WorldWideScience

Sample records for silicon non-mechanical steering

  1. Refractive waveguide non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) in the MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jason D.; Frantz, Jesse A.; Spillmann, Christopher M.; Bekele, Robel Y.; Kolacz, Jakub; Gotjen, Henry; Naciri, Jawad; Shaw, Brandon; Sanghera, Jas S.

    2018-02-01

    Beam steering is a crucial technology for a number of applications, including chemical sensing/mapping and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). Traditional beam steering approaches rely on mechanical movement, such as the realignment of mirrors in gimbal mounts. The mechanical approach to steering has several drawbacks, including large size, weight and power usage (SWAP), and frequent mechanical failures. Recently, alternative non-mechanical approaches have been proposed and developed, but these technologies do not meet the demanding requirements for many beam steering applications. Here, we highlight the development efforts into a particular non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) approach, refractive waveguides, for application in the MWIR. These waveguides are based on an Ulrich-coupled slab waveguide with a liquid crystal (LC) top cladding; by selectively applying an electric field across the liquid crystal through a prismatic electrode, steering is achieved by creating refraction at prismatic interfaces as light propagates through the device. For applications in the MWIR, we describe a versatile waveguide architecture based on chalcogenide glasses that have a wide range of refractive indices, transmission windows, and dispersion properties. We have further developed robust shadow-masking methods to taper the subcladding layers in the coupling region. We have demonstrated devices with >10° of steering in the MWIR and a number of advantageous properties for beam steering applications, including low-power operation, compact size, and fast point-to-point steering.

  2. Non-Mechanical Beam Steering in Free-Space Optical Communication Transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Kevin

    Free-space optical communications systems are a rapidly growing field as they carry many of the advantages of traditional fibre-based communications systems without the added investment of installing complex infrastructure. Moreover, these systems are finding key niches in mobile platforms in order to take advantage of the increased bandwidth over traditional RF systems. Of course, the inevitable problem of tracking arises when dealing with mobile stations. To compound the problem in the case of communications to low Earth or geosynchronous orbits, FSOC systems typically operate with tightly confined beams over great distances often requiring pointing accuracies on the order of micro-radians or smaller. Mechanisms such as gimbal mounts and fine-steering mirrors are the usual candidates for platform stabilization, however, these clearly have substantial power requirements and inflate the mass of the system. Spatial light modulators (also known as optical phased arrays), on the other hand, offer a suitable alternative for beam-pointing stabilization. Some of the advantages of spatial light modulators over fine-steering mirrors include programmable multiple simultaneous beams, dynamic focus/defocus and moderate to excellent optical power handling capability. This thesis serves as an investigation into the implementation of spatial light modulators as a replacement for traditional fine-steering mirrors in the fine-pointing subsystem. In particular, pointing accuracy and scanning ability will be highlighted as performance metrics in the context of a variety of communication scenarios. Keywords: Free-space optical communications, beam steering, fine-steering mirror, spatial light modulator, optical phased array.

  3. Diode laser lidar wind velocity sensor using a liquid-crystal retarder for non-mechanical beam-steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    it either transmits throughor reflects off a polarization splitter. The room-temperature switching timebetween the two LOS is measured to be in the order of 100μs in one switchdirection but 16 ms in the opposite transition. Radial wind speedmeasurement (at 33 Hz rate) while the lidar beam is repeatedly...... the lidar probe beam in two different lines-of-sight (LOS) with a 60° angular separation. Dual-LOS beam-steering isimplemented optically with no moving parts by means of a controllableliquid-crystal retarder (LCR). The LCR switches the polarization betweentwo orthogonal linear states of the lidar beam so...

  4. Near-Infrared and Optical Beam Steering and Frequency Splitting in Air-Holes-in-Silicon Inverse Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present the design of a dielectric inverse photonic crystal structure that couples line-defect waveguide propagating modes into highly directional beams of controllable directionality. The structure utilizes a triangular lattice made of air holes drilled in an infinitely thick Si slab, and it is designed for operation in the near-infrared and optical regime. The structure operation is based on the excitation and manipulation of dark dielectric surface states, in particular on the tailoring of the dark states’ coupling to outgoing radiation. This coupling is achieved with the use of properly designed external corrugations. The structure adapts and matches modes that travel through the photonic crystal and the free space. Moreover it facilitates the steering of the outgoing waves, is found to generate well-defined, spatially and spectrally isolated beams, and may serve as a frequency splitting component designed for operation in the near-infrared regime and in particular the telecom optical wavelength band. The design complies with the state-of-the-art Si nanofabrication technology and can be directly scaled for operation in the optical regime. PMID:29541653

  5. Steering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeffer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents basic principles as well as advanced concepts of the computational modeling of steering systems. Moreover, the book includes the components and functionalities of modern steering system, which are presented comprehensively and in a practical way. The book is written by more than 15 leading experts from the automotive industry and its components suppliers. The target audience primarily comprises practicing engineers, developers, researchers as well as graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  6. Steering straight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Jacqueline

    2011-12-15

    Baker Hughes Inc. has developed a deep azimuthal resistivity measurement tool for subsurface navigation when drilling oil and gas wells. This tool, named AziTrak, has measurement-while-drilling and logging-while-drilling capabilities and data are sent in real time to the surface via mud pulse or wired pipe telemetry. This technology helps the operator detect and visualize bed boundaries in real time, thanks to 3D imagery and a 360 degree view of the subsurface. The AziTrak system makes it possible to steer proactively and to stay within the pay zone at all times to maximize production; the tool had excellent results in field applications. Although this tool is 5 times more expensive than conventional technologies, its use results in a more economic wellbore thanks to its great utility. If the operator puts a high degree of involvement into it, the AziTrak deep azimuthal resistivity measurement tool will allow him to stay in the pay zone at all times.

  7. Steering smog prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Liere (Robert); J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of computational steering for smog prediction is described. This application is representative for many underlying issues found in steering high performance applications: high computing times, large data sets, and many different input parameters. After a short description of the

  8. Steering and evasion assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.; Desens, J.; Franke, U.; Gavrila, D.; Schäfers, L.; Ziegler, W.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steering and evasion assistance defines a new and future class of driver assistance systems to avoid an impending collision with other traffic participants. Dynamic and kinematic considerations reveal that an evasive steering maneuver has high potential for collision avoidance in many driving

  9. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  10. Vehicle steering by side stick: optimising steering characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, J.; Hogema, J.H.; Brekelmans, J.A.W.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was conducted to investigate the possibilities for optimizing task performance when driving a side stick-steered vehicle. Using steer-by-wire technology, a conventional steering system was mimicked, thus yielding the possibility to modify the steering

  11. One-way EPR steering and genuine multipartite EPR steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Reid, Margaret D.

    2012-11-01

    We propose criteria and experimental strategies to realise the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering nonlocality. One-way steering can be obtained where there is asymmetry of thermal noise on each system. We also present EPR steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimise EPR correlations in specific schemes so that the genuine multipartite EPR steering nonlocality (EPR paradox) can also possibly be realised. The results presented here also apply to the spatially separated macroscopic atomic ensembles.

  12. Methodologies for steering clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1995-01-01

    One of the concerns of the PTTI community is the coordination of one time scale with another. This is accomplished through steering one clock system to another, with a goal of a zero or constant offset in time and frequency. In order to attain this goal, rate differences are calculated and allowed for by the steering algorithm. This paper will present several of these different methods of determining rate differences. Ideally, any change in rate should not cause the offset to change sign (overshoot) by any amount, but certainly not by as much as its previous absolute value. The advantages and disadvantages of each depend on the user's situation.

  13. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization. Posi....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  14. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 570.7 Section 570.7... Pounds or Less § 570.7 Steering systems. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system shall... in the steering system. Table 1—Steering System Free Play Values Steering wheel diameter (inches...

  15. Steering Maps and Their Application to Dimension-Bounded Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Tobias; Gittsovich, Oleg; Huber, Marcus; Uola, Roope; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-03-01

    The existence of quantum correlations that allow one party to steer the quantum state of another party is a counterintuitive quantum effect that was described at the beginning of the past century. Steering occurs if entanglement can be proven even though the description of the measurements on one party is not known, while the other side is characterized. We introduce the concept of steering maps, which allow us to unlock sophisticated techniques that were developed in regular entanglement detection and to use them for certifying steerability. As an application, we show that this allows us to go beyond even the canonical steering scenario; it enables a generalized dimension-bounded steering where one only assumes the Hilbert space dimension on the characterized side, with no description of the measurements. Surprisingly, this does not weaken the detection strength of very symmetric scenarios that have recently been carried out in experiments.

  16. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  17. Holographic memory using beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Hanan, Jay C. (Inventor); Reyes, George F. (Inventor); Zhou, Hanying (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A method, apparatus, and system provide the ability for storing holograms at high speed. A single laser diode emits a collimated laser beam to both write to and read from a photorefractice crystal. One or more liquid crystal beam steering spatial light modulators (BSSLMs) or Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) mirrors steer a reference beam, split from the collimated laser beam, at high speed to the photorefractive crystal.

  18. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  19. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  20. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  1. 46 CFR 176.814 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering systems. 176.814 Section 176.814 Shipping COAST...) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Material Inspections § 176.814 Steering systems. At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification the owner or managing operator shall be prepared to test the steering systems of...

  2. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  3. Experimental verification of multidimensional quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Che-Ming; Lo, Hsin-Pin; Chen, Liang-Yu; Yabushita, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Quantum steering enables one party to communicate with another remote party even if the sender is untrusted. Such characteristics of quantum systems not only provide direct applications to quantum information science, but are also conceptually important for distinguishing between quantum and classical resources. While concrete illustrations of steering have been shown in several experiments, quantum steering has not been certified for higher dimensional systems. Here, we introduce a simple method to experimentally certify two different kinds of quantum steering: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and single-system (SS) steering (i.e., temporal steering), for dimensionality (d) up to d = 16. The former reveals the steerability among bipartite systems, whereas the latter manifests itself in single quantum objects. We use multidimensional steering witnesses to verify EPR steering of polarization-entangled pairs and SS steering of single photons. The ratios between the measured witnesses and the maximum values achieved by classical mimicries are observed to increase with d for both EPR and SS steering. The designed scenario offers a new method to study further the genuine multipartite steering of large dimensionality and potential uses in quantum information processing.

  4. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S. [Sustainable and Infrastructure Research and Development Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria.

  5. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria

  6. 46 CFR 108.641 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 108.641 Section... steering gear. Instructions stating, in order, the different steps to be taken for changing to emergency and secondary steering gear must be posted in the steering gear room and at each secondary steering...

  7. 46 CFR 182.610 - Main steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main steering gear. 182.610 Section 182.610 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.610 Main steering gear. (a) A vessel must be provided with a main steering gear that is: (1) Of adequate strength and capable of steering the vessel at all service...

  8. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On Electrohydraulic Pressure Control for Power Steering Applications : Active Steering for Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Amico, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the Electrohydraulic Power Steering system for road vehicles, using electronic pressure control valves. With an ever increasing demand for safer vehicles and fewer traffic accidents, steering-related active safety functions are becoming more common in modern vehicles. Future road vehicles will also evolve towards autonomous vehicles, with several safety, environmental and financial benefits. A key component in realising such solutions is active steering. The power steer...

  10. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...... periods are not significantly long. Finally, better alignment between the RRC Connected and Idle mobility procedures is observed, guarantying significant decrease of handovers/reselections and potential battery life savings by minimizing the Inter-Frequency (IF) measurement rate in the RRC Idle....

  11. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  12. How Insect Flight Steering Muscles Work

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Simon M.; Schwyn, Daniel A.; Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G.; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for

  13. Steer-by-wire innovations and demonstrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lupker, H.A.; Zuurbier, J.; Verschuren, R.M.A.F.; Jansen, S.T.H.; Willemsen, D.M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Arguments for 'by-wire' systems include production costs, packaging and traffic safety. Innovations concern both product and development process e.g. combined virtual engineering and Hardware-in-the-loop testing. Three Steer-by-wire systems are discussed: a steering system simulator used as a

  14. A new model to compute the desired steering torque for steer-by-wire vehicles and driving simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankem, Steve; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the control of the hand wheel actuator in steer-by-wire (SbW) vehicles and driving simulators (DSs). A novel model for the computation of the desired steering torque is presented. The introduced steering torque computation does not only aim to generate a realistic steering feel, which means that the driver should not miss the basic steering functionality of a modern conventional steering system such as an electric power steering (EPS) or hydraulic power steering (HPS), and this in every driving situation. In addition, the modular structure of the steering torque computation combined with suitably selected tuning parameters has the objective to offer a high degree of customisability of the steering feel and thus to provide each driver with his preferred steering feel in a very intuitive manner. The task and the tuning of each module are firstly described. Then, the steering torque computation is parameterised such that the steering feel of a series EPS system is reproduced. For this purpose, experiments are conducted in a hardware-in-the-loop environment where a test EPS is mounted on a steering test bench coupled with a vehicle simulator and parameter identification techniques are applied. Subsequently, how appropriate the steering torque computation mimics the test EPS system is objectively evaluated with respect to criteria concerning the steering torque level and gradient, the feedback behaviour and the steering return ability. Finally, the intuitive tuning of the modular steering torque computation is demonstrated for deriving a sportier steering feel configuration.

  15. Wireless traffic steering for green cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shan; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces wireless traffic steering as a paradigm to realize green communication in multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks. By matching network resources and dynamic mobile traffic demand, traffic steering helps to reduce on-grid power consumption with on-demand services provided. This book reviews existing solutions from the perspectives of energy consumption reduction and renewable energy harvesting. Specifically, it explains how traffic steering can improve energy efficiency through intelligent traffic-resource matching. Several promising traffic steering approaches for dynamic network planning and renewable energy demand-supply balancing are discussed. This book presents an energy-aware traffic steering method for networks with energy harvesting, which optimizes the traffic allocated to each cell based on the renewable energy status. Renewable energy demand-supply balancing is a key factor in energy dynamics, aimed at enhancing renewable energy sustainability to reduce on-grid energy consum...

  16. Operator space approach to steering inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Zhi; Marciniak, Marcin; Horodecki, Michał

    2015-01-01

    In Junge and Palazuelos (2011 Commun. Math. Phys. 306 695–746) and Junge et al (2010 Commun. Math. Phys. 300 715–39) the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as constructing all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by a non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only the bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional. (paper)

  17. Biogas production from steer manures in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cuong H.; Saggar, Surinder; Vu, Cuong C.

    2017-01-01

    manures collected from two different experiments of steers fed diets containing feed supplements. BMP was 110.1 (NLkg-1 VS) for manure from steers receiving a control diet, significantly lower 79.0 (NL kg-1 VS) for manure from steers fed a diet containing 0.3% tannin (%DM), but then showed an increasing...... trend to 90.9 and 91.2 (NL kg-1 VS) for manures from steers receiving 0.4 and 0.5% tannin (%DM) supplements, respectively. Similarly, the CH4 production (NL kg-1 VS) of manure from steers was 174 for control, 142 for control supplemented concentrate (C), 143 for control added rice straw treated...

  18. Steering of sub-GeV electrons by ultrashort Si and Ge bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytov, A.I. [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; Belarusian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus). Inst. for Nuclear Problems; INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Bandiera, L.; Mazzolari, A.; Bagli, E.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Romagnoni, M. [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); De Salvador, D.; Carturan, S.; Maggioni, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Berra, A.; Prest, M. [Univ. dell' Insubria, Como (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Durighello, C. [Ferrara Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica e Scienze della Terra; INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); Padova Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN Sezione di Ferrara (Italy); Klag, P.; Lauth, W. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Tikhomirov, V.V. [Belarusian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus). Inst. for Nuclear Problems; Vallazza, E. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2017-12-15

    We report the observation of the steering of 855 MeV electrons by bent silicon and germanium crystals at the MAinzer MIkrotron. Crystals with 15 μm of length, bent along (111) planes, were exploited to investigate orientational coherent effects. By using a piezo-actuated mechanical holder, which allowed to remotely change the crystal curvature, it was possible to study the steering capability of planar channeling and volume reflection vs. the curvature radius and the atomic number, Z. For silicon, the channeling efficiency exceeds 35%, a record for negatively charged particles. This was possible due to the realization of a crystal with a thickness of the order of the dechanneling length. On the other hand, for germanium the efficiency is slightly below 10% due to the stronger contribution of multiple scattering for a higher-Z material. Nevertheless this is the first evidence of negative beam steering by planar channeling in a Ge crystal. Having determined for the first time the dechanneling length, one may design a Ge crystal based on such knowledge providing nearly the same channeling efficiency of silicon. The presented results are relevant for crystal-based beam manipulation as well as for the generation of e.m. radiation in bent and periodically bent crystals. (orig.)

  19. Steering of Sub-GeV electrons by ultrashort Si and Ge bent crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytov, A. I.; Bandiera, L.; De Salvador, D.; Mazzolari, A.; Bagli, E.; Berra, A.; Carturan, S.; Durighello, C.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Klag, P.; Lauth, W.; Maggioni, G.; Prest, M.; Romagnoni, M.; Tikhomirov, V. V.; Vallazza, E.

    2017-12-01

    We report the observation of the steering of 855 MeV electrons by bent silicon and germanium crystals at the MAinzer MIkrotron. Crystals with 15 μ m of length, bent along (111) planes, were exploited to investigate orientational coherent effects. By using a piezo-actuated mechanical holder, which allowed to remotely change the crystal curvature, it was possible to study the steering capability of planar channeling and volume reflection vs. the curvature radius and the atomic number, Z. For silicon, the channeling efficiency exceeds 35%, a record for negatively charged particles. This was possible due to the realization of a crystal with a thickness of the order of the dechanneling length. On the other hand, for germanium the efficiency is slightly below 10% due to the stronger contribution of multiple scattering for a higher-Z material. Nevertheless this is the first evidence of negative beam steering by planar channeling in a Ge crystal. Having determined for the first time the dechanneling length, one may design a Ge crystal based on such knowledge providing nearly the same channeling efficiency of silicon. The presented results are relevant for crystal-based beam manipulation as well as for the generation of e.m. radiation in bent and periodically bent crystals.

  20. Steering particles by breaking symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René

    2018-06-01

    We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.

  1. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  2. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  3. Automated beam steering using optimal control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. K. (Christopher K.)

    2004-01-01

    We present a steering algorithm which, with the aid of a model, allows the user to specify beam behavior throughout a beamline, rather than just at specified beam position monitor (BPM) locations. The model is used primarily to compute the values of the beam phase vectors from BPM measurements, and to define cost functions that describe the steering objectives. The steering problem is formulated as constrained optimization problem; however, by applying optimal control theory we can reduce it to an unconstrained optimization whose dimension is the number of control signals.

  4. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... the hydraulic system can be readily recharged from within the steering-gear compartment and must be...

  5. Genuine Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    We develop the concept of genuine N-partite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. This nonlocality is the natural multipartite extension of the original EPR paradox. Useful properties emerge that are not guaranteed for genuine multipartite entangled states. In particular, there is a close link with the task of one-sided, device-independent quantum secret sharing. We derive inequalities to demonstrate multipartite EPR steering for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and Gaussian continuous variable states in loophole-free scenarios.

  6. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Wiseman, H. M.; Jones, S. J.; Doherty, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schrodinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict ...

  7. Multipass Steering: A Reference Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Michael; Tiefenback, Michael

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a reference implementation of a protocol to compute corrections that bring all beams in one of the CEBAF linear accelerators (linac) to axis, including, with a larger tolerance, the lowest energy pass using measured beam trajectory data. This method relies on linear optics as representation of the system; we treat beamline perturbations as magnetic field errors localized to regions between cryomodules, providing the same transverse momentum kick to each beam. We produce a vector of measured beam position data with which we left-multiply the pseudo-inverse of a coefficient array, A, that describes the transport of the beam through the linac using parameters that include the magnetic offsets of the quadrupole magnets, the instrumental offsets of the BPMs, and the beam initial conditions. This process is repeated using a reduced array to produce values that can be applied to the available correcting magnets and beam initial conditions. We show that this method is effective in steering the beam to a straight axis along the linac by using our values in elegant, the accelerator simulation program, on a model of the linac in question. The algorithms in this reference implementation provide a tool for systematic diagnosis and cataloging of perturbations in the beam line. Supported by Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University, NSF, DOE.

  8. Quantum steering in cascaded four-wave mixing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lv, Shuchao; Jing, Jietai

    2017-07-24

    Quantum steering is used to describe the "spooky action-at-a-distance" nonlocality raised in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox, which is important for understanding entanglement distribution and constructing quantum networks. Here, in this paper, we study an experimentally feasible scheme for generating quantum steering based on cascaded four-wave-mixing (FWM) processes in hot rubidium (Rb) vapor. Quantum steering, including bipartite steering and genuine tripartite steering among the output light fields, is theoretically analyzed. We find the corresponding gain regions in which the bipartite and tripartite steering exist. The results of bipartite steering can be used to establish a hierarchical steering model in which one beam can steer the other two beams in the whole gain region; however, the other two beams cannot steer the first beam simultaneously. Moreover, the other two beams cannot steer with each other in the whole gain region. More importantly, we investigate the gain dependence of the existence of the genuine tripartite steering and we find that the genuine tripartite steering exists in most of the whole gain region in the ideal case. Also we discuss the effect of losses on the genuine tripartite steering. Our results pave the way to experimental demonstration of quantum steering in cascaded FWM process.

  9. Improvement of motor inertia influence of electric power steering; Dendoshiki power steering no motor kansei no eikyo to hosho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, S; Sakamoto, K; Hanamoto, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Noritsugu, T [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Motor inertia of electric power steering affects not only steering characteristics but vehicle dynamics. We have investigated the influence of motor inertia and proposed a feedback strategy to compensate it. Weight of the test vehicle is 1100Kg and the steering system is pinion type electric power steering. By using simulation model and vehicle test, we have realized natural steering maneuvering and stable vehicle dynamics. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Networks: structure and action : steering in and steering by policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dassen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the opportunities to build a structural policy network model that is rooted in social network theories. By making a distinction between a process of steering in networks, and a process of steering by networks, it addresses the effects of network structures on network dynamics as

  11. Assessment of a Boat Fractured Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelic Goran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During regular use of the steering wheel mounted on a boat, two cracks emanating from a fastener hole were noticed which, consequently, caused final fracture of the wheel. To determine the behavior of a boat steering wheel with cracks present, assessment of a fractured wheel was performed. Torque moments of the fasteners were measured prior to removing the steering wheel from the boat. Visual and dye penetrant inspection followed along with the material detection. Besides using experimental procedures, assessment of the fractured wheel was performed using finite element analysis, i.e. stress intensity factor values were numerically determined. Variation of stress intensity factor with crack length is presented. Possible causes of crack occurrence are given and they include excessive values of fastener torque moments coupled with fretting between fastener and fastener hole that was poorly machined. Results obtained by this assessment can be taken for predicting fracture behavior of a cracked steering wheel and as a reference in the design, mounting and exploitation process of steering wheels improving that way their safety in transportation environment.

  12. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  13. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  14. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  15. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  16. Relative entropy of steering: on its definition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Eneet; Wilde, Mark M

    2017-01-01

    In Gallego and Aolita (2015 Phys. Rev . X 5 041008), the authors proposed a definition for the relative entropy of steering and showed that the resulting quantity is a convex steering monotone. Here we advocate for a different definition for relative entropy of steering, based on well grounded concerns coming from quantum Shannon theory. We prove that this modified relative entropy of steering is a convex steering monotone. Furthermore, we establish that it is uniformly continuous and faithful, in both cases giving quantitative bounds that should be useful in applications. We also consider a restricted relative entropy of steering which is relevant for the case in which the free operations in the resource theory of steering have a more restricted form (the restricted operations could be more relevant in practical scenarios). The restricted relative entropy of steering is convex, monotone with respect to these restricted operations, uniformly continuous, and faithful. (paper)

  17. Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for parallel parking, zero turning radius, minimum turning radius with traditional turning. ... of the steering system are designed so as to meet all the configuration of steering system and to be well-matched to the power train, suspension system and body of the car.

  18. Speed choice and steering behavior in curve driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winsum, W. van; Godthelp, J.

    1996-01-01

    The relation between speed choice and steering performance during curve negotiation was studied in a driving simulator. The hypothesis was that curve radius and steering competence both affect steering error during curve driving, resulting in compensatory speed choice. In this, the control of safety

  19. 46 CFR 167.65-25 - Steering gear tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear tests. 167.65-25 Section 167.65-25... SHIPS Special Operating Requirements § 167.65-25 Steering gear tests. On all nautical school ships making voyages of more than 48 hours' duration, the entire steering gear, the whistle, the means of...

  20. 46 CFR 61.20-1 - Steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear. 61.20-1 Section 61.20-1 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Machinery and Equipment § 61.20-1 Steering gear. (a) The marine inspector must inspect the steering gear at each inspection for certification for vessels whose Certificate of Inspections...

  1. Steering Dynamics in the Dutch Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waslander, Sietske; Hooge, Edith; Drewes, Tineke

    2016-01-01

    Based on detailed empirical analyses, we paint a layered picture of emerging steering dynamics. Inspired by Foucault, we put the focus on roles stakeholders define both for themselves and others, how they give sense to policy, how they work together in policy elaboration and implementation, and the subtle and sometimes deceitful function of soft…

  2. Use of free steered vehicles. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, W

    1986-01-01

    The UK National Coal Board's Western Area is currently producing 10.5 m/tons per annum from 16 collieries exploiting 26 different seams. This article looks at the use of free steered vehicles (FSV's) in Haig Colliery, Point of Ayr and Silverdale Colliery, covering general applications, installation of coal faces and face salvage by FSV's.

  3. Development of steering system in network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Fumihiro; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    We have been developing the steering system, which can successively observe the-data obtained during the numerical computation and change the parameters in the analysis. Moreover, this system is also extended to link the network. By using this system, a user can easily detect errors immediately and achieve the rapid and accurate analysis with lower computation cost. (Author)

  4. Quantum Steering Beyond Instrumental Causal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, R. V.; Taddei, M. M.; Chaves, R.; Aolita, L.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict, and experimentally verify with entangled photons, that outcome communication is not enough for hidden-state models to reproduce quantum steering. Hidden-state models with outcome communication correspond, in turn, to the well-known instrumental processes of causal inference but in the one-sided device-independent scenario of one black-box measurement device and one well-characterized quantum apparatus. We introduce one-sided device-independent instrumental inequalities to test against these models, with the appealing feature of detecting entanglement even when communication of the black box's measurement outcome is allowed. We find that, remarkably, these inequalities can also be violated solely with steering, i.e., without outcome communication. In fact, an efficiently computable formal quantifier—the robustness of noninstrumentality—naturally arises, and we prove that steering alone is enough to maximize it. Our findings imply that quantum theory admits a stronger form of steering than known until now, with fundamental as well as practical potential implications.

  5. A Frictionless Steering Mechanism for the Front Steering ECCD ITER Upper Port Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavan, R; Henderson, M A; Sanchez, F

    2005-01-01

    A FS launcher is being designed for the ITER upper port, which offers enhanced physics performance over the RS launcher. A two mirror system is used to decouple the focusing and steering aspects of the launcher and provide a relatively small beam waist ( 1.6 m from the steering mirror). The resulting NTM stabilization efficiency (maximum CD density divided by the local bootstrap current >1.6) is above marginal for the q = 2 and 3/2 rational flux surfaces of the relevant ITER equilibria (scenarios 2, 3a and 5) and a factor of ∼3 relative to an equivalent RS launcher. The performance of the FS launcher strongly depends on the reliability of the steering mechanism, which is used to rotate the plasma facing steering mirror. CRPP has designed a frictionless steering mechanism assembled in a compact cartridge capable of up to ±10 deg. rotation (corresponding to a poloidal steering range of up to ±20 deg. for the microwave beam around a fixed axis of rotation) that offers a high operation reliability despite the close proximity to the thermal and neutron flux coming from the ITER plasma

  6. Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  7. Method of Controlling Steering of a Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Atluri, Venkata Prasad (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method of controlling steering of a vehicle through setting wheel angles of a plurality of modular electronic corner assemblies (eModules) is provided. The method includes receiving a driving mode selected from a mode selection menu. A position of a steering input device is determined in a master controller. A velocity of the vehicle is determined, in the master controller, when the determined position of the steering input device is near center. A drive mode request corresponding to the selected driving mode to the plurality of steering controllers is transmitted to the master controller. A required steering angle of each of the plurality of eModules is determined, in the master controller, as a function of the determined position of the steering input device, the determined velocity of the vehicle, and the selected first driving mode. The eModules are set to the respective determined steering angles.

  8. Steering, Entanglement, Nonlocality, and the EPR Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Howard; Jones, Steve; Andrew, Doherty

    2007-06-01

    The concept of steering was introduced by Schroedinger in 1935 as a generalization of the EPR paradox for arbitrary pure bipartite entangled states and arbitrary measurements by one party. Until now, it has never been rigorously defined, so it has not been known (for example) what mixed states are steerable (that is, can be used to exhibit steering). We provide an operational definition, from which we prove (by considering Werner states and Isotropic states) that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell-nonlocality. For arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states we derive a linear matrix inequality that decides the question of steerability via Gaussian measurements, and we relate this to the original EPR paradox.

  9. Conditional steering under the von Neumann scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Karmakar, Sumana; Sarkar, Debasis; Mukherjee, Amit; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Roy, Arup

    2017-08-01

    In Phys. Lett. A 166, 293 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90711-T, Popescu and Rohrlich characterized nonlocality of pure n -partite entangled systems by studying bipartite violation of local realism when n -2 number of parties perform projective measurements on their particles. A pertinent question in this scenario is whether similar characterization is possible for n -partite mixed entangled states also. In the present work we have followed an analogous approach so as to explore whether given a tripartite mixed entangled state the conditional bipartite states obtained by performing projective measurement on the third party demonstrate a weaker form of nonlocality, quantum steering. We also compare this phenomenon of conditional steering with existing notions of tripartite correlations.

  10. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Bartosik, Hannes [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Papaphilippou, Yannis [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  11. Pointing Device Performance in Steering Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Ransalu; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S

    2016-06-01

    Use of touch-screen-based interactions is growing rapidly. Hence, knowing the maneuvering efficacy of touch screens relative to other pointing devices is of great importance in the context of graphical user interfaces. Movement time, accuracy, and user preferences of four pointing device settings were evaluated on a computer with 14 participants aged 20.1 ± 3.13 years. It was found that, depending on the difficulty of the task, the optimal settings differ for ballistic and visual control tasks. With a touch screen, resting the arm increased movement time for steering tasks. When both performance and comfort are considered, whether to use a mouse or a touch screen for person-computer interaction depends on the steering difficulty. Hence, a input device should be chosen based on the application, and should be optimized to match the graphical user interface. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-01-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system. (paper)

  13. Research on Performance of Wire-controlled Hydraulic Steering System Based on Four-wheel Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, P.; Jin, X. H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the steering stability and control strategy of forklift are put forward. Drive based on yawing moment distribution of rotary torque coordination control method, through analyzing the linear two degree of freedom model of forklift truck, forklift yawing angular velocity and mass center side-slip Angle of expectations, as the control target parameters system, using fuzzy controller output driving forklift steering the yawing moment, to drive rotary torque distribution, make the forklift truck to drive horizontal pendulum angular velocity and side-slip Angle tracking reference model very well. In this paper, the lateral stability control system were designed, the joint simulation in MATLAB/Simulink, the simulation results show that under the different partial load, the control system can effectively to control side forklift lateral stability, enhanced the forklift driving safety, for the side forklift steering stability study provides a theoretical basis.

  14. Working paper on public steering of privately owned sports facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård

    This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are........ Finally I discuss the methodological challenges of measuring activities in sports facilities – and take a closer look at the advantages and drawbacks of using manual and thermal techniques for registering activity.......This short paper discusses how municipalities can steer privately owned sports facilities. Firstly I analyse why steering of privately owned facilities is an interesting subject. Secondly I discuss what the advantages and drawbacks of using different approaches for steering sports facilities are...

  15. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  16. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    is needed that meets this requirement. This paper studies the fault-tolerance properties of an electrical steering system. It presents a fault-tolerant architecture where a dedicated AC motor design used in conjunction with cheap voltage measurements can ensure detection of all relevant faults......Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...

  17. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  18. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarrilli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not significantly increase after stunning in these animals.

  19. Steering assistance for backing up articulated vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Zoebel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Articulated vehicles belong to the category of nonholonomous wheelers. Under the aspect of control theory they require a sophisticated handling. This corresponds to the experience of unexercised drivers, for instance maneuvering a car and its caravan into a parking box. In this context some adequate advice for the right steering movements would give an appreciable assistance. Here a visual assistance is proposed and realized. The decisive advice for the driver is derived from kinematic modeling. The system is designed to be integrated into standard cars and trucks. For testing purposes the actual system has been incorporated into an existing backing up simulator.

  20. A New Type of Non-Mechanical Valves for Recirculation of Fine Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizaddini, Seyednezamaddin

    of the thesis is to design a new version of a non-mechanical valve for transportation of the particles and closing the loop in circulating or interconnected fluidized bed systems. As the primary proposal, combination of three assistive methods (tapered fluidized bed, mixture of coarse and fine particles...

