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death from infectious disease in the United States (US). Although most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are secondary to bacterial infection, up to one-third of cases are secondary to viral infection, most commonly due to rhinovirus and influenza virus. Pneumonia due to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is rare, and there is limited knowledge of the pathogenesis and clinical complications. This report is of a fatal case of HSV pneumonia associated with bilateral pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Case Report: A 36-year-old homeless male Hispanic patient, who was a chronic smoker, with a history of intravenous drug abuse and a medical history of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, not on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), was admitted to hospital as an emergency with a seven-day history of productive purulent cough. The patient was admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) with a diagnosis of CAP, with intubation and mechanical ventilation. Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed and was positive for HSV. The patient developed bilateral pneumothorax with pneumomediastinum, which was fatal, despite aggressive clinical management. Conclusions: Pneumonia due to HSV infection is uncommon but has a high mortality. Although HSV pneumonia has been described in immunocompromised patients, further studies are required to determine the pathogenesis, early detection, identification of patients who are at risk and to determine the most effective approaches to prophylaxis and treatment for HSV pneumonia. PMID:29379004

  11. Hospital risk management of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, F; Zhang, J; Feng, J; Yang, H

    2016-10-01

    The epidemiology of cutaneous herpes simplex infection (CHSI) has dramatically changed over the past several decades. Valaciclovir is one of a new generation of antiviral medications that has expanded treatment options for the most common cutaneous manifestations of herpes simplex virus. However, the efficacy and safety of formulations with different doses of valaciclovir remain unclear. To carry out hospital risk management by ascertaining the incidence and risk of CHSI in patients during treatment with varying doses of valaciclovir. The PubMed, MEDLINE and Web of Science electronic databases were systematically searched from database inception to date of searching. Efficacy of drug treatment was measured by average easement score (AES). Safety was characterized as the proportion of patients with drug adverse reactions (DARs) such as fever, dizziness, headache, anxiety, irritability and yellowing of the skin. Outcomes for continuous and dichotomous data were estimated by standard mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio (RR), respectively. Five randomized controlled trials involving 1753 randomized participants for efficacy assessment and 1874 randomized participants for safety assessment were identified. Valaciclovir dose increasing from 1000 mg/day improved AES only moderately, but significantly promoted the incidence of DARs. Twice-daily treatment showed no increase in therapeutic effect but greatly increased DAR incidence. The valaciclovir dose that produced a reduction in AES was 1000 mg/day: SMD = -0.73 (95% CI -0.98 to 0.48; P < 0.01) and RR = 0.95 (95% CI 0.81-1.09; P < 0.002). Increasing the daily dose of valaciclovir does not substantially improve therapeutic efficacy for CHSI but may raise DAR incidence. Drug doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/day show no significant difference in efficacy scores, but the latter exhibits a higher incidence of DARs. The dose-dependent, long-term efficacy and safety of valaciclovir remain to be explored. © 2016 British Association of

  12. Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Eghtedari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is one of the mostcommon identifiable causes of open angle glaucoma. It hasunknown etiology and pathogenesis. Infection, possibly viral,is one of the proposed pathogenic mechanisms in this condition.In the present study the presence of herpes simplex virus(HSV in specimens of anterior lens capsule of patients withpseudoexfoliation syndrome has been assessed.Methods: The presence of HSV- DNA was searched by usingpolymerase chain reaction method in specimens of anteriorlens capsule (5 mm diameter of 50 patients with pseudoexfoliationsyndrome (study group and 50 age-matchedpatients without the disease (control group who underwentcataract or combined cataract and glaucoma surgery duringa one-year (2006-2007 period in Khalili Hospital, Shiraz,Iran. The results were compared statistically with Chisquaretest and independent samples t test using SPSS software(version 11.5.Results: HSV type I DNA was detected in 18% of the patientsin the study group compared with 2% in the control group (Chisquare test, P = 0.008. The difference between the ranges ofintraocular pressure in the two groups was not statistically significant.Conclusion: The presence of HSV type I DNA suggests thepossible relationship between the virus and pseudoexfoliationsyndrome. It may be a treatable etiology in this multi-factorialdisorder and may help to future management of patients; especiallyto prevent some of the complications in this syndrome.

  13. Inhibitors of Nucleotidyltransferase Superfamily Enzymes Suppress Herpes Simplex Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Tollefson, Ann E.; Ying, Baoling; Korom, Maria; Cheng, Xiaohong; Cao, Feng; Davis, Katie L.; Wold, William S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses that cause serious human diseases. Herpesvirus DNA replication depends on multiple processes typically catalyzed by nucleotidyltransferase superfamily (NTS) enzymes. Therefore, we investigated whether inhibitors of NTS enzymes would suppress replication of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. Eight of 42 NTS inhibitors suppressed HSV-1 and/or HSV-2 replication by >10-fold at 5 μM, with suppression at 50 μM reaching ∼1 million-fold. Five compounds in two chemical families inhibited HSV replication in Vero and human foreskin fibroblast cells as well as the approved drug acyclovir did. The compounds had 50% effective concentration values as low as 0.22 μM with negligible cytotoxicity in the assays employed. The inhibitors suppressed accumulation of viral genomes and infectious particles and blocked events in the viral replication cycle before and during viral DNA replication. Acyclovir-resistant mutants of HSV-1 and HSV-2 remained highly sensitive to the NTS inhibitors. Five of six NTS inhibitors of the HSVs also blocked replication of another herpesvirus pathogen, human cytomegalovirus. Therefore, NTS enzyme inhibitors are promising candidates for new herpesvirus treatments that may have broad efficacy against members of the herpesvirus family. PMID:25267681

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus gE/gI and US9 Promote both Envelopment and Sorting of Virus Particles in the Cytoplasm of Neurons, Two Processes That Precede Anterograde Transport in Axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRaine, Grayson; Wisner, Todd W; Howard, Paul; Williams, Melissa; Johnson, David C

    2017-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) anterograde transport in neuronal axons is vital, allowing spread from latently infected ganglia to epithelial tissues, where viral progeny are produced in numbers allowing spread to other hosts. The HSV membrane proteins gE/gI and US9 initiate the process of anterograde axonal transport, ensuring that virus particles are transported from the cytoplasm into the most proximal segments of axons. These proteins do not appear to be important once HSV is inside axons. We previously described HSV double mutants lacking both gE and US9 that failed to transport virus particles into axons. Here we show that gE - US9 - double mutants accumulate large quantities of unenveloped and partially enveloped capsids in neuronal cytoplasm. These defects in envelopment can explain the defects in axonal transport of enveloped virions. In addition, the unenveloped capsids that accumulated were frequently bound to cytoplasmic membranes, apparently immobilized in intermediate stages of envelopment. A gE-null mutant produced enveloped virions, but these accumulated in large numbers in the neuronal cytoplasm rather than reaching cell surfaces as wild-type HSV virions do. Thus, in addition to the defects in envelopment, there was missorting of capsids and enveloped particles in the neuronal cytoplasm, which can explain the reduced anterograde transport of unenveloped capsids and enveloped virions. These mechanisms differ substantially from existing models suggesting that gE/gI and US9 function by tethering HSV particles to kinesin microtubule motors. The defects in assembly of gE - US9 - mutant virus particles were novel because they were neuron specific, in keeping with observations that US9 is neuron specific. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other alphaherpesviruses, such as varicella-zoster virus, depend upon the capacity to navigate in neuronal axons. To do this, virus particles tether themselves to dyneins and kinesins that motor along microtubules

  15. Perspective on Adeno-Associated Virus Capsid Modification for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Michael E; Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a X-linked, progressive childhood myopathy caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, one of the largest genes in the genome. It is characterized by skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and dysfunction leading to cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a highly promising gene therapy vector. AAV gene therapy has resulted in unprecedented clinical success for treating several inherited diseases. However, AAV gene therapy for DMD remains a significant challenge. Hurdles for AAV-mediated DMD gene therapy include the difficulty to package the full-length dystrophin coding sequence in an AAV vector, the necessity for whole-body gene delivery, the immune response to dystrophin and AAV capsid, and the species-specific barriers to translate from animal models to human patients. Capsid engineering aims at improving viral vector properties by rational design and/or forced evolution. In this review, we discuss how to use the state-of-the-art AAV capsid engineering technologies to overcome hurdles in AAV-based DMD gene therapy.

  16. Preparation of herpes simplex virus-infected primary neurons for transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Saksena, Monica; Boadle, Ross; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) provides the resolution necessary to identify both viruses and subcellular components of cells infected with many types of viruses, including herpes simplex virus. Recognized as a powerful tool in both diagnostic and research-based virology laboratories, TEM has made possible the identification of new viruses and has contributed to the elucidation of virus life cycle and virus-host cell interaction. Whilst there are many sample preparation techniques for TEM, conventional processing using chemical fixation and resin embedding remains a useful technique, available in virtually all EM laboratories, for studying virus/cell ultrastructure. In this chapter, we describe the preparation of herpes simplex virus-infected primary neurons, grown on plastic cover slips, to allow sectioning of neurons and axons in their growth plane. This technique allows TEM examination of cell bodies, axons, growth cones, and varicosities, providing powerful insights into virus-cell interaction.

  17. Herpes simplex virus gE/gI extracellular domains promote axonal transport and spread from neurons to epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Paul W; Wright, Catherine C; Howard, Tiffani; Johnson, David C

    2014-10-01

    Following reactivation from latency, there are two distinct steps in the spread of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from infected neurons to epithelial cells: (i) anterograde axonal transport of virus particles from neuron bodies to axon tips and (ii) exocytosis and spread of extracellular virions across cell junctions into adjacent epithelial cells. The HSV heterodimeric glycoprotein gE/gI is important for anterograde axonal transport, and gE/gI cytoplasmic domains play important roles in sorting of virus particles into axons. However, the roles of the large (∼400-residue) gE/gI extracellular (ET) domains in both axonal transport and neuron-to-epithelial cell spread have not been characterized. Two gE mutants, gE-277 and gE-348, contain small insertions in the gE ET domain, fold normally, form gE/gI heterodimers, and are incorporated into virions. Both gE-277 and gE-348 did not function in anterograde axonal transport; there were markedly reduced numbers of viral capsids and glycoproteins compared with wild-type HSV. The defects in axonal transport were manifest in neuronal cell bodies, involving missorting of HSV capsids before entry into proximal axons. Although there were diminished numbers of mutant gE-348 capsids and glycoproteins in distal axons, there was efficient spread to adjacent epithelial cells, similar to wild-type HSV. In contrast, virus particles produced by HSV gE-277 spread poorly to epithelial cells, despite numbers of virus particles similar to those for HSV gE-348. These results genetically separate the two steps in HSV spread from neurons to epithelial cells and demonstrate that the gE/gI ET domains function in both processes. An essential phase of the life cycle of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other alphaherpesviruses is the capacity to reactivate from latency and then spread from infected neurons to epithelial tissues. This spread involves at least two steps: (i) anterograde transport to axon tips followed by (ii) exocytosis and extracellular

  18. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived ...

  19. [Herpes simplex virus vaccine studies: from past to present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Us, Dürdal

    2006-10-01

    The dramatical increase in the prevalence of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections and the significant physical and psychosocial morbidity of HSV type 2 infections, generate the need for an efficacious HSV vaccine. The most important properties of HSVs that should be targeted for a successful vaccine are neuronal invasion, latency and reactivation in spite of specific host immune responses. The major expectation for an ideal HSV vaccine candidate is to induce sterilizing immunity, which must be effective at all portals of HSV entry; to prevent or reduce the symptomatic disease and to eliminate or at least to limit the asymptomatic viral shedding. The first vaccine studies have began in the 1920s and in the intervening eight decades there have been many attempts to develop an effective one. Although encouraging findings came from experiments in various animal models, human studies have been disappointing, unfortunately. The vaccine strategies that have undergone clinical evaluation until today included autoinoculation of live HSV, whole inactivated vaccines, attenuated live virus vaccines, modified live virus subunit vaccines, cell culture-derived subunit vaccines, recombinant subunit (glycoprotein) vaccines, DISC (Disabled Infectious Single Cycle) virus vaccines, viral vectors and naked DNA vaccines. In most of the clinical studies the failure of HSV vaccines in spite of inducing very high levels of specific neutralizing antibodies have emphasized that cell-mediated immune response, especially Thl type immunity is important in preventing both primary disease and recurrences with HSV, rather than humoral response. The most hopeful result was obtained with HSV-2 gD and alum/MPL vaccine in clinical studies. This vaccine was found 74% effective in preventing genital disease in HSV seronegative women but was not effective in men or seropositive women. In recent years it is possible to genetically engineer HSV to produce a vaccine strain that is protective without

  20. [Herpes simplex virus and malignancies of female genital organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokić-Damjanović, J; Horvat, E; Balog, A

    2001-01-01

    Primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of female genital tract usually end with remission, while the virus remains in the organism--almost in the sacral ganglion in a latent form, protected from humoral and cellular immunity. Stress induces the virus and the result is recurrent genital infection. Frequent exacerbations damage some parts of vital cellular structures without cytolysis, but stimulate malignant transformations. Vulvar (portio vaginalis uteri) and endometrial tumor tissue samples were analyzed for HSV by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody technique (FAT). Pre and postoperative sera samples were analyzed for presence of anti-HSV antibodies--IgM and IgG by Elisa-Enzygnost method. Acellular filtrates obtained by ultrasonic destruction of malignant tissues were used as inoculum for rabbit corneal scarification. Out of 63 tissue samples, 42 were positive for HSV antigen i.e. 67.3%. According to location 50% of vulvar, 76% PVU and 65% of endometrial tissues were positive. This antigen induces production of virus specific antibodies. Two types of antigens are known: the so-called T-antigen persisting in the cell nucleus and cell-surface antigen--product of the viral genome and can be evidenced by immunofluorescence method. Anti HSV antibodies were present in 63 preoperative serum samples and belonged to IgG group, but not one to IgM, implying a long and chronic course of infection excluding acute primary. Out of 38 postoperative serums the titer of antibodies decreased in 36 evidently, but in two samples remained unchanged. Two samples of endometrial and one from PVU origin contained HSV antigen type one. In the remaining 16 samples HSV 2 antigen was present. Rabbit corneal scarification was the proof of complete infectious virus in malignant tissues. Acellular filtrate of malignant tissues served as inoculum. Corneas of examined rabbits showed a mild inflammation after 24 hours which disappeared in the next 24 hours. We could not isolate the

  1. Piroxicam inhibits herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, A; Albrecht, U; Schnitzler, P

    2015-05-01

    Piroxicam is a potent, nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) which also exhibits antipyretic activity. The antiviral effect of piroxicam against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was examined in vitro on RC-37 monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. Piroxicam was dissolved in ethanol or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined at 4 μg/ml and 75 μg/ml, respectively. The IC50 for the standard antiherpetic drug acyclovir was determined at 1.6 μM. At non-cytotoxic concentrations of these piroxicam solutions, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 62.4% for ethanolic piroxicam and 72.8% for piroxicam in DMSO. The mode of antiviral action of these drugs was assessed by time-on-addition assays. No antiviral effect was observed when cells were incubated with piroxicam prior to infection with HSV-1 or when HSV-1 infected cells were treated with dissolved piroxicam. Herpesvirus infection was, however, significantly inhibited when HSV-1 was incubated with piroxicam prior to the infection of cells. These results indicate that piroxicam affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, suggesting that piroxicam exerts a direct antiviral effect on HSV-1. Free herpesvirus was sensitive to piroxicam in a concentration-dependent manner and the inhibition of HSV-1 appears to occur before entering the cell but not after penetration of the virus into the cell. Considering the lipophilic nature of piroxicam, which enables it to penetrate the skin, it might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.

  2. Phosphorylation of the Brome Mosaic Virus Capsid Regulates the Timing of Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Haley S; Wang, Joseph Che-Yen; Middleton, Stefani; Ni, Peng; Zlotnick, Adam; Vaughan, Robert C; Kao, C Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The four brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNAs (RNA1 to RNA4) are encapsidated in three distinct virions that have different disassembly rates in infection. The mechanism for the differential release of BMV RNAs from virions is unknown, since 180 copies of the same coat protein (CP) encapsidate each of the BMV genomic RNAs. Using mass spectrometry, we found that the BMV CP contains a complex pattern of posttranslational modifications. Treatment with phosphatase was found to not significantly affect the stability of the virions containing RNA1 but significantly impacted the stability of the virions that encapsidated BMV RNA2 and RNA3/4. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction revealed dramatic structural changes in the capsid and the encapsidated RNA. A phosphomimetic mutation in the flexible N-terminal arm of the CP increased BMV RNA replication and virion production. The degree of phosphorylation modulated the interaction of CP with the encapsidated RNA and the release of three of the BMV RNAs. UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation methods coupled to high-throughput sequencing experiments showed that phosphorylation of the BMV CP can impact binding to RNAs in the virions, including sequences that contain regulatory motifs for BMV RNA gene expression and replication. Phosphatase-treated virions affected the timing of CP expression and viral RNA replication in plants. The degree of phosphorylation decreased when the plant hosts were grown at an elevated temperature. These results show that phosphorylation of the capsid modulates BMV infection. How icosahedral viruses regulate the release of viral RNA into the host is not well understood. The selective release of viral RNA can regulate the timing of replication and gene expression. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is an RNA virus, and its three genomic RNAs are encapsidated in separate virions. Through proteomic, structural, and biochemical analyses, this work shows that posttranslational modifications, specifically

  3. Promoter for the late gene encoding Vp5 of herpes simplex virus type 1 is recognized by cell extracts derived from uninfected cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.E.; Summers, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of whole-cell extracts from unidentified HeLa cells to recognize the promoter for the herpes simplex virus type 1 late gene encoding the major capsid protein Vp5 was investigated by using both in vitro transcriptional and S1 nuclease protection analysis. This gene promoter was recognized by the cell extracts and produced abundant amounts of transcript in the absence of any other virus-encoded factors. This transcript was shown to arise, in vitro, from specific initiation at or very near the physiological mRNA start site. Thus, it appears that cell extracts from uninfected HeLa cells can efficiently recognize both early- and late-gene promoters

  4. Ultraviolet irradiation of herpes simplex virus (type 1): delayed transcription and comparative sensitivities of virus functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglin, R.P.; Gugerli, P.; Wildy, P.

    1980-01-01

    The delay in the replication of herpes simplex virus surviving u.v. irradiation occurs after the uncoating of virus, as judged by sensitivity to DNase. It occurs before translation, judged by the kinetics of appearance of various virus-specific proteins, and before transcription, judged by the detection of virus-specific RNA by in situ hybridization. Since the delays in both transcription and translation are reversed by photoreactivation, the simplest hypothesis is that pyrimidine dimers directly obstruct transcription; unless these are broken by photoreactivating enzymes, there will be transcriptional delay until reactivating processes have repaired the lesion. The u.v. sensitivities of the abilities to induce various enzymes (thymidine kinase, DNase and DNA polymerase) were only about four times less than that of infectivity. The ability to induce the three enzymes was three times less sensitive than that of the structural antigen (Band II). (U.K.)

  5. Rubella, herpes simplex virus type 2 and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Shimos A; Eltom, Ahmed M; Nasr, Abubakr M; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Adam, Ishag

    2017-07-26

    Preeclampsia is a major health problem. Although, the pathophysiology of preeclampsia is not fully understood, there are recent studies on association between infections and preeclampsia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal seropositivity of rubella, Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and preeclampsia. A case -controls study (90 women in each arm) was conducted at Saad Abualila Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan. The cases were women with preeclampsia and the controls were healthy pregnant women. Rubella and HSV-2 IgG antibodies were analysed in the maternal sera of all of the participants using ELISA. There was no significant difference in the age, parity and gestational age between the two groups. Maternal serum IgG seropositivity for rubella (92.2% vs. 34.4%, P rubella (3.3% vs. 2.2%, P = 0.650) and HSV-2 (2.2% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.560). All the IgM seropositive cases were IgG seropositive too. In binary logistic regression women with rubella (OR = 4.93; 95% CI = 2.082-11.692, P rubella and HSV-2 IgG seropositivity is associated with preeclampsia. Preventive measure should be implemented.

  6. Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

  7. Ribonucleotides Linked to DNA of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Ivan; Vonka, Vladimír

    1974-01-01

    Cells of a continuous cell line derived from rabbit embryo fibroblasts were infected with herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) and maintained in the presence of either [5-3H]uridine or [methyl-3H]thymidine or 32PO43−. Nucleocapsids were isolated from the cytoplasmic fraction, partially purified, and treated with DNase and RNase. From the pelleted nucleocapsids, DNA was extracted and purified by centrifugation in sucrose and cesium sulfate gradients. The acid-precipitable radioactivity of [5-3H]uridine-labeled DNA was partially susceptible to pancreatic RNase and alkaline treatment; the susceptibility to the enzyme decreased with increasing salt concentration. No drop of activity of DNA labeled with [3H]thymidine was observed either after RNase or alkali treatment. Base composition analysis of [5-3H]uridine-labeled DNA showed that the radioactivity was recovered as uracil and cytosine. In the cesium sulfate gradient, the purified [5-3H]uridine-labeled DNA banded at the same position as the 32P-labeled DNA. The present data tend to suggest that ribonucleotide sequences are present in HSV DNA, that they are covalently attached to the viral DNA, and that they can form double-stranded structures. PMID:4364894

  8. Latency of Herpes Simplex Virus in Absence of Neutralizing Antibody: Model for Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Tsuyoshi; Openshaw, Harry; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis

    1980-11-01

    Mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus (type 1) by the lip or corneal route and then passively immunized with rabbit antibody to herpes simplex virus developed a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia within 96 hours. Neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus was cleared from the circulation and could not be detected in most of these mice after 2 months. Examination of ganglia from the antibody-negative mice revealed latent virus in over 90 percent of the animals, indicating that serum neutralizing antibody is not necessary to maintain the latent state. When the lips or corneas of these mice were traumatized, viral reactivation occurred in up to 90 percent of the mice, as demonstrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibody. This study provides a model for identifying factors that trigger viral reactivation.

  9. Acquisition of functions on the outer capsid surface during evolution of double-stranded RNA fungal viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Carlos P; Luque, Daniel; Gómez-Blanco, Josué; Rodríguez, Javier M; González, José M; Suzuki, Nobuhiro; Ghabrial, Said A; Carrascosa, José L; Trus, Benes L; Castón, José R

    2017-12-01

    Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double-stranded (ds)RNA virus. RnQV1, the type species of the family Quadriviridae, has a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments. Whereas most dsRNA virus capsids are based on dimers of a single protein, the ~450-Å-diameter, T = 1 RnQV1 capsid is built of P2 and P4 protein heterodimers, each with more than 1000 residues. Despite a lack of sequence similarity between the two proteins, they have a similar α-helical domain, the structural signature shared with the lineage of the dsRNA bluetongue virus-like viruses. Domain insertions in P2 and P4 preferential sites provide additional functions at the capsid outer surface, probably related to enzyme activity. The P2 insertion has a fold similar to that of gelsolin and profilin, two actin-binding proteins with a function in cytoskeleton metabolism, whereas the P4 insertion suggests protease activity involved in cleavage of the P2 383-residue C-terminal region, absent in the mature viral particle. Our results indicate that the intimate virus-fungus partnership has altered the capsid genome-protective and/or receptor-binding functions. Fungal virus evolution has tended to allocate enzyme activities to the virus capsid outer surface.

  10. Necrotizing Keratitis Caused by Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Toriyama

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case of necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir (ACV-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV with a clinical appearance similar to a previous fungal keratitis infection. Methods: Observational case report. Results: Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in the left eye with a history of herpetic keratitis that resolved with periodic treatment with ACV ointment and a topical steroid. The left eye was painful and red with an abscess and corneal erosion in the peripheral donor cornea. Examination of the scraped corneal epithelium by light microscopy and culturing identified Candida albicans; polymerase chain reaction (PCR was negative for human herpes viruses. After antifungal treatment, the ocular pain gradually decreased and the lesions slowly improved but recurred with a similar clinical appearance. A second light microscopy examination and cultures were negative for pathogens including C. albicans. PCR was positive for HSV-1 DNA; treatment with 3% topical ACV ointment was unsuccessful. A third examination showed only HSV-1 DNA. Despite antiviral ACV ointment, no clinical improvement occurred based on the HSV DNA copy numbers, which were the same before and after treatment, indicating a possible ACV-resistant strain. When topical trifluorothymidine was substituted for ACV, clinical improvement occurred and the HSV DNA copy numbers decreased. Conclusion: Necrotizing keratitis induced by ACV-resistant HSV occurred independently after fungal keratitis, with a similar clinical appearance in this case, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. Monitoring the HSV DNA load by real-time PCR could be useful for refractory cases even with atypical clinical appearances.

  11. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2 among factory workers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebede, Yenew; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Mengistu, Yohannes; Mekonnen, Yared; Schaap, Ab; Wolday, Dawit; Sanders, Eduard J.; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2004-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics are believed to fuel each other, especially in sub-Saharan countries. In Ethiopia during 1997 - 2002, a retrospective study was conducted to examine risk factors for infection and transmission of HSV-2, in a

  12. Prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA in human cornea tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Remeijer (Lies); R. Duan (Rui); J.M. van Dun (Jessica); M.A.W. Bettink; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. We determined the prevalence and clinical consequences of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1), HSV type 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in cornea tissues obtained after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was performed. Methods. The excised corneas of 83 patients

  13. Differential in situ hybridization for herpes simplex virus typing in routine skin biopsies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, H. J.; Dekker, H.; van Amstel, P.; Cairo, I.; van den Berg, F. M.

    1995-01-01

    A herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 specific recombinant plasmid probe designated pH2S3 was constructed from non-HSV-1 crossreactive regions of the HSV-2 genome. DNA in situ hybridization on in vitro reconstructed tissue samples of sheep collagen matrix impregnated with herpes virus-infected human

  14. Activation and Evasion of Innate Antiviral Immunity by Herpes Simplex Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren R. Paludan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a human pathogenic virus, has evolved several strategies to evade the production and function of interferons (IFNs and cytokines generated by the innate immune system to restrict the virus. Equilibrium exists between the virus and the immune response, and a shift in this delicate balance either restricts the virus or enhances virus spread and tissue damage. Therefore, understanding of the cytokine response generated after HSV infection and the underlying virus-cell interactions is essential to improve our understanding of viral pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on induction and evasion of the innate immune response by HSV.

  15. Capsid Modified Bluetongue Virus 16 (BTV16 as a Virulytic Oncotherapy Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Naserpour Farivar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Using potential viruses to destroy cancer cells has a long history, but recent advances in molecular biology raised hopes for successful use of these viruses again. Methods Octreotate sequence was inserted into the neutralization region (R1& R2 in vp2 protein of capsid segment in 10 segmented genome of BTV in 304 - 368 position. T7 BTV RNA transcripts were extracted. Cancerous cultured cells were transfected with wild and modified BTV to recover BTV with cDNA-derived genome segments. Results The results of all the performed experiments revealed that treatment of AGS cell lines with VP2 modified BTV16, which targeted cell surface of cancerous cells, significantly increased apoptosis in cancer infected cells. Conclusions Modified VP2 BTV16 may be used as a potential virulytic oncotherapy agent in AGS cells.

  16. Kinetics of the association of dengue virus capsid protein with the granular component of nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Ashish Kumar; Cecilia, D

    2017-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) replicates in the cytoplasm but translocation of the capsid protein (C) to the nucleoli of infected cells has been shown to facilitate virus multiplication for DENV-2. This study demonstrates that the nucleolar localization of C occurs with all four serotypes of DENV. The interaction of C with the nucleolus was found to be dynamic with a mobile fraction of 66% by FRAP. That the C shuttled between the nucleus and cytoplasm was suggested by FLIP and translation inhibition experiments. Colocalization with B23 indicated that DENV C targeted the granular component (GC) of the nucleolus. Presence of DENV C in the nucleolus affected the recovery kinetics of B23 in infected and transfected cells. Sub-nucleolar localization of DENV C of all serotypes to the GC, its mobility in and out of the nucleolus and its affect on the dynamics of B23 is being shown for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals.

  18. Whole Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Neonate with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Scoble

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.

  19. Longitudinal study on oral shedding of herpes simplex virus 1 and varicella-zoster virus in individuals infected with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Velzen (Monique); W.J.D. Ouwendijk (Werner ); S. Selke (Stacy); S.D. Pas (Suzan); F.B. van Loenen (Freek); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Wald (Anna); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPrimary herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection leads to a life-long latent infection of ganglia innervating the oral mucosa. HSV-1 and VZV reactivation is more common in immunocompromised individuals and may result in viral shedding in saliva. We

  20. Recombination Promoted by DNA Viruses: Phage λ to Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Sandra K.; Sawitzke, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore recombination strategies in DNA viruses. Homologous recombination is a universal genetic process that plays multiple roles in the biology of all organisms, including viruses. Recombination and DNA replication are interconnected, with recombination being essential for repairing DNA damage and supporting replication of the viral genome. Recombination also creates genetic diversity, and viral recombination mechanisms have important implications for understanding viral origins as well as the dynamic nature of viral-host interactions. Both bacteriophage λ and herpes simplex virus (HSV) display high rates of recombination, both utilizing their own proteins and commandeering cellular proteins to promote recombination reactions. We focus primarily on λ and HSV, as they have proven amenable to both genetic and biochemical analysis and have recently been shown to exhibit some surprising similarities that will guide future studies. PMID:25002096

  1. Comparison of direct immunofluorescence and direct immunoperoxidase procedures for detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in lesion specimens.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, N J; Dennis, J; Devlin, V; Gallo, D; Mills, J

    1983-01-01

    Direct immunofluorescence and direct immunoperoxidase staining were equally sensitive and specific for detection of herpes simplex virus antigen in lesion specimens, and each method showed 82% agreement with virus isolation results.

  2. Fostering acceptance of human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus vaccines among adolescents and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mary B; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2006-02-01

    Vaccines for human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus are currently in development, and these vaccines could be an effective and cost-effective strategy to control these diseases. Young adolescents are likely to be the target recipients of these vaccines. These vaccines, however, will only be successful in reducing the prevalence of these diseases if accepted. This manuscript will focus on the issues associated with the acceptability of these vaccines by healthcare providers, parents, and adolescents/young adults. Recent studies with healthcare providers, parents, and adolescent/young adults have found support for the acceptability of the human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus vaccines. Protecting adolescents from serious diseases may be a more important priority for parents than concern about how the disease is transmitted. It is likely that vaccines for human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus will find acceptance among these groups. Strategies to increase acceptability and foster access, however, will still be needed.

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins; analysis of protein processing, assembly and utility as vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    , open reading frame that encodes a polyprotein. The intact polyprotein is never observed as it is processed, both during and after translation, to 15 different mature proteins plus a variety of precursors. The FMDV capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by the virus encoded 3C protease (3Cpro......) to generate VP0, VP3, VP1 and the peptide 2A. Sixty copies of each of the capsid proteins “self-assemble” into empty capsid particles or with the RNA genome into infectious viruses. These particles normally lack 2A but it is possible to construct and isolate mutant FMDVs in which the cleavage of the VP1/2A...... precursor enhances the yield of processed capsid proteins and their assembly into empty capsid particles within mammalian cells. Such particles can potentially form the basis of a vaccine but they may only have the same properties as the current inactivated vaccines. We have expressed the FMDV P1-2A alone...

  4. A eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin is associated with a high molecular weight intermediate in the assembly of hepatitis B virus capsid, a multimeric particle

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    We have established a system for assembly of hepatitis B virus capsid, a homomultimer of the viral core polypeptide, using cell-free transcription-linked translation. The mature particles that are produced are indistinguishable from authentic viral capsids by four criteria: velocity sedimentation, buoyant density, protease resistance, and electron microscopic appearance. Production of unassembled core polypeptides can be uncoupled from production of capsid particles by decreasing core mRNA co...

  5. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shell during the maturation process in the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevtsova, O. V.; Lorman, V. L.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the symmetry and physical origin of collective displacement modes playing a crucial role in the morphological transformation during the maturation of the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses. It is shown that the experimentally observed hexamer deformation and pentamer twist in the HK97 procapsid correspond to the simplest irreducible shear strain mode of a spherical shell. We also show that the icosahedral faceting of the bacteriophage capsid shell is driven by the simplest irreducible radial displacement field. The shear field has the rotational icosahedral symmetry group I while the radial field has the full icosahedral symmetry Ih. This difference makes their actions independent. The radial field sign discriminates between the icosahedral and the dodecahedral shapes of the faceted capsid shell, thus making the approach relevant not only for the HK97-like viruses but also for the parvovirus family. In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a simple phenomenological model valid for the first reversible step of the HK97 maturation process. The calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus shape transformation. The characteristics of the virus shell faceting and expansion obtained in the in vitro and in vivo experiments are related to the decrease in the capsid shell thickness and to the increase of the internal capsid pressure.

  6. Imaging findings of neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossough, Arastoo; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bilaniuk, Larissa T.; Schwartz, Erin M. [University of Pennsylvania, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    The CT, MR, and diffusion-weighted initial and follow-up imaging findings in neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) encephalitis were assessed. The clinical, laboratory and imaging findings in 12 patients (eight girls and four boys) with proven neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis with follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patterns of brain involvement and distribution of lesions were studied and the contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging to the imaging diagnosis of this disease was explored. A total of 24 CT and 22 MRI studies were performed with a mean follow-up time of 38 months. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis can be multifocal or limited to only the temporal lobes, brainstem, or cerebellum. The deep gray matter structures were involved in 57% of patients, and hemorrhage was seen in more than half of the patients. CT images were normal or showed mild abnormalities in the early stages of the disease. Conventional MR images may be normal in the early stages of the disease. Lesions were initially seen only by diffusion-weighted imaging in 20% of the patients and this modality showed a substantially more extensive disease distribution in an additional 50% of patients. In 40% of patients, watershed distribution ischemic changes were observed in addition to areas of presumed direct herpetic necrosis. Neonatal HSV-2 encephalitis has a variable imaging appearance. Diffusion-weighted MRI is an important adjunct in the imaging evaluation of this disease. Watershed distribution ischemia in areas remote from the primary herpetic lesions may be seen. (orig.)

  7. Effect of Prior Immunization on Induction of Cervical Cancer in Mice by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd Wentz, W.; Heggie, Alfred D.; Anthony, Donald D.; Reagan, James W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cervix produces premalignant and malignant lesions. In the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and Freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. It appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of cervical carcinoma.

  8. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Chan, Woan-Eng [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ko, Tzu-Ping [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jiann-Shiun [Development Center for Biotechnology, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Ministry of Economic Affairs, Taipei 100, Taiwan (China); Wang, Andrew H.-J., E-mail: ahjwang@gate.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  9. Production and Application of Polyclonal Antibodies Against Recombinant Capsid Protein of Extra Small Virus of Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Neethi, V.; Sivakumar, N.; Kumar, Kundan; Rajendran, K. V.; Makesh, M.

    2012-01-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus along with a satellite virus, extra small virus (XSV) causes white tail disease (WTD) in the giant freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Infected M. rosenbergii postlarvae were collected from a hatchery in Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh. The gene coding the capsid protein of XSV was cloned in a bacterial expression vector pRSET A and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS cells. The recombinant protein was purified by Nickel affinity ...

  10. Nucleolin Interacts with the Dengue Virus Capsid Protein and Plays a Role in Formation of Infectious Virus Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balinsky, Corey A.; Schmeisser, Hana; Ganesan, Sundar; Singh, Kavita; Pierson, Theodore C.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease in humans and is considered a reemerging pathogen of significant importance to public health. The DENV capsid (C) protein functions as a structural component of the infectious virion; however, it may have additional functions in the virus replicative cycle. Here, we show that the DENV C protein interacts and colocalizes with the multifunctional host protein nucleolin (NCL). Furthermore, we demonstrate that this interaction can be disrupted by the addition of an NCL binding aptamer (AS1411). Knockdown of NCL with small interfering RNA (siRNA) or treatment of cells with AS1411 results in a significant reduction of viral titers after DENV infection. Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed no differences in viral RNA or protein levels at early time points postinfection, suggesting a role for NCL in viral morphogenesis. We support this hypothesis by showing that treatment with AS1411 alters the migration characteristics of the viral capsid, as visualized by native electrophoresis. Here, we identify a critical interaction between DENV C protein and NCL that represents a potential new target for the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24027323

  11. Thermodynamic origins of protein folding, allostery, and capsid formation in the human hepatitis B virus core protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Crispin G; Jürgens, Maike C; Shepherd, Dale A; Freund, Stefan M V; Ashcroft, Alison E; Ferguson, Neil

    2013-07-23

    HBc, the capsid-forming "core protein" of human hepatitis B virus (HBV), is a multidomain, α-helical homodimer that aggressively forms human HBV capsids. Structural plasticity has been proposed to be important to the myriad functions HBc mediates during viral replication. Here, we report detailed thermodynamic analyses of the folding of the dimeric HBc protomer under conditions that prevented capsid formation. Central to our success was the use of ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and microscale thermophoresis, which allowed folding mechanisms to be characterized using just micrograms of protein. HBc folds in a three-state transition with a stable, dimeric, α-helical intermediate. Extensive protein engineering showed thermodynamic linkage between different structural domains. Unusual effects associated with mutating some residues suggest structural strain, arising from frustrated contacts, is present in the native dimer. We found evidence of structural gatekeepers that, when mutated, alleviated native strain and prevented (or significantly attenuated) capsid formation by tuning the population of alternative native conformations. This strain is likely an evolved feature that helps HBc access the different structures associated with its diverse essential functions. The subtle balance between native and strained contacts may provide the means to tune conformational properties of HBc by molecular interactions or mutations, thereby conferring allosteric regulation of structure and function. The ability to trap HBc conformers thermodynamically by mutation, and thereby ablate HBV capsid formation, provides proof of principle for designing antivirals that elicit similar effects.

