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Sample records for similar switching properties

  1. Analysis of aceismatic properties of switch boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Yoji; Nishikawa, Atsushi

    1986-01-01

    Recently, in order to limit the disaster at the time of earthquakes to the minimum, the aseismatic properties of electric facilities have been regarded as important. By the development and spread of CAE simulation and experimental modal analysis, aseismatic analysis has become feasible also in design section. Taking an example of the switch boards of rigid construction, which have been used mainly for nuclear power plants, the analysis of the aseismatic properties is explained. In the switch boards of rigid construction, the probability of causing resonance behavior due to earthquakes is decreased by making the structure rigid, thus the aseismatic properties are heightened. In the switch boards of rigid construction, the primary natural frequency is heightened usually to above 20 Hz considering earthquake movement and the response of buildings (in the range from 0.5 to 10 Hz). Since the switch boards of rigid construction can be treated as a rigid body in the examination of structural strength, generally static analysis is carried out. The dimensions and weight tend to be large for increasing the rigidity. In most cases, standard equipment can be adopted if the fixing is made strong. The modal analysis of the natural vibration, static stress analysis and time history response analysis were carried out by finite element method. Also the vibration test on a large vibration table was made. The results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. A self-similar model for conduction in the plasma erosion opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Grossmann, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Colombant, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The conduction phase of the plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) is characterized by combining a 1-D fluid model for plasma hydrodynamics, Maxwell's equations, and a 2-D electron-orbit analysis. A self-similar approximation for the plasma and field variables permits analytic expressions for their space and time variations to be derived. It is shown that a combination of axial MHD compression and magnetic insulation of high-energy electrons emitted from the switch cathode can control the character of switch conduction. The analysis highlights the need to include additional phenomena for accurate fluid modeling of PEOS conduction

  3. Output regulation control for switched stochastic delay systems with dissipative property under error-dependent switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L. L.; Jin, C. L.; Ge, X.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the output regulation problem with dissipative property for a class of switched stochastic delay systems is investigated, based on an error-dependent switching law. Under the assumption that none subsystem is solvable for the problem, a sufficient condition is derived by structuring multiple Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals with respect to multiple supply rates, via designing error feedback regulators. The condition is also established when dissipative property reduces to passive property. Finally, two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the present method.

  4. Verifying different-modality properties for concepts produces switching costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Barsalou, Lawrence W

    2003-03-01

    According to perceptual symbol systems, sensorimotor simulations underlie the representation of concepts. It follows that sensorimotor phenomena should arise in conceptual processing. Previous studies have shown that switching from one modality to another during perceptual processing incurs a processing cost. If perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing, then verifying the properties of concepts should exhibit a switching cost as well. For example, verifying a property in the auditory modality (e.g., BLENDER-loud) should be slower after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., CRANBERRIES-tart) than after verifying a property in the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling). Only words were presented to subjects, and there were no instructions to use imagery. Nevertheless, switching modalities incurred a cost, analogous to the cost of switching modalities in perception. A second experiment showed that this effect was not due to associative priming between properties in the same modality. These results support the hypothesis that perceptual simulation underlies conceptual processing.

  5. Effect of vegetation switch on soil chemical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwashima, N.; Masunaga, T.; Fujimaki, R.; Toyota, Ayu; Tayasu, I.; Hiura, T.; Kaneko, N.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2012), s. 783-792 ISSN 0038-0768 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : earthworm * litter * nutrient cycling * soil chemical properties * vegetation switch Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.889, year: 2012

  6. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-01-01

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (∼4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ∼4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed

  7. Enhancement of resistive switching properties in Al2O3 bilayer-based atomic switches: multilevel resistive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Sujaya Kumar; Woo, Hyunsuk; Jeon, Sanghun

    2018-06-01

    Atomic switches are considered to be building blocks for future non-volatile data storage and internet of things. However, obtaining device structures capable of ultrahigh density data storage, high endurance, and long data retention, and more importantly, understanding the switching mechanisms are still a challenge for atomic switches. Here, we achieved improved resistive switching performance in a bilayer structure containing aluminum oxide, with an oxygen-deficient oxide as the top switching layer and stoichiometric oxide as the bottom switching layer, using atomic layer deposition. This bilayer device showed a high on/off ratio (105) with better endurance (∼2000 cycles) and longer data retention (104 s) than single-oxide layers. In addition, depending on the compliance current, the bilayer device could be operated in four different resistance states. Furthermore, the depth profiles of the hourglass-shaped conductive filament of the bilayer device was observed by conductive atomic force microscopy.

  8. Fracture toughness properties of similar and dissimilar electron beam welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, M.; Junghans, E.

    1994-01-01

    The weldability aspects, tensile and Crack Tip Opening Displacement (CTOD) toughness properties of 9Cr1MoNbV (P91) martensitic steel with austenitic 316L steel were evaluated for electron beam (EB) welds on 35 mm thick pates. The effects of mechanical heterogeneity (mis-matching) at the vicinity of the crack tip of dissimilar three point bend specimens on the CTOD fracture toughness values was also discussed. The CTOD tests were performed on similar and dissimilar EB welds of austenitic and tempered martensitic P91 steels at room temperature. Dilution of austenitic with martensitic steel resulted in predominantly martensitic EB weld metal, exhibiting rather high yield strength and hardness. Nevertheless, the weld metal produced high CTOD toughness values due to the beneficial effect of the lower strength austenitic steel part of the specimen in which crack deviation occured (mis-match effect). The coarse grained HAZ of the P91 steel side exhibits extremely poor CTOD toughness properties in the as-welded condition at room temperature. The CTOD values obtained are believed to be representing the intrinsic property of this zone since the distance of the crack tip to the weaker austenitic steel part of the SENB specimens was too large to cause an effective stress relaxation at the crack tip. Further post weld heat treatment at 750 C for two hours improved the CTOD toughness marginally. (orig.)

  9. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    We have characterized satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th-..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.., and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml, and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  10. Similarity of satellite DNA properties in the order Rodentia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrimas, J A; Hatch, F T

    1977-09-01

    Satellite DNAs from 9 species of kangaroo rat (Dipodomys) have been characterized and have shown that the HS-..cap alpha.. and HS-..beta.. satellites, where present, are nearly identical in all species as to melting transition midpoint (Tm), and density in neutral CsCl, alkaline CsCl, and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-Ag/sup +/ gradients. However, the MS satellites exist in two internally similar classes. The satellite DNAs from three other rodents were characterized (densities listed are in neutral CsCl). The pocket gopher, Thomomys bottae, contains Th-..cap alpha.. (1.713 g/ml) and Th..beta.. (1.703 g/ml). The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) contains Ca-..cap alpha.., Ca-..beta.. and Ca-..gamma.. at densities of 1.706 g/ml, 1.704 g/ml and 1.704 g/ml, respectively. The antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus harrisi) contains Am-..cap alpha.., 1.708 g/ml, Am-..beta.., 1.717 g/ml, and Am-..gamma.., 1.707 g/ml. The physical and chemical properties of the alpha-satellites from the above four rodents representing four different families in two suborders of Rodentia were compared. They show nearly identical Tm, nucleoside composition of single strands, and single strand densities in alkaline CsCl. Similar comparisons on the second or third satellite DNAs from these rodents also indicate a close relationship to each other. Thus the high degree of similarity of satellite sequences found in such a diverse group of rodents suggests a cellular function that is subject to natural selection, and implies that these sequences have been conserved over a considerable span of evolutionary time since the divergence of these rodents about 50 million years ago.

  11. Heterodiazocines: Synthesis and Photochromic Properties, Trans to Cis Switching within the Bio-optical Window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Melanie; Schütt, Christian; Stähler, Cosima; Lentes, Pascal; Röhricht, Fynn; Höppner, Ronja; Herges, Rainer

    2016-10-04

    Diazocines, bridged azobenzenes, exhibit superior photophysical properties compared to parent azobenzenes such as high switching efficiencies, quantum yields, and particularly switching wavelengths in the visible range. Synthesis, however, proceeds with low yields, and derivatives are difficult to prepare. We now present two heterodiazocines which are easier to synthesize, and the general procedures should also provide facile access to derivatives. Moreover, both compounds can be switched with light in the far-red (650 nm). Accessibility and photophysical properties make them ideal candidates for applications such as photoswitchable drugs and functional materials.

  12. Semi-similar properties of light nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Hlavakova, J.; Martinska, G.; Urban, J.; Vytykacova, M.

    2000-01-01

    A new way of the representation of the nuclei fragmentation data is suggested. The self-similar behaviour of these processes called out by the kinematics is demonstrated. The convenience of working in accelerated nuclei is emphasized particularly for the determination of the binding energy of a wide class of nuclear fragments [ru

  13. Natural quartz TL property and similarity in Piper nigrum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman A, S.; Cruz Z, E.; Furetta, C.; Brown, F.; Barboza F, M.

    2009-10-01

    Quartz is a mineral abundant in nature and can provide information thermoluminescent (TL), and also is located in the mineral fraction of some herbs and spices consumed. It is present the analysis of the TL properties of a sample of natural quartz rock and compared with those obtained from the fraction of Piper nigrum L. poly mineral when they were exposed to 60 Co gamma radiation. The poly minerals of Piper nigrum L. were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, where the quartz was found as a major component. They separated in different particle sizes (10, 53, 74 and 149 μm). The samples were irradiated at relatively low doses (1-500 Gy) and high (0.1-40 kGy) in order to determine the linearity of the TL emission as a function of the dose and the analysis of glow curves. Also there was the fading of the TL signal, the effect of ultra violet light. The reproducibility of the TL signal in the samples indicates that a smaller particle size gives better TL signal. (author)

  14. First-principles study of the electronic transport properties of the anthraquinone-based molecular switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P., E-mail: ss_zhaop@ujn.edu.c [School of Science, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Liu, D.S. [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Physics, Jining University, Qufu 273155 (China); Wang, P.J.; Zhang, Z. [School of Science, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Fang, C.F.; Ji, G.M. [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-02-15

    By applying non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism combined with first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the electronic transport properties of the anthraquinone-based molecular switch. The molecule that comprises the switch can be converted between the hydroquinone (HQ) and anthraquinone (AQ) forms via redox reactions. The transmission spectra of these two forms are remarkably distinctive. Our results show that the current through the HQ form is significantly larger than that through the AQ form, which suggests that this system has attractive potential application in future molecular switch technology.

  15. First-principles study of the electronic transport properties of the anthraquinone-based molecular switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Liu, D.S.; Wang, P.J.; Zhang, Z.; Fang, C.F.; Ji, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    By applying non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism combined with first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the electronic transport properties of the anthraquinone-based molecular switch. The molecule that comprises the switch can be converted between the hydroquinone (HQ) and anthraquinone (AQ) forms via redox reactions. The transmission spectra of these two forms are remarkably distinctive. Our results show that the current through the HQ form is significantly larger than that through the AQ form, which suggests that this system has attractive potential application in future molecular switch technology.

  16. Modelling and properties of a nonlinear autonomous switching system in fed-batch culture of glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Sun, Qingying; Feng, Enmin

    2012-11-01

    A nonlinear autonomous switching system is proposed to describe the coupled fed-batch fermentation with the pH as the feedback parameter. We prove the non-Zeno behaviors of the switching system and some basic properties of its solution, including the existence, uniqueness, boundedness and regularity. Numerical simulation is also carried out, which reveals that the proposed system can describe the factual fermentation process properly.

  17. Polarization and switching properties of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal gratings. I. Theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Richard L.

    2002-12-01

    Polarization properties and electro-optical switching behavior of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (HPDLC) reflection and transmission gratings are studied. A theoretical model is developed that combines anisotropic coupled-wave theory with an elongated liquid-crystal-droplet switching model and includes the effects of a statistical orientational distribution of droplet-symmetry axes. Angle- and polarization-dependent switching behaviors of HPDLC gratings are elucidated, and the effects on dynamic range are described. A new type of electro-optical switching not seen in ordinary polymer-dispersed liquid crystals, to the best of the author's knowledge, is presented and given a physical interpretation. The model provides valuable insight to the physics of these gratings and can be applied to the design of HPDLC holographic optical elements.

  18. Effect of oxide insertion layer on resistance switching properties of copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil G.; Pandya, Nirav C.; Joshi, U. S.

    2013-02-01

    Organic memory device showing resistance switching properties is a next-generation of the electrical memory unit. We have investigated the bistable resistance switching in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic diode based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) film sandwiched between aluminum (Al) electrodes. Pronounced hysteresis in the I-V curves revealed a resistance switching with on-off ratio of the order of 85%. In order to control the charge injection in the CuPc, nanoscale indium oxide buffer layer was inserted to form Al/CuPc/In2O3/Al device. Analysis of I-V measurements revealed space charge limited switching conduction at the Al/CuPc interface. The traps in the organic layer and charge blocking by oxide insertion layer have been used to explain the absence of resistance switching in the oxide buffer layered memory device cell. Present study offer potential applications for CuPc organic semiconductor in low power non volatile resistive switching memory and logic circuits.

  19. Modality Switching in a Property Verification Task: An ERP Study of What Happens When Candles Flicker after High Heels Click.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jennifer; Pecher, Diane; Zeelenberg, René; Coulson, Seana

    2011-01-01

    The perceptual modalities associated with property words, such as flicker or click, have previously been demonstrated to affect subsequent property verification judgments (Pecher et al., 2003). Known as the conceptual modality switch effect, this finding supports the claim that brain systems for perception and action help subserve the representation of concepts. The present study addressed the cognitive and neural substrate of this effect by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) as participants performed a property verification task with visual or auditory properties in key trials. We found that for visual property verifications, modality switching was associated with an increased amplitude N400. For auditory verifications, switching led to a larger late positive complex. Observed ERP effects of modality switching suggest property words access perceptual brain systems. Moreover, the timing and pattern of the effects suggest perceptual systems impact the decision-making stage in the verification of auditory properties, and the semantic stage in the verification of visual properties.

  20. Resistive switching properties and physical mechanism of europium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wei; Zou, Changwei [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang (China); Bao, Dinghua [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    A forming-free resistive switching effect was obtained in Pt/Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Pt devices in which the Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were fabricated by a chemical solution deposition method. The devices show unipolar resistive switching with excellent switching parameters, such as high resistance ratio (10{sup 7}), stable resistance values (read at 0.2 V), low reset voltage, good endurance, and long retention time (up to 10{sup 4} s). On the basis of the analysis of the current-voltage (I-V) curves and the resistance-temperature dependence, it can be concluded that the dominant conducting mechanisms were ohmic behavior and Schottky emission at low resistance state and high resistance state, respectively. The resistive switching behavior could be explained by the formation and rupture of conductive filament, which is related to the abundant oxygen vacancies generated in the deposition process. This work demonstrates the great potential opportunities of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film in resistive switching memory applications, which might possess distinguished properties. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Functionally-interdependent shape-switching nanoparticles with controllable properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halman, Justin R.; Satterwhite, Emily; Roark, Brandon; Chandler, Morgan; Viard, Mathias; Ivanina, Anna; Bindewald, Eckart; Kasprzak, Wojciech K.; Panigaj, Martin; Bui, My N.; Lu, Jacob S.; Miller, Johann; Khisamutdinov, Emil F.; Shapiro, Bruce A.; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We introduce a new concept that utilizes cognate nucleic acid nanoparticles which are fully complementary and functionally-interdependent to each other. In the described approach, the physical interaction between sets of designed nanoparticles initiates a rapid isothermal shape change which triggers the activation of multiple functionalities and biological pathways including transcription, energy transfer, functional aptamers and RNA interference. The individual nanoparticles are not active and have controllable kinetics of re-association and fine-tunable chemical and thermodynamic stabilities. Computational algorithms were developed to accurately predict melting temperatures of nanoparticles of various compositions and trace the process of their re-association in silico. Additionally, tunable immunostimulatory properties of described nanoparticles suggest that the particles that do not induce pro-inflammatory cytokines and high levels of interferons can be used as scaffolds to carry therapeutic oligonucleotides, while particles with strong interferon and mild pro-inflammatory cytokine induction may qualify as vaccine adjuvants. The presented concept provides a simple, cost-effective and straightforward model for the development of combinatorial regulation of biological processes in nucleic acid nanotechnology. PMID:28108656

  2. Tuning and switching the hypersonic phononic properties of elastic impedance contrast nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Akihiro; Pennec, Yan; Shingne, Nitin; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Knoll, Wolfgang; Steinhart, Martin; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Fytas, George

    2010-06-22

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) containing arrays of aligned cylindrical nanopores infiltrated with polymers is a well-defined model system for the study of hypersound propagation in polymer nanocomposites. Hypersonic phononic properties of AAO/polymer nanocomposites such as phonon localization and anisotropic sound propagation can be tailored by adjusting elastic contrast and density contrast between the components. Changes in density and elastic properties of the component located in the nanopores induced by phase transitions allow reversible modification of the phononic band structure and mode switching. As example in case, the crystallization and melting of poly(vinylidene difluoride) inside AAO was investigated.

  3. Resistive switching memory properties of layer-by-layer assembled enzyme multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hyunhee; Cho, Jinhan; Lee, Chanwoo; Lim, Kwang-il

    2012-01-01

    The properties of enzymes, which can cause reversible changes in currents through redox reactions in solution, are of fundamental and practical importance in bio-electrochemical applications. These redox properties of enzymes are often associated with their charge-trap sites. Here, we demonstrate that reversible changes in resistance in dried lysozyme (LYS) films can be generated by an externally applied voltage as a result of charge trap/release. Based on such changes, LYS can be used as resistive switching active material for nonvolatile memory devices. In this study, cationic LYS and anionic poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) layers were alternately deposited onto Pt-coated silicon substrates using a layer-by-layer assembly method. Then, top electrodes were deposited onto the top of LYS/PSS multilayers to complete the fabrication of the memory-like device. The LYS/PSS multilayer devices exhibited typical resistive switching characteristics with an ON/OFF current ratio above 10 2 , a fast switching speed of 100 ns and stable performance. Furthermore, the insertion of insulating polyelectrolytes (PEs) between the respective LYS layers significantly enhanced the memory performance of the devices showing a high ON/OFF current ratio of ∼10 6 and low levels of power consumption. (paper)

  4. Sialic acid-triggered macroscopic properties switching on a smart polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yuting; Li, Minmin; Wang, Hongxi; Qing, Guangyan; Sun, Taolei

    2018-01-01

    Constructing smart surfaces with responsive polymers capable of dynamically and reversibly changing their chemical and physical properties by responding to the recognition of biomolecules remains a challenging task. And, the key to achieving this purpose relies on the design of polymers to precisely interact with the target molecule and successfully transform the interaction signal into tunable macroscopic properties, further achieve special bio-functions. Herein, inspired by carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction (CCI) in life system, we developed a three-component copolymer poly(NIPAAm-co-PT-co-Glc) bearing a binding unit glucose (Glc) capable of recognizing sialic acid, a type of important molecular targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy, and reported the sialic acid triggered macroscopic properties switching on this smart polymer surface. Detailed mechanism studies indicated that multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between Glc unit and Neu5Ac destroyed the initial hydrogen bond network of the copolymer, leading to a reversible "contraction-to-swelling" conformational transition of the copolymer chains, accompanied with distinct macroscopic property switching (i.e., surface wettability, morphology, stiffness) of the copolymer film. And these features enabled this copolymer to selectively capture sialic acid-containing glycopeptides from complex protein samples. This work provides an inspiration for the design of novel smart polymeric materials with sensitive responsiveness to sialic acid, which would promote the development of sialic acid-specific bio-devices and drug delivery systems.

  5. Ice Shaping Properties, Similar to That of Antifreeze Proteins, of a Zirconium Acetate Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sylvain; Viazzi, Céline; Leloup, Jérôme; Lasalle, Audrey; Guizard, Christian; Maire, Eric; Adrien, Jérôme; Gremillard, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The control of the growth morphologies of ice crystals is a critical issue in fields as diverse as biomineralization, medicine, biology, civil or food engineering. Such control can be achieved through the ice-shaping properties of specific compounds. The development of synthetic ice-shaping compounds is inspired by the natural occurrence of such properties exhibited by antifreeze proteins. We reveal how a particular zirconium acetate complex is exhibiting ice-shaping properties very similar to that of antifreeze proteins, albeit being a radically different compound. We use these properties as a bioinspired approach to template unique faceted pores in cellular materials. These results suggest that ice-structuring properties are not exclusive to long organic molecules and should broaden the field of investigations and applications of such substances. PMID:22028886

  6. Ice shaping properties, similar to that of antifreeze proteins, of a zirconium acetate complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Deville

    Full Text Available The control of the growth morphologies of ice crystals is a critical issue in fields as diverse as biomineralization, medicine, biology, civil or food engineering. Such control can be achieved through the ice-shaping properties of specific compounds. The development of synthetic ice-shaping compounds is inspired by the natural occurrence of such properties exhibited by antifreeze proteins. We reveal how a particular zirconium acetate complex is exhibiting ice-shaping properties very similar to that of antifreeze proteins, albeit being a radically different compound. We use these properties as a bioinspired approach to template unique faceted pores in cellular materials. These results suggest that ice-structuring properties are not exclusive to long organic molecules and should broaden the field of investigations and applications of such substances.

  7. Facile synthesis and electrical switching properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Haining; Liu, Dongqing, E-mail: dongqingliu@ymail.com; Cheng, Haifeng; Yang, Lixiang; Zhang, Chaoyang; Zheng, Wenwei

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Single crystal uniform V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders have been synthesized without additional surfactant. • Powders were obtained in only 6 h. • Powders exhibit reversible phase transition properties. • Powders have excellent electrical switching properties with resistance changes as large as 10{sup 4}. - Abstract: V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were synthesized with mercaptoacetic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}S) as reducing agent and stabilizer via a facile hydrothermal approach. The crystalline structure, surface morphology, valence state of the derived V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were characterized via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the ratio and reaction time played a duel role in the formation and morphology of the V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. The metal-insulator transition properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were studied by the differential scanning calorimetry curve and variable temperature Raman spectra. The change in electrical resistance due to the metal-insulator transition was measured from 80 to 240 K using physical property measurement system. The results showed V{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples had excellent electrical switching properties with resistance changes as large as 10{sup 4}. This simple and fast synthesis approach makes the V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders easily accessible for exploring their fundamental properties and potential applications in novel electronic devices.

  8. Equilibrium switching and mathematical properties of nonlinear interaction networks with concurrent antagonism and self-stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabajante, Jomar Fajardo; Talaue, Cherryl Ortega

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Properties of n-dimensional decision model of competitive interaction networks. •Graphical technique for component-wise and steady state stability analysis. •Search for parameter conditions that control equilibrium switching. •Illustrations of multi-stable systems and repressilators. -- Abstract: Concurrent decision-making model (CDM) of interaction networks with more than two antagonistic components represents various biological systems, such as gene interaction, species competition and mental cognition. The CDM model assumes sigmoid kinetics where every component stimulates itself but concurrently represses the others. Here we prove generic mathematical properties (e.g., location and stability of steady states) of n-dimensional CDM with either symmetric or asymmetric reciprocal antagonism between components. Significant modifications in parameter values serve as biological regulators for inducing steady state switching by driving a temporal state to escape an undesirable equilibrium. Increasing the maximal growth rate and decreasing the decay rate can expand the basin of attraction of a steady state that contains the desired dominant component. Perpetually adding an external stimulus could shut down multi-stability of the system which increases the robustness of the system against stochastic noise. We further show that asymmetric interaction forming a repressilator-type network generates oscillatory behavior

  9. Reversible switching of fluorophore property based on intrinsic conformational transition of adenylate kinase during its catalytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Akira; Hirota, Shun; Matsuo, Takashi

    2013-07-17

    Adenylate kinase shows a conformational transition (OPEN and CLOSED forms) during substrate binding and product release to mediate the phosphoryl transfer between ADP and ATP/AMP. The protein motional characteristics will be useful to construct switching systems of fluorophore properties caused by the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. This paper demonstrates in situ reversible switching of a fluorophore property driven by the conformational transition of the enzyme. The pyrene-conjugated mutant adenylate kinase is able to switch the monomer/excimer emission property of pyrene on addition of ADP or P(1)P(5)-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap5A, a transition state analog). The observation under the dilute condition (~0.1 μM) indicates that the emission spectral change was caused by the motion of a protein molecule and not led by protein-protein interactions through π-π stacking of pyrene rings. The switching can be reversibly conducted by using hexokinase-coupling reaction. The fashion of the changes in emission intensities at various ligand concentrations is different between ADP, Mg(2+)-bound ADP, and Mg(2+)-bound Ap5A. The emission property switching is repeatable by a sequential addition of a substrate in a one-pot process. It is proposed that the property of a synthetic molecule on the enzyme surface is switchable in response to the catalytic cycle of adenylate kinase.

  10. Property transmission: an explanatory account of the role of similarity information in causal inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter A

    2009-09-01

    Many kinds of common and easily observed causal relations exhibit property transmission, which is a tendency for the causal object to impose its own properties on the effect object. It is proposed that property transmission becomes a general and readily available hypothesis used to make interpretations and judgments about causal questions under conditions of uncertainty, in which property transmission functions as a heuristic. The property transmission hypothesis explains why and when similarity information is used in causal inference. It can account for magical contagion beliefs, some cases of illusory correlation, the correspondence bias, overestimation of cross-situational consistency in behavior, nonregressive tendencies in prediction, the belief that acts of will are causes of behavior, and a range of other phenomena. People learn that property transmission is often moderated by other factors, but under conditions of uncertainty in which the operation of relevant other factors is unknown, it tends to exhibit a pervasive influence on thinking about causality. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Self-similar transmission properties of aperiodic Cantor potentials in gapped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-González, Rogelio; Rodríguez-Vargas, Isaac; Díaz-Guerrero, Dan Sidney; Gaggero-Sager, Luis Manuel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transmission properties of quasiperiodic or aperiodic structures based on graphene arranged according to the Cantor sequence. In particular, we have found self-similar behaviour in the transmission spectra, and most importantly, we have calculated the scalability of the spectra. To do this, we implement and propose scaling rules for each one of the fundamental parameters: generation number, height of the barriers and length of the system. With this in mind we have been able to reproduce the reference transmission spectrum, applying the appropriate scaling rule, by means of the scaled transmission spectrum. These scaling rules are valid for both normal and oblique incidence, and as far as we can see the basic ingredients to obtain self-similar characteristics are: relativistic Dirac electrons, a self-similar structure and the non-conservation of the pseudo-spin.

  12. The phenomenon of the switching of estrogen effects and joker function of glucose: similarities and relation to age-associated pathology and approaches to correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M; Tsyrlina, Evgenia V; Vasilyev, Dmitry A; Poroshina, Tatjana E; Kovalenko, Rina G

    2005-12-01

    Estrogens and glucose are characterized by a myriad of functions that can be reduced to a small number of principal actions. In aging there is a simultaneous increase in the prevalence of diseases connected with estrogen deficiency as well as with estrogenic excess and associated with the phenomenon of the switching of estrogen effects (PSEE). Estrogens possess hormonal and genotoxic properties. An increase in genotoxic effect (isolated or combined with a decrease in hormonal effect) can influence the course of age-associated diseases that, contrary to the situation with adaptive hypersensitivity to estrogens, may become less favorable or more aggressive. Inductors of PSEE include smoking, irradiation, and aging. Yet with "glycemic load" and the endocrine effect of glucose (the stimulation of insulin secretion), reactive oxygen species are formed in multiple sites, including adipose tissue. The ratio between hormonal and genotoxic effects reflects a "joker" function of glucose and can be conditioned by endogenous (perhaps including genetic) and exogenous factors. The shift in this glucose-associated ratio may selectively encourage some chronic non-communicable diseases. Several groups of treatments can be distinguished including alleviators of PSEE and insulin resistance syndrome (biguanides, glitazones, statins, modifiers of adipocytokines secretion, etc.) as well as other compounds aimed to optimally orchestrate the balance between endocrine and DNA-damaging effects of estrogens and glucose.

  13. Fundamental statistical features and self-similar properties of tagged networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, Gergely; Farkas, Illes J; Pollner, Peter; Vicsek, Tamas; Derenyi, Imre

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the fundamental statistical features of tagged (or annotated) networks having a rich variety of attributes associated with their nodes. Tags (attributes, annotations, properties, features, etc) provide essential information about the entity represented by a given node, thus, taking them into account represents a significant step towards a more complete description of the structure of large complex systems. Our main goal here is to uncover the relations between the statistical properties of the node tags and those of the graph topology. In order to better characterize the networks with tagged nodes, we introduce a number of new notions, including tag-assortativity (relating link probability to node similarity), and new quantities, such as node uniqueness (measuring how rarely the tags of a node occur in the network) and tag-assortativity exponent. We apply our approach to three large networks representing very different domains of complex systems. A number of the tag related quantities display analogous behaviour (e.g. the networks we studied are tag-assortative, indicating possible universal aspects of tags versus topology), while some other features, such as the distribution of the node uniqueness, show variability from network to network allowing for pin-pointing large scale specific features of real-world complex networks. We also find that for each network the topology and the tag distribution are scale invariant, and this self-similar property of the networks can be well characterized by the tag-assortativity exponent, which is specific to each system.

  14. Characterization of self-similarity properties of turbulence in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, A.; Rischette, P.; Bonhomme, G.; Devynck, P.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of turbulence in magnetized plasmas and its role in the cross field transport is still greatly incomplete. Several previous works reported on evidences of long-time correlations compatible with an avalanche-type of radial transport. Persistence properties in time records have been deduced from high values of the Hurst exponent obtained with the rescaled range R/S analysis applied to experimental probe data acquired in the edge of tokamaks. In this paper the limitations of this R/S method, in particular when applied to signals having mixed statistics are investigated, and the great advantages of the wavelets decomposition as a tool to characterize the self-similarity properties of experimental signals are highlighted. Furthermore the analysis of modified simulated fractional Brownian motions (fBm) and fractional Gaussian noises (fGn) allows us to discuss the relationship between high values of the Hurst exponent and long range correlations. It is shown that for such simulated signals with mixed statistics persistence at large time scales can still reflect the self-similarity properties of the original fBm and do not imply the existence of long range correlations, which are destroyed. It is thus questionable to assert the existence of long range correlations for experimental signals with non-Gaussian and mixed statistics just from high values of the Hurst exponent.

  15. Adsorption and switching properties of a N-benzylideneaniline based molecular switch on a Au(111) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovari, Laszlo; Luo, Ying; Haag, Rainer; Leyssner, Felix; Tegeder, Petra; Wolf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy has been employed to analyze the adsorption geometry and the photoisomerization ability of the molecular switch carboxy-benzylideneaniline (CBA) adsorbed on Au(111). CBA on Au(111) adopts a planar (trans) configuration in the first monolayer (ML) as well as for higher coverages (up to 6 ML), in contrast to the strongly nonplanar geometry of the molecule in solution. Illumination with UV light of CBA in direct contact with the Au(111) surface (≤1 ML) caused no changes in the vibrational structure, whereas at higher coverages (>1 ML) pronounced modifications of vibrational features were observed, which we assign to a trans→cis isomerization. Thermal activation induced the back reaction to trans-CBA. We propose that the photoisomerization is driven by a direct (intramolecular) electronic excitation of the adsorbed CBA molecules in the second ML (and above) analogous to CBA in the liquid phase.

  16. Similarity in the superconducting properties of chalcogenides, cuprate oxides and fullerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsendin, K.D.; Popov, B.P.; Denisov, D.V.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of Anderson pairs has been put forward for explanation of many extraordinary properties of chalcogenides glassy semiconductors. Recent decades made obvious that these pairs localized on the centers with negative effective correlation energy (negative-U centers) really exist in chalcogenides. If the concentration of negative-U centers is enough to create the pair band states, this can lead to superconductivity because Anderson pairs are Bose particles. In the present paper we show that several puzzling superconductivity properties of chalcogenides, high-temperature cuprate superconductors and fullerides are similar for these three groups of materials and can be naturally explained in the frame of negative-U centers model of superconductivity

  17. Analyzing self-similar and fractal properties of the C. elegans neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler M Reese

    Full Text Available The brain is one of the most studied and highly complex systems in the biological world. While much research has concentrated on studying the brain directly, our focus is the structure of the brain itself: at its core an interconnected network of nodes (neurons. A better understanding of the structural connectivity of the brain should elucidate some of its functional properties. In this paper we analyze the connectome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Consisting of only 302 neurons, it is one of the better-understood neural networks. Using a Laplacian Matrix of the 279-neuron "giant component" of the network, we use an eigenvalue counting function to look for fractal-like self similarity. This matrix representation is also used to plot visualizations of the neural network in eigenfunction coordinates. Small-world properties of the system are examined, including average path length and clustering coefficient. We test for localization of eigenfunctions, using graph energy and spacial variance on these functions. To better understand results, all calculations are also performed on random networks, branching trees, and known fractals, as well as fractals which have been "rewired" to have small-world properties. We propose algorithms for generating Laplacian matrices of each of these graphs.

  18. Structure and Properties of Hydrophobic Aggregation Hydrogel with Chemical Sensitive Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiufang Duan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels with chemical sensitive switch have control release properties in special environments. A series of polyacrylamide-octadecyl methacrylate hydrogels crosslinked by N,N′-bis (acryloyl cystamine were synthesized as potential chemical sensitive system. When this hydrogel encounters dithiothreitol it can change its quality. The properties of the hydrogels were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy. The water absorption of the hydrogel has the maximum value of 475%, when the content of octadecyl methacrylate is 5 wt%. The amount of weight loss was changed from 34.6% to 17.2%, as the content of octadecyl methacrylate increased from 3 wt% to 9.4 wt%. At the same time, the stress of the hydrogel decreased from 67.01% to 47.61%; the strength of the hydrogel reaches to the maximum 0.367 Mpa at 7 wt% octadecyl methacrylate. The increasing content of octadecyl methacrylate from 3 wt% to 9.4 wt% can enhance the hydrophobicity of the hydrogel; the contact angle of water to hydrogel changed from 14.10° to 19.62°. This hydrogel has the porous structure which permits loading of oils into the gel matrix. The functionalities of the hydrogel make it have more widely potential applications in chemical sensitive response materials.

  19. Investigation of switching frequency variations and EMI properties in self-oscillating class D amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Class D audio amplifiers have gained significant influence in sound reproduction due to their high efficiency. One of the most commonly used control methods in these amplifiers is self-oscillation. A parameter of key interest in self-oscillating amplifiers is the switching frequency, which is known for its variation. Knowledge of switching frequency variations is of great importance with respect to electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper will investigate, whether the switching frequenc...

  20. High similarity in physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan from nymphs and adults of a grasshopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Sevil; Kaya, Murat

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to explain the differences in the physicochemical properties of chitin and chitosan obtained from the nymphs and adults of Dociostaurus maroccanus using the same method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray diffraction analysis results demonstrated that the chitins from both the adults and nymphs were in the α-form. The chitin contents of the adults (14%) and nymphs (12%) were of the same order of magnitude. The crystalline index values of chitins from the adult and nymph grasshoppers were 71% and 74%, respectively. Thermal stabilities of the chitins and chitosans from adult and nymph grasshoppers were close to each other. Both the adult (7.2kDa) and nymph (5.6kDa) chitosans had low molar masses. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed that the surface morphologies of both chitins consisted of nanofibers and nanopores together, and they were very similar to each other. Consequently, it was determined that the physicochemical properties of the chitins and chitosans from adults and nymphs of D. maroccanus were not very different, so it can be hypothesized that the development of the chitin structure in the nymph has almost been completed and the nymph chitin has the same characteristics as the adult. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Similarities and differences in the biochemical and enzymological properties of the four isomaltases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae IMA multigene family encodes four isomaltases sharing high sequence identity from 65% to 99%. Here, we explore their functional diversity, with exhaustive in-vitro characterization of their enzymological and biochemical properties. The four isoenzymes exhibited a preference for the α-(1,6 disaccharides isomaltose and palatinose, with Michaëlis–Menten kinetics and inhibition at high substrates concentration. They were also able to hydrolyze trisaccharides bearing an α-(1,6 linkage, but also α-(1,2, α-(1,3 and α-(1,5 disaccharides including sucrose, highlighting their substrate ambiguity. While Ima1p and Ima2p presented almost identical characteristics, our results nevertheless showed many singularities within this protein family. In particular, Ima3p presented lower activities and thermostability than Ima2p despite only three different amino acids between the sequences of these two isoforms. The Ima3p_R279Q variant recovered activity levels of Ima2p, while the Leu-to-Pro substitution at position 240 significantly increased the stability of Ima3p and supported the role of prolines in thermostability. The most distant protein, Ima5p, presented the lowest optimal temperature and was also extremely sensitive to temperature. Isomaltose hydrolysis by Ima5p challenged previous conclusions about the requirement of specific amino acids for determining the specificity for α-(1,6 substrates. We finally found a mixed inhibition by maltose for Ima5p while, contrary to a previous work, Ima1p inhibition by maltose was competitive at very low isomaltose concentrations and uncompetitive as the substrate concentration increased. Altogether, this work illustrates that a gene family encoding proteins with strong sequence similarities can lead to enzyme with notable differences in biochemical and enzymological properties.

  2. Bioengineered human IAS reconstructs with functional and molecular properties similar to intact IAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-01-01

    Because of its critical importance in rectoanal incontinence, we determined the feasibility to reconstruct internal anal sphincter (IAS) from human IAS smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with functional and molecular attributes similar to the intact sphincter. The reconstructs were developed using SMCs from the circular smooth muscle layer of the human IAS, grown in smooth muscle differentiation media under sterile conditions in Sylgard-coated tissue culture plates with central Sylgard posts. The basal tone in the reconstructs and its changes were recorded following 0 Ca2+, KCl, bethanechol, isoproterenol, protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and Rho kinase (ROCK) and PKC inhibitors Y-27632 and Gö-6850, respectively. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence (IF), and immunocytochemical (IC) analyses were also performed. The reconstructs developed spontaneous tone (0.68 ± 0.26 mN). Bethanechol (a muscarinic agonist) and K+ depolarization produced contraction, whereas isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and Y-27632 produced a concentration-dependent decrease in the tone. Maximal decrease in basal tone with Y-27632 and Gö-6850 (each 10−5 M) was 80.45 ± 3.29 and 17.76 ± 3.50%, respectively. WB data with the IAS constructs′ SMCs revealed higher levels of RhoA/ROCK, protein kinase C-potentiated inhibitor or inhibitory phosphoprotein for myosin phosphatase (CPI-17), phospho-CPI-17, MYPT1, and 20-kDa myosin light chain vs. rectal smooth muscle. WB, IF, and IC studies of original SMCs and redispersed from the reconstructs for the relative distribution of different signal transduction proteins confirmed the feasibility of reconstruction of IAS with functional properties similar to intact IAS and demonstrated the development of myogenic tone with critical dependence on RhoA/ROCK. We conclude that it is feasible to bioengineer IAS constructs using human IAS SMCs that behave like intact IAS. PMID:22790596

  3. Preparation, optical properties and 1 Multiplication-Sign 2 polymeric thermo-optic switch of polyurethane-urea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Fengxian, E-mail: fxqiuchem@163.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Cao, Zhijuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Cao, Guorong; Guan, Yijun; Shen, Qiang [Department of Physics, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Wang, Qing; Yang, Dongya [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A polyurethane-urea (PUU) containing azo chromophore, polyether polyol (NJ-220) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) was prepared. The structure, thermal property and mechanical properties of obtained PUU were characterized and measured by the UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The refractive index (n) of PUU was determined at different temperature and wavelength (532 nm, 650 nm and 850 nm) using attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique, and the thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT) were -5.3643 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Degree-Sign C{sup -1}, -5.2500 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Degree-Sign C{sup -1} and -4.6071 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} Degree-Sign C{sup -1}, respectively. Using the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) digital imaging devices, transmission loss of PUU was measured and the value was 0.659 dB cm{sup -1}. A 1 Multiplication-Sign 2 polymeric thermo-optic switch based on the thermo-optic effect of PUU film was proposed. With branching angle of 0.143 Degree-Sign and the finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM), the polymeric thermo-optic switch was simulated. The result showed that the power consumption of the thermo-optic switch could be only 0.72 mW, and the response time of the switch was about 3.0 ms. The obtained PUU has a significant improvement in reducing the power consumption and response time compared with those of the normal polymeric thermo-optic switches. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation and structural characterization of a novel azo polyurethane-urea (PUU). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanical performance and thermal property of PUU film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermo-optic property, transmission loss and dispersion property of PUU. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proposed a new 1 Multiplication-Sign 2 polymeric thermo-optic switch.