  1. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  2. Experimental nonlocal steering of Bohmian trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Kedem, Yaron; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-26

    Interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM), or proposals for underlying theories, that attempt to present a definite realist picture, such as Bohmian mechanics, require strong non-local effects. Naively, these effects would violate causality and contradict special relativity. However if the theory agrees with QM the violation cannot be observed directly. Here, we demonstrate experimentally such an effect: we steer the velocity and trajectory of a Bohmian particle using a remote measurement. We use a pair of photons and entangle the spatial transverse position of one with the polarization of the other. The first photon is sent to a double-slit-like apparatus, where its trajectory is measured using the technique of Weak Measurements. The other photon is projected to a linear polarization state. The choice of polarization state, and the result, steer the first photon in the most intuitive sense of the word. The effect is indeed shown to be dramatic, while being easy to visualize. We discuss its strength and what are the conditions for it to occur.

  3. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-08-03

    Offsetting turbines' yaw orientations from incoming wind is a powerful tool that may be leveraged to reduce undesirable wake effects on downstream turbines. First, we examine a simple two-turbine case to gain intuition as to how inflow direction uncertainty affects the optimal solution. The turbines are modeled with unidirectional inflow such that one turbine directly wakes the other, using ten rotor diameter spacing. We perform optimization under uncertainty (OUU) via a parameter sweep of the front turbine. The OUU solution generally prefers less steering. We then do this optimization for a 60-turbine wind farm with unidirectional inflow, varying the degree of inflow uncertainty and approaching this OUU problem by nesting a polynomial chaos expansion uncertainty quantification routine within an outer optimization. We examined how different levels of uncertainty in the inflow direction effect the ratio of the expected values of deterministic and OUU solutions for steering strategies in the large wind farm, assuming the directional uncertainty used to reach said OUU solution (this ratio is defined as the value of the stochastic solution or VSS).

  4. Steering healthcare service delivery: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore regulation in India's healthcare sector and makes recommendations needed for enhancing the healthcare service. The literature was reviewed to understand healthcare's regulatory context. To understand the current healthcare system, qualitative data were collected from state-level officials, public and private hospital staff. A patient survey was performed to assess service quality (QoS). Regulation plays a central role in driving healthcare QoS. India needs to strengthen market and institutional co-production based approaches for steering its healthcare in which delivery processes are complex and pose different challenges. This study assesses current healthcare regulation in an Indian state and presents a framework for studying and strengthening regulation. Agile regulation should be based on service delivery issues (pull approach) rather than monitoring and sanctions based regulatory environment (push approach). Healthcare pitfalls across the world seem to follow similar follies. India's complexity and experience is useful for emerging and developed economies. The author reviewed around 70 publications and synthesised them in healthcare regulatory contexts. Patient's perception of private providers could be a key input towards steering regulation. Identifying gaps across QoS dimensions would be useful in taking corrective measures.

  5. The impact of force feedback level on steering performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Steer-by-wire systems provide designers the ability to customize and personalize force feedback on the steering wheel, based on individual preferences. Earlier studies using subjective responses have shown that there are individual differences in preferences for force feedback. It has also been

  6. Revisiting path steering for 3D manipulation tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Liu (Lei); J.-B. Martens; R. van Liere (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe law of path steering, as proposed by Accot and Zhai, describes a quantitative relationship between human temporal performance and the path spatial characteristics. The steering law is formulated as a continuous goal crossing task, in which a large number of goals are crossed along

  7. Revisiting path steering for 3D manipulation tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Liu (Lei); J.-B. Martens; R. van Liere (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractThe law of path steering, as proposed by Accot and Zhai, describes a quantitative relationship between human temporal performance and the path spatial characteristics. The steering law is formulated as a continuous goal crossing task, in which a large number of goals are crossed along

  8. Robotic needle steering: design, modeling, planning, and image guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, Noah J.; Goldberg, Ken; Chirikjian, Gregory S.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Alterovitz, Ron; Reed, Kyle B.; Kallem, Vinutha; Misra, Sarthak; Park, Wooram; Okamura, Allison M.; Rosen, Jacob; Hannaford, Blake; Satava, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes how advances in needle design, modeling, planning, and image guidance make it possible to steer flexible needles from outside the body to reach specified anatomical targets not accessible using traditional needle insertion methods. Steering can be achieved using a variety of

  9. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M L; Misra, Sarthak

    Background: Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician's dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods: A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated based

  10. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    Background - Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician’s dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods - A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated

  11. Research on Handling Stability of Steering-by-wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of steer-by-wire (SBW system are improving steering characteristics, security and stability of the vehicle. In this paper, the variable steering ratio of SBW system is analyzed, and the method of steering ratio based on fuzzy control and neural network are researched. In order to solve the actual working condition, the wheel angle may not reach the expected value, this paper establishes a twodegree-of-freedom (2-DOF vehicle model, and a Matlab/Simulink simulation model, in which a control strategy based on PID controller is put forward to control the front wheel steering angle. Simulation results show that proposed control strategy based on fuzzy neural network can effectively reduce lateral deviation and improve the handling stability and comfortability of the vehicle.

  12. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindal, Ravi, E-mail: rjindal21@gmail.com [Master’s(MS) in System Electronics and General Electrical, Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France); Razban, Tchanguiz, E-mail: tchanguiz.razban-haghighi@univ-nantes.fr [Electronics and Telecommunication Institute of Rennes (IETR-UMR 6164), Ecole Polytechnique of university of Nantes France, IETR, Nantes (France)

    2016-03-09

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  13. Phase shifter for antenna beam steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jindal, Ravi; Razban, Tchanguiz

    2016-01-01

    Wide band Array Antenna operates in Ku-band (10.7-12.7 GHz) frequency composed of N×N radiating elements. This antenna aims at the reception of television satellite signals. The goal of this research is to provide better possibility of electronic beam control instead of manual or mechanical control, and design compact and low cost phase shifters to be inserted in the feeding network of this antenna. The electronic control of the phase shifter will allow the control of beam steering. The emphasis of this project will be done at the beginning on the design of a good phase shifter in Ku band. The aim of this research is to define, simulate, release and measure a continuous phase shifter. Better reflection loss, low transmission loss, low Cost of array antennas, large range of phase-shifter, phase flatness and bandwidth will be achieved by providing better gain.

  14. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  15. Retrospective Review of Pectoralis Major Ruptures in Rodeo Steer Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda H. F. Lau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pectoralis major tendon ruptures have been reported in the literature as occupational injuries, accidental injuries, and sporting activities. Few cases have been reported with respect to rodeo activities. Purpose. To describe a series of PM tendon ruptures in professional steer wrestlers. Study Design. Case series, level of evidence, 4. Methods. A retrospective analysis of PM ruptures in a steer wrestling cohort was performed. Injury data between 1992 and 2008 were reviewed using medical records from the University of Calgary Sport Medicine Center. Results. Nine cases of pectoralis major ruptures in professional steer wrestlers were identified. Injuries occurred during the throwing phase of the steer or while breaking a fall. All athletes reported unexpected or abnormal behavior of the steer that contributed to the mechanism of injury. Seven cases were surgically repaired, while two cases opted for nonsurgical intervention. Eight cases reported successful return to competition following the injury. Conclusion. Steer wrestlers represent a unique cohort of PM rupture case studies. Steer wrestling is a demanding sport that involves throwing maneuvers that may predispose the muscle to rupture. All cases demonstrated good functional outcomes regardless of surgical or non-surgical treatment.

  16. Directional control-response compatibility of joystick steered shuttle cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine M; Wallis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shuttle cars are an unusual class of vehicle operated in underground coal mines, sometimes in close proximity to pedestrians and steering errors may have very serious consequences. A directional control-response incompatibility has previously been described in shuttle cars which are controlled using a steering wheel oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. Some other shuttle car operators are seated perpendicular to the direction of travel and steer the car via a seat mounted joystick. A virtual simulation was utilised to determine whether the steering arrangement in these vehicles maintains directional control-response compatibility. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a condition corresponding to this design (consistent direction), or a condition in which the directional steering response was reversed while driving in-bye (visual field compatible). Significantly less accurate steering performance was exhibited by the consistent direction group during the in-bye trials only. Shuttle cars which provide the joystick steering mechanism described here require operators to accommodate alternating compatible and incompatible directional control-response relationships with each change of car direction. A virtual simulation of an underground coal shuttle car demonstrates that the design incorporates a directional control-response incompatibility when driving the vehicle in one direction. This design increases the probability of operator error, with potential adverse safety and productivity consequences.

  17. Multiquantum well beam-steering device for laser satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Roee; Levy, Itamar; Shlomi, Arnon

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing interest in laser satellite communications, new methods are sought to solve the existing problems of accurate and rapid laser beam deflection. Current solutions in the form of galvanometers or piezo fast steering mirrors with one or two degrees of freedom are bulky, power-consuming and slow. The Multi-Quantum Well (MQW) is a semiconductor device with unique potential to steer laser beams without any moving parts. We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential application of the MQW as a laser beam-steering device for laser satellite communication, examining the performance of critical parameters for this type of communications.

  18. Fundamental X-mode electron cyclotron current drive using remote-steering symmetric direction antenna at larger steering angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Sato, K.N.; Sakamoto, M.; Iyomasa, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Ohkubo, K.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Ito, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Notake, T.; Hoshika, H.; Maezono, N.; Nishi, S.; Nakashima, K.

    2005-01-01

    A remote steering antenna has been newly developed for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) experiments on the TRIAM-1M tokamak. It is a first application of the remote steering antenna to the ECH/ECCD experiments under the conditions relevant to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. Our launcher is a symmetric direction antenna with extended steering capability. The larger steering angles of 8-19 degrees are available, in addition to that near 0 degree. The output beam from the antenna is the well-defined Gaussian beam with a correct steering angle. The Gaussian content and the steering angle accuracy are 0.85 and -0.3 degrees, respectively. Antenna transmission efficiency in the high power test is evaluated as 0.95. The efficiencies at the low and high power tests are consistent with those in the calculation with higher-order modes. The difference between plasma currents increased at co- and counter-steering injections [+/-19 degrees] is clearly observed in the superposition to the Lower Hybrid Current Driven (LHCD) plasma of the fundamental X-mode injection. (author)

  19. 46 CFR 196.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 196.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering engineroom, relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering gear...

  20. 46 CFR 58.25-10 - Main and auxiliary steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main and auxiliary steering gear. 58.25-10 Section 58.25... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-10 Main and auxiliary steering gear. (a) Power-operated main and auxiliary steering gear must be separate systems that are independent throughout their...

  1. Strong Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering with unconditional entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Sebastian; Bauchrowitz, Jöran; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-02-01

    In 1935 Schrödinger introduced the terms entanglement and steering in the context of the famous gedanken experiment discussed by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR). Here, we report on a sixfold increase of the observed EPR-steering effect with regard to previous experiments, as quantified by the Reid criterion. We achieved an unprecedented low conditional variance product of about 0.04<1, where 1 is the upper bound below which steering is demonstrated. The steering effect was observed on an unconditional two-mode-squeezed entangled state that contained a total vacuum state contribution of less than 8%, including detection imperfections. Together with the achieved high interference contrast between the entangled state and a bright coherent laser field, our state is compatible with efficient applications in high-power laser interferometers and fiber-based networks for entanglement distribution.

  2. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel; Buse, Gerrit; Pfluger, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute

  3. CCCT - NCTN Steering Committees - Pediatric and Adolescent Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pediatric and Adolescent Solid Tumor Steering Committee addresses the design, prioritization and evaluation of concepts for large phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials in extracranial solid tumors of children and youth.

  4. Real-Time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    .... The objective of the Real-time Application Performance Steering and Adaptive Control project is to replace ad hoc, post-mortem performance optimization with an extensible, portable, and distributed...

  5. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bharat Electronics Limited, Nandambakkam, Chennai 600 089 e-mail: ... engine speed sensor, vehicle speed sensor, steering column, torsion bar and electronic control unit. Figure 1. .... IEEE Trans. on Industry Application 26(6):. 1144–1157.

  6. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.

    1991-03-01

    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  7. "Intelligent" Automatic Beam Steering and Shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Jansson, A

    2000-01-01

    The strategy for Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) in the PS complex is to use theoretical response matrices calculated from an optics database. The main reason for this is that it enforces a certain understanding of the machine optics. A drawback is that the validation of such a matrix can be a lengthy process. However, every time a correction is made using an ABS program, a partial measurement of the response matrix is effectively performed. Since the ABS programs are very frequently used, the full matrices could thus be measured on an almost daily basis, provided this information is retained. The information can be used in two ways. Either the program passively logs the data to be analysed off­line, or the information is directly fed back to the matrix, which makes the program 'learn' as it executes. The data logging provides a powerful machine debugging tool, since deviations between the measured and theoretical matrices can be traced back to incorrect optical parameters. The 'learning' mode ensu...

  8. Computational steering of GEM based detector simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheharyar, Ali; Bouhali, Othmane

    2017-10-01

    Gas based detector R&D relies heavily on full simulation of detectors and their optimization before final prototypes can be built and tested. These simulations in particular those with complex scenarios such as those involving high detector voltages or gas with larger gains are computationally intensive may take several days or weeks to complete. These long-running simulations usually run on the high-performance computers in batch mode. If the results lead to unexpected behavior, then the simulation might be rerun with different parameters. However, the simulations (or jobs) may have to wait in a queue until they get a chance to run again because the supercomputer is a shared resource that maintains a queue of other user programs as well and executes them as time and priorities permit. It may result in inefficient resource utilization and increase in the turnaround time for the scientific experiment. To overcome this issue, the monitoring of the behavior of a simulation, while it is running (or live), is essential. In this work, we employ the computational steering technique by coupling the detector simulations with a visualization package named VisIt to enable the exploration of the live data as it is produced by the simulation.

  9. Applications of EPR steering in quantum teleportation and NOON states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Laura Rosales

    2018-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering refers to the type of correlations described in the EPR paradox, where one observer seems to affect ("steer") the state of other observer by using local measurements. There have been several works regarding characterization and quantification of EPR steering. One characteristic of this non-local correlation is that it can be asymmetric, while entanglement is symmetric. This asymmetric property is relevant for potential applications of EPR steering to quantum information, in particular to quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. This latter refers to the process where one observer sends an unknown quantum state to Bob, who is in a different location. They communicate by classical means. Here we will show that EPR steering is a necessary resource to obtain secure continuous variable teleportation. We will also consider NOON states, which is an example of an entangled state. For this state, we will present a steering signature. This contribution reviews the work derived in Refs. [1] and [2], which was presented as an invited talk in ELAF 2017.

  10. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Wake Steering Strategies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Ryan N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2017-05-01

    Wind turbines in a wind power plant experience significant power losses because of aerodynamic interactions between turbines. One control strategy to reduce these losses is known as 'wake steering,' in which upstream turbines are yawed to direct wakes away from downstream turbines. Previous wake steering research has assumed perfect information, however, there can be significant uncertainty in many aspects of the problem, including wind inflow and various turbine measurements. Uncertainty has significant implications for performance of wake steering strategies. Consequently, the authors formulate and solve an optimization under uncertainty (OUU) problem for finding optimal wake steering strategies in the presence of yaw angle uncertainty. The OUU wake steering strategy is demonstrated on a two-turbine test case and on the utility-scale, offshore Princess Amalia Wind Farm. When we accounted for yaw angle uncertainty in the Princess Amalia Wind Farm case, inflow-direction-specific OUU solutions produced between 0% and 1.4% more power than the deterministically optimized steering strategies, resulting in an overall annual average improvement of 0.2%. More importantly, the deterministic optimization is expected to perform worse and with more downside risk than the OUU result when realistic uncertainty is taken into account. Additionally, the OUU solution produces fewer extreme yaw situations than the deterministic solution.

  11. Creation of quantum steering by interaction with a common bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhe; Xu, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    By applying the hierarchy equation method, we computationally study the creation of quantum steering in a two-qubit system interacting with a common bosonic bath. The calculation does not adopt conventional approximate approaches, such as the Born, Markov, rotating-wave, and other perturbative approximations. Three kinds of quantum steering, i.e., Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering (EPRS), temporal steering (TS), and spatiotemporal steering (STS), are considered. Since the initial state of the two qubits is chosen as a product state, there does not exist EPRS at the beginning. During the evolution, we find that STS as well as EPRS are generated at the same time. An inversion relationship between STS and TS is revealed. By varying the system-bath coupling strength from weak to ultrastrong regimes, we find the nonmonotonic dependence of STS, TS, and EPRS on the coupling strength. It is interesting to study the dynamics of the three kinds of quantum steering by using an exactly numerical method, which is not considered in previous researches.

  12. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  13. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  14. Altered steering strategies for goal-directed locomotion in stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals who have sustained a stroke can manifest altered locomotor steering behaviors when exposed to optic flows expanding from different locations. Whether these alterations persist in the presence of a visible goal and whether they can be explained by the presence of a perceptuo-motor disorder remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare stroke participants and healthy participants on their ability to control heading while exposed to changing optic flows and target locations. Methods Ten participants with stroke (55.6 ± 9.3 yrs) and ten healthy controls (57.0 ± 11.5 yrs) participated in a mouse-driven steering task (perceptuo-motor task) while seated and in a walking steering task. In the seated steering task, participants were instructed to head or ‘walk’ toward a target in the virtual environment by using a mouse while wearing a helmet-mounted display (HMD). In the walking task, participants performed a similar steering task in the same virtual environment while walking overground at their comfortable speed. For both experiments, the target and/or the focus of expansion (FOE) of the optic flow shifted to the side (±20°) or remained centered. The main outcome measure was net heading errors (NHE). Secondary outcomes included mediolateral displacement, horizontal head orientation, and onsets of heading and head reorientation. Results In the walking steering task, the presence of FOE shifts modulated the extent and timing of mediolateral displacement and head rotation changes, as well as NHE magnitudes. Participants overshot and undershot their net heading, respectively, in response to ipsilateral and contralateral FOE and target shifts. Stroke participants made larger NHEs, especially when the FOE was shifted towards the non-paretic side. In the seated steering task, similar NHEs were observed between stroke and healthy participants. Conclusions The findings highlight the fine coordination between rotational and

  15. Observation of one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händchen, Vitus; Eberle, Tobias; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Samblowski, Aiko; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-09-01

    The distinctive non-classical features of quantum physics were first discussed in the seminal paper by A. Einstein, B. Podolsky and N. Rosen (EPR) in 1935. In his immediate response, E. Schrödinger introduced the notion of entanglement, now seen as the essential resource in quantum information as well as in quantum metrology. Furthermore, he showed that at the core of the EPR argument is a phenomenon that he called steering. In contrast to entanglement and violations of Bell's inequalities, steering implies a direction between the parties involved. Recent theoretical works have precisely defined this property, but the question arose as to whether there are bipartite states showing steering only in one direction. Here, we present an experimental realization of two entangled Gaussian modes of light that in fact shows the steering effect in one direction but not in the other. The generated one-way steering gives a new insight into quantum physics and may open a new field of applications in quantum information.

  16. Sources of carbohydrates in the ingestive behavior of feedlot steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Santos da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we research the influence of different sources of carbohydrates (corn, soybean hulls or wheat bran upon the digestive behavior of 24 confined castrated steers with an initial average age and weight of 20 months and 330 kg born from the cross between Charolais and Nellore. The diet was composed of 40% sorghum silage and 60% concentrate. The time spent on total ruminating (an average of 454.6 min/day was not influenced by the source of carbohydrate. The animals from the wheat bran treatment spent less time idle (718 min in relation to those on the corn and soybean hulls treatments, which did not differ between themselves (an average of 792 min/day. The steers from the wheat bran treatment remained less time feeding (184 min/day compared with those fed the other treatments, whose average time of permanence in this activity was 214 minutes per day. The other studied variables did not present a significant difference between the treatments. Inclusion of wheat bran in the diet of the confined steers results in less spent time idle, while steers feeding on soybean hulls spend less time feeding. The use of corn, soybean hulls, or wheat bran in the diet of the confined steers does not affect the total cudding time.

  17. Steer wrestling : Hemisphere GPS hopes to bring its auto-steering technology to the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentein, J.

    2009-01-15

    Hemisphere GPS has developed a technology to guide giant dump trucks used in oilsand mining operations. The technology offers the possibility to haul oilsands from northern Alberta mines using driverless, remotely-guided trucks. The GPS system would ensure more accuracy than a human operator. The technology has the potential to be commercialized within the next year, and may be adapted for the mining industry. The unmanned technology would help oilsands mine operators lower their labour costs. Hemisphere GPS gained access to the steer-by-wire technology when it purchased the Australian software company Beeline Technologies Pty Ltd. Hemisphere GPS has also developed prototype unmanned drilling rig technology which has considerable potential in the energy industry. The company has won numerous awards in recognition of its commercial achievements in science and technology. 1 fig.

  18. Experimental EPR-steering using Bell-local states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.; Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Pryde, G. J.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of `steering' was introduced in 1935 by Schrödinger as a generalization of the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) paradox. It has recently been formalized as a quantum-information task with arbitrary bipartite states and measurements, for which the existence of entanglement is necessary but not sufficient. Previous experiments in this area have been restricted to an approach that followed the original EPR argument in considering only two different measurement settings per side. Here we demonstrate experimentally that EPR-steering occurs for mixed entangled states that are Bell local (that is, that cannot possibly demonstrate Bell non-locality). Unlike the case of Bell inequalities, increasing the number of measurement settings beyond two-we use up to six-significantly increases the robustness of the EPR-steering phenomenon to noise.

  19. Field test of wake steering at an offshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fleming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a field test of wake-steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  20. Dissipation induced asymmetric steering of distant atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangling; Tan, Huatang; Chen, Aixi

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetric steering effects of separated atomic ensembles denoted by the effective bosonic modes have been explored by the means of quantum reservoir engineering in the setting of the cascaded cavities, in each of which an atomic ensemble is involved. It is shown that the steady-state asymmetric steering of the mesoscopic objects is unconditionally achieved via the dissipation of the cavities, by which the nonlocal interaction occurs between two atomic ensembles, and the direction of steering could be easily controlled through variation of certain tunable system parameters. One advantage of the present scheme is that it could be rather robust against parameter fluctuations, and does not require the accurate control of evolution time and the original state of the system. Furthermore, the double-channel Raman transitions between the long-lived atomic ground states are used and the atomic ensembles act as the quantum network nodes, which makes our scheme insensitive to the collective spontaneous emission of atoms.

  1. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, DaeEun

    2017-11-25

    This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots' position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  3. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots’ position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  4. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  5. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  6. Stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dongwei; Wang Hongli; Zhu Zhiwen; Feng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A four-wheel-steering system subjected to white noise excitations was reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian system. Subsequently we obtained an one-dimensional Ito stochastic differential equation for the averaged Hamiltonian of the system by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian systems. Thus, the stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system was analyzed by analyzing the sample behaviors of the averaged Hamiltonian at the boundary H = 0 and calculating its Lyapunov exponent. An example given at the end demonstrated that the conclusion obtained is of considerable significance

  7. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...

  8. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  9. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  10. supplementation of energy and/or protein to steers grazing summer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some aspects of the effect of supplementary energy and/or protein, strategically ptovided to steers on summer veld, were investi gated. 40 Friesland steers in the age ... was posed whether the strategic provision of energy and or protein to steers grazing .... Definitions and abbreviotions was determined after cooling for 24 h ...

  11. Design, Modeling And Control Of Steering And Braking For An Urban Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Maciua, Dragos

    1996-01-01

    This report describes research which involved the design modification, modeling and control of automatic steering and braking systems for an urban electric vehicle. The vehicle is equipped with four-wheel independent drive, four-wheel independent braking and four-wheel steering. Control algorithms were developed for steering and braking. Simulation results show the feasibility of the algorithms.

  12. Chromium supplementation enhances the acute phase response of steers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty crossbred steers (235±4 kg BW) received 0 ppb (Control; C) or 200 ppb chromium propionate (CHR) for 55 days. Steers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording...

  13. Enhancement of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in steers supplemented with chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study examined the effect of chromium supplementation on the response of steers to an LPS challenge. Twenty steers received a premix that added 0 (control) or 0.2 mg/kg of chromium (KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) to the total diet on a dry matter basis for 55 d. Steer...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-55 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 78.47-55... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-55 Instructions for changing steering gear..., relating in order, the different steps to be taken in changing to the emergency steering gear. Each clutch...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-33 - Instructions for changing steering gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Instructions for changing steering gear. 97.37-33... steering gear. (a) Instructions in at least 1/2 inch letters and figures shall be posted in the steering... gear. Each clutch, gear, wheel, lever, valve, or switch which is used during the changeover shall be...

  16. Steering a Steady Course in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    NUMBER (Include area code ) 401-841-3556 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI-Std Z39-18 Steering a Steady Course in the South...minor features claimed by a Filipino civilian in the SCS are not worth US blood, talent , or treasure defending against the PRC. The PRC, on the other

  17. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  18. Trailer steering control of a tractor-trailer Robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, P.J.; Roebroek, E.J.W.; Van De Wouw, N.; Jiang, Z.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider active trailer steering control as a means to improve the maneuverability of (long) truck-trailer combinations during cornering. Hereto, we formulate the problem of reducing the so-called swept path width during cornering and that of eliminating unsafe tail swing of the

  19. Sliding mode observer design for automatic steering of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.R.; Rachid, A. [LSA, Amiens (France); Xu, S.J. [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)]|[IUT de Longwy, Cosnes et Romain (France); Darouach, M. [IUT de Longwy, Cosnes et Romain (France)

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the observer design problem for automatic steering of vehicles. The lateral motion of the vehicles is considered. A sliding mode observer is derived such that the observation errors converge to zero asymptotically in finite time. The simulation results have shown that the design is very effective. (orig.)

  20. Steering Micro-Robotic Swarm by Dynamic Actuating Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chao, Q.; Yu, J; Dai, C.; Xu, T; Zhang, L.; Wang, C.C.; Jin, X.

    2016-01-01

    We present a general solution for steering microrobotic
    swarm by dynamic actuating fields. In our approach, the
    motion of micro-robots is controlled by changing the actuating
    direction of a field applied to them. The time-series sequence
    of actuating field’s directions can be

  1. Complex Education Systems: From Steering Change to Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The theories and approaches of steering/monitoring a process of change within education systems have evolved over the last 20 years or so as a result of many factors such as globalisation and decentralisation, a faster pace of change, increasing expectations and demands from various stakeholders (parents, employers, teacher unions, etc.) and the…

  2. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  3. Improving yaw dynamics by feedforward rear wheel steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, I.J.M.; Veldhuizen, T.J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Active rear wheel steering can be applied to improve vehicle yaw dynamics. In this paper two possible control algorithms are discussed. The first method is a yaw rate feedback controller with a reference model, which has been reported in a similar form previously in literature. The second controller

  4. Auditory orientation in crickets: Pattern recognition controls reactive steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, James F. A.; Hedwig, Berthold

    2005-10-01

    Many groups of insects are specialists in exploiting sensory cues to locate food resources or conspecifics. To achieve orientation, bees and ants analyze the polarization pattern of the sky, male moths orient along the females' odor plume, and cicadas, grasshoppers, and crickets use acoustic signals to locate singing conspecifics. In comparison with olfactory and visual orientation, where learning is involved, auditory processing underlying orientation in insects appears to be more hardwired and genetically determined. In each of these examples, however, orientation requires a recognition process identifying the crucial sensory pattern to interact with a localization process directing the animal's locomotor activity. Here, we characterize this interaction. Using a sensitive trackball system, we show that, during cricket auditory behavior, the recognition process that is tuned toward the species-specific song pattern controls the amplitude of auditory evoked steering responses. Females perform small reactive steering movements toward any sound patterns. Hearing the male's calling song increases the gain of auditory steering within 2-5 s, and the animals even steer toward nonattractive sound patterns inserted into the speciesspecific pattern. This gain control mechanism in the auditory-to-motor pathway allows crickets to pursue species-specific sound patterns temporarily corrupted by environmental factors and may reflect the organization of recognition and localization networks in insects. localization | phonotaxis

  5. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  6. A hybrid system for beam steering and wavefront control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2004-06-01

    Performance of long-range mobile laser systems operating within Earth's atmosphere is generally limited by several factors. Movement of the communicating platforms, such as aircraft, terrain vehicles, etc., complemented by mechanical vibrations, is the main cause of pointing errors. In addition, atmospheric turbulence causes changes of the refractive index along the propagation path that lead to phase distortions (aberrations), thus creating random redistribution of optical energy in the spatial domain. The combined effect of these factors leads to an increased bit-error probability under adverse operation conditions. While traditional approaches provide separate treatment of these problems, suggesting the development of high-bandwidth beam steering systems to perform tracking and jitter rejection, and wavefront control for the mitigation of atmospheric effects, the two tasks could be integrated. In this paper we present a hybrid laser beam steering/wavefront control system comprising an electrically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) installed on the Omni-Wrist sensor mount platform. The function of the Omni-Wrist is to provide coarse steering over a wide range of pointing angles, while the purpose of the SLM is twofold: it performs wavefront correction and fine steering. The control law for the Omni-Wrist is synthesized using the decentralized approach that provides independent access to the azimuth and declination channels, while the algorithm for calculating the required phase profile for the SLM is optimization-based. This paper presents the control algorithms, the approach to coordinating the operation of the both systems and the simulation results.

  7. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  8. Steering with big words: articulating ideographs in research programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; Walhout, Bart; Walhout, Bart; Peine, Alexander; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, science should address societal challenges, such as ‘sustainability’, or ‘responsible research and innovation’. This emerging form of steering toward broad and generic goals involves the use of ‘big words’: encompassing concepts that are uncontested themselves, but that allow for multiple

  9. Steering with big words: articulating ideographs in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; Walhout, Albert; Peine, Alex; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, science should address societal challenges, such as ‘sustainability’, or ‘responsible research and innovation’. This emerging form of steering toward broad and generic goals involves the use of ‘big words’: encompassing concepts that are uncontested themselves, but that allow for multiple

  10. and alkali treatment of maize intake and utilization by steers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mixture of urea and sunflower oilcake was used as a N supplement. These were given in a mixture with Ca, P, NaCl, minerals and vitamins (A.R.C.,. 1965) directly into the feed trough when the maize supplement was given. Digestibility study: Faeces was collected for 6 days. Collection periods for the 32 steers were.

  11. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  12. Steering characteristic of an articulated bus under quasi steady maneuvering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidillah, Setiawan, Budi Agus; Aridharma, Airlangga Putra; Lenggana, Bhre Wangsa; Caesar, Bernardus Placenta Previo

    2018-02-01

    Articulated buses have been being preferred as public transportation modes due to their operational capacity. Therefore, passenger safety must be the priority of this public service vehicle. This research focused on the analytical approach of steering characteristics of an articulated bus when it maneuvered steadily. Such turning condition could be referred as a stability parameter of the bus for preliminary handling assessment. The analytical approach employed kinematics relationship between front and rear bodies as well as steering capabilities. The quasi steady model was developed to determine steering parameters such as turning radius, oversteer, and understeer. The mathematical model was useful for determining both coefficients of understeer and oversteer. The dimension of articulated bus followed a commonly used bus as utilized in Trans Jakarta busses. Based on the simulation, for one minimum center of the body, the turning radius was calculated about 8.8 m and 7.6 m at steady turning speed of 10 km/h. In neutral condition, the minimum road radius should be 6.5 m at 10 km/h and 6.9 m at 40 km/h. For two centers of the body and oversteer condition, the front body has the turning radius of 8.8 m, while, the rear body has the turning radius of 9.8 m at both turning speeds of 40 km/h. The other steering parameters were discussed accordingly.

  13. Current steering with partial tripolar stimulation mode in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chih; Luo, Xin

    2013-04-01

    The large spread of excitation is a major cause of poor spectral resolution for cochlear implant (CI) users. Partial tripolar (pTP) mode has been proposed to reduce current spread by returning an equally distributed fraction (0.5 × σ) of current to two flanking electrodes and the rest to an extra-cochlear ground. This study tested the efficacy of incorporating current steering into pTP mode to add spectral channels. Different proportions of current [α × σ and (1 - α) × σ] were returned to the basal and apical flanking electrodes respectively to shape the electric field. Loudness and pitch perception with α from 0 to 1 in steps of 0.1 was simulated with a computational model of CI stimulation and tested on the apical, middle, and basal electrodes of six CI subjects. The highest σ allowing for full loudness growth within the implant compliance limit was chosen for each main electrode. Pitch ranking was measured between pairs of loudness-balanced steered pTP stimuli with an α interval of 0.1 at the most comfortable level. Results demonstrated that steered pTP stimuli with α around 0.5 required more current to achieve equal loudness than those with α around 0 or 1, maybe due to more focused excitation patterns. Subjects usually perceived decreasing pitches as α increased from 0 to 1, somewhat consistent with the apical shift of the center of gravity of excitation pattern in the model. Pitch discrimination was not better with α around 0.5 than with α around 0 or 1, except for some subjects and electrodes. For three subjects with better pitch discrimination, about half of the pitch ranges of two adjacent main electrodes overlapped with each other in steered pTP mode. These results suggest that current steering with focused pTP mode may improve spectral resolution and pitch perception with CIs.

  14. Collective multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: more secure optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; He, Qiongyi

    2014-12-01

    Collective multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a type of quantum correlation shared among N parties, where the EPR paradox of one party can only be realized by performing local measurements on all the remaining N-1 parties. We formalize the collective tripartite steering in terms of local hidden state model and give the steering inequalities that act as signatures and suggest how to optimize collective tripartite steering in specific optical schemes. The special entangled states with property of collective multipartite steering may have potential applications in ultra-secure multiuser communication networks where the issue of trust is critical.

  15. The Impact of Analog and Bang-Bang Steering Gear Control on Ship's Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft Thomsen, J. C.; Blanke, Mogens; Reid, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    it is found to be at least equally important regarding steering performance and fuel economy. The paper presents a comprehensive survey of steering gear principles commonly used, including relevant details of three analog steering gear servo principles, which have outperformed conventional designs. Control......The latest years have shown considerable efforts towards improving steering generated propulsion losses of ships by the introduction of various sophisticated control algorithms in the autopilots. However, little previous attention has been given to the steering gear control loop, although...