  12. The UL21 Tegument Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Is Differentially Required for the Syncytial Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfo, Akua; Starkey, Jason; Mellinger, Erica; Zhang, Dan; Chadha, Pooja; Carmichael, Jillian; Wills, John W

    2017-11-01

    The initial goal of this study was to reexamine the requirement of UL21 for herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication. Previous studies suggested that UL21 is dispensable for replication in cell cultures, but a recent report on HSV-2 challenges those findings. As was done for the HSV-2 study, a UL21-null virus was made and propagated on complementing cells to discourage selection of compensating mutations. This HSV-1 mutant was able to replicate in noncomplementing cells, even at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI), though a reduction in titer was observed. Also, increased proportions of empty capsids were observed in the cytoplasm, suggesting a role for UL21 in preventing their exit from the nucleus. Surprisingly, passage of the null mutant resulted in rapid outgrowth of syncytial (Syn) variants. This was unexpected because UL21 has been shown to be required for the Syn phenotype. However, earlier experiments made use of only the A855V syncytial mutant of glycoprotein B (gB), and the Syn phenotype can also be produced by substitutions in glycoprotein K (gK), UL20, and UL24. Sequencing of the syncytial variants revealed mutations in the gK locus, but UL21 was shown to be dispensable for UL20 Syn and UL24 Syn To test whether UL21 is needed only for the A855V mutant, additional gB Syn derivatives were examined in the context of the null virus, and all produced lytic rather than syncytial sites of infection. Thus, UL21 is required only for the gB Syn phenotype. This is the first example of a differential requirement for a viral protein across the four syn loci. IMPORTANCE UL21 is conserved among alphaherpesviruses, but its role is poorly understood. This study shows that HSV-1 can replicate without UL21, although the virus titers are greatly reduced. The null virus had greater proportions of empty (DNA-less) capsids in the cytoplasm of infected cells, suggesting that UL21 may play a role in retaining them in the nucleus. This is consistent with reports showing UL21

  13. The "Knife-Cut Sign" Revisited: A Distinctive Presentation of Linear Erosive Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2015-10-01

    The "knife-cut sign" is a distinctive presentation of linear erosive herpes simplex virus infection in immunocompromised patients. To describe a man whose herpes simplex virus infection-related skin lesions demonstrated the "knife-cut sign" and to review the characteristics of reported immunosuppressed individuals with "knife-cut" cutaneous herpes simplex virus lesions. A man with multiple myeloma and post-stem cell transplant cutaneous graft-versus-host disease managed with systemic prednisone and sirolimus developed disseminated cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection with virus-associated linear ulcers of the inguinal folds and the area between his ear and scalp; the lesions at both sites had a distinctive "knife-cut" appearance. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on herpes simplex virus, immunocompromised patient, and "knife-cut sign". Herpes simplex virus infection-associated skin lesions that demonstrate the "knife-cut sign" present in patients who are immunosuppressed secondary to either an underlying medical condition or a systemic therapy or both. The distinctive virus-related cutaneous lesions appear as linear ulcers and fissures in intertriginous areas, such as the folds in the inguinal area, the vulva, and the abdomen; in addition, other sites include beneath the breast, within the gluteal cleft, and the area between the ear and the scalp. Not only herpes simplex virus-2, but also herpes simplex virus-1 has been observed as the causative viral serotype; indeed, herpes simplex virus-1 has been associated with genital and inframammary lesions in addition to those above the neck. Direct fluorescent antibody testing is a rapid method for confirming the clinically suspected viral infection; however, since false-negative direct fluorescent antibody testing occurred in some of the patients, it may be prudent to also perform viral cultures and possibly lesional skin biopsies to establish the diagnosis. The herpes simplex

  14. Structure of the immature HIV-1 capsid in intact virus particles at 8.8 Å resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Florian K. M.; Hagen, Wim J. H.; Rumlová, Michaela; Ruml, Tomáš; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly proceeds in two stages. First, the 55 kilodalton viral Gag polyprotein assembles into a hexameric protein lattice at the plasma membrane of the infected cell, inducing budding and release of an immature particle. Second, Gag is cleaved by the viral protease, leading to internal rearrangement of the virus into the mature, infectious form. Immature and mature HIV-1 particles are heterogeneous in size and morphology, preventing high-resolution analysis of their protein arrangement in situ by conventional structural biology methods. Here we apply cryo-electron tomography and sub-tomogram averaging methods to resolve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature HIV-1 particles at subnanometre resolution, allowing unambiguous positioning of all α-helices. The resulting model reveals tertiary and quaternary structural interactions that mediate HIV-1 assembly. Strikingly, these interactions differ from those predicted by the current model based on in vitro-assembled arrays of Gag-derived proteins from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus. To validate this difference, we solve the structure of the capsid lattice within intact immature Mason-Pfizer monkey virus particles. Comparison with the immature HIV-1 structure reveals that retroviral capsid proteins, while having conserved tertiary structures, adopt different quaternary arrangements during virus assembly. The approach demonstrated here should be applicable to determine structures of other proteins at subnanometre resolution within heterogeneous environments.

  15. Herpes simplex virus dances with amyloid precursor protein while exiting the cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bin Cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1 replicates in epithelial cells and secondarily enters local sensory neuronal processes, traveling retrograde to the neuronal nucleus to enter latency. Upon reawakening newly synthesized viral particles travel anterograde back to the epithelial cells of the lip, causing the recurrent cold sore. HSV1 co-purifies with amyloid precursor protein (APP, a cellular transmembrane glycoprotein and receptor for anterograde transport machinery that when proteolyzed produces A-beta, the major component of senile plaques. Here we focus on transport inside epithelial cells of newly synthesized virus during its transit to the cell surface. We hypothesize that HSV1 recruits cellular APP during transport. We explore this with quantitative immuno-fluorescence, immuno-gold electron-microscopy and live cell confocal imaging. After synchronous infection most nascent VP26-GFP-labeled viral particles in the cytoplasm co-localize with APP (72.8+/-6.7% and travel together with APP inside living cells (81.1+/-28.9%. This interaction has functional consequences: HSV1 infection decreases the average velocity of APP particles (from 1.1+/-0.2 to 0.3+/-0.1 µm/s and results in APP mal-distribution in infected cells, while interplay with APP-particles increases the frequency (from 10% to 81% motile and velocity (from 0.3+/-0.1 to 0.4+/-0.1 µm/s of VP26-GFP transport. In cells infected with HSV1 lacking the viral Fc receptor, gE, an envelope glycoprotein also involved in viral axonal transport, APP-capsid interactions are preserved while the distribution and dynamics of dual-label particles differ from wild-type by both immuno-fluorescence and live imaging. Knock-down of APP with siRNA eliminates APP staining, confirming specificity. Our results indicate that most intracellular HSV1 particles undergo frequent dynamic interplay with APP in a manner that facilitates viral transport and interferes with normal APP transport and distribution. Such dynamic

  16. Comparison of an avidin-biotin immunoassay with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnard, D L; Johnson, F B; Richards, D F

    1985-01-01

    An avidin-biotin complex system was compared with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for serotyping herpes simplex virus isolates from clinical specimens. Sensitivity values showed that the Electro-Nucleonics and Immulok reagents were useful in detecting the presence of virus, whereas the predictive values showed that the Syva and Immulok reagents possessed adequate discrimination between the herpes simplex virus serotypes. The avidin-biotin complex system was equal or super...

  17. Seroprevalence of IgG Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) can cause chronic ulcerative infection in immunosuppressed children leading to latency with subsequent reactivate in the conjunctiva resulting in scarring, thickening of the cornea and blindness. They are also common cause of fatal sporadic encephalitis in 70% of ...

  18. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of extracts from the culinary herbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrates anti-herpes simplex virus activity of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Ocimum sanctum L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum americanum L. Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by the dichloromethane extract of O. americanum L. and the methanol extract of O.

  19. Seroprevalences of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 among pregnant women in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaytant, M.A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Laere, M. van; Semmekrot, B.A.; Groen, J.; Weel, J.F.; Meijden, W.I. van der; Boer, K.; Galama, J.M.D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands 73% of cases of neonatal herpes are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), whereas in the United States a majority are caused by HSV type 2 (HSV-2).GOAL To understand this difference we undertook a seroepidemiological study on the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2

  20. Seroprevalences of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 among pregnant women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaytant, Michael A.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; van Laere, Marloes; Semmekrot, Ben A.; Groen, Jan; Weel, Jan F.; van der Meijden, Willem I.; Boer, Kees; Galama, Jochem M. D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the Netherlands 73% of cases of neonatal herpes are caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), whereas in the United States a majority are caused by HSV type 2 (HSV-2). GOAL To understand this difference we undertook a seroepidemiological study on the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2

  1. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of extracts from the culinary herbs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... This study demonstrates anti-herpes simplex virus activity of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Ocimum sanctum L., Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum americanum L. Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by the dichloromethane extract of O. americanum L. and the.

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Vestergaard, Bent Faber; Wandall, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare with meningitis as the most common clinical presentation. We have investigated the clinical spectrum of CNS infections in 49 adult consecutive patients with HSV-2 genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). HSV...

  3. 76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus... CFR part 866 is amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 0 1. The authority...

  4. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Direct...

  5. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus... proposed that 21 CFR part 866 be amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1. The...

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  7. Molecular requirement for sterols in herpes simplex virus entry and infectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) required cholesterol for virion-induced membrane fusion. HSV successfully entered DHCR24-/-cells, which lack a desmosterol-to-cholesterol conversion enzyme, indicating entry can occur independently of cholesterol. Depletion of desmosterol from these cells resulted in d...

  8. Antiviral Activity of Crude Hydroethanolic Extract from Schinus terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex Virus Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; Companhoni, Mychelle Vianna Pereira; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Denise Brentan; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2017-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus infections persist throughout the lifetime of the host and affect more than 80 % of the humans worldwide. The intensive use of available therapeutic drugs has led to undesirable effects, such as drug-resistant strains, prompting the search for new antiherpetic agents. Although diverse bioactivities have been identified in Schinus terebinthifolia , its antiviral activity has not attracted much attention. The present study evaluated the antiherpetic effects of a crude hydroethanolic extract from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolia against Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vitro and in vivo as well as its genotoxicity in bone marrow in mammals and established the chemical composition of the crude hydroethanolic extract based on liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS. The crude hydroethanolic extract inhibited all of the tested Herpes simplex virus type 1 strains in vitro and was effective in the attachment and penetration stages, and showed virucidal activity, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The micronucleus test showed that the crude hydroethanolic extract had no genotoxic effect at the concentrations tested. The crude hydroethanolic extract afforded protection against lesions that were caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1 in vivo . Liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry and MS/MS identified 25 substances, which are condensed tannins mainly produced by a B-type linkage and prodelphinidin and procyanidin units. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1 Encephalitis Mimicking Glioblastoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A. Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM often presents as a brain mass with encephalitis. In a patient with GBM, subsequent presentation with new onset encephalitis may be due to another GBM or Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 encephalitis. We present a case of HSV-1 encephalitis mimicking GBM in a patient with previous GBM.

  10. Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Cohen, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells

  11. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis: Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Varun K; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J; Quigley, Brian C; Farris, Alton B; Norvell, J P

    2016-10-01

    Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease.

  12. Immunobiology of herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus infections of the fetus and newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, William J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Koelle, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Immunologic “immaturity” is often blamed for the increased susceptibility of newborn humans to infection, but the precise mechanisms and details of immunologic development remain somewhat obscure. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are two of the more common severe infectious agents of the fetal and newborn periods. HSV infection in the newborn most commonly occurs after exposure to the virus during delivery, and can lead to a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from isolat...

  13. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Famciclovir in Children with Herpes Simplex or Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez-Llorens, X.; Yogev, R.; Arguedas, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Spigarelli, M. G.; De León Castrejón, T.; Bomgaars, L.; Roberts, M.; Abrams, B.; Zhou, W.; Looby, M.; Kaiser, G.; Hamed, K.

    2009-01-01

    Two multicenter, open-label, single-arm, two-phase studies evaluated single-dose pharmacokinetics and single- and multiple-dose safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir formulation (prodrug of penciclovir) in children aged 1 to 12 years with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. Pooled pharmacokinetic data were generated after single doses in 51 participants (∼12.5 mg/kg of body weight [BW] for children weighing

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Renders Infected Cells Resistant to Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Induced Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome, Keith R.; Tait, Jonathan F.; Koelle, David M.; Corey, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    Many viruses interfere with apoptosis of infected cells, presumably preventing cellular apoptosis as a direct response to viral infection. Since cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induce apoptosis of infected cells as part of the “lethal hit,” inhibition of apoptosis could represent an effective immune evasion strategy. We report here herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) interference with CTL-induced apoptosis of infected cells and show that HSV-1 inhibits the nuclear manifestations of apoptosis bu...

  15. Antiviral resistance in herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2016-12-01

    Aciclovir (ACV) is the first-line drug for the management of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections. Long-term administration of ACV for the treatment of severe infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to the development of drug resistance. Furthermore, the emergence of isolates resistant to ACV is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent individuals with herpetic keratitis. This review describes the mechanisms involved in drug resistance for HSV and VZV, the laboratory diagnosis and management of patients with infections refractory to ACV therapy. Genotypic testing is more frequently performed for the diagnosis of infections caused by drug-resistant HSV or VZV isolates. Molecular biology-based systems for the generation of recombinant viruses have been developed to link unknown mutations with their drug phenotypes. Fast and sensitive methods based on next-generation sequencing will improve the detection of heterogeneous viral populations of drug-resistant viruses and their temporal changes during antiviral therapy, which could allow better patient management. Novel promising compounds acting on targets that differ from the viral DNA polymerase are under clinical development. Antiviral drug resistance monitoring for HSV and VZV is required for a rational use of antiviral therapy in high-risk populations.

  16. Glycoproteins E and I facilitate neuron-to-neuron spread of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Dingwell, K S; Doering, L C; Johnson, D C

    1995-01-01

    Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins E and I (gE and gI) form a heterooligomer which acts as an Fc receptor and also facilitates cell-to-cell spread of virus in epithelial tissues and between certain cultured cells. By contrast, gE-gI is not required for infection of cells by extracellular virus. HSV glycoproteins gD and gJ are encoded by neighboring genes, and gD is required for both virus entry into cells and cell-to-cell spread, whereas gJ has not been shown to influence these proc...

  17. In Vivo Role of Complement-Interacting Domains of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein Gc

    OpenAIRE

    Lubinski, John; Wang, Liyang; Mastellos, Dimitri; Sahu, Arvind; Lambris, John D.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    1999-01-01

    Immune evasion is critical for survival of viruses that establish persistent or recurrent infections. However, at the molecular level, little is known about how viruses evade immune attack in vivo. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 glycoprotein gC has two domains that are involved in modulating complement activation; one binds C3, and the other is required for blocking C5 and properdin (P) binding to C3. To evaluate the importance of these regions in vivo, HSV-1 gC mutant viruses were constructed ...

  18. Chemical composition of Propolis Extract ACF® and activity against herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, V; Galabov, A S; Antonova, D; Vilhelmova, N; Di Perri, B

    2014-09-25

    Propolis Extract ACF(®) (PPE) is a purified extract manufactured from propolis collected in a Canadian region rich in poplar trees, and it is the active substance of a topical ointment used against herpes labialis (cold sores or fever blisters). Aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition of PPE in order to understand the plant origin and possible relations between compounds and antiviral activity, and to characterize the antiviral activity of the extract against herpes simplex virus in vitro. The analysis of the propolis extract samples was conducted by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antiviral activity was tested against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 in MDBK cell cultures by treating the cells with PPE at the time of virus adsorption, and by incubating the virus with the extract before infection (virucidal assay). Results from the GC-MS analyses revealed a dual plant origin of PPE, with components derived from resins of two different species of poplar. The chemical composition appeared standardized between extract samples and was also reproduced in the sample of topical ointment. The antiviral studies showed that PPE had a pronounced virucidal effect against herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2, and also interfered with virus adsorption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. A Strategy for O-Glycoproteomics of Enveloped Viruses-the O-Glycoproteome of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagdonaite, Ieva; Nordén, Rickard; Joshi, Hiren J

    2015-01-01

    present a novel proteome-wide discovery strategy for O-glycosylation sites on viral envelope proteins using herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) as a model. We identified 74 O-linked glycosylation sites on 8 out of the 12 HSV-1 envelope proteins. Two of the identified glycosites found in glycoprotein B...

  20. A fatal case of herpes simplex virus hepatitis in a pregnant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Maen; Shen, Huafeng; Lee, Yejin; Gunderson, Alan; Brown, Kyle; Bellizzi, Andrew; Tanaka, Tomohiro

    2017-05-01

    We present a middle aged pregnant woman who developed signs and symptoms of acute liver failure and was found to have herpes simplex virus hepatitis. Patient had an emergent delivery and was started on antiviral therapy, but unfortunately due to the severity of her liver failure, she passed away. The importance of reporting this case is to emphasize on the importance of considering herpes simplex infection in pregnant women who present with acute liver failure, and the importance of early administration of antiviral therapy.

  1. Proton-driven assembly of the Rous Sarcoma virus capsid protein results in the formation of icosahedral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L; Mitra, Alok K

    2010-05-14

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions.

  2. Proton-driven Assembly of the Rous Sarcoma Virus Capsid Protein Results in the Formation of Icosahedral Particles*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Jae-Kyung; Radjainia, Mazdak; Kingston, Richard L.; Mitra, Alok K.

    2010-01-01

    In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain (NTD) of CA forms pentameric turrets, which decorate the surface of the icosahedron, while the C-terminal domain (CTD) of CA is positioned underneath, linking the pentamers. Biophysical analysis of the icosahedral particle preparation reveals that CA monomers and icosahedra are the only detectable species and that these exist in reversible equilibrium at pH 5. These same acidic conditions are known to promote formation of a RSV CA CTD dimer, present within the icosahedral particle, which facilitates capsid assembly. The results are consistent with a model in which RSV CA assembly is a nucleation-limited process driven by very weak protein-protein interactions. PMID:20228062

  3. Gene expression of herpes simplex virus. II. Uv radiological analysis of viral transcription units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millette, R. L.; Klaiber, R.

    1980-01-01

    The transcriptional organization of the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 was analyzed by measuring the sensitivity of viral polypeptide synthesis to uv irradiation of the infecting virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 was irradiated with various doses of uv light and used to infect xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts. Immediate early transcription units were analyzed by having cycloheximide present throughout the period of infection, removing the drug at 8 h postinfection, and pulse-labeling proteins with [355]methionine. Delayed early transcription units were analyzed in similar studies by having 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine present during the experiment to block replication of the input irradiated genome. The results indicate that none of the immediate early genes analyzed can be cotranscribed, whereas some of the delayed early genes might be cotranscribed. No evidence was found for the existence of large, multigene transcription units

  4. Adeno-associated Virus Vectors Efficiently Transduce Mouse and Rabbit Sensory Neurons Coinfected with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 following Peripheral Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Zachary L; Ertel, Monica K; Lewin, Alfred S; Tuli, Sonal S; Schultz, Gregory S; Neumann, Donna M; Bloom, David C

    2016-09-01

    Following infection of epithelial tissues, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) virions travel via axonal transport to sensory ganglia and establish a lifelong latent infection within neurons. Recent studies have revealed that, following intraganglionic or intrathecal injection, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors can also infect sensory neurons and are capable of stable, long-term transgene expression. We sought to determine if application of rAAV to peripheral nerve termini at the epithelial surface would allow rAAV to traffic to sensory ganglia in a manner similar to that seen with HSV. We hypothesized that footpad or ocular inoculation with rAAV8 would result in transduction of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) or trigeminal ganglia (TG), respectively. To test this, we inoculated the footpads of mice with various amounts of rAAV as well as rAAV capsid mutants. We demonstrated that this method of inoculation can achieve a transduction rate of >90% of the sensory neurons in the DRG that innervate the footpad. Similarly, we showed that corneal inoculation with rAAV vectors in the rabbit efficiently transduced >70% of the TG neurons in the optic tract. Finally, we demonstrated that coinfection of mouse footpads or rabbit eyes with rAAV vectors and HSV-1 resulted in colocalization in nearly all of the HSV-1-positive neurons. These results suggest that rAAV is a useful tool for the study of HSV-1 infection and may provide a means to deliver therapeutic cargos for the treatment of HSV infections or of dysfunctions of sensory ganglia. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has been shown to transduce dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons following direct intraganglionic sciatic nerve injection and intraperitoneal and intravenous injection as well as intrathecal injection. We sought to determine if rAAV vectors would be delivered to the same sensory neurons that herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) infects when applied peripherally at an epithelial surface that had been treated to expose

  5. Biophysical Characterization of Nucleophosmin Interactions with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rev and Herpes Simplex Virus US11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Nouri

    Full Text Available Nucleophosmin (NPM1, also known as B23, numatrin or NO38 is a pentameric RNA-binding protein with RNA and protein chaperon functions. NPM1 has increasingly emerged as a potential cellular factor that directly associates with viral proteins; however, the significance of these interactions in each case is still not clear. In this study, we have investigated the physical interaction of NPM1 with both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Rev and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 US11, two functionally homologous proteins. Both viral proteins show, in mechanistically different modes, high affinity for a binding site on the N-terminal oligomerization domain of NPM1. Rev, additionally, exhibits low-affinity for the central histone-binding domain of NPM1. We also showed that the proapoptotic cyclic peptide CIGB-300 specifically binds to NPM1 oligomerization domain and blocks its association with Rev and US11. Moreover, HIV-1 virus production was significantly reduced in the cells treated with CIGB-300. Results of this study suggest that targeting NPM1 may represent a useful approach for antiviral intervention.

  6. The etiology of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss - Experimental herpes simplex virus infections of the inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokroos, RJ; Albers, FWJ; Schirm, J

    Hypothesis: Experimentally induced herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) labyrinthitis provides a suitable model for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). Background: Viral labyrinthitis has been postulated to play a role in the pathophysiology of ISSHL. Circumstantial evidence is

  7. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Edward I.; Dombrovski, Andrew K.; Swarbrick, Crystall M.D.; Raidal, Shane R.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface

  8. Structural determination of importin alpha in complex with beak and feather disease virus capsid nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Edward I. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Dombrovski, Andrew K. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Swarbrick, Crystall M.D. [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Raidal, Shane R. [Charles Sturt University, School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); Forwood, Jade K., E-mail: jforwood@csu.edu.au [Charles Sturt University, School of Biomedical Sciences, Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia); EH Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), Boorooma St., Wagga Wagga, New South Wales 2678 (Australia)

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Circovirus capsid proteins contain large nuclear localization signals (NLS). •A method of nuclear import has not been elucidated. •Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) capsid NLS was crystallized with importin α. •The structure showed BFDV NLS binding to the major site of importin α. •Result shows implications for mechanism of nuclear transport for all circoviruses. -- Abstract: Circoviruses represent a rapidly increasing genus of viruses that infect a variety of vertebrates. Replication requires shuttling viral molecules into the host cell nucleus, a process facilitated by capsid-associated protein (Cap). Whilst a nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been shown to mediate nuclear translocation, the mode of nuclear transport remains to be elucidated. To better understand this process, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) Cap NLS was crystallized with nuclear import receptor importin-α (Impα). Diffraction yielded structural data to 2.9 Å resolution, and the binding site on both Impα and BFDV Cap NLS were well resolved. The binding mechanism for the major site is likely conserved across circoviruses as supported by the similarity of NLSs in circovirus Caps. This finding illuminates a crucial step for infection of host cells by this viral family, and provides a platform for rational drug design against the binding interface.

  9. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K.

    2005-01-01

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA

  10. Fusion between perinuclear virions and the outer nuclear membrane requires the fusogenic activity of herpes simplex virus gB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Catherine C; Wisner, Todd W; Hannah, Brian P; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H; Johnson, David C

    2009-11-01

    Herpesviruses cross nuclear membranes (NMs) in two steps, as follows: (i) capsids assemble and bud through the inner NM into the perinuclear space, producing enveloped virus particles, and (ii) the envelopes of these virus particles fuse with the outer NM. Two herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins, gB and gH (the latter, likely complexed as a heterodimer with gL), are necessary for the second step of this process. Mutants lacking both gB and gH accumulate in the perinuclear space or in herniations (membrane vesicles derived from the inner NM). Both gB and gH/gL are also known to act directly in fusing the virion envelope with host cell membranes during HSV entry into cells, i.e., both glycoproteins appear to function directly in different aspects of the membrane fusion process. We hypothesized that HSV gB and gH/gL also act directly in the membrane fusion that occurs during virus egress from the nucleus. Previous studies of the role of gB and gH/gL in nuclear egress involved HSV gB and gH null mutants that could potentially also possess gross defects in the virion envelope. Here, we produced recombinant HSV-expressing mutant forms of gB with single amino acid substitutions in the hydrophobic "fusion loops." These fusion loops are thought to play a direct role in membrane fusion by insertion into cellular membranes. HSV recombinants expressing gB with any one of four fusion loop mutations (W174R, W174Y, Y179K, and A261D) were unable to enter cells. Moreover, two of the mutants, W174Y and Y179K, displayed reduced abilities to mediate HSV cell-to-cell spread, and W174R and A261D exhibited no spread. All mutant viruses exhibited defects in nuclear egress, enveloped virions accumulated in herniations and in the perinuclear space, and fewer enveloped virions were detected on cell surfaces. These results support the hypothesis that gB functions directly to mediate the fusion between perinuclear virus particles and the outer NM.

  11. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  12. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Funk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary

  13. Defining nervous system susceptibility during acute and latent herpes simplex virus-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Chandra M; Carr, Daniel J J

    2017-07-15

    Herpes simplex viruses are neurotropic human pathogens that infect and establish latency in peripheral sensory neurons of the host. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) readily infects the facial mucosa that can result in the establishment of a latent infection in the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG). From latency, HSV-1 can reactivate and cause peripheral pathology following anterograde trafficking from sensory neurons. Under rare circumstances, HSV-1 can migrate into the central nervous system (CNS) and cause Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE), a devastating disease of the CNS. It is unclear whether HSE is the result of viral reactivation within the TG, from direct primary infection of the olfactory mucosa, or from other infected CNS neurons. Areas of the brain that are susceptible to HSV-1 during acute infection are ill-defined. Furthermore, whether the CNS is a true reservoir of viral latency following clearance of virus during acute infection is unknown. In this context, this review will identify sites within the brain that are susceptible to acute infection and harbor latent virus. In addition, we will also address findings of HSV-1 lytic gene expression during latency and comment on the pathophysiological consequences HSV-1 infection may have on long-term neurologic performance in animal models and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus Suppressive Therapy in Herpes Simplex Virus-2/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Coinfected Women Is Associated With Reduced Systemic CXCL10 But Not Genital Cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen-Nissen, Erica; Chang, Joanne T; Thomas, Katherine K; Adams, Devin; Celum, Connie; Sanchez, Jorge; Coombs, Robert W; McElrath, M Juliana; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) may heighten immune activation and increase human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication, resulting in greater infectivity and faster HIV-1 disease progression. An 18-week randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 500 mg valacyclovir twice daily in 20 antiretroviral-naive women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted and HSV-2 suppression was found to significantly reduce both HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral loads both systemically and the endocervical compartment. To determine the effect of HSV-2 suppression on systemic and genital mucosal inflammation, plasma specimens, and endocervical swabs were collected weekly from volunteers in the trial and cryopreserved. Plasma was assessed for concentrations of 31 cytokines and chemokines; endocervical fluid was eluted from swabs and assayed for 14 cytokines and chemokines. Valacyclovir significantly reduced plasma CXCL10 but did not significantly alter other cytokine concentrations in either compartment. These data suggest genital tract inflammation in women persists despite HSV-2 suppression, supporting the lack of effect on transmission seen in large scale efficacy trials. Alternative therapies are needed to reduce persistent mucosal inflammation that may enhance transmission of HSV-2 and HIV-1.

  15. The morphogenesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 in infected parental mouse L fibroblasts and mutant gro29 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Lone; Norrild, Bodil

    2003-01-01

    Mutants of cell lines and viruses are important biological tools. The pathway of herpesvirus particle maturation and egress are contentious issues. The mutant gro29 line of mouse L cells is defective for egress of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) virions, and a candidate for studies of virus...

  16. Identification of the Galactose Binding Domain of the Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 9 Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christie L.; Gurda, Brittney L.; Van Vliet, Kim; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis

    2012-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors show promise for gene therapy of a variety of diseases due to their ability to transduce multiple tissues, including heart, skeletal muscle, and the alveolar epithelium of the lung. In addition, AAV9 is unique compared to other AAV serotypes in that it is capable of surpassing the blood-brain barrier and transducing neurons in the brain and spinal cord. It has recently been shown that AAV9 uses galactose as a receptor to transduce many different cell types in vitro, as well as cells of the mouse airway in vivo. In this study, we sought to identify the specific amino acids of the AAV9 capsid necessary for binding to galactose. By site-directed mutagenesis and cell binding assays, plus computational ligand docking studies, we discovered five amino acids, including N470, D271, N272, Y446, and W503, which are required for galactose binding that form a pocket at the base of the protrusions around the icosahedral 3-fold axes of symmetry. The importance of these amino acids for tissue tropism was also confirmed by in vivo studies in the mouse lung. Identifying the interactions necessary for AAV9 binding to galactose may lead to advances in vector engineering. PMID:22514350

  17. A novel inhibitor of dengue virus replication that targets the capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Chelsea M; Dai, Dongcheng; Grosenbach, Douglas W; Berhanu, Aklile; Jones, Kevin F; Cardwell, Kara B; Schneider, Christine; Wineinger, Kristin A; Page, Jessica M; Harver, Chris; Stavale, Eric; Tyavanagimatt, Shanthakumar; Stone, Melialani A; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Scaturro, Pietro; Hruby, Dennis E; Jordan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV) infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide per year, of which 500,000 develop severe life-threatening disease. This mosquito-borne illness is endemic in most tropical and subtropical countries and has spread significantly over the last decade. While there are several promising vaccine candidates in clinical trials, there are currently no approved vaccines or therapeutics available for treatment of dengue infection. Here, we describe a novel small-molecule compound, ST-148, that is a potent inhibitor of all four serotypes of DENV in vitro. ST-148 significantly reduced viremia and viral load in vital organs and tended to lower cytokine levels in the plasma in a nonlethal model of DENV infection in AG129 mice. Compound resistance mapped to the DENV capsid (C) gene, and a direct interaction of ST-148 with C protein is suggested by alterations of the intrinsic fluorescence of the protein in the presence of compound. Thus, ST-148 appears to interact with the DENV C protein and inhibits a distinct step(s) of the viral replication cycle.

  18. Dengue Virus Uses a Non-Canonical Function of the Host GBF1-Arf-COPI System for Capsid Protein Accumulation on Lipid Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Nestor G; Mondotte, Juan A; Byk, Laura A; De Maio, Federico A; Samsa, Marcelo M; Alvarez, Cecilia; Gamarnik, Andrea V

    2015-09-01

    Dengue viruses cause the most important human viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. In recent years, a great deal has been learned about molecular details of dengue virus genome replication; however, little is known about genome encapsidation and the functions of the viral capsid protein. During infection, dengue virus capsid progressively accumulates around lipid droplets (LDs) by an unknown mechanism. Here, we examined the process by which the viral capsid is transported from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, where the protein is synthesized, to LDs. Using different methods of intervention, we found that the GBF1-Arf1/Arf4-COPI pathway is necessary for capsid transport to LDs, while the process is independent of both COPII components and Golgi integrity. The transport was sensitive to Brefeldin A, while a drug resistant form of GBF1 was sufficient to restore capsid subcellular distribution in infected cells. The mechanism by which LDs gain or lose proteins is still an open question. Our results support a model in which the virus uses a non-canonical function of the COPI system for capsid accumulation on LDs, providing new ideas for antiviral strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Primary Enveloped Virion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1: Its Role in Nuclear Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, William W; Fontana, Juan; Winkler, Dennis C; Cheng, Naiqian; Heymann, J Bernard; Steven, Alasdair C

    2017-06-13

    Many viruses migrate between different cellular compartments for successive stages of assembly. The HSV-1 capsid assembles in the nucleus and then transfers into the cytoplasm. First, the capsid buds through the inner nuclear membrane, becoming coated with nuclear egress complex (NEC) protein. This yields a primary enveloped virion (PEV) whose envelope fuses with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing the capsid into the cytoplasm. We investigated the associated molecular mechanisms by isolating PEVs from US3-null-infected cells and imaging them by cryo-electron microscopy and tomography. (pUS3 is a viral protein kinase in whose absence PEVs accumulate in the perinuclear space.) Unlike mature extracellular virions, PEVs have very few glycoprotein spikes. PEVs are ~20% smaller than mature virions, and the little space available between the capsid and the NEC layer suggests that most tegument proteins are acquired later in the egress pathway. Previous studies have proposed that NEC is organized as hexamers in honeycomb arrays in PEVs, but we find arrays of heptameric rings in extracts from US3-null-infected cells. In a PEV, NEC contacts the capsid predominantly via the pUL17/pUL25 complexes which are located close to the capsid vertices. Finally, the NEC layer dissociates from the capsid as it leaves the nucleus, possibly in response to pUS3-mediated phosphorylation. Overall, nuclear egress emerges as a process driven by a program of multiple weak interactions. IMPORTANCE On its maturation pathway, the newly formed HSV-1 nucleocapsid must traverse the nuclear envelope, while respecting the integrity of that barrier. Nucleocapsids (125 nm in diameter) are too large to pass through the nuclear pore complexes that conduct most nucleocytoplasmic traffic. It is now widely accepted that the process involves envelopment/de-envelopment of a key intermediate-the primary enveloped virion. In wild-type infections, PEVs are short-lived, which has impeded study. Using a mutant

  20. Bioprocessing of plant-derived virus-like particles of Norwalk virus capsid protein under current Good Manufacture Practice regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Huafang; Chen, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Despite the success in expressing a variety of subunit vaccine proteins in plants and the recent stride in improving vaccine accumulation levels by transient expression systems, there is still no plant-derived vaccine that has been licensed for human use. The lack of commercial success of plant-made vaccines lies in several technical and regulatory barriers that remain to be overcome. These challenges include the lack of scalable downstream processing procedures, the uncertainty of regulatory compliance of production processes, and the lack of demonstration of plant-derived products that meet the required standards of regulatory agencies in identity, purity, potency and safety. In this study, we addressed these remaining challenges and successfully demonstrate the ability of using plants to produce a pharmaceutical grade Norwalk virus (NV) vaccine under current Good Manufacture Practice (cGMP) guidelines at multiple gram scales. Our results demonstrate that an efficient and scalable extraction and purification scheme can established for processing virus-like particles (VLP) of NV capsid protein (NVCP). We successfully operated the upstream and downstream NVCP production processes under cGMP regulations. Furthermore, plant-derived NVCP VLP demonstrates the identity, purity, potency and safety that meet the preset release specifications. This material is being tested in a Phase I human clinical trial. This research provides the first report of producing a plant-derived vaccine at scale under cGMP regulations in an academic setting and an important step for plant-produced vaccines to become a commercial reality. PMID:22134876

  1. Use of polymerase chain reaction for laboratory diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, J; Garner, J G; Feder, H M; Ryan, R W

    1993-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV) specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences in acute and convalescent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue of a 78-year-old man and in CSF of a neonate who died of complications owing to herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for 35 cycles with a set of primers that bracketed a 92 base pair segment unique to the HSV DNA polymerase gene. Amplified DNA was electrophoresed on 3 percent agarose gel, blotted onto a nylon membrane, and probed with 32p-labeled oligonucleotide internal to the primers. The HSV specific DNA sequences were detected in the specimens from both patients. No HSV specific DNA was detected in CSFs from 20 patients with suspected Lyme disease or neurosyphilis. Polymerase chain reaction is a rapid and noninvasive technique for the diagnosis of HSVE.

  2. Evaluation of three immunofluorescence assays for culture confirmation and typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lipson, S M; Schutzbank, T E; Szabo, K

    1987-01-01

    Three pairs of monoclonal antibodies, supplied in kits by Electro-Nucleonics, Inc. (ENI), The Syva Co., and Kallestad Laboratories, Inc. (KL), were evaluated for the laboratory confirmation and typing of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Of 108 coded HSV slide preparation, run in parallel with each monoclonal-antibody set, 103 were equivalent by the immunofluorescence assays. Among the five discordant isolates, three (2.8%) did not type with the KL monoclonal antibodies and two (1.9%) false-positiv...

  3. Evaluation of two immunofluorescence assays with monoclonal antibodies for typing of herpes simplex virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Swierkosz, E M; Arens, M Q; Schmidt, R R; Armstrong, T

    1985-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence assay and a direct immunofluorescence assay were evaluated for typing clinical isolates of herpes simplex virus (HSV). The indirect immunofluorescence assay (Electro-Nucleonics, Inc.) correctly identified 16 HSV type 2 (HSV-2) isolates, but failed to identify 4 of 14 HSV-1 isolates because of background fluorescence and instability of reagents. Forty-nine HSV-1 isolates were correctly typed by direct immunofluorescence assay (Kallestad Laboratories, Inc.), but 1...

