WorldWideScience

Sample records for silicon nanostructures produced

  1. Silicon nanostructures produced by laser direct etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Dirac, Paul Andreas Holger; Petersen, Jon Wulff

    1995-01-01

    A laser direct-write process has been applied to structure silicon on a nanometer scale. In this process, a silicon substrate, placed in a chlorine ambience, is locally heated above its melting point by a continuous-wave laser and translated by high-resolution direct-current motor stages. Only...

  2. Self-limiting and complete oxidation of silicon nanostructures produced by laser ablation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, L.; Messina, F.; Camarda, P.; Gelardi, F. M.; Cannas, M., E-mail: marco.cannas@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Chimica, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Popescu, R.; Schneider, R.; Gerthsen, D. [Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engesserstrasse 7, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-14

    Oxidized Silicon nanomaterials produced by 1064 nm pulsed laser ablation in deionized water are investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allows to characterize the structural and chemical properties at a sub-nanometric scale. This analysis clarifies that laser ablation induces both self-limiting and complete oxidation processes which produce polycrystalline Si surrounded by a layer of SiO{sub 2} and amorphous fully oxidized SiO{sub 2}, respectively. These nanostructures exhibit a composite luminescence spectrum which is investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy with a tunable laser excitation. The origin of the observed luminescence bands agrees with the two structural typologies: Si nanocrystals emit a μs-decaying red band; defects of SiO{sub 2} give rise to a ns-decaying UV band and two overlapping blue bands with lifetime in the ns and ms timescale.

  3. Chiral silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E.; Fahlteich, J.; Hoeche, Th.; Wagner, G.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2006-01-01

    Glancing angle ion beam assisted deposition is used for the growth of amorphous silicon nanospirals onto [0 0 1] silicon substrates in a temperature range from room temperature to 475 deg. C. The nanostructures are post-growth annealed in an argon atmosphere at various temperatures ranging from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. Recrystallization of silicon within the persisting nanospiral configuration is demonstrated for annealing temperatures above 800 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the silicon samples prior and after temperature treatment

  4. Structural and optical properties of silicon-carbide nanowires produced by the high-temperature carbonization of silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlikov, A. V., E-mail: pavlikov@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Latukhina, N. V.; Chepurnov, V. I. [Samara National Researh University (Russian Federation); Timoshenko, V. Yu. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Silicon-carbide (SiC) nanowire structures 40–50 nm in diameter are produced by the high-temperature carbonization of porous silicon and silicon nanowires. The SiC nanowires are studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The X-ray structural and Raman data suggest that the cubic 3C-SiC polytype is dominant in the samples under study. The shape of the infrared reflectance spectrum in the region of the reststrahlen band 800–900 cm{sup –1} is indicative of the presence of free charge carriers. The possibility of using SiC nanowires in microelectronic, photonic, and gas-sensing devices is discussed.

  5. Nanostructured silicon for thermoelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric modules convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. At present bismuth telluride is the most widely commercial used material for thermoelectric energy conversion. There are many applications where bismuth telluride modules are installed, mainly for refrigeration. However, bismuth telluride as material for energy generation in large scale has some disadvantages. Its availability is limited, it is hot stable at higher temperatures (>250°C) and manufacturing cost is relatively high. An alternative material for energy conversion in the future could be silicon. The technological processing of silicon is well advanced due to the rapid development of microelectronics in recent years. Silicon is largely available and environmentally friendly. The operating temperature of silicon thermoelectric generators can be much higher than of bismuth telluride. Today silicon is rarely used as a thermoelectric material because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material, it is necessary to reduce its thermal conductivity, while maintaining high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. This can be done by nanostructuring into arrays of pillars. Fabrication of silicon pillars using ICP-cryogenic dry etching (Inductive Coupled Plasma) will be described. Their uniform height of the pillars allows simultaneous connecting of all pillars of an array. The pillars have diameters down to 180 nm and their height was selected between 1 micron and 10 microns. Measurement of electrical resistance of single silicon pillars will be presented which is done in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators. Furthermore, measurement of thermal conductivity of single pillars with different diameters using the 3ω method will be shown.

  6. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  7. On nanostructured silicon success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2016-01-01

    Recent Letters by Piggott et al. 1 and Shen et al. 2 claim the smallest ever dielectric wave length and polarization splitters. The associated News & Views article by Aydin3 states that these works “are the first experimental demonstration of on-chip, silicon photonic components based on complex...