  16. Study on a New Steering Mechanism for Point-the-Bit Rotary Steerable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel steering mechanism embedded in a point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS for oilfield exploitation. The new steering mechanism adopts a set of universal joints to alleviate the high alternative strain on drilling mandrel and employs a specially designed planetary gear small tooth number difference (PGSTD to achieve directional steering. Its principle and characteristics are explained and examined through a series of analyses. First, the eccentric displacement vector of the offset point on the drilling mandrel is formulated and kinematic solutions are established. Next, structural design for the new steering mechanism is addressed. Then, procedures and program architectures for simulating offset state of the drilling mandrel and motion trajectory of the whole steering mechanism are presented. After that, steering motion simulations of the new steering mechanism for both 2D and 3D well trajectories are then performed by combining LabVIEW and SolidWorks. Finally, experiments on the steering motion control of the new steering mechanism prototype are carried out. The simulations and experiments reveal that the steering performance of the new steering mechanism is satisfied. The research can provide good guidance for further research and engineering application of the point-the-bit RSS.

  17. Development of active rear steer actuator. Development of four wheel steer actuator for active safety; Active rear steer actuator no kaihatsu. Yobo anzen ni muketa 4WS actuator no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, T [Aisin Seiki Co. Ltd., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recently, ecology, energy saving and safety have become important issues. And Active Safety is spotlighted in vehicle control area. Many researches and developments on four wheel steer system have been done to improve vehicle stability. We have developed the Active Rear Steer system with electromechanical Actuator, which is mass-productive, compact, and high response and durable. 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Modeling of Driver Steering Operations in Lateral Wind Disturbances toward Driver Assistance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yoshinori; Wada, Takahiro; Kamiji, Norimasa; Doi, Shun'ichi

    Disturbances decrease vehicle stability and increase driver's mental and physical workload. Especially unexpected disturbances such as lateral winds have severe effect on vehicle stability and driver's workload. This study aims at building a driver model of steering operations in lateral wind toward developing effective driver assistance system. First, the relationship between the driver's lateral motion and its reactive quick steering behavior is investigated using driving simulator with lateral 1dof motion. In the experiments, four different wind patterns are displayed by the simulator. As the results, strong correlation was found between the driver's head lateral jerk by the lateral disturbance and the angular acceleration of the steering wheel. Then, we build a mathematical model of driver's steering model from lateral disturbance input to steering torque of the reactive quick feed-forward steering based on the experimental results. Finally, validity of the proposed model is shown by comparing the steering torque of experimental results and that of simulation results.

  19. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  20. The role of steering groups and project workers in NDUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, S

    In light of the challenges that many nursing development units (NDUs) have faced during the past four years, this paper assesses the usefulness, as perceived by their clinical leaders, of support structures that had to be in place to secure NDU status. The structures assessed were a steering group and the allocation of a project worker by the King's Fund. Well organised steering groups offer unique opportunities to the NDUs to gain access to the knowledge and expertise of key figures, marketing the NDU and ensuring the project progresses to plan. Influential project workers were found to support the clinical leader and NDU staff, act as an external advocate and provide a global knowledge of nursing developments. This is the second of two papers reporting on a Department of Health-funded review of NDUs. The first appeared in Nursing Times on November 20.

  1. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane-Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed.

  2. Optimization of Steering System of Forklift Vehicle for Idle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal design process for the steering system of a forklift vehicle. An efficient procedure for minimizing the engine-induced idle vibration is developed in this study. Reciprocating unbalance and gas pressure torque as two major sources of engine excitation are studied. Using the field vibration tests and FEM analysis, the cause and characteristics of steering system’s idle vibration are recognized. So as to distribute the characteristic modes based on the optimization strategy, global sensitivity analysis of the main parameters is also carried out to achieve the optimal combination of the optimization factors. Based on all analysis above, some structure modifications for optimization are presented to control the idle vibration. The effectiveness and rationality of the improvements are also verified through experimental prototyping testing. This study also makes it possible to provide a design guideline using CAE (computer aided engineering analysis for some other objects.

  3. Spatially distributed multipartite entanglement enables EPR steering of atomic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Philipp; Prüfer, Maximilian; Strobel, Helmut; Linnemann, Daniel; Frölian, Anika; Gasenzer, Thomas; Gärttner, Martin; Oberthaler, Markus K.

    2018-04-01

    A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. However, the robust generation and detection of entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remain a challenge. We used spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. We used spatially resolved spin read-out to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of EPR steering, we constructed a witness, which confirmed genuine 5-partite entanglement.

  4. Steering the dynamics within reduced space through quantum learning control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sik

    2003-01-01

    In quantum dynamics of many-body systems, to identify the Hamiltonian becomes more difficult very rapidly as the number of degrees of freedom increases. In order to simplify the dynamics and to deduce dynamically relevant Hamiltonian information, it is desirable to control the dynamics to lie within a reduced space. With a judicious choice for the cost functional, the closed loop optimal control experiments can be manipulated efficiently to steer the dynamics to lie within a subspace of the system eigenstates without requiring any prior detailed knowledge about the system Hamiltonian. The procedure is simulated for optimally controlled population transfer experiments in the system of two degrees of freedom. To show the feasibility of steering the dynamics to lie in a specified subspace, the learning algorithms guiding the dynamics are presented along with frequency filtering. The results demonstrate that the optimal control fields derive the system to the desired target state through the desired subspace

  5. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental......This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal....

  6. EFFECT OF POULTRY MEAL ON THE PERFORMANCE OF FEEDLOT STEERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cabrera-Nuñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of poultry meal on weight gain and carcass yield, under a housing system. 30 Swiss x Zebu steers were used, with an approximate weight of 353 kg, which were assigned under a completely randomized design in three treatments. T1 (control concentrate without poultry meal; T2 concentrate + 30% poultry meal and T3 concentrate + 35% poultry meal. The composition of the concentrate was based on ground sorghum, maize grain, wheat bran, ground mineral salt bale with 18% crude protein and 70% TDN. A significant effect (p ≤ 0.05 on the percentage of carcass weight of 53.0 was observed; 59.5 and 58.8% for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The results indicate that supplementation based poultry meal 35% promoted greater yield in feedlot steers.

  7. Steering and filtering white light with resonant waveguide gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Giorgio; Basset, Guillaume; Martin, Olivier J. F.; Gallinet, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    A novel thin-film single-layer structure based on resonant waveguide gratings (RWGs) allows to engineer selective color filtering and steering of white light. The unit cell of the structure consists of two adjacent finite-length and cross-talking RWGs, where the former acts as in-coupler and the latter acts as out-coupler. The structure is made by only one nano-imprint lithography replication and one thin film layer deposition, making it fully compatible with up-scalable fabrication processes. We characterize a fabricated optical security element designed to work with the flash and the camera of a smartphone in off-axis light steering configuration, where the pattern is revealed only by placing the smartphone in the proper position. Widespread applications are foreseen in a variety of fields, such as multifocal or monochromatic lenses, solar cells, biosensors, security devices and seethrough optical combiners for near-eye displays.

  8. Human sperm steer with second harmonics of the flagellar beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggiorato, Guglielmo; Alvarez, Luis; Jikeli, Jan F; Kaupp, U Benjamin; Gompper, Gerhard; Elgeti, Jens

    2017-11-10

    Sperm are propelled by bending waves traveling along their flagellum. For steering in gradients of sensory cues, sperm adjust the flagellar waveform. Symmetric and asymmetric waveforms result in straight and curved swimming paths, respectively. Two mechanisms causing spatially asymmetric waveforms have been proposed: an average flagellar curvature and buckling. We image flagella of human sperm tethered with the head to a surface. The waveform is characterized by a fundamental beat frequency and its second harmonic. The superposition of harmonics breaks the beat symmetry temporally rather than spatially. As a result, sperm rotate around the tethering point. The rotation velocity is determined by the second-harmonic amplitude and phase. Stimulation with the female sex hormone progesterone enhances the second-harmonic contribution and, thereby, modulates sperm rotation. Higher beat frequency components exist in other flagellated cells; therefore, this steering mechanism might be widespread and could inspire the design of synthetic microswimmers.

  9. Planning analysis and political steering with New Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sager, Tore Øivin; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    of interviews sheds light on the apparent paradox that parliamentarians accept delegation of highway investment decisions despite their profound scepticism to the cost-benefit analyses and impact calculations that are essential to management by objectives and results, which was to give them continued political...... by the Government. The political concentration on strategic steering, the concomitant delegation, and management by objectives and results are central components of New Public Management....

  10. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindroos, M [ed.

    1999-09-10

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  11. Automation of Armored Four Wheel Counter Steer Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    additions to the cabin, such as displays, servos , and controls, require a small footprint and cannot impede critical systems (e.g., fire control) or...autopilot. The steering system engages until the man- ual/emergency override button is pressed . To engage the velocity control mode, the operator...engaged if the need arises. Once the error is cleared, pressing the manual override button places the system back into ready mode. FIGURE 3. The software

  12. Optimum steering of photon beam lines in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fong, B.; Lee, M.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-04-01

    A common operational requirement for many synchrotron light sources is to maintain steered photon beamlines with minimum corrector strength values. To solve this problem for SPEAR, we employed the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) matrix-inversion technique to minimize corrector strengths while constraining the photon beamlines to remain on target. The result was a reduction in corrector strengths, yielding increased overhead for the photon-beam position feedback systems

  13. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, M.

    1999-01-01

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  14. Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, Bell nonlocality, and steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Doherty, A. C.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] we defined 'steering', a type of quantum nonlocality that is logically distinct from both nonseparability and Bell nonlocality. In the bipartite setting, it hinges on the question of whether Alice can affect Bob's state at a distance through her choice of measurement. More precisely and operationally, it hinges on the question of whether Alice, with classical communication, can convince Bob that they share an entangled state under the circumstances that Bob trusts nothing that Alice says. We argue that if she can, then this demonstrates the nonlocal effect first identified in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] as a universal effect for pure entangled states. This ability of Alice to remotely prepare Bob's state was subsequently called steering by Schroedinger, whose terminology we adopt. The phenomenon of steering has been largely overlooked, and prior to our work had not even been given a rigorous definition that is applicable to mixed states as well as pure states. Armed with our rigorous definition, we proved that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell nonlocality. In this work we expand on these results and provide further examples of steerable states. We also elaborate on the connection with the original EPR paradox

  15. Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations, Bell nonlocality, and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S. J.; Wiseman, H. M.; Doherty, A. C.

    2007-11-01

    In a recent work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402 (2007)] we defined “steering,” a type of quantum nonlocality that is logically distinct from both nonseparability and Bell nonlocality. In the bipartite setting, it hinges on the question of whether Alice can affect Bob’s state at a distance through her choice of measurement. More precisely and operationally, it hinges on the question of whether Alice, with classical communication, can convince Bob that they share an entangled state under the circumstances that Bob trusts nothing that Alice says. We argue that if she can, then this demonstrates the nonlocal effect first identified in the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper [Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)] as a universal effect for pure entangled states. This ability of Alice to remotely prepare Bob’s state was subsequently called steering by Schrödinger, whose terminology we adopt. The phenomenon of steering has been largely overlooked, and prior to our work had not even been given a rigorous definition that is applicable to mixed states as well as pure states. Armed with our rigorous definition, we proved that steerable states are a strict subset of the entangled states, and a strict superset of the states that can exhibit Bell nonlocality. In this work we expand on these results and provide further examples of steerable states. We also elaborate on the connection with the original EPR paradox.

  16. Design of a steering stabilizer based on CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zhaomin; Yan, Yibin

    2018-04-01

    This design realizes a posture correction device of griping steering wheel based on CAN bus, which is embedded in the steering wheel of vehicles. The system aims to detect the drivers' abnormal griping postures and provides drivers with classification alerts, by combining the recorded griping postures data and the vehicle speed data that are obtained via the CAN bus. The warning information are automatically stored and retained in the device for 12 months. To enhance the alerting effect, the count of this warning message for both the latest month and the last 12 months are displayed on the dashboard panel. In addition to prevent itself from being blocked and self-detect any faults in advance, the appliance also provide a self-test function, which will communicate with the integrated instrument system in vehicle and do simulation test right after the vehicle power on. This appliance can help to urge and ensure drivers to operate the steering wheel correctly, effectively, and timely; prevent some typical incorrect behaviors which commonly happen along with the change of griping postures, such as the using cellphone, and ultimately, reduce the incidence of traffic accidents.

  17. Optimization of steering elements in the RIA driver linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E. S.; Aseev, V. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting (SC) linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from proton to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver's real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids. The algorithm has been fully integrated into the tracking code TRACK and it is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac

  18. Geometrodynamic steering principle reveals the determiners of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    What shall the authors need to grasp the essence of quantum gravity? One requirement, at least, is essential: to understand the steering principle of classical geometrodynamics. The authors outline here the physical content of that steering principle - heat of the so-called initial value problem - in its J.W. York, Jr. formulation. The central idea epitomizes itself in a single simple sentence: Mass-energy there determines inertia here. They spell out this steering principle both in its precise form and in its poor man's version. At both levels of analysis considerations of physics and mathematics alike require that the effective mass-energy of gravity waves must make itself felt on the spacetime geometry - and therefore on the gyro-defined local inertial frame of reference - on the same level as matter itself. Additional to the (mass)/(distance) Newtonian potential so familiar as measure of the effect of a nearby mass on the local frame is the Thirring and Lense gravitomagnetic potential, proportional to (angular momentum) x (distance vector)/(distance). The recent proposal of Ciufolini for a dual laser-ranged LAGEOS satellite to detect the thus-predicted gravitomagnetism of the earth is briefly described

  19. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering: Its geometric quantification and witness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Huan-Yu; Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Miranowicz, Adam; Chen, Yueh-Nan; Nori, Franco

    2018-02-01

    We propose a measure of quantum steerability, namely, a convex steering monotone, based on the trace distance between a given assemblage and its corresponding closest assemblage admitting a local-hidden-state (LHS) model. We provide methods to estimate such a quantity, via lower and upper bounds, based on semidefinite programming. One of these upper bounds has a clear geometrical interpretation as a linear function of rescaled Euclidean distances in the Bloch sphere between the normalized quantum states of (i) a given assemblage and (ii) an LHS assemblage. For a qubit-qubit quantum state, these ideas also allow us to visualize various steerability properties of the state in the Bloch sphere via the so-called LHS surface. In particular, some steerability properties can be obtained by comparing such an LHS surface with a corresponding quantum steering ellipsoid. Thus, we propose a witness of steerability corresponding to the difference of the volumes enclosed by these two surfaces. This witness (which reveals the steerability of a quantum state) enables one to find an optimal measurement basis, which can then be used to determine the proposed steering monotone (which describes the steerability of an assemblage) optimized over all mutually unbiased bases.

  20. Silicon heterojunction transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Oh-uchi, N.; Hayashi, H.; Yamoto, H.

    1979-01-01

    SIPOS (Semi-insulating polycrystalline silicon) which is used as a surface passivation layer for highly reliable silicon devices constitutes a good heterojunction for silicon. P- or B-doped SIPOS has been used as the emitter material of a heterojunction transistor with the base and collector of silicon. An npn SIPOS-Si heterojunction transistor showing 50 times the current gain of an npn silicon homojunction transistor has been realized by high-temperature treatments in nitrogen and low-temperature annealing in hydrogen or forming gas

  1. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald

    1975-01-01

    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  2. Silicon Microspheres Photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpenguzel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrophotonic integrated circuits (EPICs), or alternatively, optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEICs) are the natural evolution of the microelectronic integrated circuit (IC) with the addition of photonic capabilities. Traditionally, the IC industry has been based on group IV silicon, whereas the photonics industry on group III-V semiconductors. However, silicon based photonic microdevices have been making strands in siliconizing photonics. Silicon microspheres with their high quality factor whispering gallery modes (WGMs), are ideal candidates for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) applications in the standard near-infrared communication bands. In this work, we will discuss the possibility of using silicon microspheres for photonics applications in the near-infrared

  3. An investigation on motor-driven power steering-based crosswind disturbance compensation for the reduction of driver steering effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Boemjun; Go, Youngil; Park, Jaeyong; Park, Joonhong; Suh, Insoo; Yi, Kyongsu

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a lateral disturbance compensation algorithm for an application to a motor-driven power steering (MDPS)-based driver assistant system. The lateral disturbance including wind force and lateral load transfer by bank angle reduces the driver's steering refinement and at the same time increases the possibility of an accident. A lateral disturbance compensation algorithm is designed to determine the motor overlay torque of an MDPS system for reducing the manoeuvreing effort of a human driver under lateral disturbance. Motor overlay torque for the compensation of driver's steering torque induced by the lateral disturbance consists of human torque feedback and feedforward torque. Vehicle-driver system dynamics have been investigated using a combined dynamic model which consists of a vehicle dynamic model, driver steering dynamic model and lateral disturbance model. The human torque feedback input has been designed via the investigation of the vehicle-driver system dynamics. Feedforward input torque is calculated to compensate additional tyre self-aligning torque from an estimated lateral disturbance. The proposed compensation algorithm has been implemented on a developed driver model which represents the driver's manoeuvreing characteristics under the lateral disturbance. The developed driver model has been validated with test data via a driving simulator in a crosswind condition. Human-in-the-loop simulations with a full-scale driving simulator on a virtual test track have been conducted to investigate the real-time performance of the proposed lateral disturbance compensation algorithm. It has been shown from simulation studies and human-in-the-loop simulation results that the driver's manoeuvreing effort and a lateral deviation of the vehicle under the lateral disturbance can be significantly reduced via the lateral disturbance compensation algorithm.

  4. The Optimal Steering Control System using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm on Vehicles with Steer-by-Wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hunaini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Steer-by-wire is the electrical steering systems on vehicles that are expected with the development of an optimal control system can improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle. This paper aims to optimize the control systems, namely Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC and the Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID control on the vehicle steering system using Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA. The control systems are built in a cascade, FLC to suppress errors in the lateral motion and the PID control to minimize the error in the yaw motion of the vehicle. FLC is built has two inputs (error and delta error and single output. Each input and output consists of three Membership Function (MF in the form of a triangular for language term "zero" and two trapezoidal for language term "negative" and "positive". In order to work optimally, each MF optimized using ICA to get the position and width of the most appropriate. Likewise, in the PID control, the constant at each Proportional, Integral and Derivative control also optimized using ICA, so there are six parameters of the control system are simultaneously optimized by ICA. Simulations performed on vehicle models with 10 Degree Of Freedom (DOF, the plant input using the variables of steering that expressed in the desired trajectory, and the plant outputs are lateral and yaw motion. The simulation results showed that the FLC-PID control system optimized by using ICA can maintain the movement of vehicle according to the desired trajectory with lower error and higher speed limits than optimized with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO.

  5. Fundamentals studies of a magnetically steered vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Paul

    In recent years demand from production industry for high performance cutting tools, aero and automobile engine parts has prompted research into both existing and novel methods of laying down hard, low friction coatings . A key process for the production of such coatings has been Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) which has proved to be a consistent and reliable tool for industry. For this technique to continue to be improved and more advanced coatings to be produced, research at the fundamental level is required. This thesis describes research investigating the behaviour of the steered arc cathode spot and methods of improving existing steered arc coating technology.The majority of existing steered arc systems use either permanent magnets or a combination of permanent and electromagnets to steer the arc. Described here is a novel system which employs a pair of electromagnetic coils of cylindrical geometry which enable the arc to be positioned on a circular orbit through a range of continuously variable radii. In addition to this the coils are capable of controlling the transverse and normal magnetic field profiles independently of the steering radius selected. This enables the behaviour of the arc spot to be investigated under a range of magnetic field conditions thus allowing the comparison of measured arc behaviour with a new model of arc motion. Care has described the motion of the arc spot as a biased random walk and has derived an analytical solution to describe the time dependent, probability density function for the arc position in two dimensions. Two distributions are proposed (one in each dimension); the first describes the probability density for the arc position in the direction of driven motion, the second the probability density in the direction of arc confinement. The shape of these distributions is dependent upon the transverse and normal components of the applied magnetic field.A series of experiments are described here that measure the shape of these

  6. Electronic differential control of 2WD electric vehicle considering steering stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yiding; Jiang, Haobin; Geng, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the steering wheel differential steering control technology of rear wheel independent driving electric wheel, considering the assisting effect of electronic differential control on vehicle steering, based on the high speed steering characteristic of electric wheel car, the electronic differential speed of auxiliary wheel steering is also studied. A yaw moment control strategy is applied to the vehicle at high speed. Based on the vehicle stability reference value, yaw rate is used to design the fuzzy controller to distribute the driving wheel torque. The simulation results show that the basic electronic differential speed function is realized based on the yaw moment control strategy, while the vehicle stability control is improved and the driving safety is enhanced. On the other hand, the torque control strategy can also assist steering of vehicle.

  7. Research on Sliding Mode Control for Steer-by-Wire System in Forklift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jun-Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at steering stability and wheel angle tracking of steer-by-wire (SBW three wheeled forklift, steering dynamic model and SBW system mathematical model of three wheeled forklift are established. A control strategy for the ideal transmission ratio is introduced based on this model, which ensures forklift steering gain invariant. A sliding mode controller can then be designed based on the bound information of uncertain system parameters, uncertain self-aligning torque, and external disturbances. The results of simulation show the control strategies above can effectively reduce the sideslip angle when the forklift is steering and improve the sensitivity and stability of the steering forklift; at the same time can effectively restrain the parameter perturbation of internal system and external disturbance, which improves the tracking performance of the wheel angle.

  8. Packaging consideration of two-dimensional polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results were also reported.

  9. Operational experience with model-based steering in the SLC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.A.; Himel, T.; Moore, S.; Sanchez-Chopitea, L.; Shoaee, H.

    1989-03-01

    Operational experience with model-driven steering in the linac of the Stanford Linear Collider is discussed. Important issues include two-beam steering, sensitivity of algorithms to faulty components, sources of disagreement with the model, and the effects of the finite resolution of beam position monitors. Methods developed to make the steering algorithms more robust in the presence of such complications are also presented. 5 refs., 1 fig

  10. EVALUATION OF A CONCEPTUAL VEHICLE STEERING SYSTEM FOR INDEPENDENT WHEEL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard BUCHALIK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief description of an unconventional steering system involving electronic stability control and its influence on vehicle motion. The proposed configuration enables individual changes in steering angle for each single wheel, in contrast to the mechanical linkage solution. An analysis of vehicle behaviour during emergency braking on a heterogeneous surface is conducted, especially with regard to the undesirable rotation of the vehicle body. The benefits of using this active steering system, implemented in the steer-by-wire mode, are characterized, while the problems for further consideration and the potential benefits of such a solution are described.

  11. Demonstration of Multisetting One-Way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering in Two-Qubit Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Sun, Kai; Xu, Jin-Shi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-04-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes the ability of one party to remotely affect another's state through local measurements. One of the most distinguishable properties of EPR steering is its asymmetric aspect. Steering can work in one direction but fail in the opposite direction. This type of one-way steering, which is different from the symmetry concepts of entanglement and Bell nonlocality, has garnered much interest. However, an experimental demonstration of genuine one-way EPR steering in the simplest scenario, i.e., one that employs two-qubit systems, is still lacking. In this Letter, we experimentally demonstrate one-way EPR steering with multimeasurement settings for a class of two-qubit states, which are still one-way steerable even with infinite settings. The steerability is quantified by the steering radius, which represents a necessary and sufficient steering criterion. The demonstrated one-way steering in the simplest bipartite quantum system is of fundamental interest and may provide potential applications in one-way quantum information tasks.

  12. Integrated Design and Analysis Tools for Reduced Weight, Affordable Fiber Steered Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hale, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This report describes geometric design tools which encompass the overall process flow for fiber placed and fiber steered structures, to allow parallel considerations for manufacturability and mechanical performance...

  13. Ultra-compact laser beam steering device using holographically formed two dimensional photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Xinyuan; Chen, Xiaonan; Chen, Maggie Yihong; Wang, Alan Xiaolong; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Ray T

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we report the theoretical study of polymer-based photonic crystals for laser beam steering which is based on the superprism effect as well as the experiment fabrication of the two dimensional photonic crystals for the laser beam steering. Superprism effect, the principle for beam steering, was separately studied in details through EFC (Equifrequency Contour) analysis. Polymer based photonic crystals were fabricated through double exposure holographic interference method using SU8-2007. The experiment results showed a beam steering angle of 10 degree for 30 nm wavelength variation.

  14. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  15. Steering the osteoclast through the demineralization-collagenolysis balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Merrild, Ditte Marie Horslev; Delaissé, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    are generated when collagen degradation is slower than demineralization, and trenches when collagen degradation is as fast as demineralization. Next we treated the osteoclasts with a low dose of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor to slightly decrease the rate of demineralization, thereby allowing collagen......, forming a pit, and continues parallel to the bone surface, forming a trench. Importantly, we show that the progress of the osteoclast along this route depends on the balance between the rate of collagenolysis and demineralization. We propose that the osteocytes and bone lining cells surrounding...... the osteoclast may act on this balance to steer the osteoclast resorptive activity in order to give the excavations a specific shape....

  16. Concept of navigation and automatic steering of the measuring dolphin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majohr, J.; Buch, T.; Korte, C. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2000-07-01

    The Catamaran - Measuring Dolphin (MESSIN) is an unmanned and independently operated craft having been designed for carrying out multiple measuring tasks in the field of marine research and water monitoring especially in shallow waters. An introduction to the navigation, steering and safety systems is given. Furthermore the main components of the track control system and the electronic chart system used here are shown. Results of manoeuvring tests of the MESSIN are represented. This paper gives a contribution to the field of research ''autonomous and full automated vehicle''. (orig.)

  17. Creating virtual electrodes with 2D current steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas C.; Fallon, James B.; Shivdasani, Mohit N.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Current steering techniques have shown promise in retinal prostheses as a way to increase the number of distinct percepts elicitable without increasing the number of implanted electrodes. Previously, it has been shown that ‘virtual’ electrodes can be created between simultaneously stimulated electrode pairs, producing unique cortical response patterns. This study investigated whether virtual electrodes could be created using 2D current steering, and whether these virtual electrodes can produce cortical responses with predictable spatial characteristics. Approach. Normally-sighted eyes of seven adult anaesthetised cats were implanted with a 42-channel electrode array in the suprachoroidal space and multi-unit neural activity was recorded from the visual cortex. Stimuli were delivered to individual physical electrodes, or electrodes grouped into triangular, rectangular, and hexagonal arrangements. Varying proportions of charge were applied to each electrode in a group to ‘steer’ current and create virtual electrodes. The centroids of cortical responses to stimulation of virtual electrodes were compared to those evoked by stimulation of single physical electrodes. Main results. Responses to stimulation of groups of up to six electrodes with equal ratios of charge on each electrode resulted in cortical activation patterns that were similar to those elicited by the central physical electrode (centroids: RM ANOVA on ranks, p  >  0.05 neural spread: one-way ANOVA on Ranks, p  >  0.05). We were also able to steer the centroid of activation towards the direction of any of the electrodes of the group by applying a greater charge to that electrode, but the movement in the centroid was not found to be significant. Significance. The results suggest that current steering is possible in two dimensions between up to at least six electrodes, indicating it may be possible to increase the number of percepts in patients without increasing the number

  18. Adaptive feedback linearization applied to steering of ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor I. Fossen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of feedback linearization to automatic steering of ships. The flexibility of the design procedure allows the autopilot to be optimized for both course-keeping and course-changing manoeuvres. Direct adaptive versions of both the course-keeping and turning controller are derived. The advantages of the adaptive controllers are improved performance and reduced fuel consumption. The application of nonlinear control theory also allows the designer in a systematic manner to compensate for nonlinearities in the control design.

  19. Geometric steering criterion for two-qubit states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bai-Chu; Jia, Zhih-Ahn; Wu, Yu-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2018-01-01

    According to the geometric characterization of measurement assemblages and local hidden state (LHS) models, we propose a steering criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for two-qubit states under arbitrary measurement sets. A quantity is introduced to describe the required local resources to reconstruct a measurement assemblage for two-qubit states. We show that the quantity can be regarded as a quantification of steerability and be used to find out optimal LHS models. Finally we propose a method to generate unsteerable states, and construct some two-qubit states which are entangled but unsteerable under all projective measurements.

  20. Electrical Steering of Vehicles - Fault-tolerant Analysis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    solutions and still meet strict requirements to functional safety. The paper applies graph-based analysis of functional system structure to find a novel fault-tolerant architecture for an electrical steering where a dedicated AC-motor design and cheap voltage measurements ensure ability to detect all......The topic of this paper is systems that need be designed such that no single fault can cause failure at the overall level. A methodology is presented for analysis and design of fault-tolerant architectures, where diagnosis and autonomous reconfiguration can replace high cost triple redundancy...

  1. Chiral silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.; Fahlteich, J.; Hoeche, Th.; Wagner, G.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2006-01-01

    Glancing angle ion beam assisted deposition is used for the growth of amorphous silicon nanospirals onto [0 0 1] silicon substrates in a temperature range from room temperature to 475 deg. C. The nanostructures are post-growth annealed in an argon atmosphere at various temperatures ranging from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. Recrystallization of silicon within the persisting nanospiral configuration is demonstrated for annealing temperatures above 800 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the silicon samples prior and after temperature treatment

  2. Silicon web process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  3. Growth, carcass characteristics, and profitability of organic versus conventional dairy beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Dicostanzo, A; Chester-Jones, H

    2014-03-01

    Bull calves (n=49), born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris) between March and May 2011, were used to compare growth measurements and profitability of conventional and organic dairy steers. Calves were assigned to 1 of 3 replicated groups at birth: conventional (CONV; n=16), organic (pasture and concentrate; ORG; n=16), or organic grass only (GRS; n=17), and analysis of variables was on a pen basis. Breed groups of calves were Holstein (HO; n=9); Holsteins (n=11) maintained at 1964 breed average level; crossbreds (n=19) including combinations of HO, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red; and crossbreds (n=10) including combinations of HO, Jersey, Swedish Red, and Normande. The CONV steers were fed a diet of 80% concentrate and 20% forage. The ORG steers were fed a diet of organic corn, organic corn silage, and at least 30% of their diet consisted of organic pasture during the grazing season. The GRS steers grazed pasture during the grazing season and were fed high-quality hay or hay silage during the nongrazing season. Intakes of a total mixed ration were recorded daily with herd management software. A profit function was defined to include revenues and expenses for beef value, feed intake, pasture intake, health cost, and yardage. The GRS (358.6 kg) steers had lesser total gains from birth to slaughter than ORG (429.6 kg) and CONV (534.5 kg) steers. Furthermore, the GRS (0.61 kg/d) steers had lesser average daily gain from birth compared with ORG (0.81 kg/d) and CONV (1.1 kg/d) steers. The GRS and ORG steers had smaller rib eye area (49.5 and 65.8 cm(2), respectively) compared with CONV (75.4 cm(2)) steers. For profitability, GRS steers had 43% greater profit than CONV steers due to organic beef price premiums and lower feed costs. On the other hand, ORG steers had substantially less profit than CONV steers. The higher cost of production for the ORG steers is due to the extreme high value of organic corn. The results of the

  4. Adiabatic photo-steering theory in topological insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Feasible external control of material properties is a crucial issue in condensed matter physics. A new approach to achieving this aim, named adiabatic photo-steering, is reviewed. The core principle of this scheme is that several material constants are effectively turned into externally tunable variables by irradiation of monochromatic laser light. Two-dimensional topological insulators are selected as the optimal systems that exhibit a prominent change in their properties following the application of this method. Two specific examples of photo-steered quantum phenomena, which reflect topological aspects of the electronic systems at hand, are presented. One is the integer quantum Hall effect described by the Haldane model, and the other is the quantum spin Hall effect described by the Kane–Mele model. The topological quantities associated with these phenomena are the conventional Chern number and spin Chern number, respectively. A recent interesting idea, time-reversal symmetry breaking via a temporary periodic external stimulation, is also discussed. (focus issue review)

  5. The steering committee for the marketing of radurised foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    After the very successful results obtained during the initial research stage of food irradiation, a need was felt for the commercial application of the process. Although few, if any, other food processing methods have been so thoroughly investigated prior to acceptance, several factors influenced the spontaneous implementation thereof. A definite need for co-ordination of commercial trials and proper commercial introduction of the process which invited so many discussions world-wide, led to the introduction of the Steering Committee for Radurised Foodstuffs in South Africa by the Minister of Agriculture during 1981. The Steering Committee was established to advise the Minister of Agriculture regarding the acceptability of the process and the progress made in this regard. The Minister of Agriculture (now Agricultural Economics and Water Affairs) fulfills an important role in the marketing of agricultural products in South Africa. Many decisions and recommendations of Organised Agriculture and of the different Marketing Boards are subject to the final approval or acceptance by the Minister. It is therefore important that he will be informed and advised regarding radurisation of foodstuffs and related aspects

  6. Mid-sized omnidirectional robot with hydraulic drive and steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl G.; Perry, Trent; Cook, Douglas; Maxfield, Russell; Davidson, Morgan E.