  4. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Himmelein, Susanne; Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-medi...

  5. Are Steroids a Beneficial Adjunctive Therapy in the Immunosuppressed Patient with Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo J. Lizarraga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Few reports describe the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus causing encephalitis (HSVE in patients undergoing brain radiation therapy and a concomitant steroid regimen. The role for steroid use in the treatment of patients with HSVE has not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a female patient immunosuppressed by steroids and brain radiation who developed HSVE and responded to acyclovir and dexamethasone.

  6. The relationship of graft survival and herpes simplex virus latency in recipient corneal buttons

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Orhan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Bulut, Yasemin; Kalkan, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Orhan Aydemir1, Peykan Türkçüoglu1, Yasemin Bulut2, Ahmet Kalkan31Firat University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Elazig, Turkey; 2Firat University School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Elazig, Turkey; 3Firat University School of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Elazig, TurkeyPurpose: To demonstrate relationship between herpes simplex virus (HSV) corneal latency and graft survival.Methods: Prospective case control study. 28 ...

  7. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus-1 DNA Primase: A Remarkably Inaccurate yet Selective Polymerase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, M.; Joubert, Nicolas; Hocek, Michal; Alexander, R. E.; Kuchta, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 46 (2009), s. 10866-10881 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550902 Grant - others:NIH(US) AI059764 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : HSV-1 * herpes simplex virus-1 * Pyr * pyrimidine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2009

  9. Comparative studies of types 1 and 2 herpes simplex virus infection of cultured normal keratinocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Su, S J; Wu, H H; Lin, Y H; Lin, H Y

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the differences in biological properties, multiplication patterns, and cytopathic effects between type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex virus (HSV) through the replication of HSV in cultured normal human keratinocytes. METHODS--Keratinocytes were obtained from surgical specimens of normal gingiva, cervix, trunk skin, and newborn foreskin. They were cultured in serum free, chemically defined, culture medium and infected with a pool of HSV collected from clinical specimens. RESU...

  10. Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses confirmed by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections.

  11. Molecular characterization of genome segments 1 and 3 encoding two capsid proteins of Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti Mrinmay

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antheraea mylitta cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (AmCPV, a cypovirus of Reoviridae family, infects Indian non-mulberry silkworm, Antheraea mylitta, and contains 11 segmented double stranded RNA (S1-S11 in its genome. Some of its genome segments (S2 and S6-S11 have been previously characterized but genome segments encoding viral capsid have not been characterized. Results In this study genome segments 1 (S1 and 3 (S3 of AmCPV were converted to cDNA, cloned and sequenced. S1 consisted of 3852 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 3735 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1245 amino acids with molecular mass of ~141 kDa. Similarly, S3 consisted of 3784 nucleotides having a long ORF of 3630 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1210 amino acids with molecular mass of ~137 kDa. BLAST analysis showed 20-22% homology of S1 and S3 sequence with spike and capsid proteins, respectively, of other closely related cypoviruses like Bombyx mori CPV (BmCPV, Lymantria dispar CPV (LdCPV, and Dendrolimus punctatus CPV (DpCPV. The ORFs of S1 and S3 were expressed as 141 kDa and 137 kDa insoluble His-tagged fusion proteins, respectively, in Escherichia coli M15 cells via pQE-30 vector, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibodies were raised. Immunoblot analysis of purified polyhedra, virion particles and virus infected mid-gut cells with the raised anti-p137 and anti-p141 antibodies showed specific immunoreactive bands and suggest that S1 and S3 may code for viral structural proteins. Expression of S1 and S3 ORFs in insect cells via baculovirus recombinants showed to produce viral like particles (VLPs by transmission electron microscopy. Immunogold staining showed that S3 encoded proteins self assembled to form viral outer capsid and VLPs maintained their stability at different pH in presence of S1 encoded protein. Conclusion Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S1 and S3 indicate that S3

  12. Herpes simplex virus type 1 in peptic ulcer disease: An inverse association with Helicobacter pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamakidis, Klisthenis; Panotopoulou, Efstathia; Dimitroulopoulos, Dimitrios; Xinopoulos, Dimitrios; Christodoulou, Maria; Papadokostopoulou, Alexandra; Karagiannis, Ioannis; Kouroumalis, Elias; Paraskevas, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the frequency of herpes simplex virus type I in upper gastrointestinal tract ulcers and normal mucosa with the modern and better assays and also with a larger number of well characterized patients and controls and its relationship to Helicobacter pylori(H pylori). METHODS: Biopsy specimens from 90 patients (34 with gastric ulcer of the prepyloric area and 56 with duodenal ulcer) were evaluated. Biopsies from 50 patients with endoscopically healthy mucosa were considered as the control group. The method used to identify herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) was polymerase chain reaction. H pylori was detected by the CLO-test and by histological method. RESULTS: Herpes simplex virus-1 was detected in 28 of 90 patients with peptic ulcer (31%) [11 of 34 patients with gastric ulcer (32.4%) and 17 of 56 with duodenal ulcer (30.4%)] exclusively close to the ulcerous lesion. All control group samples were negative for HSV-1. The likelihood of H pylori negativity among peptic ulcer patients was significantly higher in HSV-1 positive cases than in HSV-1 negative cases (P = 0.009). Gastric ulcer patients with HSV-1 positivity were strongly associated with an increased possibility of Helicobacter pylori negativity compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: HSV-1 is frequent in upper gastro-intestinal tract ulcers but not in normal gastric and duodenal mucosa. There is an inverse association between HSV-1 and H pylori infection. PMID:16425358

  13. A comparison of herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus latency and reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G. E.; Rovnak, Joel; Badani, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1; human herpesvirus 1) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV; human herpesvirus 3) are human neurotropic alphaherpesviruses that cause lifelong infections in ganglia. Following primary infection and establishment of latency, HSV-1 reactivation typically results in herpes labialis (cold sores), but can occur frequently elsewhere on the body at the site of primary infection (e.g. whitlow), particularly at the genitals. Rarely, HSV-1 reactivation can cause encephalitis; however, a third of the cases of HSV-1 encephalitis are associated with HSV-1 primary infection. Primary VZV infection causes varicella (chickenpox) following which latent virus may reactivate decades later to produce herpes zoster (shingles), as well as an increasingly recognized number of subacute, acute and chronic neurological conditions. Following primary infection, both viruses establish a latent infection in neuronal cells in human peripheral ganglia. However, the detailed mechanisms of viral latency and reactivation have yet to be unravelled. In both cases latent viral DNA exists in an ‘end-less’ state where the ends of the virus genome are joined to form structures consistent with unit length episomes and concatemers, from which viral gene transcription is restricted. In latently infected ganglia, the most abundantly detected HSV-1 RNAs are the spliced products originating from the primary latency associated transcript (LAT). This primary LAT is an 8.3 kb unstable transcript from which two stable (1.5 and 2.0 kb) introns are spliced. Transcripts mapping to 12 VZV genes have been detected in human ganglia removed at autopsy; however, it is difficult to ascribe these as transcripts present during latent infection as early-stage virus reactivation may have transpired in the post-mortem time period in the ganglia. Nonetheless, low-level transcription of VZV ORF63 has been repeatedly detected in multiple ganglia removed as close to death as possible. There is

  14. Herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and in neonate: status of art of epidemiology, diagnosis, therapy and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barucca Valentina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV infection is one of the most common viral sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The first time infection of the mother may lead to severe illness in pregnancy and may be associated with virus transmission from mother to foetus/newborn. Since the incidence of this sexually transmitted infection continues to rise and because the greatest incidence of herpes simplex virus infections occur in women of reproductive age, the risk of maternal transmission of the virus to the foetus or neonate has become a major health concern. On these purposes the Authors of this review looked for the medical literature and pertinent publications to define the status of art regarding the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of HSV in pregnant women and neonate. Special emphasis is placed upon the importance of genital herpes simplex virus infection in pregnancy and on the its prevention to avoid neonatal HSV infections.

  15. The Function of Herpes Simplex Virus Genes: A Primer for Genetic Engineering of Novel Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizman, Bernard

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus vectors are being developed for delivery and expression of human genes to the central nervous system, selective destruction of cancer cells, and as carriers for genes encoding antigens that induce protective immunity against infectious agents. Vectors constructed to meet these objectives must differ from wild-type virus with respect to host range, reactivation from latency, and expression of viral genes. The vectors currently being developed are (i) helper free amplicons, (ii) replication defective viruses, and (iii) genetically engineered replication competent viruses with restricted host range. Whereas the former two types of vectors require stable, continuous cell lines expressing viral genes for their replication, the replication competent viruses will replicate on approved primary human cell strains.

  16. Herpes simplex virus produces larger plaques when assayed on ultraviolet irradiated CV1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.A.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-01-01

    Plaque development for either untreated or UV treated irradiated Herpes simplex virus Type 1 was faster when assayed on UV irradiated CV1 cells. This Large Plaque Effect only occurred if a minimum delay of 12h between cell irradiation and viral inoculation was allowed. Shorter delays gave plaques that were smaller than controls (unirradiated virus-unirradiated cells). The effect was maximal for a 48-h delay and remained unchanged for delays as long as 84h. The effect was greatest for cell exposures of 10Jm -2 . (author)

  17. Synthetic analogues of bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide reduce herpes simplex virus type 2 infectivity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenssen, Håvard; Shestakov, Andrey; Hancock, Robert E. W

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential of four synthetic peptides (denoted HH-2, 1002, 1006, 1018) with a distant relationship to the host defense peptide bovine bactenecin dodecapeptide for their ability to prevent genital infections with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice. All four peptides...... was introduced in human semen. Two of the peptides proved especially effective in reducing HSV-2 infection also in vivo. When admixed with virus prior to inoculation, both HH-2 and 1018 reduced viral replication and disease development in a genital model of HSV-2 infection in mice, and also when using very high...

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein gC Mediates Immune Evasion In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lubinski, John M.; Wang, Liyang; Soulika, Athena M.; Burger, Reinhard; Wetsel, Rick A.; Colten, Harvey; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Lambris, John D.; Friedman, Harvey M.

    1998-01-01

    Many microorganisms encode proteins that interact with molecules involved in host immunity; however, few of these molecules have been proven to promote immune evasion in vivo. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC) binds complement component C3 and inhibits complement-mediated virus neutralization and lysis of infected cells in vitro. To investigate the importance of the interaction between gC and C3 in vivo, we studied the virulence of a gC-null strain in complement-intact a...

  19. Infectious bursal disease virus capsid protein VP3 interacts both with VP1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and with viral double-stranded RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacken, M.G.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Thomas, A.A.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Boot, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of the Birnaviridae family. Its two genome segments are encapsidated together with multiple copies of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, VP1, in a single-shell capsid that is composed of VP2 and VP3. In this study we

  20. Recombinant human adenovirus-5 expressing capsid proteins of Indian vaccine strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus elicits effective antibody response in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant adenovirus-5 vectored foot-and-mouth disease constructs (Ad5- FMD) were made for three Indian vaccine virus serotypes O,A and Asia 1. Constructs co-expressing foot-and- mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid and viral 3C protease sequences, were evaluated for their ability to induce a neutral...

  1. Nelfinavir Impairs Glycosylation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Envelope Proteins and Blocks Virus Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Gantt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelfinavir (NFV is an HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitor that has numerous effects on human cells, which impart attractive antitumor properties. NFV has also been shown to have in vitro inhibitory activity against human herpesviruses (HHVs. Given the apparent absence of an aspartyl protease encoded by HHVs, we investigated the mechanism of action of NFV herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in cultured cells. Selection of HSV-1 resistance to NFV was not achieved despite multiple passages under drug pressure. NFV did not significantly affect the level of expression of late HSV-1 gene products. Normal numbers of viral particles appeared to be produced in NFV-treated cells by electron microscopy but remain within the cytoplasm more often than controls. NFV did not inhibit the activity of the HSV-1 serine protease nor could its antiviral activity be attributed to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. NFV was found to decrease glycosylation of viral glycoproteins B and C and resulted in aberrant subcellular localization, consistent with induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response by NFV. These results demonstrate that NFV causes alterations in HSV-1 glycoprotein maturation and egress and likely acts on one or more host cell functions that are important for HHV replication.

  2. A eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin is associated with a high molecular weight intermediate in the assembly of hepatitis B virus capsid, a multimeric particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, J R; Martin, R L; Wong, M L; Ganem, D; Welch, W J; Lingappa, V R

    1994-04-01

    We have established a system for assembly of hepatitis B virus capsid, a homomultimer of the viral core polypeptide, using cell-free transcription-linked translation. The mature particles that are produced are indistinguishable from authentic viral capsids by four criteria: velocity sedimentation, buoyant density, protease resistance, and electron microscopic appearance. Production of unassembled core polypeptides can be uncoupled from production of capsid particles by decreasing core mRNA concentration. Addition of excess unlabeled core polypeptides allows the chase of the unassembled polypeptides into mature capsids. Using this cell-free system, we demonstrate that assembly of capsids proceeds by way of a novel high molecular weight intermediate. Upon isolation, the high molecular weight intermediate is productive of mature capsids when energy substrates are manipulated. A 60-kD protein related to the chaperonin t-complex polypeptide 1 (TCP-1) is found in association with core polypeptides in two different assembly intermediates, but is not associated with either the initial unassembled polypeptides or with the final mature capsid product. These findings implicate TCP-1 or a related chaperonin in viral assembly and raise the possibility that eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonins may play a distinctive role in multimer assembly apart from their involvement in assisting monomer folding.

  3. Characterization of soluble glycoprotein D-mediated herpes simplex virus type 1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvitov, Marianna; Frampton, Arthur R.; Shah, Waris A.; Wendell, Steven K.; Ozuer, Ali; Kapacee, Zoher; Goins, William F.; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry into permissive cells involves attachment to cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and fusion of the virus envelope with the cell membrane triggered by the binding of glycoprotein D (gD) to cognate receptors. In this study, we characterized the observation that soluble forms of the gD ectodomain (sgD) can mediate entry of gD-deficient HSV-1. We examined the efficiency and receptor specificity of this activity and used sequential incubation protocols to determine the order and stability of the initial interactions required for entry. Surprisingly, virus binding to GAGs did not increase the efficiency of sgD-mediated entry and gD-deficient virus was capable of attaching to GAG-deficient cells in the absence of sgD. These observations suggested a novel binding interaction that may play a role in normal HSV infection

  4. Herpes simplex-virus type 1 påvist hos patient med herpes zoster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia Louise; Schønning, Kristian; Larsen, Helle Kiellberg

    2012-01-01

    In this case report we present an otherwise healthy 63 year-old male patient with herpes zoster corresponding to the 2nd left branch of the trigeminal nerve. Real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses were positive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and varicella zoster virus (VZV......). The most probable explanation is that this reflects asymptomatic, latent expression of HSV-1 in a herpes zoster patient with no clinical relevance. Another hypothesis is that reactivation of a neurotropic herpes virus can reactivate another neurotropic virus if both types are present in the same ganglion....... If co-infection with HSV/VZV is suspected the treatment regimen for herpes zoster will sufficiently treat a possible HSV infection also....

  5. Are miRNAs critical determinants in herpes simplex virus pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhela, Siddheshvar; Rouse, Barry T

    2017-12-26

    miRNAs are small noncoding RNA that play a crucial role in gene regulation by inhibiting translation or promoting mRNA degradation. Viruses themselves express miRNAs that can target either the host or viral mRNA transcriptome. Moreover, viral infection of cells causes a drastic change in host miRNAs. This complex interaction between the host and viruses often favors the virus to evade immune elimination and favors the establishment and maintenance of latency. In this review we discuss the function of both host and viral miRNAs in regulating herpes simplex virus pathogenesis and also discuss the prospect of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic tools. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Social Stress and the Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, David A.; Sheridan, John F.; Dorne, Julianne; Berntson, Gary G.; Candelora, Jessica; Glaser, Ronald

    1998-06-01

    Psychological stress is thought to contribute to reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although several animal models have been developed in an effort to reproduce different pathogenic aspects of HSV keratitis or labialis, until now, no good animal model existed in which application of a psychological laboratory stressor results in reliable reactivation of the virus. Reported herein, disruption of the social hierarchy within colonies of mice increased aggression among cohorts, activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and caused reactivation of latent HSV type 1 in greater than 40% of latently infected animals. However, activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis using restraint stress did not activate the latent virus. Thus, the use of social stress in mice provides a good model in which to investigate the neuroendocrine mechanisms that underlie behaviorally mediated reactivation of latent herpes-viruses.

  7. Development of a foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A empty capsid subunit vaccine using silkworm (Bombyx mori pupae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Li

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that inflicts severe economic losses in the livestock industry. In 2009, FMDV serotype A caused outbreaks of FMD in cattle in China. Although an inactivated virus vaccine has proven effective to control FMD, its use may lead to new disease outbreaks due to a possible incomplete inactivation of the virus during the manufacturing process. Here, we expressed the P1-2A and the 3C coding regions of a serotype A FMDV field isolate in silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori and evaluated the immunogenicity of the expression products. Four of five cattle vaccinated with these proteins developed high titers of FMDV-specific antibody and were completely protected against virulent homologous virus challenge with 10,000 50% bovine infectious doses (BID(50. Furthermore, the 50% bovine protective dose (PD(50 test was performed to assess the bovine potency of the empty capsid subunit vaccine and was shown to achieve 4.33 PD(50 per dose. These data provide evidence that silkworm pupae can be used to express immunogenic FMDV proteins. This strategy might be used to develop a new generation of empty capsid subunit vaccines against a variety of diseases.

  8. Trametinib suppresses HIV-1 replication by interfering with the disassembly of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dochi, Takeo; Akita, Ayano; Kishimoto, Naoki; Takamune, Nobutoki; Misumi, Shogo

    2018-01-08

    Our previous study showed that the phosphorylation of a highly conserved serine residue, Ser 16 in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein is promoted by virion-incorporated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) and required for proper peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (Pin1)-mediated uncoating. Interestingly, western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylated/activated mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), the upstream activator of ERK2, as well as ERK2 are incorporated into virions. Here, we show that the MEK1/2 selective allosteric inhibitor Trametinib reduces HIV-1 infectivity via the decrease in virion-incorporated ERK2 phosphorylation. The treatment of chronic HIV-1-infected T-cell line, CEM/LAV-1 cells with Trametinib results in a decrease in ERK2 phosphorylation in the virions. The viruses have relatively low infectivity and impaired reverse transcription. Cell-based fate-of-capsid uncoating assay showed that the reduction in infectivity was caused by a functional impairment of the uncoating process. Furthermore, the viruses from Trametinib-treated CEM/LAV-1 cells also showed decreased reverse transcription efficiency and attenuated multiple rounds of replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Taken together, these findings suggest that Trametinib suppresses HIV-1 replication by abrogating the proper disassembly of CA core. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Amplification of reiterated sequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome to discriminate between clinical HSV-1 isolates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen); L. Remeijer (Lies); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); J. Buitenwerf (Johannes); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHerpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-related disease ranges from a localized, self-limiting illness to fatal disease in immunocompromised individuals. The corneal disease herpetic keratitis may develop after reactivation of a latent virus or reinfection with an exogenous herpesvirus.

  10. Amplification of reiterated sequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome to discriminate between clinical HSV-1 isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Maertzdorf (Jeroen); L. Remeijer (Lies); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); J. Buitenwerf (Johannes); H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHerpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-related disease ranges from a localized, self-limiting illness to fatal disease in immunocompromised individuals. The corneal disease herpetic keratitis may develop after reactivation of a latent virus or reinfection with an

  11. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and respiratory disease in critically-ill patients: Real pathogen or innocent bystander?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simoons-Smit, A. M.; Kraan, E. M.; Beishuizen, A.; Strack van Schijndel, R. J.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been associated with pulmonary disease, mostly in severely immunocompromised patients. After reactivation and shedding in the oropharynx, the virus may reach the lower respiratory tract by aspiration or by contiguous spread. HSV-1 can be detected in clinical

  12. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolar, N; Serdaroglu, S; Yilmaz, G; Ergin, S

    2006-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. The prevalence of herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) varies widely across the world. HSV-2 infection is the primary cause of genital herpes. It is highly prevalent in human populations in many parts of the world, and is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. In spite of the large prevalence and growing incidence of herpes simplex infection (HSV-1 and HSV-2), relatively few data have been published regarding the seroprevalence of herpes simplex infection, while no data exist regarding the Turkish population. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in selected populations in Turkey. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 2082 serum samples of 725 adults, 300 pregnant women, 200 blood donors, 483 sex workers and 110 patients with genital warts and 264 hotel staff in Istanbul, Turkey. All serum samples were assessed for HSV1 and HSV-2 IgG antibodies using an HSV-type specific, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The prevalence of HSV-2 and HSV-1 antibodies was 4.8 and 85.3% in sexually active adults; 5.5 and 96% in blood donors; 5 and 98% in pregnant women, 17.3 and 93.6% in patients with genital warts; 8.3 and 97.3% in hotel staff; and 60% and 99% in sex workers. These results confirm a higher prevalence of HSV infection than estimated, especially in high risk groups in Turkey. The high prevalence of HSV infection underlines the need for education among these populations.

  13. Imaging and Quantitation of a Succession of Transient Intermediates Reveal the Reversible Self-Assembly Pathway of a Simple Icosahedral Virus Capsid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, María; Fuertes, Miguel Ángel; Valbuena, Alejandro; Carrillo, Pablo J P; Rodríguez-Huete, Alicia; Mateu, Mauricio G

    2016-11-30

    Understanding the fundamental principles underlying supramolecular self-assembly may facilitate many developments, from novel antivirals to self-organized nanodevices. Icosahedral virus particles constitute paradigms to study self-assembly using a combination of theory and experiment. Unfortunately, assembly pathways of the structurally simplest virus capsids, those more accessible to detailed theoretical studies, have been difficult to study experimentally. We have enabled the in vitro self-assembly under close to physiological conditions of one of the simplest virus particles known, the minute virus of mice (MVM) capsid, and experimentally analyzed its pathways of assembly and disassembly. A combination of electron microscopy and high-resolution atomic force microscopy was used to structurally characterize and quantify a succession of transient assembly and disassembly intermediates. The results provided an experiment-based model for the reversible self-assembly pathway of a most simple (T = 1) icosahedral protein shell. During assembly, trimeric capsid building blocks are sequentially added to the growing capsid, with pentamers of building blocks and incomplete capsids missing one building block as conspicuous intermediates. This study provided experimental verification of many features of self-assembly of a simple T = 1 capsid predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. It also demonstrated atomic force microscopy imaging and automated analysis, in combination with electron microscopy, as a powerful single-particle approach to characterize at high resolution and quantify transient intermediates during supramolecular self-assembly/disassembly reactions. Finally, the efficient in vitro self-assembly achieved for the oncotropic, cell nucleus-targeted MVM capsid may facilitate its development as a drug-encapsidating nanoparticle for anticancer targeted drug delivery.

  14. Seroepidemiology of Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex & Varicella zoster virus in college women of Bushehr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Barazesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acute viral infections such as cytomegalovirus, Rubella, Herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus in pregnant women can cause congenital infection with increased risk of developing congenital anomalies and morbidity. We aimed to identify young women susceptible to these viral infections in Bushehr. Materials and Methods: In 2009, 180 female were randomly selected from high schools and college students who were been assisted in marriage consulting clinics. In this cross sectional study, IgG antibodies against varicella zoster virus (VZV, Herpes simplex virus I,II (HSV I,II , Rubella & cytomegalovirus (CMV were determined by indirect enzyme immunoassay (ELISA technique. Results: Mean age of the participants was 18.72 years old. %99.4 and %95 of sera were positive for cytomegalovirus & Rubella respectively and also Antibodies against VZV & HSV were detected in %74.5 & %69.4 of samples. There were no significant correlation between antibody seropositivity and education level, living places (rural or urban and occupation. (P<0/05. Conclusion: Although, The findings of this study indicated that high prevalence rate of VZV &HSV 1,2 in child bearing age women, but 1/3 -1/4 of them, are still susceptible to these infections, so routine screening of these viruses is suggested in antenatal care.

  15. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Repair and mutagenesis of herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated monkey cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lytle, C.D.; Goddard, J.G.; Lin, C.H.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic repair in mammalian cells was investigated by determining the mutagenesis of UV-irradiated or unirradiated herpes simplex virus in UV-irradiated CV-1 monkey kidney cells. These results were compared with the results for UV-enhanced virus reactivation (UVER) in the same experimental situation. High and low multiplicities of infection were used to determine the effects of multiplicity reactivation (MR). UVER and MR were readily demonstrable and were approximately equal in amount in an infectious center assay. For this study, a forward-mutation assay was developed to detect virus mutants resistant to iododeoxycytidine (ICdR), probably an indication of the mutant virus being defective at its thymidine kinase locus. ICdR-resistant mutants did not have a growth advantage over wild-type virus in irradiated or unirradiated cells. Thus, higher fractions of mutant virus indicated greater mutagenesis during virus repair and/or replication. The data showed that: (1) unirradiated virus was mutated in unirradiated cells, providing a background level of mutagenesis; (2) unirradiated virus was mutated about 40% more in irradiated cells, indicating that virus replication (DNA synthesis) became more mutagenic as a result of cell irradiation; (3) irradiated virus was mutated much more (about 6-fold) than unirradiated virus, even in unirradiated cells; (4) cell irradiation did not change the mutagenesis of irradiated virus except at high multiplicity of infection. High multiplicity of infection did not demonstrate UVER or MR alone to be either error-free or error-prone. When the two processes were present simultaneously, they were mutagenic. (orig.)

  17. Processing of the VP1/2A Junction Is Not Necessary for Production of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Empty Capsids and Infectious Viruses: Characterization of “Self-Tagged” Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullberg, Maria; Polacek, Charlotta; Bøtner, Anette

    2013-01-01

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor, P1-2A, is cleaved by 3Cpro to generate VP0, VP3, VP1, and the peptide 2A. The capsid proteins self-assemble into empty capsid particles or viruses which do not contain 2A. In a cell culture-adapted strain of FMDV (O1 Manisa [Lindholm...... the unmodified empty capsids in antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and integrin receptor binding assays. Furthermore, mutant viruses with uncleaved VP1-2A could be rescued in cells from full-length FMDV RNA transcripts encoding the K210E substitution in VP1. Thus, cleavage of the VP1/2A junction...

  18. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of cell-free synthesized Rift Valley fever virus nucleoprotein capsids enables in vitro screening to identify novel antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broce, Sean; Hensley, Lisa; Sato, Tomoharu; Lehrer-Graiwer, Joshua; Essrich, Christian; Edwards, Katie J; Pajda, Jacqueline; Davis, Christopher J; Bhadresh, Rami; Hurt, Clarence R; Freeman, Beverly; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Kelleher, Colm A; Karpuj, Marcela V

    2016-05-14

    Viral capsid assembly involves the oligomerization of the capsid nucleoprotein (NP), which is an essential step in viral replication and may represent a potential antiviral target. An in vitro transcription-translation reaction using a wheat germ (WG) extract in combination with a sandwich ELISA assay has recently been used to identify small molecules with antiviral activity against the rabies virus. Here, we examined the application of this system to viruses with capsids with a different structure, such as the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the etiological agent of a severe emerging infectious disease. The biochemical and immunological characterization of the in vitro-generated RVFV NP assembly products enabled the distinction between intermediately and highly ordered capsid structures. This distinction was used to establish a screening method for the identification of potential antiviral drugs for RVFV countermeasures. These results indicated that this unique analytical system, which combines nucleoprotein oligomerization with the specific immune recognition of a highly ordered capsid structure, can be extended to various viral families and used both to study the early stages of NP assembly and to assist in the identification of potential antiviral drugs in a cost-efficient manner. Reviewed by Jeffry Skolnick and Noah Isakov. For the full reviews please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  19. A lymphoblastoid response of human foetal lymphocytes to ultraviolet-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmoreland, D.

    1980-01-01

    Cultures of foetal lymphocytes were exposed to u.v.-irradiated herpes simplex virus (HSV). The cells responded with increased 6- 3 H-thymidine incorporation, the formation of clumps of enlarged lymphoblastoid cells and cell division. This response was first detected 3 to 4 days after exposure to virus material and was shown to be virus-dose dependent. The ability to stimulate foetal cells was considerably more u.v. resistant than infectivity. Two isolates of HSV type 2 (4663 and 37174), which had a high 'transforming' ability, produced large numbers of non-infectious particles (particle: infectivity ratios in excess of 10 4 ). The cells, which responded to u.v.-irradiated HSV with blastoid transformation, were associated with the non-E-rosetting (T-cell-depleted) subpopulation. (author)

  20. Characterization of the invariable residue 51 mutations of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein on in vitro CA assembly and infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höglund Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mature HIV-1 conical core formation proceeds through highly regulated protease cleavage of the Gag precursor, which ultimately leads to substantial rearrangements of the capsid (CAp24 molecule involving both inter- and intra-molecular contacts of the CAp24 molecules. In this aspect, Asp51 which is located in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CAp24 plays an important role by forming a salt-bridge with the free imino terminus Pro1 following proteolytic cleavage and liberation of the CAp24 protein from the Pr55Gag precursor. Thus, previous substitution mutation of Asp51 to alanine (D51A has shown to be lethal and that this invariable residue was found essential for tube formation in vitro, virus replication and virus capsid formation. Results We extended the above investigation by introducing three different D51 substitution mutations (D51N, D51E, and D51Q into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and studied their effects on in vitro capsid assembly and virus infectivity. Two substitution mutations (D51E and D51N had no substantial effect on in vitro capsid assembly, yet they impaired viral infectivity and particle production. In contrast, the D51Q mutant was defective both for in vitro capsid assembly and for virus replication in cell culture. Conclusion These results show that substitutions of D51 with glutamate, glutamine, or asparagine, three amino acid residues that are structurally related to aspartate, could partially rescue both in vitro capsid assembly and intra-cellular CAp24 production but not replication of the virus in cultured cells.

  1. [Herpes simplex virus bronchopneumonitis in patient with acute respiratory failure after surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Montesinos-De la Peña, M; Oteiza-López, L; Aldunate-Calvo, S; Gómez-Sánchez, M J; Sáenz-Bañuelos, J J; Tihista-Jiménez, J A

    2010-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus bronchopneumonitis is a clinical entity described in critically ill patients and classically associated to immunosuppression. Recent reports have shown a higher frequency of virus detection from samples obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of immunocompetent critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. This fact suggests its role as an independent pathogenic substrate. We report the case of a female patient who was admitted after an elective surgery of rectal tumor with suspected bronchoaspiration during anesthetic induction. The patient presented persistent fever despite broad spectrum antibiotic treatment. All cultures were negative for bacterial growth. The chest X-ray did not show opacifities. Prolonged mechanical ventilation with repeated failures to wean made it mandatory to perform percutaneous tracheostomy. A fibrobronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, performed previously, showed positive result for herpes simplex virus (PCR and specific nuclear inclusions in cells). Thus, treatment was initiated with acyclovir, with clinical improvement and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  3. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  4. Seroepidemiology of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in Anzali city 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rezaei-Chaparpordi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in Anzali city for the first time. Materials and Methods: 200 persons selected randomely and demographic data gathered. HSV-1, 2 and HSV-2 ELISA kits used to determine IgG type specific antibodies.Results: HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgG antibodies were positive in 131 (65.5% and 7(3.5% subjects. Conclusion: HSV-1 Was more prevalent than HSV-2 and seropositivity increased with age

  5. Network analysis of the hominin origin of Herpes Simplex virus 2 from fossil data

    OpenAIRE

    Underdown, Simon; Kumar, Krishna; Houldcroft, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but unknown hominin s...

  6. Network analysis of the hominin origin of Herpes Simplex virus 2 from fossil data

    OpenAIRE

    Underdown, Simon J.; Kumar, Krishna; Houldcroft, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but u...

  7. Treatment of rat gliomas with recombinant retrovirus harboring Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase suicide gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavaty, J.; Hlubinova, K.; Altanerova, V.; Liska, J.; Altaner, C.

    1997-01-01

    The retrovirus vector containing Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene was constructed. The vector was transfected into the packaging cell line PG13. It was shown that individual transfected cells differ in the production of recombinant retrovirus and in their susceptibility to be killed by ganciclovir. Recombinant retrovirus with a gibbon envelope was able to transduced the HSVtk gene into rat glioma cells. In vivo studies confirmed the ability of intraperitoneal ganciclovir administration to influence subcutaneous and intracerebral tumors developed after injection of C 6 rat glioma cells with subsequent injection of HSVtk retrovirus producing cells. (author)

  8. Advances in study of perpes simplex virus type 1-thymidine kinase reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying; Lan Xiaoli; Zhang Yongxue

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide reporter gene imaging is an effect way to provide qualitative and quantitative information for gene therapy. There are three systems of reporter gene including kinase reporter gene. perpes simplex virus type 1-thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) has perfect physical and chemical characteristic which is suit for imaging as reporter gene. It has been widely investigated and intensively researched. Two substrates of HSV1-tk are purine nucleosite derivant and acyclovir derivant, which can also be used as reporter probes of HSV1-tk. (authors)

  9. Conjunctival geographic ulcer: an overlooked sign of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Chu, Chang-Yao; Lee, Chaw-Ning; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chang, Kung-Chao; Huang, Fu-Chin

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) ocular infection causes significant visual burden worldwide. Despite the fact that dendritic or geographic corneal ulcers are typical findings in HSV epithelial keratitis, conjunctival ulcer as a sign of HSV infection has rarely been reported. Although easily overlooked, this important sign could be enhanced by fluorescein staining. We report two cases of conjunctival geographic ulcers proven to be HSV infection by viral isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One patient had bilateral disease and blepharitis, and the other had unilateral involvement without skin lesions. With timely diagnosis and proper management, excellent visual outcome can be expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospects and perspectives for development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Shane C; Schleiss, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 are human pathogens that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in certain clinical settings. The development of effective antiviral medications, however, has had little discernible impact on the epidemiology of these pathogens, largely because the majority of infections are clinically silent. Decades of work have gone into various candidate HSV vaccines, but to date none has demonstrated sufficient efficacy to warrant licensure. This review examines developments in HSV immunology and vaccine development published since 2010, and assesses the prospects for improved immunization strategies that may result in an effective, licensed vaccine in the near future.

  11. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wispelaere, Melissanne de; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Wilkens, Stephan; Rao, A.L.N.

    2011-01-01

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28 QPVIV 32 , highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28 QPVIV 32 to 28 AAAAA 32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  12. Structural basis for the physiological temperature dependence of the association of VP16 with the cytoplasmic tail of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Douglas E; Gross, Sarah T; Girvin, Mark E; Wilson, Duncan W

    2005-05-01

    Critical events in the life cycle of herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the binding of cytoplasmic capsids to cellular organelles and subsequent envelopment. Work from several laboratories suggests that these events occur as a result of a network of partially redundant interactions among the capsid surface, tegument components, and cytoplasmic tails of virally encoded glycoproteins. Consistent with this model, we previously showed that tegument protein VP16 can specifically interact with the cytoplasmic tail of envelope protein gH in vitro and in vivo when fused to glutathione S-transferase and to green fluorescent protein, respectively. In both instances, this association was strikingly temperature dependent: binding occurred only at 37 degrees C and not at lower temperatures. Here we demonstrate that virally expressed full-length gH and VP16 can be coimmunoprecipitated from HSV-infected cells and that this association is also critically dependent upon the physiological temperature. To investigate the basis of this temperature requirement, we performed one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy on peptides with the sequence of the gH tail. We found that the gH tail is disorganized at temperatures permissive for binding but becomes structured at lower temperatures. Furthermore, a mutated tail unable to adopt this rigid conformation binds VP16 even at 4 degrees C. We hypothesize that the gH tail is unstructured under physiological conditions in order to maximize the number of potential tegument partners with which it may associate. Being initially disordered, the gH tail may adopt one of several induced conformations as it associates with VP16 or alternative components of the tegument, maximizing redundancy during particle assembly.

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC mediates immune evasion in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, J M; Wang, L; Soulika, A M; Burger, R; Wetsel, R A; Colten, H; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J; Lambris, J D; Friedman, H M

    1998-10-01

    Many microorganisms encode proteins that interact with molecules involved in host immunity; however, few of these molecules have been proven to promote immune evasion in vivo. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein C (gC) binds complement component C3 and inhibits complement-mediated virus neutralization and lysis of infected cells in vitro. To investigate the importance of the interaction between gC and C3 in vivo, we studied the virulence of a gC-null strain in complement-intact and C3-deficient animals. Using a vaginal infection model in complement-intact guinea pigs, we showed that gC-null virus grows to lower titers and produces less severe vaginitis than wild-type or gC rescued virus, indicating a role for gC in virulence. To determine the importance of complement, studies were performed with C3-deficient guinea pigs; the results demonstrated significant increases in vaginal titers of gC-null virus, while wild-type and gC rescued viruses showed nonsignificant changes in titers. Similar findings were observed for mice where gC null virus produced significantly less disease than gC rescued virus at the skin inoculation site. Proof that C3 is important was provided by studies of C3 knockout mice, where disease scores of gC-null virus were significantly higher than in complement-intact mice. The results indicate that gC-null virus is approximately 100-fold (2 log10) less virulent that wild-type virus in animals and that gC-C3 interactions are involved in pathogenesis.

  14. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois F Maree

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces.