  4. Syntactic computations in the language network: Characterising dynamic network properties using representational similarity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Komisarjevsky Tyler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The core human capacity of syntactic analysis involves a left hemisphere network involving left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG and posterior middle temporal gyrus (LMTG and the anatomical connections between them. Here we use MEG to determine the spatio-temporal properties of syntactic computations in this network. Listeners heard spoken sentences containing a local syntactic ambiguity (e.g. …landing planes…, at the offset of which they heard a disambiguating verb and decided whether it was an acceptable/unacceptable continuation of the sentence. We charted the time-course of processing and resolving syntactic ambiguity by measuring MEG responses from the onset of each word in the ambiguous phrase and the disambiguating word. We used representational similarity analysis (RSA to characterize syntactic information represented in the LIFG and LpMTG over time and to investigate their relationship to each other. Testing a variety of lexico-syntactic and ambiguity models against the MEG data, our results suggest early lexico-syntactic responses in the LpMTG and later effects of ambiguity in the LIFG, pointing to a clear differentiation in the functional roles of these two regions. Our results suggest the LpMTG represents and transmits lexical information to the LIFG, which responds to and resolves the ambiguity.

  5. Characteristic Variations and Similarities in Biochemical, Molecular, and Functional Properties of Glyoxalases across Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Charanpreet; Sharma, Shweta; Hasan, Mohammad Rokebul; Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Sopory, Sudhir K

    2017-03-30

    The glyoxalase system is the ubiquitous pathway for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG) in the biological systems. It comprises two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII), which act sequentially to convert MG into d-lactate, thereby helping living systems get rid of this otherwise cytotoxic byproduct of metabolism. In addition, a glutathione-independent GLYIII enzyme activity also exists in the biological systems that can directly convert MG to d-lactate. Humans and Escherichia coli possess a single copy of GLYI (encoding either the Ni- or Zn-dependent form) and GLYII genes, which through MG detoxification provide protection against various pathological and disease conditions. By contrast, the plant genome possesses multiple GLYI and GLYII genes with a role in abiotic stress tolerance. Plants possess both Ni 2+ - and Zn 2+ -dependent forms of GLYI, and studies on plant glyoxalases reveal the various unique features of these enzymes distinguishing them from prokaryotic and other eukaryotic glyoxalases. Through this review, we provide an overview of the plant glyoxalase family along with a comparative analysis of glyoxalases across various species, highlighting similarities as well as differences in the biochemical, molecular, and physiological properties of these enzymes. We believe that the evolution of multiple glyoxalases isoforms in plants is an important component of their robust defense strategies.

  6. Tuning the resistive switching properties of TiO2-x films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenzi, N.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Llopis, R.; Levy, P.; Hueso, L. E.; Stoliar, P.

    2015-03-01

    We study the electrical characteristics of TiO2-x-based resistive switching devices fabricated with different oxygen/argon flow ratio during the oxide thin film sputtering deposition. Upon minute changes in this fabrication parameter, three qualitatively different device characteristics were accessed in the same system, namely, standard bipolar resistive switching, electroforming-free devices, and devices with multi-step breakdown. We propose that small variations in the oxygen/ argon flow ratio result in relevant changes of the oxygen vacancy concentration, which is the key parameter determining the resistive switching behavior. The coexistence of percolative or non-percolative conductive filaments is also discussed. Finally, the hypothesis is verified by means of the temperature dependence of the devices in low resistance state.

  7. Electrode erosion properties of gas spark switches for fast linear transformer drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2017-12-01

    Fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) are a popular and potential route for high-power devices employing multiple "bricks" in series and parallel, but they put extremely stringent demands on gas switches. Electrode erosion of FLTD gas switches is a restrictive and unavoidable factor that degrades performance and limits stability. In this paper, we systematically investigated the electrode erosion characteristics of a three-electrode field distortion gas switch under the typical working conditions of FLTD switches, and the discharge current was 7-46 kA with 46-300 ns rise time. A high speed frame camera and a spectrograph were used to capture the expansion process and the spectral emission of the spark channel was used to estimate the current density and the spark temperature, and then the energy fluxes and the external forces on the electrode surface were calculated. A tens of kilo-ampere nanosecond pulse could generate a 1011 W/m2 energy flux injection and 1.3-3.5 MPa external pressure on the electrode surface, resulting in a millimeter-sized erosion crater with the maximum peak height Rz reaching 100 μm magnitude. According to the morphological images by a laser scanning confocal microscope, the erosion crater of a FLTD switch contained three kinds of local morphologies, namely a center boiling region, an overflow region and a sputtering region. In addition, the crater size, the surface roughness, and the mass loss were highly dependent on the current amplitude and the transferred charge. We also observed Morphology Type I and Type II, respectively, with different pulse parameters, which had an obvious influence on surface roughness and mass loss. Finally, the quantitative relationship between the electrode mass loss and the pulse parameter was clarified. The transferred charge and the current amplitude were proved to be the main factors determining the electrode mass loss of a FLTD switch, and a least squares fitting expression for mass loss was also obtained.

  8. Propriedades termofísicas de soluções modelo similares a sucos - Parte I Thermophysical properties of model solutions similar to juice - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades termofísicas, difusividade térmica e calor específico, de soluções modelo similares a sucos, foram determinadas experimentalmente e ajustadas a modelos matemáticos (STATISTICA 6.0, em função da sua composição química. Para definição das soluções modelo foi realizado um planejamento estrela mantendo-se fixa a quantidade de ácido (1,5% e variando-se a água (82-98,5%, o carboidrato (0-15% e a gordura (0-1,5%. A determinação do calor específico foi realizada através do método de Hwang & Hayakawa e a difusividade térmica com base no método de Dickerson. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de superfícies de respostas. Foram encontrados resultados significativos para as propriedades, mostrando que os modelos encontrados representam significativamente as mudanças das propriedades térmicas dos sucos, com alterações na composição e na temperatura.Thermophysical properties, thermal diffusivity and specific heat of model solutions similar to juices were experimentally determined and the values obtained compared to those predicted by mathematical models (STATISTIC 6.0 and to values mentioned in the literature, according to the chemical composition. It was adopted a star planning to define the composition of the model solutions fixing the acid amount in 1.5% and varying water (82-98.5%, carboydrate (0-15% and fat (0-1.5%. The specific heat was determined by Hwang & Hayakawa method and the thermal diffusivity was determined by Dickerson method. The results of each property were analysed by the response surface method. The results were significative, indicating that the models represented considerably the changes of thermal properties of juices according to their composition and temperature variations.

  9. Propriedades termofísicas de soluções-modelo similares a sucos: parte II Thermophysical properties of model solutions similar to juice: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades termofísicas, densidade e viscosidade de soluções-modelo similares a sucos foram determinadas experimentalmente. Os resultados foram comparados aos preditos por modelos matemáticos (STATISTICA 6.0 e obtidos da literatura em função da sua composição química. Para definição das soluções-modelo, foi realizado um planejamento estrela, mantendo-se fixa a quanti-dade de ácido (1,5% e variando-se a água (82-98,5%, o carboidrato (0-15% e a gordura (0-1,5%. A densidade foi determinada em picnômetro. A viscosidade foi determinada em viscosímetro Brookfield modelo LVF. A condutividade térmica foi calculada com o conhecimento das propriedades difusividade térmica e calor específico (apresentados na Parte I deste trabalho MOURA [7] e da densidade. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de superfícies de respostas. Foram encontrados resultados significativos para as propriedades, mostrando que os modelos encontrados representam as mudanças das propriedades térmicas e físicas dos sucos, com alterações na composição e na temperatura.Thermophysical properties, density and viscosity of model solutions similar to juices were experimentally determined. The results were compared to those predicted by mathematical models (STATISTIC 6.0 and to values mentioned in the literature, according to the chemical composition. A star planning was adopted to define model solutions composition; fixing the acid amount in 1.5% and varying water (82-98.5%, carbohydrate (0-15% and fat (0-1.5%. The density was determined by picnometer. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield LVF model viscosimeter. The thermal conductivity was calculated based on thermal diffusivity and specific heat values (presented at the 1st . Part of this paper - MOURA [7] and density. The results of each property were analyzed by the response surface method. The found results were significant, indicating that the models represent the changes of

  10. Difficulty in Learning Similar-Sounding Words: A Developmental Stage or a General Property of Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajak, Bozena; Creel, Sarah C.; Levy, Roger

    2016-01-01

    How are languages learned, and to what extent are learning mechanisms similar in infant native-language (L1) and adult second-language (L2) acquisition? In terms of vocabulary acquisition, we know from the infant literature that the ability to discriminate similar-sounding words at a particular age does not guarantee successful word-meaning…

  11. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  12. VO2(B conversion to VO2(A and VO2(M and their oxidation resistance and optical switching properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yifu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide VO2 has been paid in recent years increasing attention because of its various applications, however, its oxidation resistance properties in air atmosphere have rarely been reported. Herein, VO2(B nanobelts were transformed into VO2(A and VO2(M nanobelts by hydrothermal route and calcination treatment, respectively. Then, we comparatively studied the oxidation resistance properties of VO2(B, VO2(A and VO2(M nanobelts in air atmosphere by thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA. It was found that the nanobelts had good thermal stability and oxidation resistance below 341 °C, 408 °C and 465 °C in air, respectively, indicating that they were stable in air at room temperature. The fierce oxidation of the nanobelts occurred at 426, 507 and 645 °C, respectively. The results showed that the VO2(M nanobelts had the best thermal stability and oxidation resistance among the others. Furthermore, the phase transition temperatures and optical switching properties of VO2(A and VO2(M were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and variable temperature infrared spectra. It was found that the VO2(A and VO2(M nanobelts had outstanding thermochromic character and optical switching properties.

  13. Investigation of switching frequency variations and EMI properties in self-oscillating class D amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Class D audio amplifiers have gained significant influence in sound reproduction due to their high efficiency. One of the most commonly used control methods in these amplifiers is self-oscillation. A parameter of key interest in self-oscillating amplifiers is the switching frequency, which is kno...

  14. Optical switching properties of VO2 films driven by using WDM-aligned lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, K.Y.; Wu, F.-H.; Shieh, H.-P.D.; Chin, T.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) film had been demonstrated a high speed IR shutter driven by total optical modulation. However, it usually required a higher power heating laser of high power and precise optical systems to cover the probe beam on the sample with a heating beam of larger area. A new optical system, simply composed of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), fiber lens or convex lens system, and a glass sheet with VO 2 thin film on it, was easily assembled to utilize VO 2 film as an IR shutter, implying the possibility to highly miniaturize the VO 2 -based optical shutter. A permanent low-transmittance (PLT) region forms on the film within the probe beam, resulting in a decrease in average power of the probe beam. Another ring-type switching area (switching ring) forms around the PLT region, resulting in the transmittance switching of the probe beam synchronously with the heating signal. VO 2 films can be switched with the highest rate of a continuous square heating signal of 3 mW at 120 kHz. A heating pulse of 0.7 ns and 13 mW can be used to stimulate an IR pulse with fiber lens

  15. Modality Switching Cost during Property Verification by 7 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Solene; Kalenine, Solene; Blaye, Agnes; Bonthoux, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies in neuroimagery and cognitive psychology support the view of sensory-motor based knowledge: when processing an object concept, neural systems would re-enact previous experiences with this object. In this experiment, a conceptual switching cost paradigm derived from Pecher, Zeelenberg, and Barsalou (2003, 2004) was used to…

  16. Metabolomics coupled with similarity analysis advances the elucidation of the cold/hot properties of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Zhang, Zheng-Zheng; Wei, Yu-Hai; Xue-Mei, Qin; Li, Zhen-Yu

    2017-08-01

    It recently becomes an important and urgent mission for modern scientific research to identify and explain the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been utilized in China for more than four millennia. Since few works have been contributed to understanding the TCM theory, the mechanism of actions of drugs with cold/hot properties remains unclear. In the present study, six kinds of typical herbs with cold or hot properties were orally administered into mice, and serum and liver samples were analyzed using an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics approach coupled with similarity analysis. This approach was performed to identify and quantify changes in metabolic pathways to elucidate drug actions on the treated mice. Our results showed that those drugs with same property exerted similar effects on the metabolic alterations in mouse serum and liver samples, while drugs with different property showed different effects. The effects of herbal medicines with cold/hot properties were exerted by regulating the pathways linked to glycometabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acids metabolism and other metabolic pathways. The results elucidated the differences and similarities of drugs with cold/hot properties, providing useful information on the explanation of medicinal properties of these TCMs. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PROPRIEDADES TERMOFÍSICAS DE SOLUÇÕES MODELO SIMILARES A CREME DE LEITE THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MODEL SOLUTIONS SIMILAR TO CREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de MOURA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A demanda de creme de leite UHT tem aumentado significativamente. Diversas empresas diversificaram e aumentaram sua produção, visto que o consumidor, cada vez mais exigente, almeja cremes com ampla faixa de teor de gordura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a densidade, viscosidade aparente e difusividade térmica, de soluções modelo similares a creme de leite, na faixa de temperatura de 30 a 70°C, estudando a influência do teor de gordura e da temperatura nas propriedades físicas dos produtos. O delineamento estatístico aplicado foi o planejamento 3X5, usando níveis de teor de gordura e temperatura fixos em 15%, 25% e 35%; 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C e 70°C, respectivamente (STATISTICA 6.0. Manteve-se constante a quantidade de carboidrato e de proteína, ambos em 3%. A densidade foi determinada pelo método de deslocamento de fluidos em picnômetro; a difusividade térmica com base no método de Dickerson e a viscosidade aparente foi determinada em reômetro Rheotest 2.1. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de método de superfície de resposta. No caso destas propriedades, os dados obtidos apresentaram resultados significativos, indicando que o modelo representou de forma confiável a variação destas propriedades com a variação da gordura (% e da temperatura (°C.The requirement of UHT cream has been increased considerably. Several industries varied and increased their production, since consumers, more and more exigent, are demanding creams with a wide range of fat content. The objective of the present research was to determine the density, viscosity and thermal diffusivity of model solutions similar to cream. The range of temperature varied from 30°C to 70°C in order to study the influence of fat content and temperature in the physical properties of cream. The statistic method applied was the factorial 3X5 planning, with levels of fat content and temperature fixed in 15%, 25% and 35%; 30

  18. Computing the variations in the self-similar properties of the various gait intervals in Parkinson disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjeri Keloth, Sana; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-07-01

    This study has investigated the stride, swing, stance and double support intervals of gait for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with different levels of severity. Self-similar properties of the gait signal were analyzed to investigate the changes in the gait pattern of the healthy and PD patients. To understand the self-similar property, detrended fluctuation analysis was performed. The analysis shows that the PD patients have less defined gait when compared to healthy. The study also shows that among the stance and swing phase of stride interval, the self-similarity is less for swing interval when compared to the stance interval of gait and decreases with the severity of gait. Also, PD patients show decreased self-similar patterns in double support interval of gait. This suggest that there are less rhythmic gait intervals and a sense of urgency to remain in support phase of gait by the PD patients.

  19. "Switching on" the properties of single-molecule magnetism in triangular manganese(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatatos, Theocharis C; Foguet-Albiol, Dolos; Lee, Sheng-Chiang; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Terzis, Aris; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Hill, Stephen O; Perlepes, Spyros P; Christou, George

    2007-08-01

    -frequency EPR spectra of single crystals of 4.3CH2Cl2 have provided precise spin Hamiltonian parameters, giving D = -0.3 cm(-1), B40 = -3 x 10(-5) cm(-1), and g = 2.00. The spectra also suggest a significant transverse anisotropy of E > or = 0.015 cm(-1). The combined work demonstrates the feasibility that structural distortions of a magnetic core imposed by peripheral ligands can "switch on" the properties of an SMM.

  20. On some spectral properties of billiards and nuclei. Similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    2005-01-01

    Generic and non-generic features of billiards and nuclei which show up in certain spectral properties are discussed by way of selected examples. First, the short and long range correlations of levels belonging to the magnetic dipole Scissors Mode in heavy deformed nuclei at an excitation energy of about 3 MeV prove that this mode is indeed caused by an ordered or regular collective motion. Second, the fine structure distribution of the so called electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance around 6 to 7 MeV excitation energy seems to indicate a situation where the spectral properties are governed by mixed dynamics, i.e. by regular and chaotic features. However, in nuclei quantitative conclusions are always severely hampered by missing levels due to limited experimental resolution and detector efficiency. Third, it is shown that this situation can be largely overcome by studying spectral properties in superconducting microwave billards considered as nuclear analogs. As an example resonance strength distributions in billards of mixed and fully chaotic dynamics are considered. Finally it is demonstrated how symmetry breaking effects in nuclei - e.g. isospin symmetry breaking - can be studied through those resonance strength distributions by modelling the nuclear problem with coupled billards. (orig.)

  1. On some spectral properties of billiards and nuclei. Similarities and differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, A.

    2005-07-01

    Generic and non-generic features of billiards and nuclei which show up in certain spectral properties are discussed by way of selected examples. First, the short and long range correlations of levels belonging to the magnetic dipole Scissors Mode in heavy deformed nuclei at an excitation energy of about 3 MeV prove that this mode is indeed caused by an ordered or regular collective motion. Second, the fine structure distribution of the so called electric Pygmy Dipole Resonance around 6 to 7 MeV excitation energy seems to indicate a situation where the spectral properties are governed by mixed dynamics, i.e. by regular and chaotic features. However, in nuclei quantitative conclusions are always severely hampered by missing levels due to limited experimental resolution and detector efficiency. Third, it is shown that this situation can be largely overcome by studying spectral properties in superconducting microwave billards considered as nuclear analogs. As an example resonance strength distributions in billards of mixed and fully chaotic dynamics are considered. Finally it is demonstrated how symmetry breaking effects in nuclei - e.g. isospin symmetry breaking - can be studied through those resonance strength distributions by modelling the nuclear problem with coupled billards. (orig.)

  2. PrPC has nucleic acid chaperoning properties similar to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrington, Edmund; Gabus, Caroline; Leblanc, Pascal; Chnaidermann, Jonas; Grave, Linda; Dormont, Dominique; Swietnicki, Wieslaw; Morillas, Manuel; Marck, Daniel; Nandi, Pradip; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2002-01-01

    The function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) remains obscure. Studies suggest that PrPC functions in several processes including signal transduction and Cu2+ metabolism. PrPC has also been established to bind nucleic acids. Therefore we investigated the properties of PrPC as a putative nucleic acid chaperone. Surprisingly, PrPC possesses all the nucleic acid chaperoning properties previously specific to retroviral nucleocapsid proteins. PrPC appears to be a molecular mimic of NCP7, the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. Thus PrPC, like NCP7, chaperones the annealing of tRNA(Lys) to the HIV-1 primer binding site, the initial step of retrovirus replication. PrPC also chaperones the two DNA strand transfers required for production of a complete proviral DNA with LTRs. Concerning the functions of NCP7 during budding, PrPC also mimices NCP7 by dimerizing the HIV-1 genomic RNA. These data are unprecedented because, although many cellular proteins have been identified as nucleic acid chaperones, none have the properties of retroviral nucleocapsid proteins.

  3. Picocyanobacteria and deep-ocean fluorescent dissolved organic matter share similar optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Timko, Stephen; Ianiri, Hope; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Fang, Xiaoting; Zeng, Qinglu; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Marine chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and its related fluorescent components (FDOM), which are widely distributed but highly photobleached in the surface ocean, are critical in regulating light attenuation in the ocean. However, the origins of marine FDOM are still under investigation. Here we show that cultured picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, release FDOM that closely match the typical fluorescent signals found in oceanic environments. Picocyanobacterial FDOM also shows comparable apparent fluorescent quantum yields and undergoes similar photo-degradation behaviour when compared with deep-ocean FDOM, further strengthening the similarity between them. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveal abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in Synechococcus DOM, which may originate from degradation products of the fluorescent phycobilin pigments. Given the importance of picocyanobacteria in the global carbon cycle, our results indicate that picocyanobacteria are likely to be important sources of marine autochthonous FDOM, which may accumulate in the deep ocean.

  4. Escherichia coli Isolates Causing Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Catheterized and Noncatheterized Individuals Possess Similar Virulence Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watts, Rebecca E; Hancock, Viktoria; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infectious diseases of humans, with Escherichia coli being responsible for >80% of all cases. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) occurs when bacteria colonize the urinary tract without causing clinical symptoms and can affect both catheterized...... patients (catheter-associated ABU [CA-ABU]) and noncatheterized patients. Here, we compared the virulence properties of a collection of ABU and CA-ABU nosocomial E. coli isolates in terms of antibiotic resistance, phylogenetic grouping, specific UTI-associated virulence genes, hemagglutination...

  5. Study of the temperature dependence of the uniaxial creep property of similar material of new soft rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, Y.; Fan, X. Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Guo, P.; Li, J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Using the experimental method, the experimental research of creep properties were conducted under different temperature ranging from 10°C to 60°C. The similar material of new soft rock consists of paraffin, which can obtain that the deformation contains the instantaneous elastic deformation and creep deformation through the uniaxial creep experimental results. And thus the increase of temperature has great influence on the creep characteristics of similar soft rock according to the creep curve of similar soft rock at 10°C to 60°C. With the increase of temperature, the slope of the stress-strain curve of similar soft rock is increasing, while the average of the creep modulus is decreasing, which means that the capacity of resist deformation is reduced. Therefore, the creeps law of high-temperature and short-time can be shown the creep phenomenon of low-temperature and long-time, and further shorten the creep experimental cycle.

  6. Determination of rheological properties of fresh concrete and similar materials in a vibration rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Juradin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A vibration rheometer has been developed for the purpose of determining the viscosity coefficient and the yield value of fresh concrete under vibration. The main parts of the apparatus, a test specimen and a vibration source form a unitary oscillatory system whose parameters can be measured with sufficient precision. Two types of fine grained reference material have been prepared and examined; one with a high coefficient of viscosity and the other with a high yield value. The rheological properties of reference materials have been determined in a capillary tube viscometer. Since there is no analytical solution to the flow in the vibration rheometer, the constants of the vibration rheometer have been determined by experiment, for each position of the apparatus piston within the measuring range. The parameters of the flow depend on the maximum acceleration of the vibration source. An increase in acceleration causes an increase in the yield value as well as a reduction in the plastic viscosity coefficient of the material specimen. A testing of fresh mortar has been carried out as well. The obtained results have been compared with the impact on reference materials, which makes the results of our research applicable to fresh vibrated concrete.

  7. Fundamental properties of molecules on surfaces. Molecular switching and interaction of magnetic molecules with superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatter, Nino

    2016-12-14

    In this thesis, we investigate individual molecular switches and metal-organic complexes on surfaces with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) at low temperatures. One focus addresses the switching ability and mechanism of diarylethene on Ag(111). The other focus lies on resolving and tuning magnetic interactions of individual molecules with superconductors. 4,4'-(4,4'-(perfluorocyclopent-1-ene-1,2-diyl)bis (5-methylthiophene-4,2-diyl)dip yridine (PDTE) is a prototypical photochromic switch. We can induce a structural change of individual PDTE molecules on Ag(111) with the STM tip. This change is accompanied by a reduction of the energy gap between the occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the induced switching corresponds to a ring-closing reaction from an open isomer in a flat adsorption configuration to a ring-closed isomer with its methyl groups in a cis configuration. The final product is thermodynamically stabilized by strong dispersion interactions with the surface. A linear dependence of the switching threshold with the tip-sample distance with a minimal threshold of 1.4 V is found, which we assign to a combination of an electric-field induced process and a tunneling-electron contribution. DFT calculations suggest a large activation barrier for a ring-closing reaction from the open flat configuration into the closed cis configuration. The interaction of magnetic molecules with superconductors is studied on manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) adsorbed on Pb(111). We find triplets of Shiba states inside the superconducting gap. Different adsorption sites of MnPc provide a large variety of exchange coupling strengths, which lead to a collective energy shift of the Shiba triplets. We can assign the splitting of the Shiba states to be an effect of magnetic anisotropy in the system. A quantum phase transition from a ''Kondo screened'' to a &apos

  8. The prion protein has DNA strand transfer properties similar to retroviral nucleocapsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, C; Auxilien, S; Péchoux, C; Dormont, D; Swietnicki, W; Morillas, M; Surewicz, W; Nandi, P; Darlix, J L

    2001-04-06

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are associated with the accumulation of a protease-resistant form of the cellular prion protein (PrP). Although PrP is highly conserved and widely expressed in vertebrates, its function remains a matter of speculation. Indeed PrP null mice develop normally and are healthy. Recent results show that PrP binds to nucleic acids in vitro and is found associated with retroviral particles. Furthermore, in mice the scrapie infectious process appears to be accelerated by MuLV replication. These observations prompted us to further investigate the interaction between PrP and nucleic acids, and compare it with that of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein (NC). As the major nucleic acid-binding protein of the retroviral particle, NC protein is tightly associated with the genomic RNA in the virion nucleocapsid, where it chaperones proviral DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase. Our results show that the human prion protein (huPrP) functionally resembles NCp7 of HIV-1. Both proteins form large nucleoprotein complexes upon binding to DNA. They accelerate the hybridization of complementary DNA strands and chaperone viral DNA synthesis during the minus and plus DNA strand transfers necessary to generate the long terminal repeats. The DNA-binding and strand transfer properties of huPrP appear to map to the N-terminal fragment comprising residues 23 to 144, whereas the C-terminal domain is inactive. These findings suggest that PrP could be involved in nucleic acid metabolism in vivo. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Viscoelastic property tuning for reducing noise radiated by switched-reluctance machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millithaler, Pierre; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Ouisse, Morvan; Sadoulet-Reboul, Émeline; Bouhaddi, Noureddine

    2017-10-01

    Switched-reluctance motors (SRM) present major acoustic drawbacks that hinder their use for electric vehicles in spite of widely-acknowledged robustness and low manufacturing costs. Unlike other types of electric machines, a SRM stator is completely encapsulated/potted with a viscoelastic resin. By taking advantage of the high damping capacity that a viscoelastic material has in certain temperature and frequency ranges, this article proposes a tuning methodology for reducing the noise emitted by a SRM in operation. After introducing the aspects the tuning process will focus on, the article details a concrete application consisting in computing representative electromagnetic excitations and then the structural response of the stator including equivalent radiated power levels. An optimised viscoelastic material is determined, with which the peak radiated levels are reduced up to 10 dB in comparison to the initial state. This methodology is implementable for concrete industrial applications as it only relies on common commercial finite-element solvers.

  10. Ultrafast switching in wetting properties of TiO2/YSZ/Si(001) epitaxial heterostructures induced by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, M. R.; Molaei, R.; Narayan, J.; Joshi, S.; Narayan, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated dark hydrophilicity of single crystalline rutile TiO 2 (100) thin films, in which rapid switching from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic surface was achieved using nanosecond excimer laser irradiation. The TiO 2 /YSZ/Si(001) single crystalline heterostructures were grown by pulsed laser deposition and were subsequently irradiated by a single pulse of a KrF excimer laser at several energies. The wettability of water on the surfaces of the samples was evaluated. The samples were hydrophobic prior to laser annealing and turned hydrophilic after laser annealing. Superhydrophilic surfaces were obtained at higher laser energy densities (e.g., 0.32 J.cm −2 ). The stoichiometries of the surface regions of the samples before and after laser annealing were examined using XPS. The results revealed the formation of oxygen vacancies on the surface, which are surmised to be responsible for the observed superhydrophilic behavior. According to the AFM images, surface smoothening was greater in films that were annealed at higher laser energy densities. The samples exhibited hydrophobic behavior after being placed in ambient atmosphere. The origin of laser induced wetting behavior was qualitatively understood to stem from an increase of point defects near the surface, which lowered the film/water interfacial energy. This type of rapid hydrophobic/hydrophilic switching may be used to facilitate fabrication of electronic and photonic devices with novel properties.

  11. Properties of a GaAs Single Electron Path Switching Node Device Using a Single Quantum Dot for Hexagonal BDD Quantum Circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Abe, Yuji; Kasai, Seiya; Hasegawa, Hideki; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2006-01-01

    A new single electron (SE) binary-decision diagram (BDD) node device having a single quantum dot connected to three nanowire branches through tunnel barriers was fabricated using etched AlGaAs/GaAs nanowires and nanometer-sized Schottky wrap gates (WPGs), and their operation was characterized experimentally, for the hexagonal BDD quantum circuit. Fabricated devices showed clear and steep single electron pass switching by applying only an input voltage signal, which was completely different from switching properties in the previous SE BDD node devices composed of two single electron switches. As the possible switching mechanism, the correlation between the probabilities of tunnelling thorough a single quantum dot in exit branches was discussed

  12. Role of Al2O3 thin layer on improving the resistive switching properties of Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random accesses memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dayanand; Aluguri, Rakesh; Chand, Umesh; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Ta5Si3-based conductive bridge random access memory (CBRAM) devices have been investigated to improve their resistive switching characteristics for their application in future nonvolatile memory technology. Changes in the switching characteristics by the addition of a thin Al2O3 layer of different thicknesses at the bottom electrode interface of a Ta5Si3-based CBRAM devices have been studied. The double-layer device with a 1 nm Al2O3 layer has shown improved resistive switching characteristics over the single layer one with a high on/off resistance ratio of 102, high endurance of more than 104 cycles, and good retention for more than 105 s at the temperature of 130 °C. The higher thermal conductivity of Al2O3 over Ta5Si3 has been attributed to the enhanced switching properties of the double-layer devices.

  13. Ferrimagnetic Tb-Fe Alloy Thin Films: Composition and Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Properties and All-Optical Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eHebler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ferrimagnetic rare earth - transition metal Tb-Fe alloy thin films exhibit a variety of different magnetic properties, which depends strongly on composition and temperature. In this study, first the influence of the film thickness (5 - 85 nm on the sample magnetic properties was investigated in a wide composition range between 15 at.% and 38 at.% of Tb. From our results, we find that the compensation point, remanent magnetization, and magnetic anisotropy of the Tb-Fe films depend not only on the composition but also on the thickness of the magnetic film up to a critical thickness of about 20-30 nm. Beyond this critical thickness, only slight changes in magnetic properties are observed. This behavior can be attributed to a growth-induced modification of the microstructure of the amorphous films, which affects the short range order. As a result, a more collinear alignment of the distributed magnetic moments of Tb along the out-of-plane direction with film thickness is obtained. This increasing contribution of the Tb sublattice magnetization to the total sample magnetization is equivalent to a sample becoming richer in Tb and can be referred to as an effective composition. Furthermore, the possibility of all-optical switching, where the magnetization orientation of Tb-Fe can be reversed solely by circularly polarized laser pulses, was analyzed for a broad range of compositions and film thicknesses and correlated to the underlying magnetic properties.

  14. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  15. Effect of chemical substitutions on photo-switching properties of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid studied by ab initio methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, Michał F.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of chemical substitutions to the molecular structure of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid on photo-switching properties of the system operating on excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer (d-ESIPT) process [M. F. Rode and A. L. Sobolewski, Chem. Phys. 409, 41 (2012)] was studied with the aid of electronic structure theory methods. It was shown that simultaneous application of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substitutions at certain positions of the molecular frame increases the height of the S 0 -state tautomerization barrier (ensuring thermal stability of isomers) and facilitates a barrierless access to the S 1 /S 0 conical intersection from the Franck-Condon region of the S 1 potential-energy surface. Results of study point to the conclusion that the most challenging issue for practical design of a fast molecular photoswitch based on d-ESIPT phenomenon are to ensure a selectivity of optical excitation of a given tautomeric form of the system

  16. Effect of chemical substitutions on photo-switching properties of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid studied by ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Michał F.; Sobolewski, Andrzej L.

    2014-02-01

    Effect of chemical substitutions to the molecular structure of 3-hydroxy-picolinic acid on photo-switching properties of the system operating on excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer (d-ESIPT) process [M. F. Rode and A. L. Sobolewski, Chem. Phys. 409, 41 (2012)] was studied with the aid of electronic structure theory methods. It was shown that simultaneous application of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substitutions at certain positions of the molecular frame increases the height of the S0-state tautomerization barrier (ensuring thermal stability of isomers) and facilitates a barrierless access to the S1/S0 conical intersection from the Franck-Condon region of the S1 potential-energy surface. Results of study point to the conclusion that the most challenging issue for practical design of a fast molecular photoswitch based on d-ESIPT phenomenon are to ensure a selectivity of optical excitation of a given tautomeric form of the system.

  17. Bulk dielectric and magnetic properties of PFW-PZT ceramics: absence of magnetically switched-off polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempa, M; Kamba, S; Savinov, M; Maryško, M; Frait, Z; Vaněk, P; Tomczyk, M; Vilarinho, P M

    2010-11-10

    We investigated ceramics samples of solid solutions of [PbFe(2/3)W(1/3)O(3)](x)-[PbZr(0.53)Ti(0.47)O(3)](1 - x) (PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), x = 0.2 and 0.3) by means of broad-band dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and SQUID magnetometry. We did not confirm the observations of Kumar et al (2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 382204), who reported on reversible suppression of ferroelectric polarization in polycrystalline PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films for magnetic fields above 0.5 T. We did not observe any change of ferroelectric polarization with external magnetic fields up to 3.2 T. Pirc et al (2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 214114) developed a theory explaining the reported large magnetoelectric effect in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x), taking into account relaxor magnetic and relaxor ferroelectric properties of the system. Our data revealed classical ferroelectric properties below 525 K and 485 K in samples with x = 0.2 and 0.3, respectively. Moreover, paramagnetic behavior was observed down to 4.5 K instead of previously reported relaxor magnetic behavior. It seems that the reported switching-off of ferroelectric polarization in PFW(x)-PZT(1 - x) thin films is not an intrinsic property, but probably an effect of electrodes, interlayers, grain boundaries or second phases presented in polycrystalline thin films.

  18. Highly uniform resistive switching properties of amorphous InGaZnO thin films prepared by a low temperature photochemical solution deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Zou, Lilan; Chen, Xinman; Qin, Ni; Li, Shuwei; Bao, Dinghua

    2014-04-09

    We report on highly uniform resistive switching properties of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin films. The thin films were fabricated by a low temperature photochemical solution deposition method, a simple process combining chemical solution deposition and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation treatment. The a-IGZO based resistive switching devices exhibit long retention, good endurance, uniform switching voltages, and stable distribution of low and high resistance states. Electrical conduction mechanisms were also discussed on the basis of the current-voltage characteristics and their temperature dependence. The excellent resistive switching properties can be attributed to the reduction of organic- and hydrogen-based elements and the formation of enhanced metal-oxide bonding and metal-hydroxide bonding networks by hydrogen bonding due to UV irradiation, based on Fourier-transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis of the thin films. This study suggests that a-IGZO thin films have potential applications in resistive random access memory and the low temperature photochemical solution deposition method can find the opportunity for further achieving system on panel applications if the a-IGZO resistive switching cells were integrated with a-IGZO thin film transistors.

  19. Switching between the mode-locking and Q-switching modes in two-section QW lasers upon a change in the absorber properties due to the Stark effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhiyev, I. M., E-mail: idris.intop@mail.ru; Buyalo, M. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Gubenko, A. E. [Innolume GmbH (Germany); Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.

  20. Switching between the mode-locking and Q-switching modes in two-section QW lasers upon a change in the absorber properties due to the Stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiyev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S.; Gubenko, A. E.; Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.

  1. Fatigue and retention properties of shape memory piezoelectric actuator with non-180° domain switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Y; Morita, T

    2012-01-01

    A shape memory piezoelectric actuator can maintain a piezoelectric displacement without an operating voltage. It has two stable strain states at zero voltage: a poled state and a depoled state. The driving principle of the shape memory piezoelectric actuator is based on reorientation of the non-180° domains in the ferroelectric materials. In this study, a unimorph shape memory piezoelectric actuator with a soft lead zirconate titanate was fabricated. The fatigue and retention properties of this shape memory piezoelectric actuator were investigated. The fatigue behavior of the actuator in the early stages is considered to be closely related to the domain stabilization process. Continuous cycle fatigue tests revealed that the shape memory piezoelectric actuator continues to operate even after 10 6 cycles. Retention measurements revealed that the depoled state of the actuator was more stable than the poled state. The drift in the actuator displacement over one year was estimated to be less than 10% of the initial shape memory displacement. (paper)

  2. A critical switch in the enzymatic properties of the Cid1 protein deciphered from its product-bound crystal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Tello, Paola; Gabus, Caroline; Thore, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The addition of uridine nucleotide by the poly(U) polymerase (PUP) enzymes has a demonstrated impact on various classes of RNAs such as microRNAs (miRNAs), histone-encoding RNAs and messenger RNAs. Cid1 protein is a member of the PUP family. We solved the crystal structure of Cid1 in complex with non-hydrolyzable UMPNPP and a short dinucleotide compound ApU. These structures revealed new residues involved in substrate/product stabilization. In particular, one of the three catalytic aspartate residues explains the RNA dependence of its PUP activity. Moreover, other residues such as residue N165 or the β-trapdoor are shown to be critical for Cid1 activity. We finally suggest that the length and sequence of Cid1 substrate RNA influence the balance between Cid1's processive and distributive activities. We propose that particular processes regulated by PUPs require the enzymes to switch between the two types of activity as shown for the miRNA biogenesis where PUPs can either promote DICER cleavage via short U-tail or trigger miRNA degradation by adding longer poly(U) tail. The enzymatic properties of these enzymes may be critical for determining their particular function in vivo.

  3. Function Modelling Of The Market And Assessing The Degree Of Similarity Between Real Properties - Dependent Or Independent Procedures In The Process Of Office Property Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barańska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Referring to the developed and presented in previous publications (e.g. Barańska 2011 two-stage algorithm for real estate valuation, this article addresses the problem of the relationship between the two stages of the algorithm. An essential part of the first stage is the multi-dimensional function modelling of the real estate market. As a result of selecting the model best fitted to the market data, in which the dependent variable is always the price of a real property, a set of market attributes is obtained, which in this model are considered to be price-determining. In the second stage, from the collection of real estate which served as a database in the process of estimating model parameters, the selected objects are those which are most similar to the one subject to valuation and form the basis for predicting the final value of the property being valued. Assessing the degree of similarity between real properties can be carried out based on the full spectrum of real estate attributes that potentially affect their value and which it is possible to gather information about, or only on the basis of those attributes which were considered to be price-determining in function modelling. It can also be performed by various methods. This article has examined the effect of various approaches on the final value of the property obtained using the two-stage prediction. In order fulfill the study aim precisely as possible, the results of each calculation step of the algorithm have been investigated in detail. Each of them points to the independence of the two procedures.