    2003-09-01

    Through funding from the US Army-Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program, Utah State University's (USU) Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) has developed the T-series of omni-directional robots based on the USU omni-directional vehicle (ODV) technology. The ODV provides independent computer control of steering and drive in a single wheel assembly. By putting multiple omni-directional (OD) wheels on a chassis, a vehicle is capable of uncoupled translational and rotational motion. Previous robots in the series, the T1, T2, T3, ODIS, ODIS-T, and ODIS-S have all used OD wheels based on electric motors. The T4 weighs approximately 1400 lbs and features a 4-wheel drive wheel configuration. Each wheel assembly consists of a hydraulic drive motor and a hydraulic steering motor. A gasoline engine is used to power both the hydraulic and electrical systems. The paper presents an overview of the mechanical design of the vehicle as well as potential uses of this technology in fielded systems.

  7. Steering elastic SH waves in an anomalous way by metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liyun; Yang, Zhichun; Xu, Yanlong

    2018-03-01

    Metasurface, which does not exist in nature, has exhibited exotic essence on the manipulation of both electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this paper, the concept of metasurface is extended to the field of elastic SH waves, and the anomalous refractions of SH waves across the designed elastic SH wave metasurfaces (SHWMs) are demonstrated numerically. Firstly, a SHWM is designed with supercells, each supercell is composed of four subunits. It is demonstrated that this configuration has the ability of deflecting the vertical and oblique incident waves in an arbitrary desired direction. Then, a unique SHWM with supercell composed of only two subunits is designed. Numerical simulation shows its ability of splitting the vertical and oblique incident waves into two tunable transmitted wave beams, respectively. In the process of steering SH waves, it is also found that two kinds of leakages of transmitted waves across the designed SHWM will occur in some particular situations, which will affect the desired transmitted wave. The mechanisms of the leakages, which are different from that of the common high-order diffraction mentioned in existing literatures, are revealed. The current study can offer theoretical guidance not only for designing devices of directional ultrasonic detection and splitting SH waves but also for steering other kinds of classical waves.

  8. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  9. Advanced Optics for the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, A; Cirant, S; Moro, A; Platania, P; Sozzi, C

    2005-01-01

    The optics of the ECRH Upper Launcher in ITER based on the Remote Steering concept needs special attention, since any focussing element in front of the waveguide has combined effects on the range of steering angles achievable and the beam width in the plasma region. The effects are studied in detail for a setup composed by 8 beams per port (three ports), for a spherical and a hyperbolic mirror surface. Gaussian beam analysis is compared to beam pattern calculations with the optical physics code GRASP, in order to verify the validity of gaussian optics approximation. The standard description with simply astigmatic beams, not adequate in more complex systems as the proposed two-mirror set-up, requires approximations, which are compared with the generalized astigmatic beam description. The ohmic losses at the end mirrors and the related localized heating due to the very large power density cause deformations that depends on the design of the cooling circuit. The distortion of the beam shape has been evaluated in a realistic case of mirror cooling with a small-channel system. The quantification of the effect depends on the precise evaluation ohmic losses and their enhancement in the long term due to the surface deterioration

  10. Stability Simulation of a Vehicle with Wheel Active Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brabec Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the possibility of increasing the vehicle driving stability at a higher speed. One of the ways how to achieve higher stability is using the 4WS system. Mathematical description of vehicle general movement is a very complex task. For simulation, models which are aptly simplified are used. For the first approach, so-called single-truck vehicle model (often linear is usually used. For the simulation, we have chosen to extend the model into a two-truck one, which includes the possibility to input more vehicle parameters. Considering the 4WS system, it is possible to use a number of potential regulations. In our simulation model, the regulation system with compound coupling was used. This type of regulation turns the rear wheels depending on the input parameters of the system (steering angle of the front wheels and depending on the output moving quantities of the vehicle, most frequently the yaw rate. Criterion for compensation of lateral deflection centre of gravity angle is its zero value, or more precisely the zero value of its first-order derivative. Parameters and set-up of the simulation model were done in conjunction with the dSAPACE software. Reference performances of the vehicle simulation model were made through the defined manoeuvres. But the simulation results indicate that the rear-wheels steering can have a positive effect on the vehicle movement stability, especially when changing the driving direction at high speed.

  11. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  12. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsia, Kevin K.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-05-01

    An intriguing optical property of silicon is that it exhibits a large third-order optical nonlinearity, with orders-ofmagnitude larger than that of silica glass in the telecommunication band. This allows efficient nonlinear optical interaction at relatively low power levels in a small footprint. Indeed, we have witnessed a stunning progress in harnessing the Raman and Kerr effects in silicon as the mechanisms for enabling chip-scale optical amplification, lasing, and wavelength conversion - functions that until recently were perceived to be beyond the reach of silicon. With all the continuous efforts developing novel techniques, nonlinear silicon photonics is expected to be able to reach even beyond the prior achievements. Instead of providing a comprehensive overview of this field, this manuscript highlights a number of new branches of nonlinear silicon photonics, which have not been fully recognized in the past. In particular, they are two-photon photovoltaic effect, mid-wave infrared (MWIR) silicon photonics, broadband Raman effects, inverse Raman scattering, and periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). These novel effects and techniques could create a new paradigm for silicon photonics and extend its utility beyond the traditionally anticipated applications.

  13. Nonlinear silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, M.; Castellan, C.; Signorini, S.; Trenti, A.; Pavesi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Silicon photonics is a technology based on fabricating integrated optical circuits by using the same paradigms as the dominant electronics industry. After twenty years of fervid development, silicon photonics is entering the market with low cost, high performance and mass-manufacturable optical devices. Until now, most silicon photonic devices have been based on linear optical effects, despite the many phenomenologies associated with nonlinear optics in both bulk materials and integrated waveguides. Silicon and silicon-based materials have strong optical nonlinearities which are enhanced in integrated devices by the small cross-section of the high-index contrast silicon waveguides or photonic crystals. Here the photons are made to strongly interact with the medium where they propagate. This is the central argument of nonlinear silicon photonics. It is the aim of this review to describe the state-of-the-art in the field. Starting from the basic nonlinearities in a silicon waveguide or in optical resonator geometries, many phenomena and applications are described—including frequency generation, frequency conversion, frequency-comb generation, supercontinuum generation, soliton formation, temporal imaging and time lensing, Raman lasing, and comb spectroscopy. Emerging quantum photonics applications, such as entangled photon sources, heralded single-photon sources and integrated quantum photonic circuits are also addressed at the end of this review.

  14. Beam steering for circular switched parasitic arrays using a combinational approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, ROM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present a method of electronic beam steering for circular switched parasitic array (SPA) antennas. In circular SPA antennas, one achieves azimuth beam steering by open-circuiting and short-circuiting different parasitic...

  15. How to Steer and Lead Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work any more since...

  16. Alteration in gene expression in the jejunum mucosa of Angus steers with divergent ADG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing ration containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% ...

  17. Progress on the ITER H&CD EC upper launcher steering-mirror control system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collazos, A.; Bertizzolo, R.; Chavan, R.; Dolizy, F.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Henderson, M.A.; Landis, J.-D.; Sanchez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The ITER Heating and Current Drive Upper Launcher (H&CD EC UL) uses a pneumomechanical steering-mirror assembly (SMA) to steer the RF beams for their deposition in the appropriate location in the plasma to control magnetohydrodynamic activity (neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) and sawtooth

  18. Exogenous administration of lipids to steers alters aspects of the innate immune response to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limitations in energy availability are known to impede the efficiency of the immune response to endotoxemia. Therefore, this study examined the effects of increasing energy availability on the pro-inflammatory response to LPS in Holstein steers. Steers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups (n = 7 ...

  19. A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.

  20. Modulation of the acute phase response in feedlot steers supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the effect of supplementing feedlot steers with Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1079 (SC) on the acute phase response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Steers (n = 18; 266 ± 4 kilograms body weight) were separated into three treatment groups (n = 6/treatm...

  1. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  2. Effects of steering demand on lane keeping behaviour, self-reports, and physiology : A simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Brookhuis, Karel A.; De Waard, Dick

    In this study a driving simulator was used to determine changes in mental effort in response to manipulations of steering demand. Changes in mental effort were assessed by using subjective effort ratings, physiology, and the standard deviation of the lateral position. Steering demand was increased

  3. Beam steered millimeter-wave fiber-wireless system for 5G indoor coverage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Wang, Q.; Tessema, N.M.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Soares, F.M.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    A 38GHz beam steered fiber-wireless system, enabled by a novel integrated optical tunable delay line, is demonstrated for 5G indoor coverage. The beam steering gains 14dBm spatial power focusing and 6 times EVM improvement.

  4. 46 CFR 185.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests. 185.320 Section 185.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Miscellaneous Operating Requirements § 185.320 Steering...

  5. 46 CFR 122.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the vessel prior to getting underway for a...

  6. Reducing Digging Losses by Using Automated Steering to Plant and Invert Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vellidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GPS guidance of farm machinery has been increasingly adopted by farmers because of the perceived gains in efficiency that it provides. In the southeastern USA one of the reasons farmers adopt GPS guidance, and specifically automated steering (auto-steer, is that it can theoretically result in large yield gains when used to plant and invert peanuts—one of the region’s most important crops. The goal of our study was to quantify the yield benefit of using real time kinematic (RTK-based auto-steer to plant and invert peanuts under a variety of terrain conditions. Yield benefits result from reduced digging losses. The study was conducted for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011 on a private farm in Georgia, USA. When all data are grouped together, auto-steer outperformed conventional by 579 kg/ha in 2010 and 451 kg/ha in 2011. We also evaluated the performance of auto-steer under different curvature conditions using low, medium, and high curvature rows. The results showed that auto-steer outperformed conventional under all curvature by a minimum of 338 kg/ha. Finally, we evaluated passive implement guidance in combination with auto-steer and found that it holds tremendous potential for further reducing digging losses. In many cases, auto-steer will pay for itself within a year.

  7. On Using Current Steering Logic in Mixed Analogue-digital Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigate power supply noise in mixed analogue-digital circuits, arising from communication between the analogue and digital parts of the circuit. Current steering techniques and proper buffering are used to show which noise currents can be reduced and which cannot. In addition......, a high-swing current steering buffer for driving analogue switches or external digital signals is proposed....

  8. Does pedalling on a recumbent bicycle influence the cyclist’s steering behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, K.M.; Klap, P.; Van Lanen, J.A.; Letsoin, G.J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the answer to the question how pedalling on a specific recumbent bicycle, such as the VeloX3, influences a cyclist’s ability to steer the bicycle. The research aims to find the correlation between pedalling and the undesired steering movements it creates. To test this assumption a

  9. Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrostatic Steering System for Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zardin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering system of a vehicle impacts on the vehicle performance, safety and on the driver’s comfort. Moreover, in off-road vehicles using hydrostatic steering systems, the energy dissipation also becomes a critical issue. These aspects push and motivate innovation, research and analysis in the field of agricultural tractors. This paper proposes the modelling and analysis of a hydrostatic steering system for an agricultural tractor to calculate the performance of the system and determine the influence of its main design parameters. The focus here is on the driver’s steering feel, which can improve the driver’s behavior reducing unnecessary steering corrections during the working conditions. The hydrostatic steering system is quite complex and involves a hydraulic circuit and a mechanical mechanism to transmit the steering to the vehicle tires. The detailed lumped parameters model here proposed allows to simulate the dynamic behavior of the steering system and to both enhance the understanding of the system and to improve the design through parameters sensitivity analysis.

  10. comparative beef production from buli,s, steers and heifers under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steers, although statistically significant, were much srnaller than differences obtained in the present study. Out of a maximum possible grading of 20 points, bulls obtained an average of 12,3 points (Grade I -) which is considerably lower than the grading points obtained by steers (16,3 = Prime) or by heifers (17,5 = Prime+).

  11. Using carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and retained energy to calculate dietary ME intake by beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight cross-bred beef steers (initial BW = 241 ± 4.10 kg) were used in a 77-d feeding experiment to determine if ME intake can be determined from carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and energy retention estimates. Steers were housed in a pen equipped with individual feed bunks and animal access w...

  12. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed

    2014-07-29

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  13. Silicon germanium mask for deep silicon etching

    KAUST Repository

    Serry, Mohamed; Rubin, Andrew; Refaat, Mohamed; Sedky, Sherif; Abdo, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Polycrystalline silicon germanium (SiGe) can offer excellent etch selectivity to silicon during cryogenic deep reactive ion etching in an SF.sub.6/O.sub.2 plasma. Etch selectivity of over 800:1 (Si:SiGe) may be achieved at etch temperatures from -80 degrees Celsius to -140 degrees Celsius. High aspect ratio structures with high resolution may be patterned into Si substrates using SiGe as a hard mask layer for construction of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and semiconductor devices.

  14. Phosphate steering by Flap Endonuclease 1 promotes 5′-flap specificity and incision to prevent genome instability

    KAUST Repository

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Thompson, Mark J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; Neil, Alexander J.; Shaw, Steven J.; Algasaier, Sana I.; Kim, Jane C.; Finger, L. David; Jardine, Emma; Gotham, Victoria J.B.; Sarker, Altaf H.; Her, Mai Z.; Rashid, Fahad; Hamdan, Samir; Mirkin, Sergei M.; Grasby, Jane A.; Tainer, John A.

    2017-01-01

    and large-scale trinucleotide (GAA) repeat expansions in vivo, implying failed phosphate-steering promotes an unanticipated lagging-strand template-switch mechanism during replication. Thus, phosphate steering is an unappreciated FEN1 function that enforces

  15. Collision-model approach to steering of an open driven qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Konstantin; Luoma, Kimmo; Strunz, Walter T.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate quantum steering of an open quantum system by measurements on its environment in the framework of collision models. As an example we consider a coherently driven qubit dissipatively coupled to a bath. We construct local nonadaptive and adaptive as well as nonlocal measurement scenarios specifying explicitly the measured observable on the environment. Our approach shows transparently how the conditional evolution of the open system depends on the type of the measurement scenario and the measured observables. These can then be optimized for steering. The nonlocal measurement scenario leads to maximal violation of the used steering inequality at zero temperature. Further, we investigate the robustness of the constructed scenarios against thermal noise. We find generally that steering becomes harder at higher temperatures. Surprisingly, the system can be steered even when bipartite entanglement between the system and individual subenvironments vanishes.

  16. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Kees J; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H

    2017-10-15

    Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of a new eight channel steering-DBS lead and compare this with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. The two leads were evaluated in a finite element electric field model combined with multicompartment neuron and axon models, representing the internal capsule (IC) fibers and subthalamic nucleus (STN) cells. We defined the optimal stimulation setting as the configuration that activated the highest percentage of STN cells, without activating any IC fibers. With this criterion, we compared monopolar stimulation using a single contact of the steering-DBS lead and CC lead, on three locations and four orientations of the lead. In addition, we performed a current steering test case by dividing the current over two contacts with the steering-DBS lead in its worst-case orientation. In most cases, the steering-DBS lead is able to stimulate a significantly higher percentage of STN cells compared to the CC lead using single contact stimulation or using a two contact current steering protocol when there is approximately a 1 mm displacement of the CC lead. The results also show that correct placement and orientation of the lead in the target remains an important aspect in achieving the optimal stimulation outcome. Currently, clinical trials are set up in Europe with a similar design as the steering-DBS lead. Our results illustrate the importance of the orientation of the new steering-DBS lead in avoiding side effects induced by stimulation of IC fibers. Therefore, in clinical trials sufficient attention should be paid to implanting the steering DBS-lead in the most effective orientation. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Mechanical design aspects of a "Long-Waveguide" version of the remote steering ECRH upper port launcher for ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronden, D. M. S.; van den Berg, M.; Bongers, W. A.; Elzendoorn, B. S. Q.; M. F. Graswinckel,; Lamers, B.; Van Nigtevecht, K.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Henderson, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of the mechanical design of the remote steering electron cyclotron resonance heating upper port launching system for ITER is presented. Although an alternative front steering launcher has now been selected as the reference design for ITER, the development of a remote steering

  18. Two-dimensional optical phased array antenna on silicon-on-insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Rogier, Hendrik; Baets, Roel

    2010-06-21

    Optical wireless links can offer a very large bandwidth and can act as a complementary technology to radiofrequency links. Optical components nowadays are however rather bulky. Therefore, we have investigated the potential of silicon photonics to fabricated integrated components for wireless optical communication. This paper presents a two-dimensional phased array antenna consisting of grating couplers that couple light off-chip. Wavelength steering of $0.24 degrees /nm is presented reducing the need of active phase modulators. The needed steering range is $1.5 degrees . The 3dB angular coverage range of these antennas is about $0.007pi sr with a directivity of more than 38dBi and antenna losses smaller than 3dB.

  19. Process for making silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  20. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  1. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  2. Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Ankerhold, J.; Moettoenen, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.

  3. Lightweight computational steering of very large scale molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beazley, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    We present a computational steering approach for controlling, analyzing, and visualizing very large scale molecular dynamics simulations involving tens to hundreds of millions of atoms. Our approach relies on extensible scripting languages and an easy to use tool for building extensions and modules. The system is extremely easy to modify, works with existing C code, is memory efficient, and can be used from inexpensive workstations and networks. We demonstrate how we have used this system to manipulate data from production MD simulations involving as many as 104 million atoms running on the CM-5 and Cray T3D. We also show how this approach can be used to build systems that integrate common scripting languages (including Tcl/Tk, Perl, and Python), simulation code, user extensions, and commercial data analysis packages

  4. Microstructure, Macrostructure and the Steering of Material Proclivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This article reports upon recent and initial explorations by the author in the hydroforming of steel. The material processes involved and the resulting artefacts are reflected upon, providing a ground from which to speculate about implications for architecture as both artefact and practice...... are steerable but not exclusively dependant upon profile geometry. The definition of geometry leading to physical outcome is familiar design territory. The forming method can be arrested and resumed arbitrarily. The notion of an extended forming process presents interesting implications to the linear...... the ideal, predictive and pre‐determined. This is less familiar design territory. This work begins to define both a material language for, and a non‐deterministic design paradigm of, steered proclivity. A conceptual framework for this paradigm is sketched out and presented in the form of the Persistent...

  5. Fractional Control of An Active Four-wheel-steering Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianting; Tong, Jun; Chen, Ning; Tian, Jie

    2018-03-01

    A four-wheel-steering (4WS) vehicle model and reference model with a drop filter are constructed. The decoupling of 4WS vehicle model is carried out. And a fractional PIλDμ controller is introduced into the decoupling strategy to reduce the effects of the uncertainty of the vehicle parameters as well as the unmodelled dynamics on the system performance. Based on optimization techniques, the design of fractional controller are obtained to ensure the robustness of 4WS vehicle during the special range of frequencies through proper choice of the constraints. In order to compare with fractional robust controller, an optimal controller for the same vehicle is also designed. The simulations of the two control systems are carried out and it reveals that the decoupling and fractional robust controller is able to make vehicle model trace the reference model very well with better robustness.

  6. Influence of orographically steered winds on Mutsu Bay surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    Effects of spatially dependent sea surface wind field on currents in Mutsu Bay, which is located at the northern end of Japanese Honshu Island, are investigated using winds derived from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and a numerical model. A characteristic wind pattern over the bay was evidenced from analysis of 118 SAR images and coincided with in situ observations. Wind is topographically steered with easterly winds entering the bay through the terrestrial gap and stronger wind blowing over the central water toward its mouth. Nearshore winds are weaker due to terrestrial blockages. Using the Princeton Ocean Model, we investigated currents forced by the observed spatially dependent wind field. The predicted current pattern agrees well with available observations. For a uniform wind field of equal magnitude and average direction, the circulation pattern departs from observations demonstrating that vorticity input due to spatially dependent wind stress is essential in generation of the wind-driven current in Mutsu Bay.

  7. Model projections of atmospheric steering of Sandy-like superstorms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Elizabeth A; Polvani, Lorenzo M; Sobel, Adam H

    2013-09-17

    Superstorm Sandy ravaged the eastern seaboard of the United States, costing a great number of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Whether events like Sandy will become more frequent as anthropogenic greenhouse gases continue to increase remains an open and complex question. Here we consider whether the persistent large-scale atmospheric patterns that steered Sandy onto the coast will become more frequent in the coming decades. Using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5 multimodel ensemble, we demonstrate that climate models consistently project a decrease in the frequency and persistence of the westward flow that led to Sandy's unprecedented track, implying that future atmospheric conditions are less likely than at present to propel storms westward into the coast.

  8. Sugar transport across lactose permease probed by steered molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Yin, Ying; Tajkhorshid, Emad

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli lactose permease (LacY) transports sugar across the inner membrane of the bacterium using the proton motive force to accumulate sugar in the cytosol. We have probed lactose conduction across LacY using steered molecular dynamics, permitting us to follow molecular and energetic...... details of lactose interaction with the lumen of LacY during its permeation. Lactose induces a widening of the narrowest parts of the channel during permeation, the widening being largest within the periplasmic half-channel. During permeation, the water-filled lumen of LacY only partially hydrates lactose......, forcing it to interact with channel lining residues. Lactose forms a multitude of direct sugar-channel hydrogen bonds, predominantly with residues of the flexible N-domain, which is known to contribute a major part of LacY's affinity for lactose. In the periplasmic half-channel lactose predominantly...

  9. DYNAMICS BASED CONTROL OF A SKID STEERING MOBILE ROBOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Elshazly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, development of a reduced order, augmented dynamics-drive model that combines both the dynamics and drive subsystems of the skid steering mobile robot (SSMR is presented. A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR control algorithm with feed-forward compensation of the disturbances part included in the reduced order augmented dynamics-drive model is designed. The proposed controller has many advantages such as its simplicity in terms of design and implementation in comparison with complex nonlinear control schemes that are usually designed for this system. Moreover, the good performance is also provided by the controller for the SSMR comparable with a nonlinear controller based on the inverse dynamics which depends on the availability of an accurate model describing the system. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and enhancement provided by the proposed controller.

  10. Silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ralf

    1997-09-01

    This work gives an overview of silicon micromachined vibrating gyroscopes. Market perspectives and fields of application are pointed out. The advantage of using silicon micromachining is discussed and estimations of the desired performance, especially for automobiles are given. The general principle of vibrating gyroscopes is explained. Vibrating silicon gyroscopes can be divided into seven classes. for each class the characteristic principle is presented and examples are given. Finally a specific sensor, based on a tuning fork for automotive applications with a sensitivity of 250(mu) V/degrees is described in detail.

  11. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  12. Silicon etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.J.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A silicon etch process wherein an area of silicon crystal surface is passivated by radiation damage and non-planar structure produced by subsequent anisotropic etching. The surface may be passivated by exposure to an energetic particle flux - for example an ion beam from an arsenic, boron, phosphorus, silicon or hydrogen source, or an electron beam. Radiation damage may be used for pattern definition and/or as an etch stop. Ethylenediamine pyrocatechol or aqueous potassium hydroxide anisotropic etchants may be used. The radiation damage may be removed after etching by thermal annealing. (author)

  13. Silicon integrated circuit process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-01

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  14. Silicon integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Duck

    1985-12-15

    This book introduces the process of silicon integrated circuit. It is composed of seven parts, which are oxidation process, diffusion process, ion implantation process such as ion implantation equipment, damage, annealing and influence on manufacture of integrated circuit and device, chemical vapor deposition process like silicon Epitaxy LPCVD and PECVD, photolithography process, including a sensitizer, spin, harden bake, reflection of light and problems related process, infrared light bake, wet-etch, dry etch, special etch and problems of etching, metal process like metal process like metal-silicon connection, aluminum process, credibility of aluminum and test process.

  15. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.; Peters, Craig; Brongersma, Mark; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  16. Silicon nanowire hybrid photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2010-06-01

    Silicon nanowire Schottky junction solar cells have been fabricated using n-type silicon nanowire arrays and a spin-coated conductive polymer (PEDOT). The polymer Schottky junction cells show superior surface passivation and open-circuit voltages compared to standard diffused junction cells with native oxide surfaces. External quantum efficiencies up to 88% were measured for these silicon nanowire/PEDOT solar cells further demonstrating excellent surface passivation. This process avoids high temperature processes which allows for low-cost substrates to be used. © 2010 IEEE.

  17. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  18. Combining coordination of motion actuators with driver steering interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagesson, Kristoffer; Laine, Leo; Jacobson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    A new method is suggested for coordination of vehicle motion actuators; where driver feedback and capabilities become natural elements in the prioritization. The method is using a weighted least squares control allocation formulation, where driver characteristics can be added as virtual force constraints. The approach is in particular suitable for heavy commercial vehicles that in general are over actuated. The method is applied, in a specific use case, by running a simulation of a truck applying automatic braking on a split friction surface. Here the required driver steering angle, to maintain the intended direction, is limited by a constant threshold. This constant is automatically accounted for when balancing actuator usage in the method. Simulation results show that the actual required driver steering angle can be expected to match the set constant well. Furthermore, the stopping distance is very much affected by this set capability of the driver to handle the lateral disturbance, as expected. In general the capability of the driver to handle disturbances should be estimated in real-time, considering driver mental state. By using the method it will then be possible to estimate e.g. stopping distance implied from this. The setup has the potential of even shortening the stopping distance, when the driver is estimated as active, this compared to currently available systems. The approach is feasible for real-time applications and requires only measurable vehicle quantities for parameterization. Examples of other suitable applications in scope of the method would be electronic stability control, lateral stability control at launch and optimal cornering arbitration.

  19. Dynamic steering beams for efficient force measurement in optical manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaocong Yuan; Yuquan Zhang; Rui Cao; Xing Zhao; Jing Bu; Siwei Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported.Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium.The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force.The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead.The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.%An efficient and inexpensive method that uses a glass plate mounted onto a motorized rotating stage as a beam-steering device for the generation of dynamic optical traps is reported. Force analysis reveals that there are drag and trapping forces imposed on the bead in the opposite directions, respectively, in a viscous medium. The trapped bead will be rotated following the beam's motion before it reaches the critical escape velocity when the drag force is equal to the optical trapping force. The equilibrium condition facilitates the experimental measurement of the drag force with potential extensions to the determination of the viscosity of the medium or the refractive index of the bead. The proposed technique can easily be integrated into conventional optical microscopic systems with minimum modifications.

  20. Fast-steering solutions for cubesat-scale optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, R. W.; Nguyen, T.; Riesing, K.; Cahoy, K.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the design of a compact free-space optical communications module for use on a nanosatellite and present results from a detailed trade study to select an optical fine steering mechanism compatible with our stringent size, weight and power (SWaP) constraints. This mechanism is an integral component of the compact free-space optical communications system that is under development at the MIT Space Systems Laboratory [1]. The overall goal of this project is to develop a laser communications (lasercom) payload that fits within the SWaP constraints of a typical ``3U'' CubeSat. The SWaP constraints for the entire lasercom payload are 5 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm, 600 g and 10W. Although other efforts are underway to qualify MEMS deformable mirrors for use in CubeSats [2], there has been very little work towards qualifying tip-tilt MEMS mirrors [3]. Sec. II provides additional information on how the fast steering mechanism is used in our lasercom system. Performance requirements and desirable traits of the mechanism are given. In Sec. III we describe the various types of compact tip-tilt mirrors that are commercially available as well as the justification for selecting a MEMS-based device for our application. Sec. IV presents an analysis of the device's transfer function characteristics and ways of predicting this behavior that are suitable for use in the control processor. This analysis is based upon manufacturer-provided test data which was collected at standard room conditions. In the final section, we describe on-going work to build a testbed that will be used to measure device performance in a thermal chamber.

  1. Non-mechanical optical path switching and its application to dual beam spectroscopy including gas filter correlation radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A non-mechanical optical switch is developed for alternately switching a monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic light beam along two optical paths. A polarizer polarizes light into a single, e.g., vertical component which is then rapidly modulated into vertical and horizontal components by a polarization modulator. A polarization beam splitter then reflects one of these components along one path and transmits the other along the second path. In the specific application of gas filter correlation radiometry, one path is directed through a vacuum cell and one path is directed through a gas correlation cell containing a desired gas. Reflecting mirrors cause these two paths to intersect at a second polarization beam splitter which reflects one component and transmits the other to recombine them into a polarization modulated beam which can be detected by an appropriate single sensor.

  2. Joining elements of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of joining together at least two silicon carbide elements (e.g.in forming a heat exchanger) is described, comprising subjecting to sufficiently non-oxidizing atmosphere and sufficiently high temperature, material placed in space between the elements. The material consists of silicon carbide particles, carbon and/or a precursor of carbon, and silicon, such that it forms a joint joining together at least two silicon carbide elements. At least one of the elements may contain silicon. (author)

  3. Monogamy inequalities for the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Monogamy inequalities for the way bipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering can be distributed among N systems are derived. One set of inequalities is based on witnesses with two measurement settings, and may be used to demonstrate correlation of outcomes between two parties, that cannot be shared with more parties. It is shown that the monogamy for steering is directional. Two parties cannot independently demonstrate steering of a third system, using the same two-setting steering witness, but it is possible for one party to steer two independent systems. This result explains the monogamy of two-setting Bell inequality violations and the sensitivity of the continuous variable (CV) EPR criterion to losses on the steering party. We generalize to m settings. A second type of monogamy relation gives the quantitative amount of sharing possible, when the number of parties is less than or equal to m, and takes a form similar to the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters relation for entanglement. The results enable characterization of the tripartite steering for CV Gaussian systems and qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states.

  4. Test of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on the all-versus-nothing proof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfeng; Chen, Jing-Ling; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Su, Hong-Yi; Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Zhenghan; Oh, C H

    2014-03-06

    In comparison with entanglement and Bell nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is a newly emerged research topic and in its incipient stage. Although Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering has been explored via violations of steering inequalities both theoretically and experimentally, the known inequalities in the literatures are far from well-developed. As a result, it is not yet possible to observe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for some steerable mixed states. Recently, a simple approach was presented to identify Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering based on all-versus-nothing argument, offering a strong condition to witness the steerability of a family of two-qubit (pure or mixed) entangled states. In this work, we show that the all-versus-nothing proof of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering can be tested by measuring the projective probabilities. Through the bound of probabilities imposed by local-hidden-state model, the proposed test shows that steering can be detected by the all-versus-nothing argument experimentally even in the presence of imprecision and errors. Our test can be implemented in many physical systems and we discuss the possible realizations of our scheme with non-Abelian anyons and trapped ions.

  5. Chaos vibration of pinion and rack steering trapezoidal mechanism containing two clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Daogao; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Tong; Zheng, Sifa; Zhao, Wenjing; Pan, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    The multi-clearances of breaking type steering trapezoidal mechanism joints influences vehicle steering stability. Hence, to ascertain the influence of clearance value on steering stability, this paper takes the steering mechanism of a certain vehicle type as a prototype that can be simplified into a planar six-bar linkage, then establishes the system dynamic differential equations after considering the two clearances of tie rods and the steering knuckle arms. The influence of the clearance parameters on the movement stability of the steering mechanism is studied using a numerical computation method. Results show that when the two clearances are equal, the planar movement of the tie rods changes from period-doubling to chaos as the clearances increase. When the two clearances are 0.25 mm and 1.5 mm respectively, the planar movements of the two side tie rods come into chaos, causing the steering stability to deteriorate. Moreover, with the increase of clearances, turning moment fluctuates more intensively and the peak value increases.

  6. Photoluminescence and electrical properties of silicon oxide and silicon nitride superlattices containing silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuleiko, D V; Ilin, A S

    2016-01-01

    Photoluminescence and electrical properties of superlattices with thin (1 to 5 nm) alternating silicon-rich silicon oxide or silicon-rich silicon nitride, and silicon oxide or silicon nitride layers containing silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with subsequent annealing were investigated. The entirely silicon oxide based superlattices demonstrated photoluminescence peak shift due to quantum confinement effect. Electrical measurements showed the hysteresis effect in the vicinity of zero voltage due to structural features of the superlattices from SiOa 93 /Si 3 N 4 and SiN 0 . 8 /Si 3 N 4 layers. The entirely silicon nitride based samples demonstrated resistive switching effect, comprising an abrupt conductivity change at about 5 to 6 V with current-voltage characteristic hysteresis. The samples also demonstrated efficient photoluminescence with maximum at ∼1.4 eV, due to exiton recombination in silicon nanocrystals. (paper)

  7. Advances in silicon nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Pu, Minhao

    Silicon has long been established as an ideal material for passive integrated optical circuitry due to its high refractive index, with corresponding strong optical confinement ability, and its low-cost CMOS-compatible manufacturability. However, the inversion symmetry of the silicon crystal lattice.......g. in high-bit-rate optical communication circuits and networks, it is vital that the nonlinear optical effects of silicon are being strongly enhanced. This can among others be achieved in photonic-crystal slow-light waveguides and in nano-engineered photonic-wires (Fig. 1). In this talk I shall present some...... recent advances in this direction. The efficient coupling of light between optical fibers and the planar silicon devices and circuits is of crucial importance. Both end-coupling (Fig. 1) and grating-coupling solutions will be discussed along with polarization issues. A new scheme for a hybrid III...

  8. Integrated silicon optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Horst

    2000-01-01

    'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'assembles optoelectronics and microelectronics The book concentrates on silicon as the major basis of modern semiconductor devices and circuits Starting from the basics of optical emission and absorption and from the device physics of photodetectors, the aspects of the integration of photodetectors in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies are discussed Detailed descriptions of fabrication technologies and applications of optoelectronic integrated circuits are included The book, furthermore, contains a review of the state of research on eagerly expected silicon light emitters In order to cover the topic of the book comprehensively, integrated waveguides, gratings, and optoelectronic power devices are included in addition Numerous elaborate illustrations promote an easy comprehension 'Integrated Silicon Optoelectronics'will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists in industry and at universities The book is also recommendable for graduate students speciali...