  15. Analysis of nucleotide sequence variations in herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, and varicella-zoster virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, A.; Suzutani, T.; Koyano, S.; Azuma, M.; Saijo, M.

    1998-01-01

    To analyze the difference in the degree of divergence between genes from identical herpes virus species, we examined the nucleotide sequence of genes from the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-l ) strains VR-3 and 17 encoding thymidine kinase (TK), deoxyribonuclease (DNase), protein kinase (PK; UL13) and virion-associated host shut off (vhs) protein (UL41). The frequency of nucleotide substitutions per 1 kb in TK gene was 2.5 to 4.3 times higher than those in the other three genes. To prove that the polymorphism of HSV-1 TK gene is common characteristic of herpes virus TK genes, we compared the diversity of TK genes among eight HSV-l , six herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and seven varicella-zoster virus (VZV) strains. The average frequency of nucleotide substitutions per 1 kb in the TK gene of HSV-l strains was 4-fold higher than that in the TK gene of HSV-2 strains. The VZV TK gene was highly conserved and only two nucleotide changes were evident in VZV strains. However, the rate of non-synonymous substitutions in total nucleotide substitutions was similar among the TK genes of the three viruses. This result indicated that the mutational rates differed, but there were no significant differences in selective pressure. We conclude that HSV-l TK gene is highly diverged and analysis of variations in the gene is a useful approach for understanding the molecular evolution of HSV-l in a short period. (authors)

  16. Fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the driving force of codon usage bias in the hepatitis A virus capsid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Aragonès

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV, the prototype of genus Hepatovirus, has several unique biological characteristics that distinguish it from other members of the Picornaviridae family. Among these, the need for an intact eIF4G factor for the initiation of translation results in an inability to shut down host protein synthesis by a mechanism similar to that of other picornaviruses. Consequently, HAV must inefficiently compete for the cellular translational machinery and this may explain its poor growth in cell culture. In this context of virus/cell competition, HAV has strategically adopted a naturally highly deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cellular host. With the aim to optimize its codon usage the virus was adapted to propagate in cells with impaired protein synthesis, in order to make tRNA pools more available for the virus. A significant loss of fitness was the immediate response to the adaptation process that was, however, later on recovered and more associated to a re-deoptimization rather than to an optimization of the codon usage specifically in the capsid coding region. These results exclude translation selection and instead suggest fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the underlying mechanism of the codon usage bias in this specific genome region. Additionally, the results provide clear evidence of the Red Queen dynamics of evolution since the virus has very much evolved to re-adapt its codon usage to the environmental cellular changing conditions in order to recover the original fitness.

  17. Yellow fever virus capsid protein is a potent suppressor of RNA silencing that binds double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Glady Hazitha; Wiley, Michael R; Badawi, Atif; Adelman, Zach N; Myles, Kevin M

    2016-11-29

    Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV), profoundly affect human health. The successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. Similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's RNA silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. Although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has been found to encode suppressors of RNA silencing, the mechanisms by which flaviviruses antagonize antiviral small RNA pathways in disease vectors are unknown. Here we describe a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) encoded by the prototype flavivirus, YFV. We show that the YFV capsid (YFC) protein inhibits RNA silencing in the mosquito Aedes aegypti by interfering with Dicer. This VSR activity appears to be broadly conserved in the C proteins of other medically important flaviviruses, including that of ZIKV. These results suggest that a molecular "arms race" between vector and pathogen underlies the continued existence of flaviviruses in nature.

  18. Functional hierarchy of herpes simplex virus type-1 membrane proteins in corneal infection and virus transmission to ganglionic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Joong; Saied, Ahmad A; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Subramanian, Ramesh; Kousoulas, Konstantin G

    2014-12-01

    To determine the relative importance of viral glycoproteins gK, gM, gE and the membrane protein UL11 in infection of mouse corneas and ganglionic neurons. Mouse eyes were scarified and infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1(F), gE-null, gM-null, gK-null, or UL11-null viruses. Clinical signs of ocular disease were monitored daily. Virus shedding was determined at 24, 48 and 72 h post infection. Viral DNA within trigeminal ganglia (TG) was quantified by quantitative PCR at 30 d post infection. The gE-null virus replicated as efficiently as the parental virus and formed viral plaques approximately half-the-size in comparison with the HSV-1(F) wild-type virus. The UL11-null and gM-null viruses replicated approximately one log less efficiently than the wild-type virus, and formed plaques that were on average one-third the size and one-half the size of the wild-type virus, respectively. The gK-null virus replicated more than 3-logs less efficiently than the wild-type virus and formed very small plaques (5-10 cells). Mice infected with the wild-type virus exhibited mild clinical ocular symptoms, while mice infected with the mutant viruses did not show any significant ocular changes. The wild-type virus produced the highest virus shedding post infection followed by the gM-null, gE-null and UL11-null viruses, while no gK-null virus was detected at any time point. All TG collected from mice infected with the wild-type virus and 6-of-10 of TG retrieved from mice infected with the UL11-null virus contained high numbers of viral genomes. The gE-null and gM-null-infected ganglia contained moderate-to-low number of viral genomes in 4-of-10 and 2-of-10 mice, respectively. No viral genomes were detected in ganglionic tissues obtained from gK-null eye infections. The results show that gK plays the most important role among gM, gE and UL11 in corneal and ganglionic infection in the mouse eye model.

  19. Computational sensing of herpes simplex virus using a cost-effective on-chip microscope

    KAUST Repository

    Ray, Aniruddha

    2017-07-03

    Caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), herpes is a viral infection that is one of the most widespread diseases worldwide. Here we present a computational sensing technique for specific detection of HSV using both viral immuno-specificity and the physical size range of the viruses. This label-free approach involves a compact and cost-effective holographic on-chip microscope and a surface-functionalized glass substrate prepared to specifically capture the target viruses. To enhance the optical signatures of individual viruses and increase their signal-to-noise ratio, self-assembled polyethylene glycol based nanolenses are rapidly formed around each virus particle captured on the substrate using a portable interface. Holographic shadows of specifically captured viruses that are surrounded by these self-assembled nanolenses are then reconstructed, and the phase image is used for automated quantification of the size of each particle within our large field-of-view, ~30 mm2. The combination of viral immuno-specificity due to surface functionalization and the physical size measurements enabled by holographic imaging is used to sensitively detect and enumerate HSV particles using our compact and cost-effective platform. This computational sensing technique can find numerous uses in global health related applications in resource-limited environments.

  20. Enhanced replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.S.; Smith, K.O.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of DNA-damaging agents on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were assessed in vitro. Monolayers of human lung fibroblast cell lines were exposed to DNA-damaging agents (methyl methanesulfonate [MMS], methyl methanethiosulfonate [MMTS], ultraviolet light [UV], or gamma radiation [GR]) at specific intervals, before or after inoculation with low levels of HSV-1. The ability of cell monolayers to support HSV-1 replication was measured by direct plaque assay and was compared with that of untreated control samples. In this system, monolayers of different cell lines infected with identical HSV-1 strains demonstrated dissimilar levels of recovery of the infectious virus. Exposure of DNA-repair-competent cell cultures to DNA-damaging agents produced time-dependent enhanced virus replication. Treatment with agent before virus inoculation significantly (p less than 0.025) increased the number of plaques by 10 to 68%, compared with untreated control cultures, while treatment with agent after virus adsorption significantly increased (p less than 0.025) the number of plaques by 7 to 15%. In a parallel series of experiments, cells deficient in DNA repair (xeroderma pigmentosum) failed to support enhanced virus replication. These results suggest that after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, fibroblasts competent in DNA repair amplify the replication of HSV-1, and that DNA-repair mechanisms that act on a variety of chromosomal lesions may be involved in the repair and biological activation of HSV-1 genomes

  1. ME-609: a treatment for recurrent herpes simplex virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmenberg, Johan G; Awan, Aftab R; Alenius, Stefan; Ståhle, Lars; Erlandsson, Anna C; Lekare, Gunilla; Flink, Ola; Augustsson, Elisabeth; Larsson, Torbjörn; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte; Stierna, Pontus; Field, Hugh J; Larsson, Alf G; Oberg, Bo

    2003-07-01

    Studies in conventional murine models of HSV infection use immunologically naive animals. These models thus mimic primary infections rather than recurrent infections in humans. We have, therefore, used a newly developed mouse model that more closely mimics recurrent HSV infection in humans. In this model, the mice are infected, and zosteriform HSV-1 infection develops in the presence of a primed immune response using adoptive transfer of immunity (ATI) as we have described previously. Using the ATI mouse model, it has been shown that a more beneficial therapy for recurrent mucocutaneous HSV infection could be achieved by controlling both the viral replication and the inflammatory response to the virus. Topical treatment was initiated in this model at the time of first occurrence of symptoms and was given three times daily for 4 days. Topical treatment with ME-609 (which contains 5% acyclovir and 1% hydrocortisone) in the ATI mouse model was substantially more efficacious than 5% Zovirax cream, 1% hydrocortisone or no treatment, respectively. The beneficial properties of ME-609 were also found to be superior to those of Zovirax cream when tested in the standard guinea pig model, representing a primary HSV infection. ME-609 represents a novel treatment principle of recurrent HSV infections and the present paper summarizes the preclinical and early clinical experience of ME-609.

  2. Radioimmunoassay for herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirt, P.V.; Keller, P.M.; Elion, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitive RIA for HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) has been developed. This assay is based on competition for the binding site of a rabbit antibody against purified HSV-1 TK, between a purified 3 H-labeled HSV-1 TK and a sample containing an unknown amount of viral TK. The assay is capable of detecting 8 ng or more of the HSV enzyme. Purified HSV-1 TK denatured to <1% of its original kinase activity is as effective in binding to the antibody as is native HSV-1 TK. Viral TK is detectable at ranges of 150-460 ng/mg protein of cell extract from infected cells or cells transformed by HSV or HSV genetic material. HSV-2 TK appears highly cross-reactive, VZV TK is slightly less so, and the vaccinia TK shows little or no cross-reactivity. This RIA may serve as a tool for monitoring the expression of the HSV TK during an active herpes virus infection, a latent ganglionic infection, or in neoplastic cells which may have arisen by viral transformation

  3. REACTIVITY OF ANTI-CAPSID MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES WITH NATIVE AD RECOMBINANT PROTEIN OF JEMBRANA DISEASE VIRUS REAKTIVITAS ANTIBODI MONOKLONAL ANTI-KAPSID DENGAN PROTEIN NATIF DAN PROTEIN REKOMBINAN VIRUS PENYAKIT JEMBRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Mantik Astawa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reactivity of anti-capsid monoclonal antibody (mAbs with both native and recombinant protein of Jembrana Disease Virus (JDV was examined. The monocloncal antibodies were produced by fusion of my.loma cells with lymphocytes of mice immunized with JDV antigen. Ten mAbs were produced and they designated as CC12, BB7, AH7, BD2, DB2, AF9, BC10, AG7, AH4 and CB11. In ELISA test, all mAbs reacted with recombinant proteins (glutation-8-transferase-capsid/GST-Ca and histidine tagged capsid/His-Ca but not with GST alone.

  4. Treatment of colon cancer with oncolytic herpes simplex virus in preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Peng, T; Li, J; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Zhang, P; Peng, S; Du, T; Li, Y; Yan, Q; Liu, B

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are a rare population in any type of cancer, including colon cancer, are tumorigenic and responsible for cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a number of different solid tumors recently, although the isolation of CSCs in colon cancer is still challenging. We cultured colon cancer cells in stem cell medium to obtain colonosphere cells. These cells possessed the characteristics of CSCs, with a high capacity of tumorigenicity, migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. The isolation and identification of CSCs have provided new targets for the therapeutics. Oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (oHSV) are an effective strategy for killing colon cancer cells in preclinical models. Here, we examined the efficacy of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (oHSV2) in killing colon cancer cells and colon cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). oHSV2 was found to be highly cytotoxic to the adherent and sphere cells in vitro, and oHSV2 treatment in vivo significantly inhibited tumor growth. This study demonstrates that oHSV2 is effective against colon cancer cells and colon CSLCs and could be a promising strategy for treating colon cancer patients.

  5. Isolation of herpes simplex virus from the genital tract during symptomatic recurrence on the buttocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkering, Katrina; Gardella, Carolyn; Selke, Stacy; Krantz, Elizabeth; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2006-10-01

    To estimate the frequency of isolation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from the genital tract when recurrent herpes lesions were present on the buttocks. Data were extracted from a prospectively observed cohort attending a research clinic for genital herpes infections between 1975 and 2001. All patients with a documented herpes lesion on the buttocks, upper thigh or gluteal cleft ("buttock recurrence") and concomitant viral cultures from genital sites including the perianal region were eligible. We reviewed records of 237 subjects, 151 women and 86 men, with a total of 572 buttock recurrences. Of the 1,592 days with genital culture information during a buttock recurrence, participants had concurrent genital lesions on 311 (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14-27%) of these days. Overall, HSV was isolated from the genital region on 12% (95% CI 8-17%) of days during a buttock recurrence. In the absence of genital lesions, HSV was isolated from the genital area on 7% (95% CI 4%-11%) of days during a buttock recurrence and, among women, from the vulvar or cervical sites on 1% of days. Viral shedding of herpes simplex virus from the genital area is a relatively common occurrence during a buttock recurrence of genital herpes, even without concurrent genital lesions, reflecting perhaps reactivation from concomitant regions of the sacral neural ganglia. Patients with buttock herpes recurrences should be instructed about the risk of genital shedding during such recurrences. II-2.

  6. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines.

  7. Rise in seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 among highly sexual active homosexual men and an increasing association between herpes simplex virus type 2 and HIV over time (1984-2003)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Colette; Pfrommer, Christiaan; Mindel, Adrian; Taylor, Janette; Spaargaren, Joke; Berkhout, Ben; Coutinho, Roel; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are both highly prevalent. The rate of genital HSV-1 transmission is reportedly increasing over time. HSV-2 is considered to be an important risk factor for HIV transmission. We therefore studied changes in the HSV-1 and HSV-2

  8. Neuronal Interferon Signaling Is Required for Protection against Herpes Simplex Virus Replication and Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Pamela C.; Leib, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) responses are critical for controlling herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The importance of neuronal IFN signaling in controlling acute and latent HSV-1 infection remains unclear. Compartmentalized neuron cultures revealed that mature sensory neurons respond to IFNβ at both the axon and cell body through distinct mechanisms, resulting in control of HSV-1. Mice specifically lacking neural IFN signaling succumbed rapidly to HSV-1 corneal infection, demonstrating that IFN responses of the immune system and non-neuronal tissues are insufficient to confer survival following virus challenge. Furthermore, neurovirulence was restored to an HSV strain lacking the IFN-modulating gene, γ34.5, despite its expected attenuation in peripheral tissues. These studies define a crucial role for neuronal IFN signaling for protection against HSV-1 pathogenesis and replication, and they provide a novel framework to enhance our understanding of the interface between host innate immunity and neurotropic pathogens. PMID:26153886

  9. Latent acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 in trigeminal ganglia of immunocompetent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Monique; van Loenen, Freek B; Meesters, Roland J W; de Graaf, Miranda; Remeijer, Lies; Luider, Theo M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2012-05-15

    Specific mutations within the hypervariable herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene thymidine kinase (TK) gene lead to acyclovir (ACV) resistance. To uncover the existence of latent ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1, we determined the genetic and functional variability of the HSV-1 TK gene pool in paired trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 5 immunocompetent individuals. The latent virus pool consisted of a donor-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major ACV-sensitive (ACV(S)) and multiple phylogenetic-related minor ACV(S) and ACV(R) TK variants. Contrary to minor variants, major TK variants were shared between paired TG. The data demonstrate the coexistence of phylogenetic-related ACV(S) and ACV(R) latent HSV-1 in human TG.

  10. Infection and Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Neurons: Role of the Cytoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Miranda-Saksena

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication, and exit. Therefore, HSV-1 has adapted mechanisms to promote its survival by exploiting the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons to direct its active transport, infection, and spread between neurons and epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infections. This review will focus on the currently known mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to harness the neuronal cytoskeleton, molecular motors, and the secretory and exocytic pathways for efficient virus entry, axonal transport, replication, assembly, and exit from the distinct functional compartments (cell body and axon of the highly polarized sensory neurons.

  11. Evasion of Cytosolic DNA-Stimulated Innate Immune Responses by Herpes Simplex Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunfu

    2018-03-15

    Recognition of virus-derived nucleic acids by host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is crucial for early defense against viral infections. Recent studies revealed that PRRs also include several newly identified DNA sensors, most of which could activate the downstream adaptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING) and lead to the production of host antiviral factors. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is extremely successful in establishing effective infections, due to its capacity to counteract host innate antiviral responses. In this Gem, I summarize the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to target different steps of the cellular DNA-sensor-mediated antiviral signal pathway. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Infection and Transport of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Neurons: Role of the Cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a neuroinvasive human pathogen that has the ability to infect and replicate within epithelial cells and neurons and establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. HSV-1 depends on the host cellular cytoskeleton for entry, replication, and exit. Therefore, HSV-1 has adapted mechanisms to promote its survival by exploiting the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons to direct its active transport, infection, and spread between neurons and epithelial cells during primary and recurrent infections. This review will focus on the currently known mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to harness the neuronal cytoskeleton, molecular motors, and the secretory and exocytic pathways for efficient virus entry, axonal transport, replication, assembly, and exit from the distinct functional compartments (cell body and axon) of the highly polarized sensory neurons. PMID:29473915

  13. Role for herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 in the inhibition of type I interferon signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Karen E.; Song, Byeongwoon; Knipe, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Host cells respond to viral infection by many mechanisms, including the production of type I interferons which act in a paracrine and autocrine manner to induce the expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Viruses have evolved means to inhibit interferon signaling to avoid induction of the innate immune response. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has several mechanisms to inhibit type I interferon production, the activities of ISGs, and the interferon signaling pathway itself. We report that the inhibition of the Jak/STAT pathway by HSV-1 requires viral gene expression and that viral immediate-early protein ICP27 plays a role in downregulating STAT-1 phosphorylation and in preventing the accumulation of STAT-1 in the nucleus. We also show that expression of ICP27 by transfection causes an inhibition of IFN-induced STAT-1 nuclear accumulation. Therefore, ICP27 is necessary and sufficient for at least some of the effects of HSV infection on STAT-1

  14. An atypical case of herpes simplex virus endotheliitis presented as bullous keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Lamprini; Tsolkas, Georgios; Theodossiadis, Panagiotis; Papathanassiou, Miltiadis

    2013-12-01

    To present an atypical case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) endotheliitis. The authors report the case of a 62-year-old female patient who presented with unilateral diffuse corneal edema with Descemet's membrane folds and bullae, without keratic precipitates, iritis, significant anterior chamber reaction, or intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. The patient had no documented positive history of ocular surgery and no abnormal findings were present in the fellow eye. Endotheliitis of viral origin was suspected and Goldmann-Witmer coefficient for HSV, cytomegalovirus, and varicela zoster virus was calculated. Goldmann-Witmer coefficient was positive for HSV. Treatment with oral valacyclovir and topical dexamethasone resulted in complete resolution of corneal edema within 1 week. HSV endotheliitis can present with bullous keratopathy as the only clinical manifestation, without typical findings such as keratic precipitates, iritis, and IOP elevation.

  15. Restarting Lytic Gene Transcription at the Onset of Herpes Simplex Virus Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliffe, Anna R; Wilson, Angus C

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a latent reservoir in neurons of human peripheral nerves. In this quiescent state, the viral genome persists as a circular, histone-associated episome, and transcription of viral lytic cycle genes is largely suppressed through epigenetic processes. Periodically, latent virus undergoes reactivation whereby lytic genes are activated and viral replication occurs. In this Gem, we review recent evidence that mechanisms governing the initial transcription of lytic genes are distinct from those of de novo infection and directly link reactivation to neuronal stress response pathways. We also discuss evidence that lytic cycle gene expression can be uncoupled from the full reactivation program, arguing for a less sharply bimodal definition of latency. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Asymptomatic Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Iranian Mothers and Their Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Ahmad; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Mollaei, Hamidreza; Abedi-Kiasari, Bahman; Fallah, Fatemeh Hoda; Mortazavi, Helya Sadat

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection among pregnant women as well as congenital infection of their newborns in Tehran. One hundred samples of blood sera from pregnant women were analyzed for the presence of HSV specific antibodies. Umbilical cord blood samples from the newborns were analyzed for the presence of HSV DNA using real-time PCR. HSV IgG and IgM antibodies were found in 97% and 2% of pregnant women, respectively. Of all the 100 cord blood samples, 6 were positive for HSV DNA in which 2 cases were from mothers who had detectable IgM. It was notable that all corresponding mothers of six HSV positive infants had detectable IgG antibodies in their sera. It was demonstrated that the presence of HSV DNA in cord blood of newborns could be a risk marker for maternal-fetal transmission of the virus in asymptomatic pregnant women.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and safety of famciclovir in children with herpes simplex or varicella-zoster virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, X; Yogev, R; Arguedas, A; Rodriguez, A; Spigarelli, M G; De León Castrejón, T; Bomgaars, L; Roberts, M; Abrams, B; Zhou, W; Looby, M; Kaiser, G; Hamed, K

    2009-05-01

    Two multicenter, open-label, single-arm, two-phase studies evaluated single-dose pharmacokinetics and single- and multiple-dose safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir formulation (prodrug of penciclovir) in children aged 1 to 12 years with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. Pooled pharmacokinetic data were generated after single doses in 51 participants (approximately 12.5 mg/kg of body weight [BW] for children weighing or = 40 kg). The average systemic exposure to penciclovir was similar (6- to 12-year-olds) or slightly lower (1- to sprinkle capsules in OraSweet) was acceptable to participants/caregivers. In summary, we present a weight-adjusted dosing schedule for children that achieves systemic exposures similar to those for adults given the 500-mg dose.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Famciclovir in Children with Herpes Simplex or Varicella-Zoster Virus Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Llorens, X.; Yogev, R.; Arguedas, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Spigarelli, M. G.; De León Castrejón, T.; Bomgaars, L.; Roberts, M.; Abrams, B.; Zhou, W.; Looby, M.; Kaiser, G.; Hamed, K.

    2009-01-01

    Two multicenter, open-label, single-arm, two-phase studies evaluated single-dose pharmacokinetics and single- and multiple-dose safety of a pediatric oral famciclovir formulation (prodrug of penciclovir) in children aged 1 to 12 years with suspicion or evidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection. Pooled pharmacokinetic data were generated after single doses in 51 participants (∼12.5 mg/kg of body weight [BW] for children weighing sprinkle capsules in OraSweet) was acceptable to participants/caregivers. In summary, we present a weight-adjusted dosing schedule for children that achieves systemic exposures similar to those for adults given the 500-mg dose. PMID:19273678

  19. Herpes simplex virus glycoproteins gB and gH function in fusion between the virion envelope and the outer nuclear membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Aaron; Wisner, Todd W; Webb, Michael; Roller, Richard; Cohen, Gary; Eisenberg, Roselyn; Johnson, David C

    2007-06-12

    Herpesviruses must traverse the nuclear envelope to gain access to the cytoplasm and, ultimately, to exit cells. It is believed that herpesvirus nucleocapsids enter the perinuclear space by budding through the inner nuclear membrane (NM). To reach the cytoplasm these enveloped particles must fuse with the outer NM and the unenveloped capsids then acquire a second envelope in the trans-Golgi network. Little is known about the process by which herpesviruses virions fuse with the outer NM. Here we show that a herpes simplex virus (HSV) mutant lacking both the two putative fusion glycoproteins gB and gH failed to cross the nuclear envelope. Enveloped virions accumulated in the perinuclear space or in membrane vesicles that bulged into the nucleoplasm (herniations). By contrast, mutants lacking just gB or gH showed only minor or no defects in nuclear egress. We concluded that either HSV gB or gH can promote fusion between the virion envelope and the outer NM. It is noteworthy that fusion associated with HSV entry requires the cooperative action of both gB and gH, suggesting that the two types of fusion (egress versus entry) are dissimilar processes.

  20. Herpes simplex virus internalization into epithelial cells requires Na+/H+ exchangers and p21-activated kinases but neither clathrin- nor caveolin-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadas, Deepika; Koithan, Thalea; Diestel, Randi; Prank, Ute; Sodeik, Beate; Döhner, Katinka

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that has been reported to infect some epithelial cell types by fusion at the plasma membrane but others by endocytosis. To determine the molecular mechanisms of productive HSV-1 cell entry, we perturbed key endocytosis host factors using specific inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi), or overexpression of dominant negative proteins and investigated their effects on HSV-1 infection in the permissive epithelial cell lines Vero, HeLa, HEp-2, and PtK2. HSV-1 internalization required neither endosomal acidification nor clathrin- or caveolin-mediated endocytosis. In contrast, HSV-1 gene expression and internalization were significantly reduced after treatment with 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA). EIPA blocks the activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, which are plasma membrane proteins implicated in all forms of macropinocytosis. HSV-1 internalization furthermore required the function of p21-activated kinases that contribute to macropinosome formation. However, in contrast to some forms of macropinocytosis, HSV-1 did not enlist the activities of protein kinase C (PKC), tyrosine kinases, C-terminal binding protein 1, or dynamin to activate its internalization. These data suggest that HSV-1 depends on Na(+)/H(+) exchangers and p21-activated kinases either for macropinocytosis or for local actin rearrangements required for fusion at the plasma membrane or subsequent passage through the actin cortex underneath the plasma membrane. After initial replication in epithelial cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) establish latent infections in neurons innervating these regions. Upon primary infection and reactivation from latency, HSVs cause many human skin and neurological diseases, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, despite the availability of effective antiviral drugs. Many viruses use macropinocytosis for virus internalization, and many host factors mediating this entry route have been identified, although the

  1. Disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection between black and white men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Netochukwu; Rosenberg, Eli S; Luisi, Nicole; Sanchez, Travis; del Rio, Carlos; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kelley, Colleen F

    2015-09-01

    HIV disproportionately affects black men who have sex with men, and herpes simplex virus type 2 is known to increase acquisition of HIV. However, data on racial disparities in herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence and risk factors are limited among men who have sex with men in the United States. InvolveMENt was a cohort study of black and white HIV-negative men who have sex with men in Atlanta, GA. Univariate and multivariate cross-sectional associations with herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence were assessed among 455 HIV-negative men who have sex with men for demographic, behavioural and social determinant risk factors using logistic regression. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 was 23% (48/211) for black and 16% (38/244) for white men who have sex with men (p = 0.05). Education, poverty, drug/alcohol use, incarceration, circumcision, unprotected anal intercourse, and condom use were not associated with herpes simplex virus type 2. In multivariate analyses, black race for those ≤25 years, but not >25 years, and number of sexual partners were significantly associated. Young black men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by herpes simplex virus type 2, which may contribute to disparities in HIV acquisition. An extensive assessment of risk factors did not explain this disparity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection suggesting differences in susceptibility or partner characteristics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. The complex subcellular distribution of satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein reflects its multifunctional role during infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Dong; Omarov, Rustem T.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.

    2008-01-01

    Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus for replication and movement in host plants. The positive-sense single-stranded genomic RNA of SPMV encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) to form 16-nm virions. We determined that SPMV CP accumulates in both cytosolic and non-cytosolic fractions, but cytosolic accumulation of SPMV CP is exclusively associated with virions. An N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N-ARM) on SPMV CP is used to bind its cognate RNA and to form virus particles. Intriguingly, virion formation is dispensable for successful systemic SPMV RNA accumulation, yet this process still depends on an intact N-ARM. In addition, a C-terminal domain on the SPMV CP is necessary for self-interaction. Biochemical fractionation and fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged SPMV CP demonstrated that the non-cytosolic SPMV CP is associated with the cell wall, the nucleus and other membranous organelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a satellite virus CP not only accumulates exclusively as virions in the cytosol but also is directed to the nucleolus and membranes. That SPMV CP is found both in the nucleus and the cell wall suggests its involvement in viral nuclear import and cell-to-cell transport

  3. Quantification of viral DNA and liver enzymes in plasma improves early diagnosis and management of herpes simplex virus hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F.C. Beersma (Thijs); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); H.J. Metselaar (Herold); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); W.R. Berrington; G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHerpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare and potential life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of HSV hepatitis is hampered by its indifferent clinical presentation, which necessitates confirmatory laboratory data to identify HSV in the affected liver. However, liver biopsies are

  4. Dendritic cells mediate herpes simplex virus infection and transmission through the C-type lectin DC-SIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; de Witte, Lot; Bolmstedt, Anders; van Kooyk, Yvette; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the induction of specific immune responses against invading pathogens. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen that causes painful but mild infections of the skin and mucosa, and which results in latency and recurrent infections. Of the two HSV

  5. Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendry, Anna; Narayana, Srinivasulu; Browne, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus have been described in HIV. We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 2 induces rapid cell death and functional impairment of murine dendritic cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, CA; Fernandez, M; Herc, K; Bosnjak, L; Miranda-Saksena, M; Boadle, RA; Cunningham, A

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical for stimulation of naive T cells. Little is known about the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection on DC structure or function or if the observed effects of HSV-1 on human DC are reproduced in murine DC. Here, we demonstrate that by 12 h

  7. Construction of rat cell lines that contain potential morphologically transforming regions of the herpes simplex virus type 2 genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, F. M.; van Amstel, P. J.; Walboomers, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Hybrid recombinant plasmids were constructed; they were composed of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) thymidine kinase (tk) gene and DNA sequences of HSV2 that have been reported to induce morphological and/or oncogenic transformation of rodent cells in culture. Several plasmids were made in

  8. Studies on virus-induced cell fusion. Progress report, August 1, 1975--April 30, 1976. [Herpes simplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, S.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: mechanism of cell fusion induced by fusion-causing mutants of herpes simplex virus type I; quantitative assays for kinetics of cell fusion; neutral sphingoglycolipids in wild type and mutant infected cells; effects of alteration in oligosaccharide metabolism on cell fusion; and blocking of fusion by ..beta..-galactosidase and NH/sub 4/Cl. (HLW)

  9. Glycoprotein I of herpes simplex virus type 1 contains a unique polymorphic tandem-repeated mucin region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Peter; Olofsson, Sigvard; Tarp, Mads Agervig

    2007-01-01

    Glycoprotein I (gI) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) contains a tandem repeat (TR) region including the amino acids serine and threonine, residues that can be utilized for O-glycosylation. The length of this TR region was determined for 82 clinical HSV-1 isolates and the results revealed...

  10. The smallest capsid protein mediates binding of the essential tegument protein pp150 to stabilize DNA-containing capsids in human cytomegalovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghong Dai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus that causes birth defects in newborns and life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals. Among all human herpesviruses, HCMV contains a much larger dsDNA genome within a similarly-sized capsid compared to the others, and it was proposed to require pp150, a tegument protein only found in cytomegaloviruses, to stabilize its genome-containing capsid. However, little is known about how pp150 interacts with the underlying capsid. Moreover, the smallest capsid protein (SCP, while dispensable in herpes simplex virus type 1, was shown to play essential, yet undefined, role in HCMV infection. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM, we determine three-dimensional structures of HCMV capsid (no pp150 and virion (with pp150 at sub-nanometer resolution. Comparison of these two structures reveals that each pp150 tegument density is composed of two helix bundles connected by a long central helix. Correlation between the resolved helices and sequence-based secondary structure prediction maps the tegument density to the N-terminal half of pp150. The structures also show that SCP mediates interactions between the capsid and pp150 at the upper helix bundle of pp150. Consistent with this structural observation, ribozyme inhibition of SCP expression in HCMV-infected cells impairs the formation of DNA-containing viral particles and reduces viral yield by 10,000 fold. By cryoEM reconstruction of the resulting "SCP-deficient" viral particles, we further demonstrate that SCP is required for pp150 functionally binding to the capsid. Together, our structural and biochemical results point to a mechanism whereby SCP recruits pp150 to stabilize genome-containing capsid for the production of infectious HCMV virion.

  11. The ATP-Dependent RNA Helicase DDX3X Modulates Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadivjam, Bita; Stegen, Camille; Hogue-Racine, Marc-Aurèle; El Bilali, Nabil; Döhner, Katinka; Sodeik, Beate; Lippé, Roger

    2017-04-15

    The human protein DDX3X is a DEAD box ATP-dependent RNA helicase that regulates transcription, mRNA maturation, and mRNA export and translation. DDX3X concomitantly modulates the replication of several RNA viruses and promotes innate immunity. We previously showed that herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a human DNA virus, incorporates DDX3X into its mature particles and that DDX3X is required for optimal HSV-1 infectivity. Here, we show that viral gene expression, replication, and propagation depend on optimal DDX3X protein levels. Surprisingly, DDX3X from incoming viral particles was not required for the early stages of the HSV-1 infection, but, rather, the protein controlled the assembly of new viral particles. This was independent of the previously reported ability of DDX3X to stimulate interferon type I production. Instead, both the lack and overexpression of DDX3X disturbed viral gene transcription and thus subsequent genome replication. This suggests that in addition to its effect on RNA viruses, DDX3X impacts DNA viruses such as HSV-1 by an interferon-independent pathway. IMPORTANCE Viruses interact with a variety of cellular proteins to complete their life cycle. Among them is DDX3X, an RNA helicase that participates in most aspects of RNA biology, including transcription, splicing, nuclear export, and translation. Several RNA viruses and a limited number of DNA viruses are known to manipulate DDX3X for their own benefit. In contrast, DDX3X is also known to promote interferon production to limit viral propagation. Here, we show that DDX3X, which we previously identified in mature HSV-1 virions, stimulates HSV-1 gene expression and, consequently, virion assembly by a process that is independent of its ability to promote the interferon pathway. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Relevance of Assembly-Activating Protein for Adeno-associated Virus Vector Production and Capsid Protein Stability in Mammalian and Insect Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Stefanie; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; Herrmann, Anne-Kathrin; Börner, Kathleen; Fakhiri, Julia; Laketa, Vibor; Krämer, Chiara; Wiedtke, Ellen; Gunkel, Manuel; Ménard, Lucie; Ayuso, Eduard; Grimm, Dirk

    2017-10-15

    The discovery that adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) encodes an eighth protein, called assembly-activating protein (AAP), transformed our understanding of wild-type AAV biology. Concurrently, it raised questions about the role of AAP during production of recombinant vectors based on natural or molecularly engineered AAV capsids. Here, we show that AAP is indeed essential for generation of functional recombinant AAV2 vectors in both mammalian and insect cell-based vector production systems. Surprisingly, we observed that AAV2 capsid proteins VP1 to -3 are unstable in the absence of AAP2, likely due to rapid proteasomal degradation. Inhibition of the proteasome led to an increase of intracellular VP1 to -3 but neither triggered assembly of functional capsids nor promoted nuclear localization of the capsid proteins. Together, this underscores the crucial and unique role of AAP in the AAV life cycle, where it rapidly chaperones capsid assembly, thus preventing degradation of free capsid proteins. An expanded analysis comprising nine alternative AAV serotypes (1, 3 to 9, and rh10) showed that vector production always depends on the presence of AAP, with the exceptions of AAV4 and AAV5, which exhibited AAP-independent, albeit low-level, particle assembly. Interestingly, AAPs from all 10 serotypes could cross-complement AAP-depleted helper plasmids during vector production, despite there being distinct intracellular AAP localization patterns. These were most pronounced for AAP4 and AAP5, congruent with their inability to rescue an AAV2/AAP2 knockout. We conclude that AAP is key for assembly of genuine capsids from at least 10 different AAV serotypes, which has implications for vectors derived from wild-type or synthetic AAV capsids. IMPORTANCE Assembly of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is regulated by the assembly-activating protein (AAP), whose open reading frame overlaps with that of the viral capsid proteins. As the majority of evidence was obtained using virus

  13. Effect of capsid proteins to ICG mass ratio on fluorescent quantum yield of virus-resembling optical nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Ico, Gerardo; Matsumura, Paul; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2012-03-01

    We recently reported construction of a new type of optical nano-construct composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with Indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore. We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. To utilize OVGs as effective nano-probes in fluorescence imaging applications, their fluorescence quantum yield needs to be maximized. In this study, we investigate the effect of altering the CP to ICG mass ratio on the fluorescent quantum yield of OVGs. Results of this study provide the basis for construction of OVGs with optimal amounts of CP and ICG to yield maximal fluorescence quantum yield.

  14. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into human primary macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palù Giorgio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that genital ulcer disease (GUD pathogens are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 acquisition and/or transmission. Among them, genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 seems to play a relevant role. Indeed, the ability of HSV-2 to induce massive infiltration at the genital level of cells which are potential targets for HIV-1 infection may represent one of the mechanisms involved in this process. Here we show that infection of human primary macrophages (MDMs by HSV-2 results in an increase of CCR5 expression levels on cell surface and allows higher efficiency of MDMs to support entry of R5 HIV-1 strains. This finding could strengthen, at the molecular level, the evidence linking HSV-2 infection to an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition.

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection increases human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry into human primary macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Elena; Calistri, Arianna; Salata, Cristiano; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Palù, Giorgio; Parolin, Cristina

    2011-04-12

    Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that genital ulcer disease (GUD) pathogens are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and/or transmission. Among them, genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seems to play a relevant role. Indeed, the ability of HSV-2 to induce massive infiltration at the genital level of cells which are potential targets for HIV-1 infection may represent one of the mechanisms involved in this process. Here we show that infection of human primary macrophages (MDMs) by HSV-2 results in an increase of CCR5 expression levels on cell surface and allows higher efficiency of MDMs to support entry of R5 HIV-1 strains. This finding could strengthen, at the molecular level, the evidence linking HSV-2 infection to an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition.