  4. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, M. D.; Druce, R. L.; Wilson, M. J.; Hofer, W. W.

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV to 35 kV and rise times of 300 to 500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10(exp 3) to over 10(exp 5). Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 micrometer, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation.

  5. Avalanche photoconductive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L.; Wilson, M.J.; Hofer, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work being done at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on the avalanche mode of operation of laser triggered photoconductive switches. We have been able to generate pulses with amplitudes of 2 kV--35 kV and rise times of 300--500 ps, and with a switching gain (energy of output electrical pulse vs energy of trigger optical pulse) of 10{sup 3} to over 10{sup 5}. Switches with two very different physical configurations and with two different illumination wavelengths (1.06 {mu}m, 890 nm) exhibit very similar behavior. The avalanche switching behavior, therefore, appears to be related to the material parameters rather than the optical wavelength or switch geometry. Considerable further work needs to be done to fully characterize and understand this mode of operation. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Exciter switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  7. Evaluation of resistive switching properties of Si-rich oxide embedded with Ti nanodots by applying constant voltage and current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Akio; Kato, Yusuke; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-06-01

    We have studied the resistive switching behaviors of electron beam (EB) evaporated Si-rich oxide (SiO x ) sandwiched between Ni electrodes by applying a constant voltage and current. Additionally, the impact of Ti nanodots (NDs) embedded into SiO x on resistive switching behaviors was investigated because it is expected that NDs can trigger the formation of a conductive filament path in SiO x . The resistive switching behaviors of SiO x show that the response time during resistance switching was decreased by increasing the applied constant current or constant voltage. It was found that Ti-NDs in SiO x enhance the conductive filament path formation owing to electric field concentration by Ti-NDs.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar joints of aluminium alloy and pure copper by friction stir welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloy (AlA and pure copper (Cu were evaluated at variable tool rotational speeds from 150 to 900 rpm in steps of 150 rpm at 60 mm/min travel speed and constant tilt angle 2°. The interfacial microstructures of the joints were characterised by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The Al4Cu9, AlCu, Al2Cu and Al2Cu3 intermetallic compounds have been observed at the interface and stir zone region of dissimilar Al/Cu FSWed joints. Variation in the grain size was observed in the stir zone depending upon the heat input value. Axial force, traverse force and torque value were analysed with variation in tool rotational speed. Residual stresses were measured at the stir zone by X-ray diffraction technique. Maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼75% of AlA strength for AlA–AlA joints has been obtained at 750 rpm and for Cu–Cu joint tensile strength of ∼100% of tensile strength of Cu was obtained at 300 rpm. However, for Cu–AlA joint when processed at 600 rpm tool rotational speed achieved maximum ultimate tensile strength of ∼77% of AlA.

  9. Resistivity switching properties of Li-doped ZnO films deposited on LaB_6 electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igityan, A.; Kafadaryan, Y.; Aghamalyan, N.; Petrosyan, S.; Badalyan, G.; Vardanyan, V.; Nersisyan, M.; Hovsepyan, R.; Palagushkin, A.; Kryzhanovsky, B.

    2015-01-01

    Current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of Al/p-ZnO:Li/LaB_6 device, measured in voltage sweep mode, show unipolar resistive switching and monostable threshold switching (URS and MTS) for different bias voltage polarities. URS could be transformed to MTS by application of reverse bias voltage. With increasing number of cycles, URS is converted to bipolar resistive switching mode which is lost after certain number of cycles, and device turns into an ordinary resistor. Analysis of linear fitting I–V curves suggests that ohmic and space charge limited current laws are responsible for conductivity mechanism of Al/p-ZnO:Li/LaB_6 device. - Highlights: • Al/p-ZnO:Li/LaB_6 memristive device is fabricated using an e-beam evaporation technique. • Current–voltage (I–V) characteristics are studied. • Type of resistive switching mode depends on the bias voltage polarity and number of switching cycles. • Resistive switching in Al/ZnO:Li/LaB_6 has an interfacial effect. • Ohmic and SCLC laws are responsible for conductivity mechanism of resistive states.

  10. Impact of Bulk Aggregation on the Electronic Structure of Streptocyanines: Implications for the Solid-State Nonlinear Optical Properties and All-Optical Switching Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2014-10-16

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions show many of the electronic and optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in the form of thin films, their aggregation and interactions with counterions do generally strongly limit their utility. Here, we present a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations to describe the bulk molecular packing of streptocyanines (taken as representative of simple polymethines) with counterions of different hardness (Cl and BPh4 ) and understand the impact on the optical properties. The accuracy of the force field we use is verified by reproducing experimental crystal parameters as well as the configurations of polymethine/counterion complexes obtained from electronic-structure calculations. The aggregation characteristics can be understood in terms of both polymethinecounterion and polymethinepolymethine interactions. The counterions are found to localize near one end of the streptocyanine backbones, and the streptocyanines form a broad range of aggregates with significant electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. As a consequence, the linear and nonlinear optical properties are substantially modified in the bulk. By providing an understanding of the relationship between the molecular interactions and the bulk optical properties, our results point to a clear strategy for designing polymethine and counterion molecular structures and optimizing the materials properties for all-optical switching applications.

  11. Impact of Bulk Aggregation on the Electronic Structure of Streptocyanines: Implications for the Solid-State Nonlinear Optical Properties and All-Optical Switching Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Shiring, Stephen B.; Risko, Chad; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polymethine dyes in dilute solutions show many of the electronic and optical properties required for all-optical switching applications. However, in the form of thin films, their aggregation and interactions with counterions do generally strongly limit their utility. Here, we present a theoretical approach combining molecular-dynamics simulations and quantum-chemical calculations to describe the bulk molecular packing of streptocyanines (taken as representative of simple polymethines) with counterions of different hardness (Cl and BPh4 ) and understand the impact on the optical properties. The accuracy of the force field we use is verified by reproducing experimental crystal parameters as well as the configurations of polymethine/counterion complexes obtained from electronic-structure calculations. The aggregation characteristics can be understood in terms of both polymethinecounterion and polymethinepolymethine interactions. The counterions are found to localize near one end of the streptocyanine backbones, and the streptocyanines form a broad range of aggregates with significant electronic couplings between neighboring molecules. As a consequence, the linear and nonlinear optical properties are substantially modified in the bulk. By providing an understanding of the relationship between the molecular interactions and the bulk optical properties, our results point to a clear strategy for designing polymethine and counterion molecular structures and optimizing the materials properties for all-optical switching applications.

  12. Bipolar resistive switching properties of Hf{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} thin film for flexible memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhipeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhou, Yunxia; Liu, Xingpeng [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2018-01-15

    An Au/Ni/Hf{sub 0.5}Zr{sub 0.5}O{sub 2}/Au flexible memory device fabricated on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate was studied for flexible resistive random access memory applications. A typical bipolar resistive switching behavior was revealed with an OFF/ON ratio of approximately 15. The reproducibility and uniformity were investigated using 100 repetitive write/erase cycles. The retention property did not degrade for up to 5 x 10{sup 4} s, and the resistive switching properties did not degrade even under bending conditions, which indicated good mechanical flexibility. The current-voltage characteristics of the memory device show a Poole-Frenkel emission conduction mechanism in the high-voltage region in the high-resistance state, while in the low-voltage region, the Ohmic contact and space charge limit current responded to the low-resistance state and high-resistance state, respectively. Combined with the conductance mechanism, the resistive switching behavior is attributed to conductive filaments forming and rupturing due to oxygen vacancies migrating under the external driving electric field. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  14. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  15. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb (Zr ,Ti )O3 Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb (Zr ,Ti )O3 ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d33 and the transverse strain constant d31 are calculated to be 520 and -200 pm /V , respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary.

  16. Unique Piezoelectric Properties of the Monoclinic Phase in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} Ceramics: Large Lattice Strain and Negligible Domain Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longlong; Chen, Jun; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Zhang, Linxing; Xing, Xianran

    2016-01-15

    The origin of the excellent piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary is generally attributed to the existence of a monoclinic phase in various piezoelectric systems. However, there exist no experimental studies that reveal the role of the monoclinic phase in the piezoelectric behavior in phase-pure ceramics. In this work, a single monoclinic phase has been identified in Pb(Zr,Ti)O_{3} ceramics at room temperature by in situ high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and its response to electric field has been characterized for the first time. Unique piezoelectric properties of the monoclinic phase in terms of large intrinsic lattice strain and negligible domain switching have been observed. The extensional strain constant d_{33} and the transverse strain constant d_{31} are calculated to be 520 and -200  pm/V, respectively. These large piezoelectric coefficients are mainly due to the large intrinsic lattice strain, with very little extrinsic contribution from domain switching. The unique properties of the monoclinic phase provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary.

  17. Stability of Switched Feedback Time-Varying Dynamic Systems Based on the Properties of the Gap Metric for Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. De la Sen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The stabilization of dynamic switched control systems is focused on and based on an operator-based formulation. It is assumed that the controlled object and the controller are described by sequences of closed operator pairs (L,C on a Hilbert space H of the input and output spaces and it is related to the existence of the inverse of the resulting input-output operator being admissible and bounded. The technical mechanism addressed to get the results is the appropriate use of the fact that closed operators being sufficiently close to bounded operators, in terms of the gap metric, are also bounded. That philosophy is followed for the operators describing the input-output relations in switched feedback control systems so as to guarantee the closed-loop stabilization.

  18. Structure and Calcium Binding Properties of a Neuronal Calcium-Myristoyl Switch Protein, Visinin-Like Protein 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congmin; Lim, Sunghyuk; Braunewell, Karl H; Ames, James B

    2016-01-01

    Visinin-like protein 3 (VILIP-3) belongs to a family of Ca2+-myristoyl switch proteins that regulate signal transduction in the brain and retina. Here we analyze Ca2+ binding, characterize Ca2+-induced conformational changes, and determine the NMR structure of myristoylated VILIP-3. Three Ca2+ bind cooperatively to VILIP-3 at EF2, EF3 and EF4 (KD = 0.52 μM and Hill slope of 1.8). NMR assignments, mutagenesis and structural analysis indicate that the covalently attached myristoyl group is solvent exposed in Ca2+-bound VILIP-3, whereas Ca2+-free VILIP-3 contains a sequestered myristoyl group that interacts with protein residues (E26, Y64, V68), which are distinct from myristate contacts seen in other Ca2+-myristoyl switch proteins. The myristoyl group in VILIP-3 forms an unusual L-shaped structure that places the C14 methyl group inside a shallow protein groove, in contrast to the much deeper myristoyl binding pockets observed for recoverin, NCS-1 and GCAP1. Thus, the myristoylated VILIP-3 protein structure determined in this study is quite different from those of other known myristoyl switch proteins (recoverin, NCS-1, and GCAP1). We propose that myristoylation serves to fine tune the three-dimensional structures of neuronal calcium sensor proteins as a means of generating functional diversity.

  19. 26 CFR 1.871-11 - Gains from sale or exchange of patents, copyrights, or similar property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., copyright, secret process or formula, goodwill, trademark, trade brand, franchise, or other like property... which is effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the..., relating to transfers of franchises, trademarks, and trade names, do not apply in determining whether a...

  20. Influence of Thermal Annealing Treatment on Bipolar Switching Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin-Film Resistance Random-Access Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Huang; Cheng, Chien-Min; Kao, Ming-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Wu, Sean; Su, Feng-Yi

    2017-04-01

    The bipolar switching properties and electrical conduction mechanism of vanadium oxide thin-film resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices obtained using a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process have been investigated in high-resistive status/low-resistive status (HRS/LRS) and are discussed herein. In addition, the resistance switching properties and quality improvement of the vanadium oxide thin-film RRAM devices were measured by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and current-voltage ( I- V) measurements. The activation energy of the hopping conduction mechanism in the devices was investigated based on Arrhenius plots in HRS and LRS. The hopping conduction distance and activation energy barrier were obtained as 12 nm and 45 meV, respectively. The thermal annealing process is recognized as a candidate method for fabrication of thin-film RRAM devices, being compatible with integrated circuit technology for nonvolatile memory devices.

  1. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  2. Differences and similarity in the dynamic and acoustic properties of gas microbubbles in liquid mercury and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Masato; Haga, Katsuhiro; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Differences and similarities in the dynamics of microbubbles in liquid mercury and water are clarified and summarized in order to evaluate the validity and usefulness of experiments with water as an alternative to experiments with mercury. Pressure-wave induced cavitation in liquid mercury is of particular concern in the high-power pulsed neutron sources working in Japan and the U.S. Toward suppressing the pressure waves and cavitation, injection of gas microbubbles into liquid mercury has been attempted. However, many difficulties arise in mercury experiments mainly because liquid mercury is an opaque liquid. Hence we and collaborators have performed water experiments as an alternative, in conjunction with mercury experiments. In this paper, we discussed how we should use the result with water and how we can make the water experiments meaningful. The non-dimensional numbers of bubbly liquids and bubbles' rise velocity, coalescence frequency, and response to heat input were investigated theoretically for both mercury and water. A suggestion was made to 'see through' bubble distribution in flowing mercury from the result of water study, and a notable similarity was found in the effect of bubbles to absorb thermal expansion of the liquids. (author)

  3. Switching of chirality by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, B.L.; Schoevaars, A.M; Jager, W.F.; de Lange, B.; Huck, N.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Optically active photoresponsive molecules are described by which control of chirality is achieved by light. These chiroptical molecular switches are based on inherently dissymmetric overcrowded alkenes and the synthesis, resolution and dynamic stereochemical properties are discussed. Introduction

  4. Horton Ratios Link Self-Similarity with Maximum Entropy of Eco-Geomorphological Properties in Stream Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce T. Milne

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stream networks are branched structures wherein water and energy move between land and atmosphere, modulated by evapotranspiration and its interaction with the gravitational dissipation of potential energy as runoff. These actions vary among climates characterized by Budyko theory, yet have not been integrated with Horton scaling, the ubiquitous pattern of eco-hydrological variation among Strahler streams that populate river basins. From Budyko theory, we reveal optimum entropy coincident with high biodiversity. Basins on either side of optimum respond in opposite ways to precipitation, which we evaluated for the classic Hubbard Brook experiment in New Hampshire and for the Whitewater River basin in Kansas. We demonstrate that Horton ratios are equivalent to Lagrange multipliers used in the extremum function leading to Shannon information entropy being maximal, subject to constraints. Properties of stream networks vary with constraints and inter-annual variation in water balance that challenge vegetation to match expected resource supply throughout the network. The entropy-Horton framework informs questions of biodiversity, resilience to perturbations in water supply, changes in potential evapotranspiration, and land use changes that move ecosystems away from optimal entropy with concomitant loss of productivity and biodiversity.

  5. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″(0, Nusselt number (heat flux -θ′(0 and free surface temperature θ(1 are presented graphically and in tabular form. Keywords: Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, Thermocapillary number, Magnetic field, Thin film, Unsteady stretching surface

  6. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, M.; Rehman, Sajid; Shah, Rehan Ali; Ullah, M.; Abbas, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″ (0) , Nusselt number (heat flux) -θ‧ (0) and free surface temperature θ (1) are presented graphically and in tabular form.

  7. Characterizing multi-scale self-similar behavior and non-statistical properties of fluctuations in financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sayantan; Manimaran, P.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2011-11-01

    We make use of wavelet transform to study the multi-scale, self-similar behavior and deviations thereof, in the stock prices of large companies, belonging to different economic sectors. The stock market returns exhibit multi-fractal characteristics, with some of the companies showing deviations at small and large scales. The fact that, the wavelets belonging to the Daubechies’ (Db) basis enables one to isolate local polynomial trends of different degrees, plays the key role in isolating fluctuations at different scales. One of the primary motivations of this work is to study the emergence of the k-3 behavior [X. Gabaix, P. Gopikrishnan, V. Plerou, H. Stanley, A theory of power law distributions in financial market fluctuations, Nature 423 (2003) 267-270] of the fluctuations starting with high frequency fluctuations. We make use of Db4 and Db6 basis sets to respectively isolate local linear and quadratic trends at different scales in order to study the statistical characteristics of these financial time series. The fluctuations reveal fat tail non-Gaussian behavior, unstable periodic modulations, at finer scales, from which the characteristic k-3 power law behavior emerges at sufficiently large scales. We further identify stable periodic behavior through the continuous Morlet wavelet.

  8. Similar properties of chondrocytes from osteoarthritis joints and mesenchymal stem cells from healthy donors for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton M Fernandes

    Full Text Available Lesions of hyaline cartilage do not heal spontaneously, and represent a therapeutic challenge. In vitro engineering of articular cartilage using cells and biomaterials may prove to be the best solution. Patients with osteoarthritis (OA may require tissue engineered cartilage therapy. Chondrocytes obtained from OA joints are thought to be involved in the disease process, and thus to be of insufficient quality to be used for repair strategies. Bone marrow (BM derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from healthy donors may represent an alternative cell source. We have isolated chondrocytes from OA joints, performed cell culture expansion and tissue engineering of cartilage using a disc-shaped alginate scaffold and chondrogenic differentiation medium. We performed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR and fluorescence immunohistochemistry to evaluate mRNA and protein expression for a range of molecules involved in chondrogenesis and OA pathogenesis. Results were compared with those obtained by using BM-MSCs in an identical tissue engineering strategy. Finally the two populations were compared using genome-wide mRNA arrays. At three weeks of chondrogenic differentiation we found high and similar levels of hyaline cartilage-specific type II collagen and fibrocartilage-specific type I collagen mRNA and protein in discs containing OA and BM-MSC derived chondrocytes. Aggrecan, the dominant proteoglycan in hyaline cartilage, was more abundantly distributed in the OA chondrocyte extracellular matrix. OA chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels also of other hyaline extracellular matrix components. Surprisingly BM-MSC derived chondrocytes expressed higher mRNA levels of OA markers such as COL10A1, SSP1 (osteopontin, ALPL, BMP2, VEGFA, PTGES, IHH, and WNT genes, but lower levels of MMP3 and S100A4. Based on the results presented here, OA chondrocytes may be suitable for tissue engineering of articular cartilage.

  9. Multifunctional BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure: Photo-ferroelectricity, rectifying transport, and nonvolatile resistive switching property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Ayan; Khan, Gobinda Gopal, E-mail: gobinda.gk@gmail.com [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Chaudhuri, Arka [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Department of Applied Science, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India); Das, Avishek [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92 APC Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Mandal, Kalyan [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2016-01-18

    Multifunctional BiFeO{sub 3} nanostructure anchored TiO{sub 2} nanotubes are fabricated by coupling wet chemical and electrochemical routes. BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure exhibits white-light-induced ferroelectricity at room temperature. Studies reveal that the photogenerated electrons trapped at the domain/grain boundaries tune the ferroelectric polarization in BiFeO{sub 3} nanostructures. The photon controlled saturation and remnant polarization opens up the possibility to design ferroelectric devices based on BiFeO{sub 3.} The nano-heterostructure also exhibits substantial photovoltaic effect and rectifying characteristics. Photovoltaic property is found to be correlated with the ferroelectric polarization. Furthermore, the nonvolatile resistive switching in BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure has been studied, which demonstrates that the observed resistive switching is most likely caused by the electric-field-induced carrier injection/migration and trapping/detrapping process at the hetero-interfaces. Therefore, BiFeO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nano-heterostructure coupled with logic, photovoltaics and memory characteristics holds promises for long-term technological applications in nanoelectronics devices.

  10. Switching Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).

  11. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  12. Superconductivity, energy storage and switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laquer, H.L.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of superconductivity can contribute to the technology of energy storage and switching in two distinct ways. On one hand the zero resistivity of the superconductor can produce essentially infinite time constants so that an inductive storage system can be charged from very low power sources. On the other hand, the recovery of finite resistivity in a normal-going superconducting switch can take place in extremely short times, so that a system can be made to deliver energy at a very high power level. Topics reviewed include: physics of superconductivity, limits to switching speed of superconductors, physical and engineering properties of superconducting materials and assemblies, switching methods, load impedance considerations, refrigeration economics, limitations imposed by present day and near term technology, performance of existing and planned energy storage systems, and a comparison with some alternative methods of storing and switching energy. (U.S.)

  13. Shape-memory properties of magnetically active triple-shape nanocomposites based on a grafted polymer network with two crystallizable switching segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lendlein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-sensitive shape-memory polymers (SMP, which are capable of memorizing two or more different shapes, have generated significant research and technological interest. A triple-shape effect (TSE of SMP can be activated e.g. by increasing the environmental temperature (Tenv, whereby two switching temperatures (Tsw have to be exceeded to enable the subsequent shape changes from shape (A to shape (B and finally the original shape (C. In this work, we explored the thermally and magnetically initiated shape-memory properties of triple-shape nanocomposites with various compositions and particle contents using different shape-memory creation procedures (SMCP. The nanocomposites were prepared by the incorporation of magnetite nanoparticles into a multiphase polymer network matrix with grafted polymer network architecture containing crystallizable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG side chains and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL crosslinks named CLEGC. Excellent triple-shape properties were achieved for nanocomposites with high PEG weight fraction when two-step programming procedures were applied. In contrast, single-step programming resulted in dual-shape properties for all investigated materials as here the temporary shape (A was predominantly fixed by PCL crystallites.

  14. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  15. Realization of the Switching Mechanism in Resistance Random Access Memory™ Devices: Structural and Electronic Properties Affecting Electron Conductivity in a Hafnium Oxide-Electrode System Through First-Principles Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspera, Susan Meñez; Kasai, Hideaki; Kishi, Hirofumi; Awaya, Nobuyoshi; Ohnishi, Shigeo; Tamai, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    The resistance random access memory (RRAM™) device, with its electrically induced nanoscale resistive switching capacity, has attracted considerable attention as a future nonvolatile memory device. Here, we propose a mechanism of switching based on an oxygen vacancy migration-driven change in the electronic properties of the transition-metal oxide film stimulated by set pulse voltages. We used density functional theory-based calculations to account for the effect of oxygen vacancies and their migration on the electronic properties of HfO2 and Ta/HfO2 systems, thereby providing a complete explanation of the RRAM™ switching mechanism. Furthermore, computational results on the activation energy barrier for oxygen vacancy migration were found to be consistent with the set and reset pulse voltage obtained from experiments. Understanding this mechanism will be beneficial to effectively realizing the materials design in these devices.

  16. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electron collisions in gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Demonstration of Ultra-Fast Switching in Nano metallic Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Interdependency of switching voltage and time creates a dilemma/obstacle for most resistive switching memories, which indicates low switching voltage and ultra-fast switching time cannot be simultaneously achieved. In this paper, an ultra-fast (sub-100 ns) yet low switching voltage resistive switching memory device (“nano metallic ReRAM”) was demonstrated. Experimental switching voltage is found independent of pulse width (intrinsic device property) when the pulse is long but shows abrupt time dependence (“cliff”) as pulse width approaches characteristic RC time of memory device (extrinsic device property). Both experiment and simulation show that the onset of cliff behavior is dependent on physical device size and parasitic resistance, which is expected to diminish as technology nodes shrink down. We believe this study provides solid evidence that nano metallic resistive switching memory can be reliably operated at low voltage and ultra-fast regime, thus beneficial to future memory technology.

  19. Erasing the Epigenetic Memory and Beginning to Switch—The Onset of Antigenic Switching of var Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastman, Yair; Noble, Robert; Recker, Mario; Dzikowski, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens collectively named PfEMP1. Antigenic switching starts when the first merozoites egress from the liver and begin their asexual proliferation within red blood cells. By erasing the epigenetic memory we created parasites with no var background, similar to merozoites that egress from the liver where no var gene is expressed. Creating a null-var background enabled us to investigate the onset of antigenic switches at the early phase of infection. At the onset of switching, var transcription pattern is heterogeneous with numerous genes transcribed at low levels including upsA vars, a subtype that was implicated in severe malaria, which are rarely activated in growing cultures. Analysis of subsequent in vitro switches shows that the probability of a gene to turn on or off is not associated with its chromosomal position or promoter type per se but on intrinsic properties of each gene. We concluded that var switching is determined by gene specific associated switch rates rather than general promoter type or locus associated switch rates. In addition, we show that fine tuned reduction in var transcription increases their switch rate, indicating that transcriptional perturbation can alter antigenic switching. PMID:22461905

  20. Bulk dielectric and magnetic properties of PFW-PZT ceramics: absence of magnetically switched-off polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kempa, Martin; Kamba, Stanislav; Savinov, Maxim; Maryško, Miroslav; Frait, Zdeněk; Vaněk, Přemysl; Tomczyk, M.; Vilarinho, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 44 (2010), 445902/1-445902/5 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0682 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : dielectric and magnetic properties * ceramics * polarization * phase transitions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.332, year: 2010

  1. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-01-20

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  2. Resistive switching and synaptic properties of fully atomic layer deposition grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyev, Yu.; Zenkevich, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation); NRNU “Moscow Engineering Physics Institute”, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Egorov, K.; Markeev, A. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-28

    Recently proposed novel neural network hardware designs imply the use of memristors as electronic synapses in 3D cross-bar architecture. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is the most feasible technique to fabricate such arrays. In this work, we present the results of the detailed investigation of the gradual resistive switching (memristive) effect in nanometer thick fully ALD grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN stacks. The modelling of the I-V curves confirms interface limited trap-assisted-tunneling mechanism along the oxygen vacancies in HfO{sub 2} in all conduction states. The resistivity of the stack is found to critically depend upon the distance from the interface to the first trap in HfO{sub 2}. The memristive properties of ALD grown TiN/HfO{sub 2}/TiN devices are correlated with the demonstrated neuromorphic functionalities, such as long-term potentiation/depression and spike-timing dependent plasticity, thus indicating their potential as electronic synapses in neuromorphic hardware.

  3. Two-photon fluorescent polysiloxane-based films with thermally responsive self switching properties achieved by a unique reversible spirocyclization mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Yang, Tingxin; Zhang, Yu; Gou, Zhiming; Tian, Minggang; Kong, Xiuqi; Lin, Weiying

    2018-03-14

    Responsiveness and reversibility are present in nature, and are ubiquitous in biological systems. The realization of reversibility and responsiveness is of great importance in the development of properties and the design of new materials. However, two-photon fluorescent thermal-responsive materials have not been reported to date. Herein, we engineered thermally responsive polysiloxane materials ( Dns-non ) that exhibited unique two-photon luminescence, and this is the first report about thermally responsive luminescent materials with two-photon fluorescence. The fluorescence of Dns-non could switch from the "on" to "off" state through a facile heating and cooling process, which could be observed by the naked eye. Monitoring the temperature of the CPU in situ was achieved by easily coating D1-non onto the CPU surface, which verified the potential application in devices of Dns-non . A unique alkaline tuned reversible transition mechanism of rhodamine-B from its spirocyclic to its ring-open state was proposed. Furthermore, Dns-non appeared to be a useful cell adhesive for the culture of cells on the surface. We believe that the constructed thermally responsive silicon films which have promising utilization as a new type of functional fluorescent material, may show broad applications in materials chemistry or bioscience.

  4. Reversible switching of wetting properties and erasable patterning of polymer surfaces using plasma oxidation and thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Zeeshan; Atay, Ipek; Soydan, Seren; Yagci, M. Baris; Jonáš, Alexandr; Yilgor, Emel; Kiraz, Alper; Yilgor, Iskender

    2018-05-01

    Polymer surfaces reversibly switchable from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by exposure to oxygen plasma and subsequent thermal treatment are demonstrated. Two inherently different polymers, hydrophobic segmented polydimethylsiloxane-urea copolymer (TPSC) and hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) are modified with fumed silica nanoparticles to prepare superhydrophobic surfaces with roughness on nanometer to micrometer scale. Smooth TPSC and PMMA surfaces are also used as control samples. Regardless of their chemical structure and surface topography, all surfaces display completely reversible wetting behavior changing from hydrophobic to hydrophilic and back for many cycles upon plasma oxidation followed by thermal annealing. Influence of plasma power, plasma exposure time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behavior of polymeric surfaces are investigated. Surface compositions, textures and topographies are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometry (WLI), before and after oxidation and thermal annealing. Wetting properties of the surfaces are determined by measuring their static, advancing and receding water contact angle. We conclude that the chemical structure and surface topography of the polymers play a relatively minor role in reversible wetting behavior, where the essential factors are surface oxidation and migration of polymer molecules to the surface upon thermal annealing. Reconfigurable water channels on polymer surfaces are produced by plasma treatment using a mask and thermal annealing cycles. Such patterned reconfigurable hydrophilic regions can find use in surface microfluidics and optofluidics applications.

  5. Power requirements reducing of FBG based all-optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Ľubomír.; Solanská, Michaela; Ladányi, Libor; Müllerová, Jarmila

    2017-12-01

    Although Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are well known devices, their using as all-optical switching elements has been still examined. Current research is focused on optimization of their properties for their using in future all-optical networks. The main problem are high switching intensities needed for achieving the changes of the transmission state. Over several years switching intensities have been reduced from hundreds of GW/cm2 to tens of MW/cm2 by selecting appropriate gratings and signal parameters or using suitable materials. Two principal nonlinear effects with similar power requirements can result in the bistable transmission/reflection of an input optical pulse. In the self-phase modulation (SPM) regime switching is achieved by the intense probe pulse itself. Using cross-phase modulation (XPM) a strong pump alters the FBG refractive index experienced by a weak probe pulse. As a result of this the detuning of the probe pulse from the center of the photonic band gap occurs. Using of XPM the effect of modulation instability is reduced. Modulation instability which is the main SPM degradation mechanism. We focused on nonlinear FBGs based on chalcogenide glasses which are very often used in various applications. Thanks to high nonlinear parameters chalcogenide glasses are suitable candidates for reducing switching intensities of nonlinear FBGs.

  6. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  7. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III

    1979-01-01

    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  8. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  9. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens H; D'Antona, Anthony D; Shevell, Steven K

    2017-05-01

    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses.

  10. Chiroptical Molecular Switches 1; Principles and Syntheses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, Ben de; Jager, Wolter F.; Feringa, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    The concept and the synthesis of the basic molecules for a chiroptical molecular switch are described. This molecular switch is based on photochemical interconversion of two bistable forms of chiral sterically overcrowded olefins. A large variety of these alkenes with different properties have been

  11. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  12. Stability of Randomly Switched Diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef; Gholami, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a sufficient criterion for ε-moment stability (boundedness) and ergodicity for a class of systems comprising a finite set of diffusions among which switching is governed by a continuous time Markov chain. Stability/instability properties for each separate subsystem are assumed...

  13. Digital switched hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  14. On the Development and Use of Large Chemical Similarity Networks, Informatics Best Practices and Novel Chemical Descriptors Towards Materials Quantitative Structure Property Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krein, Michael

    After decades of development and use in a variety of application areas, Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPRs) and related descriptor-based statistical learning methods have achieved a level of infamy due to their misuse. The field is rife with past examples of overtrained models, overoptimistic performance assessment, and outright cheating in the form of explicitly removing data to fit models. These actions do not serve the community well, nor are they beneficial to future predictions based on established models. In practice, in order to select combinations of descriptors and machine learning methods that might work best, one must consider the nature and size of the training and test datasets, be aware of existing hypotheses about the data, and resist the temptation to bias structure representation and modeling to explicitly fit the hypotheses. The definition and application of these best practices is important for obtaining actionable modeling outcomes, and for setting user expectations of modeling accuracy when predicting the endpoint values of unknowns. A wide variety of statistical learning approaches, descriptor types, and model validation strategies are explored herein, with the goals of helping end users understand the factors involved in creating and using QSPR models effectively, and to better understand relationships within the data, especially by looking at the problem space from multiple perspectives. Molecular relationships are commonly envisioned in a continuous high-dimensional space of numerical descriptors, referred to as chemistry space. Descriptor and similarity metric choice influence the partitioning of this space into regions corresponding to local structural similarity. These regions, known as domains of applicability, are most likely to be successfully modeled by a QSPR. In Chapter 2, the network topology and scaling relationships of several chemistry spaces are thoroughly investigated. Chemistry spaces studied include the

  15. Latching micro optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  16. MWCNTs of different physicochemical properties cause similar inflammatory responses, but differences in transcriptional and histological markers of fibrosis in mouse lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Købler, Carsten; Atluri, Rambabu; Pozzebon, Maria E.; Mucelli, Stefano P.; Simion, Monica; Rickerby, David; Mortensen, Alicja; Jackson, Petra; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are an inhomogeneous group of nanomaterials that vary in lengths, shapes and types of metal contamination, which makes hazard evaluation difficult. Here we present a toxicogenomic analysis of female C57BL/6 mouse lungs following a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of a small, curled (CNT Small , 0.8 ± 0.1 μm in length) or large, thick MWCNT (CNT Large , 4 ± 0.4 μm in length). The two MWCNTs were extensively characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Lung tissues were harvested 24 h, 3 days and 28 days post-exposure. DNA microarrays were used to analyze gene expression, in parallel with analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung histology, DNA damage (comet assay) and the presence of reactive oxygen species (dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay), to profile and characterize related pulmonary endpoints. Overall changes in global transcription following exposure to CNT Small or CNT Large were similar. Both MWCNTs elicited strong acute phase and inflammatory responses that peaked at day 3, persisted up to 28 days, and were characterized by increased cellular influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, interstitial pneumonia and gene expression changes. However, CNT Large elicited an earlier onset of inflammation and DNA damage, and induced more fibrosis and a unique fibrotic gene expression signature at day 28, compared to CNT Small . The results indicate that the extent of change at the molecular level during early response phases following an acute exposure is greater in mice exposed to CNT Large , which may eventually lead to the different responses observed at day 28. - Highlights: • We evaluate the toxicogenomic response in mice following MWCNT instillation. • Two MWCNTs of different properties were examined and thoroughly characterized. • MWCNT exposure leads to increased pulmonary inflammation and acute phase

  17. MWCNTs of different physicochemical properties cause similar inflammatory responses, but differences in transcriptional and histological markers of fibrosis in mouse lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Købler, Carsten, E-mail: carko@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Atluri, Rambabu, E-mail: rba@nrcwe.dk [Nanologica AB, SE-114 28 Stockholm (Sweden); Pozzebon, Maria E., E-mail: mariaelena.pozzebon@yahoo.it [Veneto Nanotech SCpA, ECSIN — European Centre for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Mucelli, Stefano P., E-mail: stefano.pozzimucelli@venetonanotech.it [Veneto Nanotech SCpA, ECSIN — European Centre for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Simion, Monica, E-mail: moni304ro@gmail.com [Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology, National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Rickerby, David, E-mail: david.rickerby@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre Institute for Environment and Sustainability, I-21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Jackson, Petra, E-mail: pja@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); Kyjovska, Zdenka O., E-mail: zky@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen DK-2100 (Denmark); and others

    2015-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are an inhomogeneous group of nanomaterials that vary in lengths, shapes and types of metal contamination, which makes hazard evaluation difficult. Here we present a toxicogenomic analysis of female C57BL/6 mouse lungs following a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of a small, curled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm in length) or large, thick MWCNT (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm in length). The two MWCNTs were extensively characterized by SEM and TEM imaging, thermogravimetric analysis, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis. Lung tissues were harvested 24 h, 3 days and 28 days post-exposure. DNA microarrays were used to analyze gene expression, in parallel with analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung histology, DNA damage (comet assay) and the presence of reactive oxygen species (dichlorodihydrofluorescein assay), to profile and characterize related pulmonary endpoints. Overall changes in global transcription following exposure to CNT{sub Small} or CNT{sub Large} were similar. Both MWCNTs elicited strong acute phase and inflammatory responses that peaked at day 3, persisted up to 28 days, and were characterized by increased cellular influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, interstitial pneumonia and gene expression changes. However, CNT{sub Large} elicited an earlier onset of inflammation and DNA damage, and induced more fibrosis and a unique fibrotic gene expression signature at day 28, compared to CNT{sub Small}. The results indicate that the extent of change at the molecular level during early response phases following an acute exposure is greater in mice exposed to CNT{sub Large}, which may eventually lead to the different responses observed at day 28. - Highlights: • We evaluate the toxicogenomic response in mice following MWCNT instillation. • Two MWCNTs of different properties were examined and thoroughly characterized. • MWCNT exposure leads to increased pulmonary

  18. Conductive polymer switch for controlling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, J.T.; Haupt, S.G.; Riley, D.R.; Zhao, J.; Grassi, J.; Lo, K.; Jones, C.

    1994-01-01

    The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole coated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layout. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses T c by up to 50K. In a similar fashion, the oxidation state of the polymer is found to reversibly modulate the magnitude of J c , the superconducting critical current. Thus, a new type of molecule switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated

  19. Ultra High-Speed Radio Frequency Switch Based on Photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-11-26

    Microwave switches, or Radio Frequency (RF) switches have been intensively used in microwave systems for signal routing. Compared with the fast development of microwave and wireless systems, RF switches have been underdeveloped particularly in terms of switching speed and operating bandwidth. In this paper, we propose a photonics based RF switch that is capable of switching at tens of picoseconds speed, which is hundreds of times faster than any existing RF switch technologies. The high-speed switching property is achieved with the use of a rapidly tunable microwave photonic filter with tens of gigahertz frequency tuning speed, where the tuning mechanism is based on the ultra-fast electro-optics Pockels effect. The RF switch has a wide operation bandwidth of 12 GHz and can go up to 40 GHz, depending on the bandwidth of the modulator used in the scheme. The proposed RF switch can either work as an ON/OFF switch or a two-channel switch, tens of picoseconds switching speed is experimentally observed for both type of switches.