  9. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed

  10. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  11. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  12. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  13. Nanostructured silicon for thermoelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric modules convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. At present bismuth telluride is the most widely commercial used material for thermoelectric energy conversion. There are many applications where bismuth telluride modules are installed, mainly for refrigeration. However, bismuth telluride as material for energy generation in large scale has some disadvantages. Its availability is limited, it is hot stable at higher temperatures (>250°C) and manufacturing cost is relatively high. An alternative material for energy conversion in the future could be silicon. The technological processing of silicon is well advanced due to the rapid development of microelectronics in recent years. Silicon is largely available and environmentally friendly. The operating temperature of silicon thermoelectric generators can be much higher than of bismuth telluride. Today silicon is rarely used as a thermoelectric material because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material, it is necessary to reduce its thermal conductivity, while maintaining high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. This can be done by nanostructuring into arrays of pillars. Fabrication of silicon pillars using ICP-cryogenic dry etching (Inductive Coupled Plasma) will be described. Their uniform height of the pillars allows simultaneous connecting of all pillars of an array. The pillars have diameters down to 180 nm and their height was selected between 1 micron and 10 microns. Measurement of electrical resistance of single silicon pillars will be presented which is done in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators. Furthermore, measurement of thermal conductivity of single pillars with different diameters using the 3ω method will be shown.

  14. Study on Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervino, G.; Boero, M.; Manfredotti, C.; Icardi, M.; Gabutti, A.; Bagnolatti, E.; Monticone, E.

    1990-01-01

    Prototypes of Silicon microstrip detectors and Silicon large area detectors (3x2 cm 2 ), realized directly by our group, either by ion implantation or by diffusion are presented. The physical detector characteristics and their performances determined by exposing them to different radioactive sources and the results of extensive tests on passivation, where new technological ways have been investigated, are discussed. The calculation of the different terms contributing to the total dark current is reported

  15. Subwavelength silicon photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)

  16. Silicon microphotonic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta'eed, V.; Steel, M.J.; Grillet, C.; Eggleton, B.; Du, J.; Glasscock, J.; Savvides, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Silicon microphotonic devices have been drawing increasing attention in the past few years. The high index-difference between silicon and its oxide (Δn = 2) suggests a potential for high-density integration of optical functions on to a photonic chip. Additionally, it has been shown that silicon exhibits strong Raman nonlinearity, a necessary property as light interaction can occur only by means of nonlinearities in the propagation medium. The small dimensions of silicon waveguides require the design of efficient tapers to couple light to them. We have used the beam propagation method (RSoft BeamPROP) to understand the principles and design of an inverse-taper mode-converter as implemented in several recent papers. We report on progress in the design and fabrication of silicon-based waveguides. Preliminary work has been conducted by patterning silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers using optical lithography and reactive ion etching. Thus far, only rib waveguides have been designed, as single-mode ridge-waveguides are beyond the capabilities of conventional optical lithography. We have recently moved to electron beam lithography as the higher resolutions permitted will provide the flexibility to begin fabricating sub-micron waveguides

  17. Feed efficiency differences and reranking in beef steers fed grower and finisher diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durunna, O N; Mujibi, F D N; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E K; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2011-01-01

    This 3-yr study used 490 steers to determine whether feedlot steers changed their feed efficiency (FE) ranking when fed a grower diet, then a finisher diet. The steers were crossbreds and were between 5 to 7 mo of age. There were 2 feeding periods each year. Within each year, approximately 90 steers had their diet switched from a grower to a finisher diet (feed-swap group), whereas another 90 steers were fed either the grower (grower-fed group) or the finisher (finisher-fed group) diet throughout the feeding trial. Each feeding test lasted for a minimum of 10 wk, and all steers were fed ad libitum. Individual animal feed intakes were collected using the GrowSafe feeding system, and BW were measured every 2 wk. Residual feed intake (RFI), G:F, and Kleiber ratio (KR) were computed at the end of each feeding period. For each measure of efficiency, animals were classified as low, medium, or high based on 0.5 SD from the mean. The majority of steers did not maintain the previous efficiency class in the second period. Approximately 58, 51, and 51% of steers in the feed-swap group, finisher-fed group, and the grower-fed group, respectively, changed their RFI measure by 0.5 SD. A low rank correlation occurred in all test groups but was less in the feed-swap group. Spearman rank correlations between the 2 feeding periods in the feed-swap group were 0.33, 0.20, and 0.31 for RFI, G:F, and KR, respectively. Classifications based on G:F and KR showed that a greater number of steers (P 0.05) between the proportions of individuals that changed or maintained their FE class. In the groups without a feed-swap, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in the proportion of steers that changed or maintained the same FE class for all FE measures. Our results suggest that diet type and feeding period affect the FE ranking in beef steers. A feedlot diet is ideal for evaluating the FE potential of steers for feedlot profitability; however, we suggest that tests involving less dense diets should

  18. Effects of steering demand on lane keeping behaviour, self-reports, and physiology. A simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijksterhuis, Chris; Brookhuis, Karel A; De Waard, Dick

    2011-05-01

    In this study a driving simulator was used to determine changes in mental effort in response to manipulations of steering demand. Changes in mental effort were assessed by using subjective effort ratings, physiology, and the standard deviation of the lateral position. Steering demand was increased by exposure to narrow lane widths and high density oncoming traffic while speed was fixed in all conditions to prevent a compensatory reaction. Results indicated that both steering demand factors influence mental effort expenditure and using multiple measures contributes to effort assessment. Application of these outcomes for adaptive automation is envisaged. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Amorphous silicon crystalline silicon heterojunction solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous Silicon/Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells deals with some typical properties of heterojunction solar cells, such as their history, the properties and the challenges of the cells, some important measurement tools, some simulation programs and a brief survey of the state of the art, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for all those interested in the subject. This book helps to "fill in the blanks" on heterojunction solar cells. Readers will receive a comprehensive overview of the principles, structures, processing techniques and the current developmental states of the devices. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang R. Fahrner is a professor at the University of Hagen, Germany and Nanchang University, China.

  20. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.; Sgourou, E. N.; Londos, C. A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  1. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  2. Oxygen defect processes in silicon and silicon germanium

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2015-06-18

    Silicon and silicon germanium are the archetypical elemental and alloy semiconductor materials for nanoelectronic, sensor, and photovoltaic applications. The investigation of radiation induced defects involving oxygen, carbon, and intrinsic defects is important for the improvement of devices as these defects can have a deleterious impact on the properties of silicon and silicon germanium. In the present review, we mainly focus on oxygen-related defects and the impact of isovalent doping on their properties in silicon and silicon germanium. The efficacy of the isovalent doping strategies to constrain the oxygen-related defects is discussed in view of recent infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory studies.

  3. Effect of chronological age of beef steers of different maturity types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of chronological age of beef steers of different maturity types on their growth ... and carcass studies have been conducted in the sourveld regions of the country. ... different beef maturity types which differ in body frame size were used, viz.

  4. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeloch, James; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to demonstrate the EPR paradox. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to show that the down-converted photon pairs also exhibit symmetric EPR steering.

  5. Effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Akio; Iwamoto, Eiji; Tatsuda, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Twenty 10-month-old Japanese Black steers were used to evaluate the effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics. Ten steers (Clay group) were fed the clay (50 g/day) during 10-30 months of age. The other 10 steers (Control group) were not fed it. There was no significant difference in body weight or average daily gain between the two groups (P > 0.05). The occurrence of fat necrotic mass in the Clay group (30%) was lower (P Clay group was smaller (P clay prevented the occurrence of fat necrosis and did not affect the carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Ka-Band Electronically Steered CubeSat Antenna, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kymeta Government Solutions (KGS) designed, analyzed, built, tested, and delivered a small, lightweight, low-cost, low-power electronically steered Ka-band prototype...

  7. Comparison of vibration damping of standard and PDCPD housing of the electric power steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    A comparison of two different types of electric power steering system housing is presented. The first considered type of the housing was a standard one that is made of an aluminium alloy. The second one is made of polydicyclopentadiene polymer (PDCPD) and was produced using the RIM technology. Considered elements were analysed in order to verify their properties of vibrations damping. This property is very important taking into account noise generated by elements of a car’s power steering system. During the carried out tests vibrations of analysed power steering housings were measured using Marco Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric transducers. Results obtained for both considered power steering housings in case of the same parameters of vibrations excitations were measured and juxtaposed. Obtained results were analysed in order to verify if the housing made of PDCPD polymer has better properties of vibration damping than the standard one.

  8. Steering a Course through Work and Life the Narratives of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steering a Course through Work and Life the Narratives of a Zimbabwean Migrant ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... of migrant life and the ways in which connections are continually forged and experience and agency enacted.

  9. Evaluation of four steering wheels to determine driver hand placement in a static environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossey, Mary E; Xi, Yubin; McConomy, Shayne K; Brooks, Johnell O; Rosopa, Patrick J; Venhovens, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    While much research exists on occupant packaging both proprietary and in the literature, more detailed research regarding user preferences for subjective ratings of steering wheel designs is sparse in published literature. This study aimed to explore the driver interactions with production steering wheels in four vehicles by using anthropometric data, driver hand placement, and driver grip design preferences for Generation-Y and Baby Boomers. In this study, participants selected their preferred grip diameter, responded to a series of questions about the steering wheel grip as they sat in four vehicles, and rank ordered their preferred grip design. Thirty-two male participants (16 Baby Boomers between ages 47 and 65 and 16 Generation-Y between ages 18 and 29) participated in the study. Drivers demonstrated different gripping behavior between vehicles and between groups. Recommendations for future work in steering wheel grip design and naturalistic driver hand positioning are discussed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Program - St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this effort was to characterize the extent and magnitude of chemical contamination in the St. Thomas East End Reserves or STEER, as part of a larger...

  11. Demonstration of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering with enhanced subchannel discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Xiao, Ya; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Wu, Yu-Chun; Xu, Jin-Shi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2018-03-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering describes a quantum nonlocal phenomenon in which one party can nonlocally affect the other's state through local measurements. It reveals an additional concept of quantum non-locality, which stands between quantum entanglement and Bell nonlocality. Recently, a quantum information task named as subchannel discrimination (SD) provides a necessary and sufficient characterization of EPR steering. The success probability of SD using steerable states is higher than using any unsteerable states, even when they are entangled. However, the detailed construction of such subchannels and the experimental realization of the corresponding task are still technologically challenging. In this work, we designed a feasible collection of subchannels for a quantum channel and experimentally demonstrated the corresponding SD task where the probabilities of correct discrimination are clearly enhanced by exploiting steerable states. Our results provide a concrete example to operationally demonstrate EPR steering and shine a new light on the potential application of EPR steering.

  12. Fault Risk Assessment of Underwater Vehicle Steering System Based on Virtual Prototyping and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Deyu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the risks of steering system faults in underwater vehicles is a human-machine-environment (HME systematic safety field that studies faults in the steering system itself, the driver’s human reliability (HR and various environmental conditions. This paper proposed a fault risk assessment method for an underwater vehicle steering system based on virtual prototyping and Monte Carlo simulation. A virtual steering system prototype was established and validated to rectify a lack of historic fault data. Fault injection and simulation were conducted to acquire fault simulation data. A Monte Carlo simulation was adopted that integrated randomness due to the human operator and environment. Randomness and uncertainty of the human, machine and environment were integrated in the method to obtain a probabilistic risk indicator. To verify the proposed method, a case of stuck rudder fault (SRF risk assessment was studied. This method may provide a novel solution for fault risk assessment of a vehicle or other general HME system.

  13. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means of steering so as not to impair the reliability and availability of the control required by paragraph (b)(7) of this section. (15) Manual capability to center and steady the rudder if the vessel loses...

  14. Design of X-Y steering magnet for extraction beamline of K-500 superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, Md. Zamal A.; Paul, S.; Bhunia, U.; Pradhan, J.; Dey, M.K.; Nandi, C.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The K-500 Superconducting Cyclotron is in the advanced stage of commissioning at VEC Centre, Kolkata. This accelerator is designed to accelerate up to maximum 80 MeV/nucleon energy. A X-Y steering magnet is essential to guide this high energy beam into the external high energy beam line. This paper describes the designing and the other related necessary aspects of such a steering magnet. (author)

  15. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Feng Wang; Ming-Ming Dong; Liang Gu; Jagat-Jyoti Rath; Ye-Chen Qin; Bin Bai

    2017-01-01

    Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steer...

  16. Excitation Patterns of Standard and Steered Partial Tripolar Stimuli in Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ching-Chih; Luo, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Current steering in partial tripolar (pTP) mode has been shown to improve pitch perception and spectral resolution with cochlear implants (CIs). In this mode, a fraction (?) of the main electrode current is returned within the cochlea and steered between the basal and apical flanking electrodes (with a proportion of ? and 1????, respectively). Pitch generally decreases when ? increases from 0 to 1, although the salience of pitch change varies across CI users. This study aimed to identify the ...

  17. Throughput-Based Traffic Steering in LTE-Advanced HetNet Deployments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan Z.; Wigard, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose traffic steering solutions that aim at optimizing the end-user throughput. Two different implementations of an active mode throughput-based traffic steering algorithm for Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) are introduced. One that always forces handover of t...... throughput is generally higher, reaching values of 36% and 18% for the medium- and high-load conditions....

  18. Deriving Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering inequalities from the few-body Abner Shimony inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Meng, Hui-Xian; Jiang, Shu-Han; Xu, Zhen-Peng; Ren, Changliang; Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2018-04-01

    For the Abner Shimony (AS) inequalities, the simplest unified forms of directions attaining the maximum quantum violation are investigated. Based on these directions, a family of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequalities is derived from the AS inequalities in a systematic manner. For these inequalities, the local hidden state (LHS) bounds are strictly less than the local hidden variable (LHV) bounds. This means that the EPR steering is a form of quantum nonlocality strictly weaker than Bell nonlocality.

  19. Driver assistance system for lane departure avoidance by steering and differential braking

    OpenAIRE

    MINOIU-ENACHE, N; MAMMAR, S; GLASER, S; LUSETTI, B

    2010-01-01

    Lane departure avoidance systems assist actively the driver during inattention or drowsiness and increase driving safety. Most of the lane departure avoidance systems use for the lateral control of the vehicle in closed loop a DC motor similar to the electrical powered steering (EPS) assistance. Important difficulties and limits of this approach are the shared control with the driver on the steering wheel and the vehicle handling at limits. In this paper a combined lateral control using a DC ...

  20. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  1. Optical resonators for true-time-delay beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Leslie H.; Evanko, Stephen M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional true time delay beamforming and steering devices rely on switching between various lengths of delay line. Therefore only discrete delays are possible. Proposed is a new photonics concept for true time delay beamforming which provides a finely controlled continuum of delays with switching speeds on the order of 10's of nanoseconds or faster. The architecture uses an array of waveguide cavities with different resonate frequencies to channelize the signal. Each spectral component of the signal is phase shifted by an amount proportional to the frequency of that component and the desired time delay. These phase shifted spectral components are then summed to obtain the delayed signal. This paper provides an overview of the results of a Phase I SBIR contract where this concept has been refined and analyzed. The parameters for an operational system are determined and indication of the feasibility of this approach is given. Among the issues addressed are the requirements of the resonators and the methods necessary to implement fiber optic Bragg gratings as these resonators.

  2. Nudging and Boosting: Steering or Empowering Good Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Ralph; Grüne-Yanoff, Till

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice. Yet behavioral science also provides support for a distinct kind of nonfiscal and noncoercive intervention, namely, "boosts." The objective of boosts is to foster people's competence to make their own choices-that is, to exercise their own agency. Building on this distinction, we further elaborate on how boosts are conceptually distinct from nudges: The two kinds of interventions differ with respect to (a) their immediate intervention targets, (b) their roots in different research programs, (c) the causal pathways through which they affect behavior, (d) their assumptions about human cognitive architecture, (e) the reversibility of their effects, (f) their programmatic ambitions, and (g) their normative implications. We discuss each of these dimensions, provide an initial taxonomy of boosts, and address some possible misconceptions.

  3. The Challenging Diagnosis of Non-Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Non-Mechanically Ventilated Subjects: Value of Microbiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messika, Jonathan; Stoclin, Annabelle; Bouvard, Eric; Fulgencio, Jean-Pierre; Ridel, Christophe; Muresan, Ioan-Paul; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Bachmeyer, Claude; Denis, Michel; Gounant, Valérie; Esteso, Adoracion; Loi, Valeria; Verdet, Charlotte; Prigent, Hélène; Parrot, Antoine; Fartoukh, Muriel

    2016-02-01

    Early recognition and an attempt at obtaining microbiological documentation are recommended in patients with non-community-acquired pneumonia (NCAP), whether hospital-acquired (HAP) or health care-associated (HCAP). We aimed to characterize the clinical features and microbial etiologies of NCAP to assess the impact of microbiological investigation on their management. This was a prospective 1-y study in a university hospital with 141 non-mechanically ventilated subjects suspected of having HAP (n = 110) or HCAP (n = 31). Clinical criteria alone poorly identified pneumonia (misdiagnosis in 50% of cases). Microbiological confirmation was achievable in 80 subjects (57%). Among 79 microorganisms isolated, 28 were multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and group III Enterobacteriaceae and 6 were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli accounted for one third of the microorganisms in early-onset HAP and for 50% in late-onset HAP. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was most often recovered from subjects with HCAP. Inappropriate empirical antibiotics were administered to 36% of subjects with confirmed pneumonia. Forty subjects were admitted to the ICU, 13 (33%) of whom died. Overall, 39 subjects (28%) died in the hospital. Integrating the microbiological investigation in the complex clinical diagnostic workup of patients suspected of having NCAP is mandatory. Respiratory tract specimens should be obtained whenever possible for appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Carcass characteristics and sensorial evaluation of meat from Nellore steers and crossbred Angus vs. Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Cunha Barcellos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated animal performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of 36-month old Nellore steers finished in pastures (n = 10 and 20-month old Angus vs. Nellore bulls finished in feedlot (n = 10. Final body weight, carcass weight, characteristics, conformation and fat thickness, were higher (p 0.05 throughout the ageing period for the Angus vs. Nellore bulls, but higher in meat from the Nellore steers (p 0.05 on meat a* value (redness. Likewise, ageing time had no effect on a* in both genetic groups, and genetic group had no effect (p > 0.05 on meat b* value (yellowness. On the other hand, b* was increased after day 7 of ageing for the bulls from the two genetic groups. Thawing and cooking losses were lower for Nellore steers after day 7 of aging (p 0.05 on lipid oxidation; however, lipid oxidation increased after day7. Meat from Nellore steers contained a higher percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA, a lower percentage of unsaturated (UFA and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and a similar percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA than the meat from Angus vs. Nellore bulls. Intramuscular fat from Nellore steers had a more favourable n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio than that from Angus vs. Nellore bulls (4.37 vs. 11.45, respectively. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability were higher (p < 0.001 for meats of the Nellore steers, regardless of ageing time (1, 4, 7 and 14 days.

  5. The Front Steering Launcher Design for the ITER ECRH Upper Port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M A; Chavan, R; Heidinger, R; Nikkola, P; Ramponi, G; Saibene, G; Sanchez, F; Sauter, O; Serikov, A; Zohm, H

    2005-01-01

    The ECRH ITER upper port antenna's role is to stabilize the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) on either the q = 2 or 3/2 rational flux surfaces, which requires a narrow current deposition profile (j CD ) over a wide range along the resonance surfaces. The width of j CD should be equivalent to the marginal island width to fully stabilise the NTM. Two antenna concepts are under consideration for the upper port launcher: front steering (FS) and remote steering (RS). The FS launcher decouples the steering and focusing aspects using a two mirror system (one focusing and one steering), achieving a wider steering range and higher current density for NTM stabilisation than required by ITER, offering a threefold increase in NTM stabilization efficiency over the RS launcher. The improved physics performance has motivated the further design study of the FS launcher aiming toward a build to print launcher. The present design is compatible with ≥2.0 MW CW operation and 8 beams per port plug. A frictionless backlashfree system is envisioned for the steering mechanism. An overview of the launcher design, the calculated physics performance and the possibility of using the upper port launcher for extended physics applications (beyond NTM stabilisation) are discussed

  6. Design of Model-based Controller with Disturbance Estimation in Steer-by-wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sanghun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steer-by-wire system is a next generation steering control technology that has been actively studied because it has many advantages such as fast response, space efficiency due to removal of redundant mechanical elements, and high connectivity with vehicle chassis control, such as active steering. Steer-by-wire system has disturbance composed of tire friction torque and self-aligning torque. These disturbances vary widely due to the weight or friction coefficient change. Therefore, disturbance compensation logic is strongly required to obtain desired performance. This paper proposes model-based controller with disturbance compensation to achieve the robust control performance. Targeted steer-by-wire system is identified through the experiment and system identification method. Moreover, model-based controller is designed using the identified plant model. Disturbance of targeted steer-by-wire is estimated using disturbance observer(DOB, and compensate the estimated disturbance into control input. Experiment of various scenarios are conducted to validate the robust performance of proposed model-based controller.

  7. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  8. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  9. A Vehicle Steering Recognition System Based on Low-Cost Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing how a vehicle is steered and then alerting drivers in real time is of utmost importance to the vehicle and driver’s safety, since fatal accidents are often caused by dangerous vehicle maneuvers, such as rapid turns, fast lane-changes, etc. Existing solutions using video or in-vehicle sensors have been employed to identify dangerous vehicle maneuvers, but these methods are subject to the effects of the environmental elements or the hardware is very costly. In the mobile computing era, smartphones have become key tools to develop innovative mobile context-aware systems. In this paper, we present a recognition system for dangerous vehicle steering based on the low-cost sensors found in a smartphone: i.e., the gyroscope and the accelerometer. To identify vehicle steering maneuvers, we focus on the vehicle’s angular velocity, which is characterized by gyroscope data from a smartphone mounted in the vehicle. Three steering maneuvers including turns, lane-changes and U-turns are defined, and a vehicle angular velocity matching algorithm based on Fast Dynamic Time Warping (FastDTW is adopted to recognize the vehicle steering. The results of extensive experiments show that the average accuracy rate of the presented recognition reaches 95%, which implies that the proposed smartphone-based method is suitable for recognizing dangerous vehicle steering maneuvers.

  10. Robust H2/H∞ Control for the Electrohydraulic Steering System of a Four-Wheel Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To shorten the steer diameter and to improve the maneuverability flexibility of a construction vehicle, four wheels’ steering system is presented. This steering system consists of mechanical-electrical-hydraulic assemblies. Its diagram and principle are depicted in detail. Then the mathematical models are derived step by step, including the whole vehicle model and the hydraulic route model. Considering the nonlinear and time-varying uncertainty of the steering system, robust H2/H∞ controller is put forward to guarantee both the system performance and the robust stability. The H∞ norm of the sensitive function from the parameter perturbation of the hydraulic system to the yaw velocity of the vehicle is taken as the evaluating index of the robustness and the H2 norm of the transfer function from the external disturbance to the steering angle of the wheel as the index of linear quadratic Gaussian. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme was superior to classical PID controller and can guarantee both the control performance and the robustness of the steering system.

  11. Performance improvement of silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhafarov T. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the method is shown to improve the photovoltaic parameters of screen-printed silicon solar cells by nanoporous silicon film formation on the frontal surface of the cell using the electrochemical etching. The possible mechanisms responsible for observed improvement of silicon solar cell performance are discussed.

  12. Neuromorphic Silicon Neuron Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, Giacomo; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Hamilton, Tara Julia; van Schaik, André; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Delbruck, Tobi; Liu, Shih-Chii; Dudek, Piotr; Häfliger, Philipp; Renaud, Sylvie; Schemmel, Johannes; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Arthur, John; Hynna, Kai; Folowosele, Fopefolu; Saighi, Sylvain; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Wijekoon, Jayawan; Wang, Yingxue; Boahen, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain–machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance-based Hodgkin–Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive integrate and fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips. PMID:21747754

  13. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  14. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  15. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  16. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Mark, E-mail: Mark.Tobin@epfl.ch

    2016-09-21

    The LHCb experiment is dedicated to the study of heavy flavour physics at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The primary goal of the experiment is to search for indirect evidence of new physics via measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The LHCb detector has a large-area silicon micro-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three tracking stations with silicon micro-strip detectors in the innermost region downstream of the magnet. These two sub-detectors form the LHCb Silicon Tracker (ST). This paper gives an overview of the performance and operation of the ST during LHC Run 1. Measurements of the observed radiation damage are shown and compared to the expectation from simulation.

  17. Removal of inclusions from silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftja, Arjan; Engh, Thorvald Abel; Tangstad, Merete; Kvithyld, Anne; Øvrelid, Eivind Johannes

    2009-11-01

    The removal of inclusions from molten silicon is necessary to satisfy the purity requirements for solar grade silicon. This paper summarizes two methods that are investigated: (i) settling of the inclusions followed by subsequent directional solidification and (infiltration by ceramic foam filters. Settling of inclusions followed by directional solidification is of industrial importance for production of low-cost solar grade silicon. Filtration is reported as the most efficient method for removal of inclusions from the top-cut silicon scrap.

  18. Silicon photonic integration in telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Richard Doerr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicon photonics is the guiding of light in a planar arrangement of silicon-based materials to perform various functions. We focus here on the use of silicon photonics to create transmitters and receivers for fiber-optic telecommunications. As the need to squeeze more transmission into a given bandwidth, a given footprint, and a given cost increases, silicon photonics makes more and more economic sense.

  19. Silicon Tracking Upgrade at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruse, M.C.

    1998-04-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) is scheduled to begin recording data from Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron in early 2000. The silicon tracking upgrade constitutes both the upgrade to the CDF silicon vertex detector (SVX II) and the new Intermediate Silicon Layers (ISL) located at radii just beyond the SVX II. Here we review the design and prototyping of all aspects of these detectors including mechanical design, data acquisition, and a trigger based on silicon tracking

  20. Silicon microphones - a Danish perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwstra, Siebe; Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Scheeper, Patrick

    1998-01-01

    Two application areas of microphones are discussed, those for precision measurement and those for hearing instruments. Silicon microphones are under investigation for both areas, and Danish industry plays a key role in both. The opportunities of silicon, as well as the challenges and expectations......, are discussed. For precision measurement the challenge for silicon is large, while for hearing instruments silicon seems to be very promising....

  1. CMS silicon tracker developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civinini, C.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.D.R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; Focardi, E.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2002-01-01

    The CMS Silicon tracker consists of 70 m 2 of microstrip sensors which design will be finalized at the end of 1999 on the basis of systematic studies of device characteristics as function of the most important parameters. A fundamental constraint comes from the fact that the detector has to be operated in a very hostile radiation environment with full efficiency. We present an overview of the current results and prospects for converging on a final set of parameters for the silicon tracker sensors

  2. Silicon hybrid integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianyao; Yuan Taonu; Shao Shiqian; Shi Zujun; Wang Yi; Yu Yude; Yu Jinzhong

    2011-01-01

    Recently,much attention has concentrated on silicon based photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which provide a cost-effective solution for high speed, wide bandwidth optical interconnection and optical communication.To integrate III-V compounds and germanium semiconductors on silicon substrates,at present there are two kinds of manufacturing methods, i.e., heteroepitaxy and bonding. Low-temperature wafer bonding which can overcome the high growth temperature, lattice mismatch,and incompatibility of thermal expansion coefficients during heteroepitaxy, has offered the possibility for large-scale heterogeneous integration. In this paper, several commonly used bonding methods are reviewed, and the future trends of low temperature wafer bonding envisaged. (authors)

  3. Strained Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf B. Wehrspohn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon.

  4. Elite silicon and solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasamanov, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The article is of popular character, the following issues being considered: conversion of solar energy into electric one, solar batteries in space and on the Earth, growing of silicon large-size crystals, source material problems relating to silicon monocrystals production, outlooks of solar silicon batteries production [ru

  5. Car Gestures - Advisory warning using additional steering wheel angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Christian; Schneider, Norbert; Lübbeke, Thomas; Weisswange, Thomas H; Goerick, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Advisory warning systems (AWS) notify the driver about upcoming hazards. This is in contrast to the majority of currently deployed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that manage emergency situations. The target of this study is to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and controllability of a specific kind of AWS that uses the haptic information channel for warning the driver. This could be beneficial, as alternatives for using the visual modality can help to reduce the risk of visual overload. The driving simulator study (N=24) compared an AWS based on additional steering wheel angle control (Car Gestures) with a visual warning presented in a simulated head-up display (HUD). Both types of warning were activated 3.5s before the hazard object was reached. An additional condition of unassisted driving completed the experimental design. The subjects encountered potential hazards in a variety of urban situations (e.g. a pedestrian standing on the curbs). For the investigated situations, subjective ratings show that a majority of drivers prefer visual warnings over haptic information via gestures. An analysis of driving behavior indicates that both warning approaches guide the vehicle away from the potential hazard. Whereas gestures lead to a faster lateral driving reaction (compared to HUD warnings), the visual warnings result in a greater safety benefit (measured by the minimum distance to the hazard object). A controllability study with gestures in the wrong direction (i.e. leading toward the hazard object) shows that drivers are able to cope with wrong haptic warnings and safety is not reduced compared to unassisted driving as well as compared to (correct) haptic gestures and visual warnings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective formation of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.

  7. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100

  8. Silicon nitride nanosieve membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Gadgil, V.J.; Bostan, C.G.; Berenschot, Johan W.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    An array of very uniform cylindrical nanopores with a pore diameter as small as 25 nm has been fabricated in an ultrathin micromachined silicon nitride membrane using focused ion beam (FIB) etching. The pore size of this nanosieve membrane was further reduced to below 10 nm by coating it with

  9. OPAL Silicon Tungsten Luminometer

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The Silicon Tungsten Luminometer was part of OPAL's calorimeter which was used to measure the energy of particles. Most particles end their journey in calorimeters. These detectors measure the energy deposited when particles are slowed down and stopped.

  10. Silicon graphene Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Domenech, David; Muñoz, Pascual

    2014-03-10

    We propose the use of interleaved graphene sections on top of a silicon waveguide to implement tunable Bragg gratings. The filter central wavelength and bandwidth can be controlled changing the chemical potential of the graphene sections. Apodization techniques are also presented.

  11. On nanostructured silicon success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    Recent Letters by Piggott et al. 1 and Shen et al. 2 claim the smallest ever dielectric wave length and polarization splitters. The associated News & Views article by Aydin3 states that these works “are the first experimental demonstration of on-chip, silicon photonic components based on complex...

  12. Silicon oxynitride based photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worhoff, Kerstin; Klein, E.J.; Hussein, M.G.; Driessen, A.; Marciniak, M.; Jaworski, M.; Zdanowicz, M.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon oxynitride is a very attractive material for integrated optics. Besides possessing excellent optical properties it can be deposited with refractive indices varying over a wide range by tuning the material composition. In this contribution we will summarize the key properties of this material

  13. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  14. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  15. DELPHI Silicon Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    DELPHI was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. The silicon tracking detector was nearest to the collision point in the centre of the detector. It was used to pinpoint the collision and catch short-lived particles.

  16. Phase control of entanglement and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. X.; Mao, D.; Dai, Y. T.; Ficek, Z.; He, Q. Y.; Gong, Q. H.

    2017-12-01

    The theory of phase control of coherence, entanglement and quantum steering is developed for an optomechanical system composed of a single mode cavity containing a partially transmitting dielectric membrane and driven by short laser pulses. The membrane divides the cavity into two mutually coupled optomechanical cavities resulting in an effective three-mode closed loop system, two field modes of the two cavities and a mechanical mode representing the oscillating membrane. The closed loop in the coupling creates interfering channels which depend on the relative phase of the coupling strengths of the field modes to the mechanical mode. Populations and correlations of the output modes are calculated analytically and show several interesting phase dependent effects such as reversible population transfer from one field mode to the other, creation of collective modes, and induced coherence without induced emission. We find that these effects result from perfect mutual coherence between the field modes which is preserved even if one of the modes is not populated. The inseparability criterion for the output modes is also investigated and we find that entanglement may occur only between the field modes and the mechanical mode. We show that depending on the phase, the field modes can act on the mechanical mode collectively or individually resulting, respectively, in tripartite or bipartite entanglement. In addition, we examine the phase sensitivity of quantum steering of the mechanical mode by the field modes. Deterministic phase transfer of the steering from bipartite to collective is predicted and optimum steering corresponding to perfect EPR state can be achieved. These different types of quantum steering can be distinguished experimentally by measuring the coincidence rate between two detectors adjusted to collect photons of the output cavity modes. In particular, we find that the minima of the interference pattern of the coincidence rate signal the bipartite steering

  17. A method of detecting a structure in a field, a method of steering an agricultural vehicle and an agricultural vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    An agricultural vehicle (2) comprises a steering system providing steering signals, said steering system comprising an imaging device (11) for imaging surroundings of the vehicle and an image processing device (13), said steering system operating to provide by means of the imaging device (11......) an image of the field (21), analyse the image to obtain texture information, assign to a plurality of areas of the image probability-values reflecting the likelihood that the respective area relates to a specific structure (12), assume at least one geometric property of said specific structure (12...

  18. Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and diffusion to silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, K.; Akasaka, Y.; Horie, K.