  16. HIV Capsid Assembly, Mechanism, and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo

    2016-05-10

    The HIV genome materials are encaged by a proteinaceous shell called the capsid, constructed from ∼1000-1500 copies of the capsid proteins. Because its stability and integrity are critical to the normal life cycle and infectivity of the virus, the HIV capsid is a promising antiviral drug target. In this paper, we review the studies shaping our understanding of the structure and dynamics of the capsid proteins and various forms of their assemblies, as well as the assembly mechanism.

  17. Thymidine kinase-negative herpes simplex virus mutants establish latency in mouse trigeminal ganglia but do not reactivate.

    OpenAIRE

    Coen, D M; Kosz-Vnenchak, M; Jacobson, J G; Leib, D A; Bogard, C L; Schaffer, P A; Tyler, K L; Knipe, D M

    1989-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection of mammalian hosts involves lytic replication at a primary site, such as the cornea, translocation by axonal transport to sensory ganglia and replication, and latent infection at a secondary site, ganglionic neurons. The virus-encoded thymidine kinase, which is a target for antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, is not essential for lytic replication yet evidently is required at the secondary site for replication and some phase of latent infection. To determine the ...

  18. DNA immunization with a herpes simplex virus 2 bacterial artificial chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meseda, Clement A.; Schmeisser, Falko; Pedersen, Robin; Woerner, Amy; Weir, Jerry P.

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is described. BAC vector sequences were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of HSV-2 by homologous recombination. DNA from cells infected with the resulting recombinant virus was transformed into E. coli, and colonies containing the HSV-2 BAC (HSV2-BAC) were isolated and analyzed for the expected genotype. HSV2-BAC DNA was infectious when transfected back into mammalian cells and the resulting virus was thymidine kinase negative. When used to immunize mice, the HSV2-BAC DNA elicited a strong HSV-2 specific antibody response that was equal to or greater than live virus immunization. Further, HSV2-BAC immunization was protective when animals were challenged with a lethal dose of virus. The utility of the HSV2-BAC for construction of recombinant virus genomes was demonstrated by elimination of the HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) gene. A recombinant HSV-2 BAC with the gD gene deleted was isolated and shown to be incapable of producing infectious virus following transfection unless an HSV gD gene was expressed in a complementing cell line. Immunization of mice with the HSV2 gD-BAC also elicited an HSV-2 specific antibody response and was protective. The results demonstrate the feasibility of DNA immunization with HSV-2 bacterial artificial chromosomes for replicating and nonreplicating candidate HSV-2 vaccines, as well as the utility of BAC technology for construction and maintenance of novel HSV-2 vaccines. The results further suggest that such technology will be a powerful tool for dissecting the immune response to HSV-2

  19. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Induction of uterine cancer with inactivated herpes simplex virus, types 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentz, W.B.; Reagan, J.W.; Heggie, A.D.; Fu, Y.S.; Anthony, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    A series of studies were performed to evaluate the oncogenic potential of inactivated herpes simplex viruses types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) in the mouse cervix. HSV-1 or HSV-2 prepared in HEp-2 cell cultures and inactivated by exposure to formalin or ultraviolet light was applied to the mouse cervix for periods ranging from 20 to 90 weeks. Control mice were exposed for the same period to control fluids. Vaginal cytologic preparations from all animals were examined weekly to detect epithelial abnormalities. Animals were sacrificed and histopathological studies were carried out when cellular changes seen on vaginal smears resembled those indicative of premalignant or malignant changes as previously established in a similar model system using coal tar hydrocarbons. Other animals were exposed for periods up to 90 weeks, or until there was cellular evidence of invasive cancer. Cytologic and histologic materials were coded and evaluated without knowledge of whether they were from virus-exposed or control animals. Premalignant and malignant cervical lesions similar to those that occur in women were encountered in 78 to 90% of the virus-exposed animals. All controls were normal. Invasive cancer was detected in 24 to 60% of the animals and dysplasia was found in 18 to 66%. The yield of invasive cancer was twice as great after exposure to ultraviolet-inactivated HSV-2 as compared with formalin-inactivated virus. Various histologic grades of carcinoma of the cervix and endometrium were found. No primary lesions were found in the vagina or ovaries

  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in synchronized mammalian KB cells infected with herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, G H; Vaughan, R K; Lawrence, W C

    1971-06-01

    We examined the patterns of host cell and virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in synchronized cultures of KB cells infected at different stages of the cell cycle with herpes simplex virus (HSV). We found that the initiation of HSV DNA synthesis, we well as the production of new infectious virus, is independent of the S, G1, and G2 phases of the mitotic cycle of the host cell. This is in contrast to data previously found with equine abortion virus. Because HSV replicates independently of the cell cycle, we were able to establish conditions that would permit the study of rates of HSV DNA synthesized in logarithmically growing cells in the virtual absence of cellular DNA synthesis. This eliminates the need for separation of viral and cellular DNA by isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl. We found that HSV DNA synthesis was initiated between 2 to 3 hr after infection. The rate of DNA synthesis increased rapidly, reaching a maximum 4 hr after infection, and decreased to 50% of maximum by 8 hr. Evidence is also presented which suggests that HSV infection can inhibit both the ongoing synthesis of host DNA as well as the initiation of the S phase.

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 in Alzheimer's disease: the enemy within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaki, Ruth F; Wozniak, Matthew A

    2008-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a modern scourge and is likely to become increasingly so in the future, with increasing longevity. The disease has been investigated for over one hundred years yet its causes and that of the neuropathological characteristics seen in AD brain are still completely unknown. Evidence for a major causative role of a common virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), acting in combination with a genetic factor - the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein gene, a known susceptibility factor - is presented here. The characteristics of the virus, some of which make it an especially likely candidate for this role, are described, as are the many precedents for the action of a genetic factor modulating outcome of infection. Various possible ways in which HSV1 might lead to development of AD, such as its up-regulation of various enzymes and in particular certain kinases, its effect on the cell cycle, on autophagy, and its inflammatory and oxidative effects are also discussed. It is concluded that there is strong evidence that the virus is indeed a major factor in AD and therefore there is a strong case for appropriate treatment, and possibly for prevention in the future.

  3. Modulation of the Intratumoral Immune Landscape by Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus Virotherapy

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    Jie Yin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines and immunotherapeutic approaches to cancers with the advent of immune checkpoint inhibitors and chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells have recently demonstrated preclinical success and entered clinical trials. Despite advances in these approaches and combinatorial therapeutic regimens, depending on the nature of the cancer and the immune and metabolic landscape within the tumor microenvironment, current immunotherapeutic modalities remain inadequate. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated clear evidence of significant, and sometimes dramatic, antitumor activity, and long-term survival effects of a variety of oncolytic viruses (OVs, particularly oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV. Acting as a multifaceted gene therapy vector and potential adjuvant-like regimens, oHSV can carry genes encoding immunostimulatory molecules in its genome. The oncolytic effect of oHSV and the inflammatory response that the virus stimulates provide a one-two punch at attacking tumors. However, mechanisms underlying oHSV-induced restoration of intratumoral immunosuppression demand extensive research in order to further improve its therapeutic efficacy. In this review, we discuss the current OV-based therapy, with a focus on the unique aspects of oHSV-initiated antiviral and antitumor immune responses, arising from virus-mediated immunological cell death to intratumoral innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  5. Antiviral Effects of ABMA against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenwen; Wu, Yu; Bi, Jinpeng; Wang, Shuai; Li, Fang; Kong, Wei; Barbier, Julien; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gao, Feng; Gillet, Daniel; Su, Weiheng; Jiang, Chunlai

    2018-03-09

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the causative pathogen of genital herpes and is closely associated with the occurrence of cervical cancer and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The absence of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistance to commonly used nucleoside analogs emphasize the urgent need for alternative antivirals against HSV-2. Recently, ABMA [1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine] has been demonstrated to be an inhibitor of several pathogens exploiting host-vesicle transport, which also participates in the HSV-2 lifecycle. Here, we showed that ABMA inhibited HSV-2-induced cytopathic effects and plaque formation with 50% effective concentrations of 1.66 and 1.08 μM, respectively. We also preliminarily demonstrated in a time of compound addition assay that ABMA exerted a dual antiviral mechanism by impairing virus entry, as well as the late stages of the HSV-2 lifecycle. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that ABMA protected BALB/c mice from intravaginal HSV-2 challenge with an improved survival rate of 50% at 5 mg/kg (8.33% for the untreated virus infected control). Consequently, our study has identified ABMA as an effective inhibitor of HSV-2, both in vitro and in vivo, for the first time and presents an alternative to nucleoside analogs for HSV-2 infection treatment.

  6. Mechanical Barriers Restrict Invasion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Human Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, Katharina; Petermann, Philipp; Rahn, Elena; Rothamel, Daniel; Bloch, Wilhelm; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2017-11-15

    Oral mucosa is one of the main target tissues of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). How the virus overcomes the protective epithelial barriers and penetrates the tissue to reach its receptors and initiate infection is still unclear. Here, we established an ex vivo infection assay with human oral mucosa that allows viral entry studies in a natural target tissue. The focus was on the susceptibility of keratinocytes in the epithelium and the characterization of cellular receptors that mediate viral entry. Upon ex vivo infection of gingiva or vestibular mucosa, we observed that intact human mucosa samples were protected from viral invasion. In contrast, the basal layer of the oral epithelium was efficiently invaded once the connective tissue and the basement membrane were removed. Later during infection, HSV-1 spread from basal keratinocytes to upper layers, demonstrating the susceptibility of the stratified squamous epithelium to HSV-1. The analysis of potential receptors revealed nectin-1 on most mucosal keratinocytes, whereas herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) was found only on a subpopulation of cells, suggesting that nectin-1 acts as primary receptor for HSV-1 in human oral mucosa. To mimic the supposed entry route of HSV-1 via microlesions in vivo , we mechanically wounded the mucosa prior to infection. While we observed a limited number of infected keratinocytes in some wounded mucosa samples, other samples showed no infected cells. Thus, we conclude that mechanical wounding of mucosa is insufficient for the virus to efficiently overcome epithelial barriers and to make entry-mediating receptors accessible. IMPORTANCE To invade the target tissue of its human host during primary infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) must overcome the epithelial barriers of mucosa, skin, or cornea. For most viruses, the mechanisms underlying the invasion into the target tissues of their host organism are still open. Here, we established an ex vivo infection model of

  7. Vaccination of mice with plasmids expressing processed capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus - Importance of dominant and subdominant epitopes for antigenicity and protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Tine; Barfoed, Annette Malene; Aasted, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) displays several independent B cell epitopes, which stimulate the production of neutralising antibodies. Some of these epitopes are highly variable between virus strains, but dominate the immune response. The site A on VP1 is the most prominent ex...... as compared to mice vaccinated with wild type epitopes. Most of the modifications did not adversely affect the ability of the plasmids to induce complete protection of mice against homologous challenge....... example of a dominant and variable site. This variability is a problem when designing vaccines against this disease, because it necessitates a close match between vaccine strain and virus in an outbreak. We have introduced a series of mutations into viral capsid proteins with the aim of selectively...

  8. Intrinsic Innate Immunity Fails To Control Herpes Simplex Virus and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication in Sensory Neurons and Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Pamela C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latent infections in the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (TG), wherein it retains the capacity to reactivate. The interferon (IFN)-driven antiviral response is critical for the control of HSV-1 acute replication. We therefore sought to further investigate this response in TG neurons cultured from adult mice deficient in a variety of IFN signaling components. Parallel experiments were also performed in fibroblasts isolated concurrently. We showed that HSV-1 replication was comparable in wild-type (WT) and IFN signaling-deficient neurons and fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, a similar pattern was observed for the IFN-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Despite these findings, TG neurons responded to IFN-β pretreatment with STAT1 nuclear localization and restricted replication of both VSV and an HSV-1 strain deficient in γ34.5, while wild-type HSV-1 replication was unaffected. This was in contrast to fibroblasts in which all viruses were restricted by the addition of IFN-β. Taken together, these data show that adult TG neurons can mount an effective antiviral response only if provided with an exogenous source of IFN-β, and HSV-1 combats this response through γ34.5. These results further our understanding of the antiviral response of neurons and highlight the importance of paracrine IFN-β signaling in establishing an antiviral state. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous virus that establishes a lifelong latent infection in neurons. Reactivation from latency can cause cold sores, blindness, and death from encephalitis. Humans with deficiencies in innate immunity have significant problems controlling HSV infections. In this study, we therefore sought to elucidate the role of neuronal innate immunity in the control of viral infection. Using neurons isolated from mice, we found that the intrinsic capacity of neurons to restrict virus replication was unaffected by the presence

  9. Functional Hierarchy of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Viral Glycoproteins in Cytoplasmic Virion Envelopment and Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouljenko, Dmitry V.; Kim, In-Joong; Chouljenko, Vladimir N.; Subramanian, Ramesh; Walker, Jason D.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) viral glycoproteins gD (carboxyl terminus), gE, gK, and gM, the membrane protein UL20, and membrane-associated protein UL11 play important roles in cytoplasmic virion envelopment and egress from infected cells. We showed previously that a recombinant virus carrying a deletion of the carboxyl-terminal 29 amino acids of gD (gDΔct) and the entire gE gene (ΔgE) did not exhibit substantial defects in cytoplasmic virion envelopment and egress (H. C. Lee et al., J. Virol. 83:6115–6124, 2009). The recombinant virus ΔgM2, engineered not to express gM, produced a 3- to 4-fold decrease in viral titers and a 50% reduction in average plaque sizes in comparison to the HSV-1(F) parental virus. The recombinant virus containing all three mutations, gDΔct-ΔgM2-ΔgE, replicated approximately 1 log unit less efficiently than the HSV-1(F) parental virus and produced viral plaques which were on average one-third the size of those of HSV-1(F). The recombinant virus ΔUL11-ΔgM2, engineered not to express either UL11 or gM, replicated more than 1 log unit less efficiently and produced significantly smaller plaques than UL11-null or gM-null viruses alone, in agreement with the results of Leege et al. (T. Leege et al., J. Virol. 83:896-907, 2009). Analyses of particle-to-PFU ratios, relative plaque size, and kinetics of virus growth and ultrastructural visualization of glycoprotein-deficient mutant and wild-type virions indicate that gDΔct, gE, and gM function in a cooperative but not redundant manner in infectious virion morphogenesis. Overall, comparisons of single, double, and triple mutant viruses generated in the same HSV-1(F) genetic background indicated that lack of either UL20 or gK expression caused the most severe defects in cytoplasmic envelopment, egress, and infectious virus production, followed by the double deletion of UL11 and gM. PMID:22318149

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  11. Kyrieleis plaques associated with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 acute retinal necrosis

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    Neha Goel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 55-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with features typical of acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous tap was positive for Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV – 1. Following therapy with intravenous Acyclovir, followed by oral Acyclovir and steroids, there was marked improvement in the visual acuity and clinical picture. At one week after initiation of treatment, Kyrieleis plaques were observed in the retinal arteries. They became more prominent despite resolution of the vitritis, retinal necrosis and vasculitis and persisted till six weeks of follow-up, when fluorescein angiography was performed. The appearance of this segmental retinal periarteritis also known as Kyrieleis plaques has not been described in ARN due to HSV-1 earlier.

  12. Aciclovir resistance among indian strains of Herpes simplex virus as determined using a dye uptake assay

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    Abraham A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to aciclovir (ACV among Herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates is increasingly being reported in the literature particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, there is only limited data available from India despite widespread use of ACV in our hospital. A cross-sectional study was hence conducted to determine the aciclovir (ACV susceptibility of HSV 1 and 2 isolates using a dye uptake (DU assay. This study showed a 3.0% prevalence of ACV resistance among HSV-1 strains (2/66, median IC 50 0.098 µg/mL while in HSV-2 strains, it was 7.8% (5/64, median IC 50 0.195 µg/mL. The IC 50 for the HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains resistant to ACV was greater than or equal to 6.25 µg/mL.

  13. Analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL6 gene in patients with stromal keratitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Aaron R.; Yang Li; Cevallos, A. Vicky; Margolis, Todd P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work suggests that herpes simplex virus (HSV) stromal keratitis in the mouse is caused by autoreactive T lymphocytes triggered by a 16 amino acid region of the HSV UL6 protein (aa299-314) , Science 279, 1344-1347). In the present study we sought to determine whether genetic variation of this presumed autoreactive UL6 epitope is responsible for different pathogenic patterns of human HSV keratitis. To accomplish this, we sequenced the HSV UL6 gene from ocular isolates of 10 patients with necrotizing stromal keratitis, 7 patients with recurrent epithelial keratitis, and 8 patients with other forms of HSV keratitis. The sequences obtained predicted identical UL6(299-314) epitopes for all 25 viral isolates. Furthermore, the upstream sequence of all isolates was free of insertions, deletions, and stop codons. We conclude that different pathogenic patterns of human HSV keratitis occur independent of genetic variation of the HSV UL6 (299-314) epitope

  14. Ocular herpes simplex virus: how are latency, reactivation, recurrent disease and therapy interrelated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dujaili, Lena J; Clerkin, Patrick P; Clement, Christian; McFerrin, Harris E; Bhattacharjee, Partha S; Varnell, Emily D; Kaufman, Herbert E; Hill, James M

    2012-01-01

    Most humans are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 in early childhood and remain latently infected throughout life. While most individuals have mild or no symptoms, some will develop destructive HSV keratitis. Ocular infection with HSV-1 and its associated sequelae account for the majority of corneal blindness in industrialized nations. Neuronal latency in the peripheral ganglia is established when transcription of the viral genome is repressed (silenced) except for the latency-associated transcripts and microRNAs. The functions of latency-associated transcripts have been investigated since 1987. Roles have been suggested relating to reactivation, establishment of latency, neuronal protection, antiapoptosis, apoptosis, virulence and asymptomatic shedding. Here, we review HSV-1 latent infections, reactivation, recurrent disease and antiviral therapies for the ocular HSV diseases. PMID:21861620

  15. High prevalence of herpes simplex virus DNA in temporal arteritis biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, James F; Bedri, Shahinaz; Hussein, Shakir; Salomon, Robert N; Tischler, Arthur S

    2005-02-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) affecting the cranial arteries is a disease of unknown cause that causes blindness, stroke, and other morbidity. Its sudden onset and segmental distribution are suggestive of diseases that involve viral reactivation, and cranial arteries are known to be innervated by ganglia that harbor herpes simplex virus (HSV). We used a high-sensitivity polymerase chain reaction assay to test for HSV DNA in specimens from 39 consecutive temporal artery biopsies performed for suspected GCA. HSV DNA was detected in 21 (88%) of 24 histologically positive and 8 (53%) of 15 histologically negative specimens (P = .027; Fisher exact test). Analysis of 10 renal artery samples from age-matched control subjects using the same assay showed no detectable HSV DNA. We conclude that detectable HSV DNA is correlated with histologically confirmed GCA in this patient population.

  16. In vitro virucidal activity of a styrylpyrone derivative against herpes simplex virus strain KOS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Micheal; Nor, Norefrina Shafinaz Md.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2014-09-01

    In this study, styrylpyrone derivative (SPD) extracted from Goniothalamus umbrosus root was tested against herpes simplex virus (HSV) strain KOS-1. Firstly, the cytotoxicity of SPD on Vero cells was tested and the value of cytotoxic concentration, CC50, was 44 μM (8.88 μg/mL), and the 50% Effective Concentration, EC50, was 3.35 μM (0.67 μg/mL). Selectivity index of SPD against HSV Kos-1 was more than 13 indicating potential as antiviral agent. Three treatments were used in the antiviral test; 1) post-treatment, 2) pre-treatment, and 3) virucidal. The results revealed that the post-treatment was more effective in inhibiting viral replication compared to pre-treatment. The findings indicated that the SPD from G. umbrosus has good potential for prospective nature-based antiviral drug.

  17. Herpes simplex virus infection in burned patients: epidemiology of 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdarias, B; Perro, G; Cutillas, M; Castede, J C; Lafon, M E; Sanchez, R

    1996-06-01

    Burned patients suffer significant immunosuppression during the first 3 or 4 weeks after hospitalization. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are commonly seen in immunosuppressed patients and may account for considerable morbidity and some mortality. We studied retrospectively 11 patients with severe burn injury who became infected with HSV. We determined the prevalence of viral infection in this group of patients. Serological testing and viral culture was used to diagnose HSV infection. No general complications appeared in these 11 patients in association with HSV but two patients died of multiorgan failure. Locally, areas of active epidermal regeneration were most commonly affected. Acyclovir therapy was not used and the duration of hospitalization was normal in these 11 patients.

  18. [Presence of human Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) in women attending a clinic for cervico-uterine cancer control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echániz Aviles, G; Conde Gonzalez, C; Tamayo Legorreta, E; Cruz Valdez, A; Hernández Nevarez, P; Calderón Jaimes, E

    1992-10-01

    For this prospective study, 284 women were recruited who attended a cancer detection (Papanicolaou testing) program and appeared to be healthy. The objective was to obtain cervicovaginal samples from this group and culture them on human foreskin fibroblasts to isolate and identify Herpes simplex virus by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. A total of 12 women (4.2%) were positive for the virus; upon comparison of various sociodemographic factors in positive and negative culture patients, it was possible to establish certain associations as follows: The presence of Herpes simplex virus type 2 was related to age, start of sexual life, number of sex partners, lower education and minimum income. Other markers observed in infected women were mucopurulent cervicitis, typical and non-typical confluent ulcerations and minor disruptions of the epithelium. The knowledge of this subclinical or somewhat asymptomatic Herpes prevalence should be considered to prevent further spread among couples and also to avoid the risk of reactivation in pregnant women.

  19. Efficient production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids in insect cells following down regulation of 3C protease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porta, Claudine; Xu, Xiaodong; Loureiro, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein...... precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown...... to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly. Inactivation of the 3C enzyme in a P1-2A-3C cassette allows expression and intermediate levels of 3C activity resulted in efficient processing of the P1-2A precursor into the structural proteins which...

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus and Interferon Signaling Induce Novel Autophagic Clusters in Sensory Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenell, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong infection in the neurons of trigeminal ganglia (TG), cycling between productive infection and latency. Neuronal antiviral responses are driven by type I interferon (IFN) and are crucial to controlling HSV-1 virulence. Autophagy also plays a role in this neuronal antiviral response, but the mechanism remains obscure. In this study, HSV-1 infection of murine TG neurons triggered unusual clusters of autophagosomes, predominantly in neurons lacking detectable HSV-1 antigen. Treatment of neurons with IFN-β induced a similar response, and cluster formation by infection or IFN treatment was dependent upon an intact IFN-signaling pathway. The autophagic clusters were decorated with both ISG15, an essential effecter of the antiviral response, and p62, a selective autophagy receptor. The autophagic clusters were not induced by rapamycin or starvation, consistent with a process of selective autophagy. While clusters were triggered by other neurotropic herpesviruses, infection with unrelated viruses failed to induce this response. Following ocular infection in vivo, clusters formed exclusively in the infected ophthalmic branch of the TG. Taken together, our results show that infection with HSV and antiviral signaling in TG neurons produce an unorthodox autophagic response. This autophagic clustering is associated with antiviral signaling, the presence of viral genome, and the absence of HSV protein expression and may therefore represent an important neuronal response to HSV infection and the establishment of latency. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous virus and a significant cause of morbidity and some mortality. It is the causative agent of benign cold sores, but it can also cause blindness and life-threatening encephalitis. The success of HSV-1 is largely due to its ability to establish lifelong latent infections in neurons and to occasionally reactivate. The exact mechanisms by which

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Protein Heterogeneity within Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bilali, Nabil; Duron, Johanne; Gingras, Diane; Lippé, Roger

    2017-05-15

    Several virulence genes have been identified thus far in the herpes simplex virus 1 genome. It is also generally accepted that protein heterogeneity among virions further impacts viral fitness. However, linking this variability directly with infectivity has been challenging at the individual viral particle level. To address this issue, we resorted to flow cytometry (flow virometry), a powerful approach we recently employed to analyze individual viral particles, to identify which tegument proteins vary and directly address if such variability is biologically relevant. We found that the stoichiometry of the U L 37, ICP0, and VP11/12 tegument proteins in virions is more stable than the VP16 and VP22 tegument proteins, which varied significantly among viral particles. Most interestingly, viruses sorted for their high VP16 or VP22 content yielded modest but reproducible increases in infectivity compared to their corresponding counterparts containing low VP16 or VP22 content. These findings were corroborated for VP16 in short interfering RNA experiments but proved intriguingly more complex for VP22. An analysis by quantitative Western blotting revealed substantial alterations of virion composition upon manipulation of individual tegument proteins and suggests that VP22 protein levels acted indirectly on viral fitness. These findings reaffirm the interdependence of the virion components and corroborate that viral fitness is influenced not only by the genome of viruses but also by the stoichiometry of proteins within each virion. IMPORTANCE The ability of viruses to spread in animals has been mapped to several viral genes, but other factors are clearly involved, including virion heterogeneity. To directly probe whether the latter influences viral fitness, we analyzed the protein content of individual herpes simplex virus 1 particles using an innovative flow cytometry approach. The data confirm that some viral proteins are incorporated in more controlled amounts, while

  2. Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 educational assessment of young adults in rural southwest Virginia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantal S Hover

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2 causes genital herpes, one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs in the U.S. HSV-1, commonly associated with cold sores, is increasing as a cause of genital herpes. Abstinence-only sexual health classes, commonly taught in Virginia, generate young adults who are under-educated in sexual health, increasing STI risks. College students in southwest Virginia were surveyed to assess comprehensiveness of high school health education regarding HSV-1 and HSV-2 and to identify students' preferred methods for STI education.To obtain data on knowledge of HSV, comprehensiveness of sexual health education in high school, and preferred learning methods, 237 college students participated in an online questionnaire and 28 students were interviewed using structured interviews.Questionnaire and interview data indicated that Family Life Education classes need to include more comprehensive information on prevention, viral transmission, and differences between HSV-1 and HSV-2. The majority of total respondents (both the questionnaire and interview (65% reported non-comprehensive high school sexual health education. The majority of interview (79% and questionnaire (55% respondents wished they had learned more about herpes and other STIs in high school. Education preferences of both interviewed and surveyed respondents included interactive internet programs or games, more realistic lectures, and learning about STIs later in high school when students reported greater sexual activity.Our results indicate that more comprehensive sexual health education is needed and wanted by students in southwest Virginia. More relevant educational programs should be implemented for VA high school students utilizing technology and interactive methods to improve student engagement in sexual health education.These studies provide information on knowledge of herpes simplex viruses among college students, comprehensiveness of sexual health

  3. Erythrocyte-mediated delivery of a new homodinucleotide active against human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Cappellacci, L; Balestra, E; Brandi, G; Schiavano, G F; Franchetti, P; Grifantini, M; Perno, C F; Magnani, M

    2001-06-01

    Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) play a central role in the pathogenesis of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and represent one of the main reservoirs of the virus in the body. In addition, MDMs can easily be infected by various herpes viruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We have synthesized a new antiviral agent (Bis-PMEA) that consists of two 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine (PMEA) molecules bound by a phosphate bridge. This nucleotide analogue, like the parent compound PMEA, has strong and selective activity against HIV-1 and HSV-1. A drug-targeting system previously developed in our laboratory was used for the selective delivery of these drugs to macrophages. Bis-PMEA and PMEA were encapsulated into autologous erythrocytes by a procedure of hypotonic dialysis and isotonic resealing. Loaded erythrocytes were modified to increase their recognition and phagocytosis by human macrophages. By administering Bis-PMEA-loaded erythrocytes to macrophages, 47% of Bis-PMEA and 28% of PMEA was still present 10 days after phagocytosis; in contrast, only 12% of PMEA was found in macrophages receiving PMEA-loaded erythrocytes. Bis-PMEA-loaded erythrocytes were then added to macrophages infected with HIV-1 and HSV-1 and their antiviral activity evaluated. Remarkable protection was obtained against HIV-1 and HSV-1 infection (95 and 85%, respectively). Therefore, Bis-PMEA acts as an efficient antiviral prodrug that, following selective targeting to macrophages by means of loaded erythrocytes, can protect a refractory cell compartment.

  4. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Serostatus With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men: The HPV in Men Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men; therefore, we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2

  5. Involvement of intracellular free Ca2+ in enhanced release of herpes simplex virus by hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Yuzo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was reported that elevation of the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i by a calcium ionophore increased the release of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1. Freely diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is implied to alter Ca2+ homeostasis, which further enhances abnormal cellular activity, causing changes in signal transduction, and cellular dysfunction. Whether H2O2 could affect [Ca2+]i in HSV-1-infected cells had not been investigated. Results H2O2 treatment increased the amount of cell-free virus and decreased the proportion of viable cells. After the treatment, an elevation in [Ca2+]i was observed and the increase in [Ca2+]i was suppressed when intracellular and cytosolic Ca2+ were buffered by Ca2+ chelators. In the presence of Ca2+ chelators, H2O2-mediated increases of cell-free virus and cell death were also diminished. Electron microscopic analysis revealed enlarged cell junctions and a focal disintegration of the plasma membrane in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusion These results indicate that H2O2 can elevate [Ca2+]i and induces non-apoptotic cell death with membrane lesions, which is responsible for the increased release of HSV-1 from epithelial cells.

  6. Herpes simplex virus type I induces an incomplete autophagic response in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Soraya; Bullido, Maria Jesús; Recuero, Maria; Valdivieso, Fernando; Aldudo, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Autophagy is a homeostatic process involved in the turnover or elimination of cytoplasmic components, damaged organelles, and protein aggregates via a lysosomal degradation mechanism. Autophagy also provides a mechanism of innate immunity, known as xenophagy, designed to protect cells from intracellular pathogens, but it may unfortunately be subverted to act as a pro-viral pathway facilitating the replication of certain viruses. Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that remains latent in host neurons; it is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis. Moreover, HSV-1 has been related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. HSV-1 can modulate the autophagic process through a mechanism mediated by the viral protein ICP34.5. Here we report that HSV-1 induces a strong increase in GFP-LC3 and endogenous LC3 lipidation, and triggers the accumulation of intracellular autophagic compartments (mainly autophagosomes) without enhancing autophagic long-lived protein degradation in the late stages of infection. Autophagy inhibition mediated by ATG5 gene silencing had no effect on viral growth. The present results suggest that HSV-1 infection activates the host autophagic machinery and strongly controls the autophagic process, blocking the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes. These events might be important in the neurodegenerative process associated with HSV-1 infection.

  7. Involvement of UL24 in herpes-simplex-virus-1-induced dispersal of nucleolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberopoulos, Maria H.; Pearson, Angela

    2007-01-01

    UL24 of herpes simplex virus 1 is important for efficient viral replication, but its function is unknown. We generated a recombinant virus, vHA-UL24, encoding UL24 with an N-terminal hemagglutinin tag. By indirect immunofluorescence at 9 h post-infection (hpi), we detected HA-UL24 in nuclear foci and in cytoplasmic speckles. HA-UL24 partially co-localized with nucleolin, but not with ICP8 or coilin, markers for nucleoli, viral replication compartments, and Cajal bodies respectively. HA-UL24 staining was often juxtaposed to that of another nucleolar protein, fibrillarin. Analysis of HSV-1-induced nucleolar modifications revealed that by 18 hpi, nucleolin staining had dispersed, and fibrillarin staining went from clusters of small spots to a few separate but prominent spots. Fibrillarin redistribution appeared to be independent of UL24. In contrast, cells infected with a UL24-deficient virus retained foci of nucleolin staining. Our results demonstrate involvement of UL24 in dispersal of nucleolin during infection

  8. Structural analysis of herpes simplex virus by optical super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Romain F.; Albecka, Anna; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rees, Eric J.; Crump, Colin M.; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is one of the most widespread pathogens among humans. Although the structure of HSV-1 has been extensively investigated, the precise organization of tegument and envelope proteins remains elusive. Here we use super-resolution imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) in combination with a model-based analysis of single-molecule localization data, to determine the position of protein layers within virus particles. We resolve different protein layers within individual HSV-1 particles using multi-colour dSTORM imaging and discriminate envelope-anchored glycoproteins from tegument proteins, both in purified virions and in virions present in infected cells. Precise characterization of HSV-1 structure was achieved by particle averaging of purified viruses and model-based analysis of the radial distribution of the tegument proteins VP16, VP1/2 and pUL37, and envelope protein gD. From this data, we propose a model of the protein organization inside the tegument.

  9. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part I: strategies for utilizing oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy P Cripe

    Full Text Available Progress for improving outcomes in pediatric patients with solid tumors remains slow. In addition, currently available therapies are fraught with numerous side effects, often causing significant life-long morbidity for long-term survivors. The use of viruses to kill tumor cells based on their increased vulnerability to infection is gaining traction, with several viruses moving through early and advanced phase clinical testing. The prospect of increased efficacy and decreased toxicity with these agents is thus attractive for pediatric cancer. In part I of this two-part review, we focus on strategies for utilizing oncolytic engineered herpes simplex virus (HSV to target pediatric malignancies. We discuss mechanisms of action, routes of delivery, and the role of preexisting immunity on antitumor efficacy. Challenges to maximizing oncolytic HSV in children are examined, and we highlight how these may be overcome through various arming strategies. We review the preclinical and clinical evidence demonstrating safety of a variety of oncolytic HSVs. In Part II, we focus on the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic HSV in pediatric tumor types, pediatric clinical advances made to date, and future prospects for utilizing HSV in pediatric patients with solid tumors.

  10. Antiviral Action of Hydromethanolic Extract of Geopropolis from Scaptotrigona postica against Antiherpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1

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    Guilherme Rabelo Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies on chemical composition and biological activity of propolis had focused mainly on species Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae. There are few studies about the uncommon propolis collected by stingless bees of the Meliponini tribe known as geopropolis. The geopropolis from Scaptotrigona postica was collected in the region of Barra do Corda, Maranhão state, Brazil. The chemical analysis of hydromethanolic extract of this geopropolis (HMG was carried out through HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and the main constituents found were pyrrolizidine alkaloids and C-glycosyl flavones. The presence of alkaloids in extracts of propolis is detected for the first time in this sample. The antiviral activity of HMG was evaluated through viral DNA quantification experiments and electron microscopy experiments. Quantification of viral DNA from herpes virus showed reduction of about 98% in all conditions and concentration tested of the HMG extract. The results obtained were corroborated by transmission electron microscopy, in which the images did not show particle or viral replication complex. The antiviral activity of C-glycosyl flavones was reported for a variety of viruses, being observed at different points in the viral replication. This work is the first report about the antiviral activity of geopropolis from Scaptotrigona postica, in vitro, against antiherpes simplex virus (HSV.

  11. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection of Activated Cytotoxic T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Martin J.; Behrens, Christian K.; Müller, Anke; Krammer, Peter H.; Walczak, Henning; Schönrich, Günther

    1999-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), a large DNA-containing virus, is endemic in all human populations investigated. After infection of mucocutaneous surfaces, HSV1 establishes a latent infection in nerve cells. Recently, it was demonstrated that HSV1 can also infect activated T lymphocytes. However, the consequences of T cell infection for viral pathogenesis and immunity are unknown. We have observed that in contrast to the situation in human fibroblasts, in human T cell lines antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules is not blocked after HSV1 infection. Moreover, HSV1 infection of T cells results in rapid elimination of antiviral T cells by fratricide. To dissect the underlying molecular events, we used a transgenic mouse model of HSV1 infection to demonstrate that CD95 (Apo-1, Fas)-triggered apoptosis is essential for HSV1-induced fratricide, whereas tumor necrosis factor (TNF) also contributes to this phenomenon but to a lesser extent. By contrast, neither TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) nor perforin were involved. Finally, we defined two mechanisms associated with HSV1-associated fratricide of antiviral T cells: (a) T cell receptor–mediated upregulation of CD95 ligand and (b) a viral “competence-to-die” signal that renders activated T lymphocytes susceptible to CD95 signaling. We propose that induction of fratricide is an important immune evasion mechanism of HSV1, helping the virus to persist in the host organism throughout its lifetime. PMID:10523608

  12. Mutations in the capsid protein of Brome mosaic virus affecting encapsidation eliminate vesicle induction in planta: implications for virus cell-to-cell spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamunusinghe, Devinka; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Rao, A L N

    2013-08-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are known to rearrange the endomembrane network to make it more conducive for replication, maturation, or egress. Our previous transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis showed that ectopic expression of wild-type (wt) capsid protein (CP) of Brome mosaic virus (BMV) has an intrinsic property of modifying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to induce vesicles similar to those present in wt BMV infection. In this study, we evaluated the functional significance of CP-mediated vesicle induction to the BMV infection cycle in planta. Consequently, the cytopathologic changes induced by wt CP or its mutants defective in virion assembly due to mutations engineered in either N- or C-proximal domains were comparatively analyzed by TEM in two susceptible (Nicotiana benthamiana and Chenopodium quinoa) and one nonhost (N. clevelandii) plant species. The results showed that in susceptible hosts, CP-mediated ER-derived vesicle induction is contingent on the expression of encapsidation-competent CP. In contrast, unlike in N. benthamiana and C. quinoa, transient expression of wt CP in nonhost N. clevelandii plants eliminated vesicle induction. Additionally, comparative source-to-sink analysis of virus spread in leaves of N. benthamiana and N. clevelandii coexpressing wt BMV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) showed that despite trans-encapsidation, CMV failed to complement the defective cell-to-cell movement of BMV. The significance and relation of CP-mediated vesicle induction to virus cell-to-cell movement are discussed.