  20. Loads Bias Genetic and Signaling Switches in Synthetic and Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, June; Prasad, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Biological protein interactions networks such as signal transduction or gene transcription networks are often treated as modular, allowing motifs to be analyzed in isolation from the rest of the network. Modularity is also a key assumption in synthetic biology, where it is similarly expected that when network motifs are combined together, they do not lose their essential characteristics. However, the interactions that a network module has with downstream elements change the dynamical equations describing the upstream module and thus may change the dynamic and static properties of the upstream circuit even without explicit feedback. In this work we analyze the behavior of a ubiquitous motif in gene transcription and signal transduction circuits: the switch. We show that adding an additional downstream component to the simple genetic toggle switch changes its dynamical properties by changing the underlying potential energy landscape, and skewing it in favor of the unloaded side, and in some situations adding loads to the genetic switch can also abrogate bistable behavior. We find that an additional positive feedback motif found in naturally occurring toggle switches could tune the potential energy landscape in a desirable manner. We also analyze autocatalytic signal transduction switches and show that a ubiquitous positive feedback switch can lose its switch-like properties when connected to a downstream load. Our analysis underscores the necessity of incorporating the effects of downstream components when understanding the physics of biochemical network motifs, and raises the question as to how these effects are managed in real biological systems. This analysis is particularly important when scaling synthetic networks to more complex organisms. PMID:24676102

  1. In vitro effect of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser exposure on morphology, hydroxyapatite composition and microhardness properties of human dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retna Apsari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser was employed as a source of ablation. The fundamental wavelength of the laser is 1064 nm, with pulse duration of 8 nanosecond operates with uniphase mode of TEM00. In the following experiments, dentin samples (without caries and plaque are exposed to pulse laser with Q-switching effect at various energy dose. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of laser ablation on dentin samples using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser exposure. Methods: The laser was operated in repetitive mode with frequency of 10 Hz. The energy dose of the laser was ranging from 13.9 J/cm2, 21.2 J/cm2 and 41.7 J/cm2. The target material comprised of human dentin. The laser was exposed in one mode with Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Energy delivered to the target through free beam technique. The exposed human dentin was examined by using x-ray diffraction (XRD and fluoresence scanning electron microscopy for energy dispersive (FESEM-EDAX. Microhardness of human dentin were examined by using microhardness vickers test (MVT. Results: The result obtained showed that the composition of hydroxyapatite of the dentin after exposed by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are 75.02% to 78.21%, with microhardness of 38.7 kgf/mm2 to 86.6 kgf/mm2. This indicated that exposed pulsed Nd:YAG laser on the human dentin attributed to the phototermal effect. The power density created by the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser enables the heat to produce optical breakdown (melting and hole associated with plasma formation and shock wave propagation, from energy dose of 21.2 J/cm2. From XRD analysis showed that the exposure of Nd:YAG laser did not involve in changing the crystal structure of the dentin, but due to photoablation effect. Conclusion: In conclusion, the application of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser as contactless drills in dentistry should be regarded as an alternative to the classical mechanical technique to improve the quality of the dentin treatment.Latar belakang

  2. Controllability of multi-agent systems with periodically switching topologies and switching leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lingling; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Long

    2018-05-01

    This paper considers controllability of multi-agent systems with periodically switching topologies and switching leaders. The concept of m-periodic controllability is proposed, and a criterion for m-periodic controllability is established. The effect of the duration of subsystems on controllability is analysed by utilising a property of analytic functions. In addition, the influence of switching periods on controllability is investigated, and an algorithm is proposed to search for the fewest periods to ensure controllability. A necessary condition for m-periodic controllability is obtained from the perspective of eigenvectors of the subsystems' Laplacian matrices. For a system with switching leaders, it is proved that switching-leader controllability is equivalent to multiple-leader controllability. Furthermore, both the switching order and the tenure of agents being leaders have no effect on the controllability. Some examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  3. Resistive switching properties of Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 thin films for nonvolatile memory application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO3 (BCFMO thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using a sol-gel method. The unipolar resistive switching (URS and bipolar resistive switching (BRS behaviors were observed in the Pt/BCFMO/Pt device structure, which was attributed to the formation/rupture of metal filaments. The fabricated device exhibits a large ROFF/RON ratio (>80, long retention time (>105 s and low programming voltages (<1.5 V. Analysis of linear fitting current-voltage curves suggests that the space charge limited leakage current (SCLC and Schottky emission were observed as the conduction mechanisms of the devices.

  4. Resistive switching properties of Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films for nonvolatile memory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhenhua; Zeng, Jia; Tang, Minghua, E-mail: mhtang@xtu.edu.cn; Xu, Dinglin; Cheng, Chuanpin; Xiao, Yongguang; Zhou, Yichun [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan, 411105 (China); Xiong, Ying [The School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China)

    2013-12-15

    The Ce and Mn co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} (BCFMO) thin films were synthesized on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using a sol-gel method. The unipolar resistive switching (URS) and bipolar resistive switching (BRS) behaviors were observed in the Pt/BCFMO/Pt device structure, which was attributed to the formation/rupture of metal filaments. The fabricated device exhibits a large R{sub OFF}/R{sub ON} ratio (>80), long retention time (>10{sup 5} s) and low programming voltages (<1.5 V). Analysis of linear fitting current-voltage curves suggests that the space charge limited leakage current (SCLC) and Schottky emission were observed as the conduction mechanisms of the devices.

  5. Application of the similarity theory to the generalization of experimental results for thermal physic properties of raw cotton and its components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salakhutdinov, M.I.; Mukhiddinov, K.S.; Marupov, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the paper carried out generalization of experimental results on specific isobaric thermal capacity, heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity coefficients of raw cotton of sort 9326-B and its components on the basis of similarity theory

  6. Resistive switching properties and low resistance state relaxation in Al/Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3/Pt junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songlin; Liao, Z L; Li, J; Gang, J L; Zheng, D N

    2009-01-01

    Metal/insulator/metal structures composed of active Al top electrodes (TEs) and oxygen-deficient Pr 0.7 Ca 0.3 MnO 3 (PCMO) insulator layers are prepared on platinized silicon substrates. The junction resistance exhibits an obvious negative differential resistance region in the first bias sweep and an irreversible increase from 2 to 100 MΩ in repeated ±4 V sweeps. The pulse duration needed to fully switch the junctions is found to be on the order of milliseconds. When 100-500 μs negative pulses are used, the junctions show an incomplete switch to the low resistance state (LRS) which exhibits fluctuating resistances. The fluctuation in the LRS is suppressed and the high-to-low resistance ratio increases gradually when the negative pulse duration is increased from 100 to 500 μs. For relaxed junctions, pulse switching experiments reveal that the LRS undergoes a dynamically stable process at the beginning and then reaches a lower and metastable resistance value. Resistance retention tests also indicate that the high resistance state is very stable, while the metastable LRS gradually relaxes to higher resistance values. The experimental results are discussed with the formation and dissociation of an interfacial AlO x layer at the interface between Al TEs and PCMO layers.

  7. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting

  8. High frequency switched-mode stimulation can evoke postsynaptic responses in cerebellar principal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Van Dongen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of high frequency switched-mode neural stimulation. Instead of using a constant stimulation amplitude, the stimulus is switched on and off repeatedly with a high frequency (up to 100kHz duty cycled signal. By means of tissue modeling that includes the dynamic properties of both the tissue material as well as the axon membrane, it is first shown that switched-mode stimulation depolarizes the cell membrane in a similar way as classical constant amplitude stimulation.These findings are subsequently verified using in vitro experiments in which the response of a Purkinje cell is measured due to a stimulation signal in the molecular layer of the cerebellum of a mouse. For this purpose a stimulator circuit is developed that is able to produce a monophasic high frequency switched-mode stimulation signal. The results confirm the modeling by showing that switched-mode stimulation is able to induce similar responses in the Purkinje cell as classical stimulation using a constant current source. This conclusion opens up possibilities for novel stimulation designs that can improve the performance of the stimulator circuitry. Care has to be taken to avoid losses in the system due to the higher operating frequency.

  9. Charge transport through molecular switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense; Liljeroth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  10. Charge transport through molecular switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Liljeroth, Peter, E-mail: molen@physics.leidenuniv.n [Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-07

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  11. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M

    1999-01-01

    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  12. The remarkable similarity between the acid-base properties of ISFETs and proteins and the consequences for the design of ISFET biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergveld, Piet; van Hal, R.E.G.; van Hal, R.E.G.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Studying the acid-base properties of protein molecules led us to reconsider the operational mechanism of ISFETs. Based on the site-dissociation model, applied to the amphoteric metal oxide gate materials used in ISFETs, the sensitivity of ISFETs is described in terms of the intrinsic buffer capacity

  13. Obscured AGN at z similar to 1 from the zCOSMOS-Bright Survey : I. Selection and optical properties of a [Ne v]-selected sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignoli, M.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamareille, F.; Nair, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Lilly, S. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J. -P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. -F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Montero, E. Perez; Presotto, V.; Silverman, J. D.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Bordoloi, R.; Cappi, A.; Cimatti, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; McCracken, H. J.; Moresco, M.; Welikala, N.

    Aims. The application of multi-wavelength selection techniques is essential for obtaining a complete and unbiased census of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We present here a method for selecting z similar to 1 obscured AGN from optical spectroscopic surveys. Methods. A sample of 94 narrow-line AGN

  14. Optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1999-01-01

    Optical packet switched networks are investigated with emphasis on the performance of the packet switch blocks. Initially, the network context of the optical packet switched network is described showing that a packet network will provide transparency, flexibility and bridge the granularity gap...... in interferometric wavelength converters is investigated showing that a 10 Gbit/s 19 4x4 swich blocks can be cascaded at a BER of 10-14. An analytical traffic model enables the calculation of the traffice performance of a WDM packet network. Hereby the importance of WDM and wavelegth conversion in the switch blocks...... is established as a flexible means to reduce the optical buffer, e.g., the number of fibre delay lines for a 16x16 switch block is reduced from 23 to 6 by going from 2 to 8 wavelength channels pr. inlet. Additionally, a component count analysis is carried out to illustrate the trade-offs in the switch block...

  15. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  16. Self-similar rupture implied by scaling properties of volcanic earthquakes occurring during the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rebecca M.; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Moran, Seth C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a group of 6073 low-frequency earthquakes recorded during a week-long temporary deployment of broadband seismometers at distances of less than 3 km from the crater at Mount St. Helens in September of 2006. We estimate the seismic moment (M0) and spectral corner frequency (f0) using a spectral ratio approach for events with a high signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio that have a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.8 or greater with at least five other events. A cluster analysis of cross-correlation values indicates that the group of 421 events meeting the SNR and cross-correlation criteria forms eight event families that exhibit largely self-similar scaling. We estimate the M0 and f0 values of the 421 events and calculate their static stress drop and scaled energy (ER/M0) values. The estimated values suggest self-similar scaling within families, as well as between five of eight families (i.e.,  and  constant). We speculate that differences in scaled energy values for the two families with variable scaling may result from a lack of resolution in the velocity model. The observation of self-similar scaling is the first of its kind for such a large group of low-frequency volcanic tectonic events occurring during a single active dome extrusion eruption.

  17. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia [Oak Ridge, TN; Peng, Fang Z [Okemos, MI

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  18. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  19. Elements of magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaland, K.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter describes magnetic switching as a method of connecting a capacitor bank (source) to a load; reviews several successful applications of magnetic switching, and discusses switching transformers, limitations and future possibilities. Some of the inflexibility and especially the high cost of magnetic materials may be overcome with the availability of the new splash cooled ribbons (Metglas). Experience has shown that magnetics works despite shock, radiation or noise interferences

  20. Pemodelan Markov Switching Autoregressive

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyani, Fiqria Devi; Warsito, Budi; Yasin, Hasbi

    2014-01-01

    Transition from depreciation to appreciation of exchange rate is one of regime switching that ignored by classic time series model, such as ARIMA, ARCH, or GARCH. Therefore, economic variables are modeled by Markov Switching Autoregressive (MSAR) which consider the regime switching. MLE is not applicable to parameters estimation because regime is an unobservable variable. So that filtering and smoothing process are applied to see the regime probabilities of observation. Using this model, tran...

  1. The remarkable similarity between the acid-base properties of ISFETs and proteins and the consequences for the design of ISFET biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Bergveld, Piet; van Hal, R.E.G.; van Hal, R.E.G.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Studying the acid-base properties of protein molecules led us to reconsider the operational mechanism of ISFETs. Based on the site-dissociation model, applied to the amphoteric metal oxide gate materials used in ISFETs, the sensitivity of ISFETs is described in terms of the intrinsic buffer capacity of the oxide surface, ßs, and the electrical surface capacitance, Cs. The ISFET sensitivity towards changes in the bulk pH is fully described by the ratio ßs/Cs. Practical measurements support thi...

  2. Transient-Switch-Signal Suppressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Circuit delays transmission of switch-opening or switch-closing signal until after preset suppression time. Used to prevent transmission of undesired momentary switch signal. Basic mode of operation simple. Beginning of switch signal initiates timing sequence. If switch signal persists after preset suppression time, circuit transmits switch signal to external circuitry. If switch signal no longer present after suppression time, switch signal deemed transient, and circuit does not pass signal on to external circuitry, as though no transient switch signal. Suppression time preset at value large enough to allow for damping of underlying pressure wave or other mechanical transient.

  3. Optimal switching using coherent control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Heuck, Mikkel; Mørk, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    that the switching time, in general, is not limited by the cavity lifetime. Therefore, the total energy required for switching is a more relevant figure of merit than the switching speed, and for a particular two-pulse switching scheme we use calculus of variations to optimize the switching in terms of input energy....

  4. Enzymatic protein hydrolysates from high pressure-pretreated isolated pea proteins have better antioxidant properties than similar hydrolysates produced from heat pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Chao, Dongfang; Lin, Lin; He, Rong; Jung, Stephanie; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2015-12-01

    Isolated pea protein (IPP) dispersions (1%, w/v) were pretreated with high pressure (HP) of 200, 400, or 600 MPa for 5 min at 24 °C or high temperature (HT) for 30 min at 100 °C prior to hydrolysis with 1% (w/w) Alcalase. HP pretreatment of IPP at 400 and 600 MPa levels led to significantly (P40%) oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) of hydrolysates. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of pea protein hydrolysates were also significantly (PProtein hydrolysates from HT IPP showed no ORAC, superoxide or hydroxyl scavenging activity but had significantly (Pprotein hydrolysates had weaker antioxidant properties than glutathione but overall, the HP pretreatment was superior to HT pretreatment in facilitating enzymatic release of antioxidant peptides from IPP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tensile properties of irradiated and fatigue exposed stainless steel DIN X 6 CrNi 1811 (similar to AISI type 304) plate and welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, M.I. de; Schaaf, B. van der; Elen, J.D.

    1979-10-01

    Test specimens of plate metal and welded joints of stainless steel DIN 1.4948, which is similar to AISI type 304, have been irradiated at 723 K and 823 K up to fluences of 1.10 23 n.m -2 and 5.10 24 n.m -2 (E > 0.1 MeV). These are representative conditions for the SNR-300 reactor vessel and inner components after 16 years of operation. High-rate (depsilon/dt = 1 s -1 ) tensile tests were performed after fatigue exposure up to various fractions of fatigue life (D) ranging from 5% to 95% at the same temperatures as the nominal temperatures of the irradiation series

  6. Properties of uncharged water-soluble tetra({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine free base: Viable switching of the optical response by means of H{sub 3}O{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineo, Placido [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici - CNR, Viale Ferdinando Stagno D' Alcontres, 37, 98158 Messina (Italy); Lupo, Fabio; Fragala, Ignazio; Scamporrino, Emilio [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Gulino, Antonino, E-mail: agulino@unict.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Catania and INSTM UdR of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    An uncharged water-soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, UV-vis and luminescence measurements. The polyether substituents render water soluble this uncharged phthalocyanine. Relevant changes are observed in emission measurements upon protonation. The phthalocyanine free base and its protonated forms can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} ions as inputs, being the intensity of the luminescence spectra the output. Binary codes 1 or 0 can be assigned to the high luminescent phthalocyanine free base state or to the low luminescent protonated state, respectively. The read-out procedure is fast and the system is reversible. In addition, the exploiting of the luminescent properties of the present water soluble phthalocyanine could be of relevance also for biological applications (photosensitizers for the photodynamic therapy). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An uncharged water soluble tetra ({omega}-methoxypolyethyleneoxy)phthalocyanine was characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalocyanine protonation changes the luminescence output. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system can be switched alternating H{sub 3}O{sup +} and OH{sup -} as inputs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The read-out procedure is fast and reversible. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Binary codes are assigned to the high and low luminescent states, respectively.

  7. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  8. Manually operated coded switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnette, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure related to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made

  9. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W

    2013-06-13

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L.

    1991-04-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential GaAs to act as a closing switch in ``avalanche`` mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with a 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into ``avalanche`` mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large area (1 sq cm) and small area (< 1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300--1300 psec at voltages of 6--35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation. 3 refs.

  11. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L.

    1991-04-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential GaAs to act as a closing switch in avalanche'' mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with a 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into avalanche'' mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large area (1 sq cm) and small area (< 1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300--1300 psec at voltages of 6--35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation. 3 refs.

  12. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential of GaAs to act as a closing switch in avalanche'' mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into an avalanche'' mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large are (1 sq cm) and small area (<1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300--1300 psec at voltages of 6-35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R. L.; Pocha, M. D.; Griffin, K. L.

    1991-04-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential GaAs to act as a closing switch in 'avalanche' mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with a 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into 'avalanche' mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large area (1 sq cm) and small area (less than 1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300-1300 psec at voltages of 6-35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on, and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation.

  14. ESTABLISHING A STEREOSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE KINEMATIC PROPERTIES OF SOLAR WIND TRANSIENTS BASED ON A GENERALIZED SELF-SIMILARLY EXPANDING CIRCULAR GEOMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Harrison, R. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Lugaz, N.; Möstl, C.; Liu, Y. D.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    The twin-spacecraft STEREO mission has enabled simultaneous white-light imaging of the solar corona and inner heliosphere from multiple vantage points. This has led to the development of numerous stereoscopic techniques to investigate the three-dimensional structure and kinematics of solar wind transients such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Two such methods—triangulation and the tangent to a sphere—can be used to determine time profiles of the propagation direction and radial distance (and thereby radial speed) of a solar wind transient as it travels through the inner heliosphere, based on its time-elongation profile viewed by two observers. These techniques are founded on the assumption that the transient can be characterized as a point source (fixed φ, FP, approximation) or a circle attached to Sun-center (harmonic mean, HM, approximation), respectively. These geometries constitute extreme descriptions of solar wind transients, in terms of their cross-sectional extent. Here, we present the stereoscopic expressions necessary to derive propagation direction and radial distance/speed profiles of such transients based on the more generalized self-similar expansion (SSE) geometry, for which the FP and HM geometries form the limiting cases; our implementation of these equations is termed the stereoscopic SSE method. We apply the technique to two Earth-directed CMEs from different phases of the STEREO mission, the well-studied event of 2008 December and a more recent event from 2012 March. The latter CME was fast, with an initial speed exceeding 2000 km s –1 , and highly geoeffective, in stark contrast to the slow and ineffectual 2008 December CME

  15. Mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar weldments of RAFMS and AISI 316L (N) SS prepared by electron beam welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.K., E-mail: shaju@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Das, C.R. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Sam, Shiju [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India); Mastanaiah, P.; Patel, M. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Bhaduri, A.K.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Murthy, C.V.S. [Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad (India); Kumar, Rajendra [Institute of Plasma Research, Gandhi Nagar (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Increase of W content in RAFM steel can result in retention of delta ferrite in the EB weld of the steel. • Presence of delta ferrite seems to affect the ductile brittle transition temperature of the weld metal. • There is improper mixing of the two base metals in the fusion zone dissimilar welds of RAFM steel and austenitic stainless steel made by EB welding. - Abstract: Effect of weld metal composition on microstructure and toughness of weld metal is studied in this paper. Weld joints of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel containing 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W were prepared using electron beam welding (EBW) process. Dissimilar weld joints between 1.0 wt.% W RAFM steel and AISI 316L (N) SS were also prepared using EBW process. The effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures on microstructure and mechanical properties was also studied. Microstructural observation reveals delta–ferrite in 1.4 wt.% W containing weld metal, which is absent in 1.0 wt.% W weld metal. In the case of the dissimilar weld metal, microstructure shows presence of lath martensite and retained austenite. Austenite was stable even after PWHT and its presence is attributed to high nickel (5–6 wt.%) content in the dissimilar weld metal. Hardness of RAFM steel weld metal was found to be 270–290 VHN after PWHT at 750 °C for 2 h. Impact toughness of both 1.0 and 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel is high (>250 J) at ambient temperature. However, after PWHT, variation of toughness with temperature is more drastic for 1.4 wt.% W RAFM steel weld metal than the other. As a result, ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) for the 1.4 wt.% steel weld metal is close to 0 °C while that of the 1.0 wt.% W steel is close to that of the base metal (∼−80 °C)

  16. The Transcription Profile of Tax-3 Is More Similar to Tax-1 than Tax-2: Insights into HTLV-3 Potential Leukemogenic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Sébastien A.; Durand, Stéphanie; Dasgupta, Arindam; Radonovich, Michael; Cimarelli, Andrea; Brady, John N.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic Viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma. Although associated with lymphocytosis, HTLV-2 infection is not associated with any malignant hematological disease. Similarly, no infection-related symptom has been detected in HTLV-3-infected individuals studied so far. Differences in individual Tax transcriptional activity might account for these distinct physiopathological outcomes. Tax-1 and Tax-3 possess a PDZ binding motif in their sequence. Interestingly, this motif, which is critical for Tax-1 transforming activity, is absent from Tax-2. We used the DNA microarray technology to analyze and compare the global gene expression profiles of different T- and non T-cell types expressing Tax-1, Tax-2 or Tax-3 viral transactivators. In a T-cell line, this analysis allowed us to identify 48 genes whose expression is commonly affected by all Tax proteins and are hence characteristic of the HTLV infection, independently of the virus type. Importantly, we also identified a subset of genes (n = 70) which are specifically up-regulated by Tax-1 and Tax-3, while Tax-1 and Tax-2 shared only 1 gene and Tax-2 and Tax-3 shared 8 genes. These results demonstrate that Tax-3 and Tax-1 are closely related in terms of cellular gene deregulation. Analysis of the molecular interactions existing between those Tax-1/Tax-3 deregulated genes then allowed us to highlight biological networks of genes characteristic of HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 infection. The majority of those up-regulated genes are functionally linked in biological processes characteristic of HTLV-1-infected T-cells expressing Tax such as regulation of transcription and apoptosis, activation of the NF-κB cascade, T-cell mediated immunity and induction of cell proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate for the first time that, in T- and non T-cells types, Tax-3 is a functional analogue of Tax-1 in terms of transcriptional activation and

  17. Energy losses in switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF 6 polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V peak I peak ) 1.1846 . When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset

  18. Clickable and imageable multiblock polymer micelles with magnetically guided and PEG-switched targeting and release property for precise tumor theranosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jing; Shuai, Xiaoyu; Wang, Rui; He, Xueling; Li, Yiwen; Ding, Mingming; Li, Jiehua; Tan, Hong; Fu, Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics and diagnostics using nanotechnology holds great promise to minimize the side effects of conventional chemotherapy and enable specific and real-time detection of diseases. To realize this goal, we report a clickable and imageable nanovehicle assembled from multiblock polyurethanes (MPUs). The soft segments of the polymers are based on detachable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and degradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), and the hard segments are constructed from lysine- and cystine-derivatives bearing reduction-responsive disulfide linkages and click-active alkynyl moieties, allowing for post-conjugation of targeting ligands via a click chemistry. It was found that the cleavage of PEG corona bearing a pH-sensitive benzoic-imine linkage (BPEG) could act as an on-off switch, which is capable of activating the clicked targeting ligands under extracellular acidic condition, followed by triggering the core degradation and payload release within tumor cells. In combination with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) clustered within the micellar core, the MPUs exhibit excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast effects and T 2 relaxation in vitro, as well as magnetically guided MR imaging and multimodal targeting of therapeutics to tumor precisely, leading to significant inhibition of cancer with minimal side effect. This work provides a safe and versatile platform for the further development of smart theranostic systems for potential magnetically-targeted and imaging-guided personalized medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  20. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem

    2015-01-01

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained

  1. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry

    2009-01-01

    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  2. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  3. Switching Schools: Reconsidering the Relationship Between School Mobility and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools. PMID:25554706

  4. High voltage disconnect switch position monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crampton, S W

    1983-08-01

    Unreliable position indication on high-voltage (HV) disconnect switches can result in equipment damage worth many times the cost of a disconnect switch. The benefits and limitations of a number of possible methods of reliably monitoring HV disconnect switches are assessed. Several methods of powering active devices at HV are noted. It is concluded that the most reliable way of monitoring switch position at reasonable cost would use a passive hermetically-sealed blade-position sensor located at HV, with a fibre-optic link between HV and ground. Separate sensors would be used for open and closed position indication. For maximum reliability the fibre-optic link would continue into the relay building. A passive magnetically actuated fibre-optic sensor has been built which demonstrates the feasibility of the concept. The sensor monitors blade position relative to the jaws in three dimensions with high resolution. A design for an improved passive magneto-optic sensor has significantly lower optical losses, allowing a single fibre-optic loop and 3 sensors to monitor closure of all phases of a disconnect switch. A similar loop would monitor switch opening. The improved sensor has a solid copper housing to provide greater immunity to fault currents, and to protect it from the environment and from physical damage. Two methods of providing a protected path for fibre-optics passing from HV to ground are proposed, one using a hollow porcelain switch-support insulator and the other using an additional small-diameter polymer insulator with optical fibres imbedded in its fibreglass core. A number of improvements are recommended which can be made to existing switches to increase their reliability. 16 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. CO2 laser pulse switching by optically excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.L. da.

    1986-01-01

    The construction and the study of a semi-conductor optical switch used for generating short infrared pulses and to analyse the semiconductor characteristics, are presented. The switch response time depends on semiconductor and control laser characteristics. The results obtained using a Ge switch controlled by N 2 , NdYag and Dye lasers are presented. The response time was 50 ns limited by Ge recombination time. The reflectivity increased from 7% to 59% using N 2 laser to control the switch. A simple model for semiconductor optical properties that explain very well the experimental results, is also presented. (author) [pt

  6. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  7. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  8. Phoneme Similarity and Confusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, T.M.; Hahn, U.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity between component speech sounds influences language processing in numerous ways. Explanation and detailed prediction of linguistic performance consequently requires an understanding of these basic similarities. The research reported in this paper contrasts two broad classes of approach to the issue of phoneme similarity-theoretically…

  9. If You Stay, It Might Be Easier: Switch Costs from Comprehension to Production in a Joint Switching Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Switching language is costly for bilingual speakers and listeners, suggesting that language control is effortful in both modalities. But are the mechanisms underlying language control similar across modalities? In this study, we attempted to answer this question by testing whether bilingual speakers incur a cost when switching to a different…

  10. Recent advances in column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita

    2012-04-01

    Column switching techniques, using two or more stationary phase columns, are useful for trace enrichment and online automated sample preparation. Target fractions from the first column are transferred online to a second column with different properties for further separation. Column switching techniques can be used to determine the analytes in a complex matrix by direct sample injection or by simple sample treatment. Online column switching sample preparation is usually performed in combination with HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. SPE or turbulent flow chromatography using a cartridge column and in-tube solid-phase microextraction using a capillary column have been developed for convenient column switching sample preparation. Furthermore, various micro-/nano-sample preparation devices using new polymer-coating materials have been developed to improve extraction efficiency. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis, focusing on innovative column switching techniques using new extraction devices and materials.

  11. Self-similar factor approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, S.; Yukalov, V.I.; Sornette, D.

    2003-01-01

    The problem of reconstructing functions from their asymptotic expansions in powers of a small variable is addressed by deriving an improved type of approximants. The derivation is based on the self-similar approximation theory, which presents the passage from one approximant to another as the motion realized by a dynamical system with the property of group self-similarity. The derived approximants, because of their form, are called self-similar factor approximants. These complement the obtained earlier self-similar exponential approximants and self-similar root approximants. The specific feature of self-similar factor approximants is that their control functions, providing convergence of the computational algorithm, are completely defined from the accuracy-through-order conditions. These approximants contain the Pade approximants as a particular case, and in some limit they can be reduced to the self-similar exponential approximants previously introduced by two of us. It is proved that the self-similar factor approximants are able to reproduce exactly a wide class of functions, which include a variety of nonalgebraic functions. For other functions, not pertaining to this exactly reproducible class, the factor approximants provide very accurate approximations, whose accuracy surpasses significantly that of the most accurate Pade approximants. This is illustrated by a number of examples showing the generality and accuracy of the factor approximants even when conventional techniques meet serious difficulties

  12. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  13. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young's modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young's modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Evaluation of structural, morphological and magnetic properties of CuZnNi (Cu_xZn_0_._5_−_xNi_0_._5Fe_2O_4) nanocrystalline ferrites for core, switching and MLCI’s applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Nazir, M.S.; Imran, M.; Ali, A.; Sattar, A.; Murtaza, G.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Cu substitution on the structural and morphological characteristics of Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites have been discussed in this work. The detailed and systematic magnetic characterizations were also done for Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanoferrites. The nanocrystalline ferrites of Cu substituted Cu_xZn_0_._5_−_xNi_0_._5Fe_2O_4 ferrites (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using sol gel self-combustion hybrid method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to investigate the properties of Cu substituted nanocrystalline ferrites. Single phase structure of Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites were investigated for all the samples. Crystallite size, lattice constant and volume of the cell were found to increase by increasing Cu contents in spinel structure. The better morphology with well-organized nanocrystals of Cu–Zn–Ni ferrites at x=0 and 0.5 were observed from both FESEM and TEM analysis. The average grain size was 35–46 nm for all prepared nanocrystalline samples. Magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation, remanence, magnetic squareness, magneto crystalline anisotropy constant (K) and Bohr magneton were measured from the recorded M–H loops. The magnetic saturation and remanence were increased by the incorporation of Cu contents. However, coercivity follow the Stoner-Wolforth model except for x=0.3 which may be due to the site occupancy and replacement of Cu contents from octahedral site. The squareness ratio confirmed the super paramgnetic behaviour of the Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites. Furthermore, Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites may be suitable for many industrial and domestic applications such as components of transformers, core, switching, and MLCI’s due to variety of the soft magnetic characteristics. - Highlights: • Cu substituted

  16. Optical computer switching network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  17. Processes of Similarity Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Levi B.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2005-01-01

    Similarity underlies fundamental cognitive capabilities such as memory, categorization, decision making, problem solving, and reasoning. Although recent approaches to similarity appreciate the structure of mental representations, they differ in the processes posited to operate over these representations. We present an experiment that…

  18. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  19. Stochastic Switching Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria

    This thesis treats stochastic systems with switching dynamics. Models with these characteristics are studied from several perspectives. Initially in a simple framework given in the form of stochastic differential equations and, later, in an extended form which fits into the framework of sliding...... mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...

  20. Optically coupled cavities for wavelength switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulman.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulman.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An optical bistable device which presents hysteresis behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system finds applications in wavelength switching, pulse reshaping and optical bistability. It is based on two optically coupled cavities named master and slave. Each cavity includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), acting as the gain medium of the laser, and two pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which define the lasing wavelength (being different in each cavity). Finally, a variable optical coupler (VOC) is employed to couple both cavities. Experimental characterization of the system performance is made analyzing the effects of the coupling coefficient between the two cavities and the driving current in each SOA. The properties of the hysteretic bistable curve and switching can be controlled by adjusting these parameters and the loss in the cavities. By selecting the output wavelength ({lambda}{sub 1} or {lambda}{sub 2}) with an external filter it is possible to choose either the invert or non-invert switched signal. Experiments were developed employing both optical discrete components and a photonic integrated circuit. They show that for 8 m-long cavities the maximum switching frequency is about 500 KHz, and for 4 m-long cavities a minimum rise-time about 21 ns was measured. The switching time can be reduced by shortening the cavity lengths and using photonic integrated circuits.

  1. The gradual nature of threshold switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, M; Salinga, M

    2014-01-01

    The recent commercialization of electronic memories based on phase change materials proved the usability of this peculiar family of materials for application purposes. More advanced data storage and computing concepts, however, demand a deeper understanding especially of the electrical properties of the amorphous phase and the switching behaviour. In this work, we investigate the temporal evolution of the current through the amorphous state of the prototypical phase change material, Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , under constant voltage. A custom-made electrical tester allows the measurement of delay times over five orders of magnitude, as well as the transient states of electrical excitation prior to the actual threshold switching. We recognize a continuous current increase over time prior to the actual threshold-switching event to be a good measure for the electrical excitation. A clear correlation between a significant rise in pre-switching-current and the later occurrence of threshold switching can be observed. This way, we found experimental evidence for the existence of an absolute minimum for the threshold voltage (or electric field respectively) holding also for time scales far beyond the measurement range. (paper)

  2. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  3. Very high plasma switches. Basic plasma physics and switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, H.J.; Roche, M.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of some high power switches recently developed for very high power technology is made with a special attention to the aspects of plasma physics involved in the mechanisms, which determine the limits of the possible switching parameters

  4. Uncertainty in microscale gas damping: Implications on dynamics of capacitive MEMS switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeenko, Alina; Chigullapalli, Sruti; Zeng Juan; Guo Xiaohui; Kovacs, Andrew; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Effects of uncertainties in gas damping models, geometry and mechanical properties on the dynamics of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive switch are studied. A sample of typical capacitive switches has been fabricated and characterized at Purdue University. High-fidelity simulations of gas damping on planar microbeams are developed and verified under relevant conditions. This and other gas damping models are then applied to study the dynamics of a single closing event for switches with experimentally measured properties. It has been demonstrated that although all damping models considered predict similar damping quality factor and agree well for predictions of closing time, the models differ by a factor of two and more in predicting the impact velocity and acceleration at contact. Implications of parameter uncertainties on the key reliability-related parameters such as the pull-in voltage, closing time and impact velocity are discussed. A notable effect of uncertainty is that the nominal switch, i.e. the switch with the average properties, does not actuate at the mean actuation voltage. Additionally, the device-to-device variability leads to significant differences in dynamics. For example, the mean impact velocity for switches actuated under the 90%-actuation voltage (about 150 V), i.e. the voltage required to actuate 90% of the sample, is about 129 cm/s and increases to 173 cm/s for the 99%-actuation voltage (of about 173 V). Response surfaces of impact velocity and closing time to five input variables were constructed using the Smolyak sparse grid algorithm. The sensitivity analysis showed that impact velocity is most sensitive to the damping coefficient whereas the closing time is most affected by the geometric parameters such as gap and beam thickness. - Highlights: → We examine stochastic non-linear response of a microsystem switch subject to multiple input uncertainties. → Sample devices have been fabricated and device

  5. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng

    2017-01-01

    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  6. Nanoelectromechanical switch operating by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danilov, Andrey V.; Hedegård, Per; Golubev, Dimitrii S.

    2008-01-01

    (i) the relative contribution of tunneling, current induced heating and thermal fluctuations to the switching mechanism, (ii) the voltage dependent energy barrier (similar to 100-200 meV) separating the two states of the switch and (iii) the switching attempt frequency, omega(0) corresponding to a 2......We present a solid state single molecule electronic device where switching between two states with different conductance happens predominantly by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule. This conclusion is based on a novel statistical analysis of similar to 10(5) switching events. The analysis yields...

  7. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  8. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  9. An integrated circuit switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, E. L.

    1969-01-01

    Multi-chip integrated circuit switch consists of a GaAs photon-emitting diode in close proximity with S1 phototransistor. A high current gain is obtained when the transistor has a high forward common-emitter current gain.

  10. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  11. Untriggered water switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Devender, J.P.; Martin, T.H.

    Recent experiments indicate that synchronous untriggered multichannel switching in water will permit the development of relatively simple, ultra-low impedance, short pulse, relativistic electron beam (REB) accelerators. These experiments resulted in the delivery of a 1.5 MV, 0.75 MA, 15 ns pulse into a two-ohm line with a current risetime of 2 x 10 14 A/sec. The apparatus consisted of a 3 MV Marx generator and a series of three 112 cm wide strip water lines separated by two edge-plane water-gap switches. The Marx generator charged the first line in less than 400 ns. The first switch then formed five or more channels. The second line was charged in 60 ns and broke down with 10 to 25 channels at a mean field of 1.6 MV/cm. The closure time of each spark channel along both switches was measured with a streak camera and showed low jitter. The resulting fast pulse line construction is simpler and should provide considerable costs savings from previous designs. Multiples of these low impedance lines in parallel can be employed to obtain power levels in the 10 14 W range for REB fusion studies. (U.S.)

  12. Mode switching in volcanic seismicity: El Hierro 2011-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nick S.; Bell, Andrew F.; Main, Ian G.

    2016-05-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter b value is commonly used in volcanic eruption forecasting to infer material or mechanical properties from earthquake distributions. Such studies typically analyze discrete time windows or phases, but the choice of such windows is subjective and can introduce significant bias. Here we minimize this sample bias by iteratively sampling catalogs with randomly chosen windows and then stack the resulting probability density functions for the estimated b>˜ value to determine a net probability density function. We examine data from the El Hierro seismic catalog during a period of unrest in 2011-2013 and demonstrate clear multimodal behavior. Individual modes are relatively stable in time, but the most probable b>˜ value intermittently switches between modes, one of which is similar to that of tectonic seismicity. Multimodality is primarily associated with intermittent activation and cessation of activity in different parts of the volcanic system rather than with respect to any systematic inferred underlying process.

  13. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting

    2017-01-01

    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  14. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  15. Synchronization Between Two Different Switched Chaotic Systems By Switching Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Li Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the synchronization problem of two different switched chaotic systems, considering the general case that the master-slave switched chaotic systems have uncertainties. Two basic problems are considered: one is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems under arbitrary switching; the other is projective synchronization of switched chaotic systems by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any subsystems alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and multiple Lyapunov function method are used respectively, an adaptive control scheme has been presented, some sufficient synchronization conditions are attainted, and the switching signal is designed. Finally, the numerical simulation is provide to show the effectiveness of our method.

  16. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  17. New fast switches for the Tore Supra ohmic heating circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, K.; Bruneth, J.; Cara, P.; Louart, A.; Santagiustina, A.; Emelyanova, I.; Filippov, F.; Mikailov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Tore-Supra ohmic heating circuit is equipped with four fast make switches and one fast opening switch. After many years of operation, it became necessary to substitute this equipment by modern components with similar ratings. An extensive research has been undertaken to find fast switches able to withstand more than 2500 operations per year without maintenance, at a make current of 54 kA, a voltage of 12 kV and with a closing time of less than 15 ms. At the end of the investigation, it was decided to replace the old components by fast mechanical switches proposed by the Efremov Institute and based on a prototype developed for ITER. This paper presents the technical requirements and the characteristics of the switches and describes the operational experience gained with these components during operating campaigns of 2002 and 2003. (authors)

  18. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  19. Optical fiber switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  20. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven

    2017-04-12

    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  1. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  2. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C

    1990-01-01

    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  3. Composite Material Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  4. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  5. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  6. Electrical switching in Sb doped Al23Te77 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumlianmunga; Ramesh, K.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk glasses (Al23Te77)Sbx (0≤ x≤10) prepared by melt quenching method show a change in switching type from threshold to memory for x≥5. An increase in threshold current (Ith) and a concomitant decrease in threshold voltage (Vth) and resisitivity(ρ) have been observed with the increase of Sb content. Raman spectra of the switched region in memory switching compositions show a red shift with respect to the as prepared glasses whereas in threshold switching compositions no such shift is observed. The magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of 27Al atom shows three different environments for Al ([4]Al, [5]Al and [6]Al). The samples annealed at their respective crystallization temperatures show rapid increase in [4]Al sites by annihilating [5]Al sites. The melts of threshold switching glasses (x≤2.5) quenched in water at room temperature (27 °C) show amorphous structure whereas, the melt of memory switching glasses (x>2.5) solidify into crystalline structure. The higher coordination of Al increases the cross-linking and rigidity. The addition of Sb increases the glass transition(Tg) and decreases the crystallization temperature(Tc). The decrease in the interval between the Tg and Tc eases the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and improves the memory properties. The temperature rise at the time of switching can be as high as its melting temperature and the material in between the electrodes may melt to form a filament. The filament may consists of temporary (high resistive amorphous) and permanent (high conducting crystalline) units. The ratio between the temporary and the permanent units may decide the switching type. The filament is dominated by the permanent units in memory switching compositions and by the temporary units in threshold switching compositions. The present study suggests that both the threshold and memory switching can be understood by the thermal model and filament formation.