    1977-01-01

    Arsenic implantation into polycrystalline silicon and drive-in diffusion to silicon substrate have been investigated by MeV He + backscattering analysis and also by electrical measurements. The range distributions of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon are well fitted to Gaussian distributions over the energy range 60--350 keV. The measured values of R/sub P/ and ΔR/sub P/ are about 10 and 20% larger than the theoretical predictions, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficient of arsenic implanted into polycrystalline silicon is expressed as D=0.63 exp[(-3.22 eV/kT)] and is independent of the arsenic concentration. The drive-in diffusion of arsenic from the implanted polycrystalline silicon layer into the silicon substrate is significantly affected by the diffusion atmosphere. In the N 2 atmosphere, a considerable amount of arsenic atoms diffuses outward to the ambient. The outdiffusion can be suppressed by encapsulation with Si 3 N 4 . In the oxidizing atmosphere, arsenic atoms are driven inward by growing SiO 2 due to the segregation between SiO 2 and polycrystalline silicon, and consequently the drive-in diffusion of arsenic is enhanced. At the interface between the polycrystalline silicon layer and the silicon substrate, arsenic atoms are likely to segregate at the polycrystalline silicon side

  19. Silicon epitaxy on textured double layer porous silicon by LPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Hong; Shen Honglie; Zhang Lei; Huang Haibin; Lu Linfeng; Tang Zhengxia; Shen Jiancang

    2010-01-01

    Epitaxial silicon thin film on textured double layer porous silicon (DLPS) was demonstrated. The textured DLPS was formed by electrochemical etching using two different current densities on the silicon wafer that are randomly textured with upright pyramids. Silicon thin films were then grown on the annealed DLPS, using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). The reflectance of the DLPS and the grown silicon thin films were studied by a spectrophotometer. The crystallinity and topography of the grown silicon thin films were studied by Raman spectroscopy and SEM. The reflectance results show that the reflectance of the silicon wafer decreases from 24.7% to 11.7% after texturing, and after the deposition of silicon thin film the surface reflectance is about 13.8%. SEM images show that the epitaxial silicon film on textured DLPS exhibits random pyramids. The Raman spectrum peaks near 521 cm -1 have a width of 7.8 cm -1 , which reveals the high crystalline quality of the silicon epitaxy.

  20. Development of scanning micromirror with discrete steering angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z F; Noell, W; Zickar, M; Rooij, N F de; Lim, S P

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new MEMS-based optical mirror, which can perform optical switching (or scanning) function with discrete reflection angles in an outof- plane configuration. The device is fabricated through the Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer, followed by wafer dicing and assembly with two metalised glass dies. The MEMS mirror can be tilted under electrostatic force between the opposite electrodes embedded on SOI and glass structures. The most outstanding feature of this MEMS mirror is the discrete and therefore, reliable tilting angles, which generated by its unique mechanical structural design and electrostatic-driven mechanism. In this paper, the concept of the new scanning mirror is presented, followed by the introduction of device design, mechanical simulation, microfabrication process, assembly solution, and some testing results. The potential applications of this new MEMS mirror include optical scanning, optical sensing (or detection), and optical switching

  1. Evaluation of metal matrix composite to replace spheroidal graphite iron for a critical component, steering knuckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayarangan, S.; Rajamanickam, N.; Sivananth, V.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A FE model is developed to study the suitability of MMC for steering knuckle. ► Structural analysis of steering knuckle is carried out for 12 load cases. ► The cross section of the critical region is optimized using genetic algorithm. ► The life of the MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) knuckle is compared before and after optimization. ► MMC material could replace SG iron for automotive steering knuckle. -- Abstract: Steering knuckle is considered as one of the critical component in automotive suspension system. It is subjected to time varying loads during its service life, leading to fatigue failure. Therefore, its design is an important aspect in the product development cycle. Currently, spheroidal graphite (SG) iron is widely used to manufacture steering knuckle in the commercial automobile sector. It has been observed from the knuckle manufacturers that advanced materials and weight reduction are the real need for the current automobile industry. Due to their high strength to weight ratio, Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) have the potential to meet the demanded design requirements of the automotive industry, compared to conventional materials. In this work, an aluminum alloy reinforced with titanium carbide particulate is suggested as an alternate material in place of existing SG iron. Structural analysis of steering knuckle made of alternate material Al-10 wt.% TiC was performed using commercial code ANSYS. The results of steering knuckle made of MMC (Al-10 wt.% TiC) were compared with that of aluminum alloy and SG iron steering knuckles for its performance based on real time load cases. It is found from this analysis, the knuckle strut region has maximum stress and deflection during its life time. The critical strut region cross section area of knuckle was analyzed and geometrically optimized for minimum bending stress and deflection using genetic algorithm available in MatLab. Since, the knuckle experiences time varying loads, fatigue analysis also

  2. Design of a Path-Tracking Steering Controller for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanyang Sun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a linearization method for the vehicle and tire models under the model predictive control (MPC scheme, and proposes a linear model-based MPC path-tracking steering controller for autonomous vehicles. The steering controller is designed to minimize lateral path-tracking deviation at high speeds. The vehicle model is linearized by a sequence of supposed steering angles, which are obtained by assuming the vehicle can reach the desired path at the end of the MPC prediction horizon and stay in a steady-state condition. The lateral force of the front tire is directly used as the control input of the model, and the rear tire’s lateral force is linearized by an equivalent cornering stiffness. The course-direction deviation, which is the angle between the velocity vector and the path heading, is chosen as a control reference state. The linearization model is validated through the simulation, and the results show high prediction accuracy even in regions of large steering angle. This steering controller is tested through simulations on the CarSim-Simulink platform (R2013b, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA, showing the improved performance of the present controller at high speeds.

  3. Static load simulation of steering knuckle for a formula student race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, Bagus Aulia; Ubaidillah, Triono, Dicky Agus; Pratama, Dzaky Roja; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro; Imaduddin, Fitrian

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to determine the stress distribution which occurs on the steering knuckle and to define its safety factor number. Steering knuckle is the most critical part of a car's steering system. Steering knuckle supports the tie rod, brake caliper, and the wheels to provide stability. Steering knuckle withstands the load which given on the front wheels and functions as the wheel's axis. Balljoint and king support the rotation of the suspension arm. When the car is in idle position, knuckle hold the weight of the car, it gets braking force when it's braking and cornering. Knuckle is designed to have the strength that could withstand load and to have a good safety factor value. Knuckle is designed using Fusion software then simulated using Fusion simulation software with a static load, moment braking force, and cornering force as the loads in this simulation. The simulation works in ideal condition. The result of this simulation is satisfying. This simulation produces a maximum displacement of 0.01281mm, the maximum shear stress is 3.707 MPa on the stub hole, and the safety factor is 5.24. The material used for this product is mild steel AISI 1018.

  4. Networked Control System for the Guidance of a Four-Wheel Steering Agricultural Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Paciência Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A current trend in the agricultural area is the development of mobile robots and autonomous vehicles for precision agriculture (PA. One of the major challenges in the design of these robots is the development of the electronic architecture for the control of the devices. In a joint project among research institutions and a private company in Brazil a multifunctional robotic platform for information acquisition in PA is being designed. This platform has as main characteristics four-wheel propulsion and independent steering, adjustable width, span of 1,80 m in height, diesel engine, hydraulic system, and a CAN-based networked control system (NCS. This paper presents a NCS solution for the platform guidance by the four-wheel hydraulic steering distributed control. The control strategy, centered on the robot manipulators control theory, is based on the difference between the desired and actual position and considering the angular speed of the wheels. The results demonstrate that the NCS was simple and efficient, providing suitable steering performance for the platform guidance. Even though the simplicity of the NCS solution developed, it also overcame some verified control challenges in the robot guidance system design such as the hydraulic system delay, nonlinearities in the steering actuators, and inertia in the steering system due the friction of different terrains.

  5. Design of a remote steering antenna for ECRH heating in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaum, B., E-mail: plaum@igvp.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lechte, C.; Kasparek, W.; Gaiser, S.; Zeitler, A. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Weißgerber, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bechtold, A. [NTG Neue Technologie GmbH & Co KG, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Busch, M.; Szcepaniak, B. [Galvano-T electroplating-electroforming GmbH, D-51570 Windeck-Rosbach (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We report about the design activities for the remote steering antennas for the stellarator W7-X. • The integration into the W7-X system and the manufacturing procedure are described. • Simulations and loss measurements for the waveguide walls were done and are in good agreement. • A method for extending the steering range is presented. • A mechanical deformation analysis showed that the deformation is not critical for the beam quality. - Abstract: For the ECRH heating system of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, two remote steering antennas are developed and manufactured. The principle of remote steering antennas is based on the imaging characteristics of corrugated rectangular waveguides, which is well understood and can accurately be simulated. Several details, however, require deeper investigation. The antenna needs a miter-bend and a 24 mm gap. The positions of these elements need to be chosen carefully to reduce losses and stray radiation. The antennas are manufactured from copper by electroforming. This allows to integrate all components, including the corrugated inner walls and the cooling channels, in one vacuum-tight piece. This paper reviews the design process of the remote steering antennas for W7-X as well as technological issues and experimental results from test pieces.

  6. Quantum steering of multimode Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements: monogamy relations and the Peres conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, M S

    2015-01-01

    It is a topic of fundamental and practical importance how a quantum correlated state can be reliably distributed through a noisy channel for quantum information processing. The concept of quantum steering recently defined in a rigorous manner is relevant to study it under certain circumstances and here we address quantum steerability of Gaussian states to this aim. In particular, we attempt to reformulate the criterion for Gaussian steering in terms of local and global purities and show that it is sufficient and necessary for the case of steering a 1-mode system by an N-mode system. It subsequently enables us to reinforce a strong monogamy relation under which only one party can steer a local system of 1-mode. Moreover, we show that only a negative partial-transpose state can manifest quantum steerability by Gaussian measurements in relation to the Peres conjecture. We also discuss our formulation for the case of distributing a two-mode squeezed state via one-way quantum channels making dissipation and amplification effects, respectively. Finally, we extend our approach to include non-Gaussian measurements, more precisely, all orders of higher-order squeezing measurements, and find that this broad set of non-Gaussian measurements is not useful to demonstrate steering for Gaussian states beyond Gaussian measurements. (paper)

  7. A Vehicle Haptic Steering by Wire System Based on High Gain GPI Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle steering by wire (SBW haptic system based on high gain generalized proportional integral (GPI observers is introduced. The observers are considered for the estimation of dynamic perturbations that are present at the tire and steering wheel. To ensure efficient tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle, the estimated perturbations are on line canceled. As to provide a haptic interface with the driver, the estimated dynamic effects at the steering rack are fed back to the steering wheel, yielding a master-slave haptic system with bilateral communication. For implementation purposes few sensors and minimum knowledge of the dynamic model are required, which is a major advantage compared to other approaches. Only position tracking errors are fed back, while all other signals are estimated by the high gain GPI observers. The scheme is robust to uncertainty on the input gain and cancels dynamic perturbation effects such as friction and aligning forces on the tire. Experimental results are presented on a prototype platform.

  8. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering swapping between two Gaussian multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihong; Qin, Zhongzhong; Wang, Yu; Su, Xiaolong

    2017-08-01

    Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a useful quantum resource for quantum communication in quantum networks. It has potential applications in secure quantum communication, such as one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution and quantum secret sharing. By distributing optical modes of a multipartite entangled state to space-separated quantum nodes, a local quantum network can be established. Based on the existing multipartite EPR steering in a local quantum network, secure quantum communication protocol can be accomplished. In this manuscript, we present swapping schemes for EPR steering between two space-separated Gaussian multipartite entangled states, which can be used to connect two space-separated quantum networks. Two swapping schemes, including the swapping between a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state and an EPR entangled state and that between two tripartite GHZ entangled states, are analyzed. Various types of EPR steering are presented after the swapping of two space-separated independent multipartite entanglement states without direct interaction, which can be used to implement quantum communication between two quantum networks. The presented schemes provide technical reference for more complicated quantum networks with EPR steering.

  9. Provenance for Runtime Workflow Steering and Validation in Computational Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinuso, A.; Krischer, L.; Krause, A.; Filgueira, R.; Magnoni, F.; Muraleedharan, V.; David, M.

    2014-12-01

    Provenance systems may be offered by modern workflow engines to collect metadata about the data transformations at runtime. If combined with effective visualisation and monitoring interfaces, these provenance recordings can speed up the validation process of an experiment, suggesting interactive or automated interventions with immediate effects on the lifecycle of a workflow run. For instance, in the field of computational seismology, if we consider research applications performing long lasting cross correlation analysis and high resolution simulations, the immediate notification of logical errors and the rapid access to intermediate results, can produce reactions which foster a more efficient progress of the research. These applications are often executed in secured and sophisticated HPC and HTC infrastructures, highlighting the need for a comprehensive framework that facilitates the extraction of fine grained provenance and the development of provenance aware components, leveraging the scalability characteristics of the adopted workflow engines, whose enactment can be mapped to different technologies (MPI, Storm clusters, etc). This work looks at the adoption of W3C-PROV concepts and data model within a user driven processing and validation framework for seismic data, supporting also computational and data management steering. Validation needs to balance automation with user intervention, considering the scientist as part of the archiving process. Therefore, the provenance data is enriched with community-specific metadata vocabularies and control messages, making an experiment reproducible and its description consistent with the community understandings. Moreover, it can contain user defined terms and annotations. The current implementation of the system is supported by the EU-Funded VERCE (http://verce.eu). It provides, as well as the provenance generation mechanisms, a prototypal browser-based user interface and a web API built on top of a NoSQL storage

  10. How automation helps steer the revenue cycle process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpas, Phil

    2013-06-01

    top-of-mind issue as we see how healthcare reform plays out. Here's what our select group of experts had to say about how automation helps to steer the revenue cycle process.

  11. Expanded R&D by Jet-engine-steering Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Or, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Since 1987 [1,2,3,4,5] the global jet engine community is facing the historical fact that jet engine steering is gradually replacing canards and the common, often dangerous and obsolete, aerodynamic-only flight control - a fact that (i) has already affected the defense-industrial complex in the US, Russia, China, Japan, S-Korea and India, (ii) has integrated the traditional jet-engine components R&D with advanced aero-electro-physics, stealth technology, thrust vectoring aerodynamics and material science. Moreover, this military revolution is historically due to expand into the civil transport jets domain, [6,7,8,9]. The historical aim of the JES-Revolution remains the same: Replace the common, stall-spin sensitive canards [6] and Aerodynamic-Only-Obsolete-Flight Control ("AOOF Control"). Invented about 100 years ago for propeller-driven air vehicles, it has already been partially replaced for failure to function in WVR-combat post-stall domain, and for the following reasons: In comparison with complete Tail-Less, Canard-Less, Stealth-JES (Figure 5 and References [1,2,3,4,5,6]), the common AOOF Control increases drag, weight, fuel consumption, complexity, cost, and reduces flight safety, stealth, [Low Detectability] and provides zero post-stall, WVR air combat capability while its CANARDS KILL LD & REDUCE JES. Examples of stealth fighter aircraft that have already replaced canards and AOOF-Control where JES provides at least 64 to 0 KILL-RATIO advantage over AOOF-Controlled conventional fighter aircraft: The U.S. JES F-22 and, apparently, the Russian JES-Su-T-50 & 35S, China 2016-J-31, Indian HAL AMCA & FGFA, Japanese JES IHHI ATD-X, S-Korean JES KF-X. Cf. X-44 in Figure 5. Consequently, the jet engine is no longer defined as providing only brute force forward. Instead, it successfully competes with and wins over the wrong, dominating AOOF-Control, at least as a backup flight control whose sole factual domain is currently a well-established, primary flight

  12. Manufacturing and characterization of bent silicon crystals for studies of coherent interactions with negatively charged particles beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germogli, G.; Mazzolari, A.; Bandiera, L.; Bagli, E.; Guidi, V.

    2015-07-15

    Efficient steering of GeV-energy negatively charged particle beams was demonstrated to be possible with a new generation of thin bent silicon crystals. Suitable crystals were produced at the Sensor Semiconductor Laboratory of Ferrara starting from Silicon On Insulator wafers, adopting proper revisitation of silicon micromachining techniques such as Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition, photolithography and anisotropic chemical etching. Mechanical holders, which allow to properly bend the crystal and to reduce unwanted torsions, were employed. Crystallographic directions and crystal holder design were optimized in order to excite quasi-mosaic effect along (1 1 1) planes. Prior to exposing the crystal to particle beams, a full set of characterizations were performed. Infrared interferometry was used to measure crystal thickness with high accuracy. White-light interferometry was employed to characterize surface deformational state and its torsion. High-resolution X-rays diffraction was used to precisely measure crystal bending angle along the beam. Manufactured crystals were installed and tested at the MAMI MAinz MIcrotron to steer sub-GeV electrons, and at SLAC to deflect an electron beam in the 1 to 10 GeV energy range.

  13. Fluorescence and thermoluminescence in silicon oxide films rich in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman M, D.; Piters, T. M.; Aceves M, M.; Berriel V, L. R.; Luna L, J. A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we determined the fluorescence and thermoluminescence (TL) creation spectra of silicon rich oxide films (SRO) with three different silicon excesses. To study the TL of SRO, 550 nm of SRO film were deposited by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition technique on N-type silicon substrates with resistivity in the order of 3 to 5 Ω-cm with silicon excess controlled by the ratio of the gases used in the process, SRO films with Ro= 10, 20 and 30 (12-6% silicon excess) were obtained. Then, they were thermally treated in N 2 at high temperatures to diffuse and homogenize the silicon excess. In the fluorescence spectra two main emission regions are observed, one around 400 nm and one around 800 nm. TL creation spectra were determined by plotting the integrated TL intensity as function of the excitation wavelength. (Author)

  14. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Buffini, A.; Busoni, S.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Della Marina, R.; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Frey, A.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Honma, A.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Leubelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B.Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; Migliore, E.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Papi, A.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Radicci, V.; Raffaelli, F.; Raymond, M.; Rizzo, F.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Surrow, B.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Yahong, Li; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Silicon microstrip Tracker of the CMS experiment at LHC. It consists of a barrel part with 5 layers and two endcaps with 10 disks each. About 10 000 single-sided equivalent modules have to be built, each one carrying two daisy-chained silicon detectors and their front-end electronics. Back-to-back modules are used to read-out the radial coordinate. The tracker will be operated in an environment kept at a temperature of T=-10 deg. C to minimize the Si sensors radiation damage. Heavily irradiated detectors will be safely operated due to the high-voltage capability of the sensors. Full-size mechanical prototypes have been built to check the system aspects before starting the construction

  15. Undepleted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancoita, P.G.; Seidman, A.

    1985-01-01

    Large-size silicon detectors employing relatively low resistivity material can be used in electromagnetic calorimetry. They can operate in strong magnetic fields, under geometric constraints and with microstrip detectors a high resolution can be achieved. Low noise large capacitance oriented electronics was developed to enable good signal-to-noise ratio for single relativistic particles traversing large area detectors. In undepleted silicon detectors, the charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated by comparing the expected peak position (from the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. Furthermore, the undepleted detectors have been employed in a prototype of Si/W electromagnetic colorimeter. The sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one

  16. Silicon nanowire transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the n and p-channel Silicon Nanowire Transistor (SNT) designs with single and dual-work functions, emphasizing low static and dynamic power consumption. The authors describe a process flow for fabrication and generate SPICE models for building various digital and analog circuits. These include an SRAM, a baseband spread spectrum transmitter, a neuron cell and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in the digital domain, as well as high bandwidth single-stage and operational amplifiers, RF communication circuits in the analog domain, in order to show this technology’s true potential for the next generation VLSI. Describes Silicon Nanowire (SNW) Transistors, as vertically constructed MOS n and p-channel transistors, with low static and dynamic power consumption and small layout footprint; Targets System-on-Chip (SoC) design, supporting very high transistor count (ULSI), minimal power consumption requiring inexpensive substrates for packaging; Enables fabrication of different types...

  17. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  18. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Automated steering systems applied to complex horizontal well in South Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, A.; Ligrone, A.; Trampini, A. [ENI AGIP (Italy); Oppelt, J.; Gauld, S. [Baker Hughes INTEQ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A new drilling system that not only improved the quality of the borehole trajectory, but also resulted in significant savings in capital cost is described. The new concept in drilling is the result of a joint development between a major oil company and an oilfield service provider. Through providing a breakthrough technology in directional steering systems the accuracy of the borehole steering has been substantially improved. The new concept involves the use of a straight hole drilling system (SDD) in the upper hole section, in combination with the rotary steering system, AutoTrak, in the 8.5 inch hole size. By synergistically using the new automated tools, the well was drilled much more efficiently than offset wells, producing substantial time savings, a smoother trajectory and less friction. Details of the different automated directional drilling systems that were used together in a well for the first time at Monte Enoc 9 in South Italy are described. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Steering Angle Control of Car for Dubins Path-tracking Using Model Predictive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma Rahma Putri, Dian; Subchan; Asfihani, Tahiyatul

    2018-03-01

    Car as one of transportation is inseparable from technological developments. About ten years, there are a lot of research and development on lane keeping system(LKS) which is a system that automaticaly controls the steering to keep the vehicle especially car always on track. This system can be developed for unmanned cars. Unmanned system car requires navigation, guidance and control which is able to direct the vehicle to move toward the desired path. The guidance system is represented by using Dubins-Path that will be controlled by using Model Predictive Control. The control objective is to keep the car’s movement that represented by dinamic lateral motion model so car can move according to the path appropriately. The simulation control on the four types of trajectories that generate the value for steering angle and steering angle changes are at the specified interval.

  1. Arbitrary vehicle steering characteristics with changing ratio rack and pinion transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András G Bendefy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve arbitrary steering characteristics at vehicles, a steering mechanism was developed, in which changing ratio rack and pinion connections have been applied. In contrary to a regular steering mechanism where only a single rack is used, two racks were applied in order to make arbitrary characteristics possible. The turning wheel’s required motion functions had to be defined first, thereafter could we determine the changing ratio rack and pinion geometry which produces this motion. First, a simplified two-dimensional mockup was created in order to study the difficulties and possibilities of a real construction. Later, a fully functional assembly was designed and manufactured to make further experiments possible.

  2. A Car-Steering Model Based on an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Mohamed Anis Ben; Oda, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shigeyoshi

    This paper is concerned with the development of a car-steering model for traffic simulation. Our focus in this paper is to propose a model of the steering behavior of a human driver for different driving scenarios. These scenarios are modeled in a unified framework using the idea of target position. The proposed approach deals with the driver’s approximation and decision-making mechanisms in tracking a target position by means of fuzzy set theory. The main novelty in this paper lies in the development of a learning algorithm that has the intention to imitate the driver’s self-learning from his driving experience and to mimic his maneuvers on the steering wheel, using linear networks as local approximators in the corresponding fuzzy areas. Results obtained from the simulation of an obstacle avoidance scenario show the capability of the model to carry out a human-like behavior with emphasis on learned skills.

  3. Progress on the ITER ECRH upper launcher steering mirror identification and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazos, Andres; Bertizzolo, Robert; Chavan, Rene; Dolizy, Frederic; Felici, Federico; Henderson, Mark A.; Landis, Jean-Daniel; Sanchez, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the ITER ECRH upper launcher (UL) is to control magnetohydrodynamic activity, in particular neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), by driving several MW of EC current near the q = 1, 3/2, 2 flux surfaces, where NTMs are expected to occur. The steering of the EC power is done by the steering mechanism assembly (SMA) that comprises a reflecting mirror and a frictionless and backlash free pneumo-mechanical system actuated with pressurised helium gas. The control requirements for this component in terms of steering accuracy and speed are reviewed. With respect to these requirements, the performance of the first SMA prototype is assessed in a mock up of the UL pneumatic configuration. The expected design characteristics of the SMA have been verified and an overall satisfactory performance has been assessed. Furthermore, the main challenges for the future work, such as the pressure and angular position control, have been identified.

  4. Electrometallurgy of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    wind, plants, and water impounded in elevated reservoirs. Photovoltaic or solar cells, which convert sunlight directly to electricity, belongs tc, the...on record is that of St. Claire DeVille, who claimed that silicon was produced by electrolysing an impure melt of NaAlC14, but his material did not...this composition and purified melts were electrolysed at about 14500C in graphite crucible and using graphite electrodes. Applied potentials were

  5. Liquid Silicon Pouch Anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Number 15/696,426 Filing Date 6 September 2017 Inventor Charles J. Patrissi et al Address any questions concerning this matter to the...silicon-based anodes during cycling, lithium insertion and deinsertion. Mitigation of this problem has long been sought and will result in improved...design shown. [0032] It will be understood that many additional changes in the details, materials, steps and arrangement of parts, which have been

  6. The CMS silicon tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alessandro, R.; Biggeri, U.; Bruzzi, M.; Catacchini, E.; Civinini, C.; Focardi, E.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Meschini, M.; Parrini, G.; Pieri, M.; Albergo, S.; Boemi, D.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Angarano, M.; Creanza, D.; Palma, M. de; Fiore, L.; Maggi, G.; My, S.; Raso, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Tempesta, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Candelori, A.; Castro, A.; Da Rold, M.; Giraldo, A.; Martignon, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Stavitsky, I.; Babucci, E.; Bartalini, P.; Bilei, G.M.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Passeri, D.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Wang, Y.; Bagliesi, G.; Basti, A.; Bosi, F.; Borello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Castaldi, R.; Dell'Orso, R.; Giassi, A.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Raffaelli, F.; Sguazzoni, G.; Starodumov, A.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Xie, Z.; Breuker, H.; Caner, A.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Glessing, B.; Hammerstrom, R.; Huhtinen, M.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Schmitt, B.; Stefanini, G.; Connotte, J.; Gu, W.H.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Pandoulas, D.; Siedling, R.; Wittmer, B.; Della Marina, R.; Freudenreich, K.; Lustermann, W.; Viertel, G.; Eklund, C.; Karimaeki, V.; Skog, K.; French, M.; Hall, G.; Mc Evoy, B.; Raymond, M.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Piperov, S.; Tuuva, T.; Watts, S.; Silvestris, L.

    1998-01-01

    The new silicon tracker layout (V4) is presented. The system aspects of the construction are discussed together with the expected tracking performance. Because of the high radiation environment in which the detectors will operate, particular care has been devoted to the study of the characteristics of heavily irradiated detectors. This includes studies on performance (charge collection, cluster size, resolution, efficiency) as a function of the bias voltage, integrated fluence, incidence angle and temperature. (author)

  7. Selfsupported epitaxial silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarovici, D.; Popescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    The methods of removing the p or p + support of an n-type epitaxial silicon layer using electrochemical etching are described. So far, only n + -n junctions have been processed. The condition of anodic dissolution for some values of the support and layer resistivity are given. By this method very thin single crystal selfsupported targets of convenient areas can be obtained for channeling - blocking experiments

  8. Silicon and Civilization,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-04

    of a diamond. 7. The particular physical and chemical properties of silicon resulted in the fact that in the periodic system it was found in the III...small quantities. Silica is found in blades of grass and grain, in reed and bamboo shoots, where it serves to stiffen the stalk. 2. Diatomite ... properties desired in technology. Quartz glass is very resistant to temperature change since it has a very small coefficient of thermal expansion, is

  9. Porous silicon: silicon quantum dots for photonic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavesi, L.; Guardini, R.

    1996-01-01

    Porous silicon formation and structure characterization are briefly illustrated. Its luminescence properties rae presented and interpreted on the basis of exciton recombination in quantum dot structures: the trap-controlled hopping mechanism is used to describe the recombination dynamics. Porous silicon application to photonic devices is considered: porous silicon multilayer in general, and micro cavities in particular are described. The present situation in the realization of porous silicon LEDs is considered, and future developments in this field of research are suggested. (author). 30 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Photovoltaic characteristics of porous silicon /(n+ - p) silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhafarov, T.D.; Aslanov, S.S.; Ragimov, S.H.; Sadigov, M.S.; Nabiyeva, A.F.; Yuksel, Aydin S.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : The purpose of this work is to improve the photovoltaic parameters of the screen-printed silicon solar cells by formation the nano-porous silicon film on the frontal surface of the cell. The photovoltaic characteristics of two type silicon solar cells with and without porous silicon layer were measured and compared. A remarkable increment of short-circuit current density and the efficiency by 48 percent and 20 percent, respectively, have been achieved for PS/(n + - pSi) solar cell comparing to (n + - p)Si solar cell without PS layer

  11. Excitation Patterns of Standard and Steered Partial Tripolar Stimuli in Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chih; Luo, Xin

    2016-04-01

    Current steering in partial tripolar (pTP) mode has been shown to improve pitch perception and spectral resolution with cochlear implants (CIs). In this mode, a fraction (σ) of the main electrode current is returned within the cochlea and steered between the basal and apical flanking electrodes (with a proportion of α and 1 - α, respectively). Pitch generally decreases when α increases from 0 to 1, although the salience of pitch change varies across CI users. This study aimed to identify the mechanism of pitch changes with pTP-mode current steering and the factors contributing to the intersubject variability in pitch-ranking sensitivity. The electrical fields were measured for steered pTP stimuli on the same main electrode with α = 0, 0.5, and 1 in five implanted ears using electrical field imaging (EFI). The related excitation patterns were also measured physiologically using evoked compound action potential (ECAP) and psychophysically using psychophysical forward masking (PFM). Consistent with the pitch-ranking results in this study, the EFI, ECAP, and PFM centroids shifted apically with increasing α. An apical shift was also observed for the PFM peak but not for the EFI or ECAP peak. The pattern width was similar with different α values within a given measure (e.g., EFI, ECAP, or PFM), but the ECAP patterns were broader than the EFI and PFM patterns, possibly because ECAP was measured with smaller σ values than EFI and PFM. The amount of pattern shift with α depended on σ (i.e., the total amount of current used for steering) but was not correlated with the pitch-ranking sensitivity across subjects. The results revealed that the pitch changes elicited by pTP-mode current steering were not only driven by the shifts of excitation centroid.

  12. Alfalfa leaf meal in finishing steer diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.; Brown, D.B.; Hall, J.M.

    1997-10-30

    Ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 540 lb.) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 167 or 189-day finishing phase, respectively. Treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, 100% of supplemental protein. Finishing diets were formulated to contain .61 Mcal NE{sub g}/lb dry matter, 12.5% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. There were no significant (P >.05) effects of dietary treatments on daily gain or dry matter required /lb of gain. Steers fed 100 % ALM consumed more (P <.05) dry matter than steers fed either of the other three treatments. Dry matter consumption increased linearly (P >.05) with increasing ALM. There was no significant (P >.05) dietary treatment effect on marbling, KPH %, yield grade, quality grade, or liver abscesses. There was an apparent trend in reduced liver abscess incidence in steers fed 100 % ALM. Steers fed 66 % ALM had significantly (P <.05) greater backfat measurements, backfat also had a cubic effect (P <.05). Hot carcass weight had a quadratic relation (P <.05) with level of ALM. Substituting alfalfa leaf meal for soybean meal in diets of finishing steers increased DM intake, but this increase was accompanied by an increase in gain which resulted in similar feed efficiency. There may be an advantage in blending ALM and soybean meal as feed efficiency was improved when cattle were fed the blend. Also, feeding ALM may result in lower incidence of liver abscess.

  13. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  14. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  15. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  16. 5G antenna array with wide-angle beam steering and dual linear polarizations

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill; Shamim, Atif; Sharawi, Mohammad Said

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a switched-beam antenna array at millimeter-wave frequencies for future 5G applications. The proposed antenna array is based on wideband patch antenna elements and a Butler matrix feed network. The patch antenna has a broad radiation pattern for wide-angle beam steering and allows the simultaneous operation with two orthogonal linear polarizations. A combination of two separated Butler matrices provides independent beam steering for both polarizations in the wide operating band. The antenna array has a simple multilayer construction, and it is made on a low-cost Rogers laminate.

  17. Opportunities to Investigate the Steering System for Improvement of Truck Driving Properties under Critical Road Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlewski, Mirosław

    2011-09-01

    Application of an electric steering system in a truck gives new opportunities to obtain desirable and safe motion path under critical road conditions. Analysis of the opportunity to take advantage of the steering system for improvement of truck driving properties will be carried out on the basis of the results of model tests. The paper describes model of the vehicle applied in simulation tests and methodology as well as anticipated results. The scheduled tests will be carried out within the framework of an research project No. NN509 568439 headed by the author.

  18. 5G antenna array with wide-angle beam steering and dual linear polarizations

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-10-25

    In this paper, we present the design of a switched-beam antenna array at millimeter-wave frequencies for future 5G applications. The proposed antenna array is based on wideband patch antenna elements and a Butler matrix feed network. The patch antenna has a broad radiation pattern for wide-angle beam steering and allows the simultaneous operation with two orthogonal linear polarizations. A combination of two separated Butler matrices provides independent beam steering for both polarizations in the wide operating band. The antenna array has a simple multilayer construction, and it is made on a low-cost Rogers laminate.

  19. Steering population transfer of the Na2 molecule by an ultrashort pulse train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dong-Hua; Wang, Shuo; Zhan, Wei-Shen; Tao, Hong-Cai; Wang, Si-Qi

    2018-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the complete population transfer among quantum states of the Na2 molecule using ultrashort pulse trains using the time-dependent wave packet method. The population accumulation of the target state can be steered by controlling the laser parameters, such as the variable pulse pairs, the different pulse widths, the time delays and the repetition period between two contiguous pulses; in particular, the pulse pairs and the pulse widths have a great effect on the population transfer. The calculations show that the ultrashort pulse train is a feasible solution, which can steer the population transfer from the initial state to the target state efficiently with lower peak intensities.

  20. Remote-Steering Antennas for 140 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating of the Stellarator W7-X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lechte C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For electron cyclotron resonance heating of the stellarator W7-X at IPP Greifswald, a 140 GHz/10 MW cw millimeter wave system has been built. Two out of 12 launchers will employ a remote-steering design. This paper describes the overall design of the two launchers, and design issues like input coupling structures, manufacturing of corrugated waveguides, optimization of the steering range, integration of vacuum windows, mitrebends and vacuum valves into the launchers, as well as low power tests of the finished waveguides.