  13. Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus-based Strategies: Toward a Breakthrough in Glioblastoma Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfang eNing

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses are a class of antitumor agents that selectively kill tumor cells while sparing normal cells. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV has been investigated in clinical trials for patients with the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma for more than a decade. These clinical studies have shown the safety of oHSV administration to the human brain, however, therapeutic efficacy of oHSV as a single treatment remains unsatisfactory. Factors that could hamper the anti-glioblastoma efficacy of oHSV include: attenuated potency of oHSV due to deletion or mutation of viral genes involved in virulence, restricted viral replication and spread within the tumor; suboptimal oHSV delivery associated with intratumoral injection; virus infection-induced inflammatory and cellular immune responses which could inhibit oHSV replication and promote its clearance; lack of effective incorporation of oHSV into standard-of-care, and poor knowledge about the ability of oHSV to target glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs. In an attempt to address these issues, recent research efforts have been directed at: (1 design of new engineered viruses to enhance potency, (2 better understanding of the role of the cellular immunity elicited by oHSV infection of tumors, (3 combinatorial strategies with different antitumor agents with a mechanistic rationale, (4 armed viruses expressing therapeutic transgenes, (5 use of GSC-derived models in oHSV evaluation, and (6 combinations of these. In this review, we will describe the current status of oHSV clinical trials for glioblastoma, and discuss recent research advances and future directions toward successful oHSV-based therapy of glioblastoma.

  14. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-based strategies: toward a breakthrough in glioblastoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jianfang; Wakimoto, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OV) are a class of antitumor agents that selectively kill tumor cells while sparing normal cells. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) has been investigated in clinical trials for patients with the malignant brain tumor glioblastoma for more than a decade. These clinical studies have shown the safety of oHSV administration to the human brain, however, therapeutic efficacy of oHSV as a single treatment remains unsatisfactory. Factors that could hamper the anti-glioblastoma efficacy of oHSV include: attenuated potency of oHSV due to deletion or mutation of viral genes involved in virulence, restricting viral replication and spread within the tumor; suboptimal oHSV delivery associated with intratumoral injection; virus infection-induced inflammatory and cellular immune responses which could inhibit oHSV replication and promote its clearance; lack of effective incorporation of oHSV into standard-of-care, and poor knowledge about the ability of oHSV to target glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). In an attempt to address these issues, recent research efforts have been directed at: (1) design of new engineered viruses to enhance potency, (2) better understanding of the role of the cellular immunity elicited by oHSV infection of tumors, (3) combinatorial strategies with different antitumor agents with a mechanistic rationale, (4) "armed" viruses expressing therapeutic transgenes, (5) use of GSC-derived models in oHSV evaluation, and (6) combinations of these. In this review, we will describe the current status of oHSV clinical trials for glioblastoma, and discuss recent research advances and future directions toward successful oHSV-based therapy of glioblastoma.

  15. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Kai [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Maoyun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jin, Fujun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yifei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections.

  16. The immune response to ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D J; Härle, P; Gebhardt, B M

    2001-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent microbial pathogen infecting 60% to 90% of the adult world population. The co-evolution of the virus with humans is due, in part, to adaptations that the virus has evolved to aid it in escaping immune surveillance, including the establishment of a latent infection in its human host. A latent infection allows the virus to remain in the host without inducing tissue pathology or eliciting an immune response. During the acute infection or reactivation of latent virus, the immune response is significant, which can ultimately result in corneal blindness or fatal sporadic encephalitis. In fact, HSV-1 is one of the leading causes of infectious corneal blindness in the world as a result of chronic episodes of viral reactivation leading to stromal keratitis and scarring. Significant inroads have been made in identifying key immune mediators that control ocular HSV-1 infection and potentially viral reactivation. Likewise, viral mechanisms associated with immune evasion have also been identified and will be discussed. Lastly, novel therapeutic strategies that are currently under development show promise and will be included in this review. Most investigators have taken full advantage of the murine host as a viable working in vivo model of HSV-1 due to the sensitivity and susceptibility to viral infection, ease of manipulation, and a multitude of developed probes to study changes at the cellular and molecular levels. Therefore, comments in this review will primarily be restricted to those observations pertaining to the mouse model and the assumption (however great) that similar events occur in the human condition.

  17. Immune evasion properties of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H M; Wang, L; Fishman, N O; Lambris, J D; Eisenberg, R J; Cohen, G H; Lubinski, J

    1996-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) glycoprotein gC binds complement component C3b, and purified gC inhibits complement activation. Two HSV strains carrying mutations in the gC gene which rendered them unable to bind C3b were compared with wild-type and marker-rescued viruses to evaluate the role of gC on the virion in protecting HSV-1 from complement-mediated neutralization. The gC mutant viruses were markedly susceptible to neutralization by nonimmune human serum, showing up to a 5,000-fold decline in titer after 1 h of incubation with serum. In contrast, wild-type or marker-rescued viruses showed a twofold reduction in titer. Studies with hypogammaglobulinemic and immunoglobulin G-depleted serum supported the observation that neutralization occurred in the absence of antibody. Neutralization of gC mutant strains by nonimmune serum was rapid; their half-life was 2 to 2.5 min, compared with 1 h for wild-type virus. Ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-treated human serum or C4-deficient guinea pig serum failed to neutralize gC mutant strains, indicating a role for components of the classical complement pathway. gC had little additional effect on neutralization by the combination of antibody plus complement compared with complement alone. The results indicate that the magnitude of the protection offered by gC-1 is larger than previously recognized; that in the absence of gC-1, complement neutralization is rapid and is mediated by components of the classical complement pathway; and that gC mainly protects against antibody-independent complement neutralization, suggesting a probable role for gC early in infection, before antibodies develop.

  18. In vivo immune evasion mediated by the herpes simplex virus type 1 immunoglobulin G Fc receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashunmugam, T; Lubinski, J; Wang, L; Goldstein, L T; Weeks, B S; Sundaresan, P; Kang, E H; Dubin, G; Friedman, H M

    1998-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins gE and gI form an immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptor (FcgammaR) that binds the Fc domain of human anti-HSV IgG and inhibits Fc-mediated immune functions in vitro. gE or gI deletion mutant viruses are avirulent, probably because gE and gI are also involved in cell-to-cell spread. In an effort to modify FcgammaR activity without affecting other gE functions, we constructed a mutant virus, NS-gE339, that has four amino acids inserted into gE within the domain homologous to mammalian IgG FcgammaRs. NS-gE339 expresses gE and gI, is FcgammaR-, and does not participate in antibody bipolar bridging since it does not block activities mediated by the Fc domain of anti-HSV IgG. In vivo studies were performed with mice because the HSV-1 FcgammaR does not bind murine IgG; therefore, the absence of an FcgammaR should not affect virulence in mice. NS-gE339 causes disease at the skin inoculation site comparably to wild-type and rescued viruses, indicating that the FcgammaR- mutant virus is pathogenic in animals. Mice were passively immunized with human anti-HSV IgG and then infected with mutant or wild-type virus. We postulated that the HSV-1 FcgammaR should protect wild-type virus from antibody attack. Human anti-HSV IgG greatly reduced viral titers and disease severity in NS-gE339-infected animals while having little effect on wild-type or rescued virus. We conclude that the HSV-1 FcgammaR enables the virus to evade antibody attack in vivo, which likely explains why antibodies are relatively ineffective against HSV infection.

  19. Antigenic heterogeneity of capsid protein VP1 in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV serotype Asia1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam SM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available SM Sabbir Alam,1 Ruhul Amin,1 Mohammed Ziaur Rahman,2 M Anwar Hossain,1 Munawar Sultana11Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 2International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV, with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.Keywords: protein modeling, antigenic sites, sequence variation

  20. TLR3 deficiency renders astrocytes permissive to herpes simplex virus infection and facilitates establishment of CNS infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinert, Line; Harder, Louis Andreas; Holm, Christian

    2012-01-01

    events. Immunological control of HSV involves activation of innate immune pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR3, which detects double-stranded RNA and induces type I IFN expression. Humans with defects in the TLR3/IFN pathway have an elevated susceptibility to HSV infections of the CNS. However......Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly prevalent neurotropic viruses. While they can replicate lytically in cells of the epithelial lineage, causing lesions on mucocutaneous surfaces, HSVs also establish latent infections in neurons, which act as reservoirs of virus for subsequent reactivation...

  1. Extended Synaptotagmin 1 Interacts with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein M and Negatively Modulates Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Imane; Khadivjam, Bita; Lackman, Miki; Duron, Johanne; Bonneil, Eric; Thibault, Pierre; Lippé, Roger

    2018-01-01

    Enveloped viruses typically encode their own fusion machinery to enter cells. Herpesviruses are unusual, as they fuse with a number of cellular compartments throughout their life cycles. As uncontrolled fusion of the host membranes should be avoided in these events, tight regulation of the viral fusion machinery is critical. While studying herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein gM, we identified the cellular protein E-Syt1 (extended synaptotagmin 1) as an interaction partner. The interaction took place in both infected and transfected cells, suggesting other viral proteins were not required for the interaction. Most interestingly, E-Syt1 is a member of the synaptotagmin family of membrane fusion regulators. However, the protein is known to promote the tethering of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane. We now show that E-Syt1, along with the related E-Syt3, negatively modulates viral release into the extracellular milieu, cell-to-cell viral spread, and viral entry, all processes that implicate membrane fusion events. Similarly, these E-Syt proteins impacted the formation of virus-induced syncytia. Altogether, these findings hint at the modulation of the viral fusion machinery by the E-Syt family of proteins. IMPORTANCE Viruses typically encode their own fusion apparatus to enable them to enter cells. For many viruses, this means a single fusogenic protein. However, herpesviruses are large entities that express several accessory viral proteins to regulate their fusogenic activity. The present study hints at the additional participation of cellular proteins in this process, suggesting the host can also modulate viral fusion to some extent. Hence E-Syt proteins 1 and 3 seem to negatively modulate the different viral fusion events that take place during the HSV-1 life cycle. This could represent yet another innate immunity response to the virus. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Recombinant influenza virus expressing HIV-1 p24 capsid protein induces mucosal HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hyon-Xhi; Gilbertson, Brad P; Jegaskanda, Sinthujan; Alcantara, Sheilajen; Amarasena, Thakshila; Stambas, John; McAuley, Julie L; Kent, Stephen J; De Rose, Robert

    2016-02-24

    Influenza viruses are promising mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV but their use has been limited by difficulties in engineering the expression of large amounts of foreign protein. We developed recombinant influenza viruses incorporating the HIV-1 p24 gag capsid into the NS-segment of PR8 (H1N1) and X31 (H3N2) influenza viruses with the use of multiple 2A ribosomal skip sequences. Despite the insertion of a sizable HIV-1 gene into the influenza genome, recombinant viruses were readily rescued to high titers. Intracellular expression of p24 capsid was confirmed by in vitro infection assays. The recombinant influenza viruses were subsequently tested as mucosal vaccines in BALB/c mice. Recombinant viruses were attenuated and safe in immunized mice. Systemic and mucosal HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses were elicited in mice that were immunized via intranasal route with a prime-boost regimen. Isolated HIV-specific CD8 T-cells displayed polyfunctional cytokine and degranulation profiles. Mice boosted via intravaginal route induced recall responses from the distal lung mucosa and developed heightened HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses in the vaginal mucosa. These findings demonstrate the potential utility of recombinant influenza viruses as vaccines for mucosal immunity against HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Glycoprotein Interaction with HVEM Influences Virus-Specific Recall Cellular Responses at the Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Kopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of susceptible cells by herpes simplex virus (HSV requires the interaction of the HSV gD glycoprotein with one of two principal entry receptors, herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM or nectins. HVEM naturally functions in immune signaling, and the gD-HVEM interaction alters innate signaling early after mucosal infection. We investigated whether the gD-HVEM interaction during priming changes lymphocyte recall responses in the murine intravaginal model. Mice were primed with attenuated HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD or mutant gD unable to engage HVEM and challenged 32 days later with virulent HSV-2 expressing wild-type gD. HSV-specific CD8+ T cells were decreased at the genital mucosa during the recall response after priming with virus unable to engage HVEM but did not differ in draining lymph nodes. CD4+ T cells, which are critical for entry of HSV-specific CD8+ T cells into mucosa in acute infection, did not differ between the two groups in either tissue. An inverse association between Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells and CD8+ infiltration into the mucosa was not statistically significant. CXCR3 surface expression was not significantly different among different lymphocyte subsets. We conclude that engagement of HVEM during the acute phase of HSV infection influences the antiviral CD8+ recall response by an unexplained mechanism.

  4. Herpes simplex viruses lacking glycoprotein D are unable to inhibit virus penetration: quantitative evidence for virus-specific cell surface receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.C.; Ligas, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoprotein D (gD) plays an essential role in the entry of virus into cells. HSV mutants unable to express gD were constructed. The mutants can be propagated on VD60 cells, which supply the viruses with gD; however, virus particles lacking gD were produced in mutant-infected Vero cells. Virus particles with or without gD adsorbed to a large number of sites on the cell surface; however, virions lacking gD did not enter cells. Cells pretreated with UV-inactivated virions containing gD were resistant to infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. In contrast, cell pretreated with UV-inactivated virions lacking gD could be infected with HSV-1 and HSV-2. If infectious HSV-1 was added prior to UV-inactivated virus particles containing gD, the infectious virus entered cells and replicated. Therefore, virus particles containing gD appear to block specific cell surface receptors which are very limited in number. Particles lacking gD are presumably unable to interact with these receptors, suggesting that gD is an essential receptor-binding polypeptide

  5. Assessing the contribution of the herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase to spontaneous mutations

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    Leary Jeffry J

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thymidine kinase (tk mutagenesis assay is often utilized to determine the frequency of herpes simplex virus (HSV replication-mediated mutations. Using this assay, clinical and laboratory HSV-2 isolates were shown to have a 10- to 80-fold higher frequency of spontaneous mutations compared to HSV-1. Methods A panel of HSV-1 and HSV-2, along with polymerase-recombinant viruses expressing type 2 polymerase (Pol within a type 1 genome, were evaluated using the tk and non-HSV DNA mutagenesis assays to measure HSV replication-dependent errors and determine whether the higher mutation frequency of HSV-2 is a distinct property of type 2 polymerases. Results Although HSV-2 have mutation frequencies higher than HSV-1 in the tk assay, these errors are assay-specific. In fact, wild type HSV-1 and the antimutator HSV-1 PAAr5 exhibited a 2–4 fold higher frequency than HSV-2 in the non-HSV DNA mutatagenesis assay. Furthermore, regardless of assay, HSV-1 recombinants expressing HSV-2 Pol had error rates similar to HSV-1, whereas the high mutator virus, HSV-2 6757, consistently showed signficant errors. Additionally, plasmid DNA containing the HSV-2 tk gene, but not type 1 tk or LacZ DNA, was shown to form an anisomorphic DNA stucture. Conclusions This study suggests that the Pol is not solely responsible for the virus-type specific differences in mutation frequency. Accordingly, it is possible that (a mutations may be modulated by other viral polypeptides cooperating with Pol, and (b the localized secondary structure of the viral genome may partially account for the apparently enhanced error frequency of HSV-2.

  6. Transient gene expression in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus empty capsids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Mignaqui

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. It produces severe economic losses in the livestock industry. Currently available vaccines are based on inactivated FMD virus (FMDV. The use of empty capsids as a subunit vaccine has been reported to be a promising candidate because it avoids the use of virus in the vaccine production and conserves the conformational epitopes of the virus. In this report, we explored transient gene expression (TGE in serum-free suspension-growing mammalian cells for the production of FMDV recombinant empty capsids as a subunit vaccine. The recombinant proteins produced, assembled into empty capsids and induced protective immune response against viral challenge in mice. Furthermore, they were recognized by anti-FMDV bovine sera. By using this technology, we were able to achieve expression levels that are compatible with the development of a vaccine. Thus, TGE of mammalian cells is an easy to perform, scalable and cost-effective technology for the production of a recombinant subunit vaccine against FMDV.

  7. C-Terminal Amino Acids 471-507 of Avian Hepatitis E Virus Capsid Protein Are Crucial for Binding to Avian and Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinquan Zhang

    Full Text Available The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins (ORF2-1 - ORF2-4 with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein. Results from the binding assay showed that three truncated capsid proteins attached to avian LMH cells, but did not penetrate into cells. However, the shortest construct, ORF2-4, lost the capability of binding to cells suggesting that the presence of amino acids 471 to 507 of the capsid protein is crucial for the attachment. The construct ORF2-3 (aa339-507 was used to study the potential binding of avian HEV capsid protein to human and other avian species. It could be demonstrated that ORF2-3 was capable of binding to QT-35 cells from Japanese quail and human HepG2 cells but failed to bind to P815 cells. Additionally, chicken serum raised against ORF2-3 successfully blocked the binding to LMH cells. Treatment with heparin sodium salt or sodium chlorate significantly reduced binding of ORF2-3 to LMH cells. However, heparinase II treatment of LMH cells had no effect on binding of the ORF2-3 construct, suggesting a possible distinct attachment mechanism of avian as compared to human HEV. For the first time, interactions between avian HEV capsid protein and host cells were investigated demonstrating that aa471 to 507 of the capsid protein are needed to facilitate interaction with different kind of cells from different species.

  8. Persistent genital herpes simplex virus-2 shedding years following the first clinical episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Saracino, Misty; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Remington, Mike; Huang, Meei-Li; Warren, Terri; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-15

    Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking. For this study, 377 healthy adults with history of symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection collected anogenital swabs for HSV-2 DNA polymerase chain reaction for at least 30 consecutive days. Time since first genital herpes episode was significantly associated with reduced genital shedding. Total HSV shedding occurred on 33.6% of days in participants <1 year, 20.6% in those 1-9 years, and 16.7% in those ≥10 years from first episode. Subclinical HSV shedding occurred on 26.2% of days among participants <1 year, 13.1% in those 1-9 years, and 9.3% in those ≥10 years from first episode. On days with HSV detection, mean quantity was 4.9 log₁₀ copies/mL for those <1 year, 4.7 log₁₀ copies/mL among those 1-9 years, and 4.6 log₁₀ copies/mL among those ≥10 years since first episode. Rates of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding decrease after the first year following the initial clinical episode. However, viral shedding persists at high rates and copy numbers years after infection, and therefore may pose continued risk of HSV-2 transmission to sexual partners.

  9. Interaction of humic acids and humic-acid-like polymers with herpes simplex virus type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcking, Renate; Helbig, Björn

    The study was performed in order to compare the antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) of synthetic humic-acid-like polymers to that of their low-molecular-weight basic compounds and naturally occurring humic acids (HA) in vitro. HA from peat water showed a moderate antiviral activity at a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg/ml. HA-like polymers, i.e. the oxidation products of caffeic acid (KOP), hydrocaffeic acid (HYKOP), chlorogenic acid (CHOP), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (3,4-DHPOP), nordihydroguaretic acid (NOROP), gentisinic acid (GENOP), pyrogallol (PYROP) and gallic acid (GALOP), generally inhibit virus multiplication, although with different potency and selectivity. Of the substances tested, GENOP, KOP, 3,4-DHPOP and HYKOP with MEC values in the range of 2 to 10 µg/ml, proved to be the most potent HSV-1 inhibitors. Despite its lower antiviral potency (MEC 40 µg/ml), CHOP has a remarkable selectivity due to the high concentration of this polymer that is tolerated by the host cells (>640 µg/ml). As a rule, the antiviral activity of the synthetic compounds was restricted to the polymers and was not preformed in the low-molecular-weight basic compounds. This finding speaks in favour of the formation of antivirally active structures during the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds and, indirectly, of corresponding structural parts in different HA-type substances.

  10. Herpes simplex virus 1 targets the murine olfactory neuroepithelium for host entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkumar, Maitreyi; Milho, Ricardo; May, Janet S; Nicoll, Michael P; Efstathiou, Stacey; Stevenson, Philip G

    2013-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous and important human pathogen. It is known to persist in trigeminal ganglia (TG), but how it reaches this site has been difficult to determine, as viral transmission is sporadic, pathogenesis is complicated, and early infection is largely asymptomatic. We used mice to compare the most likely natural HSV-1 host entry routes: oral and nasal. Intranasal infection was 100-fold more efficient than oral and targeted predominantly the olfactory neuroepithelium. Live imaging of HSV-1-expressed luciferase showed infection progressing from the nose to the TG and then reemerging in the facial skin. The brain remained largely luciferase negative throughout. Infected cell tagging by viral Cre recombinase expression in floxed reporter gene mice showed nasal virus routinely reaching the TG and only rarely reaching the olfactory bulbs. Thus, HSV-1 spread from the olfactory neuroepithelium to the TG and reemerged peripherally without causing significant neurological disease. This recapitulation of typical clinical infection suggests that HSV-1 might sometimes also enter humans via the respiratory tract.

  11. Effect of ultrasound on herpes simplex virus infection in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwai Soichi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound has been shown to increase the efficiency of gene expression from retroviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses. The effect of ultrasound to stimulate cell membrane permeabilization on infection with an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 was examined. Results Vero monkey kidney cells were infected with HSV-1 and exposed to 1 MHz ultrasound after an adsorption period. The number of plaques was significantly greater than that of the untreated control. A combination of ultrasound and microbubbles further increased the plaque number. Similar results were obtained using a different type of HSV-1 and oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells. The appropriate intensity, duty cycle and time of ultrasound to increase the plaque number were 0.5 W/cm2, 20% duty cycle and 10 sec, respectively. Ultrasound with microbubbles at an intensity of 2.0 W/cm2, at 50% duty cycle, or for 40 sec reduced cell viability. Conclusion These results indicate that ultrasound promotes the entry of oncolytic HSV-1 into cells. It may be useful to enhance the efficiency of HSV-1 infection in oncolytic virotherapy.

  12. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infection induces AD-like neurodegeneration markers in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, Henrike; Santana, Soraya; Sastre, Isabel; Recuero, Maria; Bullido, Maria J; Aldudo, Jesus

    2015-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are neurotropic viruses that establish lifelong latent infections in neurons. Mounting evidence suggests that HSV-1 infection is involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The relationships between other herpesvirus infections and events associated with neurodegeneration have not, however, been extensively studied. The present work reports that HSV-2 infection leads to the strong accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau and the amyloid-β peptides Aβ40 and Aβ42 (all major pathological hallmarks of AD) in human SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. Infection is also associated with a marked reduction in the amount of Aβ40 secreted and in the proteolytic fragments of the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) (secreted APPα and the α-C-terminal fragment). These results indicate that HSV-2 infection inhibits the nonamyloidogenic pathway of APP processing and impairs Aβ secretion in these cells. In addition, HSV-2 induces the accumulation of intracellular autophagic compartments containing Aβ due to a failure in the late stages of autophagy. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that HSV-2 infection strongly alters the tau phosphorylation state, APP processing, and autophagic process in human neuroblastoma cells, leading to the appearance of AD-like neurodegeneration markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Houttuynia cordata targets the beginning stage of herpes simplex virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yun Hung

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV, a common latent virus in humans, causes certain severe diseases. Extensive use of acyclovir (ACV results in the development of drug-resistant HSV strains, hence, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat HSV infection. Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata, a natural herbal medicine, has been reported to exhibit anti-HSV effects which is partly NF-κB-dependent. However, the molecular mechanisms by which H. cordata inhibits HSV infection are not elucidated thoroughly. Here, we report that H. cordata water extracts (HCWEs inhibit the infection of HSV-1, HSV-2, and acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 mainly via blocking viral binding and penetration in the beginning of infection. HCWEs also suppress HSV replication. Furthermore, HCWEs attenuate the first-wave of NF-κB activation, which is essential for viral gene expressions. Further analysis of six compounds in HCWEs revealed that quercetin and isoquercitrin inhibit NF-κB activation and additionally, quercetin also has an inhibitory effect on viral entry. These results indicate that HCWEs can inhibit HSV infection through multiple mechanisms and could be a potential lead for development of new drugs for treating HSV.

  14. Replication and interaction of herpes simplex virus and human papillomavirus in differentiating host epithelial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Craig; Andreansky, Samita S.; Courtney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the interactions and consequences of superinfecting and coreplication of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human epithelial organotypic (raft) culture tissues. In HPV-positive tissues, HSV infection and replication induced significant cytopathic effects (CPE), but the tissues were able to recover and maintain a certain degree of tissue integrity and architecture. HPV31b not only maintained the episomal state of its genomic DNA but also maintained its genomic copy number even during times of extensive HSV-induced CPE. E2 transcripts encoded by HPV31b were undetectable even though HPV31b replication was maintained in HSV- infected raft tissues. Expression of HPV31b oncogenes (E6 and E7) was also repressed but to a lesser degree than was E2 expression. The extent of CPE induced by HSV is dependent on the magnitude of HPV replication and gene expression at the time of HSV infection. During active HSV infection, HPV maintains its genomic copy number even though genes required for its replication were repressed. These studies provide new insight into the complex interaction between two common human sexually transmitted viruses in an in vitro system, modeling their natural host tissue in vivo

  15. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of herpes simplex virus encephalitis with a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Price, R.W.; Rottenberg, D.A.; Fox, J.J.; Su, T.L.; Watanabe, K.A.; Philips, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-ν-D-arabinosyluracil (FMAU) labeled with carbon-14 was used to image herpes simplex virus type 1-infected regions of rat brain by quantitative autoradiography. FMAU is a potent antiviral pyrimidine nucleoside which is selectively phosphorylated by virus-coded thymidine kinase. When the labeled FMAU was administered 6 hours before the rats were killed, the selective uptake and concentration of the drug and its metabolites by infected cells (defined by immunoperoxidase staining of viral antigens) allowed quantitative definition and mapping of HSV-1-infected structures in autoradiograms of brain sections. These results shown that quantitative autoradiography can be used to characterize the local metabolism of antiviral drugs by infected cells in vivo. They also suggest that the selective uptake of drugs that exploit viral thymidine kinase for their antiviral effect can, by appropriate labeling, be used in conjunction with clinical neuroimaging techniques to define infected regions of human brain, thereby providing a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes encephalitis in man

  16. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2) replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of [ 3 H]-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Myelitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Raffaele Nardone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-traumatic myelopathies can result from a wide spectrum of conditions including inflammatory, ischemic, and metabolic disorders. Here, we describe the case of a 60-year old immunocompetent woman who developed acute back pain followed by rapidly ascending flaccid tetraparesis, a C6 sensory level, and sphincter dysfunction within 8 h. Acyclovir and steroids were started on day 2 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a bilateral anterior horn tractopathy expanding from C2 to T2 and cervicothoracic cord swelling. Screening for paraneoplastic antibodies and cancer was negative. Neurophysiology aided in the work-up by corroborating root involvement. Recovery was poor despite early initiation of antiviral treatment, adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapy, and neurorehabilitation efforts. The clinical course, bilateral affection of the anterior horns, and early focal atrophy on follow-up magnetic resonance imaging take a necrotizing myelitis potentially caused by intraneuronal spread of the virus into consideration. Further, we summarize the literature on classical and rare presentations of HSV-2 myeloradiculitis in non-immunocompromised patients and raise awareness for the limited treatment options for a condition with frequent devastating outcome.

  18. Oncogenes in Ras signalling pathway dictate host-cell permissiveness to herpes simplex virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farassati, F; Yang, A D; Lee, P W

    2001-08-01

    The importance of herpes simplex viruses (HSV) as human pathogens and the emerging prospect of using mutant derivatives of HSV-1 as potential anti-cancer therapeutics have necessitated a thorough investigation into the molecular basis of host-cell permissiveness to HSV. Here we show that NIH-3T3 cells transformed with the oncogenes v-erbB, activated sos or activated ras become significantly more permissive to HSV-1. Inhibitors of the Ras signalling pathway, such as farnesyl transferase inhibitor 1 and PD98059, effectively suppressed HSV-1 infection of ras-transformed cells. Enhanced permissiveness of the transformed cells was linked to the inhibition of virus-induced activation (phosphorylation) of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), thereby allowing viral transcripts to be translated in these cells. An HSV-1-derived oncolytic mutant, R3616, was also found to infect preferentially both transformed cells and PKR-/- (but not PKR+/+) mouse embryo fibroblasts. These observations suggest that HSV-1 specifically targets cells with an activated Ras signalling pathway, and have important ramifications in the use of engineered HSV in cancer therapy, the development of strategies against HSV infections, and the controversial role of HSV in human cancers.

  19. Immune response of T cells during herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liu, Huan; Wei, Bin

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), a neurotropic member of the alphaherpes virus family, is among the most prevalent and successful human pathogens. HSV-1 can cause serious diseases at every stage of life including fatal disseminated disease in newborns, cold sores, eye disease, and fatal encephalitis in adults. HSV-1 infection can trigger rapid immune responses, and efficient inhibition and clearance of HSV-1 infection rely on both the innate and adaptive immune responses of the host. Multiple strategies have been used to restrict host innate immune responses by HSV-1 to facilitate its infection in host cells. The adaptive immunity of the host plays an important role in inhibiting HSV-1 infections. The activation and regulation of T cells are the important aspects of the adaptive immunity. They play a crucial role in host-mediated immunity and are important for clearing HSV-1. In this review, we examine the findings on T cell immune responses during HSV-1 infection, which hold promise in the design of new vaccine candidates for HSV-1.

  20. Incorporation of a lambda phage recombination system and EGFP detection to simplify mutagenesis of Herpes simplex virus bacterial artificial chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Weir Jerry P; Schmeisser Falko

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. Whi...

  1. Estimating the costs and benefits of screening monogamous, heterosexual couples for unrecognised infection with herpes simplex virus type 2

    OpenAIRE

    Fisman, D; Hook, E; Goldie, S

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of ulcerative genital disease in the United States, but infection is commonly unrecognised. Serological screening tests could identify discordantly infected couples and permit targeted interventions to limit HSV-2 transmission. Our objective was to evaluate the projected cost effectiveness of strategies to prevent HSV-2 transmission in couples with no history of HSV-2 infection.

  2. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis by ELISA Using Antipeptide Antibodies Against Type-Common Epitopes of Glycoprotein B of Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Shradha S; Chandak, Nitin H; Baheti, Neeraj N; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) represents one of the most severe infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). As effective antiviral drugs are available, an early, rapid, and reliable diagnosis has become important. The objective of this article was to develop a sensitive ELISA protocol for herpes simplex viruses (HSV) antigen detection and quantitation by assessing the usefulness of antipeptide antibodies against potential peptides of HSV glycoprotein B (gB). A total of 180 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of HSE and non-HSE patients were analyzed using a panel of antipeptide antibodies against synthetic peptides of HSV glycoprotein gB. The cases of confirmed and suspected HSE showed 80% and 51% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide QLHDLRF and 77% and 53% positivity for antipeptide against synthetic peptide MKALYPLTT, respectively for the detection of HSV antigen in CSF. The concentration of HSV antigen was found to be higher in confirmed HSE as compared to suspected HSE group and the viral load correlated well with antigen concentration obtained using the two antipeptides in CSF of confirmed HSE group. This is the first article describing the use of antibodies obtained against synthetic peptides derived from HSV in diagnostics of HSE using patients' CSF samples.

  3. Differential stability of host mRNAs in Friend erythroleukemia cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayman, B.A.; Nishioka, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The consequences of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection on cellular macromolecules were investigated in Friend erythroleukemia cells. The patterns of protein synthesis, examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, demonstrated that by 4 h postinfection the synthesis of many host proteins, with the exception of histones, was inhibited. Examination of the steady-state level of histone H3 mRNA by molecular hybridization of total RNA to a cloned mouse histone H3 complementary DNA probe demonstrated that the ratio of histone H3 mRNA to total RNA remained unchanged for the first 4 h postinfection. In contrast, the steady-state levels of globin and actin mRNAs decreased progressively at early intervals postinfection. Studies on RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei demonstrated that the transcription of the histone H3 gene was inhibited to approximately the same extent as that of actin gene. It was concluded that the stabilization of preexisting histone H3 mRNA was responsible for the persistence of H3 mRNA and histone protein synthesis in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected Friend erythroleukemia cells. The possible mechanisms influencing the differential stability of host mRNAs during the course of productive infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 are discussed

  4. Identification of Capsid/Coat Related Protein Folds and Their Utility for Virus Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Arshan; Caetano-Anoll?s, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    The viral supergroup includes the entire collection of known and unknown viruses that roam our planet and infect life forms. The supergroup is remarkably diverse both in its genetics and morphology and has historically remained difficult to study and classify. The accumulation of protein structure data in the past few years now provides an excellent opportunity to re-examine the classification and evolution of viruses. Here we scan completely sequenced viral proteomes from all genome types an...

  5. Mutational Analysis of the Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 (AAV2) Capsid Gene and Construction of AAV2 Vectors with Altered Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Xiao, Wu; Conlon, Thomas; Hughes, Jeffrey; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Ferkol, Thomas; Flotte, Terence; Muzyczka, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) has proven to be a valuable vector for gene therapy. Characterization of the functional domains of the AAV capsid proteins can facilitate our understanding of viral tissue tropism, immunoreactivity, viral entry, and DNA packaging, all of which are important issues for generating improved vectors. To obtain a comprehensive genetic map of the AAV capsid gene, we have constructed 93 mutants at 59 different positions in the AAV capsid gene by site-directed mutagenesis. Several types of mutants were studied, including epitope tag or ligand insertion mutants, alanine scanning mutants, and epitope substitution mutants. Analysis of these mutants revealed eight separate phenotypes. Infectious titers of the mutants revealed four classes. Class 1 mutants were viable, class 2 mutants were partially defective, class 3 mutants were temperature sensitive, and class 4 mutants were noninfectious. Further analysis revealed some of the defects in the class 2, 3, and 4 mutants. Among the class 4 mutants, a subset completely abolished capsid formation. These mutants were located predominantly, but not exclusively, in what are likely to be β-barrel structures in the capsid protein VP3. Two of these mutants were insertions at the N and C termini of VP3, suggesting that both ends of VP3 play a role that is important for capsid assembly or stability. Several class 2 and 3 mutants produced capsids that were unstable during purification of viral particles. One mutant, R432A, made only empty capsids, presumably due to a defect in packaging viral DNA. Additionally, five mutants were defective in heparan binding, a step that is believed to be essential for viral entry. These were distributed into two amino acid clusters in what is likely to be a cell surface loop in the capsid protein VP3. The first cluster spanned amino acids 509 to 522; the second was between amino acids 561 and 591. In addition to the heparan binding clusters, hemagglutinin epitope tag

  6. θ Defensins Protect Cells from Infection by Herpes Simplex Virus by Inhibiting Viral Adhesion and Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Bushra; Wang, Wei; Pang, Mabel; Cheshenko, Natalia; Hong, Teresa; Waring, Alan J.; Herold, Betsy C.; Wagar, Elizabeth A.; Lehrer, Robert I.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the ability of 20 synthetic θ defensins to protect cells from infection by type 1 and type 2 herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2, respectively). The peptides included rhesus θ defensins (RTDs) 1 to 3, originally isolated from rhesus macaque leukocytes, and three peptides (retrocyclins 1 to 3) whose sequences were inferred from human θ-defensin (DEFT) pseudogenes. We also tested 14 retrocyclin analogues, including the retro, enantio, and retroenantio forms of retrocyclin 1. Retrocyclins 1 and 2 and RTD 3 protected cervical epithelial cells from infection by both HSV serotypes, but only retrocyclin 2 did so without causing cytotoxicity or requiring preincubation with the virus. Surface plasmon resonance studies revealed that retrocyclin 2 bound to immobilized HSV-2 glycoprotein B (gB2) with high affinity (Kd, 13.3 nM) and that it did not bind to enzymatically deglycosylated gB2. Temperature shift experiments indicated that retrocyclin 2 and human α defensins human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP 1) to HNP 3 protected human cells from HSV-2 by different mechanisms. Retrocyclin 2 blocked viral attachment, and its addition during the binding or penetration phases of HSV-2 infection markedly diminished nuclear translocation of VP16 and expression of ICP4. In contrast, HNPs 1 to 3 had little effect on binding but reduced both VP16 transport and ICP4 expression if added during the postbinding (penetration) period. We recently reported that θ defensins are miniature lectins that bind gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with high affinity and inhibit the entry of R5 and X4 isolates of HIV-1. Given its small size (18 residues), minimal cytotoxicity, lack of activity against vaginal lactobacilli, and effectiveness against both HSV-2 and HIV-1, retrocyclin 2 provides an intriguing prototype for future topical microbicide development. PMID:15113897

  7. H2AX phosphorylation and DNA damage kinase activity are dispensable for herpes simplex virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, Carolyn; Lu, Xu; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2016-01-27

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can establish both lytic and latent infections in humans. The phosphorylation of histone H2AX, a common marker of DNA damage, during lytic infection by HSV-1 is well established. However, the role(s) of H2AX phosphorylation in lytic infection remain unclear. Following infection of human foreskin fibroblasts by HSV-1 or HSV-2, we assayed the phosphorylation of H2AX in the presence of inhibitors of transcription, translation, or viral DNA replication, or in the presence of inhibitors of ATM and ATR kinases (KU-55933 and VE-821, respectively). We also assayed viral replication in fibroblasts in the presence of the kinase inhibitors or siRNAs specific for ATM and ATR, as well as in cell lines deficient for either ATR or ATM. The expression of viral immediate-early and early proteins (including the viral DNA polymerase), but not viral DNA replication or late protein expression, were required for H2AX phosphorylation following HSV-1 infection. Inhibition of ATM kinase activity prevented HSV-stimulated H2AX phosphorylation but had only a minor effect on DNA replication and virus yield in HFF cells. These results differ from previous reports of a dramatic reduction in viral yield following chemical inhibition of ATM in oral keratinocytes or following infection of ATM(-/-) cells. Inhibition of the closely related kinase ATR (whether by chemical inhibitor or siRNA disruption) had no effect on H2AX phosphorylation and reduced viral DNA replication only moderately. During infection by HSV-2, H2AX phosphorylation was similarly dispensable but was dependent on both ATM activity and viral DNA replication. H2AX phosphorylation represents a cell type-specific and virus type-specific host response to HSV infection with little impact on viral infection.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Terminase Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Jason D.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection, empty procapsids are assembled and subsequently filled with the viral genome by means of a protein complex called the terminase, which is comprised of the HSV-1 UL15, UL28, and UL33 proteins. Biochemical studies of the terminase proteins have been hampered by the inability to purify the intact terminase complex. In this study, terminase complexes were isolated by tandem-affinity purification (TAP) using recombinant viruses expressing either a full-length NTAP-UL28 fusion protein (vFH476) or a C-terminally truncated NTAP-UL28 fusion protein (vFH499). TAP of the UL28 protein from vFH476-infected cells, followed by silver staining, Western blotting, and mass spectrometry, identified the UL15, UL28, and UL33 subunits, while TAP of vFH499-infected cells confirmed previous findings that the C terminus of UL28 is required for UL28 interaction with UL33 and UL15. Analysis of the oligomeric state of the purified complexes by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation revealed that the three proteins formed a complex with a molecular mass that is consistent with the formation of a UL15-UL28-UL33 heterotrimer. In order to assess the importance of conserved regions of the UL15 and UL28 proteins, recombinant NTAP-UL28 viruses with mutations of the putative UL28 metal-binding domain or within the UL15 nuclease domain were generated. TAP of UL28 complexes from cells infected with each domain mutant demonstrated that the conserved cysteine residues of the putative UL28 metal-binding domain and conserved amino acids within the UL15 nuclease domain are required for the cleavage and packaging functions of the viral terminase, but not for terminase complex assembly. PMID:24155374

  9. Reliable Detection of Herpes Simplex Virus Sequence Variation by High-Throughput Resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Alison M; Calabro, Kaitlyn R; Fear, Justin M; Bloom, David C; McIntyre, Lauren M

    2017-08-16

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has resulted in data for a number of herpes simplex virus (HSV) laboratory strains and clinical isolates. The knowledge of these sequences has been critical for investigating viral pathogenicity. However, the assembly of complete herpesviral genomes, including HSV, is complicated due to the existence of large repeat regions and arrays of smaller reiterated sequences that are commonly found in these genomes. In addition, the inherent genetic variation in populations of isolates for viruses and other microorganisms presents an additional challenge to many existing HTS sequence assembly pipelines. Here, we evaluate two approaches for the identification of genetic variants in HSV1 strains using Illumina short read sequencing data. The first, a reference-based approach, identifies variants from reads aligned to a reference sequence and the second, a de novo assembly approach, identifies variants from reads aligned to de novo assembled consensus sequences. Of critical importance for both approaches is the reduction in the number of low complexity regions through the construction of a non-redundant reference genome. We compared variants identified in the two methods. Our results indicate that approximately 85% of variants are identified regardless of the approach. The reference-based approach to variant discovery captures an additional 15% representing variants divergent from the HSV1 reference possibly due to viral passage. Reference-based approaches are significantly less labor-intensive and identify variants across the genome where de novo assembly-based approaches are limited to regions where contigs have been successfully assembled. In addition, regions of poor quality assembly can lead to false variant identification in de novo consensus sequences. For viruses with a well-assembled reference genome, a reference-based approach is recommended.