  7. Domain switching in single-phase multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tingting; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo

    2018-06-01

    Multiferroics are a time-honoured research subject by reason for their tremendous application potential in the information industry, such as in multi-state information storage devices and new types of sensors. An outburst of studies on multiferroicity has been witnessed in the 21st century, although this field has a long research history since the 19th century. Multiferroicity has now become one of the hottest research topics in condensed matter physics and materials science. Numerous efforts have been made to investigate the cross-coupling phenomena among ferroic orders such as ferroelectricity, (anti-)ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity, especially the coupling between electric and magnetic orderings that would account for the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in multiferroic materials. The magnetoelectric properties and coupling behavior of single phase multiferroics are dominated by their domain structures. It was also noted that, however, the multiferroic materials exhibit very complicated domain structures. Studies on domain structure characterization and domain switching are a crucial step in the exploration of approaches to the control and manipulation of magnetic (electric) properties using an electric (magnetic) field or other means. In this review, following a concise outline of our current basic knowledge on the magnetoelectric (ME) effect, we summarize some important research activities on domain switching in single-phase multiferroic materials in the form of single crystals and thin films, especially domain switching behavior involving strain and the related physics in the last decade. We also introduce recent developments in characterization techniques for domain structures of ferroelectric or multiferroic materials, which have significantly advanced our understanding of domain switching dynamics and interactions. The effects of a series of issues such as electric field, magnetic field, and stress effects on domain switching are been discussed as well. It

  8. Exploring modality switching effects in negated sentences: Further evidence for grounded representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea eHald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition (e.g., Perceptual Symbol Systems Theory; Barsalou, 1999, 2009 suggest that modality-specific simulations underlie the representation of concepts. Supporting evidence comes from modality switch costs: Participants are slower to verify a property in one modality (e.g., auditory, BLENDER-loud after verifying a property in a different modality (e.g., gustatory, CRANBERRIES-tart compared to the same modality (e.g., LEAVES-rustling, Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Barsalou, 2003. Similarly, modality switching costs lead to a modulation of the N400 effect in event related potentials (ERPs (Collins, Pecher, Zeelenberg, & Coulson, 2011; Hald, Marshall, Janssen, & Garnham, 2011. This effect of modality switching has also been shown to interact with the veracity of the sentence (Hald, et al., 2011. The current event-related potentials study (ERPs further explores the role of modality match/mismatch on the processing of veracity as well as negation (sentences containing not. Our results indicate a modulation in the ERP based on modality and veracity, plus an interaction. The evidence supports the idea that modality-specific simulations occur during language processing, and furthermore suggest that these simulations alter the processing of negation.

  9. Amphoteric Be in GaN: Experimental Evidence for Switching between Substitutional and Interstitial Lattice Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Filip; Prozheeva, Vera; Makkonen, Ilja; Myers, Thomas H.; Bockowski, Michal; Teisseyre, Henryk

    2017-11-01

    We show that Be exhibits amphoteric behavior in GaN, involving switching between substitutional and interstitial positions in the lattice. This behavior is observed through the dominance of BeGa in the positron annihilation signals in Be-doped GaN, while the emergence of VGa at high temperatures is a consequence of the Be impurities being driven to interstitial positions. The similarity of this behavior to that found for Na and Li in ZnO suggests that this could be a universal property of light dopants substituting for heavy cations in compound semiconductors.

  10. Contact materials for nanowire devices and nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    The impact of contact materials on the performance of nanostructured devices is expected to be signifi cant. This is especially true since size scaling can increase the contact resistance and induce many unseen phenomenon and reactions that greatly impact device performance. Nanowire and nanoelectromechanical switches are two emerging nanoelectronic devices. Nanowires provide a unique opportunity to control the property of a material at an ultra-scaled dimension, whereas a nanoelectromechanical switch presents zero power consumption in its off state, as it is physically detached from the sensor anode. In this article, we specifi cally discuss contact material issues related to nanowire devices and nanoelectromechanical switches.

  11. Chemical switches and logic gates based on surface modified semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Szacilowski; Wojciech, Macyk [Jagiellonian Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-02-15

    Photoelectrochemical properties of multicomponent photo-electrodes based on titanium dioxide and cadmium sulfide powders modified with hexacyanoferrate complexes have been examined. Photocurrent responses were recorded as functions of applied potential and photon energy. Surprisingly, the photocurrent can be switched between positive and negative values as a result of potential or photon energy changes. This new effect called Photo Electrochemical Photocurrent Switching (PEPS) opens a possibility of new chemical switches and logic gates construction. Boolean logic analysis and a tentative mechanism of the device are discussed. (authors)

  12. A Broadband Ultrathin Nonlinear Switching Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zarnousheh Farahani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ultrathin planar nonlinear metamaterial slab is designed and simulated. Nonlinearity is provided through placing diodes in each metamaterial unit cell. The diodes are auto-biased and activated by an incident wave. The proposed structure represents a broadband switching property between two transmission and reflection states depending on the intensity of the incident wave. High permittivity values are presented creating a near zero effective impedance at low power states, around the second resonant mode of the structure unit cell; as the result, the incident wave is reflected. Increasing the incident power to the level which can activate the loaded diodes in the structure results in elimination of the resonance and consequently a drop in the permittivity values near the permeability one as well as a switch to the transmission state. A full wave as well as a nonlinear simulations are performed. An optimization method based on weed colonization is applied to the unit cell of the metamaterial slab to achieve the maximum switching bandwidth. The structure represents a 24% switching bandwidth of a 10 dB reduction in the reflection coefficient.

  13. MENGAPA PERUSAHAAN MELAKUKAN AUDITOR SWITCH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Sumadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a large number of accounting firms allowsprovides companies choices whether to stay with current firm or switchto another accounting firm. Decision of Minister of FinanceNo.423/KMK.06/2002 states that a company must switch auditor afterfive years of consecutive assignment. This is mandatory. The questionrises when a company voluntarily switches its auditor. Why does thishappen?One of the reasons is that management does not satisfy withauditor opinion, except for unqualified opinion. New management teamwould directly or indirectly encourage auditor switch to align accountingand reporting policies. Moreover an expanding company expects positivereaction when it does auditor switch. Profitability is also one reason fora company to switch auditor, for example, when a company earns moreprofit it tends to hire more credible auditor. On the other hand, when thecompany faces a financial distress, it probably would switch auditor aswell.

  14. Low-Crosstalk Composite Optical Crosspoint Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing-Jong; Liang, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Composite optical switch includes two elementary optical switches in tandem, plus optical absorbers. Like elementary optical switches, composite optical switches assembled into switch matrix. Performance enhanced by increasing number of elementary switches. Advantage of concept: crosstalk reduced to acceptably low level at moderate cost of doubling number of elementary switches rather than at greater cost of tightening manufacturing tolerances and exerting more-precise control over operating conditions.

  15. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  16. On different forms of self similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswathy, R.K.; Mathew, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Fractal geometry is mainly based on the idea of self-similar forms. To be self-similar, a shape must able to be divided into parts that are smaller copies, which are more or less similar to the whole. There are different forms of self similarity in nature and mathematics. In this paper, some of the topological properties of super self similar sets are discussed. It is proved that in a complete metric space with two or more elements, the set of all non super self similar sets are dense in the set of all non-empty compact sub sets. It is also proved that the product of self similar sets are super self similar in product metric spaces and that the super self similarity is preserved under isometry. A characterization of super self similar sets using contracting sub self similarity is also presented. Some relevant counterexamples are provided. The concepts of exact super and sub self similarity are introduced and a necessary and sufficient condition for a set to be exact super self similar in terms of condensation iterated function systems (Condensation IFS’s) is obtained. A method to generate exact sub self similar sets using condensation IFS’s and the denseness of exact super self similar sets are also discussed.

  17. Trend Switching Processes in Financial Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    For an intriguing variety of switching processes in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes at a specific point from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. Financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("bubble collapse"), on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for very short time scales. Our analysis is based on a German DAX Future data base containing 13,991,275 transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10- 2 s. For a parallel analysis, we use a data base of all S&P500 stocks providing 2,592,531 daily closing prices. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching processes have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have features similar to those present in phase transitions. We find that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales - such as the most recent financial crisis - are no outliers but in fact single dramatic representatives caused by the formation of upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from the very large down to the very small.

  18. Similar or different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornér, Solveig; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Peltonen, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has identified researcher community and supervisory support as key determinants of the doctoral journey contributing to students’ persistence and robustness. However, we still know little about cross-cultural variation in the researcher community and supervisory support experien...... counter partners, whereas the Finnish students perceived lower levels of instrumental support than the Danish students. The findings imply that seemingly similar contexts hold valid differences in experienced social support and educational strategies at the PhD level....... experienced by PhD students within the same discipline. This study explores the support experiences of 381 PhD students within the humanities and social sciences from three research-intensive universities in Denmark (n=145) and Finland (n=236). The mixed methods design was utilized. The data were collected...... counter partners. The results also indicated that the only form of support in which the students expressed more matched support than mismatched support was informational support. Further investigation showed that the Danish students reported a high level of mismatch in emotional support than their Finnish...

  19. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  20. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  1. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Malone, David

    2016-01-01

    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  2. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoorian, H R; Abrishamian, M S

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device. (paper)

  3. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, H. R.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device.

  4. Subnanosecond, high voltage photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); O' Bannon, B.J. (Rockwell International Corp., Anaheim, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We are conducting research on the switching properties of photoconductive materials to explore their potential for generating high-power microwaves (HPM) and for high rep-rate switching. We have investigated the performance of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in linear mode (the conductivity of the device follows the optical pulse) as well as an avalanche-like mode (the optical pulse only controls switch closing). Operating in the linear mode, we have observed switch closing times of less than 200 ps with a 100 ps duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 ps at several kV/cm fields using neutron irradiated GaAs. In avalanche and lock-on modes, high fields are switched with lower laser pulse energies, resulting in higher efficiencies; but with measurable switching delay and jitter. We are currently investigating both large area (1 cm{sup 2}) and small area (<1 mm{sup 2}) switches illuminated by AlGaAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 {mu}m.

  5. Subnanosecond, high-voltage photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Robert L.; Pocha, Michael D.; Griffin, Kenneth L.; O'Bannon, Jim

    1991-03-01

    We are conducting research on the switching properties of photoconductive materials to explore their potential for generating highpower microwaves (HPM) and for high reprate switching. We have investigated the performance of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in linear mode (the conductivity of the device follows the optical pulse) as well as an avalanchelike mode (the optical pulse only controls switch closing) . Operating in the unear mode we have observed switch closing times of less than 200 Ps with a 100 ps duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 ps at several kV/cm fields using neutron irradiated GaAs. In avalanche and lockon modes high fields are switched with lower laser pulse energies resulting in higher efficiencies but with measurable switching delay and jitter. We are currently investigating both large area (1 cm2) and small area 1 mm2) switches illuminated by AlGaAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1. 06 tim.

  6. Helical EMG module with explosive current opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Vakhrushev, V.V.; Volkov, G.I.; Ivanov, V.A.; Fetisov, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    To carry out the experimental work to study plasma properties, electromagnetic sources with 10 6 to 10 8 J of stored energy delivered to the load in microsecond time, are required. Among the current electromagnetic storage devices, the explosive magnetic generators (EMG) are of the largest energy capacity. The disadvantages of this type of generators is relatively long time (ten of microseconds) of electromagnetic energy cumulation in the deformable circuit. To reduce the time of energy transfer to the load to a microsecond range the switching scheme is generally used, where the cumulation circuit and that of the load are separated and connected in parallel via a switching element (opening switch) providing generation of desired power. In this paper, some ways and means of designing opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches which operation is based on mechanic destruction of the conductor using high explosive, have the highest and most reliable performance. The authors have explored the mechanic disruption of a thin conductor (foil), the technique based on throwing the foil at the ribbed barrier of electric insulator material. The report presents the data obtained in studying the operation of this type of opening switch having cylindrical shape, 200 mm in diameter and 200 mm long, designed for generation of 5.5 MA current pulse in the load

  7. A genetic bistable switch utilizing nonlinear protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Daniel; Holtz, William J; Maharbiz, Michel M

    2012-07-09

    Bistability is a fundamental property in engineered and natural systems, conferring the ability to switch and retain states. Synthetic bistable switches in prokaryotes have mainly utilized transcriptional components in their construction. Using both transcriptional and enzymatic components, creating a hybrid system, allows for wider bistable parameter ranges in a circuit. In this paper, we demonstrate a tunable family of hybrid bistable switches in E. coli using both transcriptional components and an enzymatic component. The design contains two linked positive feedback loops. The first loop utilizes the lambda repressor, CI, and the second positive feedback loop incorporates the Lon protease found in Mesoplasma florum (mf-Lon). We experimentally tested for bistable behavior in exponential growth phase, and found that our hybrid bistable switch was able to retain its state in the absence of an input signal throughout 40 cycles of cell division. We also tested the transient behavior of our switch and found that switching speeds can be tuned by changing the expression rate of mf-Lon. To our knowledge, this work demonstrates the first use of dynamic expression of an orthogonal and heterologous protease to tune a nonlinear protein degradation circuit. The hybrid switch is potentially a more robust and tunable topology for use in prokaryotic systems.

  8. Effect of texturing on polarization switching dynamics in ferroelectric ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Sergey; Genenko, Yuri A.; Koruza, Jurij; Schultheiß, Jan; von Seggern, Heinz; Sakamoto, Wataru; Ichikawa, Hiroki; Murata, Tatsuro; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Highly (100),(001)-oriented (Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3 (BCT) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by the reactive templated grain growth method using a mixture of plate-like CaTiO3 and BaTiO3 particles. Piezoelectric properties of the ceramics with a high degree of texture were found to be considerably enhanced compared with the BCT ceramics with a low degree of texture. With increasing the Lotgering factor from 26% up to 94%, the piezoelectric properties develop towards the properties of a single crystal. The dynamics of polarization switching was studied over a broad time domain of 8 orders of magnitude and was found to strongly depend on the degree of orientation of the ceramics. Samples with a high degree of texture exhibited 2-3 orders of magnitude faster polarization switching, as compared with the ones with a low degree of texture. This was rationalized by means of the Inhomogeneous Field Mechanism model as a result of the narrower statistical distribution of the local electric field values in textured media, which promotes a more coherent switching process. The extracted microscopic parameters of switching revealed a decrease of the critical nucleus energy in systems with a high degree of texture providing more favorable switching conditions related to the enhanced ferroelectric properties of the textured material.

  9. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  10. LCT protective dump-switch tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Task (LCT) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCT conditions

  11. Uncertainty quantification in capacitive RF MEMS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pax, Benjamin J.

    Development of radio frequency micro electrical-mechanical systems (RF MEMS) has led to novel approaches to implement electrical circuitry. The introduction of capacitive MEMS switches, in particular, has shown promise in low-loss, low-power devices. However, the promise of MEMS switches has not yet been completely realized. RF-MEMS switches are known to fail after only a few months of operation, and nominally similar designs show wide variability in lifetime. Modeling switch operation using nominal or as-designed parameters cannot predict the statistical spread in the number of cycles to failure, and probabilistic methods are necessary. A Bayesian framework for calibration, validation and prediction offers an integrated approach to quantifying the uncertainty in predictions of MEMS switch performance. The objective of this thesis is to use the Bayesian framework to predict the creep-related deflection of the PRISM RF-MEMS switch over several thousand hours of operation. The PRISM switch used in this thesis is the focus of research at Purdue's PRISM center, and is a capacitive contacting RF-MEMS switch. It employs a fixed-fixed nickel membrane which is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage between the membrane and a pull-down electrode. Creep plays a central role in the reliability of this switch. The focus of this thesis is on the creep model, which is calibrated against experimental data measured for a frog-leg varactor fabricated and characterized at Purdue University. Creep plasticity is modeled using plate element theory with electrostatic forces being generated using either parallel plate approximations where appropriate, or solving for the full 3D potential field. For the latter, structure-electrostatics interaction is determined through immersed boundary method. A probabilistic framework using generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is used to create surrogate models to mitigate the costly full physics simulations, and Bayesian calibration and forward

  12. A versatile cis-acting inverter module for synthetic translational switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Hayashi, Karin; Inoue, Tan; Saito, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Artificial genetic switches have been designed and tuned individually in living cells. A method to directly invert an existing OFF switch to an ON switch should be highly convenient to construct complex circuits from well-characterized modules, but developing such a technique has remained a challenge. Here we present a cis-acting RNA module to invert the function of a synthetic translational OFF switch to an ON switch in mammalian cells. This inversion maintains the property of the parental switch in response to a particular input signal. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous and specific expression control of both the OFF and ON switches. The module fits the criteria of universality and expands the versatility of mRNA-based information processing systems developed for artificially controlling mammalian cellular behaviour.

  13. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most important components required for enabling optical networking are investigated through both experiments and modelling. These all-optical components are the wavelength converter, the regenerator and the space switch. When these devices become "off-the-shelf" products, optical cross......, it is expected that the optical solution will offer an economical benefit for hight bit rate networks. This thesis begins with a discussion of the expected impact on communications systems from the rapidly growing IP traffic, which is expected to become the dominant source for traffic. IP traffic has some...... characteristics, which are best supported by an optical network. The interest for such an optical network is exemplified by the formation of the ACTS OPEN project which aim was to investigate the feasibility of an optical network covering Europe. Part of the work presented in this thesis is carried out within...

  14. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  15. Battery switch for downhole tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  16. Improved switch-resistor packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  17. Clustering promotes switching dynamics in networks of noisy neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franović, Igor; Klinshov, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    Macroscopic variability is an emergent property of neural networks, typically manifested in spontaneous switching between the episodes of elevated neuronal activity and the quiescent episodes. We investigate the conditions that facilitate switching dynamics, focusing on the interplay between the different sources of noise and heterogeneity of the network topology. We consider clustered networks of rate-based neurons subjected to external and intrinsic noise and derive an effective model where the network dynamics is described by a set of coupled second-order stochastic mean-field systems representing each of the clusters. The model provides an insight into the different contributions to effective macroscopic noise and qualitatively indicates the parameter domains where switching dynamics may occur. By analyzing the mean-field model in the thermodynamic limit, we demonstrate that clustering promotes multistability, which gives rise to switching dynamics in a considerably wider parameter region compared to the case of a non-clustered network with sparse random connection topology.

  18. Magnetic elements for switching magnetization magnetic force microscopy tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Elias, P.; Gregusova, D.; Martaus, J.; Fedor, J.; Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.

    2010-01-01

    Using combination of micromagnetic calculations and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging we find optimal parameters for novel magnetic tips suitable for switching magnetization MFM. Switching magnetization MFM is based on two-pass scanning atomic force microscopy with reversed tip magnetization between the scans. Within the technique the sum of the scanned data with reversed tip magnetization depicts local atomic forces, while their difference maps the local magnetic forces. Here we propose the design and calculate the magnetic properties of tips suitable for this scanning probe technique. We find that for best performance the spin-polarized tips must exhibit low magnetic moment, low switching fields, and single-domain state at remanence. The switching field of such tips is calculated and optimum shape of the Permalloy elements for the tips is found. We show excellent correspondence between calculated and experimental results for Py elements.

  19. Robust filtering and fault detection of switched delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Switched delay systems appear in a wide field of applications including networked control systems, power systems, memristive systems. Though the large amount of ideas with respect to such systems have generated, until now, it still lacks a framework to focus on filter design and fault detection issues which are relevant to life safety and property loss. Beginning with the comprehensive coverage of the new developments in the analysis and control synthesis for switched delay systems, the monograph not only provides a systematic approach to designing the filter and detecting the fault of switched delay systems, but it also covers the model reduction issues. Specific topics covered include: (1) Arbitrary switching signal where delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions are presented by proposing a linearization technique. (2) Average dwell time where a weighted Lyapunov function is come up with dealing with filter design and fault detection issues beside taking model reduction problems. The monograph is in...

  20. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Heavy-duty explosively operated pulsed opening and closing switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Price, J.H.; Upshaw, J.L.; Weldon, W.F.; Zowarka, R.C.; Gully, J.H.; Spann, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses improvements to heavy duty, explosively operated, opening and closing switches to reduce component cost, installation cost, and turnaround time without sacrificing reliability. Heavy duty opening and closing switches operated by small explosive charges (50 g or less) are essential to operation of the 60 MJ Balcones power supply. The six independent modules - a 10 MJ homopolar generator (HPG) and a 6 μH storage inductor - can be discharged sequentially, a valuable feature for shaping the current pulse delivered to loads such as high-energy railguns. Each delayed inductor must be isolated from the railgun circuit with a heavy duty closing switch capable of carrying megampere currents to millisecond duration. Similar closing switches are used to crowbar the railgun as the projectile approaches the muzzle: noise reduction, reduction of muzzle arc damage, and reduction of post-launch perturbation of projectile flight. The switches - both opening and closing - are characterized by microhm resistance in the closed state. Current is carried in metallic conductors. Metal-to-metal seams which carry current are maintained in uniform high pressure contact. Efficient switching is crucial to efficient conversion: rotor kinetic energy to stored inductive energy with ∼50% efficiency, stored inductive energy to projectile kinetic energy with ∼30% efficiency. The switches must operate with a precision and repeatability of 10 -5 s, readily achievable with explosives. The opening switches must be structurally and thermally capable of carrying megampere currents for more than 100 ms (∼10 5 C) and develop 10 kV upon opening, stay open for 10 - 2 s, and safely and reliably dissipate megajoules of inductive energy in the event of a fault, a failure of the switch to operate or an attempt to commutate into an open circuit

  3. Dynamic state switching in nonlinear multiferroic cantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Onuta, Tiberiu-Dan; Long, Christian J.; Lofland, Samuel E.; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate read-write-read-erase cyclical mechanical-memory properties of all-thin-film multiferroic heterostructured Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 / Fe0.7Ga0.3 cantilevers when a high enough voltage around the resonant frequency of the device is applied on the Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 piezo-film. The device state switching process occurs due to the presence of a hysteresis loop in the piezo-film frequency response, which comes from the nonlinear behavior of the cantilever. The reference frequency at which the strain-mediated Fe0.7Ga0.3 based multiferroic device switches can also be tuned by applying a DC magnetic field bias that contributes to the increase of the cantilever effective stiffness. The switching dynamics is mapped in the phase space of the device measured transfer function characteristic for such high piezo-film voltage excitation, providing additional information on the dynamical stability of the devices.

  4. Switched-Observer-Based Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Switched Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Control Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control is addressed for a class of multi-input multioutput (MIMO) switched uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown control gains. Neural networks (NNs) are used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. In order to avoid the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer for all subsystems, an MIMO NN switched observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states. A new switched observer-based adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is then provided by exploiting the classical average dwell time (ADT) method and the backstepping method and the Nussbaum gain technique. It effectively handles the obstacle about the coexistence of multiple Nussbaum-type function terms, and improves the classical ADT method, since the exponential decline property of Lyapunov functions for individual subsystems is no longer satisfied. It is shown that the technique proposed is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system under a class of switching signals with ADT, and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the approach proposed is illustrated by its application to a two inverted pendulum system.

  5. Fast risetime BLT switches for accelerators applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkman-Amemiya, G.; Reinhardt, N.; Choi, M.S.; Gundersen, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Several particle accelerator systems require repetitive switches capable to switching peak currents of several kA with short risetimes, in particular kicker magnets used to transfer particle beams from one section of an accelerator to another require current pulses that rise from zero to 100% in a time determined by the separation between particle bunches which can be only 10's of nsec in some applications. One particular application is the injection and extraction kickers for the low energy booster (LEB) of the superconducting super collider (SSC) which requires < 50nsec 0-99% risetime. Another system with similarly strict risetime requirement is the kicker for the Stanford Linear Collider electron damping rings. In this work, a fast risetime BLT switch which has demonstrated 17kA at 30kV with < 60nsec risetime, 1.5kA at 20kV with < 18nsec risetime, and up to 240Hz operation at 20kV, 7kA is reported. A tetrode triggering method is described which reduces risetime by eliminating prepulse behavior

  6. Quinonoid metal complexes: toward molecular switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante; Sangregorio, Claudio; Sorace, Lorenzo

    2004-11-01

    The peculiar redox-active character of quinonoid metal complexes makes them extremely appealing to design materials of potential technological interest. We show here how the tuning of the properties of these systems can be pursued by using appropriate molecular synthetic techniques. In particular, we focus our attention on metal polyoxolene complexes exhibiting intramolecular electron transfer processes involving either the ligand and the metal ion or the two dioxolene moieties of a properly designed ligand thus inducing electronic bistability. The transition between the two metastable electronic states can be induced by different external stimuli such as temperature, pressure, light, or pH suggesting the use of these systems for molecular switches.

  7. DETERMINANT OF DOWNWARD AUDITOR SWITCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  8. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  9. Dual origin of defect magnetism in graphene and its reversible switching by molecular doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, R R; Tsai, I-L; Sepioni, M; Lehtinen, O; Keinonen, J; Krasheninnikov, A V; Castro Neto, A H; Katsnelson, M I; Geim, A K; Grigorieva, I V

    2013-01-01

    Control of magnetism by applied voltage is desirable for spintronics applications. Finding a suitable material remains an elusive goal, with only a few candidates found so far. Graphene is one of them and attracts interest because of its weak spin-orbit interaction, the ability to control electronic properties by the electric field effect and the possibility to introduce paramagnetic centres such as vacancies and adatoms. Here we show that the magnetism of adatoms in graphene is itinerant and can be controlled by doping, so that magnetic moments are switched on and off. The much-discussed vacancy magnetism is found to have a dual origin, with two approximately equal contributions; one from itinerant magnetism and the other from dangling bonds. Our work suggests that graphene's spin transport can be controlled by the field effect, similar to its electronic and optical properties, and that spin diffusion can be significantly enhanced above a certain carrier density.

  10. Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Utilizing Cobalt Embedded in Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the preparation and electrical properties of Al/cobalt-embedded gelatin (CoG/ indium tin oxide (ITO resistive switching memories. Co. elements can be uniformly distributed in gelatin without a conventional dispersion procedure, as confirmed through energy dispersive X-ray analyzer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations. With an appropriate Co. concentration, Co. ions can assist the formation of an interfacial AlOx layer and improve the memory properties. High ON/OFF ratio, good retention capability, and good endurance switching cycles are demonstrated with 1 M Co. concentration, in contrast to 0.5 M and 2 M memory devices. This result can be attributed to the suitable thickness of the interfacial AlOx layer, which acts as an oxygen reservoir and stores and releases oxygen during switching. The Co. element in a solution-processed gelatin matrix has high potential for bio-electronic applications.

  11. High current vacuum closing switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Romanov, A.S.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper proposes a powerful pulsed closing vacuum switch for high current commutation consisting of series of the vacuum diodes with near 1 mm gaps having closing time determined by the gaps shortening with the near-electrode plasmas [ru

  12. Aurora oil switch upgrade program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, T.

    1989-03-01

    This report describes the short pulse synchronization requirements, the original Aurora trigger scheme, and the PI/SNLA approach to improving the synchronization. It also describes the oil switching design study undertaken as the first phase of the program. A discussion of oil-switch closure analysis and the conceptual design motivated by this analysis are presented. This paper also describes the oil-switch trigger pulser tests required to validate the concept. This includes the design of the testing facility, a description of the test goals, and a discussion of the results. This paper finally describes oil-switch trigger pulser testing on one of the four Aurora Blumlein modules, which includes the hardware design and operation, the testing goals, hardware installation, and test results. 9 refs., 26 figs

  13. Solid state bistable power switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.

    1970-01-01

    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  14. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing; Cha, Dong Kyu; Bosman, Michel; Raghavan, Nagarajan; Migas, Dmitri B.; Borisenko, Victor E.; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Kun; Pey, Kin-Leong

    2013-01-01

    -chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission

  15. Dynamic behavior of HTSC opening switch models controlled by short over-critical current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Krastelev, E.G.; Voronin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    We present results of experimental research of dynamical properties of thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 HTSC-switch models under action of short overcritical current pulses to test this method of control of fast high-power opening switches for accelerator applications

  16. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  17. High PRF high current switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  18. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  19. Bowel habits after gastric bypass versus the duodenal switch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Nir; Hamoui, Nahid; Petrone, Patrizio; Crookes, Peter F; Kaufman, Howard S

    2008-12-01

    One of the perceived disadvantages of the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch operation is diarrhea. The aim of this study was to compare the bowel habits of patients after duodenal switch operation or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. A prospective comparative case series design was used. Forty-six patients who underwent duodenal switch (n=28) or gastric bypass (n=18) were asked to complete a daily diary for 14 days after losing least 50% of their excess body weight. Data were collected on number of bowel episodes, incontinence, urgency, stool consistency, and awakening from sleep to defecate. Background variables were recorded from the medical files. The duodenal switch group was heavier (body mass index 53.5 vs 47.0 kg/m(2), p=0.03) and older (47.5 vs 41.0 years, p=NS) than the gastric bypass group. Median time to 50% excess body weight loss was 22 months in the duodenal switch group compared to 10.0 months in the gastric bypass group (p=0.001). Patients after duodenal switch surgery reported a median of 23.5 bowel episodes over the 14-day study period compared to 16.5 in the gastric bypass group (p=NS). There was no between-group differences in any of the other bowel parameters studied. Although duodenal switch is associated with more bowel episodes than gastric bypass, the difference is not statistically significant. Bowel habits are similar in patients who achieve 50% estimated body weight loss with duodenal switch surgery or gastric bypass.

  20. Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Philip K.

    Numerous cases in this year's chapter dealt with the same topics of previous years--contracts and bids for building construction, and detachment and annexation of a portion of a school district. The courts continued to attribute board discretionary authority to school boards in school property matters. Intergovernmental disputes over ownership or…

  1. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription.To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia.We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013. Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience.The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch', unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches.Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  2. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Natalie J; Kelly, Fiona S; Emmerton, Lynne M; Buetow, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience. The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch'), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  3. DNA and RNA-controlled switching of protein kinase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röglin, L.; Altenbrunn, F.; Seitz, O.

    2009-01-01

    Protein switches use the binding energy gained upon recognition of ligands to modulate the conformation and binding properties of protein segments. We explored whether the programmable nucleic acid mediated recognition might be used to design or mimic constraints that limit the conformational

  4. Memory and threshold switching in thin film PMMA polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, K.V.O.

    1995-05-01

    Threshold switching between two impedance states have been observed at room temperature in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin film sandwiched between two evaporated Al-metal electrodes. The cell's I-V characteristics were found to exhibit memory property. (author). 19 refs, 4 figs

  5. CONTROL OF BOUNCING IN RF MEMS SWITCHES USING DOUBLE ELECTRODE

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Rahim, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    MEMS based mechanical switches are seen to be the likely replacements for CMOS based switches due to the several advantages that these mechanical switches have over CMOS switches. Mechanical switches can be used in systems under extreme conditions

  6. Switching Overvoltages in 60 kV reactor compensated cable grid due to resonance after disconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Baldursson, Haukur; Oumarou, Abdoul M.

    2008-01-01

    power could be directly connected to long cables. Switching both cable and reactor together will cause resonance to occur between the cable capacitance and the inductance of the cable during last end disconnection. Similar type of resonance condition is known to have caused switching overvoltages...... on the 400kV grid in Denmark. Therefore it is considered necessary to analyze further whether connecting a reactor directly to 60kV cable can cause switching overvoltages. A model in PSCAD was used to analyze which parameters can cause overvoltage. The switching resonance overvoltage was found to be caused...

  7. Inherently safe SNR shutdown system with Curie point controlled sensor/switch unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, H.

    1987-02-01

    Inherent shutdown due to increase in the sodium temperature at the core outlet is triggered by interruption of the current supply to the electromagnet coupling of absorber elements via curie point controlled sensor/switch units. These switches are arranged above suitable fuel element positions and spatially independent of the shutdown elements. Compared with other similar systems very short response times are achieved. A prototype switch unit has already undergone extensive testing. These tests have confirmed that switching takes place in a very narrow temperature range. (orig./HP) [de

  8. label.switching: An R Package for Dealing with the Label Switching Problem in MCMC Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Papastamoulis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Label switching is a well-known and fundamental problem in Bayesian estimation of mixture or hidden Markov models. In case that the prior distribution of the model parameters is the same for all states, then both the likelihood and posterior distribution are invariant to permutations of the parameters. This property makes Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC samples simulated from the posterior distribution non-identifiable. In this paper, the label.switching package is introduced. It contains one probabilistic and seven deterministic relabeling algorithms in order to post-process a given MCMC sample, provided by the user. Each method returns a set of permutations that can be used to reorder the MCMC output. Then, any parametric function of interest can be inferred using the reordered MCMC sample. A set of user-defined permutations is also accepted, allowing the researcher to benchmark new relabeling methods against the available ones.

  9. Fission yeast mating-type switching: programmed damage and repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Mating-type switching in fission yeast follows similar rules as in budding yeast, but the underlying mechanisms are entirely different. Whilst the initiating double-strand cut in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires recombinational repair for survival, the initial damage in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...

  10. Experiments on microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Coleman, M.; Miller, A.R.; Parks, D.; Robertson, K.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a series of experiments carried out on ACE 2 and ACE 4 to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the conduction and opening phases on plasma opening switches in a radial geometry with conduction times on the order of a microsecond. The results indicate both conduction and opening physics are similar to that observed on lower current systems in a coaxial geometry

  11. The baryonic self similarity of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alard, C.

    2014-01-01

    The cosmological simulations indicates that dark matter halos have specific self-similar properties. However, the halo similarity is affected by the baryonic feedback. By using momentum-driven winds as a model to represent the baryon feedback, an equilibrium condition is derived which directly implies the emergence of a new type of similarity. The new self-similar solution has constant acceleration at a reference radius for both dark matter and baryons. This model receives strong support from the observations of galaxies. The new self-similar properties imply that the total acceleration at larger distances is scale-free, the transition between the dark matter and baryons dominated regime occurs at a constant acceleration, and the maximum amplitude of the velocity curve at larger distances is proportional to M 1/4 . These results demonstrate that this self-similar model is consistent with the basics of modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) phenomenology. In agreement with the observations, the coincidence between the self-similar model and MOND breaks at the scale of clusters of galaxies. Some numerical experiments show that the behavior of the density near the origin is closely approximated by a Einasto profile.

  12. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  13. Switched capacitor DC-DC converter with switch conductance modulation and Pesudo-fixed frequency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dennis Øland; Vinter, Martin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    A switched capacitor dc-dc converter with frequency-planned control is presented. By splitting the output stage switches in eight segments the output voltage can be regulated with a combination of switching frequency and switch conductance. This allows for switching at predetermined frequencies, 31...

  14. A Switch Is Not a Switch: Syntactically-Driven Bilingual Language Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. "Single-word switches," in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete "whole-language switches," in which…

  15. The structure of Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase reveals a novel redox switch that regulates its activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitnumsub, Penchit; Ittarat, Wanwipa; Jaruwat, Aritsara; Noytanom, Krittikar [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Amornwatcharapong, Watcharee [Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Pornthanakasem, Wichai [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Chaiyen, Pimchai [Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of P. falciparum SHMT revealed snapshots of an intriguing disulfide/sulfhydryl switch controlling the functional activity. Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase (PfSHMT), an enzyme in the dTMP synthesis cycle, is an antimalarial target because inhibition of its expression or function has been shown to be lethal to the parasite. As the wild-type enzyme could not be crystallized, protein engineering of residues on the surface was carried out. The surface-engineered mutant PfSHMT-F292E was successfully crystallized and its structure was determined at 3 Å resolution. The PfSHMT-F292E structure is a good representation of PfSHMT as this variant revealed biochemical properties similar to those of the wild type. Although the overall structure of PfSHMT is similar to those of other SHMTs, unique features including the presence of two loops and a distinctive cysteine pair formed by Cys125 and Cys364 in the tetrahydrofolate (THF) substrate binding pocket were identified. These structural characteristics have never been reported in other SHMTs. Biochemical characterization and mutation analysis of these two residues confirm that they act as a disulfide/sulfhydryl switch to regulate the THF-dependent catalytic function of the enzyme. This redox switch is not present in the human enzyme, in which the cysteine pair is absent. The data reported here can be further exploited as a new strategy to specifically disrupt the activity of the parasite enzyme without interfering with the function of the human enzyme.

  16. The structure of Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase reveals a novel redox switch that regulates its activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnumsub, Penchit; Ittarat, Wanwipa; Jaruwat, Aritsara; Noytanom, Krittikar; Amornwatcharapong, Watcharee; Pornthanakasem, Wichai; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of P. falciparum SHMT revealed snapshots of an intriguing disulfide/sulfhydryl switch controlling the functional activity. Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase (PfSHMT), an enzyme in the dTMP synthesis cycle, is an antimalarial target because inhibition of its expression or function has been shown to be lethal to the parasite. As the wild-type enzyme could not be crystallized, protein engineering of residues on the surface was carried out. The surface-engineered mutant PfSHMT-F292E was successfully crystallized and its structure was determined at 3 Å resolution. The PfSHMT-F292E structure is a good representation of PfSHMT as this variant revealed biochemical properties similar to those of the wild type. Although the overall structure of PfSHMT is similar to those of other SHMTs, unique features including the presence of two loops and a distinctive cysteine pair formed by Cys125 and Cys364 in the tetrahydrofolate (THF) substrate binding pocket were identified. These structural characteristics have never been reported in other SHMTs. Biochemical characterization and mutation analysis of these two residues confirm that they act as a disulfide/sulfhydryl switch to regulate the THF-dependent catalytic function of the enzyme. This redox switch is not present in the human enzyme, in which the cysteine pair is absent. The data reported here can be further exploited as a new strategy to specifically disrupt the activity of the parasite enzyme without interfering with the function of the human enzyme

  17. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek

    2018-03-01

    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  18. Resistance switching induced by electric fields in manganite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, M; Juarez, G; Duhalde, S; Golmar, F; Degreef, C L; Heluani, S P

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the polarity-dependent Electric Pulses Induced Resistive (EPIR) switching phenomenon in thin films driven by electric pulses. Thin films of 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 (manganite) were deposited by PLD on Si substrate. The transport properties at the interface between the film and metallic electrode are characterized in order to study the resistance switching. Sample thermal treatment and electrical field history are important to be considered for get reproducible EPIR effect. Carriers trapping at the interfaces are considered as a possible explanation of our results

  19. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing

    2009-02-11

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  20. Active Molecular Plasmonics: Controlling Plasmon Resonances with Molecular Switches

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Yang, Ying-Wei; Jensen, Lasse; Fang, Lei; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Flood, Amar H.; Weiss, Paul S.; Stoddart, J. Fraser; Huang, Tony Jun

    2009-01-01

    A gold nanodisk array, coated with bistable, redox-controllable [2]rotaxane molecules, when exposed to chemical oxidants and reductants, undergoes switching of its plasmonic properties reversibly. By contrast, (i) bare gold nanodisks and (ii) disks coated with a redox-active, but mechanically inert, control compound do not display surface-plasmon-based switching. Along with calculations based on time-dependent density functional theory, these experimental observations suggest that the nanoscale movements within surface-bound “molecular machines” can be used as the active components in plasmonic devices.

  1. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.301-1 - Similar items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Similar items. 101-26.301-1 Section 101-26.301-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND...

  3. Neutrosophic Refined Similarity Measure Based on Cosine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Broumi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined (multi- sets is proposed and its properties are studied. The concept of this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined sets is the extension of improved cosine similarity measure of single valued neutrosophic. Finally, using this cosine similarity measure of neutrosophic refined set, the application of medical diagnosis is presented.