  1. Amorphous silicon based particle detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wyrsch, N.; Franco, A.; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Dunand, S.; Powolny, F.; Jarron, P.; Ballif, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hard monolithic particle sensors can be fabricated by a vertical integration of amorphous silicon particle sensors on top of CMOS readout chip. Two types of such particle sensors are presented here using either thick diodes or microchannel plates. The first type based on amorphous silicon diodes exhibits high spatial resolution due to the short lateral carrier collection. Combination of an amorphous silicon thick diode with microstrip detector geometries permits to achieve micromete...

  2. Characterization of Czochralski Silicon Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina; Haerkoenen, Jaakko

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmenteddetectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It isshown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher thanthat of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or DiffusionOxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 x1017 cm-3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting alter...

  3. Beef steers with average dry matter intake and divergent average daily gain have altered gene expression in the jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing diet containing (on a DM basis) 67...

  4. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride on methane production, total body oxygen consumption, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    An indirect calorimetry experiment was conducted to determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 20 d on total body oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, methane production, and blood metabolites in finishing beef steers. Sixteen Angus steers (initial BW = 555 ± 12.7 kg) w...

  5. Genetic algorithm–based varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control for four-wheel independent steering vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Gao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of vehicle dynamics, the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics stability control method is studied, and a four-wheel independent steering varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is proposed with the help of expert control method. In the article, a four-wheel independent steering linear quadratic regulator controller for model following purpose is designed first. Then, by analyzing the four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamic characteristics and the influence of linear quadratic regulator control parameters on control performance, a linear quadratic regulator control parameter adjustment strategy based on vehicle steering state is proposed to achieve the adaptive adjustment of linear quadratic regulator control parameters. In addition, to further improve the control performance, the proposed varying parameter linear quadratic regulator control system is optimized by genetic algorithm. Finally, simulation studies have been conducted by applying the proposed control system to the 8-degree-of-freedom four-wheel independent steering vehicle dynamics model. The simulation results indicate that the proposed control system has better performance and robustness and can effectively improve the stability and steering safety of the four-wheel independent steering vehicle.

  6. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  7. Laboratory course on silicon sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Crescio, E; Roe, S; Rudge, A

    2003-01-01

    The laboratory course consisted of four different mini sessions, in order to give the student some hands-on experience on various aspects of silicon sensors and related integrated electronics. The four experiments were. 1. Characterisation of silicon diodes for particle detection 2. Study of noise performance of the Viking readout circuit 3. Study of the position resolution of a silicon microstrip sensor 4. Study of charge transport in silicon with a fast amplifier The data in the following were obtained during the ICFA school by the students.

  8. Silicon processing for photovoltaics II

    CERN Document Server

    Khattak, CP

    2012-01-01

    The processing of semiconductor silicon for manufacturing low cost photovoltaic products has been a field of increasing activity over the past decade and a number of papers have been published in the technical literature. This volume presents comprehensive, in-depth reviews on some of the key technologies developed for processing silicon for photovoltaic applications. It is complementary to Volume 5 in this series and together they provide the only collection of reviews in silicon photovoltaics available.The volume contains papers on: the effect of introducing grain boundaries in silicon; the

  9. Novel Microstrip Patch Antennas with Frequency Agility, Polarization Reconfigurability, Dual Null Steering Capability and Phased Array Antenna with Beam Steering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Behrouz

    Nowadays the wireless communication technology is playing an important role in our daily life. People use wireless devices not only as a conventional communication device but also as tracking and navigation tool, web browsing tool, data storage and transfer tool and so for many other reasons. Based on the user demand, wireless communication engineers try to accommodate as many as possible wireless systems and applications in a single device and therefore, creates a multifunctional device. Antenna, as an integral part of any wireless communication systems, should also be evolved and adjusted with development of wireless transceiver systems. Therefore multifunctional antennas have been introduced to support and enhance the functionality on modern wireless systems. The main focus and contribution of this thesis is design of novel multifunctional microstrip antennas with frequency agility, polarization reconfigurablity, dual null steering capability and phased array antenna with beam steering performance. In this thesis, first, a wide bandwidth(1.10 GHz to 1.60 GHz) right-handed circularly polarized (RHCP) directional antenna for global positioning system (GPS) satellite receive application has been introduced which covers all the GPS bands starting from L1 to L5. This design consists of two crossed bow-tie dipole antennas fed with sequentially phase rotated feed network backed with an artificial high impedance surface (HIS) structure to generate high gain directional radiation patterns. This design shows good CP gain and axial ratio (AR) and wide beamwidth performance. Although this design has good radiation quality, the size and the weight can be reduced as future study. In the second design, a frequency agile antenna was developed which also covers the L-band (L1 to L5) satellite communication frequencies. This frequency agile antenna was designed and realized by new implementation of varactor diodes in the geometry of a circular patch antenna. Beside wide frequency

  10. Electrical leakage phenomenon in heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Zielinski, Marcin; Bosi, Matteo; Verzellesi, Giovanni; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Iacopi, Francesca

    2018-06-01

    Heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films on silicon substrates are of technological interest as enablers to integrate the excellent electrical, electronic, mechanical, thermal, and epitaxial properties of bulk silicon carbide into well-established silicon technologies. One critical bottleneck of this integration is the establishment of a stable and reliable electronic junction at the heteroepitaxial interface of the n-type SiC with the silicon substrate. We have thus investigated in detail the electrical and transport properties of heteroepitaxial cubic silicon carbide films grown via different methods on low-doped and high-resistivity silicon substrates by using van der Pauw Hall and transfer length measurements as test vehicles. We have found that Si and C intermixing upon or after growth, particularly by the diffusion of carbon into the silicon matrix, creates extensive interstitial carbon traps and hampers the formation of a stable rectifying or insulating junction at the SiC/Si interface. Although a reliable p-n junction may not be realistic in the SiC/Si system, we can achieve, from a point of view of the electrical isolation of in-plane SiC structures, leakage suppression through the substrate by using a high-resistivity silicon substrate coupled with deep recess etching in between the SiC structures.

  11. Light emitting structures porous silicon-silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monastyrskii, L.S.; Olenych, I.B.; Panasjuk, M.R.; Savchyn, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The research of spectroscopic properties of porous silicon has been done. Complex of photoluminescence, electroluminescence, cathodoluminescence, thermostimulated depolarisation current analyte methods have been applied to study of geterostructures and free layers of porous silicon. Light emitting processes had tendency to decrease. The character of decay for all kinds of luminescence were different

  12. Indentation fatigue in silicon nitride, alumina and silicon carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repeated indentation fatigue (RIF) experiments conducted on the same spot of different structural ceramics viz. a hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), sintered alumina of two different grain sizes viz. 1 m and 25 m, and a sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) are reported. The RIF experiments were conducted using a Vicker's ...

  13. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-07-01

    Computational steering has revolutionized the traditional workflow in high performance computing (HPC) applications. The standard workflow that consists of preparation of an application’s input, running of a simulation, and visualization of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation application at run-time. It allows modification of application-defined control parameters at run-time using various user-steering applications. In this project, we propose a computational steering framework for HPC environments that provides an innovative solution and easy-to-use platform, which allows users to connect and interact with running application(s) in real-time. This framework uses RealityGrid as the underlying steering library and adds several enhancements to the library to enable steering support for Blue Gene systems. Included in the scope of this project is the development of a scalable and efficient steering relay server that supports many-to-many connectivity between multiple steered applications and multiple steering clients. Steered applications can range from intermediate simulation and physical modeling applications to complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications or advanced visualization applications. The Blue Gene supercomputer presents special challenges for remote access because the compute nodes reside on private networks. This thesis presents an implemented solution and demonstrates it on representative applications. Thorough implementation details and application enablement steps are also presented in this thesis to encourage direct usage of this framework.

  14. The LHCb Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Elsasser, Ch; Gallas Torreira, A; Pérez Trigo, A; Rodríguez Pérez, P; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Dupertuis, F; Haefeli, G; Komarov, I; Märki, R; Muster, B; Nakada, T; Schneider, O; Tobin, M; Tran, M T; Anderson, J; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; Saornil, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A; Britsch, M; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the LHCb experiment is to study rare heavy quark decays and CP vio- lation with the high rate of beauty and charmed hadrons produced in $pp$ collisions at the LHC. The detector is designed as a single-arm forward spectrometer with excellent tracking and particle identification performance. The Silicon Tracker is a key part of the tracking system to measure the particle trajectories to high precision. This paper reports the performance as well as the results of the radiation damage monitoring based on leakage currents and on charge collection efficiency scans during the data taking in the LHC Run I.

  15. Photovoltaics: sunshine and silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stirzaker, Mike

    2006-05-15

    Spain's photovoltaic sector grew rapidly in 2004 only to slow down in 2005. While a State-guaranteed feed-in tariff is in place to drive a take-off, some of the smaller administrative cogs are buckling under the pressure. Projects are being further slowed by soaring world silicon prices and module shortages. Nevertheless, market volume is higher than ever before, and bio capital from both home and abroad is betting that the Spanish take-off is around the corner. (Author)

  16. Wheeled Vehicle Steering Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle steering systems. It provides the basic theory, and also includes…

  17. 49 CFR 571.204 - Standard No. 204; Steering control rearward displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... September 1, 1991. When a passenger car or a truck, bus, or multipurpose passenger vehicle with a gross... manufactured on or after September 1, 1991. When a passenger car or a truck, bus or multipurpose passenger... the steering control into the passenger compartment to reduce the likelihood of chest, neck, or head...

  18. Design Optimization of Steering Mechanisms for Articulated Off-Road Vehicles Based on Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Two cylinders arranged symmetrically on a frame have become a major form of steering mechanism for articulated off-road vehicles (AORVs. However, the differences of stroke and arm lead to pressure fluctuation, vibration noise, and a waste of torque. In this paper, the differences of stroke and arm are reduced based on a genetic algorithm (GA. First, the mathematical model of the steering mechanism is put forward. Then, the difference of stroke and arm are optimized using a GA. Finally, a FW50GLwheel loader is used as an example to demonstrate the proposed GA-based optimization method, and its effectiveness is verified by means of automatic dynamic analysis of mechanical systems (ADAMS. The stroke difference of the steering hydraulic cylinders was reduced by 92% and the arm difference reached a decrease of 78% through GA optimization, in comparison with unoptimized structures. The simulation result shows that the steering mechanism optimized by GA behaved better than by previous methods.

  19. Super-resolution post-processing for satellites with yaw-steering capability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Dool, R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for improving Earth observation satellite image resolution, for specific areas of interest where the sensor design resolution is insufficient. Our method may be used for satellites with yaw-steering capability, such as Nigeria...

  20. Soliton Steering by Longitudinal Modulation of the Nonlinearity in Waveguide Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Assanto, Gaetano; Cisneros, Luis A.; Minzoni, Antonmaria A.; Skuse, Benjamin D.; Smyth, Noel F.; Worthy, Annette L.

    2010-01-01

    We show how discrete solitary waves in one and two-dimensional waveguide arrays can be steered across the lattice via the introduction of a longitudinal periodic modulation of the nonlinear response. Through parametric energy transfer from the modulation to the solitary wave, the latter can increase its width and overcome the Peierls-Nabarro potential to propagate freely.

  1. Design of power steering systems for heavy-duty long-haul vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvas, E.; Backx, E.A.; Hofman, T.; Voets, H.; Steinbuch, M.

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, all auxiliaries present in a heavy-duty vehicle (e.g., power-steering pump, air-conditioning compressor) are engine-driven systems, which put high constraints on their performance. Outputs (e.g., speed, temperature) and energy consumption are dictated by engine speed, while most

  2. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  3. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus Corriente steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Criollo cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Raramuri Criollo (RC) steers are commonly raised for beef and finished on rangelands, while Corriente (CR) are often raised for rodeo sports. No data exist on weight gains and grazing behavior of ran...

  4. Weight gain and behavior of Raramuri Criollo versus crossbred steers developed on Chihuahuan Desert rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchers that raise Raramuri Criollo (RC) cattle must overcome the challenge of lack of markets for weaned calves. Growing and finishing RC or RC-crossbred steers on rangeland pastures is increasingly common; however, no data exist on their weight gains or grazing behavior. We tracked the weight a...

  5. Braking, steering, and wear performance of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Martinson, Veloria J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary steering, braking, and tread wear performance results from testing of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley are described. An overview of the joint NASA/FAA/industry START program is presented. Attention is given to the Langley Test Facility, equipment and future activities.

  6. Displacement and force coupling control design for automotive active front steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanzhong; Zhang, Han; Li, Yijun

    2018-06-01

    A displacement and force coupling control design for active front steering (AFS) system of vehicle is proposed in this paper. In order to investigate the displacement and force characteristics of the AFS system of the vehicle, the models of AFS system, vehicle, tire as well as the driver model are introduced. Then, considering the nonlinear characteristics of the tire force and external disturbance, a robust yaw rate control method is designed by applying a steering motor to generate an active steering angle to adjust the yaw stability of the vehicle. Based on mixed H2/H∞ control, the system robustness and yaw rate tracking performance are enforced by H∞ norm constraint and the control effort is captured through H2 norm. In addition, based on the AFS system, a planetary gear set and an assist motor are both added to realize the road feeling control in this paper to dismiss the influence of extra steering angle through a compensating method. Evaluation of the overall system is accomplished by simulations and experiments under various driving condition. The simulation and experiment results show the proposed control system has excellent tracking performance and road feeling performance, which can improve the cornering stability and maneuverability of vehicle.

  7. 78 FR 15062 - Cohen & Steers Real Assets Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Board minutes, that such change is in the best interests of the Corporation and its shareholders, and... shareholder approval and would grant relief from certain disclosure requirements. Applicants: Cohen & Steers... unless the Commission orders a hearing. Interested persons may request a hearing by writing to the...

  8. 46 CFR 58.25-40 - Arrangement of the steering-gear compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., separated from any machinery space; (2) Ensure working access to machinery and controls in the compartment; and (3) Include handrails and either gratings or other non-slip surfaces to ensure a safe working environment if hydraulic fluid leaks. Note: Where practicable, all steering gear should be located in the...

  9. Advanced emergency braking under split friction conditions and the influence of a destabilising steering wheel torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagesson, Kristoffer; Cole, David

    2017-07-01

    The steering system in most heavy trucks is such that it causes a destabilising steering wheel torque when braking on split friction, that is, different friction levels on the two sides of the vehicle. Moreover, advanced emergency braking systems are now mandatory in most heavy trucks, making vehicle-induced split friction braking possible. This imposes higher demands on understanding how the destabilising steering wheel torque affects the driver, which is the focus here. Firstly, an experiment has been carried out involving 24 subjects all driving a truck where automatic split friction braking was emulated. Secondly, an existing driver-vehicle model has been adapted and implemented to improve understanding of the observed outcome. A common conclusion drawn, after analysing results, is that the destabilising steering wheel torque only has a small effect on the motion of the vehicle. The underlying reason is a relatively slow ramp up of the disturbance in comparison to the observed cognitive delay amongst subjects; also the magnitude is low and initially suppressed by passive driver properties.

  10. Speeding up IA mechanically-steered multistatic radar scheduling with GP-GPUs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate speeding up the execution time of Interval Algebra (IA) mechanically-steered multistatic and multisite radar scheduling using a general-purpose graphical processing unit (GP-GPU). Multistatic/multisite radar...

  11. Chromium supplementation enhances the metabolic response of steers to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of chromium (Cr; KemTRACE®brandChromiumProprionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries) supplementation on the metabolic response to LPS challenge was examined. Steers (n=20; 235±4 kg body weight (BW)) received a premix that added 0 (Con) or 0.2 mg/kg Cr to the total diet (DM (dry matter) basis) for ...

  12. Modeling Human Steering Behavior During Path Following in Teleoperation of Unmanned Ground Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirinejad, Hossein; Jayakumar, Paramsothy; Ersal, Tulga

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a behavioral model representing the human steering performance in teleoperated unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). Human steering performance in teleoperation is considerably different from the performance in regular onboard driving situations due to significant communication delays in teleoperation systems and limited information human teleoperators receive from the vehicle sensory system. Mathematical models capturing the teleoperation performance are a key to making the development and evaluation of teleoperated UGV technologies fully simulation based and thus more rapid and cost-effective. However, driver models developed for the typical onboard driving case do not readily address this need. To fill the gap, this paper adopts a cognitive model that was originally developed for a typical highway driving scenario and develops a tuning strategy that adjusts the model parameters in the absence of human data to reflect the effect of various latencies and UGV speeds on driver performance in a teleoperated path-following task. Based on data collected from a human subject test study, it is shown that the tuned model can predict both the trend of changes in driver performance for different driving conditions and the best steering performance of human subjects in all driving conditions considered. The proposed model with the tuning strategy has a satisfactory performance in predicting human steering behavior in the task of teleoperated path following of UGVs. The established model is a suited candidate to be used in place of human drivers for simulation-based studies of UGV mobility in teleoperation systems.

  13. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and...

  14. 7 CFR 59.101 - Mandatory daily reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.101 Mandatory daily reporting for steers and...

  15. The effect of cognitive load on adaptation to differences in steering wheel force feedback level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, S.; Terken, J.; Hogema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In an earlier study it was found that drivers can adjust quickly to different force feedback levels on the steering wheel, even for such extreme levels as zero feedback. It was hypothesized that, due to lack of cognitive load, participants could easily and quickly learn how to deal with extreme

  16. Driver Steering Support Interfaces Near the Vehicle’s Handling Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katzourakis, D.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to propose steering support systems that can reduce the driver’s control effort, mental load and promote safety. The driver dictates the vehicle’s motion and the support should centralize him/her in the control loop; thus our design philosophy is to increase driver’s

  17. The Use of a Steering Shaping Function to Improve Human Performance in By-Wire Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    nontrivial ways. Included in the problems induced by the staffing of automated systems are biomechanical (Sirouspour & Salcudean, 2003; Sövényi...device (e.g., brake pedal ) and the actuators of the system (e.g., calipers). In this report, we are specifically interested in steer-by-wire subsystems

  18. Steering disturbance rejection using a physics-based neuromusculoskeletal driver model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Naser; Sharif Razavian, Reza; McPhee, John

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive yet practical driver model to be used in studying driver-vehicle interactions. Drivers interact with their vehicle and the road through the steering wheel. This interaction forms a closed-loop coupled human-machine system, which influences the driver's steering feel and control performance. A hierarchical approach is proposed here to capture the complexity of the driver's neuromuscular dynamics and the central nervous system in the coordination of the driver's upper extremity activities, especially in the presence of external disturbance. The proposed motor control framework has three layers: the first (or the path planning) plans a desired vehicle trajectory and the required steering angles to perform the desired trajectory; the second (or the musculoskeletal controller) actuates the musculoskeletal arm to rotate the steering wheel accordingly; and the final layer ensures the precision control and disturbance rejection of the motor control units. The physics-based driver model presented here can also provide insights into vehicle control in relaxed and tensed driving conditions, which are simulated by adjusting the driver model parameters such as cognition delay and muscle co-contraction dynamics.

  19. Fusion of adaptive beam steering and optimization-based wavefront control for laser communications in atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.

    2005-10-01

    The performance of mobile laser communication systems operating within Earth's atmosphere is generally limited by the pointing errors due to movement of the platforms and mechanical vibrations. In addition, atmospheric turbulence causes changes of the refractive index along the propagation path, creating random redistribution of the optical energy in the spatial domain. Under adverse conditions these effects lead to increased bit error rate. While traditional approaches provide separate treatment of these problems, suggesting high-bandwidth beam steering systems for tracking and wavefront control for the mitigation of atmospheric effects, the two tasks can be integrated. This paper presents a hybrid laser beam-steering-wavefront-control system comprising an electrically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) installed on the Omni-Wrist sensor mount. The function of the Omni-Wrist is to provide coarse steering over a wide range of pointing angles, while that of the SLM is twofold: wavefront correction and fine steering. The control law for the Omni-Wrist is synthesized using a decentralized approach that provides independent access to the azimuth and declination channels; calculation of the required phase profile for the SLM is optimization-based. This paper presents the control algorithms, the approach to coordinating the operation of the two systems, and the results.

  20. International Linear Collider Steering Committee issues charge to Technology Recommendation Panel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Following its November 19 meeting in Paris, the International Linear Collider Steering Committee, a subcommittee of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, has published the charge http://www.fnal.gov/directorate/icfa/ITRP_Charge.pdf to the International Technology Recommendation Panel appointed by ICFA" (2 paragraphs).

  1. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous and perirenal fatty acid (FA) profiles were compared in steers fed a control diet (70 : 30 red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS-15 and DDGS-30) substituted for RC and SS.

  2. Millimeter wave beam steered fiber wireless systems for 5G indoor coverage : Integrated circuits and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Zizheng; Zhang, Xuebing; Zhao, Xinran; Shen, Longfei; Deng, Xiong; Yin, Xin; Koonen, Ton

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, we review our recent progress and on-going research on millimeter wave beam steered fiber wireless systems for 5G indoor coverage enabled by the advanced photonic integrated circuit and well-designed fiber-wireless networks.

  3. V-TECS Guide for Auto Mechanics: Suspension Systems, Brakes and Steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles G.; And Others

    The materials in this document are an extension of a catalog of occupational duties, tasks, and performance objectives relevant to maintaining automotive suspension systems, brakes, and steering mechanisms. This document provides the following for each occupational task within each duty: (1) a standard of performance; (2) the conditions under…

  4. Alignment Adjustment Procedures. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile alignment and adjustment procedures. Covered in the module are identifying positive and negative cambers, positive and negative casters, and toe-ins;…

  5. Front-End Types. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with automobile front-end types. Covered in the module are three common types of passenger car front suspension systems and their major components as well as two types…

  6. Pre-Alignment Checks. Automotive Mechanics. Steering & Suspension. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automotive steering and suspension, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with prealignment checks. Covered in the module are the following steps in a prealignment check: checking the ride height of a vehicle, checking the ball joints and the…

  7. A Neural Model of Visually Guided Steering, Obstacle Avoidance, and Route Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David M.; Grossberg, Stephen; Mingolla, Ennio

    2009-01-01

    A neural model is developed to explain how humans can approach a goal object on foot while steering around obstacles to avoid collisions in a cluttered environment. The model uses optic flow from a 3-dimensional virtual reality environment to determine the position of objects on the basis of motion discontinuities and computes heading direction,…

  8. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  9. Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From 1999 through 2008, stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye-cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1) zero-grazing from 1999; ...

  10. Educational Leaders' Doctoral Research That Informed Strategies to Steer Their Organizations towards Cultural Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taysum, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This research generates new knowledge about how 24 educational leaders in the USA and England used their doctoral research to build narrative capital to inform strategies to steer their organizations towards cultural alignment. Cultural alignment prevents forms of segregation rooted in nation-states' wider historiography of education segregation…

  11. Protein and starch digestion in steers fed feedlot diets differing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Livestock Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Twelve steers fistulated in the rumen and duodenum were allocated to one of three diets and fed 80g DM/kg WO.75/d. The diets consisted of .... 2.1: 1. 1 Calorie 3000. 2 Premix contained vitamins, trace minerals, salt, NaHC03,.

  12. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of

  13. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study

  14. Younger Children in ECEC: Focus on the National Steering Documents in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hännikäinen, Maritta

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the national steering documents on early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, with the focus on children up to the age of three, posing the question: What do these documents tell us about ECEC for younger children in the Nordic early childhood settings?…

  15. Temporal steering and security of quantum key distribution with mutually unbiased bases against individual attacks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 6 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 062345. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum key distribution * Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering * temporal quantum correlations Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  16. Driver hand positions on the steering wheel while merging into motorway traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waard, D.; Van den Bold, T.G.M.P.R.; Lewis Evans, B.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that a driver's hand position on the steering wheel can reflect the perceived risk of the road context (Walton, D., & Thomas, J. A. (2005). Naturalistic observations of driver hand positions. Transportation Research Part F, 8. 229-238, Thomas, J. A., & Walton, D. (2007).

  17. Effects of Tall Fescue Forage Mass on Steer Ingestive Behavior and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] is a well adapted perennial pasture species utilized across the north-south transition zone of the United States and in similar environments worldwide. This 3-yr trial evaluated the influence of three forage masses (FM) on steer and pasture respons...

  18. Effects of Stocking Density or Group Size on Intake, Growth, and Meat Quality of Hanwoo Steers (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Moo Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of stocking density or group size on feed intake, daily gain, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean indigenous breed steers reared from 7 months to 31 months of age. Thirty Hanwoo steers were divided into four groups with three replicates each (a total of 12 pens. In each group, one (G1, two (G2, three (G3, and four steers (G4 per pen were allocated as treatments. Pen size was 32.0 m2, and therefore Hanwoo steers in G1, G2, G3, and G4 were reared under different space allowances, i.e. 32.0, 16.0, 10.6, and 8.0 m2/steer, respectively. Steers were reared following a conventional beef cattle management method in Korea, and were offered a fixed amount of commercial concentrate with ad libitum forages. Results were subjected to analysis of variance with stocking density as the main effect, and significance was declared at p<0.05. Although total feed intake was not significantly altered, it numerically increased in animals of low stocking density (G1 compared to those subjected to high stocking density treatment (i.e. G4. Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05 in G3 compared to G1 and G2. Animals in G1 (low stocking density grew faster (p<0.05 than those of high stocking density (G3 and G4. Back fat thickness, meat yield index, and meat yield grade were similar among all levels of stocking density. However, longissimus muscle area was larger in G1 and G2 (p<0.01 compared to G3 and G4, and animals in G3 produced smaller carcasses (p<0.05. Carcass quality traits, including marbling score, meat color, fat color, texture, maturity and meat quality grade, as determined by a group of experts, were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, lower stocking density resulted in increased feed efficiency, daily gain, and carcass weight in Hanwoo steers. However it remains unclear whether such differences are the results of stocking density or group size, or a combination of both

  19. The effects of different flooring types on the behavior, health, and welfare of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, M R P; Elischer, M F; Claeys, M C; Pajor, E A

    2015-03-01

    Raising beef cattle on concrete floors can negatively impact their welfare by increasing joint swelling and body lesions, as well as abnormalities in resting behavior and postural changes. We hypothesized that the addition of rubber mats to concrete pens would improve beef cattle welfare by improving performance, health, hygiene, and resting behavior. Forty-eight crossbred Angus steers were housed in pens of 4 and randomly assigned to a single flooring treatment: (1) fully slatted concrete (CON), (2) fully slatted rubber mat (SLAT), or (3) solid rubber mat (SOLID; 60% of pen floor) from 36 to 48 wk of age. Weight, ADG, lesions, gait score, joint swelling, and animal and pen cleanliness were collected every 2 wk. Behavioral time budgets and frequency of postural changes (an indicator of floor traction and comfort) were collected at 0, 6, and 12 wk. No differences in weight gain or ADG were observed. Steers on SOLID flooring (0.80 ± 0.08) showed increased lesions compared to SLAT (0.38 ± 0.08) and CON (0.37 ± 0.08; both, = 0.05); however, there was no difference between SLAT and CON. SLAT steers (1.69 ± 0.04) showed a reduced gait score compared to SOLID (1.95 ± 0.04) and CON (1.98 ± 0.04; both, flooring had less joint swelling (both knees and hocks) compared to SOLID and CON (all comparisons, flooring were dirtier than those on SLAT (2.27 ± 0.05) and CON (2.19 ± 0.05; both, flooring preferred to rest on the rubber mat vs. slatted concrete ( = 0.001). Steers on SLAT flooring changed their posture more frequently than those on SOLID and CON flooring (both, < 0.05), but SOLID and CON did not differ. Compared to CON steers, SOLID steers showed an increase in lesions and a reduction in cleanliness, whereas SLAT steers showed a decrease in gait score and joint swelling and an increase in postural changes. Combined, these data suggest that the addition of slatted rubber mats to concrete pens may improve beef cattle welfare.

  20. Control of intravascular catheters using an array of active steering coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudino, N; Heilman, J A; Derakhshan, J J; Sunshine, J L; Duerk, J L; Griswold, M A

    2011-07-01

    To extend the concept of deflecting the tip of a catheter with the magnetic force created in an MRI system through the use of an array of independently controllable steering coils located in the catheter tip, and to present methods for visualization of the catheter and/or surrounding areas while the catheter is deflected. An array of steering coils made of 42-gauge wire was built over a 2.5 Fr (0.83 mm) fiber braided microcatheter. Two of the coils were 70 turn axial coils separated by 1 cm, and the third was a 15-turn square side coil that was 2 x 4 mm2. Each coil was driven independently by a pulse width modulation (PWM) current source controlled by a microprocessor that received commands from a MATLAB routine that dynamically set current amplitude and direction for each coil. The catheter was immersed in a water phantom containing 1% Gd-DTPA that was placed at the isocenter of a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Deflections of the catheter tip were measured from image-based data obtained with a real-time radio frequency (RF) spoiled gradient echo sequence (GRE). The small local magnetic fields generated by the steering coils were exploited to generate a hyperintense signal at the catheter tip by using a modified GRE sequence that did not include slice-select rewinding gradients. Imaging and excitation modes were implemented by synchronizing the excitation of the steering coil array with the scanner by ensuring that no current was driven through the coils during the data acquisition window; this allowed visualization of the surrounding tissue while not affecting the desired catheter position. Deflections as large as 2.5 cm were measured when exciting the steering coils sequentially with a 100 mA maximum current per coil. When exciting a single axial coil, the deflection was half this value with 30% higher current. A hyperintense catheter tip useful for catheter tracking was obtained by imaging with the modified GRE sequence. Clear visualization of the areas surrounding the

  1. Studies of steered arc motion and macroparticle production in PVD processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven, A.L.

    2000-03-01

    During the past decade the production industry has constantly strived to improve performance and cut costs, this has been aided by the development of high performance tools. The advancement of these tools has been accomplished by the application of hard wearing, low friction, coatings. A key process in the production of such coatings is Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). Interest in such thin films has led to much research effort, both academic and industrial, being devoted to the area. In order that these advancements in technology continue, research into the fundamental aspects of PVD is required. This thesis describes research and experimental studies which have been performed to study the effect of 'steering' an electric arc on various aspects of its behaviour. 'Steering' of the arc is achieved by applying external magnetic fields which allow the guidance of the path of the arc. Work by earlier authors has aimed to control the arc more fully. The research presented here is based of a novel electromagnetic three coil steering array of cylindrical geometry. With such coils it is possible to vary the field profiles to a greater degree than has been previously achieved, permitting a greater range of steering arrangements/fields to be applied. The research presented is divided into two distinct areas: Firstly a number of experiments were performed to assess the effectiveness of the new steering coils on the motion of the arc. A personal computer was used here along with new arc motion monitoring electronics. This enabled the simultaneous measurement of the orbital transit times and also the degree of travel perpendicular to the steered direction of motion of the arc, as it traversed the surface of the cathode. Such information was then used to produce values for standard deviation of the arc from its steered path, velocity of the arc and a diffusion constant related to the motion of the are. Such values then allowed evaluation of the stochastic model of arc motion

  2. Magnetically retained silicone facial prosthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-09

    Jun 9, 2013 ... Prosthetic camouflaging of facial defects and use of silicone maxillofacial material are the alternatives to the surgical retreatment. Silicone elastomers provide more options to clinician for customization of the facial prosthesis which is simple, esthetically good when coupled with bio magnets for retention.

  3. Impurity doping processes in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1981-01-01

    This book introduces to non-experts several important processes of impurity doping in silicon and goes on to discuss the methods of determination of the concentration of dopants in silicon. The conventional method used is the discussion process, but, since it has been sufficiently covered in many texts, this work describes the double-diffusion method.

  4. Radiation hard cryogenic silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casagrande, L.; Abreu, M.C.; Bell, W.H.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chapuy, S.; Cindro, V.; Collins, P.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.; Dezillie, B.; Dimcovski, Z.; Eremin, V.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Konorov, I.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Mikuz, M.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieuri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Verbitskaya, E.; Watts, S.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently observed that heavily irradiated silicon detectors, no longer functional at room temperature, 'resuscitate' when operated at temperatures below 130 K. This is often referred to as the 'Lazarus effect'. The results presented here show that cryogenic operation represents a new and reliable solution to the problem of radiation tolerance of silicon detectors

  5. Recent developments in silicon calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, J.E.

    1990-11-01

    We present a survey of some of the recent calorimeter applications of silicon detectors. The numerous attractive features of silicon detectors are summarized, with an emphasis on those aspects important to calorimetry. Several of the uses of this technology are summarized and referenced. We consider applications for electromagnetic calorimetry, hadronic calorimetry, and proposals for the SSC

  6. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  7. Flowmeter with silicon flow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2009-01-01

    A flowmeter comprising a system chip with a silicon substrate provided on a carrier, in an opening whereof at least one silicon flow tube is provided for transporting a medium whose flow rate is to be measured, said tube having two ends that issue via a wall of the opening into channels coated with

  8. Luneburg lens in silicon photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Falco, Andrea; Kehr, Susanne C; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-14

    The Luneburg lens is an aberration-free lens that focuses light from all directions equally well. We fabricated and tested a Luneburg lens in silicon photonics. Such fully-integrated lenses may become the building blocks of compact Fourier optics on chips. Furthermore, our fabrication technique is sufficiently versatile for making perfect imaging devices on silicon platforms.