  10. Inhibition of MHC class I is a virulence factor in herpes simplex virus infection of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus (HSV has a number of genes devoted to immune evasion. One such gene, ICP47, binds to the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP 1/2 thereby preventing transport of viral peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum, loading of peptides onto nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I molecules, and presentation of peptides to CD8 T cells. However, ICP47 binds poorly to murine TAP1/2 and so inhibits antigen presentation by MHC class I in mice much less efficiently than in humans, limiting the utility of murine models to address the importance of MHC class I inhibition in HSV immunopathogenesis. To address this limitation, we generated recombinant HSVs that efficiently inhibit antigen presentation by murine MHC class I. These recombinant viruses prevented cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing of infected cells in vitro, replicated to higher titers in the central nervous system, and induced paralysis more frequently than control HSV. This increase in virulence was due to inhibition of antigen presentation to CD8 T cells, since these differences were not evident in MHC class I-deficient mice or in mice in which CD8 T cells were depleted. Inhibition of MHC class I by the recombinant viruses did not impair the induction of the HSV-specific CD8 T-cell response, indicating that cross-presentation is the principal mechanism by which HSV-specific CD8 T cells are induced. This inhibition in turn facilitates greater viral entry, replication, and/or survival in the central nervous system, leading to an increased incidence of paralysis.

  11. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is the leading cause of genital herpes in New Brunswick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, Richard; Leblanc, Danielle; Thibault, Louise; Girouard, Gabriel; Mallet, Manon

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the role of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV1) in the epidemiology of genital herpes in Canada. Data on herpes viral cultures for two consecutive years obtained from L'Hôpital Dr GL Dumont, which performs all the viral culture testing in New Brunswick, were reviewed. It was hypothesized that HSV1 was the main cause of genital herpes in New Brunswick. Samples of genital origin sent to the laboratory for HSV culture testing between July 2006 and June 2008 were analyzed. Samples from an unspecified or a nongenital source were excluded from analysis. Multiple positive samples collected from the same patient were pooled into a single sample. HSV was isolated from 764 different patients. HSV1 was isolated in 62.6% of patients (male, 55%; female, 63.8%). HSV1 was isolated in 73.2% of patients 10 to 39 years of age and in 32% of patients ≥40 years of age. The difference in rates of HSV1 infection between the 10 to 39 years of age group and the ≥40 years of age group was statistically significant (Pgenital site. Significant rate differences were demonstrated between the groups 10 to 39 years of age and ≥40 years of age. Little is known about the role of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV1) in the epidemiology of genital herpes in Canada. Data on herpes viral cultures for two consecutive years obtained from L’Hôpital Dr GL Dumont, which performs all the viral culture testing in New Brunswick, were reviewed. It was hypothesized that HSV1 was the main cause of genital herpes in New Brunswick. Samples of genital origin sent to the laboratory for HSV culture testing between July 2006 and June 2008 were analyzed. Samples from an unspecified or a nongenital source were excluded from analysis. Multiple positive samples collected from the same patient were pooled into a single sample. HSV was isolated from 764 different patients. HSV1 was isolated in 62.6% of patients (male, 55%; female, 63.8%). HSV1 was isolated in 73.2% of patients 10 to

  12. RIG-I-Mediated STING Upregulation Restricts Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiliu; Goulet, Marie-Line; Sze, Alexandre; Hadj, Samar Bel; Belgnaoui, Sidi Mehdi; Lababidi, Rassin R.; Zheng, Chunfu; Fritz, Jörg Hermann

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT STING has emerged in recent years as a key player in orchestrating innate immune responses to cytosolic DNA and RNA derived from pathogens. However, the regulation of STING still remains poorly defined. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of the regulation of STING expression in relation to the RIG-I pathway. Our data show that signaling through RIG-I induces STING expression at both the transcriptional and protein levels in various cell types. STING induction by the RIG-I agonist 5′triphosphorylated RNA (5′pppRNA) was recognized to be a delayed event resulting from an autocrine/paracrine mechanism. Indeed, cotreatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha and type I/II interferon was found to have a synergistic effect on the regulation of STING expression and could be potently decreased by impairing NF-κB and/or STAT1/2 signaling. STING induction significantly contributed to sustainment of the immune signaling cascade following 5′pppRNA treatment. Physiologically, this cross talk between the RNA- and DNA-sensing pathways allowed 5′pppRNA to efficiently block infection by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) both in vitro and in vivo in a STING-dependent fashion. These observations demonstrate that STING induction by RIG-I signaling through the NF-κB and STAT1/2 cascades is essential for RIG-I agonist-mediated HSV-1 restriction. IMPORTANCE The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against invading pathogens. The dysregulation of this system can result in failure to combat pathogens, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. Thus, precise regulation at each level of the innate immune system is crucial. Recently, a number of studies have established STING to be a central molecule in the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA and RNA derived from pathogens. Here, we describe the regulation of STING via RIG-I-mediated innate immune sensing. We found that STING is synergistically induced via proinflammatory and antiviral

  13. Influence of exogeneous histone on DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in cells inoculated with Herpes simplex virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praskov, D.; Kavaklova, L.; Todorov, S.; Tsilka, S.; Petrova, S.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of exogeneous total histone from nucleated red cells on the incorporation of basal DNA and RNA precursors and proteins in FL cells inoculated with serotype I herpes simplex virus was followed up during the infectious process. In comparison with the purely viral infection, in the presence of exogeneous histone, there was repression in the incorporation of all three labelled precursors: 3 H-thymidine, 3 H-uridine and 14 C-leucine. This repression correlates with as high as 90% decrease in infectious virus yield. (author)

  14. Physical interaction between the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early regulatory proteins ICP0 and ICP4.

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, F; Schaffer, P A

    1994-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein ICP0 enhances expression of a spectrum of viral genes alone and synergistically with ICP4. To test whether ICP0 and ICP4 interact physically, we performed far-Western blotting analysis of proteins from mock-, wild-type-, and ICP4 mutant virus-infected cells with in vitro-synthesized [35S]Met-labeled ICP0 and ICP4 as probes. The ICP4 and ICP0 polypeptides synthesized in vitro exhibited molecular weights similar to those of their counterpa...

  15. Venezuelan equine Encephalitis virus capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with CRM1 and importin alpha/beta that obstructs nuclear pore complex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasheva, Svetlana; Fish, Alexander; Fornerod, Maarten; Frolova, Elena I

    2010-05-01

    Development of the cellular antiviral response requires nuclear translocation of multiple transcription factors and activation of a wide variety of cellular genes. To counteract the antiviral response, several viruses have developed an efficient means of inhibiting nucleocytoplasmic traffic. In this study, we demonstrate that the pathogenic strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has developed a unique mechanism of nuclear import inhibition. Its capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the nuclear import receptor importin alpha/beta. This unusual complex accumulates in the center channel of the nuclear pores and blocks nuclear import mediated by different karyopherins. The inhibitory function of VEEV capsid protein is determined by a short 39-amino-acid-long peptide that contains both nuclear import and supraphysiological nuclear export signals. Mutations in these signals or in the linker peptide attenuate or completely abolish capsid-specific inhibition of nuclear traffic. The less pathogenic VEEV strains contain a wide variety of mutations in this peptide that affect its inhibitory function in nuclear import. Thus, these mutations appear to be the determinants of this attenuated phenotype. This novel mechanism of inhibiting nuclear transport also shows that the nuclear pore complex is vulnerable to unusual cargo receptor complexes and sheds light on the importance of finely adjusted karyopherin-nucleoporin interactions for efficient cargo translocation.

  16. Molecular Evolution of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Complete Genomes: Comparison between Primary and Recurrent Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaya, Miguel A; Jensen, Travis L; Goll, Johannes B; Korom, Maria; Datla, Sree H; Belshe, Robert B; Morrison, Lynda A

    2017-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that cause lifelong persistent infections characterized by periods of quiescence and recurrent disease. How HSV evolves within an infected individual experiencing multiple episodes of recurrent disease over time is not known. We determined the genome sequences of viruses isolated from two subjects in the Herpevac Trial for Women who experienced primary HSV-2 genital disease and compared them with sequences of viruses isolated from the subsequent fifth or sixth episode of recurrent disease in the same individuals. Each of the HSV-2 genome sequences was initially obtained using next-generation sequencing and completed with Sanger sequencing. Polymorphisms over the entire genomes were mapped, and amino acid variants resulting from nonsynonymous changes were analyzed based on the secondary and tertiary structures of a previously crystallized protein. A phylogenetic reconstruction was used to assess relationships among the four HSV-2 samples, other North American sequences, and reference sequences. Little genetic drift was detected in viruses shed by the same subjects following repeated reactivation events, suggesting strong selective pressure on the viral genome to maintain sequence fidelity during reactivations from its latent state within an individual host. Our results also demonstrate that some primary HSV-2 isolates from North America more closely resemble the HG52 laboratory strain from Scotland than the low-passage-number clinical isolate SD90e from South Africa or laboratory strain 333. Thus, one of the sequences reported here would be a logical choice as a reference strain for inclusion in future studies of North American HSV-2 isolates. IMPORTANCE The extent to which the HSV-2 genome evolves during multiple episodes of reactivation from its latent state within an infected individual is not known. We used next-generation sequencing techniques to determine whole-genome sequences of

  17. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  18. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF P16 PROTEIN AND OF L1 CAPSID PROTEIN OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL SQUAMOUS INTRAEPITHELIAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Crauciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to accomplish a comparative assessment between the immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical expression of p16 protein and of L1capsid protein respectively of HPV, high grade and low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, in order to determine, by morph-clinical  correlations, their practical applicability in diagnosing and the subsequent monitoring of the patients. For the cases studied, HPV L1 capsid protein was present in 66.7% of LSIL, 17.6% of HSIL and 18.2% of ASCUS. From all cervical biopsies, p16 biomarker was positive for 54.8% of LSIL, 98% of HSIL and 45.5% of ASCUS. The biggest part of cervical cancer cases are caused by HPV virus infection. HPV vaccine protects against 4 HPV roots that cause about 70% of cervical cancer cases.

  19. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  20. Capsid protein sequence gene analysis of Apple mosaic virus infesting pears

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrzik, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 111, - (2005), s. 355-360 ISSN 0929-1873 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 853.001 Keywords : plant diseases * Apple mosaic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.534, year: 2005

  1. New positions for peptide presentation in Potato virus X capsid protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaculík, Petr; Plchová, Helena; Moravec, Tomáš; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 133-141 ISSN 2391-5412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/1761 Grant - others:OP Praha Konkurenceschopnost(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Bacterial expression * Potato virus X * Human papillomavirus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Alami Chentoufi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2 are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed.

  3. Overlapping reactivations of herpes simplex virus type 2 in the genital and perianal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Sunitha; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2010-02-15

    Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 occurs frequently. Anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 reactivation have not been intensively studied. Four HSV-2-seropositive women with symptomatic genital herpes attended a clinic daily during a 30-day period. Daily samples were collected from 7 separate genital sites. Swab samples were assayed for HSV DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Anatomic sites of clinical HSV-2 recurrences were recorded. HSV was detected on 44 (37%) of 120 days and from 136 (16%) of 840 swab samples. Lesions were documented on 35 (29%) of 120 days. HSV was detected at >1 anatomic site on 25 (57%) of 44 days with HSV shedding (median, 2 sites; range, 1-7), with HSV detected bilaterally on 20 (80%) of the 25 days. The presence of a lesion was significantly associated with detectable HSV from any genital site (incident rate ratio [IRR], 5.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-23.50; P= .02) and with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1. 01-1.40; P=.03). The maximum HSV copy number detected was associated with the number of positive sites (IRR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.44-1.82; Pgenital tract. To prevent HSV-2 reactivation, suppressive HSV-2 therapy must control simultaneous viral reactivations from multiple sacral ganglia.

  4. Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Caroline; Arnolds, Marin; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and virologic screening in the management of asymptomatic infants born to mothers with active genital herpes. The revised guidelines highlight infants at greatest risk for HSV disease but do not apply to asymptomatic infants born to mothers with a history of HSV but no genital lesions at delivery. The current guidelines also stipulate that maternal serologic screening and molecular assays for HSV in newborn blood and cerebrospinal fluid must be available and reported in a timely fashion. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Attitudes and Willingness to Assume Risk of Experimental Therapy to Eradicate Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseso, Linda; Magaret, Amalia S; Jerome, Keith R; Fox, Julie; Wald, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Current treatment of genital herpes is focused on ameliorating signs and symptoms but is not curative. However, as potential herpes simplex virus (HSV) cure approaches are tested in the laboratory, we aimed to assess the interest in such studies by persons with genital herpes and the willingness to assume risks associated with experimental therapy. We constructed an anonymous online questionnaire that was posted on websites that provide information regarding genital herpes. The questions collected demographic and clinical information on adults who self-reported as having genital herpes, and assessed attitudes toward and willingness to participate in HSV cure clinical research. Seven hundred eleven participants provided sufficient responses to be included in the analysis. Sixty-six percent were women; the median age was 37 years, and the median time since genital HSV diagnosis was 4.7 years. The willingness to participate in trials increased from 59.0% in phase 1 to 68.5% in phase 2, and 81.2% in phase 3 trials, and 40% reported willingness to participate even in the absence of immediate, personal benefits. The most desirable outcome was the elimination of risk for transmission to sex partner or neonate. The mean perceived severity of receiving a diagnosis of genital HSV-2 was 4.2 on a scale of 1 to 5. Despite suppressive therapy available, persons with genital herpes are interested in participating in clinical research aimed at curing HSV, especially in more advanced stages of development.

  6. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine J Looker

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated.We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital.We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440-3878 million aged 0-49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%, with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67-212 million people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific.The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection.

  7. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously

  8. Comparison of immunoassays for differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapper, Paul E.; Valley, Pam J.; Cleator, Gerham M.; Mandall, D.; Qutub, Mohammed O.

    2006-01-01

    To asses the commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (Hs-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) antibodies. The study was performed between January 1997 to November 2002 in the Division ofVirology,Department of Pathological Sciences, Central Manchester Healthcare Trust and University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom. Assays based upon type-specific glycoprotein G-1 (gG-1) for HSV-1, and glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) from HSV-2 were evaluated to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies. Using 5 different ELISA tests, 2 panels of serum samples were tested. Panel one consisted of 88 sera, selected from the serum bank of the Clinical Virology Laboratory, Manchester Royal Infirmary; panel 2 comprised of 90 sera selected from samples collected from Bangladeshi female commercial workers.The data of this study showed that a high rate of gG-1 based immunoassays ranged from 87.9-100% for sensitivity and 51.5-100% specificity. Although there are several immunoassays were claimed to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies, selection of these assays should be carefully interpreted with the overall clinical framework provided by detailed sexual history and genital examination. (author)

  9. Cellular expression of gH confers resistance to herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, Perry M.; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Bommireddy, Susmita; Shukla, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    Entry of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) into cells requires a concerted action of four viral glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH-gL. Previously, cell surface expression of gD had been shown to confer resistance to HSV-1 entry. To investigate any similar effects caused by other entry glycoproteins, gB and gH-gL were coexpressed with Nectin-1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Interestingly, cellular expression of gB had no effect on HSV-1(KOS) entry. In contrast, entry was significantly reduced in cells expressing gH-gL. This effect was further analyzed by expressing gH and gL separately. Cells expressing gL were normally susceptible, whereas gH-expressing cells were significantly resistant. Further experiments suggested that the gH-mediated interference phenomenon was not specific to any particular gD receptor and was also observed in gH-expressing HeLa cells. Moreover, contrary to a previous report, gL-independent cell surface expression of gH was detected in stably transfected CHO cells, possibly implicating cell surface gH in the interference phenomenon. Thus, taken together these findings indicate that cellular expression of gH interferes with HSV-1 entry

  10. Therapeutic Vaccine for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection: Findings From a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, David I; Wald, Anna; Warren, Terri; Fife, Kenneth; Tyring, Stephen; Lee, Patricia; Van Wagoner, Nick; Magaret, Amalia; Flechtner, Jessica B; Tasker, Sybil; Chan, Jason; Morris, Amy; Hetherington, Seth

    2017-03-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection causes recurrent lesions and frequent viral shedding. GEN-003 is a candidate therapeutic vaccine containing HSV-2 gD2∆TMR and ICP4.2, and Matrix-M2 adjuvant. Persons with genital herpes were randomized into 3 dose cohorts to receive 3 intramuscular doses 21 days apart of 10 µg, 30 µg, or 100 µg of GEN-003, antigens without adjuvant, or placebo. Participants obtained genital swab specimens twice daily for HSV-2 detection and monitored genital lesions for 28-day periods at baseline and at intervals after the last dose. One hundred and thirty-four persons received all 3 doses. Reactogenicity was associated with adjuvant but not with antigen dose or dose number. No serious adverse events were attributed to GEN-003. Compared with baseline, genital HSV-2 shedding rates immediately after dosing were reduced with GEN-003 (from 13.4% to 6.4% for 30 μg [P genital HSV shedding and lesion rates. NCT01667341 (funded by Genocea). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A neuron-specific role for autophagy in antiviral defense against herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordy, Brian; Iijima, Norifumi; Huttner, Anita; Leib, David; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2012-09-13

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are considered to be the universal mechanism by which viral infections are controlled. However, many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) rely on antiviral pathways that are toxic to host cells, which may be detrimental in nonrenewable cell types, such as neurons. We show that dorsal root ganglionic (DRG) neurons produced little type I IFNs in response to infection with a neurotropic virus, herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1). Further, type I IFN treatment failed to completely block HSV-1 replication or to induce IFN-primed cell death in neurons. We found that DRG neurons required autophagy to limit HSV-1 replication both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, mucosal epithelial cells and other mitotic cells responded robustly to type I IFNs and did not require autophagy to control viral replication. These findings reveal a fundamental difference in the innate antiviral strategies employed by neurons and mitotic cells to control HSV-1 infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between herpes simplex virus Types 1 and 2 with cardiac myxoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, Maryam Sotoudeh; Sabagh, Moud; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Ziaei, Shayan; Boroumand, Mohammad Ali; Pourgholi, Leyla; Jenab, Yaser; Abbasi, Kyomars

    Most cases of atrial myxoma are sporadic, and the exact etiology is unknown. We examined if herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 antigens and/or DNA could be detected in a cohort of Iranian patients with cardiac myxomas. From July 2004 to June 2014, among a total of 36,703 patients undergoing open heart surgeries, consecutive patients with cardiac myxoma who were treated by surgical excision at our center included in this study. Of 73 patients studied, 56% were female with a mean age of 54 years (ranging from 23 to 77 years). Seventy-four myxomas were surgically removed from 73 patients, since one patient had two myxomas which were located on both the right atrium and right ventricle. The materials for this analysis were retrospectively gathered from extracted tumors that stored in a pathology bank of tissue paraffin blocks. The formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples were investigated for HSV genomic DNA by both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In all 74 cases there was no presence of HSV 1 and HSV 2 infection. This suggests that HSV may not play a role in sporadic cardiac myxomas; however, evidence for such association is currently lacking, and further studies are required to determine such a role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. In-vivo immunofluorescence confocal microscopy of herpes simplex virus type 1 keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Stephen C.; Laird, Jeffery A.; Beuerman, Roger W.

    1996-05-01

    The white-light confocal microscope offers an in vivo, cellular-level resolution view of the cornea. This instrument has proven to be a valuable research and diagnostic tool for the study of infectious keratitis. In this study, we investigate the direct visualization of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-infected corneal epithelium, with in vivo confocal microscopy, using HSV-1 immunofluorescent antibodies. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with McKrae strain of HSV-1 in one eye; the other eye of each rabbit was used as an uninfected control. Four days later, the rabbits were anesthetized and a cellulose sponge was applied to each cornea, and a drop of direct HSV fluorescein-tagged antibody was placed on each sponge every 3 to 5 minutes for 1 hour. Fluorescence confocal microscopy was then performed. The HSV-infected corneas showed broad regions of hyperfluorescent epithelial cells. The uninfected corneas revealed no background fluorescence. Thus, using the confocal microscope with a fluorescent cube, we were able to visualize HSV-infected corneal epithelial cells tagged with a direct fluorescent antibody. This process may prove to be a useful clinical tool for the in vivo diagnosis of HSV keratitis.

  14. Refractory lymphedema of the hand: an unusual presentation of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Majdzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV infection of the hand resulting in lymphatic complications such as lymphangitis and lymphedema is exceedingly uncommon. Although these complications typically resolve in 21 days, they can be persistent and may not resolve even with antiviral use, thereby mimicking dyshidrotic eczema or a bacterial event and often being misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated as such. We report a case of frequently recurring HSV infection of the hand over a long period of time resulting in refractory lymphedema which did not resolve with antiviral treatment. We further endeavor to raise awareness about this highly unusual presentation of HSV infection. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for similar cases using PubMed and Medline. Case Report: This is the first reported case with nearly a decade-long interval between the onset of primary HSV infection and the development of chronic lymphedema. Although valacyclovir significantly reduced the episodic aggravation of the lymphedema, it did not entirely resolve it. Similar cases of persistent lymphedema also included a long history of untreated and recurrent HSV infection of the hand, suggesting that this lymphatic outcome may be circumvented by prompt treatment with antivirals. Conclusion: This case report not only presents a highly uncommon lymphatic manifestation and unusual timeline of exacerbation of the very common HSV infection, but also highlights the importance and benefits of early initiation of antiviral therapy and the prevention of reactivation.

  15. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis in a young man: an unusual course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Amos; Dhamne, Megha C; Hui, Andrew C; Ahmad, Aftab

    2018-02-24

    We present a case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) as a rare complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. A young man with no pertinent medical history was diagnosed with HSV encephalitis. After initial treatment, he showed improvement in symptomatology until day 6 when he acutely developed new neurological deficits. An urgent MRI brain showed changes in left temporal lobe consistent with HSV encephalitis and lack of flow void in superior sagittal sinus. Subsequent magnetic resonance venography confirmed the diagnosis of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis along with thrombosis of bilateral frontoparietal cortical draining veins. Anticoagulation was immediately initiated and oral anticoagulation was continued for 1 year. He made complete recovery subsequently. Our case serves as a reminder for the treating clinicians to consider CVST in patients with HSV encephalitis who develop an unexpected new neurological deficits during early phase of appropriate treatment. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 is associated with cytomegalovirus and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Raymond P; Peek, M Kristen; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Goodwin, James S

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be an emerging marker of immunosenescence. CMV can affect the immune system by directly infecting leukocytes and hematopoietic cells or by eliciting an expansion of oligoclonal CD8+ T cells/contraction of the naïve T cell compartment that may reduce the host's ability to fight other pathogens. To investigate further CMV-associated changes in immunity, a study was conducted with 1,454 adults (ages 25-91) to determine the association between CMV and reactivation of another latent herpesvirus, Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as indexed by antibody titers. Elevated antibody titers to latent HSV-1 were significantly associated with both CMV seropositivity and high CMV antibody levels. Evaluation by specific age groups (old) revealed that this association was detectable early in life (age). Increases in HSV-1 antibodies by age occurred in CMV seropositive individuals but not CMV seronegative subjects. Within CMV seropositive subjects, increases in HSV-1 antibodies by age were only found in individuals with low CMV antibody levels as those with high CMV antibodies already exhibited elevated HSV-1 antibodies. These associations remained significant after accounting for body mass index, gender, and socioeconomic status. These results suggest that CMV can influence the immune response to another pathogen and support the concept that CMV may accelerate immunosenescence. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Roles of TRIM32 in Corneal Epithelial Cells After Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Cui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epithelial cells play important roles as a critical barrier in protecting the cornea from microbial pathogens infection. Methods: In this study, we were aiming to investigate the role of E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32 in corneal epithelial cells in response to Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results: We found the expression of TRIM32 was increased after infected with HSV-1 both in murine corneas and cultured human epithelial (HCE cells. Furthermore, knockdown of the expression of TRIM32 significantly aggravated HSV-1 induced herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK in mice and promoted the replication of HSV-1 in cultured HCE cells. We also observed that silencing of TRIM32 resulted in the decreased expression of IFN-β and suppressed activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3 both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we found TRIM32 positively regulate IFN-β production in corneal epithelial cells through promoting K63-linked polyubiquitination of stimulator of interferon genes (STING. Conclusion: In conclusion, our data suggested that TRIM32 as a crucial positive regulator of HSV-1 induced IFN-β production in corneal epithelial cells, and it played a predominant role in clearing HSV-1 from the cornea.

  18. Detection of Herplex Simplex Virus-1 and -2 in Cardiac Myxomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis S. Pateras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of sporadic cardiac myxomas remains elusive. The tendency for these lesions to recur following resection, their immunopathological characteristics, along with their histological and molecular profile, may implicate the presence of an infective agent in this type of tumor. In this study, we investigated the presence of herpes simplex virus (HSV DNA in a cohort of cardiac myxomas in a tertiary referral centre. Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE sporadic cardiac myxomas were obtained, 17 of which were shown to be informative. These were compared to 19 macroscopically and microscopically normal heart tissue specimens. The detection of HSV-1 and -2 genomic sequences was achieved with the use of a combined nested PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism methodology. The presence of HSV-1 and/or -2 DNA was demonstrated in 6 of 17 (35% informative sporadic cardiac myxomas, whereas no HSV DNA was detected in normal heart tissues (P<0.01. The existence of HSV-1/2 DNA in sporadic cardiac myxomas, along with its absence from normal heart tissues, reinforces the possibility that HSV infection might be involved in the development of these lesions. Our findings raise the point of anti-HSV medication postsurgically with a potential benefit in reducing the rate of recurrences.

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Improve the Replication of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, James J.; Markert, James M.; Hurst, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    New therapies are needed for metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) is an exciting therapy being developed for use against aggressive tumors and established metastases. Although oHSV have been demonstrated safe in clinical trials, a lack of sufficient potency has slowed the clinical application of this approach. We utilized histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which have been noted to impair the innate antiviral response and improve gene transcription from viral vectors, to enhance the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. A panel of chemically diverse HDAC inhibitors were tested at three different doses (LD50) for their ability to modulate the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. Several of the tested HDAC inhibitors enhanced oHSV replication at low multiplicity of infection (MOI) following pre-treatment of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the oHSV-resistant cell line 4T1, but not in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Inhibitors of class I HDACs, including pan-selective compounds, were more effective for increasing oHSV replication compared to inhibitors that selectively target class II HDACs. These studies demonstrate that select HDAC inhibitors increase oHSV replication in breast cancer cells and provides support for pre-clinical evaluation of this combination strategy. PMID:24651853

  20. Clinical courses of herpes simplex virus-induced urethritis in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Kondo, Hiromi; Yamada, Yoshiteru; Nakane, Keita; Mizutani, Kosuke; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2017-10-01

    We retrieved clinical data of 13 men having herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) without visible herpetic lesions. They visited a clinic in Sendai, Japan, between April 2013 and December 2015. All the men complained of dysuria. Meatitis was observed in 9 of the 13 men. Mononuclear cells were observed in the urethral smears from 9 men. The 13 men were treated with azithromycin or sitafloxacin regimen. First-voided urine (FVU) specimens became negative for HSV in 8 of the 10 men who returned to the clinic after antibacterial treatment, and urethritis symptoms were alleviated. However, herpetic lesions were observed at the follow-up visits in 3 men, and 2 of them were still positive for HSV in their FVU. HSV could be a cause of acute urethritis without causing visible herpetic lesions. The shedding of HSV from the urethra would spontaneously cease with alleviation of urethritis symptoms in most cases of HSV-induced NGU without antiviral therapy. However, new herpetic lesions could be developed in some cases. Early antiviral therapy is beneficial for patients with HSV infections. The development of meatitis and the mononuclear cell response in the urethral smear could be helpful to diagnose HSV-induced NGU. Therefore, we should presumptively initiate anti-HSV therapy for patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of HSV-induced NGU at their first presentation. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Herpes Simplex Virus Urethritis Compared With Chlamydial Urethritis Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason J; Morton, Anna N; Henzell, Helen R; Berzins, Karen; Druce, Julian; Fairley, Christopher K; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim Rh; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus Y

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the clinical characteristics associated with herpes simplex virus (HSV) urethritis in men and to compare those with chlamydial urethritis. We compared clinical and laboratory data from men diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction confirmed HSV urethritis with those of men with chlamydial urethritis presenting to Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between 2000 and 2015. Eighty HSV urethritis cases were identified: 55 (68%, 95% confidence interval, 58-78) were by HSV-1 and 25 (32%, 95% confidence interval, 22-42) by HSV-2. Compared with chlamydial urethritis, men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to report severe dysuria (20% vs 0%, P < 0.01) or constitutional symptoms (15% vs 0%, P < 0.01). Men with HSV urethritis were significantly more likely to have meatitis (62% vs 23%, P < 0.01), genital ulceration (37% vs 0%, P < 0.01), or inguinal lymphadenopathy (30% vs 0%, P < 0.01) but less likely to have urethral discharge (32% vs 69%, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the proportion of men who had raised (≥5) polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-powered field between the two groups (P = 0.46). The clinical presentation of HSV urethritis in men may differ from those of chlamydial urethritis and guide testing for HSV in men presenting with non-gonococcal urethritis.

  2. Ganciclovir uptake in human mammary carcinoma cells expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberkorn, Uwe; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Morr, Iris; Altmann, Annette; Mueller, Markus; Kaick, Gerhard van

    1998-01-01

    Assessment of suicide enzyme activity would have considerable impact on the planning and the individualization of suicide gene therapy of malignant tumors. This may be done by determining the pharmacokinetics of specific substrates. We generated ganciclovir (GCV)-sensitive human mammary carcinoma cell lines after transfection with a retroviral vector bearing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene. Thereafter, uptake measurements and HPLC analyses were performed up to 48 h in an HSV-tk-expressing cell line and in a wild-type cell line using tritiated GCV. HSV-tk-expressing cells showed higher GCV uptake and phosphorylation than control cells, whereas in wild-type MCF7 cells no phosphorylated GCV was detected. In bystander experiments the total GCV uptake was related to the amount of HSV-tk-expressing cells. Furthermore, the uptake of GCV correlated closely with the growth inhibition (r=0.92). Therefore, the accumulation of specific substrates may serve as an indicator of the HSV-tk activity and of therapy outcome. Inhibition and competition experiments demonstrated slow transport of GCV by the nucleoside carriers. The slow uptake and low affinity to HSV-tk indicate that GCV is not an ideal substrate for the nucleoside transport systems or for HSV-tk. This may be the limiting factor for therapy success, necessitating the search for better substrates of HSV-tk

  3. Herpes simplex virus-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation contributes to viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Naoto; Imai, Takahiko; Shindo, Keiko; Sato, Ayuko; Fujii, Wataru; Ichinohe, Takeshi; Takemura, Naoki; Kakuta, Shigeru; Uematsu, Satoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Maruzuru, Yuhei; Arii, Jun; Kato, Akihisa; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2017-10-02

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic viral encephalitis, which can be lethal or result in severe neurological defects even with antiviral therapy. While HSV-1 causes encephalitis in spite of HSV-1-specific humoral and cellular immunity, the mechanism by which HSV-1 evades the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here we describe a strategy by which HSV-1 avoids immune targeting in the CNS. The HSV-1 UL13 kinase promotes evasion of HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation in infection sites by downregulating expression of the CD8+ T cell attractant chemokine CXCL9 in the CNS of infected mice, leading to increased HSV-1 mortality due to encephalitis. Direct injection of CXCL9 into the CNS infection site enhanced HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation, leading to marked improvements in the survival of infected mice. This previously uncharacterized strategy for HSV-1 evasion of CD8+ T cell accumulation in the CNS has important implications for understanding the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of HSV-1 encephalitis.

  4. VP22 herpes simplex virus protein can transduce proteins into stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabanyi, I.; Lojudice, F.H.; Kossugue, P.M. [Centro de Terapia Celular e Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rebelato, E. [Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Demasi, M.A.; Sogayar, M.C. [Centro de Terapia Celular e Molecular, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    The type I herpes simplex virus VP22 tegument protein is abundant and well known for its ability to translocate proteins from one cell to the other. In spite of some reports questioning its ability to translocate proteins by attributing the results observed to fixation artifacts or simple attachment to the cell membrane, VP22 has been used to deliver several proteins into different cell types, triggering the expected cell response. However, the question of the ability of VP22 to enter stem cells has not been addressed. We investigated whether VP22 could be used as a tool to be applied in stem cell research and differentiation due to its capacity to internalize other proteins without altering the cell genome. We generated a VP22.eGFP construct to evaluate whether VP22 could be internalized and carry another protein with it into two different types of stem cells, namely adult human dental pulp stem cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. We generated a VP22.eGFP fusion protein and demonstrated that, in fact, it enters stem cells. Therefore, this system may be used as a tool to deliver various proteins into stem cells, allowing stem cell research, differentiation and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of genome alterations.

  5. Network analysis of the hominin origin of Herpes Simplex virus 2 from fossil data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underdown, Simon J; Kumar, Krishna; Houldcroft, Charlotte

    2017-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) is a human herpesvirus found worldwide that causes genital lesions and more rarely causes encephalitis. This pathogen is most common in Africa, and particularly in central and east Africa, an area of particular significance for the evolution of modern humans. Unlike HSV1, HSV2 has not simply co-speciated with humans from their last common ancestor with primates. HSV2 jumped the species barrier between 1.4 and 3 MYA, most likely through intermediate but unknown hominin species. In this article, we use probability-based network analysis to determine the most probable transmission path between intermediate hosts of HSV2, from the ancestors of chimpanzees to the ancestors of modern humans, using paleo-environmental data on the distribution of African tropical rainforest over the last 3 million years and data on the age and distribution of fossil species of hominin present in Africa between 1.4 and 3 MYA. Our model identifies Paranthropus boisei as the most likely intermediate host of HSV2, while Homo habilis may also have played a role in the initial transmission of HSV2 from the ancestors of chimpanzees to P.boisei .