  8. Plasma-made silicon nanograss and related nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Jiann; Ravipati, Srikanth; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Ostrikov, Kostya

    2011-01-01

    Plasma-made nanostructures show outstanding potential for applications in nanotechnology. This paper provides a concise overview on the progress of plasma-based synthesis and applications of silicon nanograss and related nanostructures. The materials described here include black silicon, Si nanotips produced using a self-masking technique as well as self-organized silicon nanocones and nanograss. The distinctive features of the Si nanograss, two-tier hierarchical and tilted nanograss structures are discussed. Specific applications based on the unique features of the silicon nanograss are also presented.

  9. Lifetime of Nano-Structured Black Silicon for Photovoltaic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present recent results of lifetime optimization for nano-structured black silicon and its photovoltaic applications. Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nanostructures with excellent light trapping pro......, respectively. This is promising for use of black silicon RIE nano-structuring in a solar cell process flow......In this work, we present recent results of lifetime optimization for nano-structured black silicon and its photovoltaic applications. Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nanostructures with excellent light trapping...

  10. Hydrogen isotopic substitution experiments in nanostructured porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, W.D. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura - (UNNE), Avenida Libertad 5500, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina); Koropecki, R.R. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail: rkoro@intec.ceride.gov.ar; Arce, R.D. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Busso, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura - (UNNE), Avenida Libertad 5500, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina)

    2008-04-30

    Nanostructured porous silicon is usually prepared by electrochemical anodization of monocrystalline silicon using a fluorine-rich electrolyte. As a result of this process, the silicon atoms conserve their original crystalline location, and many of the dangling bonds appearing on the surface of the nanostructure are saturated by hydrogen coming from the electrolyte. This work presents an IR study of the effects produced by partial substitution of water in the electrolytic solution by deuterium oxide. The isotopic effects on the IR spectra are analyzed for the as-prepared samples and for the samples subjected to partial thermal effusion of hydrogen and deuterium. We demonstrate that, although deuterium is chemically indistinguishable from hydrogen, it presents a singular behaviour when used in porous silicon preparation. We found that deuterium preferentially bonds forming Si-DH groups. A possible explanation of the phenomenon is presented, based on the different diffusivities of hydrogen and deuterium.

  11. Hydrogen isotopic substitution experiments in nanostructured porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, W.D.; Koropecki, R.R.; Arce, R.D.; Busso, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon is usually prepared by electrochemical anodization of monocrystalline silicon using a fluorine-rich electrolyte. As a result of this process, the silicon atoms conserve their original crystalline location, and many of the dangling bonds appearing on the surface of the nanostructure are saturated by hydrogen coming from the electrolyte. This work presents an IR study of the effects produced by partial substitution of water in the electrolytic solution by deuterium oxide. The isotopic effects on the IR spectra are analyzed for the as-prepared samples and for the samples subjected to partial thermal effusion of hydrogen and deuterium. We demonstrate that, although deuterium is chemically indistinguishable from hydrogen, it presents a singular behaviour when used in porous silicon preparation. We found that deuterium preferentially bonds forming Si-DH groups. A possible explanation of the phenomenon is presented, based on the different diffusivities of hydrogen and deuterium

  12. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2016-03-15

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  13. Silicon-embedded copper nanostructure network for high energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Tianyue

    2018-01-23

    Provided herein are nanostructure networks having high energy storage, electrochemically active electrode materials including nanostructure networks having high energy storage, as well as electrodes and batteries including the nanostructure networks having high energy storage. According to various implementations, the nanostructure networks have high energy density as well as long cycle life. In some implementations, the nanostructure networks include a conductive network embedded with electrochemically active material. In some implementations, silicon is used as the electrochemically active material. The conductive network may be a metal network such as a copper nanostructure network. Methods of manufacturing the nanostructure networks and electrodes are provided. In some implementations, metal nanostructures can be synthesized in a solution that contains silicon powder to make a composite network structure that contains both. The metal nanostructure growth can nucleate in solution and on silicon nanostructure surfaces.

  14. Phosphorous Doping of Nanostructured Crystalline Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Steckel, André

    Nano-textured silicon, known as black silicon (bSi), is attractive with excellent photon trapping properties. bSi can be produced using simple one-step fabrication reactive ion etching (RIE) technique. However, in order to use bSi in photovoltaics doping process should be developed. Due to high s...