  9. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  10. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    We study multipartite entanglement, the generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states, and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system composed of an atomic ensemble located inside a single-mode cavity with a movable mirror. The cavity mode is driven by a short laser pulse, has a nonlinear parametric-type interaction with the mirror and a linear beam-splitter-type interaction with the atomic ensemble. There is no direct interaction of the mirror with the atomic ensemble. A threshold effect for the dynamics of the system is found, above which the system works as an amplifier and below which as an attenuator of the output fields. The threshold is determined by the ratio of the coupling strengths of the cavity mode to the mirror and to the atomic ensemble. It is shown that above the threshold, the system effectively behaves as a two-mode system in which a perfect bipartite EPR state can be generated, while it is impossible below the threshold. Furthermore, a fully inseparable tripartite entanglement and even further a genuine tripartite entanglement can be produced above and below the threshold. In addition, we consider quantum steering and examine the monogamy relations that quantify the amount of bipartite steering that can be shared between different modes. It is found that the mirror is more capable for steering of entanglement than the cavity mode. The two-way steering is found between the mirror and the atomic ensemble despite the fact that they are not directly coupled to each other, while it is impossible between the output of cavity mode and the ensemble which are directly coupled to each other.

  11. Loophole-free Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment via quantum steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K; Ursin, Rupert; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard M

    2012-01-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, there remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes—the locality, freedom-of-choice and detection loopholes—in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of ‘steering’. The term ‘steering’ was introduced by Schrödinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument. Einstein called this ‘spooky action at a distance’. EPR-steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of EPR-steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization-entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect while simultaneously closing all loopholes: both the locality loophole and a specific form of the freedom-of-choice loophole are closed by having a large separation of the parties and using fast quantum random number generators, and the fair-sampling loophole is closed by having high overall detection efficiency. Thereby, we exclude—for the first time loophole-free—an important class of local realistic theories considered by EPR. Besides its foundational importance, loophole-free steering also allows the distribution of quantum entanglement secure event in the presence of an untrusted party. (paper)

  12. Loophole-free Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiment via quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bernhard; Ramelow, Sven; Steinlechner, Fabian; Langford, Nathan K.; Brunner, Nicolas; Wiseman, Howard M.; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-05-01

    Tests of the predictions of quantum mechanics for entangled systems have provided increasing evidence against local realistic theories. However, there remains the crucial challenge of simultaneously closing all major loopholes—the locality, freedom-of-choice and detection loopholes—in a single experiment. An important sub-class of local realistic theories can be tested with the concept of ‘steering’. The term ‘steering’ was introduced by Schrödinger in 1935 for the fact that entanglement would seem to allow an experimenter to remotely steer the state of a distant system as in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) argument. Einstein called this ‘spooky action at a distance’. EPR-steering has recently been rigorously formulated as a quantum information task opening it up to new experimental tests. Here, we present the first loophole-free demonstration of EPR-steering by violating three-setting quadratic steering inequality, tested with polarization-entangled photons shared between two distant laboratories. Our experiment demonstrates this effect while simultaneously closing all loopholes: both the locality loophole and a specific form of the freedom-of-choice loophole are closed by having a large separation of the parties and using fast quantum random number generators, and the fair-sampling loophole is closed by having high overall detection efficiency. Thereby, we exclude—for the first time loophole-free—an important class of local realistic theories considered by EPR. Besides its foundational importance, loophole-free steering also allows the distribution of quantum entanglement secure event in the presence of an untrusted party.

  13. DETERMINATION OF STEERING WHEEL ANGLES DURING CAR ALIGNMENT BY IMAGE ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mueller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical systems for automatic visual inspections are of increasing importance in the field of automation in the industrial domain. A new application is the determination of steering wheel angles during wheel track setting of the final inspection of car manufacturing. The camera has to be positioned outside the car to avoid interruptions of the processes and therefore, oblique images of the steering wheel must be acquired. Three different approaches of computer vision are considered in this paper, i.e. a 2D shape-based matching (by means of a plane to plane rectification of the oblique images and detection of a shape model with a particular rotation, a 3D shape-based matching approach (by means of a series of different perspectives of the spatial shape of the steering wheel derived from a CAD design model and a point-to-point matching (by means of the extraction of significant elements (e.g. multifunctional buttons of a steering wheel and a pairwise connection of these points to straight lines. The HALCON system (HALCON, 2016 was used for all software developments and necessary adaptions. As reference a mechanical balance with an accuracy of 0.1° was used. The quality assessment was based on two different approaches, a laboratory test and a test during production process. In the laboratory a standard deviation of ±0.035° (2D shape-based matching, ±0.12° (3D approach and ±0.029° (point-to-point matching could be obtained. The field test of 291 measurements (27 cars with varying poses and angles of the steering wheel results in a detection rate of 100% and ±0.48° (2D matching and ±0.24° (point-to-point matching. Both methods also fulfil the request of real time processing (three measurements per second.

  14. Effects of isobutyrate supplementation on ruminal microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y L; Pei, C X; Zhang, S L; Wang, Y X; Yang, W Z; Bai, Y S; Shi, Z G; Liu, X N

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of isobutyrate supplementation on rumen microflora, enzyme activities and methane emissions in Simmental steers consuming a corn stover-based diet. Eight ruminally cannulated Simmental steers were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. The treatments were control (without isobutyrate), low isobutyrate (LIB), moderate isobutyrate (MIB) and high isobutyrate (HIB) with 8.4, 16.8 and 25.2 g isobutyrate per steer per day respectively. Isobutyrate was hand-mixed into the concentrate portion. Diet consisted of 60% corn stover and 40% concentrate [dry matter (DM) basis]. Dry matter intake (averaged 9 kg/day) was restricted to a maximum of 90% of ad libitum intake. Population of total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and anaerobic fungi were linearly increased, whereas that of protozoa and total methanogens was linearly reduced with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Real-time PCR quantification of population of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Fibrobacter succinogenes was linearly increased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, xylanase and β-glucosidase were linearly increased, whereas that of protease was linearly reduced. Methane production was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. Effective degradabilities of cellulose and hemicellulose of corn stover were linearly increased, whereas that of crude protein in diet was linearly decreased with increasing isobutyrate supplementation. The present results indicate that isobutyrate supplemented improved microflora, rumen enzyme activities and methane emissions in steers. It was suggested that the isobutyrate stimulated the digestive micro-organisms or enzymes in a dose-dependent manner. In the experimental conditions of this trial, the optimum isobutyrate dose was approximately 16.8 g isobutyrate per steer per day. Journal of Animal

  15. Chalcogen donnors in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scolfaro, L.M.R.

    1985-01-01

    The electronic stucture of chalcogen impurities in silicon which give rise to deep levels in the forbidden band gap of that semiconductor is studied. The molecular cluster model within the formalism of the multiple scattering method in the Xα local density approximation was used . The surface orbitals were treated by using the Watson sphere model. Studies were carried out for the isolated substitutional sulfur and selenium impurities (Si:S and Si:Se). A pioneer investigation was performed for the nearest-neighbor impurity pairs of sulfur and selenium (Si:S 2 and Si:Se 2 ). All the systems were also analysed in the positive charge states (Si:S + , Si:Se + and Si:Se 2 + ) and for the isolated impurities the calculations were carried out to the spin polarized limit. The obtained results were used to interpret recent photoconductivity, photocapitance, EPR and DLTS data on these centers. It was observed that the adopted model is able to provide a satisfactory description of the electronic structure of the chalcogen impurity centers in silicon. (autor) [pt

  16. Flexible silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakers, A.W.; Armour, T. [Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    In order to be useful for certain niche applications, crystalline silicon solar cells must be able to sustain either one-time flexure or multiple non-critical flexures without significant loss of strength or efficiency. This paper describes experimental characterisation of the behaviour of thin crystalline silicon solar cells, under either static or repeated flexure, by flexing samples and recording any resulting changes in performance. Thin SLIVER cells were used for the experiment. Mechanical strength was found to be unaffected after 100,000 flexures. Solar conversion efficiency remained at greater than 95% of the initial value after 100,000 flexures. Prolonged one-time flexure close to, but not below, the fracture radius resulted in no significant change of properties. For every sample, fracture occurred either on the first flexure to a given radius of curvature, or not at all when using that radius. In summary, for a given radius of curvature, either the flexed solar cells broke immediately, or they were essentially unaffected by prolonged or multiple flexing. (author)

  17. ATLAS Silicon Microstrip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Haefner, Petra; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), made up from silicon micro-strip detectors is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shape: 99.3% of the SCT strips are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. TWEPP Summary In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton- proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made up from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signal from the strips is processed in the front-end ASICS ABCD3TA, working in the binary readout mode. Data i...

  18. Modeling of electronic power steering system for IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on its performance via CARSIM software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Esmail; Zamani, Mohammad; Sharbati, Ali

    2017-02-01

    The point of this article is introducing the usage of electronic power steering (ESP) system in IKCO SAMAND vehicle and investigating on it's benefit's. Also the operation of electronic steering system and it's performance in IKCO SAMAND vehicle have been described. The optimization of IC engine efficiency and it's fuel consumption have been simulated via ADVISOR software used in MATLAB software. Usually, mechanical steering systems and hydraulic steering systems are producing inside IRAN that the mechanical types have not accepted because of it's too many disadvantages. The hydraulic steering systems, that have been replaced with mechanical types, indeed have the same features with mechanical types but with a difference which they have a hydraulic booster to facilitate the rotation of steering wheel. Beside advantages in hydraulic systems, they are some disadvantages in this system that one of the most important of them is reducing the output power of engine. To restore this power dissipated, we use ESP systems. In this article output diagrams given by software, are showing that IKCO SAMAND vehicle which equipped with ESP system, exerts less torque and power on steering wheel. This improves the safety of driver and also performance of the vehicle at high speeds and reduces fuel consumption beside increasing the efficiency of IC engine.

  19. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (P<0.05). Steers from Angus×Jersey cows had the lowest carcass weight and dressing-out percentage (P<0.05). There was a greater fat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The Expression of Adipogenic Genes in Adipose Tissues of Feedlot Steers Fed Supplementary Palm Oil or Soybean Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seong Ho; Park, Sung Kwon; Choi, Chang Weon; Li, Xiang Zi; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Won Young; Jeong, Joon; Johnson, Bradley J; Zan, Linsen; Smith, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments. At slaughter, after 70 d of dietary treatment, tailhead s.c. adipose tissue and i.m. adipose tissue were obtained from the longissimus thoracis muscle. Palm oil increased plasma palmitic acid and soybean oil increased plasma linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid relative to the initial sampling time. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) increased between the initial and intermediate biopsies and declined thereafter (poil decreased (p = 0.01) PPARγ gene expression at the intermediate sample time. At the terminal sample time, PPARγ and SCD gene expression was less in i.m. adipose tissue than in s.c. adipose tissue (ppalm oil-fed steers than in control steers (p = 0.04) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (CEBPβ) gene expression was less in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissues of palm oil-fed steers than in soybean oil-fed steers (poil decreased SCD gene expression in s.c. adipose tissue (p = 0.05); SCD gene expression in palm oil-fed steers was intermediate between control and soybean oil-fed steers. Contrary to our original hypothesis, palm oil did not promote adipogenic gene expression in s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue.

  1. Relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nakai, K.; Itoh, C.; Horikiri, J.; Sera, K.; Sato, M.

    1998-01-01

    Silicon levels in dialysis patients are markedly increasing. Using PIXE we determined the relationship between silicon concentration and creatinine clearance in 30 samples. Urine silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.001). And also serum silicon concentration were significantly correlated to creatinine clearance (p<0.0001). (author)

  2. Luminescence of porous silicon doped by erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, V.P.; Vorozov, N.N.; Dolgij, L.N.; Dorofeev, A.M.; Kazyuchits, N.M.; Leshok, A.A.; Troyanova, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of the 1.54 μm intensive luminescence in the silicon dense porous layers, doped by erbium, with various structures is shown. Low-porous materials of both porous type on the p-type silicon and porous silicon with wood-like structure on the n + type silicon may be used for formation of light-emitting structures

  3. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  4. Silicon Telescope Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurov, Yu B; Sandukovsky, V G; Yurkovski, J

    2005-01-01

    The results of research and development of special silicon detectors with a large active area ($> 8 cm^{2}$) for multilayer telescope spectrometers (fulfilled in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR) are reviewed. The detector parameters are listed. The production of totally depleted surface barrier detectors (identifiers) operating under bias voltage two to three times higher than depletion voltage is described. The possibility of fabrication of lithium drifted counters with a very thin entrance window on the diffusion side of the detector (about 10--20 $\\mu$m) is shown. The detector fabrication technique has allowed minimizing detector dead regions without degradation of their spectroscopic characteristics and reliability during long time operation in charge particle beams.

  5. Silicon radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benc, I.; Kerhart, J.; Kopecky, J.; Krca, P.; Veverka, V.; Weidner, M.; Weinova, H.

    1992-01-01

    The silicon radiation detector, which is designed for the detection of electrons with energies above 500 eV and of radiation within the region of 200 to 1100 nm, comprises a PIN or PNN + type photodiode. The active acceptor photodiode is formed by a detector surface of shallow acceptor diffusion surrounded by a collector band of deep acceptor diffusion. The detector surface of shallow P-type diffusion with an acceptor concentration of 10 15 to 10 17 atoms/cm 3 reaches a depth of 40 to 100 nm. One sixth to one eighth of the collector band width is overlapped by the P + collector band at a width of 150 to 300 μm with an acceptor concentration of 10 20 to 10 21 atoms/cm 3 down a depth of 0.5 to 3 μm. This band is covered with a conductive layer, of NiCr for instance. (Z.S.)

  6. Zirconates heteroepitaxy on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fompeyrine, Jean; Seo, Jin Won; Seigwart, Heinz; Rossel, Christophe; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-03-01

    In the coming years, agressive scaling in CMOS technology will probably trigger the transition to more advanced materials, for example alternate gate dielectrics. Epitaxial thin films are attractive candidates, as long as the difficult chemical and structural issues can be solved, and superior properties can be obtained. Since very few binary oxides can match the electrical, physical and structural requirements which are needed, a combination of those binaries are used here to investigate other lattice matched oxides. We will report on the growth of crystalline zirconium oxide thin films stabilized with different cationic substitutions. All films have been grown in an oxide-MBE system by direct evaporation of the elements on silicon substrates and exposure to molecular or atomic oxygen. The conditions required to obtain epitaxial thin films will be discussed, and successful examples will be presented.

  7. Silicon in cereal straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murozuka, Emiko

    Silicon (Si) is known to be a beneficial element for plants. However, when plant residues are to be used as feedstock for second generation bioenergy, Si may reduce the suitability of the biomass for biochemical or thermal conversion technologies. The objective of this PhD study was to investigate......, a mutant in Si influx transporter BdLsi1 was identified. BdLsi1 belongs to the major intrinsic protein family. The mutant BdLsi1 protein had an amino acid change from proline to serine in the highly conserved NPA motif. The mutation caused a defect in channeling of Si as well as other substrates...... such as germanium and arsenite. The Si concentration in the mutant plant was significantly reduced by more than 80 %. Rice mutants defective in Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2 also showed significantly lower straw Si concentration. It is concluded that the quality of straw biomass for bioenergy purposes can...

  8. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  9. Muonium states in silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, B.D.; Baumeler, H.; Keller, H.; Kiefl, R.F.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Schneider, J.W.; Estle, T.L.; Spencer, D.P.; Savic, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    Implanted muons in samples of silicon carbide have been observed to form paramagnetic muonium centers (μ + e - ). Muonium precession signals in low applied magnetic fields have been observed at 22 K in a granular sample of cubic β-SiC, however it was not possible to determine the hyperfine frequency. In a signal crystal sample of hexagonal 6H-SiC, three apparently isotropic muonium states were observed at 20 K and two at 300 K, all with hyperfine frequencies intermediate between those of the isotropic muonium centers in diamond and silicon. No evidence was seen of an anisotropic muonium state analogous to the Mu * state in diamond and silicon. (orig.)

  10. Characterization of Czochralski silicon detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Luukka, Panja-Riina

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of irradiated and non-irradiated segmented detectors made of high-resistivity (>1 kΩcm) magnetic Czochralski (MCZ) silicon. It is shown that the radiation hardness (RH) of the protons of these detectors is higher than that of devices made of traditional materials such as Float Zone (FZ) silicon or Diffusion Oxygenated Float Zone (DOFZ) silicon due to the presence of intrinsic oxygen (> 5 × 1017 cm−3). The MCZ devices therefore present an interesting ...

  11. GMTIFS: the adaptive optics beam steering mirror for the GMT integral-field spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J.; Bloxham, G.; Boz, R.; Bundy, D.; Espeland, B.; Fordham, B.; Hart, J.; Herrald, N.; Nielsen, J.; Sharp, R.; Vaccarella, A.; Vest, C.; Young, P. J.

    2016-07-01

    To achieve the high adaptive optics sky coverage necessary to allow the GMT Integral-Field Spectrograph (GMTIFS) to access key scientific targets, the on-instrument adaptive-optics wavefront-sensing (OIWFS) system must patrol the full 180 arcsecond diameter guide field passed to the instrument. The OIWFS uses a diffraction limited guide star as the fundamental pointing reference for the instrument. During an observation the offset between the science target and the guide star will change due to sources such as flexure, differential refraction and non-sidereal tracking rates. GMTIFS uses a beam steering mirror to set the initial offset between science target and guide star and also to correct for changes in offset. In order to reduce image motion from beam steering errors to those comparable to the AO system in the most stringent case, the beam steering mirror is set a requirement of less than 1 milliarcsecond RMS. This corresponds to a dynamic range for both actuators and sensors of better than 1/180,000. The GMTIFS beam steering mirror uses piezo-walk actuators and a combination of eddy current sensors and interferometric sensors to achieve this dynamic range and control. While the sensors are rated for cryogenic operation, the actuators are not. We report on the results of prototype testing of single actuators, with the sensors, on the bench and in a cryogenic environment. Specific failures of the system are explained and suspected reasons for them. A modified test jig is used to investigate the option of heating the actuator and we report the improved results. In addition to individual component testing, we built and tested a complete beam steering mirror assembly. Testing was conducted with a point source microscope, however controlling environmental conditions to less than 1 micron was challenging. The assembly testing investigated acquisition accuracy and if there was any un-sensed hysteresis in the system. Finally we present the revised beam steering mirror

  12. Behavioral characteristics of Hanwoo ( steers at different growth stages and seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Yeon Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This research analyzed behavioral characteristics of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae steers during each season and growth stage to enable measurement of the animals’ welfare level for precision livestock farming. Methods A hundred-eight beef steers were divided into three equal groups at a Hanwoo farm according to their growth stage: growing stage (GS, 8 months; early-fattening stage (EFS, 19 months; and late-fattening stage (LFS, 30 months. Twelve behavioral categories were continuously recorded for 13 day-time hours in each four seasons with three replications. Results Time spent standing was found to be significantly longer in summer at all growth stages (p<0.05. Hanwoos at the GS spent significantly longer standing time in spring and summer than those at the EFS and LFS (p<0.05. Lying time in summer was the shortest for all growth stages (p<0.05. Steers at the LFS spent significantly longer lying time than that at the GS (p<0.05 in summer. For GS and EFS, time spent eating in spring and autumn were longer than in summer and winter (p<0.05. Eating time was the longest for the GS in spring, autumn, and winter, excluding for the LFS in winter (p<0.05. Regarding ruminating, steers at the LFS spent significantly shorter time than those at other stages in all seasons (p<0.05. GS and EFS steers showed the longest walking time in summer compared with other seasons (p<0.05. At GS and LFS, drinking time in summer was the longest of all seasons (p<0.05. Sleeping time was significantly shorter in summer compared with the other seasons (p<0.05. Self-grooming time was the longest in winter for all growth stages (p<0.05. Conclusion Steers were found to have more variable behavioral patterns during summer and the GS and less active behaviors during the LFS, thus extra care seems necessary during the GS, LFS, and summer period.

  13. Polycrystalline Silicon Gettered by Porous Silicon and Heavy Phosphorous Diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zuming(刘祖明); Souleymane K Traore; ZHANG Zhongwen(张忠文); LUO Yi(罗毅)

    2004-01-01

    The biggest barrier for photovoltaic (PV) utilization is its high cost, so the key for scale PV utilization is to further decrease the cost of solar cells. One way to improve the efficiency, and therefore lower the cost, is to increase the minority carrier lifetime by controlling the material defects. The main defects in grain boundaries of polycrystalline silicon gettered by porous silicon and heavy phosphorous diffusion have been studied. The porous silicon was formed on the two surfaces of wafers by chemical etching. Phosphorous was then diffused into the wafers at high temperature (900℃). After the porous silicon and diffusion layers were removed, the minority carrier lifetime was measured by photo-conductor decay. The results show that the lifetime's minority carriers are increased greatly after such treatment.

  14. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  15. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells by Porous Silicon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus SHATKOVSKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon solar cells produced by a usual technology in p-type, crystalline silicon wafer were investigated. The manufactured solar cells were of total thickness 450 mm, the junction depth was of 0.5 mm – 0.7 mm. Porous silicon technologies were adapted to enhance cell efficiency. The production of porous silicon layer was carried out in HF: ethanol = 1 : 2 volume ratio electrolytes, illuminating by 50 W halogen lamps at the time of processing. The etching current was computer-controlled in the limits of (6 ÷ 14 mA/cm2, etching time was set in the interval of (10 ÷ 20 s. The characteristics and performance of the solar cells samples was carried out illuminating by Xenon 5000 K lamp light. Current-voltage characteristic studies have shown that porous silicon structures produced affect the extent of dark and lighting parameters of the samples. Exactly it affects current-voltage characteristic and serial resistance of the cells. It has shown, the formation of porous silicon structure causes an increase in the electric power created of solar cell. Conversion efficiency increases also respectively to the initial efficiency of cell. Increase of solar cell maximum power in 15 or even more percent is found. The highest increase in power have been observed in the spectral range of Dl @ (450 ÷ 850 nm, where ~ 60 % of the A1.5 spectra solar energy is located. It has been demonstrated that porous silicon technology is effective tool to improve the silicon solar cells performance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2428

  16. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  17. Evanescent field phase shifting in a silicon nitride waveguide using a coupled silicon slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Green, William M. J.

    2015-01-01

    An approach for electrical modulation of low-loss silicon nitride waveguides is proposed, using a silicon nitride waveguide evanescently loaded with a thin silicon slab. The thermooptic phase-shift characteristics are investigated in a racetrack resonator configuration....

  18. Imprinted silicon-based nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate and optically characterize silicon-on-insulator based nanophotonic devices fabricated by nanoimprint lithography. In our demonstration, we have realized ordinary and topology-optimized photonic crystal waveguide structures. The topology-optimized structures require lateral pattern ...

  19. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

  20. Vibrational modes of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabra, M.; Naddaf, M.

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations, the origin of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous silicon is found to related to chemical complexes constituted the surface, in particular, SiHx, SiOx and SiOH groups. Ab initio atomic and molecular electronic structure calculations on select siloxane compounds were used for imitation of infrared (IR) spectra of porous silicon. These are compared to the IR spectra of porous silicon recorded by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In contrast to linear siloxane, the suggested circular siloxane terminated with linear siloxane structure is found to well-imitate the experimental spectra. These results are augmented with EDX (energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) measurements, which showed that the increase of SiOx content in porous silicon due to rapid oxidation process results in considerable decrease in PL peak intensity and a blue shift in the peak position. (author)

  1. Silicon pressure transducers: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves M, M.; Sandoval I, F.

    1994-01-01

    We present a review of the pressure sensors, which use the silicon piezo resistive effect and micro machining technique. Typical pressure sensors, applications, design and other different structures are presented. (Author)

  2. Scattering characteristics from porous silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sabet-Dariani

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available   Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet.   In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.

  3. Silicon Solar Cell Turns 50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, J.

    2004-08-01

    This short brochure describes a milestone in solar (or photovoltaic, PV) research-namely, the 50th anniversary of the invention of the first viable silicon solar cell by three researchers at Bell Laboratories.

  4. Effect of drivers' age and push button locations on visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, T; Hanson, L; Falkmer, T

    2006-01-15

    The study examined the effects of manual control locations on two groups of randomly selected young and old drivers in relation to visual time off road, steering wheel deviation and safety perception. Measures of visual time off road, steering wheel deviations and safety perception were performed with young and old drivers during real traffic. The results showed an effect of both driver's age and button location on the dependent variables. Older drivers spent longer visual time off road when pushing the buttons and had larger steering wheel deviations. Moreover, the greater the eccentricity between the normal line of sight and the button locations, the longer the visual time off road and the larger the steering wheel deviations. No interaction effect between button location and age was found with regard to visual time off road. Button location had an effect on perceived safety: the further away from the normal line of sight the lower the rating.

  5. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  6. Optimal quantum violation of Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt like steering inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arup; Sankar Bhattacharya, Some; Mukherjee, Amit; Banik, Manik

    2015-01-01

    We study a recently proposed Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequality (Cavalcanti et al 2015 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32 A74–A81). Analogous to Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality for Bell nonlocality, in the simplest scenario, i.e., two parties, two measurements per party and two outcomes per measurement, this newly proposed inequality has been proved to be necessary and sufficient for steering. In this article we find the optimal violation amount of this inequality in quantum theory. Interestingly, the optimal violation amount matches with optimal quantum violation of CHSH inequality, i.e., Cirel’son quantity. We further study the optimal violation of this inequality for different classes of 2-qubit quantum states. (paper)

  7. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  8. Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and genuine tripartite entanglement with optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Seiji; Wang, Meng; Teh, Run Yan; Gong, Qihuang; He, Qiongyi; Janousek, Jiri; Bachor, Hans-Albert; Reid, Margaret D.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2015-02-01

    Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) pointed out in their famous paradox that two quantum-entangled particles can have perfectly correlated positions and momenta. Such correlations give evidence for the nonlocality of quantum mechanics and form the basis for quantum cryptography and teleportation. EPR steering is the nonlocality associated with the EPR paradox and has traditionally been investigated between only two parties. Using optical networks and efficient detection, we present experimental observations of multiparty EPR steering and of the genuine entanglement of three intense optical beams. We entangle the quadrature phase amplitudes of distinct fields, in analogy to the position-momentum entanglement of the original paradox. Our experiments complement tests of quantum mechanics that have entangled small systems or have demonstrated tripartite inseparability. Our methods establish principles for the development of multiparty quantum communication protocols with asymmetric observers, and can be extended to qubits, whether photonic, atomic, superconducting, or otherwise.

  9. ADDJUST - An automated system for steering Centaur launch vehicles in measured winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    ADDJUST (Automatic Determination and Dissemination of Just-Updated Steering Terms) is an automated computer and communication system designed to provide Atlas/Centaur and Titan/Centaur launch vehicles with booster-phase steering data on launch day. Wind soundings are first obtained, from which a smoothed wind velocity vs altitude relationship is established. Design for conditions at the end of the boost phase with initial pitch and yaw maneuvers, followed by zero total angle of attack through the filtered wind establishes the required vehicle attitude as a function of altitude. Polynomial coefficients for pitch and yaw attitude vs altitude are determined and are transmitted for validation and loading into the Centaur airborne computer. The system has enabled 14 consecutive launches without a flight wind delay.

  10. The Relationship Between Extratropical Cyclone Steering and Blocking Along the North American East Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, James F.; Dunn-Sigouin, Etienne; Pfahl, Stephan

    2017-12-01

    The path and speed of extratropical cyclones along the east coast of North America influence their societal impact. This work characterizes the climatological relationship between cyclone track path and speed, and blocking and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). An analysis of Lagrangian cyclone track propagation speed and angle shows that the percentage of cyclones with blocks is larger for cyclones that propagate northward or southeastward, as is the size of the blocked region near the cyclone. Cyclone-centered composites show that propagation of cyclones relative to blocks is consistent with steering by the block: northward tracks more often have a block east/northeast of the cyclone; slow tracks tend to have blocks due north of the cyclone. Comparison with the NAO shows that to first-order blocking and the NAO steer cyclones in a similar manner. However, blocked cyclones are more likely to propagate northward, increasing the likelihood of cyclone related impacts.

  11. Improvement of the directional stability of passenger car trailer couplings with actively controlled steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desens, Jens

    The stabilization of pendulum oscillations of passenger car trailer couplings, using active steering, was examined. A linear model of the couplings was presented. Each axle was provided with a controller. The controllers were optimized, with regard to necessary sensors, in order to minimize costs. The rear and the front axles were provided with a control unit in order to compute the potential prevailing in the active steering of several axles. It was shown that the passenger car rear axle was the most suitable for coupling stabilization. The experiment was simulated, using a complex coupling model. The developed controller allowed the passenger car trailer to be driven at a speed higher than 150 km per hour.

  12. Research on Precision Tracking on Fast Steering Mirror and Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lin; Yi-ming, Wu; Fan, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Fast steering mirror is a device used for controlling the beam direction precisely. Due to the short travel of the push-pull FSM, a compound fast steering mirror system driven by both limited-angle voice coil motor and push-pull FSM together is proposed. In the compound FSM system, limited-angle voice coil motor quickly swings at wide angle, while the push-pull FSM do high frequency movement in a small range, which provides the system with the high bandwidth and long travel. In the control strategy, the method of combining feed-forward control in Kalman filtering with auto-disturbance rejection control is used to improve trajectory tracking accuracy. The simulation result shows that tracking accuracy measured by the compound method can be improved by more than 5 times than that of the conventional PID.

  13. Frequency Invariant Beam Steering for Short-Pulse Systems with a Rotman Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lambrecht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for beam steering of high-voltage transient signals for HPEM-systems (High Power Electro Magnetic is presented. The inherent capability of the Rotman lens to provide true time delays is used to develop a prototype beam steering device for an antielectronics HPEM system in the frequency range from 350 MHz to 5 GHz. Results of analytical calculations, simulations, and measurements from a hardware prototype are presented. The detailed mechanical setup of the Rotman lens is presented. Additionally the output pulses are investigated when inputting a Gaussian-like transient signal. Then time domain measures of quality (full width at half maximum, ringing, delay spread, maximum of transfer function are investigated for these output transients, and the simulation and measurement results are compared. A concluding analysis of the realizable time domain array pattern shows the radiated pulse form.

  14. Autonomous collision avoidance system by combined control of steering and braking using geometrically optimised vehicular trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Isogai, Juzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an autonomous obstacle avoidance system not only by braking but also by steering, as one of the active safety technologies to prevent traffic accidents. The proposed system prevents the vehicle from colliding with a moving obstacle like a pedestrian jumping out from the roadside. In the proposed system, to avoid the predicted colliding position based on constant-velocity obstacle motion assumption, the avoidance trajectory is derived as connected two identical arcs. The system then controls the vehicle autonomously by the combined control of the braking and steering systems. In this paper, the proposed system is examined by real car experiments and its effectiveness is shown from the results of the experiments.

  15. Autonomous trajectory generation for mobile robots with non-holonomic and steering angle constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, F.G.; Vasseur, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the trajectory planning of mobile platforms characterized by non-holonomic constraints and constraints on the steering angle and steering angle rate. The approach is based on geometric reasoning and provides deterministic trajectories for all pairs of initial and final configurations (position x, y, and orientation θ) of the robot. Furthermore, the method generates trajectories taking into account the forward and reverse mode of motion of the vehicle, or combination of these when complex maneuvering is involved or when the environment is obstructed with obstacles. The trajectory planning algorithm is described, and examples of trajectories generated for a variety of environmental conditions are presented. The generation of the trajectories only takes a few milliseconds of run time on a micro Vax, making the approach quite attractive for use as a real-time motion planner for teleoperated or sensor-based autonomous vehicles in complex environments. 10 refs., 11 figs

  16. Verification and application of beam steering Phased Array UT technique for complex structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Setsu; Miura, Takahiro; Semboshi, Jun; Ochiai, Makoto; Mitsuhashi, Tadahiro; Adachi, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) techniques for complex geometries are greatly progressing. We developed an immersion PAUT which is suitable for complex surface profiles such as nozzles and deformed welded areas. Furthermore, we have developed a shape adaptive beam steering technique for 3D complex surface structures with conventional array probe and flexible coupling gel which makes the immersion beam forming technique usable under dry conditions. This system consists of 3 steps. Step1 is surface profile measurement which based on 3D Synthesis Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT), Step2 is delay law calculation which could take into account the measured 3D surface profiles and steer a shape adjusted ultrasonic beam, Step3 is shape adjusted B-scope construction. In this paper, verification results of property of this PAUT system using R60 curved specimen and nozzle shaped specimen which simulated actual BWR structure. (author)

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF WORKING PROCESS IN HYDRAULIC DRIVE OF SPECIFICALLY HEAVY-DUTY TRUCK STEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Zabolotsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an analysis that shows application of pump-controlled steering hydraulic drives. Dynamic model of steering hydraulic drive of open-cast BelAZ-75131 dump truck developed at BNTU and also mathematical models for circuit consisting of a metering pump and a turning cylinder and a flow amplifier and a turning cylinder with due account of compressibility and resistance of service drain line. It is noted that on the basis of the given methodology a multi-variant dynamic calculation has been carried out, drive dynamics has been analyzed at various design and component parameters of a metering pump and a flow amplifier, rational values of these parameters has been selected for design development. The paper also gives an algorithm scheme for the solution of the derived equation systems.

  18. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  19. Quasimetallic silicon micromachined photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temelkuran, B.; Bayindir, Mehmet; Ozbay, E.; Kavanaugh, J. P.; Sigalas, M. M.; Tuttle, G.

    2001-01-01

    We report on fabrication of a layer-by-layer photonic crystal using highly doped silicon wafers processed by semiconductor micromachining techniques. The crystals, built using (100) silicon wafers, resulted in an upper stop band edge at 100 GHz. The transmission and defect characteristics of these structures were found to be analogous to metallic photonic crystals. We also investigated the effect of doping concentration on the defect characteristics. The experimental results agree well with predictions of the transfer matrix method simulations

  20. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, Dirk-Holger; Münzer, Adolf

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future e...