  4. Measuring transferring similarity via local information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Likang; Deng, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Recommender systems have developed along with the web science, and how to measure the similarity between users is crucial for processing collaborative filtering recommendation. Many efficient models have been proposed (i.g., the Pearson coefficient) to measure the direct correlation. However, the direct correlation measures are greatly affected by the sparsity of dataset. In other words, the direct correlation measures would present an inauthentic similarity if two users have a very few commonly selected objects. Transferring similarity overcomes this drawback by considering their common neighbors (i.e., the intermediates). Yet, the transferring similarity also has its drawback since it can only provide the interval of similarity. To break the limitations, we propose the Belief Transferring Similarity (BTS) model. The contributions of BTS model are: (1) BTS model addresses the issue of the sparsity of dataset by considering the high-order similarity. (2) BTS model transforms uncertain interval to a certain state based on fuzzy systems theory. (3) BTS model is able to combine the transferring similarity of different intermediates using information fusion method. Finally, we compare BTS models with nine different link prediction methods in nine different networks, and we also illustrate the convergence property and efficiency of the BTS model.

  5. Propriedades tecnológicas e sensoriais de produto similar ao tofu obtido pela adição de soro de leite ao extrato de soja Sensorial and technologic properties of product similar to tofu obtained with whey and soymilk addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Ciabotti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho verificar a viabilidade da substituição de parte do extrato de soja por soro de leite na obtenção de um produto similar ao tofu, coagulado com adição de ácido lático e glucona-δ-lactona, quanto aos aspectos tecnológicos e sensoriais. Foram obtidos produtos, elaborados a partir de extratos de soja, adicionados de soro proveniente da elaboração do queijo Mussarela. Foram utilizadas três diferentes combinações da mistura extrato de soja (ES e soro de leite (SL 40: 60; 30: 70; 20: 80, as quais sofreram ações dos coagulantes glucona-δ-lactona (GDL e ácido lático (AL isoladamente. Observou-se que o teor de umidade dos produtos elaborados com glucona-δ-lactona foi mais elevado (p This work aimed to verify the sensorial, technological viability of replacing part of soy milk extract with whey to obtain a product similar to tofu curdled by lactic acid and glucone-δ-lactone. Some products were obtained using soy milk extract and whey from the production of mozzarella cheese. Three different combinations of a mixture of soy milk extract and whey were used (40: 60; 30: 70; 20: 80, all of which were curdled with glucone-d-lactone and lactic acid separately. Products prepared with glucone-δ-lactone presented a higher moisture content (p < 0.05 and an increased crop yield. The products made with lactic acid were richer in protein. Curdling with lactic acid resulted in more firmness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness to the products. Analyzing the color, the "L" values (luminosity of 20: 80 ratio were higher, and the yellow "b" predominated in the products with a higher proportion of soy milk. The product with better acceptance was the one with 40: 60 ratio (soy milk and whey respectively obtained with the addition of glucone-δ-lactone. The use of glucone-δ-lactone resulted in a better yield, texture characteristics, and acceptability.

  6. Plasma flow switch and foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.R.; Forman, P.R.; Gribble, R.F.; Ladish, J.S.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Scudder, D.W.; Shlachter, J.S.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos AGEX (Above Ground EXperiments) program. A goal of the program is to produce an intense (> 100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the kinetic energy of a 1 to 10 MJ plasma implosion. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several 10's of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. The radiating plasma source will be generated by the thermalization of the kinetic energy of an imploding cylindrical, thin, metallic foil. This paper addresses experiments done on a capacitor bank to develop a switch (plasma flow switch) to switch the bank current into the load at peak current. This allows efficient coupling of bank energy into foil kinetic energy

  7. Resistance switching at the nanometre scale in amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Abu; Rossel, Christophe; Pozidis, Haralampos; Eleftheriou, Evangelos; Pauza, Andrew; Shelby, Robert M; RodrIguez, Arantxa Fraile

    2011-01-01

    The electrical transport and resistance switching mechanism in amorphous carbon (a-C) is investigated at the nanoscale. The electrical conduction in a-C thin films is shown to be captured well by a Poole-Frenkel transport model that involves nonisolated traps. Moreover, at high electric fields a field-induced threshold switching phenomenon is observed. The following resistance change is attributed to Joule heating and subsequent localized thermal annealing. We demonstrate that the mechanism is mostly due to clustering of the existing sp 2 sites within the sp 3 matrix. The electrical conduction behaviour, field-induced switching and Joule-heating-induced rearrangement of atomic order resulting in a resistance change are all reminiscent of conventional phase-change memory materials. This suggests the potential of a-C as a similar nonvolatile memory candidate material.

  8. Anthem simulation studies of the plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    For a deeper understanding of the physical processes governing the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) the authors use the ANTHEM 2D implicit simulation code to study: (1) ion dynamical effects on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) waves propagating along steep density interfaces in the switch plasmas. At radial interfaces where the density jumps toward the anode, these waves can drive a finger of magnetic field into the plasma toward the load. Ion dynamics can open the rear of such fingers into a wedge-like density gap. Then: (2) they examine ion effects in uniform switch plasmas. These first develop potential hill structures at the drive edge of the cathode from the competition between electron velocity advection and EHD magnetic exclusion waves. Magnetic pressure gradients at the hill periphery and EHD effects then establish a density gap propagating along the cathode with radial electron emission from its tip. Similar results are obtained under both multi-fluid and PIC modeling on the plasma components

  9. Nox4 Is Dispensable for Exercise Induced Muscle Fibre Switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Vogel

    Full Text Available By producing H2O2, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is involved in differentiation of mesenchymal cells. Exercise alters the composition of slow and fast twitch fibres in skeletal. Here we hypothesized that Nox4 contributes to exercise-induced adaptation such as changes in muscle metabolism or muscle fibre specification and studied this in wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Exercise, as induced by voluntary running in a running wheel or forced running on a treadmill induced a switch from fast twitch to intermediate fibres. However the induced muscle fibre switch was similar between Nox4-/- and wildtype mice. The same held true for exercise-induced expression of PGC1α or AMPK activation. Both are increased in response to exercise, but with no difference was observed between wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Thus, exercise-induced muscle fibre switch is Nox4-independent.

  10. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  11. All-fiber polarization switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter

    2007-03-01

    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.

  12. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  13. Developing a New HSR Switching Node (SwitchBox for Improving Traffic Performance in HSR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Tien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High availability is crucial for industrial Ethernet networks as well as Ethernet-based control systems such as automation networks and substation automation systems (SAS. Since standard Ethernet does not support fault tolerance capability, the high availability of Ethernet networks can be increased by using redundancy protocols. Various redundancy protocols for Ethernet networks have been developed and standardized, such as rapid spanning tree protocol (RSTP, media redundancy protocol (MRP, parallel redundancy protocol (PRP, high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR and others. RSTP and MRP have switchover delay drawbacks. PRP provides zero recovery time, but requires a duplicate network infrastructure. HSR operation is similar to PRP, but HSR uses a single network. However, the standard HSR protocol is mainly applied to ring-based topologies and generates excessively unnecessary redundant traffic in the network. In this paper, we develop a new switching node for the HSR protocol, called SwitchBox, which is used in HSR networks in order to support any network topology and significantly reduce redundant network traffic, including unicast, multicast and broadcast traffic, compared with standard HSR. By using the SwitchBox, HSR not only provides seamless communications with zero switchover time in case of failure, but it is also easily applied to any network topology and significantly reduces unnecessary redundant traffic in HSR networks.

  14. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Assembly and offset assignment scheme for self-similar traffic in optical burst switched networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Muwonge, KB

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available at the Label Edge Router (LER) to buffer traffic in the electronic domain. Burst assembly and offset assignment schemes are implemented in a complementary manner to improve QoS of an OBS network. The authors show that OBS network performance is directly related...

  16. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  17. A level switch with a sound tube

    OpenAIRE

    赤池, 誠規

    2017-01-01

    Level switches are sensor with an electrical contact output at a specific liquid, powder or bulk level. Most of traditional level switches are not suitable for harsh environments. The level switch in this study connects a loudspeaker on top end of the sound tube. When liquid, powder or bulk closes bottom end of the sound tube, the level switch turns on. The level switch is suitable for harsh environments and easy to install. The aim of this study is to propose a level switch with a sound tube...

  18. Observing others stay or switch - How social prediction errors are integrated into reward reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihssen, Niklas; Mussweiler, Thomas; Linden, David E J

    2016-08-01

    Reward properties of stimuli can undergo sudden changes, and the detection of these 'reversals' is often made difficult by the probabilistic nature of rewards/punishments. Here we tested whether and how humans use social information (someone else's choices) to overcome uncertainty during reversal learning. We show a substantial social influence during reversal learning, which was modulated by the type of observed behavior. Participants frequently followed observed conservative choices (no switches after punishment) made by the (fictitious) other player but ignored impulsive choices (switches), even though the experiment was set up so that both types of response behavior would be similarly beneficial/detrimental (Study 1). Computational modeling showed that participants integrated the observed choices as a 'social prediction error' instead of ignoring or blindly following the other player. Modeling also confirmed higher learning rates for 'conservative' versus 'impulsive' social prediction errors. Importantly, this 'conservative bias' was boosted by interpersonal similarity, which in conjunction with the lack of effects observed in a non-social control experiment (Study 2) confirmed its social nature. A third study suggested that relative weighting of observed impulsive responses increased with increased volatility (frequency of reversals). Finally, simulations showed that in the present paradigm integrating social and reward information was not necessarily more adaptive to maximize earnings than learning from reward alone. Moreover, integrating social information increased accuracy only when conservative and impulsive choices were weighted similarly during learning. These findings suggest that to guide decisions in choice contexts that involve reward reversals humans utilize social cues conforming with their preconceptions more strongly than cues conflicting with them, especially when the other is similar. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B

  19. Similarity joins in relational database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Augsten, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art database systems manage and process a variety of complex objects, including strings and trees. For such objects equality comparisons are often not meaningful and must be replaced by similarity comparisons. This book describes the concepts and techniques to incorporate similarity into database systems. We start out by discussing the properties of strings and trees, and identify the edit distance as the de facto standard for comparing complex objects. Since the edit distance is computationally expensive, token-based distances have been introduced to speed up edit distance comput

  20. Single-Molecule Rotational Switch on a Dangling Bond Dimer Bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, Szymon; Kawai, Hiroyo; Kolmer, Marek; Zuzak, Rafał; Echavarren, Antonio M; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek; Saeys, Mark

    2016-09-27

    One of the key challenges in the construction of atomic-scale circuits and molecular machines is to design molecular rotors and switches by controlling the linear or rotational movement of a molecule while preserving its intrinsic electronic properties. Here, we demonstrate both the continuous rotational switching and the controlled step-by-step single switching of a trinaphthylene molecule adsorbed on a dangling bond dimer created on a hydrogen-passivated Ge(001):H surface. The molecular switch is on-surface assembled when the covalent bonds between the molecule and the dangling bond dimer are controllably broken, and the molecule is attached to the dimer by long-range van der Waals interactions. In this configuration, the molecule retains its intrinsic electronic properties, as confirmed by combined scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) measurements, density functional theory calculations, and advanced STM image calculations. Continuous switching of the molecule is initiated by vibronic excitations when the electrons are tunneling through the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital state of the molecule. The switching path is a combination of a sliding and rotation motion over the dangling bond dimer pivot. By carefully selecting the STM conditions, control over discrete single switching events is also achieved. Combined with the ability to create dangling bond dimers with atomic precision, the controlled rotational molecular switch is expected to be a crucial building block for more complex surface atomic-scale devices.

  1. Self-similar cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, W Z [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1981-07-01

    The kinematics and dynamics of self-similar cosmological models are discussed. The degrees of freedom of the solutions of Einstein's equations for different types of models are listed. The relation between kinematic quantities and the classifications of the self-similarity group is examined. All dust local rotational symmetry models have been found.

  2. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  3. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly esta...

  4. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  5. Design of convergent switched systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den R.A.; Pogromsky, A.Y.; Leonov, G.A.; Rooda, J.E.; Pettersen, K.Y.; Gravdahl, J.T.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we deal with the problem of rendering hybrid/nonlinear systems into convergent closed-loop systems by means of a feedback law or switching rules. We illustrate our approach to this problem by means of two examples: the anti-windup design for a marginally stable system with input

  6. Incorrect predictions reduce switch costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2015-07-01

    In three experiments, we combined two sources of conflict within a modified task-switching procedure. The first source of conflict was the one inherent in any task switching situation, namely the conflict between a task set activated by the recent performance of another task and the task set needed to perform the actually relevant task. The second source of conflict was induced by requiring participants to guess aspects of the upcoming task (Exps. 1 & 2: task identity; Exp. 3: position of task precue). In case of an incorrect guess, a conflict accrues between the representation of the guessed task and the actually relevant task. In Experiments 1 and 2, incorrect guesses led to an overall increase of reaction times and error rates, but they reduced task switch costs compared to conditions in which participants predicted the correct task. In Experiment 3, incorrect guesses resulted in faster performance overall and to a selective decrease of reaction times in task switch trials when the cue-target interval was long. We interpret these findings in terms of an enhanced level of controlled processing induced by a combination of two sources of conflict converging upon the same target of cognitive control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad; Alnuweiri, Hussein M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Industry Switching in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Firm turnover (i.e. firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sectorlevel productivity growth across developing and developed countries. In contrast, the role and importance of firms switching activities from one sector to another is little understood. Firm switchers are likely...

  9. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-07-03

    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  10. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2013-03-15

    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  11. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  13. Personalized recommendation with corrected similarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Cai, Shimin

    2014-01-01

    Personalized recommendation has attracted a surge of interdisciplinary research. Especially, similarity-based methods in applications of real recommendation systems have achieved great success. However, the computations of similarities are overestimated or underestimated, in particular because of the defective strategy of unidirectional similarity estimation. In this paper, we solve this drawback by leveraging mutual correction of forward and backward similarity estimations, and propose a new personalized recommendation index, i.e., corrected similarity based inference (CSI). Through extensive experiments on four benchmark datasets, the results show a greater improvement of CSI in comparison with these mainstream baselines. And a detailed analysis is presented to unveil and understand the origin of such difference between CSI and mainstream indices. (paper)

  14. Towards Personalized Medicine: Leveraging Patient Similarity and Drug Similarity Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHR) provides a comprehensive source for exploratory and predictive analytic to support clinical decision-making. In this paper, we investigate how to utilize EHR to tailor treatments to individual patients based on their likelihood to respond to a therapy. We construct a heterogeneous graph which includes two domains (patients and drugs) and encodes three relationships (patient similarity, drug similarity, and patient-drug prior associations). We describe a novel approach for performing a label propagation procedure to spread the label information representing the effectiveness of different drugs for different patients over this heterogeneous graph. The proposed method has been applied on a real-world EHR dataset to help identify personalized treatments for hypercholesterolemia. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and suggest that the combination of appropriate patient similarity and drug similarity analytics could lead to actionable insights for personalized medicine. Particularly, by leveraging drug similarity in combination with patient similarity, our method could perform well even on new or rarely used drugs for which there are few records of known past performance. PMID:25717413

  15. Similarity solutions for phase-change problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canright, D.; Davis, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A modification of Ivantsov's (1947) similarity solutions is proposed which can describe phase-change processes which are limited by diffusion. The method has application to systems that have n-components and possess cross-diffusion and Soret and Dufour effects, along with convection driven by density discontinuities at the two-phase interface. Local thermal equilibrium is assumed at the interface. It is shown that analytic solutions are possible when the material properties are constant.

  16. Switch-connected HyperX network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip

    2018-02-13

    A network system includes a plurality of sub-network planes and global switches. The sub-network planes have a same network topology as each other. Each of the sub-network planes includes edge switches. Each of the edge switches has N ports. Each of the global switches is configured to connect a group of edge switches at a same location in the sub-network planes. In each of the sub-network planes, some of the N ports of each of the edge switches are connected to end nodes, and others of the N ports are connected to other edge switches in the same sub-network plane, other of the N ports are connected to at least one of the global switches.

  17. 36 CFR 1002.20 - Skating, skateboards and similar devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skating, skateboards and similar devices. 1002.20 Section 1002.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.20 Skating, skateboards and similar devices. Using roller skates...

  18. Lithium niobate. Defects, photorefraction and ferroelectric switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Tatyana [Russian Academy of Sciences, Inst. for Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation); Woehlecke, Manfred [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    2008-07-01

    The book presents the current state of studies of point defects, both intrinsic and extrinsic (impurities, radiation centers, etc.), in LiNbO{sub 3}. The contribution of intrinsic defects to photoinduced charge transport, i.e. to the photorefraction, is explained. The photorefractive and optical properties of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals with different stoichiometry and of those doped with so-called ''optical-damage resistant'' impurities controlling the intrinsic defect structure are described in detail. Applications included are to the problem of non-erasable recording of photorefractive holograms in LiNbO{sub 3} and the current situation of studies in the ferroelectric switching and domain structure of LiNbO{sub 3}, as well as the creation of periodically-poled structures for the optical frequency conversion. (orig.)

  19. Non-switching to switching transferring mechanism investigation for Ag/SiO x /p-Si structure with SiO x deposited by HWCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Wang, Ruoying; Li, Zhongyue; Wang, Song; Huang, Yang; Peng, Wei

    2018-04-01

    We proposed and fabricated an Ag/SiO x /p-Si sandwich structure, in which amorphous SiO x films were deposited through hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as Si and O precursor. Experimental results indicate that the I–V properties of this structure transfer from non-switching to switching operation as the SiO x deposition temperature increased. The device with SiO x deposited at high deposition temperature exhibits typical bipolar switching properties, which can be potentially used in resistive switching random accessible memory (RRAM). The transferring mechanism from non-switching to switching can be ascribed to the change of structural and electronic properties of SiO x active layer deposited at different temperatures, as evidenced by analyzing FTIR spectrum and fitting its I–V characteristics curves. This work demonstrates a safe and practicable low-temperature device-grade SiO x film deposition technology by conducting HWCVD from TEOS.

  20. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four...... cycles of SC trastuzumab, via single-use injection device (SID; Cohort 1) or hand-held syringe (Cohort 2), followed by four cycles of IV, or vice versa (the crossover period presented here) as part of their 18 standard cycles of adjuvant trastuzumab treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were reported using....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...

  1. Econophysics — complex correlations and trend switchings in financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, T.

    2011-03-01

    This article focuses on the analysis of financial time series and their correlations. A method is used for quantifying pattern based correlations of a time series. With this methodology, evidence is found that typical behavioral patterns of financial market participants manifest over short time scales, i.e., that reactions to given price patterns are not entirely random, but that similar price patterns also cause similar reactions. Based on the investigation of the complex correlations in financial time series, the question arises, which properties change when switching from a positive trend to a negative trend. An empirical quantification by rescaling provides the result that new price extrema coincide with a significant increase in transaction volume and a significant decrease in the length of corresponding time intervals between transactions. These findings are independent of the time scale over 9 orders of magnitude, and they exhibit characteristics which one can also find in other complex systems in nature (and in physical systems in particular). These properties are independent of the markets analyzed. Trends that exist only for a few seconds show the same characteristics as trends on time scales of several months. Thus, it is possible to study financial bubbles and their collapses in more detail, because trend switching processes occur with higher frequency on small time scales. In addition, a Monte Carlo based simulation of financial markets is analyzed and extended in order to reproduce empirical features and to gain insight into their causes. These causes include both financial market microstructure and the risk aversion of market participants.

  2. Isolated converter with synchronized switching leg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2003-01-01

    An amplification device is disclosed providing a way of integrating a switch mode power supply and a class D amplifier (switch mode amplifier). This results in the usage of basically one magnetic component (1), one major energy storage element (4) and switches (20, 30) that are controlled in such a

  3. Mechanism of single atom switch on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate single atom switch on silicon which operates by displacement of a hydrogen atom on the silicon (100) surface at room temperature. We find two principal effects by which the switch is controlled: a pronounced maximum of the switching probability as function of sample bias...

  4. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  5. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  6. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign services that use local exchange switching facilities. (c) If end users of an interstate or... local exchange carriers shall establish rate elements for local switching as follows: (1) Price cap... use local exchange switching facilities for the provision of interstate or foreign services. The...

  7. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  8. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  9. Control and synchronisation in switched arrival systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, B.; Armbruster, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    A chaotic model of a production flow called the switched arrival system is extended to include switching times and maintenance. The probability distribution of the chaotic return times is calculated. Scheduling maintenance, loss of production due to switching, and control of the chaotic dynamics is

  10. Friendship-based partner switching promotes cooperation in heterogeneous populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wu, Te; Li, Zhiwu; Wang, Long

    2016-02-01

    The forming of human social ties tends to be with similar individuals. This study concentrates on the emergence of cooperation among heterogeneous populations. A simple model is proposed by considering the impact of interplay between the evolution of strategies and that of social partnerships on cooperation dynamics. Whenever two individuals acquire the rewards by playing prisoner's dilemma game with each other, the friendship (friendship is quantified as the weight of a link) between the two individuals deepens. Individuals can switch off the social ties with the partners who are unfriendly and rewire to similar new ones. Under this partner switching mechanism, population structure is divided into several groups and cooperation can prevail. It is observed that the frequent tendency of partner switching can lead to the enhancement of cooperative behavior under the enormous temptation to defect. Moreover, the influence of discounting the relationship between different individuals is also investigated. Meanwhile, the cooperation prevails when the adjustment of friendships mainly depends on the incomes of selected individuals rather than that of their partners. Finally, it is found that too similar population fail to maximize the cooperation and there exists a moderate similarity that can optimize cooperation.

  11. Proteinaceous toxins from three species of scorpaeniform fish (lionfish Pterois lunulata, devil stinger Inimicus japonicus and waspfish Hypodytes rubripinnis): close similarity in properties and primary structures to stonefish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriake, Aya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2013-08-01

    The crude toxins from three species of venomous fish (lionfish Pterois lunulata, devil stinger Inimicus japonicus and waspfish Hypodytes rubripinnis) belonging to the order Scorpaeniformes exhibited mouse-lethal, hemolytic, edema-forming and nociceptive activities. In view of the antigenic cross-reactivity with the stonefish toxins, the primary structures of the stonefish toxin-like toxins from the three scorpaeniform fish were determined by cDNA cloning using primers designed from the highly conserved sequences of the stonefish toxins. Based on the data obtained in gel filtration, immunoblotting and cDNA cloning, each toxin was judged to be a 160 kDa heterodimer composed of 80 kDa α- and β-subunits. The three scorpaeniform fish toxins contain a B30.2/SPRY domain (∼200 amino acid residues) in the C-terminal region of each subunit, as reported for the toxins from two species of lionfish and two species of stonefish. With respect to the amino acid sequence similarity, the scorpaeniform fish toxins are divided into the following two groups: toxins from three species of lionfish and those from devil stinger, two species of stonefish and waspfish. The phylogenetic tree generated also clearly supports the classification of the toxins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the threshold trimming method for micro inertial fluidic switch based on electrowetting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The switch based on electrowetting technology has the advantages of no moving part, low contact resistance, long life and adjustable acceleration threshold. The acceleration threshold of switch can be fine-tuned by adjusting the applied voltage. This paper is focused on the electrowetting properties of switch and the influence of microchannel structural parameters, applied voltage and droplet volume on acceleration threshold. In the presence of process errors of micro inertial fluidic switch and measuring errors of droplet volume, there is a deviation between test acceleration threshold and target acceleration threshold. Considering the process errors and measuring errors, worst-case analysis is used to analyze the influence of parameter tolerance on the acceleration threshold. Under worst-case condition the total acceleration threshold tolerance caused by various errors is 9.95%. The target acceleration threshold can be achieved by fine-tuning the applied voltage. The acceleration threshold trimming method of micro inertial fluidic switch is verified.

  13. Evaluation of the Delivery QoS Characteristics of Gigabit Ethernet Switches

    CERN Document Server

    Beuran, Razvan; Davies, Neil; Dobinson, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    The event selection system for ATLAS is designed to perform real-time image processing on particle collision data equivalent to 2 TB/s. This data is filtered by a multi-level architecture, resulting in 200 GB/s of data analysed by a distributed system consisting of several thousand PCs and switches. As part of our ongoing work on this system, we performed tests on several Gigabit Ethernet switches manufactured by market leaders, using our custom-built test equipment. We analysed the implications of running network devices at, and just beyond, saturation while deploying service differentiation mechanisms. We quantified the quality degradation that traffic flows experienced when passing through switches. We focused on emergent properties in saturation, including fairness and fidelity to expectations. We discuss the ideals for switch behaviour and compare them against the observed behaviour of real implementations of differentiation mechanisms in switches. This creates a generic benchmark, which is independent o...

  14. Novel, Four-Switch, Z-Source Three-Phase Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Robert; Muntean, Nicolae; Boldea, Ion

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new z-source three phase inverter topology. The proposed topology combines the advantages of a traditional four-switch three-phase inverter with the advantages of the z impedance network (one front-end diode, two inductors and two X connected capacitors). This new topology......, besides the self-boost property, has low switch count and it can operate as a buck-boost inverter. In contrast to standard four-switch three-phase inverter which operates at half dc input voltage the proposed four-switch z-source inverter, by self boosting, brings the output voltage at same (or higher......) value as in six switch standard three-phase inverter. The article presents the derivation of the equations describing the operation of the converter based on space vector analysis, validation through digital simulations in PSIM and preliminary experimental results on a laboratory setup with a dsPIC30F...

  15. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2009-01-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold

  16. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  17. Study of switching behavior of exchange-coupled nanomagnets by transverse magnetization metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Himadri S.; Csaba, Gyorgy; Bernstein, Gary H.; Porod, Wolfgang

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the static switching modes of nanomagnets patterned from antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled magnetic multilayers, and compare them to nanomagnets having only dipole coupling between the ferromagnetic layers. Vibrating sample magnetometry experiments, supported by micromagnetic simulations, reveal two distinct switching mechanisms between the exchange-coupled and only dipole-coupled nanomagnets. The exchange-coupled nanomagnets exhibit gradual switching of the layers, dictated by the strong antiferromagnetic exchange coupling present between the layers. However, the layers of the only dipole-coupled nanomagnets show abrupt nucleation/growth type switching. A comprehensive understanding of the switching modes of such layered and patterned systems can add new insight into the reversal mechanisms of similar systems employed for spintronic and magneto-logic device applications.

  18. Experimental Validation of Flow Force Models for Fast Switching Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Niels Christian; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Nørgård, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper comprises a detailed study of the forces acting on a Fast Switching Valve (FSV) plunger. The objective is to investigate to what extend different models are valid to be used for design purposes. These models depend on the geometry of the moving plunger and the properties of the surroun......This paper comprises a detailed study of the forces acting on a Fast Switching Valve (FSV) plunger. The objective is to investigate to what extend different models are valid to be used for design purposes. These models depend on the geometry of the moving plunger and the properties...... to compare and validate different models, where an effort is directed towards capturing the fluid squeeze effect just before material on material contact. The test data is compared with simulation data relying solely on analytic formulations. The general dynamics of the plunger is validated...

  19. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  20. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  1. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  2. Switch for Good Community Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Tabitha [Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management LLC, Newtown Square, PA (United States); Amran, Martha [WattzOn, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective. The program was delivered on-time and on-budget, and its success is based on the teamwork of local BB staff and the WattzOn team. The following graphic shows Switch4Good “by the numbers”, e.g. the scale of operations achieved during Phase I.

  3. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  4. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael E [Livermore, CA

    2009-01-13

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  5. Switching strategies to optimize search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Search strategies are explored when the search time is fixed, success is probabilistic and the estimate for success can diminish with time if there is not a successful result. Under the time constraint the problem is to find the optimal time to switch a search strategy or search location. Several variables are taken into account, including cost, gain, rate of success if a target is present and the probability that a target is present. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  6. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  7. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  8. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  9. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs

  10. Coating possibilities for magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, D.J.; Harjes, H.C.; Mann, G.A.; Morgan, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    High average power magnetic pulse compression systems are now being considered for use in several applications such as the High Power Radiation Source (HiPoRS) project. Such systems will require high reliability magnetic switches (saturable inductors) that are very efficient and have long lifetimes. One of the weakest components in magnetic switches is their interlaminar insulation. Considerations related to dielectric breakdown, thermal management of compact designs, and economical approaches for achieving these needs must be addressed. Various dielectric insulation and coating materials have been applied to Metglas foil in an attempt to solve the complex technical and practical problems associated with large magnetic switch structures. This work reports various needs, studies, results, and proposals in selecting and evaluating continuous coating approaches for magnetic foil. Techniques such as electrophoretic polymer deposition and surface chemical oxidation are discussed. We also propose continuous photofabrication processes for applying dielectric ribs or spacers to the foil which permit circulation of dielectric liquids for cooling during repetitive operation. 10 refs., 8 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Transistor electronics use of semiconductor components in switching operations

    CERN Document Server

    Rumpf, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Transistor Electronics: Use of Semiconductor Components in Switching Operations presents the semiconductor components as well as their elementary circuits. This book discusses the scope of application of electronic devices to increase productivity. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general equation for the representation of integer positive numbers. This text then examines the properties and characteristics of basic electronic components, which relates to an understanding of the operation of semiconductors. Other chapters consider the electronic circuit ar

  12. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta eKray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task switching, and working memory. In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal working memory as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning. The children in both groups showed improvements in task switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal working memory, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  13. Can task-switching training enhance executive control functioning in children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Karbach, Julia; Haenig, Susann; Freitag, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The key cognitive impairments of children with attention deficit/-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include executive control functions such as inhibitory control, task-switching, and working memory (WM). In this training study we examined whether task-switching training leads to improvements in these functions. Twenty children with combined type ADHD and stable methylphenidate medication performed a single-task and a task-switching training in a crossover training design. The children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group started with the single-task training and then performed the task-switching training and the other group vice versa. The effectiveness of the task-switching training was measured as performance improvements (relative to the single-task training) on a structurally similar but new switching task and on other executive control tasks measuring inhibitory control and verbal WM as well as on fluid intelligence (reasoning). The children in both groups showed improvements in task-switching, that is, a reduction of switching costs, but not in performing the single-tasks across four training sessions. Moreover, the task-switching training lead to selective enhancements in task-switching performance, that is, the reduction of task-switching costs was found to be larger after task-switching than after single-task training. Similar selective improvements were observed for inhibitory control and verbal WM, but not for reasoning. Results of this study suggest that task-switching training is an effective cognitive intervention that helps to enhance executive control functioning in children with ADHD.

  14. Optical Multidimensional Switching for Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija

    2017-01-01

    . Software controlled switching using an on-chip integrated fiber switch is demonstrated and enabling of additional network functionalities such as multicast and optical grooming is experimentally confirmed. Altogether this work demonstrates the potential of optical switching technologies...... for the purpose of deploying optical switching within the network. First, the Hi-Ring data center architecture is proposed. It is based on optical multidimensional switching nodes that provide switching in hierarchically layered space, wavelength and time domain. The performance of the Hi-Ring architecture...... is evaluated experimentally and successful switching of both high capacity wavelength connections and time-shared subwavelengthconnections is demonstrated. Error-free performance is also achieved when transmitting 7 Tbit/s using multicore fiber, confirming the ability to scale the network. Moreover...

  15. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  16. Synchronization in complex networks with switching topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Qing-guo

    2011-01-01

    This Letter investigates synchronization issues of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. By constructing a common Lyapunov function, we show that local and global synchronization for a linearly coupled network with switching topology can be evaluated by the time average of second smallest eigenvalues corresponding to the Laplacians of switching topology. This result is quite powerful and can be further used to explore various switching cases for complex dynamical networks. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results in the end. -- Highlights: → Synchronization of complex networks with switching topology is investigated. → A common Lyapunov function is established for synchronization of switching network. → The common Lyapunov function is not necessary to monotonically decrease with time. → Synchronization is determined by the second smallest eigenvalue of its Laplacian. → Synchronization criterion can be used to investigate various switching cases.

  17. Energy storage, compression, and switching. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, V.; Bostick, W.H.; Sahlin, H.

    1983-01-01

    This book is a compilation of papers presented at the Second International Conference on Energy Storage, Compression, and Switching, which was held in order to assemble active researchers with a major interest in plasma physics, electron beams, electric and magnetic energy storage systems, high voltage and high current switches, free-electron lasers, and pellet implosion plasma focus. Topics covered include: Slow systems: 50-60 Hz machinery, homopolar generators, slow capacitors, inductors, and solid state switches; Intermediate systems: fast capacitor banks; superconducting storage and switching; gas, vacuum, and dielectric switching; nonlinear (magnetic) switching; imploding liners capacitors; explosive generators; and fuses; and Fast systems: Marx, Blumlein, oil, water, and pressurized water dielectrics; switches; magnetic insulation; electron beams; and plasmas

  18. Comment on "Fault Tolerant analysis for stochastic systems using switching diffusion processes' by Yang, Jiang and Cocquempot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef

    2011-01-01

    Results are given in [Yang et. al. 2009] regarding the overall stability of switched diffusion processes based on stability properties of separate processes combined through stochastic switching. This paper argues two main results to be empty, in that the presented hypotheses are logically...

  19. Auditory Multi-Stability: Idiosyncratic Perceptual Switching Patterns, Executive Functions and Personality Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávid Farkas

    Full Text Available Multi-stability refers to the phenomenon of perception stochastically switching between possible interpretations of an unchanging stimulus. Despite considerable variability, individuals show stable idiosyncratic patterns of switching between alternative perceptions in the auditory streaming paradigm. We explored correlates of the individual switching patterns with executive functions, personality traits, and creativity. The main dimensions on which individual switching patterns differed from each other were identified using multidimensional scaling. Individuals with high scores on the dimension explaining the largest portion of the inter-individual variance switched more often between the alternative perceptions than those with low scores. They also perceived the most unusual interpretation more often, and experienced all perceptual alternatives with a shorter delay from stimulus onset. The ego-resiliency personality trait, which reflects a tendency for adaptive flexibility and experience seeking, was significantly positively related to this dimension. Taking these results together we suggest that this dimension may reflect the individual's tendency for exploring the auditory environment. Executive functions were significantly related to some of the variables describing global properties of the switching patterns, such as the average number of switches. Thus individual patterns of perceptual switching in the auditory streaming paradigm are related to some personality traits and executive functions.

  20. Digital to analog resistive switching transition induced by graphene buffer layer in strontium titanate based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Tao; Qu, Bo; Du, Haiwei; Lin, Xi; Lin, Qianru; Wang, Da-Wei; Cazorla, Claudio; Li, Sean; Liu, Sidong; Chu, Dewei

    2018-02-15

    Resistive switching behaviour can be classified into digital and analog switching based on its abrupt and gradual resistance change characteristics. Realizing the transition from digital to analog switching in the same device is essential for understanding and controlling the performance of the devices with various switching mechanisms. Here, we investigate the resistive switching in a device made with strontium titanate (SrTiO 3 ) nanoparticles using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and direct electrical measurements. It is found that the well-known rupture/formation of Ag filaments is responsible for the digital switching in the device with Ag as the top electrode. To modulate the switching performance, we insert a reduced graphene oxide layer between SrTiO 3 and the bottom FTO electrode owing to its good barrier property for the diffusion of Ag ions and high out-of-plane resistance. In this case, resistive switching is changed from digital to analog as determined by the modulation of interfacial resistance under applied voltage. Based on that controllable resistance, potentiation and depression behaviours are implemented as well. This study opens up new ways for the design of multifunctional devices which are promising for memory and neuromorphic computing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Asmaa; Salah, Abeer; Fattah, Gamal Abdel

    2017-05-12

    Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin's rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications.

  2. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  3. Fast business process similarity search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Z.; Dijkman, R.M.; Grefen, P.W.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, it is common for organizations to maintain collections of hundreds or even thousands of business processes. Techniques exist to search through such a collection, for business process models that are similar to a given query model. However, those techniques compare the query model to each

  4. Glove boxes and similar containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    According to the present invention a glove box or similar containment is provided with an exhaust system including a vortex amplifier venting into the system, the vortex amplifier also having its main inlet in fluid flow connection with the containment and a control inlet in fluid flow connection with the atmosphere outside the containment. (U.S.)

  5. [An analysis of code-switching phenomenon in bimodal bilinguals (Libras and Portuguese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2012-01-01

    An interesting linguistic phenomenon that happens in the interaction among bilingual people is code-switching. In this paper, we are investigating code-switching among oral Brazilian Portuguese and Brazilian Sign Language - Libras, in a same enunciative chain, with the goal of identifying and analyzing the use of code-switching in the speech of a child and an adult (both hearing from deaf parents), interacting in an intermodal bilingual context, with deaf and hearing interlocutors. Code-switching in languages, in this case, occurs when a person stops to speak in Portuguese and he/she alternates to sign. This present research is a starting study, with qualitative analysis of data. Our corpus is composed of nine sections of interactions in Libras and oral Portuguese, recorded in video, part of the Bimodal Bilingual Development Project from UFSC. The data shows that adult and child's characteristics of code-switching seem to have similarities and differences. The adult seems to switch more worried about the course of the interaction. On the other hand, the child did not seem to use code-switching for specific pragmatic reasons. In regard to the switching extension, it is noted that both the child and the adult used more than one word sentences. The role of the interlocutors seems to be decisive in the interactions investigated here - especially for the adult, since the child is still acquiring awareness about the role of the interlocutor in an interaction.

  6. Low-profile high-voltage compact gas switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Speer, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a low-profile, high-voltage, spark-gap switch designed to be closely coupled with other components into an integrated high-energy pulsed-power source. The switch is designed to operate at 100 kV using SF6 gas pressurized to less than 0.7 MPa. The volume of the switch cavity region is less than 1.5 cm3, and the field stress along the gas-dielectric interface is as high as 130 kV/cm. The dielectric switch body has a low profile that is only I -cm tall at its greatest extent and nominally 2-mm thick over most of its area. This design achieves a very low inductance of less than 5 nH, but results in field stresses exceeding 500 kV/cm in the dielectric material. Field modeling was done to determine the appropriate shape for the highly stressed insulator and electrodes, and special manufacturing techniques were employed to mitigate the usual mechanisms that induce breakdown and failure in solid dielectrics. Static breakdown tests verified that the switch operates satisfactorily at 100 kV levels. The unit has been characterized with different shaped electrodes having nominal gap spacings of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm. The relationship between self-break voltage and operating pressure agrees well with published data on gas properties, accounting for the field enhancements of the electrode shapes being used. Capacitor discharge tests in a low inductance test fixture exhibited peak currents up to 25 kA with characteristic frequencies of the ringdown circuit ranging from 10 to 20 MHz. The ringdown waveforms and scaling of measured parameters agree well with circuit modeling of the switch and test fixture. Repetitive operation has been demonstrated at moderate rep-rates up to 15 Hz, limited by the power supply being used. Preliminary tests to evaluate lifetime of the compact switch assembly have been encouraging. In one case, after more than 7,000 high-current ringdown tests with approximately 30 C of total charge transferred, the

  7. Resistive switching in Pt/TiO{sub 2}/Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Doo Seok

    2008-08-15

    Recently, the resistive switching behavior in TiO{sub 2} has drawn attention due to its application to resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. TiO{sub 2} shows characteristic non-volatile resistive switching behavior, i.e. reversible switching between a high resistance state (HRS) and a low resistance state (LRS). Both unipolar resistive switching (URS) and bipolar resistive switching (BRS) are found to be observed in TiO{sub 2} depending on the compliance current for the electroforming. In this thesis the characteristic current-voltage (I-V) hysteresis in three different states of TiO{sub 2}, pristine, URS-activated, and BRS-activated states, was investigated and understood in terms of the migration of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2}. The I-V hysteresis of pristine TiO{sub 2} was found to show volatile behavior. That is, the temporary variation of the resistance took place depending on the applied voltage. However, the I-V hysteresis of URS- and BRS-activated states showed non-volatile resistive switching behavior. Some evidences proving the evolution of oxygen gas during electroforming were obtained from time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis and the variation of the morphology of switching cells induced by the electroforming. On the assumption that a large number of oxygen vacancies are introduced by the electroforming process, the I-V behavior in electroformed switching cells was simulated with varying the distribution of oxygen vacancies in electroformed TiO{sub x} (x similar 2). The I-V hysteresis undergoing the BRS was simulated with taking into consideration oxygen formation/annihilation reactions at a Pt/TiO{sub x} interface. The oxygen-related reactions given as a function of the applied voltage affect the distribution of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub x}, consequently, the Schottky barrier height at the cathode/TiO{sub x} interface is influenced by the oxygen vacancy distribution. Therefore, the BRS behavior including the

  8. Two-magnon bound state causes ultrafast thermally induced magnetisation switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.; Atxitia, U.; Ostler, T. A.; Hovorka, O.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Chantrell, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the discovery of thermally induced magnetisation switching using femtosecond laser excitation, where a ferrimagnetic system can be switched deterministically without an applied magnetic field. Experimental results suggest that the reversal occurs due to intrinsic material properties, but so far the microscopic mechanism responsible for reversal has not been identified. Using computational and analytic methods we show that the switching is caused by the excitation of two-magnon bound states, the properties of which are dependent on material factors. This discovery allows us to accurately predict the onset of switching and the identification of this mechanism will allow new classes of materials to be identified or designed for memory devices in the THz regime. PMID:24253110

  9. Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2012-10-04

    No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments.