  15. Nanostructured porous silicon-mediated drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Palma, Raúl J; Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Manso-Silván, Miguel; Muñoz-Noval, Álvaro

    2014-08-01

    The particular properties of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) make it an attractive material for controlled and localized release of therapeutics within the body, aiming at increased efficacy and reduced risks of potential side effects. Since this is a rapidly evolving field as a consequence of the number of research groups involved, a critical review of the state of the art is necessary. In this work, the most promising and successful applications of nanoPS in the field of drug delivery are reviewed and discussed. Two key issues such as drug loading and release are also analyzed in detail. The development of multifunctional (hybrid) systems, aiming at imparting additional functionalities to the nanoPS particles such as luminescence, magnetic response and/or plasmonic effects (allowing simultaneous tracking and guiding), is also examined. Nanostructured materials based on silicon are promising platforms for pharmaceutical applications given their ability to degrade and low toxicity. However, a very limited number of clinical applications have been demonstrated so far.

  16. Nanostructured silicon ferromagnet collected by a permanent neodymium magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Takahisa; Thürmer, Stephan; Kanoh, Hirofumi

    2017-11-30

    Nanostructured silicon (N-Si) was prepared by anodic electroetching of p-type silicon wafers. The obtained magnetic particles were separated by a permanent neodymium magnet as a magnetic nanostructured silicon (mN-Si). The N-Si and mN-Si exhibited different magnetic properties: the N-Si exhibited ferromagnetic-like behaviour, whereas the mN-Si exhibited superparamagnetic-like behaviour.

  17. Enhanced light absorption of silicon solar cells with dielectric nanostructured back reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rui; Zhong, Zheng

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the light absorption property of nanostructured dielectric reflectors in silicon thin film solar cells using numerical simulation. Flat thin film solar cell with ZnO nanostructured back reflector can produce comparable photocurrent to the control model with Ag nanostructured back reflector. Furthermore, when it is integrated with nano-pillar surface decoration, a photocurrent density of 29.5 mA/cm2 can be achieved, demonstrating a photocurrent enhancement of 5% as compared to the model with Ag nanostructured back reflector.

  18. Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Linyou

    2010-07-14

    Empowering silicon (Si) with optical functions constitutes a very important challenge in photonics. The scalable fabrication capabilities for this earth-abundant, environmentally friendly material are unmatched in sophistication and can be unleashed to realize a plethora of high-performance photonic functionalities that find application in information, bio-, display, camouflage, ornamental, and energy technologies. Nanofashioning represents a general strategy to turn Si into a useful optical material and Si structures have already been engineered to enable light emission, optical cloaking, waveguiding, nonlinear optics, enhanced light absorption, and sensing. Here, we demonstrate that a wide spectrum of colors can be generated by harnessing the strong resonant light scattering properties of Si nanostructures under white light illumination. The ability to engineer such colors in a predetermined fashion through a choice of the structure size, dielectric environment, and illumination conditions opens up entirely new applications of Si and puts this material in a new light. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Superhydrophobic SERS substrates based on silicon hierarchical nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexian; Wen, Jinxiu; Zhou, Jianhua; Zheng, Zebo; An, Di; Wang, Hao; Xie, Weiguang; Zhan, Runze; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun; She, Juncong; Chen, Huanjun; Deng, Shaozhi

    2018-02-01

    Silicon nanostructures have been cultivated as promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates in terms of their low-loss optical resonance modes, facile functionalization, and compatibility with today’s state-of-the-art CMOS techniques. However, unlike their plasmonic counterparts, the electromagnetic field enhancements induced by silicon nanostructures are relatively small, which restrict their SERS sensing limit to around 10-7 M. To tackle this problem, we propose here a strategy for improving the SERS performance of silicon nanostructures by constructing silicon hierarchical nanostructures with a superhydrophobic surface. The hierarchical nanostructures are binary structures consisted of silicon nanowires (NWs) grown on micropyramids (MPs). After being modified with perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOT), the nanostructure surface shows a stable superhydrophobicity with a high contact angle of ˜160°. The substrate can allow for concentrating diluted analyte solutions into a specific area during the evaporation of the liquid droplet, whereby the analytes are aggregated into a small volume and can be easily detected by the silicon nanostructure SERS substrate. The analyte molecules (methylene blue: MB) enriched from an aqueous solution lower than 10-8 M can be readily detected. Such a detection limit is ˜100-fold lower than the conventional SERS substrates made of silicon nanostructures. Additionally, the detection limit can be further improved by functionalizing gold nanoparticles onto silicon hierarchical nanostructures, whereby the superhydrophobic characteristics and plasmonic field enhancements can be combined synergistically to give a detection limit down to ˜10-11 M. A gold nanoparticle-functionalized superhydrophobic substrate was employed to detect the spiked melamine in liquid milk. The results showed that the detection limit can be as low as 10-5 M, highlighting the potential of the proposed superhydrophobic SERS substrate in