  6. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  7. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  8. VP22 herpes simplex virus protein can transduce proteins into stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabanyi, I.; Lojudice, F.H.; Kossugue, P.M.; Rebelato, E.; Demasi, M.A.; Sogayar, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The type I herpes simplex virus VP22 tegument protein is abundant and well known for its ability to translocate proteins from one cell to the other. In spite of some reports questioning its ability to translocate proteins by attributing the results observed to fixation artifacts or simple attachment to the cell membrane, VP22 has been used to deliver several proteins into different cell types, triggering the expected cell response. However, the question of the ability of VP22 to enter stem cells has not been addressed. We investigated whether VP22 could be used as a tool to be applied in stem cell research and differentiation due to its capacity to internalize other proteins without altering the cell genome. We generated a VP22.eGFP construct to evaluate whether VP22 could be internalized and carry another protein with it into two different types of stem cells, namely adult human dental pulp stem cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. We generated a VP22.eGFP fusion protein and demonstrated that, in fact, it enters stem cells. Therefore, this system may be used as a tool to deliver various proteins into stem cells, allowing stem cell research, differentiation and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of genome alterations

  9. Multimutated Herpes Simplex Virus G207 Is a Potent Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindrich Cinatl, Jr.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The mode of the antitumoral activity of multimutated oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 G207 has not been fully elucidated yet. Because the antitumoral activity of many drugs involves the inhibition of tumor blood vessel formation, we determined if G207 had an influence on angiogenesis. Monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, but not human dermal fibroblasts, bronchial epithelial cells, and retinal glial cells, were highly sensitive to the replicative and cytotoxic effects of G207. Moreover, G207 infection caused the destruction of endothelial cell tubes in vitro. In the in vivo Matrigel plug assay in mice, G207 suppressed the formation of perfused vessels. Intratumoral treatment of established human rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts with G207 led to the destruction of tumor vessels and tumor regression. Ultrastructural investigations revealed the presence of viral particles in both tumor and endothelial cells of G207-treated xenografts, but not in adjacent normal tissues. These findings show that G207 may suppress tumor growth, in part, due to inhibition of angiogenesis.

  10. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipe, David M., E-mail: david_knipe@hms.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. - Highlights: • HSV lytic and latent gene expression is regulated differentially by epigenetic processes. • The sensors of foreign DNA have not been defined fully. • IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to sense viral DNA in HSV-infected cells. • IFI16 plays a role in both innate sensing of HSV DNA and in restricting its expression.

  11. Diabetic mice show an aggravated course of herpes-simplex virus-induced facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaki, Shinichi; Yamano, Koji; Kiguchi, Jun; Katsumi, Sachiyo; Keceli, Sumru; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Goshima, Fumi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Murakami, Shingo

    2012-10-01

    Bell's palsy is highly associated with diabetes mellitus. The cause of Bell's palsy in diabetes mellitus is not completely understood. Diabetic mononeuropathy or reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) may be responsible for the facial paralysis seen in diabetic patients. We previously reported transient and ipsilateral facial paralysis in mice inoculated with HSV-1. In this study, we examined the neuropathogenesis of HSV-1 in diabetic mice to clarify the relationship between Bell's palsy and diabetes mellitus. We compared the incidence and course of facial paralysis after HSV-1 inoculation in diabetic and nondiabetic mice groups. Diabetic mice were prepared by intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection. Facial nerve damage was assessed by electrophysiologic and histopathologic examinations. Compared with the nondiabetic group, the incidence of facial nerve paralysis was significantly increased in the diabetic mice. Electrophysiologic examinations and histopathologic changes also revealed that the facial nerve damage was more severe in the diabetic group. The aggravated course of HSV-1 infection in diabetes suggests that HSV-1 may be the main causative factor for the increased incidence of facial paralysis in diabetic patients.

  12. Topical treatment of herpes simplex virus infection with enzymatically created siRNA swarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Henrik; Lehtinen, Jenni; Romanovskaya, Alesia; Nygårdas, Michaela; Bamford, Dennis H; Poranen, Minna M; Hukkanen, Veijo

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen. Despite current antivirals, it causes a significant medical burden. Drug resistant strains exist and they are especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients and in HSV eye infections. New treatment modalities are needed. BALB/c mice were corneally infected with HSV and subsequently treated with a swarm of enzymatically created, Dicer-substrate small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules that targeted the HSV gene UL29. Two infection models were used, one in which the infection was predominantly peripheral and another in which it spread to the central nervous system. Mouse survival, as well as viral spread, load, latency and peripheral shedding, was studied. The anti-HSV-UL29 siRNA swarm alleviated HSV infection symptoms, inhibited viral shedding and replication and had a favourable effect on mouse survival. Treatment with anti-HSV-UL29 siRNA swarm reduced symptoms and viral spread in HSV infection of mice and also inhibited local viral replication in mouse corneas.

  13. Incidence of serum antibody titers against herpes simplex virus in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Motoko; Imafuku, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes latency in the sensory neuronal ganglia after primary infection, and occasionally causes recurrent infection, mainly on the lips or genitalia. Previous reports revealed an age-related increase in HSV-immunoglobulin G seropositive subjects in a hospital-based study and the general population in Japan. In this report, we retrospectively analyzed the results of serological tests against HSV, in which subjects were diagnosed with or suspected as having HSV infection. A total of 1216 subjects with at least one complement fixation (CF) result were included. Of these, 771 subjects (63.4%) were positive at first visit. When stratified by age, incidence of positive patients linearly increased with age from teenagers (44.9%) to those in their 80s (88.9%). Positivity in women was higher than in men overall; significantly higher incidence was observed in women aged in their 30s, 40s and 60s. When observing changing HSV-CF titers over time in 81 initially negative patients, 18 (22%) seroconverted during the 2121-day observation period. In this study, we clearly show that distribution of HSV-CF titers is similar to previous HSV-immunoglobulin G results. This correlation is probably caused by the continual subclinical proliferation of HSV, thus maintaining CF titers. Our observations provide current data on the incidence of HSV, reconfirming that serological examination is unreliable in diagnosing recurrent herpes, and the majority of infected subjects are asymptomatic. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  14. Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Gottlieb, Sami L; Wald, Anna

    2016-06-03

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and -2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent global pathogens which commonly cause recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. Less common but more serious complications include meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal infection, and keratitis. HSV-2 infection is a significant driver of the HIV epidemic, increasing the risk of HIV acquisition 3 fold. As current control strategies for genital HSV-2 infection, including antiviral therapy and condom use, are only partially effective, vaccines will be required to reduce infection. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccines for HSV-2 are being pursued and are in various stages of development. We will provide an overview of efforts to develop HSV-2 vaccines, including a discussion of the clinical need for an HSV vaccine, and status of research and development with an emphasis on recent insights from trials of vaccine candidates in clinical testing. In addition, we will touch upon aspects of HSV vaccine development relevant to low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Proteomic analysis of the herpes simplex virus 1 virion protein 16 transactivator protein in infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Hyung; Knipe, David M

    2015-06-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 virion protein 16 (VP16) tegument protein forms a transactivation complex with the cellular proteins host cell factor 1 (HCF-1) and octamer-binding transcription factor 1 (Oct-1) upon entry into the host cell. VP16 has also been shown to interact with a number of virion tegument proteins and viral glycoprotein H to promote viral assembly, but no comprehensive study of the VP16 proteome has been performed at early times postinfection. We therefore performed a proteomic analysis of VP16-interacting proteins at 3 h postinfection. We confirmed the interaction of VP16 with HCF-1 and a large number of cellular Mediator complex proteins, but most surprisingly, we found that the major viral protein associating with VP16 is the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) immediate-early (IE) transactivator protein. These results raise the potential for a new function for VP16 in associating with the IE ICP4 and playing a role in transactivation of early and late gene expression, in addition to its well-documented function in transactivation of IE gene expression. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Age-dependent Mendelian predisposition to herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Laurent; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Mahfoufi, Nora; Nicolas, Nathalie; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Guo, Yiqi; Cardon, Annabelle; Boucherit, Soraya; Obach, Dorothée; Clozel, Thomas; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Amsallem, Daniel; Berquin, Patrick; Blanc, Thierry; Bost-Bru, Cécile; Chabrier, Stéphane; Chabrol, Brigitte; Cheuret, Emmanuel; Dulac, Olivier; Evrard, Philippe; Héron, Bénédicte; Lazaro, Leila; Mancini, Josette; Pedespan, Jean-Michel; Rivier, François; Vallée, Louis; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Tardieu, Marc

    2010-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that predisposition to childhood herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 encephalitis (HSE) may be determined in part by human genetic factors. A genetic epidemiologic survey of childhood HSE (onset at age 3 months to 15 years) over a 20-year period (1985-2004) was conducted throughout France (comprising 29 university hospital neuropediatric centers). A total of 85 children fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for inclusion. Family and personal histories were obtained by face-to-face interview for 51 patients. No familial cases of HSE were identified in our survey; however, a high proportion (20%) of the children interviewed had a relevant family history: parental consanguinity (12% of patients), early-onset herpetic keratitis in a first-degree relative (6%), or both (2%). The narrow window of high susceptibility to HSE before age 3 years (62% of patients) further indicates that predisposition to HSE is tightly age-dependent. This survey suggests that childhood HSE, although sporadic, may result from Mendelian predisposition (from autosomal recessive susceptibility in particular), at least in some children. There likely is incomplete penetrance, however, which may reflect, at least in part, the impact of age at the time of HSV-1 infection. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors improve the replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Cody

    Full Text Available New therapies are needed for metastatic breast cancer patients. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV is an exciting therapy being developed for use against aggressive tumors and established metastases. Although oHSV have been demonstrated safe in clinical trials, a lack of sufficient potency has slowed the clinical application of this approach. We utilized histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors, which have been noted to impair the innate antiviral response and improve gene transcription from viral vectors, to enhance the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. A panel of chemically diverse HDAC inhibitors were tested at three different doses (LD50 for their ability to modulate the replication of oHSV in breast cancer cells. Several of the tested HDAC inhibitors enhanced oHSV replication at low multiplicity of infection (MOI following pre-treatment of the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the oHSV-resistant cell line 4T1, but not in the normal breast epithelial cell line MCF10A. Inhibitors of class I HDACs, including pan-selective compounds, were more effective for increasing oHSV replication compared to inhibitors that selectively target class II HDACs. These studies demonstrate that select HDAC inhibitors increase oHSV replication in breast cancer cells and provides support for pre-clinical evaluation of this combination strategy.

  18. Nuclear sensing of viral DNA, epigenetic regulation of herpes simplex virus infection, and innate immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) undergoes a lytic infection in epithelial cells and a latent infection in neuronal cells, and epigenetic mechanisms play a major role in the differential gene expression under the two conditions. HSV viron DNA is not associated with histones but is rapidly loaded with heterochromatin upon entry into the cell. Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. IFI16 and cGAS are both essential for innate sensing of HSV DNA, and new evidence shows how they work together to initiate innate signaling. IFI16 also plays a role in the heterochromatinization of HSV DNA, and this review will examine how IFI16 integrates epigenetic regulation and innate sensing of foreign viral DNA to show how these two responses are related. - Highlights: • HSV lytic and latent gene expression is regulated differentially by epigenetic processes. • The sensors of foreign DNA have not been defined fully. • IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to sense viral DNA in HSV-infected cells. • IFI16 plays a role in both innate sensing of HSV DNA and in restricting its expression

  19. The role of herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase alanine 168 in substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candice L, Willmon; Django, Sussman; Margaret E, Black

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) thymidine kinase (TK) has been widely used in suicide gene therapy for the treatment of cancer due to its broad substrate specificity and the inability of the endogenous human TK to phosphorylate guanosine analogs such as ganciclovir (GCV). The basis of suicide gene therapy is the introduction of a gene that encodes a prodrug-activating enzyme into tumor cells. After administration, the prodrug is selectively converted to a toxic drug by the suicide gene product thereby bringing about the eradication of the cancer cells. A major drawback to this therapy is the low activity the enzyme displays towards the prodrugs, requiring high prodrug doses that result in adverse side effects. Earlier studies revealed two HSV TK variants (SR39 and mutant 30) derived by random mutagenesis with enhanced activities towards GCV in vitro and in vivo. While these mutants contain multiple amino acid substitutions, molecular modeling suggests that substitutions at alanine 168 (A168) may be responsible for the observed increase in prodrug sensitivity. To evaluate this, site-directed mutagenesis was used to individually substitute A168 with phenylalanine or tyrosine to reflect the mutations found in SR39 and mutant 30, respectively. Additionally, kinetic parameters and the ability of these mutants to sensitize tumor cells to GCV in comparison to wild-type thymidine kinase were determined.

  20. Basic chemokine-derived glycosaminoglycan binding peptides exert antiviral properties against dengue virus serotype 2, herpes simplex virus-1 and respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Vincent; Vervaeke, Peter; Mortier, Anneleen; Noppen, Sam; Gouwy, Mieke; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Van Damme, Jo; Liekens, Sandra; Proost, Paul

    2016-01-15

    Chemokines attract leukocytes to sites of infection in a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dependent manner. Therefore, chemokines are crucial molecules for proper functioning of our antimicrobial defense mechanisms. In addition, some chemokines have GPCR-independent defensin-like antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi. Recently, high affinity for GAGs has been reported for the positively charged COOH-terminal region of the chemokine CXCL9. In addition to CXCL9, also CXCL12γ has such a positively charged COOH-terminal region with about 50% positively charged amino acids. In this report, we compared the affinity of COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ for GAGs and KD values in the low nM range were detected. Several enveloped viruses such as herpesviruses, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), etc. are known to bind to GAGs such as the negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS). In this way GAGs are important for the initial contacts between viruses and host cells and for the infection of the cell. Thus, inhibiting the virus-cell interactions, by blocking GAG-binding sites on the host cell, might be a way to target multiple virus families and resistant strains. This article reports that the COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ have antiviral activity against DENV serotype 2, clinical and laboratory strains of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Moreover, we show that CXCL9(74-103) competes with DENV envelope protein domain III for binding to heparin. These short chemokine-derived peptides may be lead molecules for the development of novel antiviral agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic

  2. Histopathology of endocervical infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviat, N B; Paavonen, J A; Wølner-Hanssen, P; Critchlow, C W; Stamm, W E; Douglas, J; Eschenbach, D A; Corey, L A; Holmes, K K

    1990-08-01

    We determined the histologic correlates of clinically identified mucopurulent cervicitis, culture-proven cervical infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and vaginal infection with Trichomonas vaginalis by examining cervical biopsies from 83 women. Clinical mucopurulent cervicitis and culture-documented infection with one or more of these pathogens correlated histologically with intraepithelial neutrophils, reactive endocervical cells, edema, luminal neutrophils, and with several deeper tissue changes such as extensive and dense subepithelial inflammation, granulation tissue, and necrotic ulceration. Focal loss of surface columnar cells and spongiosis were also correlated with culture-confirmed infection. Well-formed germinal centers were seen in biopsies from 14 of 21 patients (67%) with C trachomatis infection alone, but in none of 17 patients with infections other than C trachomatis (P less than 0.001). A predominantly plasmacytic infiltrate was also significantly associated with chlamydial infection. Necrotic ulcers overlying a predominantly lymphocytic infiltrate were seen in six of nine patients (67%) with HSV infection alone but in only two of 40 patients (5%) with other infections (P less than 0.001). Marked inflammatory changes were not seen in the patients infected with N gonorrhoeae. The organism T vaginalis was not associated with any endocervical pathology. If these results are confirmed by prospective studies, they suggest that pathologists should alert clinicians to the possibility of recent or current infection with C trachomatis or HSV when cervical biopsies show the above changes. The loss of surface columnar epithelium with HSV, chlamydial, and gonococcal infection offers a possible explanation for the reported association of these infections with increased risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  3. A molecular method for typing Herpes simplex virus isolates as an alternative to immunofluorescence methods

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    Abraham A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Typing of Herpes simplex virus (HSV isolates is required to identify the virus isolated in culture. The methods available for this include antigen detection by immunofluorescence (IF assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. This study was undertaken to standardize a molecular method for typing of HSV and compare it with a commercial IF reagent for typing. Objectives: To compare a molecular method for typing HSV isolates with a monoclonal antibody (MAb based IF test. Study design : This cross-sectional study utilized four reference strains and 42 HSV isolates obtained from patients between September 1998 and September 2004. These were subjected to testing using an MAb-based IF test and a PCR that detects the polymerase ( pol gene of HSV isolates. Results: The observed agreement of the MAb IF assay with the pol PCR was 95.7%. Fifty four point eight percent (23/42 of isolates tested by IF typing were found to be HSV-1, 40.5% (17/42 were HSV-2, and two (4.8% were untypable using the MAb IF assay. The two untypable isolates were found to be HSV-2 using the pol PCR. In addition, the cost per PCR test for typing is estimated to be around Rs 1,300 (USD 30, whereas the cost per MAb IF test is about Rs 1,500 (USD 35 including all overheads (reagents, instruments, personnel time, and consumables. Conclusion: The pol PCR is a cheaper and more easily reproducible method for typing HSV isolates as compared to the IF test. It could replace the IF-based method for routine typing of HSV isolates as availability of PCR machines (thermal cyclers is now more widespread than fluorescence microscopes in a country like India.

  4. Expanding the role of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, Christopher D.; Kovacs, Maria; Akhtar, Jihan; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Shukla, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans are commonly exploited by multiple viruses for initial attachment to host cells. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is unique because it can use HS for both attachment and penetration, provided specific binding sites for HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein gD are present. The interaction with gD is mediated by specific HS moieties or 3-O sulfated HS (3-OS HS), which are generated by all but one of the seven isoforms of 3-O sulfotransferases (3-OSTs). Here we demonstrate that several common experimental cell lines express unique sets of 3-OST isoforms. While the isoforms 3-OST-3, -5 and -6 were most commonly expressed, isoforms 3-OST-2 and -4 were undetectable in the cell lines examined. Since most cell lines expressed multiple 3-OST isoforms, we addressed the significance of 3-OS HS in HSV-1 entry by down-regulating 2-O-sulfation, a prerequisite for 3-OS HS formation, by knocking down 2-OST expression by RNA interference (RNAi). 2-OST knockdown was verified by reverse-transcriptase PCR and Western blot analysis, while 3-OS HS knockdown was verified by immunofluorescence. Cells showed a significant decrease in viral entry, suggesting an important role for 3-OS HS. Implicating 3-OS HS further, cells knocked down for 2-OST expression also demonstrated decreased cell-cell fusion when cocultivated with effector cells transfected with HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our findings suggest that 3-OS HS may play an important role in HSV-1 entry into many different cell lines.

  5. Facial paralysis induced by ear inoculation of herpes simplex virus in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Matsuda, Seiji; Tanaka, Junya; Hato, Naohito

    2017-02-01

    Bell's palsy is caused by the reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Using Balb/c mice inoculated with the KOS strain of HSV-1, we previously developed an animal disease model that simulated mild Bell's palsy. The current study developed an animal disease model of more severe facial palsy than that seen in the mouse model. Three-week-old female Wister rats weighing 60-80g were inoculated on the auricle with HSV-1 and acyclovir was administered intraperitoneally to deactivate the infected HSV-1. Instead of HSV-1, phosphate-buffered saline was used for inoculation as a negative control. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), behavior testing (blink reflex), electroneuronography, histopathology of the peripheral nerve, and immunohistochemistry of the facial nerve nucleus were evaluated. Facial palsy occurred 3-5 days after virus inoculation, and the severity of the facial palsy progressed for up to 7 days. Quantitative PCR showed an increase in HSV-1 DNA copies in the facial nerve from 24 to 72h, suggesting that HSV-1 infection occurred in the nerve. Electroneuronography values were 33.0±15.3% and 110.0±18.0% in HSV-1-inoculated and control rats, respectively. The histopathology of the peripheral nerve showed demyelination and loss of the facial nerve, and the facial nerve nucleus showed degeneration. Facial palsy developed in Wister rats following inoculation of the KOS strain of HSV-1 onto the auricles. The behavioral, histopathological, and electroneuronography data suggested that the severity of facial palsy was greater in our rats than in animals in the previous mouse disease model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new acyclic heterodinucleotide active against human immunodeficiency virus and herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, P; Abu Sheikha, G; Cappellacci, L; Marchetti, S; Grifantini, M; Balestra, E; Perno, C; Benatti, U; Brandi, G; Rossi, L; Magnani, M

    2000-09-01

    The most common therapies against human herpes virus (HSV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infectivity are based on the administration of nucleoside analogues. Acyclovir (ACV) is the drug of choice against HSV-1 infection, while the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogue PMPA has shown marked anti-HIV activity in a phase I and II clinical studies. As monocyte-derived macrophages are assumed to be important as reservoirs of both HSV-1 and HIV-1 infection, new approaches able to inhibit replication of both viruses in macrophages should be welcome. ACVpPMPA, a new heterodinucleotide consisting of both an antiherpetic and an antiretroviral drug bound by a phosphate bridge, was synthesized and encapsulated into autologous erythrocytes modified to increase their phagocytosis by human macrophages. ACVpPMPA-loaded erythrocytes provided an effective in vitro protection against both HSV-1 and HIV-1 replication in human macrophages.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Rubenstein, R.; Price, R.W.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ([14C]FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional [14C]FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application

  8. An escalating dose study to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a Herpes Simplex Virus DNA vaccine, COR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Julie L; Woo, Wai-Ping; Chandra, Janin; Xu, Yan; Li, Bo; Finlayson, Neil; Griffin, Paul; Frazer, Ian H

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes a single site, open-label Phase I clinical trial evaluating the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers of a herpes simplex polynucleotide vaccine that has previously been shown to enhance immunogenicity and protect against lethal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) challenge in mice. Five escalating doses of the vaccine, COR-1, were given by intradermal injection to HSV-1 and 2 seronegative healthy individuals. COR-1 was found to be safe and well-tolerated; the only vaccine-related adverse events were mild. While vaccine-induced antibody responses were not detectable, cell-mediated immune responses to HSV-specific peptide groups were identified in 19 of the 20 subjects who completed the study, and local inflammation at the immunisation site was observed. This study indicates COR-1 has potential to be used as a therapeutic vaccine for HSV-2 infection.

  9. High level expression and secretion of truncated forms of herpes simplex virus type I and type 2 glycoprotein D by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooij, A; Middel, J; Jakab, F; Elfferich, P; Koedijk, DGAM; Feijlbrief, M; Scheffer, AJ; Degener, JE; The, TH; Scheek, RM; Welling, GW; Welling-Wester, S

    Herpes simplex virus type I and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) glycoproteins D (gD-1 and gD-2) play a role in the entry of the virus into the host cell. Availability of substantial amounts of these proteins, or large fragments thereof. will he needed to allow studies at the molecular level. We studied the potency

  10. Interactions of Prototype Foamy Virus Capsids with Host Cell Polo-Like Kinases Are Important for Efficient Viral DNA Integration.

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    Irena Zurnic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike for other retroviruses, only a few host cell factors that aid the replication of foamy viruses (FVs via interaction with viral structural components are known. Using a yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H screen with prototype FV (PFV Gag protein as bait we identified human polo-like kinase 2 (hPLK2, a member of cell cycle regulatory kinases, as a new interactor of PFV capsids. Further Y2H studies confirmed interaction of PFV Gag with several PLKs of both human and rat origin. A consensus Ser-Thr/Ser-Pro (S-T/S-P motif in Gag, which is conserved among primate FVs and phosphorylated in PFV virions, was essential for recognition by PLKs. In the case of rat PLK2, functional kinase and polo-box domains were required for interaction with PFV Gag. Fluorescently-tagged PFV Gag, through its chromatin tethering function, selectively relocalized ectopically expressed eGFP-tagged PLK proteins to mitotic chromosomes in a Gag STP motif-dependent manner, confirming a specific and dominant nature of the Gag-PLK interaction in mammalian cells. The functional relevance of the Gag-PLK interaction was examined in the context of replication-competent FVs and single-round PFV vectors. Although STP motif mutated viruses displayed wild type (wt particle release, RNA packaging and intra-particle reverse transcription, their replication capacity was decreased 3-fold in single-cycle infections, and up to 20-fold in spreading infections over an extended time period. Strikingly similar defects were observed when cells infected with single-round wt Gag PFV vectors were treated with a pan PLK inhibitor. Analysis of entry kinetics of the mutant viruses indicated a post-fusion defect resulting in delayed and reduced integration, which was accompanied with an enhanced preference to integrate into heterochromatin. We conclude that interaction between PFV Gag and cellular PLK proteins is important for early replication steps of PFV within host cells.

  11. In vivo role of complement-interacting domains of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, J; Wang, L; Mastellos, D; Sahu, A; Lambris, J D; Friedman, H M

    1999-12-06

    Immune evasion is critical for survival of viruses that establish persistent or recurrent infections. However, at the molecular level, little is known about how viruses evade immune attack in vivo. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 glycoprotein gC has two domains that are involved in modulating complement activation; one binds C3, and the other is required for blocking C5 and properdin (P) binding to C3. To evaluate the importance of these regions in vivo, HSV-1 gC mutant viruses were constructed that lacked one or both gC domains and studied in a murine model of infection. Each gC region of complement regulation contributed to virulence; however, the C3 binding domain was far more important, as virus lacking this domain was much less virulent than virus lacking the C5/P inhibitory domain and was as attenuated as virus lacking both domains. Studies in C3 knockout mice and mice reconstituted with C3 confirmed that the gC domains are inhibitors of complement activation, accounting for a 50-fold difference in virulence between mutant and wild-type viruses. We conclude that the C3 binding domain on gC is a major contributor to immune evasion and that this site explains at a molecular level why wild-type virus resists complement attack.

  12. The management of herpes simplex virus infections in HIV infected patients: current issues and the role of cidofovir

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    Nakakawa E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethel Nakakawa1, Steven J Reynolds21Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Kampala, Uganda; 2Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 and 2 are among the most common transmitted viral infections causing a spectrum of mucocutaneous and other syndromes. Treatment of these infections has primarily been with acyclovir (ACV and prodrugs valacyclovir and famcyclovir. Immunocompromised hosts either due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV or other factors have given rise to an increase in ACV resistant viruses most commonly due to a mutation in the cellular thymidine kinase enzyme. This review focuses on the spectrum of disease caused by HSV 1 and 2, the emergence of ACV resistant disease, and the role of alternative agents including cidofovir in the treatment of ACV resistant disease.Keywords: herpes simplex virus, HIV, resistance, cidofovir

  13. Generation of Helper Plasmids Encoding Mutant Adeno-associated Virus Type 2 Capsid Proteins with Increased Resistance against Proteasomal Degradation

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    Naghmeh Ahmadiankia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2 vectors are widely used for both experimental and clinical gene therapy. A recent research has shown that the performance of these vectors can be greatly improved by substitution of specific surface-exposed tyrosine residues with phenylalanines. In this study, a fast and simple method is presented to generate AAV2 vector helper plasmids encoding capsid proteins with single, double or triple Y→F mutations.   Materials and Methods: A one-step, high-fidelity polymerase chain reaction (PCR cloning procedure involving the use of two partially overlapping primers to amplify a circular DNA template was applied to produce AAV2 cap genes encoding VP1 mutants with Y→F substitutions in residues 444, 500 or 730. The resulting constructs were used to make the different double and triple mutant by another round of PCR (Y444500F mutant, subcloning (Y444730F and Y500730F mutants or a combination of both techniques (Y444500730F mutant. Results: Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed successful introduction of the desired mutations in the AAV2 cap gene and showed the absence of any unintended mutations in the DNA fragments used to assemble the final set of AAV2 vector helper plasmids. The correctness of these plasmids was further confirmed by restriction mapping. Conclusion: PCR-based, single-step site-directed mutagenesis of circular DNA templates is a highly efficient and cost-effective method to generate AAV2 vector helper plasmids encoding mutant Cap proteins for the production of vector particles with increased gene transfer efficiency.

  14. Self-assembly of virus-like particles of porcine circovirus type 2 capsid protein expressed from Escherichia coli

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    Cai Xuepeng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2 is a serious problem to the swine industry and can lead to significant negative impacts on profitability of pork production. Syndrome associated with PCV2 is known as porcine circovirus closely associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. The capsid (Cap protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs in vitro, it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli,(E.coli , because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. Results In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO. The recombinant Cap was purified using Ni2+ affinity resins, whereas the tag was used to remove the SUMO protease. Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. The Cap-like particles had a size and shape that resembled the authentic Cap. The result could also be applied in the large-scale production of VLPs of PCV2 and could be used as a diagnostic antigen or a potential VLP vaccine against PCV2 infection in pigs. Conclusion we have, for the first time, utilized the SUMO fusion motif to successfully express the entire authentic Cap protein of PCV2 in E. coli. After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection.

  15. Detection of serum antibodies to hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs in Italy using a recombinant swine HEV capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Orrù, Ginevra; Liciardi, Manuel; Ostanello, Fabio; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2014-06-16

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been detected in both humans and animals, particularly pigs, worldwide. Several evidences, including human infection following consumption of raw contaminated meat, suggest a zoonotic transmission of HEV. In Italy, large circulation of genotype 3 HEV has been reported in swine, and recent studies have confirmed the involvement of this genotype in autochthonous human cases. In this study 111 sera collected from healthy pigs in two Italian regions were tested for anti-HEV IgG antibodies. For specific HEV antibody detection in swine, we developed ELISA and Western blotting methods, using a truncated capsid (ORF2) protein lacking the first 111 amino acids of a swine HEV genotype 3 strain. The ORF2-based ELISA revealed anti-HEV antibodies in 104 out of 111 pigs compared with 102 detected with a commercial ELISA kit. A lower number of sera reacted with the recombinant ORF2 protein in a Western blotting format (81/111). Using a Latent class analysis (LCA), the estimated sensitivities for ELISA-ORF2 and ELISA-kit tests were 0.961 and 0.936, respectively, whereas specificities were 0.599 and 0.475. The estimated sensitivity of Western blotting was 0.775, and the specificity was 0.944. The overall results confirm the high prevalence of HEV seropositive healthy pigs in Italy. Through comparisons with a commercial ELISA test, the swine genotype 3 HEV antigen produced in this study was proven suitable to detect anti-HEV antibodies in pig sera by both ELISA and Western Blotting.

  16. A Strategy for Cultivation of Retargeted Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses in Non-cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Valerio; Gatta, Valentina; Casiraghi, Costanza; Nicosia, Alfredo; Petrovic, Biljana; Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella

    2017-05-15

    The oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) that has been approved for clinical practice and those HSVs in clinical trials are attenuated viruses, often with the neurovirulence gene γ 1 34.5 and additional genes deleted. One strategy to engineer nonattenuated oncolytic HSVs consists of retargeting the viral tropism to a cancer-specific receptor of choice, exemplified by HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), which is present in breast, ovary, and other cancers, and in detargeting from the natural receptors. Because the HER2-retargeted HSVs strictly depend on this receptor for infection, the viruses employed in preclinical studies were cultivated in HER2-positive cancer cells. The production of clinical-grade viruses destined for humans should avoid the use of cancer cells. Here, we engineered the R-213 recombinant, by insertion of a 20-amino-acid (aa) short peptide (named GCN4) in the gH of R-LM113; this recombinant was retargeted to HER2 through insertion in gD of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER2. Next, we generated a Vero cell line expressing an artificial receptor (GCN4R) whose N terminus consists of an scFv to GCN4 and therefore is capable of interacting with GCN4 present in gH of R-213. R-213 replicated as well as R-LM113 in SK-OV-3 cells, implying that addition of the GCN4 peptide was not detrimental to gH. R-213 grew to relatively high titers in Vero-GCN4R cells, efficiently spread from cell to cell, and killed both Vero-GCN4R and SK-OV-3 cells, as expected for an oncolytic virus. Altogether, Vero-GCN4R cells represent an efficient system for cultivation of retargeted oncolytic HSVs in non-cancer cells. IMPORTANCE There is growing interest in viruses as oncolytic agents, which can be administered in combination with immunotherapeutic compounds, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. The oncolytic HSV approved for clinical practice and those in clinical trials are attenuated viruses. An alternative to attenuation is a cancer specificity

  17. Imunogenicidade de proteínas do capsídeo do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV Capsid protein immunogenicity of Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Evando Aguiar Beserra Júnior

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A análise SDS-PAGE do Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV purificado revelou a migração de três frações protéicas estimadas em 43, 23 e 21 kDa, correspondentes às proteínas do capsídeo: denominadas proteína maior (43 kDa e menor (23 kDa; intacta e 21 kDa; clivada. As proteínas do capsídeo, na sua forma nativa, foram utilizadas na imunização de camundongos pelas vias oral e nasal, durante 10 dias consecutivos. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa, em sua forma desnaturada, foram utilizadas para imunização subcutânea. A resposta imunológica da mucosa foi avaliada pela proliferação celular das placas de Peyer de camundongos imunizados pela via oral com o CPSMV purificado. Ficou demonstrado que o CPSMV induz resposta imunológica, evidenciada pela síntese de anticorpos séricos, quando administrado na sua forma nativa pelas vias oral e nasal ou através de suas proteínas do capsídeo desnaturadas, pela via subcutânea. Não foi necessário o uso de adjuvantes, quer por via oral quer por via nasal. As frações protéicas de 43 e 23 kDa mostraram-se responsáveis pela imunogenicidade do vírus, como foi evidenciado pela síntese de anticorpos específicos detectados por ELISA. A análise da proliferação celular da placas de Peyer revelou um aumento (r=0,88 do número de leucócitos ao longo de 42 dias após a imunização. Esses resultados reforçam a possibilidade do uso do CPSMV como vetor seguro de antígenos de doenças humanas/animais pouco imunogênicos para produção de vacinas.SDS-PAGE analysis of purified Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV revealed the migration of three protein fractions of 43, 23 and 21 kDa, corresponding to the capsid protein called large protein (43 kDa and small protein (23 kDa; intact and 21 kDa; cleaved. The capsid proteins, in their native form, were used to immunize mice through oral and nasal routes for ten consecutive days. The denatured form of the 43 and 23 kDa protein fractions were

  18. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Oral Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1 Co-infection in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meropi Aravantinou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2 similarly initiate infection in mucosal epithelia and establish lifelong neuronal latency. Anogenital HSV-2 infection augments the risk for sexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and is associated with higher HIV viral loads. However, whether oral HSV-1 infection contributes to oral HIV susceptibility, viremia, or oral complications of HIV infection is unknown. Appropriate non-human primate (NHP models would facilitate this investigation, yet there are no published studies of HSV-1/SIV co-infection in NHPs. Thus, we performed a pilot study for an oral HSV-1 infection model in SIV-infected rhesus macaques to describe the feasibility of the modeling and resultant immunological changes. Three SIV-infected, clinically healthy macaques became HSV-1-infected by inoculation with 4 × 108 pfu HSV-1 McKrae on buccal, tongue, gingiva, and tonsils after gentle abrasion. HSV-1 DNA was shed in oral swabs for up to 21 days, and shedding recurred in association with intra-oral lesions after periods of no shedding during 56 days of follow up. HSV-1 DNA was detected in explant cultures of trigeminal ganglia collected at euthanasia on day 56. In the macaque with lowest baseline SIV viremia, SIV plasma RNA increased following HSV-1 infection. One macaque exhibited an acute pro-inflammatory response, and all three animals experienced T cell activation and mobilization in blood. However, T cell and antibody responses to HSV-1 were low and atypical. Through rigorous assessesments, this study finds that the virulent HSV-1 strain McKrae resulted in a low level HSV-1 infection that elicited modest immune responses and transiently modulated SIV infection.

  20. Seroprevalences of varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Glez, Carlos; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-10-17

    We estimated the seroprevalences of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in this cross-sectional database study. Serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1-70 years between January and October 2010. Serological assays for the determination of antibodies against VZV, HSV and CMV were performed. The overall seroprevalences of VZV, HSV-1, HSV-2 and CMV were 85.8%, 80.9%, 9.9% and 89.2%, respectively. Seroprevalences of VZV, HSV-1 and CMV were comparable between males and females. For HSV-2, although the seroprevalence rate was higher in females when compared to males, this difference in seroprevalence was not statistically significant. Seroprevalence rates for VZV, HSV-1, HSV-2 and CMV increased with age (p-value<.0001). Differences in seroprevalence rate for VZV by socioeconomic status (SES) were significant (p-value<0001). Results of the serological analyses reported high VZV seroprevalence, indicating high transmission in the Mexican population with children and adolescents at risk of acquiring VZV. Global HSV-1 seroprevalence was high, especially in adults. HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalences were consistently higher in women than men, particularly for HSV-2. CMV seroprevalence was higher in Mexico when compared to developed countries. Seroepidemiological data on VZV supports the fact that varicella vaccination may serve as an alternative effective solution to reduce transmission in the Mexican population. For CMV and HSV, since no vaccines are available, activities to reduce transmission are important to reduce the risk of complications and therefore need to be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.