  10. Investigation of resistive switching in barium strontium titanate thin films for memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted much attention due to its low power consumption, high speed operation, non-readout disturbance and high density integration potential and is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory. The resistive switching behavior of Mn-doped BaSrTiO 3 (BST) thin films with different crystalline properties was investigated within this dissertation. The laser fluence dependence was checked in order to optimize the RRAM properties. Although the film epitaxial quality was improved by reducing the laser energy during deposition process, the yields fluctuated and only 3% RRAM devices with highest epitaxial quality of BST film shows resistive switching behavior instead of 67% for the samples with worse film quality. It gives a clue that the best thin film quality does not result in the best switching performance, and it is a clear evidence of the importance of the defects to obtain resistive switching phenomena. The bipolar resistive switching behavior was studied with epitaxial BST thin films on SRO/STO. Compared to Pt top electrode, the yield, endurance and reliability were strongly improved for the samples with W top electrode. Whereas the samples with Pt top electrode show a fast drop of the resistance for both high and low resistance states, the devices with W top electrode can be switched for 10 4 times without any obvious degradation. The resistance degradation for devices with Pt top electrode may result from the diffusion of oxygen along the Pt grain boundaries during cycling whereas for W top electrode the reversible oxidation and reduction of a WO x layer, present at the interface between W top electrode and BST film, attributes to the improved switching property. The transition from bipolar to unipolar resistive switching in polycrystalline BST thin films was observed. A forming process which induces a metallic low resistance state is prerequisite for the observation of

  11. Investigation of resistive switching in barium strontium titanate thin films for memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wan

    2010-11-17

    Resistive random access memory (RRAM) has attracted much attention due to its low power consumption, high speed operation, non-readout disturbance and high density integration potential and is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for the next generation non-volatile memory. The resistive switching behavior of Mn-doped BaSrTiO{sub 3} (BST) thin films with different crystalline properties was investigated within this dissertation. The laser fluence dependence was checked in order to optimize the RRAM properties. Although the film epitaxial quality was improved by reducing the laser energy during deposition process, the yields fluctuated and only 3% RRAM devices with highest epitaxial quality of BST film shows resistive switching behavior instead of 67% for the samples with worse film quality. It gives a clue that the best thin film quality does not result in the best switching performance, and it is a clear evidence of the importance of the defects to obtain resistive switching phenomena. The bipolar resistive switching behavior was studied with epitaxial BST thin films on SRO/STO. Compared to Pt top electrode, the yield, endurance and reliability were strongly improved for the samples with W top electrode. Whereas the samples with Pt top electrode show a fast drop of the resistance for both high and low resistance states, the devices with W top electrode can be switched for 10{sup 4} times without any obvious degradation. The resistance degradation for devices with Pt top electrode may result from the diffusion of oxygen along the Pt grain boundaries during cycling whereas for W top electrode the reversible oxidation and reduction of a WO{sub x} layer, present at the interface between W top electrode and BST film, attributes to the improved switching property. The transition from bipolar to unipolar resistive switching in polycrystalline BST thin films was observed. A forming process which induces a metallic low resistance state is prerequisite for the

  12. Design and analysis of photonic optical switches with improved wavelength selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielichowski, Marcin; Patela, Sergiusz

    2005-09-01

    Efficient optical modulators and switches are the key elements of the future all-optical fiber networks. Aside from numerous advantages, the integrated optical devices suffer from excessive longitudinal dimensions. The dimensions may be significantly reduced with help of periodic structures, such as Bragg gratings, arrayed waveguides or multilayer structures. In this paper we describe methods of analysis and example of analytical results of a photonic switch with properties modified by the application of periodic change of effective refractive index. The switch is composed of a strip-waveguide directional coupler and a transversal Bragg grating.

  13. Study of selected phenotype switching strategies in time varying environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Denis, E-mail: horvath.denis@gmail.com [Centre of Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Brutovsky, Branislav, E-mail: branislav.brutovsky@upjs.sk [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2016-03-22

    Population heterogeneity plays an important role across many research, as well as the real-world, problems. The population heterogeneity relates to the ability of a population to cope with an environment change (or uncertainty) preventing its extinction. However, this ability is not always desirable as can be exemplified by an intratumor heterogeneity which positively correlates with the development of resistance to therapy. Causation of population heterogeneity is therefore in biology and medicine an intensively studied topic. In this paper the evolution of a specific strategy of population diversification, the phenotype switching, is studied at a conceptual level. The presented simulation model studies evolution of a large population of asexual organisms in a time-varying environment represented by a stochastic Markov process. Each organism disposes with a stochastic or nonlinear deterministic switching strategy realized by discrete-time models with evolvable parameters. We demonstrate that under rapidly varying exogenous conditions organisms operate in the vicinity of the bet-hedging strategy, while the deterministic patterns become relevant as the environmental variations are less frequent. Statistical characterization of the steady state regimes of the populations is done using the Hellinger and Kullback–Leibler functional distances and the Hamming distance. - Highlights: • Relation between phenotype switching and environment is studied. • The Markov chain Monte Carlo based model is developed. • Stochastic and deterministic strategies of phenotype switching are utilized. • Statistical measures of the dynamic heterogeneity reveal universal properties. • The results extend to higher lattice dimensions.

  14. Study of selected phenotype switching strategies in time varying environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Denis; Brutovsky, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Population heterogeneity plays an important role across many research, as well as the real-world, problems. The population heterogeneity relates to the ability of a population to cope with an environment change (or uncertainty) preventing its extinction. However, this ability is not always desirable as can be exemplified by an intratumor heterogeneity which positively correlates with the development of resistance to therapy. Causation of population heterogeneity is therefore in biology and medicine an intensively studied topic. In this paper the evolution of a specific strategy of population diversification, the phenotype switching, is studied at a conceptual level. The presented simulation model studies evolution of a large population of asexual organisms in a time-varying environment represented by a stochastic Markov process. Each organism disposes with a stochastic or nonlinear deterministic switching strategy realized by discrete-time models with evolvable parameters. We demonstrate that under rapidly varying exogenous conditions organisms operate in the vicinity of the bet-hedging strategy, while the deterministic patterns become relevant as the environmental variations are less frequent. Statistical characterization of the steady state regimes of the populations is done using the Hellinger and Kullback–Leibler functional distances and the Hamming distance. - Highlights: • Relation between phenotype switching and environment is studied. • The Markov chain Monte Carlo based model is developed. • Stochastic and deterministic strategies of phenotype switching are utilized. • Statistical measures of the dynamic heterogeneity reveal universal properties. • The results extend to higher lattice dimensions.

  15. Three-Dimensionally Printed Micro-electromechanical Switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwoo; Han, Jungmin; Choi, Bongsik; Yoon, Jinsu; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Yeamin; Lee, Jieun; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Dong Myong; Lim, Meehyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Kim, Sungho; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2018-05-09

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers have attracted considerable attention from both industry and academia and especially in recent years because of their ability to overcome the limitations of two-dimensional (2D) processes and to enable large-scale facile integration techniques. With 3D printing technologies, complex structures can be created using only a computer-aided design file as a reference; consequently, complex shapes can be manufactured in a single step with little dependence on manufacturer technologies. In this work, we provide a first demonstration of the facile and time-saving 3D printing of two-terminal micro-electromechanical (MEM) switches. Two widely used thermoplastic materials were used to form 3D-printed MEM switches; freely suspended and fixed electrodes were printed from conductive polylactic acid, and a water-soluble sacrificial layer for air-gap formation was printed from poly(vinyl alcohol). Our 3D-printed MEM switches exhibit excellent electromechanical properties, with abrupt switching characteristics and an excellent on/off current ratio value exceeding 10 6 . Therefore, we believe that our study makes an innovative contribution with implications for the development of a broader range of 3D printer applications (e.g., the manufacturing of various MEM devices and sensors), and the work highlights a uniquely attractive path toward the realization of 3D-printed electronics.

  16. Long-term RF burn-in effects on dielectric charging of MEMS capacitive switches

    KAUST Repository

    Molinero, David G.; Luo, Xi; Shen, Chao; Palego, Cristiano; Hwang, James; Goldsmith, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper experimentally quantified the long-term effects of RF burn-in, in terms of burn-in and recovery times, and found the effects to be semipermanent. Specifically, most of the benefit could be realized after approximately 20 min of RF burn-in, which would then last for several months. Additionally, since similar effects were observed on both real and faux switches, the effects appeared to be of electrical rather than mechanical nature. These encouraging results should facilitate the application of the switches in RF systems, where high RF power could be periodically applied to rejuvenate the switches. © 2001-2011 IEEE.

  17. Long-term RF burn-in effects on dielectric charging of MEMS capacitive switches

    KAUST Repository

    Molinero, David G.

    2013-03-01

    This paper experimentally quantified the long-term effects of RF burn-in, in terms of burn-in and recovery times, and found the effects to be semipermanent. Specifically, most of the benefit could be realized after approximately 20 min of RF burn-in, which would then last for several months. Additionally, since similar effects were observed on both real and faux switches, the effects appeared to be of electrical rather than mechanical nature. These encouraging results should facilitate the application of the switches in RF systems, where high RF power could be periodically applied to rejuvenate the switches. © 2001-2011 IEEE.

  18. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  19. Electrical switching and memory phenomena observed in redox-gradient dendrimer sandwich devices

    OpenAIRE

    Li, JianChang; Blackstock, Silas C.; Szulczewski, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of dendrimer sandwich devices with electrical switching and memory properties. The storage media is consisted of a redox-gradient dendrimer layer sandwiched in organic barrier thin films. The dendrimer layer acts as potential well where redox-state changes and consequent electrical transitions of the embedded dendrimer molecules are expected to be effectively triggered and retained, respectively. Experimental results indicated that electrical switching could be re...

  20. A Survey on Modeling and Simulation of MEMS Switches and Its Application in Power Gating Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar M.P; A.S. Augustine Fletcher

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of techniques have been developed to reduce the leakage power, including supply voltage scaling, varying threshold voltages, smaller logic banks, etc. Power gating is a technique which is used to reduce the static power when the sleep transistor is in off condition. Micro Electro mechanical System (MEMS) switches have properties that are very close to an ideal switch, with infinite off-resistance due to an air gap and low on-resistance due to the ohmic metal to m...

  1. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  2. Code-switching in multilingual aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy S. Conner

    2014-04-01

    Results: Spanish: Post-Dutch intervention we noted an increased frequency of CS in both the action-description (25.4% and answering-questions tasks (20.2%; this was accounted for largely by the relative change in whole-word CS type (action-description: 21.1% vs. 4.4% within and answering-questions: 37.3% vs. -17.1% within. Following Russian intervention, an increase in CS was evident, 50.8% for action description and 40.9% for answering questions, reflective of a within-word CS increase (action-description: 39.7% and more evenly distributed for the latter task. For CS, the non-target language was primarily Italian. Norwegian: Following Dutch treatment, the proportion of code-switched responses remained the same for action description and answering questions. The type of CS changed with a decrease in whole-word CS (-19.1% for the answering-questions task. Post-Russian intervention, no production differences were noted in CS frequency for action description, although within-word type increased (16.7%. On the answering-questions task, CS frequency decreased (-33%, particularly whole-word CS (-26%. Across baselines non-target whole- and within-word transfer included English, German, Danish, Swedish and Dutch. Discussion: We suggest the increase in CS in Spanish following treatment in Dutch and post-Russian language introduction likely reflects increased lexical inhibition. In contrast, in Norwegian, the proportion of code-switched responses decreased or remained the same and the proportion of within-word CS increased, suggestive of improved lexical access following both interventions. The contrasting effect (see Figure 1 may be due to relative proficiency (greater in Spanish than in Norwegian or the differential lexical similarities between the target language and the language of intervention.

  3. Conceptual design of multiple parallel switching controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugolini, D.; Yoshikawa, S.; Ozawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the conceptual design and the development of a preliminary model of a multiple parallel switching (MPS) controller. The introduction of several advanced controllers has widened and improved the control capability of nonlinear dynamical systems. However, it is not possible to uniquely define a controller that always outperforms the others, and, in many situations, the controller providing the best control action depends on the operating conditions and on the intrinsic properties and behavior of the controlled dynamical system. The desire to combine the control action of several controllers with the purpose to continuously attain the best control action has motivated the development of the MPS controller. The MPS controller consists of a number of single controllers acting in parallel and of an artificial intelligence (AI) based selecting mechanism. The AI selecting mechanism analyzes the output of each controller and implements the one providing the best control performance. An inherent property of the MPS controller is the possibility to discard unreliable controllers while still being able to perform the control action. To demonstrate the feasibility and the capability of the MPS controller the simulation of the on-line operation control of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) evaporator is presented. (author)

  4. Application of the principle of similarity fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Sengers, J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Possible applications of the principle of similarity to fluid mechanics is described and illustrated. In correlating thermophysical properties of fluids, the similarity principle transcends the traditional corresponding states principle. In fluid mechanics the similarity principle is useful in correlating flow processes that can be modeled adequately with one independent variable (i.e., one-dimensional flows). In this paper we explore the concept of transforming the conservation equations by combining similarity principles for thermophysical properties with those for fluid flow. We illustrate the usefulness of the procedure by applying such a transformation to calculate two phase critical mass flow through a nozzle

  5. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  6. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.

    1976-03-16

    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  7. Reduced Fluorescent Protein Switching Fatigue by Binding-Induced Emissive State Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thijs Roebroek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins (RSFPs enable advanced fluorescence imaging, though the performance of this imaging crucially depends on the properties of the labels. We report on the use of an existing small binding peptide, named Enhancer, to modulate the spectroscopic properties of the recently developed rsGreen series of RSFPs. Fusion constructs of Enhancer with rsGreen1 and rsGreenF revealed an increased molecular brightness and pH stability, although expression in living E. coli or HeLa cells resulted in a decrease of the overall emission. Surprisingly, Enhancer binding also increased off-switching speed and resistance to switching fatigue. Further investigation suggested that the RSFPs can interconvert between fast- and slow-switching emissive states, with the overall protein population gradually converting to the slow-switching state through irradiation. The Enhancer modulates the spectroscopic properties of both states, but also preferentially stabilizes the fast-switching state, supporting the increased fatigue resistance. This work demonstrates how the photo-physical properties of RSFPs can be influenced by their binding to other small proteins, which opens up new horizons for applications that may require such modulation. Furthermore, we provide new insights into the photoswitching kinetics that should be of general consideration when developing new RSFPs with improved or different photochromic properties.

  8. Similarity analysis between quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-06-01

    Similarity analyses between quantum images are so essential in quantum image processing that it provides fundamental research for the other fields, such as quantum image matching, quantum pattern recognition. In this paper, a quantum scheme based on a novel quantum image representation and quantum amplitude amplification algorithm is proposed. At the end of the paper, three examples and simulation experiments show that the measurement result must be 0 when two images are same, and the measurement result has high probability of being 1 when two images are different.

  9. Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations

  10. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  11. Similarity and self-similarity in high energy density physics: application to laboratory astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falize, E.

    2008-10-01

    The spectacular recent development of powerful facilities allows the astrophysical community to explore, in laboratory, astrophysical phenomena where radiation and matter are strongly coupled. The titles of the nine chapters of the thesis are: from high energy density physics to laboratory astrophysics; Lie groups, invariance and self-similarity; scaling laws and similarity properties in High-Energy-Density physics; the Burgan-Feix-Munier transformation; dynamics of polytropic gases; stationary radiating shocks and the POLAR project; structure, dynamics and stability of optically thin fluids; from young star jets to laboratory jets; modelling and experiences for laboratory jets

  12. Comparison of patients undergoing switching versus augmentation of antipsychotic medications during treatment for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascher-Svanum H

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Haya Ascher-Svanum, Alan JM Brnabic, Anthony H Lawson, Bruce J Kinon, Virginia L Stauffer, Peter D Feldman, Katarina KelinLilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USAAbstract: It is often difficult to determine whether a patient may best benefit by augmenting their current medication or switching them to another. This post-hoc analysis compares patients’ clinical and functional profiles at the time their antipsychotic medications were either switched or augmented. Adult outpatients receiving oral antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia were assessed during a 12-month international observational study. Clinical and functional measures were assessed at the time of first treatment switch/augmentation (0–14 days prior and compared between Switched and Augmented patient groups. Due to low numbers of patients providing such data, interpretations are based on effect sizes. Data at the time of change were available for 87 patients: 53 Switched and 34 Augmented. Inadequate response was the primary reason for treatment change in both groups, whereas lack of adherence was more prevalent in the Switched group (26.4% vs 8.8%. Changes in clinical severity from study initiation to medication change were similar, as indicated by Clinical Global Impressions–Severity scores. However, physical and mental component scores of the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey improved in the Augmented group, but worsened in the Switched group. These findings suggest that the patient’s worsening or lack of meaningful improvement prompts clinicians to switch antipsychotic medications, whereas when patients show some improvement, clinicians may be more likely to try bolstering the improvements through augmentation. Current findings are consistent with physicians’ stated reasons for switching versus augmenting antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. Confirmation of these findings requires further research

  13. Self-similar gravitational clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, G.; Fall, S.M.; Hogan, C.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of gravitational clustering is considered and several new scaling relations are derived for the multiplicity function. These include generalizations of the Press-Schechter theory to different densities and cosmological parameters. The theory is then tested against multiplicity function and correlation function estimates for a series of 1000-body experiments. The results are consistent with the theory and show some dependence on initial conditions and cosmological density parameter. The statistical significance of the results, however, is fairly low because of several small number effects in the experiments. There is no evidence for a non-linear bootstrap effect or a dependence of the multiplicity function on the internal dynamics of condensed groups. Empirical estimates of the multiplicity function by Gott and Turner have a feature near the characteristic luminosity predicted by the theory. The scaling relations allow the inference from estimates of the galaxy luminosity function that galaxies must have suffered considerable dissipation if they originally formed from a self-similar hierarchy. A method is also developed for relating the multiplicity function to similar measures of clustering, such as those of Bhavsar, for the distribution of galaxies on the sky. These are shown to depend on the luminosity function in a complicated way. (author)

  14. Know-How on design of switching regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This book introduces switching regulator from base to application, which deals with fundamentals of switching regulator such as the reason of boom about switching regulator, understanding simple circuit without electric transformer and decision of circuit type with input voltage and output voltage, configuration and characteristic of switching regulator, a concrete design of switching regulator, pulse width control circuit and protection circuit, concrete circuit examples of switching power and the point of switching regulator.

  15. Stateless multicast switching in software defined networks

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Martin J.; Al-Naday, Mays; Thomos, Nikolaos; Trossen, Dirk; Petropoulos, George; Spirou, Spiros

    2016-01-01

    Multicast data delivery can significantly reduce traffic in operators' networks, but has been limited in deployment due to concerns such as the scalability of state management. This paper shows how multicast can be implemented in contemporary software defined networking (SDN) switches, with less state than existing unicast switching strategies, by utilising a Bloom Filter (BF) based switching technique. Furthermore, the proposed mechanism uses only proactive rule insertion, and thus, is not l...

  16. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SWITCHING TRACTION MOTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bezruchenko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The analytical study of switching of the tractive engines of electric locomotives is conducted. It is found that the obtained curves of change of current of the sections commuted correspond to the theory of average rectilinear switching. By means of the proposed method it is possible on the stage of design of tractive engines to forecast the quality of switching and to correct it timely.

  17. Monitoring Mellanox Infiniband SX6036 switches

    CERN Document Server

    Agapiou, Marinos

    2017-01-01

    The SX6036 switches addressed by my project, are part of a fully non-blocking fat-tree cluster consisting of 72 servers and 6 Mellanox SX6036 Infiniband switches. My project is about retrieving the appropriate metrics from the Infiniband switch cluster, ingesting the data to Collectd and after my data are being transfered to CERN Database, they are being visualized via Grafana Dashboards.

  18. Optical switches based on surface plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Cong; Wang Pei; Yuan Guanghui; Wang Xiaolei; Min Changjun; Deng Yan; Lu Yonghua; Ming Hai

    2008-01-01

    Great attention is being paid to surface plasmons (SPs) because of their potential applications in sensors, data storage and bio-photonics. Recently, more and more optical switches based on surface plasmon effects have been demonstrated either by simulation or experimentally. This article describes the principles, advantages and disadvantages of various types of optical switches based on SPs, in particular the all-optical switches. (authors)

  19. A new switched power linac structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, F.

    1989-03-01

    A new pulse power structure has been described that utilizes an easily accessible rectilinear switch. The new structure is more ''forgiving'' (as far as risetime is concerned) than the radial line transformer, and contains fewer switching structures/unit length. The combination of the new structure with the switch proposed seems to offer interesting possibilities for a future linear collider. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Switching induced oscillations in the logistic map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Makisha P.S. [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Peacock-Lopez, Enrique, E-mail: epeacock@williams.ed [Department of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States)

    2010-02-08

    In ecological modeling, seasonality can be represented as a switching between different environmental conditions. This switching strategy can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yield a winning game. Hence we can consider two dynamics that, by themselves, yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In this case, we also consider a noisy switching strategy and find that the desirable oscillatory behavior prevails.

  1. Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Dykaar, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Carrier and field dynamics in photoconductive switches are investigated by electrooptic sampling and voltage-dependent reflectivity measurements. We show that the nonuniform field distribution due to the two-dimensional nature of coplanar photoconductive switches, in combination with the large di...... difference in the mobilities of holes and electrons, determine the pronounced polarity dependence. Our measurements indicate that the pulse generation mechanism is a rapid voltage breakdown across the photoconductive switch and not a local field breakdown...

  2. A magnetically switched kicker for proton extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

    1989-03-01

    The application of magnetic current amplification and switching techniques to the generation of precise high current pulses for switching magnets is described. The square loop characteristic of Metglas tape wound cores at high excitation levels provides excellent switching characteristics for microsecond pulses. The rugged and passive nature of this type pulser makes it possible to locate the final stages of amplification at the load for maximum efficiency. 12 refs., 8 figs

  3. The stochastic behavior of a molecular switching circuit with feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Eric

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a statistical physics approach, we study the stochastic switching behavior of a model circuit of multisite phosphorylation and dephosphorylation with feedback. The circuit consists of a kinase and phosphatase acting on multiple sites of a substrate that, contingent on its modification state, catalyzes its own phosphorylation and, in a symmetric scenario, dephosphorylation. The symmetric case is viewed as a cartoon of conflicting feedback that could result from antagonistic pathways impinging on the state of a shared component. Results Multisite phosphorylation is sufficient for bistable behavior under feedback even when catalysis is linear in substrate concentration, which is the case we consider. We compute the phase diagram, fluctuation spectrum and large-deviation properties related to switch memory within a statistical mechanics framework. Bistability occurs as either a first-order or second-order non-equilibrium phase transition, depending on the network symmetries and the ratio of phosphatase to kinase numbers. In the second-order case, the circuit never leaves the bistable regime upon increasing the number of substrate molecules at constant kinase to phosphatase ratio. Conclusion The number of substrate molecules is a key parameter controlling both the onset of the bistable regime, fluctuation intensity, and the residence time in a switched state. The relevance of the concept of memory depends on the degree of switch symmetry, as memory presupposes information to be remembered, which is highest for equal residence times in the switched states. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Artem Novozhilov (nominated by Eugene Koonin, Sergei Maslov, and Ned Wingreen.

  4. Neutrosophic Cubic MCGDM Method Based on Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapati Pramanik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of neutrosophic cubic set is originated from the hybridization of the concept of neutrosophic set and interval valued neutrosophic set. We define similarity measure for neutrosophic cubic sets and prove some of its basic properties.

  5. Graphene and its derivatives: switching ON and OFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Gang; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Kang, En-Tang

    2012-07-07

    As the thinnest material ever known in the universe, graphene has been attracting tremendous amount of attention in both materials science and condensed-matter physics since its successful isolation a few years ago. This one-atom-thick two-dimensional pseudo-infinite nano-crystal consists of sp(2)-hybridized aromatic carbon atoms covalently packed into a continuous hexagonal lattice. Graphene exhibits a range of unique properties, viz., high three-dimensional aspect ratio and large specific surface area, superior mechanical stiffness and flexibility, remarkable optical transmittance, extraordinary thermal response and excellent electronic transport properties, promising its applications in the next generation electronics. To switch graphene and its derivatives between ON and OFF states in nanoelectronic memory devices, various techniques have been developed to manipulate the carbon atomic sheets via introducing the valence-conduction bandgap and to enhance their processability. In this article, we review the utilization of electrically, thermally and chemically modified graphene and its polymer-functionalized derivatives for switching and information storage applications. The challenges posed on the development of novel graphene materials and further enhancements of the device switching performance have also been discussed.

  6. Atomic battery with beam switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, E.A.; McKenna, R.P.; Peterick, E.Th. Jr.; Trexler, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    An electric power generating apparatus that is powered primarily by the emission of electrically charged particles from radio-active materials enclosed in an evacuated vessel of glass or the like. An arrangement of reflecting electrodes causes a beam of particles to switch back and forth at a high frequency between two collecting electrodes that are connected to a resonating tuned primary circuit consisting of an inductor with resonating capacitor. The reflecting electrodes are energized in the proper phase relationship to the collecting electrodes to insure sustained oscillation by means of a secondary winding coupled inductively to the primary winding and connected to the reflecting electrodes. Power may be drawn from the circuit at a stepped down voltage from a power take-off winding that is coupled to the primary winding. The disclosure also describes a collecting electrode arrangement consisting of multiple spatially separated electrodes which together serve to capture a maximum of the available particle energy. A self-starting arrangement for start of oscillations is described. A specially adapted version of the invention utilizes two complementary beams of oppositely charged particles which are switched alternatingly between the collecting electrodes

  7. Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.

    2017-12-01

    Systematic review is given of development of novel heat switches at cryogenic temperatures that alternatively provide high thermal connection or ideal thermal isolation to the cold mass. These cryogenic heat switches are widely applied in a variety of unique superconducting systems and critical space applications. The following types of heat switch devices are discussed: 1) magnetic levitation suspension, 2) shape memory alloys, 3) differential thermal expansion, 4) helium or hydrogen gap-gap, 5) superconducting, 6) piezoelectric, 7) cryogenic diode, 8) magneto-resistive, and 9) mechanical demountable connections. Advantages and limitations of different cryogenic heat switches are examined along with the outlook for future thermal management solutions in materials and cryogenic designs.

  8. Stochastic multistep polarization switching in ferroelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genenko, Y. A.; Khachaturyan, R.; Schultheiß, J.; Ossipov, A.; Daniels, J. E.; Koruza, J.

    2018-04-01

    Consecutive stochastic 90° polarization switching events, clearly resolved in recent experiments, are described by a nucleation and growth multistep model. It extends the classical Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi approach and includes possible consecutive 90°- and parallel 180° switching events. The model predicts the results of simultaneous time-resolved macroscopic measurements of polarization and strain, performed on a tetragonal Pb (Zr ,Ti ) O3 ceramic in a wide range of electric fields over a time domain of seven orders of magnitude. It allows the determination of the fractions of individual switching processes, their characteristic switching times, activation fields, and respective Avrami indices.

  9. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...... the flows from public to private increase....

  10. Wireless Nanoionic-Based Radio Frequency Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A nanoionic switch connected to one or more rectenna modules is disclosed. The rectenna module is configured to receive a wireless signal and apply a first bias to change a state of the nanoionic switch from a first state to a second state. The rectenna module can receive a second wireless signal and apply a second bias to change the nanoionic switch from the second state back to the first state. The first bias is generally opposite of the first bias. The rectenna module accordingly permits operation of the nanoionic switch without onboard power.

  11. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  12. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  13. Simplified design of switching power supplies

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1995-01-01

    * Describes the operation of each circuit in detail * Examines a wide selection of external components that modify the IC package characteristics * Provides hands-on, essential information for designing a switching power supply Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies is an all-inclusive, one-stop guide to switching power-supply design. Step-by-step instructions and diagrams render this book essential for the student and the experimenter, as well as the design professional. Simplified Design of Switching Power Supplies concentrates on the use of IC regulators. All popular forms of swit

  14. Evaluation of structural, morphological and magnetic properties of CuZnNi (Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 0.5−x}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanocrystalline ferrites for core, switching and MLCI’s applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz, E-mail: majidniazakhtar@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100 Pakistan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Mukhtar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Nazir, M.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Imran, M.; Ali, A.; Sattar, A. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Cu substitution on the structural and morphological characteristics of Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites have been discussed in this work. The detailed and systematic magnetic characterizations were also done for Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanoferrites. The nanocrystalline ferrites of Cu substituted Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 0.5−x}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using sol gel self-combustion hybrid method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to investigate the properties of Cu substituted nanocrystalline ferrites. Single phase structure of Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites were investigated for all the samples. Crystallite size, lattice constant and volume of the cell were found to increase by increasing Cu contents in spinel structure. The better morphology with well-organized nanocrystals of Cu–Zn–Ni ferrites at x=0 and 0.5 were observed from both FESEM and TEM analysis. The average grain size was 35–46 nm for all prepared nanocrystalline samples. Magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation, remanence, magnetic squareness, magneto crystalline anisotropy constant (K) and Bohr magneton were measured from the recorded M–H loops. The magnetic saturation and remanence were increased by the incorporation of Cu contents. However, coercivity follow the Stoner-Wolforth model except for x=0.3 which may be due to the site occupancy and replacement of Cu contents from octahedral site. The squareness ratio confirmed the super paramgnetic behaviour of the Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites. Furthermore, Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites may be suitable for many industrial and domestic applications such as components of transformers, core, switching, and MLCI’s due to variety of the soft magnetic characteristics. - Highlights

  15. Resistive switching in TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin

    2011-10-26

    The continuing improved performance of the digital electronic devices requires new memory technologies which should be inexpensively fabricated for higher integration capacity, faster operation, and low power consumption. Resistive random access memory has great potential to become the front runner as the non volatile memory technology. The resistance states stored in such cell can remain for long time and can be read out none-destructively by a very small electrical pulse. In this work the typically two terminal memory cells containing a thin TiO{sub 2} layer are studied. Polycrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films are deposited with atomic layer deposition and magnetron reactive sputtering processes, which are both physically and electrically characterized. The resistive switching cells are constructed in a metal/TiO{sub 2}/metal structure. Electroforming process initiate the cell from the beginning good insulator to a real memory cell to program the resistive states. Multilevel resistive bipolar switching controlled by current compliance is the common characteristic observed in these cells, which is potentially to be used as so called multi-bit memory cells to improve the memory capacity. With different top electrodes of Pt, Cu, Ag the resistive switching behaviors are studied. The switching behaviors are different depending on the top metal such as the minimum current compliance, the endurance of the programmed resistance states and the morphology change during the switching. The temperature dependence of different resistance states are investigated. A reduction of the activation energy and their possible conduction mechanisms is discussed on the base of the basic current conduction models. It is found that the resistance state transfers from semiconductor to metallic property with the reducing resistances. The calculated temperature coefficients of their metallic states on the Cu/TiO{sub 2}/Pt and Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Pt are very close to the reported literature data

  16. Seniority bosons from similarity transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The requirement of associating in the boson space seniority with twice the number of non-s bosons defines a similarity transformation which re-expresses the Dyson pair boson images in terms of seniority bosons. In particular the fermion S-pair creation operator is mapped onto an operator which, unlike the pair boson image, does not change the number of non-s bosons. The original results of Otsuka, Arima and Iachello are recovered by this procedure while at the same time they are generalized to include g-bosons or even bosons with J>4 as well as any higher order boson terms. Furthermore the seniority boson images are valid for an arbitrary number of d- or g-bosons - a result which is not readily obtainable within the framework of the usual Marumori- or OAI-method

  17. Evolution of a Fluctuating Population in a Randomly Switching Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienand, Karl; Frey, Erwin; Mobilia, Mauro

    2017-10-13

    Environment plays a fundamental role in the competition for resources, and hence in the evolution of populations. Here, we study a well-mixed, finite population consisting of two strains competing for the limited resources provided by an environment that randomly switches between states of abundance and scarcity. Assuming that one strain grows slightly faster than the other, we consider two scenarios-one of pure resource competition, and one in which one strain provides a public good-and investigate how environmental randomness (external noise) coupled to demographic (internal) noise determines the population's fixation properties and size distribution. By analytical means and simulations, we show that these coupled sources of noise can significantly enhance the fixation probability of the slower-growing species. We also show that the population size distribution can be unimodal, bimodal, or multimodal and undergoes noise-induced transitions between these regimes when the rate of switching matches the population's growth rate.

  18. On the asymptotic stability of nonlinear mechanical switched systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    Some classes of switched mechanical systems with dissipative and potential forces are considered. The case, where either dissipative or potential forces are essentially nonlinear, is studied. It is assumed that the zero equilibrium position of the system is asymptotically stable at least for one operating mode. We will look for sufficient conditions which guarantee the preservation of asymptotic stability of the equilibrium position under the switching of modes. The Lyapunov direct method is used. A Lyapunov function for considered system is constructed, which satisfies the differential inequality of special form for every operating mode. This inequality is nonlinear for the chosen mode with asymptotically stable equilibrium position, and it is linear for the rest modes. The correlations between the intervals of activity of the pointed mode and the intervals of activity of the rest modes are obtained which guarantee the required properties.

  19. The repetitive portion of the Xenopus IgH Mu switch region mediates orientation-dependent class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng Z; Pannunzio, Nicholas R; Lu, Zhengfei; Hsu, Ellen; Yu, Kefei; Lieber, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrates developed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) to express different IgH constant regions. Most double-strand breaks for Ig CSR occur within the repetitive portion of the switch regions located upstream of each set of constant domain exons for the Igγ, Igα or Igϵ heavy chain. Unlike mammalian switch regions, Xenopus switch regions do not have a high G-density on the non-template DNA strand. In previous studies, when Xenopus Sμ DNA was moved to the genome of mice, it is able to support substantial CSR when it is used to replace the murine Sγ1 region. Here, we tested both the 2kb repetitive portion and the 4.6 kb full-length portions of the Xenopus Sμ in both their natural (forward) orientation relative to the constant domain exons, as well as the opposite (reverse) orientation. Consistent with previous work, we find that the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ mediates similar levels of CSR in both the forward and reverse orientations. Whereas, the forward orientation of the 2kb portion can restore the majority of the CSR level of the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ, the reverse orientation poorly supports R-looping and no CSR. The forward orientation of the 2kb repetitive portion has more GG dinucleotides on the non-template strand than the reverse orientation. The correlation of R-loop formation with CSR efficiency, as demonstrated in the 2kb repetitive fragment of the Xenopus switch region, confirms a role played by R-looping in CSR that appears to be conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical modelling of passively Q-switched intracavity Raman lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuanghong; Zhang Xingyu; Wang Qingpu; Zhang Jun; Wang Shumei; Liu Yuru; Zhang Xuehui

    2007-01-01

    Assuming intracavity photon densities to be of Gaussian spatial distributions, the space-dependent rate equations of passively Q-switched intracavity Raman lasers are deduced for the first time for the pumping beams of Gaussian and top-head spatial distributions, respectively. The new rate equations are normalized and solved numerically to investigate the influences of the normalized initial population inversion density, normalized Raman gain coefficient, saturable absorber parameter, beam size ratio of pump to fundamental laser and loss ratio of the first Stokes to fundamental laser on the pulse parameters of the first Stokes. The results of the Gaussian and top-head pumpings show similar trends despite some discrepancies. The new theories and numerical results will help design passively Q-switched intracavity Raman lasers of high performance

  1. Axis-switching of a micro-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro, Juan Martin; Aider, Jean-Luc

    2014-03-01

    In this study, it is shown that free microjets can undergo complex transitions similar to large-scale free jets despite relatively low Reynolds numbers. Using an original experimental method allowing for the 3D reconstruction of the instantaneous spatial organization of the microjet, the axis-switching of a micro-jet is observed for the first time. This is the first experimental evidence of such complex phenomena for free micro-jets. Combining these experimental results with Direct Numerical Simulations it is shown that the mechanism responsible for the axis-switching is the deformation of a micro-vortex ring due to induction by the corner vortices, as it occurs in large scale non-circular jets.

  2. Resistive switching in microscale anodic titanium dioxide-based memristors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, V.; Zaffora, A.; Lullo, G.; Santamaria, M.; Di Franco, F.; Lo Cicero, U.; Mosca, M.; Macaluso, R.

    2018-01-01

    The potentiality of anodic TiO2 as an oxide material for the realization of resistive switching memory cells has been explored in this paper. Cu/anodic-TiO2/Ti memristors of different sizes, ranging from 1 × 1 μm2 to 10 × 10 μm2 have been fabricated and characterized. The oxide films were grown by anodizing Ti films, using three different process conditions. Measured IV curves have shown similar asymmetric bipolar hysteresis behaviors in all the tested devices, with a gradual switching from the high resistance state to the low resistance state and vice versa, and a ROFF/RON ratio of 80 for the thickest oxide film devices.

  3. The Application of High Temperature Superconducting Materials to Power Switches

    CERN Document Server

    March, S A; Ballarino, A

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting switches may find application in superconducting magnet systems that require energy extraction. Such superconducting switches could be bypass-switches that are operated in conjunction with a parallel resistor or dump-switches where all of the energy is dissipated in the switch itself. Bypass-switches are more suited to higher energy circuits as a portion of the energy can be dissipated in the external dump resistor. Dump- switches require less material and triggering energy as a lower switch resistance is needed to achieve the required total dump resistance. Both superconducting bypass-switches and superconducting dump-switches can be ther- mally activated. Switching times that are comparable to those obtained with mechanical bypass-switch systems can be achieved using a co-wound heater that is powered by a ca- pacitor discharge. Switches that have fast thermal diffusion times through the insulation can be modelled as a lumped system whereas those with slow thermal diffusion times were modelle...