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Etched Nanostructured Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2012-05-01

    Silicon is an essential element in today’s modern world. Nanostructured Si is a more recently studied variant, which has currently garnered much attention. When its spatial dimensions are confined below a certain limit, its optical properties change dramatically. It transforms from an indirect bandgap material that does not absorb or emit light efficiently into one which can emit visible light at room temperatures. Although much work has been conducted in understanding the properties of nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si surfaces, a clear understanding of the origin of photoluminescence has not yet been produced. Typical synthesis approaches used to produce nanostructured Si, in particular porous Si and nanocrystalline Si have involved complex preparations used at high temperatures, pressures, or currents. The purpose of this thesis is to develop an easier synthesis approach to produce nanostructured Si as well as arrive at a clearer understanding of the origin of photoluminescence in these systems. We used a simple chemical etching technique followed by sonication to produce nanostructured Si suspensions. The etching process involved producing pores on the surface of a Si substrate in a solution containing hydrofluoric acid and an oxidant. Nanocrystalline Si as well as nanoscale amorphous porous Si suspensions were successfully synthesized using this process. We probed into the phase, composition, and origin of photoluminescence in these materials, through the use of several characterization techniques. TEM and SEM were used to determine morphology and phase. FT-IR and XPS were employed to study chemical compositions, and steady state and time resolved optical spectroscopy techniques were applied to resolve their photoluminescent properties. Our work has revealed that the type of oxidant utilized during etching had a significant impact on the final product. When using nitric acid as the oxidant, we formed nanocrystalline Si suspensions composed of

  1. Radiation effects in bulk and nanostructured silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmstrom, E.

    2012-07-01

    Understanding radiation effects in silicon (Si) is of great technological importance. The material, being the basis of modern semiconductor electronics and photonics, is subjected to radiation already at the processing stage, and in many applications throughout the lifetime of the manufactured component. Despite decades of research, many fundamental questions on the subject are still not satisfactorily answered, and new ones arise constantly as device fabrication shifts towards the nanoscale. In this study, methods of computational physics are harnessed to tackle basic questions on the radiation response of bulk and nanostructured Si systems, as well as to explain atomic-scale phenomena underlying existing experimental results. Empirical potentials and quantum mechanical models are coupled with molecular dynamics simulations to model the response of Si to irradiation and to characterize the created crystal damage. The threshold displacement energy, i.e., the smallest recoil energy required to create a lattice defect, is determined in Si bulk and nanowires, in the latter system also as a function of mechanical strain. It is found that commonly used values for this quantity are drastically underestimated. Strain on the nanowire causes the threshold energy to drop, with an effect on defect production that is significantly higher than in an another nanostructure with similar dimensions, the carbon nanotube. Simulating ion irradiation of Si nanowires reveals that the large surface area to volume ratio of the nanostructure causes up to a three-fold enhancement in defect production as compared to bulk Si. Amorphous defect clusters created by energetic neutron bombardment are predicted, on the basis of their electronic structure and abundance, to cause a deleterious phenomenon called type inversion in Si strip detectors in high-energy physics experiments. The thinning of Si lamellae using a focused ion beam is studied in conjunction with experiment to unravel the cause for

  2. Using silicon nanostructures for the improvement of silicon solar cells' efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, J. de la; Bremond, G.; Lemiti, M.; Guillot, G.; Mur, P.; Buffet, N.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon nanostructures (ns-Si) show interesting optical and electrical properties as a result of the band gap widening caused by quantum confinement effects. Along with their potential utilization for silicon-based light emitters' fabrication, they could also represent an appealing option for the improvement of energy conversion efficiency in silicon-based solar cells whether by using their luminescence properties (photon down-conversion) or the excess photocurrent produced by an improved high-energy photon's absorption. In this work, we report on the morphological and optical studies of non-stoichiometric silica (SiO x ) and silicon nitride (SiN x ) layers containing silicon nanostructures (ns-Si) in view of their application for solar cell's efficiency improvement. The morphological studies of the samples performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) unambiguously show the presence of ns-Si in a crystalline form for high temperature-annealed SiO x layers and for low temperature deposition of SiN x layers. The photoluminescence emission (PL) shows a rather high efficiency in both kind of layers with an intensity of only a factor ∼ 100 lower than that of porous silicon (pi-Si). The photocurrent spectroscopy (PC) shows a significant increase of absorption at high photon energy excitation most probably related to photon absorption within ns-Si quantized states. Moreover, the absorption characteristics obtained from PC spectra show a good agreement with the PL emission states unambiguously demonstrating a same origin, related to Q-confined excitons within ns-Si. Finally, the major asset of this material is the possibility to incorporate it to solar cells manufacturing processing for an insignificant cost

  3. Temperature-feedback direct laser reshaping of silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouassa, M.; Mitsai, E.; Syubaev, S.; Pavlov, D.; Zhizhchenko, A.; Jadli, I.; Hassayoun, L.; Zograf, G.; Makarov, S.; Kuchmizhak, A.

    2017-12-01

    Direct laser reshaping of nanostructures is a cost-effective and fast approach to create or tune various designs for nanophotonics. However, the narrow range of required laser parameters along with the lack of in-situ temperature control during the nanostructure reshaping process limits its reproducibility and performance. Here, we present an approach for direct laser nanostructure reshaping with simultaneous temperature control. We employ thermally sensitive Raman spectroscopy during local laser melting of silicon pillar arrays prepared by self-assembly microsphere lithography. Our approach allows establishing the reshaping threshold of an individual nanostructure, resulting in clean laser processing without overheating of the surrounding area.

  4. Nanostructured silicon nitride from wheat and rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qadri, S. B.; Rath, B. B.; Gorzkowski, E. P.; Wollmershauser, J. A.; Feng, C. R. [Materials Science and Component Technology Directorate, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. 20375 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Nanoparticles, submicron-diameter tubes, and rods of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized from the thermal treatment of wheat and rice husks at temperatures at and above 1300 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The whole pattern Rietveld analysis of the observed diffraction data from treatments at 1300 °C showed the formation of only hexagonal α-phase of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with an R-factor of 1%, whereas samples treated at 1400 °C and above showed both α- and β-phases with an R-factor of 2%. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of tubes, rods, and nanoparticles of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. In a two-step process, where pure SiC was produced first from rice or wheat husk in an argon atmosphere and subsequently treated in a nitrogen atmosphere at 1450 °C, a nanostructured composite material having α- and β-phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} combined with cubic phase of SiC was formed. The thermodynamics of the formation of silicon nitride is discussed in terms of the solid state reaction between organic matter (silica content), which is inherently present in the wheat and rice husks, with the nitrogen from the furnace atmosphere. Nanostructures of silicon nitride formed by a single direct reaction or their composites with SiC formed in a two-step process of agricultural byproducts provide an uncomplicated sustainable synthesis route for silicon nitride used in mechanical, biotechnology, and electro-optic nanotechnology applications.

  5. Controlling the flow of light with silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W

    2010-01-01

    Silicon is an important material for integrated photonics applications. High refractive index and transparency in the infrared region makes it an ideal platform to implement nanostructures for novel optical devices. We fabricated silicon photonic crystals and experimentally demonstrated negative refraction and self-collimation. We also used heterodyne near-field scanning optical microscope to directly visualize the anomalous wavefronts. When the periodicity is much smaller than wavelength, silicon photonic crystal can be described by the effective medium theory. By engineering effective refractive index with silicon nanorod size, we demonstrated an all-dielectric cloak structure which can hide objects in front of a highly reflecting plane. The work discussed in this review shows the powerful design flexibility and versatility of silicon nanostructures

  6. Investigation of the phase formation from nickel coated nanostructured silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilyaeva, Yulia I.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Berezkina, Alexandra Yu.; Sysa, Artem V.; Dudin, Alexander A.; Smirnov, Dmitry I.; Gavrilov, Sergey A.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the influence of the conditions of chemical and electrochemical nickel plating of nanostructured silicon and subsequent heat treatment on the phase composition of Si/Ni structures with advanced interface is studied. Nanostructured silicon formed by chemical and electrochemical etching was used for the formation of a developed interphase surface. The resulting Si/Ni samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray phase analysis. The experiments have revealed the differences in phase composition of the Si/Ni structures obtained by different methods, both before and after heat treatment.