  4. Determinants of Method Switching among Social Franchise Clients Who Discontinued the Use of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Waqas; Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Hussain, Wajahat; Mustafa, Ghulam; Ishaque, Muhammad; Ali, Safdar; Ahmed, Aftab; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Women who do not switch to alternate methods after contraceptive discontinuation, for reasons other than the desire to get pregnant or not needing it, are at obvious risk for unplanned pregnancies or unwanted births. This paper examines the factors that influence women to switch from Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) to other methods instead of terminating contraceptive usage altogether. Methods. The data used for this study comes from a larger cross-sectional survey conducted in nine (9) randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan, during January 2011. Using Stata 11.2, we analyzed data on 333 women, who reported the removal of IUCDs due to reasons other than the desire to get pregnant. Results. We found that 39.9% of the women do not switch to another method of contraception within one month after IUCD discontinuation. Use of contraception before IUCD insertion increases the odds for method switching by 2.26 times after removal. Similarly, postremoval follow-up by community health worker doubles (OR = 2.0) the chances of method switching. Compared with women who received free IUCD service (via voucher scheme), the method switching is 2.01 times higher among women who had paid for IUCD insertion. Conclusion. To increase the likelihood of method switching among IUCD discontinuers this study emphasizes the need for postremoval client counseling, follow-up by healthcare provider, improved choices to a wider range of contraceptives for poor clients, and user satisfaction.

  5. Determinants of Method Switching among Social Franchise Clients Who Discontinued the Use of Intrauterine Contraceptive Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Women who do not switch to alternate methods after contraceptive discontinuation, for reasons other than the desire to get pregnant or not needing it, are at obvious risk for unplanned pregnancies or unwanted births. This paper examines the factors that influence women to switch from Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD to other methods instead of terminating contraceptive usage altogether. Methods. The data used for this study comes from a larger cross-sectional survey conducted in nine (9 randomly selected districts of Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan, during January 2011. Using Stata 11.2, we analyzed data on 333 women, who reported the removal of IUCDs due to reasons other than the desire to get pregnant. Results. We found that 39.9% of the women do not switch to another method of contraception within one month after IUCD discontinuation. Use of contraception before IUCD insertion increases the odds for method switching by 2.26 times after removal. Similarly, postremoval follow-up by community health worker doubles (OR = 2.0 the chances of method switching. Compared with women who received free IUCD service (via voucher scheme, the method switching is 2.01 times higher among women who had paid for IUCD insertion. Conclusion. To increase the likelihood of method switching among IUCD discontinuers this study emphasizes the need for postremoval client counseling, follow-up by healthcare provider, improved choices to a wider range of contraceptives for poor clients, and user satisfaction.

  6. Optimal control of switching time in switched stochastic systems with multi-switching times and different costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomei; Li, Shengtao; Zhang, Kanjian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we solve an optimal control problem for a class of time-invariant switched stochastic systems with multi-switching times, where the objective is to minimise a cost functional with different costs defined on the states. In particular, we focus on problems in which a pre-specified sequence of active subsystems is given and the switching times are the only control variables. Based on the calculus of variation, we derive the gradient of the cost functional with respect to the switching times on an especially simple form, which can be directly used in gradient descent algorithms to locate the optimal switching instants. Finally, a numerical example is given, highlighting the validity of the proposed methodology.

  7. 36 CFR 2.20 - Skating, skateboards, and similar devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Skating, skateboards, and similar devices. 2.20 Section 2.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.20 Skating, skateboards, and...

  8. Sequential Effects in Deduction: Cost of Inference Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Emilio G.; Moreno-Rios, Sergio; Espino, Orlando; Santamaria, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The task-switch paradigm has helped psychologists gain insight into the processes involved in changing from one activity to another. The literature has yielded consistent results about switch cost reconfiguration (abrupt offset in regular task-switch vs. gradual reduction in random task-switch; endogenous and exogenous components of switch cost;…

  9. Alaska, Gulf spills share similarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1991-01-01

    The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide

  10. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  11. A Framework for Analysis of Music Similarity Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2007-01-01

    To analyze specific properties of music similarity measures that the commonly used genre classification evaluation procedure does not reveal, we introduce a MIDI based test framework for music similarity measures. We introduce the framework by example and thus outline an experiment to analyze the...

  12. A switched state feedback law for the stabilization of LTI systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarelli, Keith R.

    2009-09-01

    Inspired by prior work in the design of switched feedback controllers for second order systems, we develop a switched state feedback control law for the stabilization of LTI systems of arbitrary dimension. The control law operates by switching between two static gain vectors in such a way that the state trajectory is driven onto a stable n - 1 dimensional hyperplane (where n represents the system dimension). We begin by briefly examining relevant geometric properties of the phase portraits in the case of two-dimensional systems to develop intuition, and we then show how these geometric properties can be expressed as algebraic constraints on the switched vector fields that are applicable to LTI systems of arbitrary dimension. We then derive necessary and sufficient conditions to ensure stabilizability of the resulting switched system (characterized primarily by simple conditions on eigenvalues), and describe an explicit procedure for designing stabilizing controllers. We then show how the newly developed control law can be applied to the problem of minimizing the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the corresponding closed-loop state trajectories, and we illustrate the closed-loop transient performance of these switched state feedback controllers via multiple examples.

  13. Azo biphenyl polyurethane: Preparation, characterization and application for optical waveguide switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Da, Zulin; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Guan, Yijun; Cao, Guorong

    2018-01-01

    Azo waveguide polymers are of particular interest in the design of materials for applications in optical switch. The aim of this contribution was the synthesis and thermo-optic waveguide switch properties of azo biphenyl polyurethanes. A series of monomers and azo biphenyl polyurethanes (Azo BPU1 and Azo BPU2) were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The physical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films were measured. The refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of polymer films were investigated for TE (transversal electric) polarizations by ATR technique. The transmission loss of film was measured using the Charge Coupled Device digital imaging devices. The results showed the Azo BPU2 containing chiral azobenzene chromophore had higher dn/dT and lower transmission loss. Subsequently, a 1 × 2 Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the prepared polymers were designed and simulated. The results showed that the power consumption of all switches was less than 1.0 mW. Compared with 1 × 2 Y-branch optical switch, the 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the same polymer have the faster response time, which were about only 1.2 and 2.0 ms, respectively.

  14. Rotation Impact of Reed Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yun Bum; Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Jong Wook; Han, Eun Sil; Park, Hee June

    2016-01-01

    A CRDM (Control Rod Drive Mechanism) is an electromagnetic device which drives a control rod assembly linearly to regulate the reactivity of a nuclear core. A RPIS (Rod Position Indication System) is used as a position indicator of a control rod assembly for a CRDM of a nuclear reactor, SMART. A highly accurate RPIS for SMART is required because the reactivity of a nuclear core for a small modular reactor is more sensitive than the commercial ones. In this study, the effect of positioning direction of the reeds in a reed switch for the CRDM RPIS has been studied using the electromagnetic FE analysis. It is found that the positioning direction of the reeds slightly but not significantly affects the formation of attraction. Analysis results will be used as the basis on estimated accuracy of full RPIS system.

  15. Rotation Impact of Reed Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yun Bum; Lee, Jae Seon; Kim, Jong Wook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Eun Sil [Taesung S and E, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee June [Woojin Inc., Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    A CRDM (Control Rod Drive Mechanism) is an electromagnetic device which drives a control rod assembly linearly to regulate the reactivity of a nuclear core. A RPIS (Rod Position Indication System) is used as a position indicator of a control rod assembly for a CRDM of a nuclear reactor, SMART. A highly accurate RPIS for SMART is required because the reactivity of a nuclear core for a small modular reactor is more sensitive than the commercial ones. In this study, the effect of positioning direction of the reeds in a reed switch for the CRDM RPIS has been studied using the electromagnetic FE analysis. It is found that the positioning direction of the reeds slightly but not significantly affects the formation of attraction. Analysis results will be used as the basis on estimated accuracy of full RPIS system.

  16. Dual-functional Memory and Threshold Resistive Switching Based on the Push-Pull Mechanism of Oxygen Ions

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    2016-04-07

    The combination of nonvolatile memory switching and volatile threshold switching functions of transition metal oxides in crossbar memory arrays is of great potential for replacing charge-based flash memory in very-large-scale integration. Here, we show that the resistive switching material structure, (amorphous TiOx)/(Ag nanoparticles)/(polycrystalline TiOx), fabricated on the textured-FTO substrate with ITO as the top electrode exhibits both the memory switching and threshold switching functions. When the device is used for resistive switching, it is forming-free for resistive memory applications with low operation voltage (<±1 V) and self-compliance to current up to 50 μA. When it is used for threshold switching, the low threshold current is beneficial for improving the device selectivity. The variation of oxygen distribution measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates the formation or rupture of conducting filaments in the device at different resistance states. It is therefore suggested that the push and pull actions of oxygen ions in the amorphous TiOx and polycrystalline TiOx films during the voltage sweep account for the memory switching and threshold switching properties in the device.

  17. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up

  18. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  19. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  20. Internal Backpressure for Terabit Switch Fabrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes the efficiency of novel backpressure schemes for Terabit switch fabrics. The proposed schemes aim at buffer optimization under uniform traffic distribution with Bernoulli packet arrival process. Results show that a reduction of the needed maximum buffer capacity w...... with up to 47% can be achieved with switch-internal backpressure mechanisms at the expense of a small control overhead....

  1. Microelectromechanical Switches for Phased Array Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.; Simons, Rainee N.; Scardelletti, Maximillian; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the fabrication and testing of a MicroElectro-Mechanical (MEM) microstrip series switch. This switch is being developed for use in a K-band phased array antenna that NASA will use for communication links in its Earth orbiting satellites. Preliminary insertion loss and isolation measurements are presented.

  2. Photonic crystal Fano lasers and Fano switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Yu, Yi; Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    We show that Fano resonances can be realized in photonic crystal membrane structures by coupling line-defect waveguides and point-defect nanocavities. The Fano resonance can be exploited to realize optical switches with very small switching energy, as well as Fano lasers, that can generate short...

  3. Scalable optical switches for computing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, I.H.; Aw, E.T.; Williams, K.A.; Wang, Haibo; Wonfor, A.; Penty, R.V.

    2009-01-01

    A scalable photonic interconnection network architecture is proposed whereby a Clos network is populated with broadcast-and-select stages. This enables the efficient exploitation of an emerging class of photonic integrated switch fabric. A low distortion space switch technology based on recently

  4. Tutorial: Integrated-photonic switching structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Richard

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments in waveguided 2 × 2 and N × M photonic switches are reviewed, including both broadband and narrowband resonant devices for the Si, InP, and AlN platforms. Practical actuation of switches by electro-optical and thermo-optical techniques is discussed. Present datacom-and-computing applications are reviewed, and potential applications are proposed for chip-scale photonic and optoelectronic integrated switching networks. Potential is found in the reconfigurable, programmable "mesh" switches that enable a promising group of applications in new areas beyond those in data centers and cloud servers. Many important matrix switches use gated semiconductor optical amplifiers. The family of broadband, directional-coupler 2 × 2 switches featuring two or three side-coupled waveguides deserves future experimentation, including devices that employ phase-change materials. The newer 2 × 2 resonant switches include standing-wave resonators, different from the micro-ring traveling-wave resonators. The resonant devices comprise nanobeam interferometers, complex-Bragg interferometers, and asymmetric contra-directional couplers. Although the fast, resonant devices offer ultralow switching energy, ˜1 fJ/bit, they have limitations. They require several trade-offs when deployed, but they do have practical application.

  5. Unity power factor switching regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs 180.degree. out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  6. Atomic Scale Modulation of Self-Rectifying Resistive Switching by Interfacial Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing; Yu, Kaihao; Cha, Dong Kyu; Bosman, Michel; Raghavan, Nagarajan; Zhang, Xixiang; Li, Kun; Liu, Qi; Sun, Litao; Pey, Kinleong

    2018-01-01

    Higher memory density and faster computational performance of resistive switching cells require reliable array‐accessible architecture. However, selecting a designated cell within a crossbar array without interference from sneak path currents through neighboring cells is a general problem. Here, a highly doped n++ Si as the bottom electrode with Ni‐electrode/HfOx/SiO2 asymmetric self‐rectifying resistive switching device is fabricated. The interfacial defects in the HfOx/SiO2 junction and n++ Si substrate result in the reproducible rectifying behavior. In situ transmission electron microscopy is used to quantitatively study the properties of the morphology, chemistry, and dynamic nucleation–dissolution evolution of the chains of defects at the atomic scale. The spatial and temporal correlation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ni‐rich conductive filament modifies the resistive switching effect. This study has important implications at the array‐level performance of high density resistive switching memories.

  7. Atomic Scale Modulation of Self-Rectifying Resistive Switching by Interfacial Defects

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing

    2018-04-14

    Higher memory density and faster computational performance of resistive switching cells require reliable array‐accessible architecture. However, selecting a designated cell within a crossbar array without interference from sneak path currents through neighboring cells is a general problem. Here, a highly doped n++ Si as the bottom electrode with Ni‐electrode/HfOx/SiO2 asymmetric self‐rectifying resistive switching device is fabricated. The interfacial defects in the HfOx/SiO2 junction and n++ Si substrate result in the reproducible rectifying behavior. In situ transmission electron microscopy is used to quantitatively study the properties of the morphology, chemistry, and dynamic nucleation–dissolution evolution of the chains of defects at the atomic scale. The spatial and temporal correlation between the concentration of oxygen vacancies and Ni‐rich conductive filament modifies the resistive switching effect. This study has important implications at the array‐level performance of high density resistive switching memories.

  8. Dichotomous noise models of gene switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoyan, Davit A., E-mail: potoyan@rice.edu; Wolynes, Peter G., E-mail: pwolynes@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-11-21

    Molecular noise in gene regulatory networks has two intrinsic components, one part being due to fluctuations caused by the birth and death of protein or mRNA molecules which are often present in small numbers and the other part arising from gene state switching, a single molecule event. Stochastic dynamics of gene regulatory circuits appears to be largely responsible for bifurcations into a set of multi-attractor states that encode different cell phenotypes. The interplay of dichotomous single molecule gene noise with the nonlinear architecture of genetic networks generates rich and complex phenomena. In this paper, we elaborate on an approximate framework that leads to simple hybrid multi-scale schemes well suited for the quantitative exploration of the steady state properties of large-scale cellular genetic circuits. Through a path sum based analysis of trajectory statistics, we elucidate the connection of these hybrid schemes to the underlying master equation and provide a rigorous justification for using dichotomous noise based models to study genetic networks. Numerical simulations of circuit models reveal that the contribution of the genetic noise of single molecule origin to the total noise is significant for a wide range of kinetic regimes.

  9. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  10. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  11. Intentional preparation of auditory attention-switches: Explicit cueing and sequential switch-predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Julia C; Nolden, Sophie; Oberem, Josefa; Fels, Janina; Koch, Iring

    2018-06-01

    In an auditory attention-switching paradigm, participants heard two simultaneously spoken number-words, each presented to one ear, and decided whether the target number was smaller or larger than 5 by pressing a left or right key. An instructional cue in each trial indicated which feature had to be used to identify the target number (e.g., female voice). Auditory attention-switch costs were found when this feature changed compared to when it repeated in two consecutive trials. Earlier studies employing this paradigm showed mixed results when they examined whether such cued auditory attention-switches can be prepared actively during the cue-stimulus interval. This study systematically assessed which preconditions are necessary for the advance preparation of auditory attention-switches. Three experiments were conducted that controlled for cue-repetition benefits, modality switches between cue and stimuli, as well as for predictability of the switch-sequence. Only in the third experiment, in which predictability for an attention-switch was maximal due to a pre-instructed switch-sequence and predictable stimulus onsets, active switch-specific preparation was found. These results suggest that the cognitive system can prepare auditory attention-switches, and this preparation seems to be triggered primarily by the memorised switching-sequence and valid expectations about the time of target onset.

  12. Contraceptive method switching in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, William R; Billy, John O G; Klepinger, Daniel H

    2002-01-01

    Switching among contraceptive method types is the primary determinant of the prevalence of use of specific contraceptive methods, and it has direct implications for women's ability to avoid unintended pregnancies. Yet, method switching among U.S. women has received little attention from researchers. Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth were used to construct multiple-decrement life tables to explore the gross switching rates of married and unmarried women. Within each group, discrete-time hazard models were estimated to determine how women's characteristics affect their switching behavior. Overall rates of method switching are high among both married and unmarried women (40% and 61%, respectively). Married women's two-year switching rates vary from 30% among women who use the implant, injectable, IUD or other reversible methods to 43% among nonusers, while unmarried women's rates vary from 33% among women who use the implant, injectable or IUD to 70% among nonusers. Multivariate analyses of method switching according to women's characteristics indicate that among married women, women without children are less likely than other women to adopt sterilization or a long-term reversible contraceptive (the implant, injectable or IUD). Older married women have a higher rate than their younger counterparts of switching to sterilization, but are also more likely to continue using no method. Among unmarried women, younger and more highly educated women have high rates of switching to the condom and to dual methods. Women's method switching decisions may be driven primarily by concerns related to level and duration of contraceptive effectiveness, health risks associated with contraceptive use and, among single women, sexually transmitted disease prevention.

  13. Electro- and photochemical switching of dithienylethene self-assembled monolayers on gold electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browne, W.R.; Kudernac, T.; Katsonis, N.

    2008-01-01

    forms of the dithienylethene SAMs is examined and found to be sensitive to the molecular structure of the switch. For the three dithienylethenes, the electrochemical behavior with respect to electrochemical ring opening/closing is retained in the SAMs. In contrast, a marked dependence on the nature...... of the anchoring group is observed upon immobilization in terms of the retention of the photochemical properties observed in solution. For the meta-thiophenol anchor both photochemical ring opening and closing are observed in the SAM, while for the thienyl-thiol-anchored switches the photochemically properties...

  14. Adding Asymmetrically Dominated Alternatives: Violations of Regularity and the Similarity Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    necesoy and Identir 6Y Week nuinber) Choice Models Similarity- Context Effects / I D in nce 4120. AGSTMCT (C- nt1 -u on ~ Oeee ld- It neceee and ideatif...the choices where the decoy was not chosen. In that sample, 63% of the 109 reversals ( CELLS b and d) were to the target and 372 to the competitor...switching from the target, thus merging the decoy and the competitor groups ( CELLS b, d and c). In that test, 59% switched to the target, while 41

  15. Formulation of similarity porous media systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.M.; Ford, W.T.; Ruttan, A.; Strauss, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The mathematical formulation of the Porous Media System (PMS) describing two-phase, immiscible, compressible fluid flow in linear, homogeneous porous media is reviewed and expanded. It is shown that families of common vertex, coaxial parabolas and families of parallel lines are the only families of curves on which solutions of the PMS may be constant. A coordinate transformation is used to change the partial differential equations of the PMS to a system of ordinary differential equations, referred to as a similarity Porous Media System (SPMS), in which the independent variable denotes movement from curve to curve in a selected family of curves. Properties of solutions of the first boundary value problem are developed for the SPMS

  16. Conductive polymer/high-TC superconductor sandwich structures: An example of a molecular switch for controlling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, J.T.; Haupt, S.G.; Lo, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole coated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layer. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses T c by up to 50K. In a similar fashion, the oxidation state of the polymer is found to modulate reversibly the magnitude of J c , the superconducting critical current. Thus, a new type of molecular switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated. Electrochemical, resistance vs. temperature, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy measurements are utilized to explore the polymer/superconductor interactions

  17. Development of the switching components for ZT-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, J.G.; Dike, R.S.; Hanks, K.W.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Switching of the main capacitor banks for ZT-40 will be accomplished by spark gap switches. Initially, there will be 576 start switches and 288 crowbar switches. A development program is under way to develop three switches; (1) a versatile start switch, which can be used for both the I/sub z/ and the I/sub theta/ capacitor banks, with a wide operating voltage range, (2) a crowbar switch which is capable of crowbarring the circuit without the power crowbar bank, and (3) a power crowbar switch, which can handle 50 to 100 coulombs, so that a large number of crowbar switches will not be required when the power crowbar circuit is added. The problems with the start switches and the first crowbar switch have been solved, or alleviated. The development of a power crowbar switch has just begun

  18. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching Guest Editors: Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks. Scope of Submission The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics: WDM node architectures Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion Routing protocols WDM switching and routing Quality of service Performance measurement and evaluation Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control Traffic measurement and field trials Optical burst and packet switching OBS/OPS node architectures Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms Contention resolution/avoidance strategies Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.) Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping Hybrid OBS/TDM or OBS/wavelength routing Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select ``Photonics in Switching' in the features indicator of the online

  19. Self-similar pattern formation and continuous mechanics of self-similar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Dyskin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, the critical state of systems that reached the threshold is characterised by self-similar pattern formation. We produce an example of pattern formation of this kind – formation of self-similar distribution of interacting fractures. Their formation starts with the crack growth due to the action of stress fluctuations. It is shown that even when the fluctuations have zero average the cracks generated by them could grow far beyond the scale of stress fluctuations. Further development of the fracture system is controlled by crack interaction leading to the emergence of self-similar crack distributions. As a result, the medium with fractures becomes discontinuous at any scale. We develop a continuum fractal mechanics to model its physical behaviour. We introduce a continuous sequence of continua of increasing scales covering this range of scales. The continuum of each scale is specified by the representative averaging volume elements of the corresponding size. These elements determine the resolution of the continuum. Each continuum hides the cracks of scales smaller than the volume element size while larger fractures are modelled explicitly. Using the developed formalism we investigate the stability of self-similar crack distributions with respect to crack growth and show that while the self-similar distribution of isotropically oriented cracks is stable, the distribution of parallel cracks is not. For the isotropically oriented cracks scaling of permeability is determined. For permeable materials (rocks with self-similar crack distributions permeability scales as cube of crack radius. This property could be used for detecting this specific mechanism of formation of self-similar crack distributions.

  20. Buckling-dependent switching behaviours in shifted bilayer germanene nanoribbons: A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, T.; Tagani, M. Bagheri; Soleimani, H. Rahimpour

    2018-01-01

    Bilayer germanene nanoribbons are investigated in different stacks like buckled and flat armchair and buckled zigzag germanene nanoribbons by performing theoretical calculations using the nonequilibrium Greens function method combined with density functional theory. In these bilayer types, the current oscillates with change of interlayer distances or intra-layer overlaps and is dependent on the type of the bilayer. Band gap of AA-stacked of shifted flat bilayer armchair germanene nanoribbon oscillates by change of interlayer distance which is in contrast to buckled bilayer armchair germanene nanoribbon. So, results show the buckling makes system tend to be a semiconductor with wide band gap. Therefore, AA-stacked of shifted flat bilayer armchair germanene nanoribbon has properties between zigzag and armchair edges, the higher current under bias voltages similar to zigzag edge and also oscillations in current like buckled armchair edges. Also, it is found that HOMO-LUMO band gap strongly affects oscillation in currents and their I-V characteristic. This kind of junction improves the switching properties at low voltages around the band gap.

  1. Humans and mice express similar olfactory preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Mandairon

    Full Text Available In humans, the pleasantness of odors is a major contributor to social relationships and food intake. Smells evoke attraction and repulsion responses, reflecting the hedonic value of the odorant. While olfactory preferences are known to be strongly modulated by experience and learning, it has been recently suggested that, in humans, the pleasantness of odors may be partly explained by the physicochemical properties of the odorant molecules themselves. If odor hedonic value is indeed predetermined by odorant structure, then it could be hypothesized that other species will show similar odor preferences to humans. Combining behavioral and psychophysical approaches, we here show that odorants rated as pleasant by humans were also those which, behaviorally, mice investigated longer and human subjects sniffed longer, thereby revealing for the first time a component of olfactory hedonic perception conserved across species. Consistent with this, we further show that odor pleasantness rating in humans and investigation time in mice were both correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecules, suggesting that olfactory preferences are indeed partly engraved in the physicochemical structure of the odorant. That odor preferences are shared between mammal species and are guided by physicochemical features of odorant stimuli strengthens the view that odor preference is partially predetermined. These findings open up new perspectives for the study of the neural mechanisms of hedonic perception.

  2. Similarity of eigenstates in generalized labyrinth tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Stefanie; Schreiber, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The eigenstates of d-dimensional quasicrystalline models with a separable Hamiltonian are studied within the tight-binding model. The approach is based on mathematical sequences, constructed by an inflation rule P = {w → s,s → sws b-1 } describing the weak/strong couplings of atoms in a quasiperiodic chain. Higher-dimensional quasiperiodic tilings are constructed as a direct product of these chains and their eigenstates can be directly calculated by multiplying the energies E or wave functions ψ of the chain, respectively. Applying this construction rule, the grid in d dimensions splits into 2 d-1 different tilings, for which we investigated the characteristics of the wave functions. For the standard two-dimensional labyrinth tiling constructed from the octonacci sequence (b = 2) the lattice breaks up into two identical lattices, which consequently yield the same eigenstates. While this is not the case for b ≠ 2, our numerical results show that the wave functions of the different grids become increasingly similar for large system sizes. This can be explained by the fact that the structure of the 2 d-1 grids mainly differs at the boundaries and thus for large systems the eigenstates approach each other. This property allows us to analytically derive properties of the higher-dimensional generalized labyrinth tilings from the one-dimensional results. In particular participation numbers and corresponding scaling exponents have been determined.

  3. Self-similarity in applied superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, Lawrence

    1981-09-01

    Self-similarity is a descriptive term applying to a family of curves. It means that the family is invariant to a one-parameter group of affine (stretching) transformations. The property of self-similarity has been exploited in a wide variety of problems in applied superconductivity, namely, (i) transient distribution of the current among the filaments of a superconductor during charge-up, (ii) steady distribution of current among the filaments of a superconductor near the current leads, (iii) transient heat transfer in superfluid helium, (iv) transient diffusion in cylindrical geometry (important in studying the growth rate of the reacted layer in A15 materials), (v) thermal expulsion of helium from quenching cable-in-conduit conductors, (vi) eddy current heating of irregular plates by slow, ramped fields, and (vii) the specific heat of type-II superconductors. Most, but not all, of the applications involve differential equations, both ordinary and partial. The novel methods explained in this report should prove of great value in other fields, just as they already have done in applied superconductivity. (author)

  4. Computational modeling of plasma-flow switched foil implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemuth, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    A ''plasma-flow'', or ''commutator'', switch has been proposed as a means of achieving high dI/dt in a radially imploding metallic foil plasma. In this concept, an axially moving foil provides the initial coaxial gun discharge path for the prime power source and provides and ''integral'' inductive storage of magnetic energy. As the axially moving foil reaches the end of the coaxial gun, a radially imploding load foil is switched into the circuit. The authors have begun two-dimensional computer modeling of the two-foil implosion system. They use a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model which includes tabulated state and transport properties of the metallic foil material. Moving numerical grids are used to achieve adequate resolution of the moving foils. A variety of radiation models are used to compute the radiation generated when the imploding load foil converges on axis. These computations are attempting to examine the interaction of the switching foil with the load foil. In particular, they examine the relationship between foil placement and implosion quality

  5. Magnetization switching schemes for nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    Utilizing spintronics-based nonvolatile memories in integrated circuits offers a promising approach to realize ultralow-power and high-performance electronics. While two-terminal devices with spin-transfer torque switching have been extensively developed nowadays, there has been a growing interest in devices with a three-terminal structure. Of primary importance for applications is the efficient manipulation of magnetization, corresponding to information writing, in nanoscale devices. Here we review the studies of current-induced domain wall motion and spin-orbit torque-induced switching, which can be applied to the write operation of nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices. For domain wall motion, the size dependence of device properties down to less than 20 nm will be shown and the underlying mechanism behind the results will be discussed. For spin-orbit torque-induced switching, factors governing the threshold current density and strategies to reduce it will be discussed. A proof-of-concept demonstration of artificial intelligence using an analog spin-orbit torque device will also be reviewed.

  6. Bistable switches control memory and plasticity in cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Walker, Brandon L.; Iannaccone, Stephen; Bhatt, Devang; Kennedy, Patrick J.; Tse, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Development of stem and progenitor cells into specialized tissues in multicellular organisms involves a series of cell fate decisions. Cellular differentiation in higher organisms is generally considered irreversible, and the idea of developmental plasticity in postnatal tissues is controversial. Here, we show that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a human bone marrow stromal cell-derived myogenic subclone suppresses their myogenic ability and converts them into satellite cell-like precursors that respond to osteogenic stimulation. Clonal analysis of the induced osteogenic response reveals ultrasensitivity and an “all-or-none” behavior, hallmarks of a bistable switch mechanism with stochastic noise. The response demonstrates cellular memory, which is contingent on the accumulation of an intracellular factor and can be erased by factor dilution through cell divisions or inhibition of protein synthesis. The effect of MAPK inhibition also exhibits memory and appears to be controlled by another bistable switch further upstream that determines cell fate. Once the memory associated with osteogenic differentiation is erased, the cells regain their myogenic ability. These results support a model of cell fate decision in which a network of bistable switches controls inducible production of lineage-specific differentiation factors. A competitive balance between these factors determines cell fate. Our work underscores the dynamic nature of cellular differentiation and explains mechanistically the dual properties of stability and plasticity associated with the process. PMID:19366677

  7. An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Li; Altindal, Tuba; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward Δf and backward Δb intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, P(Δf) and P(Δb), of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor reversal dynamics as a first-passage problem, which results from conformation fluctuations of the motor switch, we calculated P(Δf) and P(Δb) and found good agreement with the measurements.

  8. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal

    2015-05-01

    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  9. Resistance switching memory in perovskite oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    The resistance switching behavior has recently attracted great attentions for its application as resistive random access memories (RRAMs) due to a variety of advantages such as simple structure, high-density, high-speed and low-power. As a leading storage media, the transition metal perovskite oxide owns the strong correlation of electrons and the stable crystal structure, which brings out multifunctionality such as ferroelectric, multiferroic, superconductor, and colossal magnetoresistance/electroresistance effect, etc. The existence of rich electronic phases, metal–insulator transition and the nonstoichiometric oxygen in perovskite oxide provides good platforms to insight into the resistive switching mechanisms. In this review, we first introduce the general characteristics of the resistance switching effects, the operation methods and the storage media. Then, the experimental evidences of conductive filaments, the transport and switching mechanisms, and the memory performances and enhancing methods of perovskite oxide based filamentary RRAM cells have been summarized and discussed. Subsequently, the switching mechanisms and the performances of the uniform RRAM cells associating with the carrier trapping/detrapping and the ferroelectric polarization switching have been discussed. Finally, the advices and outlook for further investigating the resistance switching and enhancing the memory performances are given

  10. Reluctance motor employing superconducting magnetic flux switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyker, R.L.; Ruckstadter, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that superconducting flux switches controlling the magnetic flux in the poles of a motor will enable the implementation of a reluctance motor using one central single phase winding. A superconducting flux switch consists of a ring of superconducting material surrounding a ferromagnetic pole of the motor. When in the superconducting state the switch will block all magnetic flux attempting to flow in the ferromagnetic core. When switched to the normal state the superconducting switch will allow the magnetic flux to flow freely in that pole. By using one high turns-count coil as a flux generator, and selectively channeling flux among the various poles using the superconducting flux switch, 3-phase operation can be emulated with a single-hase central AC source. The motor will also operate when the flux generating coil is driven by a DC current, provided the magnetic flux switches see a continuously varying magnetic flux. Rotor rotation provides this varying flux due to the change in stator pole inductance it produces

  11. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  12. DESAIN DAN IMPLEMENTSI SOFT SWITCHING BOOST KONVERTER DENGAN SIMPLE AUXILLARY RESONANT SWITCH (SARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Bagus Saputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boost konverter merupakan penaik tegangan DC ke tegangan DC yang mempunyai tegangan output yang lebih tinggi dibanding inputnya. Penggunaan boost konverter diera modern semakin meningkat dan dibuat dengan dimensi yang lebih kecil, berat yang lebih ringan dan efisiensi yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan boost konverter generasi terdahulu. Tetapi rugi-rugi periodik saat on/off meningkat. Untuk meraih kriteria tersebut, teknik hard switching boost konverter berevolusi menjadi teknik soft switching dengan menambah rangkaian simple auxiliary resonant circuit (SARC. Karena penambahan rangkaian SARC tersebut konverter bekerja pada kondisi zero-voltage switching switch (ZVS dan zero current switch (ZCS, sehingga saklar semikonduktor tidak bekerja secara hard switching lagi. Pada penelitian ini akan di desain dan diimplementaskan soft switching boost konverter dengan SARC. Kelebihan dari soft switching boost konverter dengan SARC adalah mempunyai efisiensi yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan boost konverter konventional. Dari hasil implementasi menunjukkan konverter yang diajukan telah meraih zero voltage switch (ZVS. Sehingga boost konverter zero voltage switch (ZVS bisa diaplikasikan pada sistem power suplay yang membutuhkan efisiensi energi yang tinggi terutama pada daya yang tinggi.

  13. Comparison of switching control algorithms effective in restricting the switching in the neighborhood of the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, JinWook; Chung, Lan; Smyth, Andrew W

    2010-01-01

    The active interaction control (AIC) system consisting of a primary structure, an auxiliary structure and an interaction element was proposed to protect the primary structure against earthquakes and winds. The objective of the AIC system in reducing the responses of the primary structure is fulfilled by activating or deactivating the switching between the engagement and the disengagement of the primary and auxiliary structures through the interaction element. The status of the interaction element is controlled by switching control algorithms. The previously developed switching control algorithms require an excessive amount of switching, which is inefficient. In this paper, the excessive amount of switching is restricted by imposing an appropriately designed switching boundary region, where switching is prohibited, on pre-designed engagement–disengagement conditions. Two different approaches are used in designing the newly proposed AID-off and AID-off 2 algorithms. The AID-off 2 algorithm is designed to affect deactivated switching regions explicitly, unlike the AID-off algorithm, which follows the same procedure of designing the engagement–disengagement conditions of the previously developed algorithms, by using the current status of the AIC system. Both algorithms are shown to be effective in reducing the amount of switching times triggered from the previously developed AID algorithm under an appropriately selected control sampling period for different earthquakes, but the AID-off 2 algorithm outperforms the AID-off algorithm in reducing the number of switching times

  14. Organic-based molecular switches for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Noelia; Martín-Lasanta, Ana; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Ribagorda, Maria; Parra, Andres; Cuerva, Juan M

    2011-10-05

    In a general sense, molecular electronics (ME) is the branch of nanotechnology which studies the application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components. Among the different types of molecules, organic compounds have been revealed as promising candidates for ME, due to the easy access, great structural diversity and suitable electronic and mechanical properties. Thanks to these useful capabilities, organic molecules have been used to emulate electronic devices at the nanoscopic scale. In this feature article, we present the diverse strategies used to develop organic switches towards ME with special attention to non-volatile systems.

  15. Exponential Stability of Switched Positive Homogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadong Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the exponential stability of switched positive nonlinear systems defined by cooperative and homogeneous vector fields. In order to capture the decay rate of such systems, we first consider the subsystems. A sufficient condition for exponential stability of subsystems with time-varying delays is derived. In particular, for the corresponding delay-free systems, we prove that this sufficient condition is also necessary. Then, we present a sufficient condition of exponential stability under minimum dwell time switching for the switched positive nonlinear systems. Some results in the previous literature are extended. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  16. High voltage superconducting switch for power application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawardi, O.; Ferendeci, A.; Gattozzi, A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a novel interrupter which meets the requirements of a high voltage direct current (HVDC) power switch and at the same time doubles as a current limiter. The basic concept of the interrupter makes use of a fast superconducting, high capacity (SHIC) switch that carries the full load current while in the superconducting state and reverts to the normal resistive state when triggered. Typical design parameters are examined for the case of a HVDC transmission line handling 2.5KA at 150KVDC. The result is a power switch with superior performance and smaller size than the ones reported to date

  17. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  18. A chain-retrieval model for voluntary task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, André; Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2012-09-01

    To account for the findings obtained in voluntary task switching, this article describes and tests the chain-retrieval model. This model postulates that voluntary task selection involves retrieval of task information from long-term memory, which is then used to guide task selection and task execution. The model assumes that the retrieved information consists of acquired sequences (or chains) of tasks, that selection may be biased towards chains containing more task repetitions and that bottom-up triggered repetitions may overrule the intended task. To test this model, four experiments are reported. In Studies 1 and 2, sequences of task choices and the corresponding transition sequences (task repetitions or switches) were analyzed with the help of dependency statistics. The free parameters of the chain-retrieval model were estimated on the observed task sequences and these estimates were used to predict autocorrelations of tasks and transitions. In Studies 3 and 4, sequences of hand choices and their transitions were analyzed similarly. In all studies, the chain-retrieval model yielded better fits and predictions than statistical models of event choice. In applications to voluntary task switching (Studies 1 and 2), all three parameters of the model were needed to account for the data. When no task switching was required (Studies 3 and 4), the chain-retrieval model could account for the data with one or two parameters clamped to a neutral value. Implications for our understanding of voluntary task selection and broader theoretical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance analysis of signaling protocols on OBS switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirci, Pinar; Zaim, A. Halim

    2005-10-01

    In this paper, Just-In-Time (JIT), Just-Enough-Time (JET) and Horizon signalling schemes for Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS) are presented. These signaling schemes run over a core dWDM network and a network architecture based on Optical Burst Switches (OBS) is proposed to support IP, ATM and Burst traffic. In IP and ATM traffic several packets are assembled in a single packet called burst and the burst contention is handled by burst dropping. The burst length distribution in IP traffic is arbitrary between 0 and 1, and is fixed in ATM traffic at 0,5. Burst traffic on the other hand is arbitrary between 1 and 5. The Setup and Setup ack length distributions are arbitrary. We apply the Poisson model with rate λ and Self-Similar model with pareto distribution rate α to identify inter-arrival times in these protocols. We consider a communication between a source client node and a destination client node over an ingress and one or more multiple intermediate switches.We use buffering only in the ingress node. The communication is based on single burst connections in which, the connection is set up just before sending a burst and then closed as soon as the burst is sent. Our analysis accounts for several important parameters, including the burst setup, burst setup ack, keepalive messages and the optical switching protocol. We compare the performance of the three signalling schemes on the network under as burst dropping probability under a range of network scenarios.

  20. Passively-switched energy harvester for increased operational range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tian; Livermore, Carol; Pierre, Ryan St

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents modeling and experimental validation of a new type of vibrational energy harvester that passively switches between two dynamical modes of operation to expand the range of driving frequencies and accelerations over which the harvester effectively extracts power. In both modes, a driving beam with a low resonant frequency couples into ambient vibrations and transfers their energy to a generating beam that has a higher resonant frequency. The generating beam converts the mechanical power into electrical power. In coupled-motion mode, the driving beam bounces off the generating beam. In plucked mode, the driving beam deflects the generating beam until the driving beam passes from above the generating beam to below it or vice versa. Analytical system models are implemented numerically in the time domain for driving frequencies of 3 Hz to 27 Hz and accelerations from 0.1 g to 2.6 g, and both system dynamics and output power are predicted. A corresponding switched-dynamics harvester is tested experimentally, and its voltage, power, and dynamics are recorded. In both models and experiments, coupled-motion harvesting is observed at lower accelerations, whereas plucked harvesting and/or mixed mode harvesting are observed at higher accelerations. As expected, plucked harvesting outputs greater power than coupled-motion harvesting in both simulations and experiments. The predicted (1.8 mW) and measured (1.56 mW) maximum average power levels are similar under measured conditions at 0.5 g. When the system switches to dynamics that are characteristic of higher frequencies, the difference between predicted and measured power levels is more pronounced due to non-ideal mechanical interaction between the beams’ tips. Despite the beams’ non-ideal interactions, switched-dynamics operation increases the harvester’s operating range. (paper)