  7. The fabrication of nitrogen detector porous silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husairi, F. S.; Othman, N.; Eswar, K. A.; Guliling, Muliyadi; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2018-05-01

    In this study the porous silicon nanostructure used as a the nitrogen detector was fabricated by using anodization method because of simple and easy to handle. This method using 20 mA/ cm2 of current density and the etching time is from 10 - 40 minutes. The properties of the porous silicon nanostructure analyzed using I-V testing (electrical properties) and photoluminescence spectroscopy. From the I-V testing, sample PsiE40 where the sensitivity is 25.4% is a sensitivity of PSiE40 at 10 seconds exposure time.

  8. Passivating electron contact based on highly crystalline nanostructured silicon oxide layers for silicon solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuckelberger, J.; Nogay, G.; Wyss, P.; Jeangros, Q.; Allebe, Ch.; Debrot, F.; Niquille, X.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Despeisse, M.; Haug, F.J.; Löper, P.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, Dec (2016), s. 2-10 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface passivation * passivating contact * nanostructure * silicon oxide * nanocrystalline * microcrystalline * poly-silicon * crystallization * Raman * transmission line measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  9. Optical nano artifact metrics using silicon random nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Naoki; Nishio, Shumpei; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Nano-artifact metrics exploit unique physical attributes of nanostructured matter for authentication and clone resistance, which is vitally important in the age of Internet-of-Things where securing identities is critical. However, expensive and huge experimental apparatuses, such as scanning electron microscopy, have been required in the former studies. Herein, we demonstrate an optical approach to characterise the nanoscale-precision signatures of silicon random structures towards realising low-cost and high-value information security technology. Unique and versatile silicon nanostructures are generated via resist collapse phenomena, which contains dimensions that are well below the diffraction limit of light. We exploit the nanoscale precision ability of confocal laser microscopy in the height dimension; our experimental results demonstrate that the vertical precision of measurement is essential in satisfying the performances required for artifact metrics. Furthermore, by using state-of-the-art nanostructuring technology, we experimentally fabricate clones from the genuine devices. We demonstrate that the statistical properties of the genuine and clone devices are successfully exploited, showing that the liveness-detection-type approach, which is widely deployed in biometrics, is valid in artificially-constructed solid-state nanostructures. These findings pave the way for reasonable and yet sufficiently secure novel principles for information security based on silicon random nanostructures and optical technologies.

  10. Simple Approach to Superamphiphobic Overhanging Silicon Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2010-01-01

    with contact angles up to 152 degrees and roll-off angle down to 8 degrees. Such nonlithographic nanoscale overhanging Structures can also be added to silicon nanograss by deposition of a thin SiO2 layer, which equips the silicon rods with 100-300 nm sized overhanging Structures. This is a simple, fast...

  11. Electroluminescence from Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EL and PL intensities occurs at the same energy; however, the EL intensity has sharp Gaussian sub peaks and red shifted compared to the PL intensity. To get our result, we used the idea of quantum confinement model (QCM), that can explain PL and EL on pure Si nanostructures and Si-terminated with impurities.

  12. Novel silicon phases and nanostructures for solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wippermann, Stefan; He, Yuping; Vörös, Márton; Galli, Giulia

    2016-12-01

    Silicon exhibits a large variety of different bulk phases, allotropes, and composite structures, such as, e.g., clathrates or nanostructures, at both higher and lower densities compared with diamond-like Si-I. New Si structures continue to be discovered. These novel forms of Si offer exciting prospects to create Si based materials, which are non-toxic and earth-abundant, with properties tailored precisely towards specific applications. We illustrate how such novel Si based materials either in the bulk or as nanostructures may be used to significantly improve the efficiency of solar energy conversion devices.

  13. Computational modeling of geometry dependent phonon transport in silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Drew A.

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that thermal properties of semiconductor nanostructures depend on nanostructure boundary geometry. Phonons are quantized mechanical vibrations that are the dominant carrier of heat in semiconductor materials and their aggregate behavior determine a nanostructure's thermal performance. Phonon-geometry scattering processes as well as waveguiding effects which result from coherent phonon interference are responsible for the shape dependence of thermal transport in these systems. Nanoscale phonon-geometry interactions provide a mechanism by which nanostructure geometry may be used to create materials with targeted thermal properties. However, the ability to manipulate material thermal properties via controlling nanostructure geometry is contingent upon first obtaining increased theoretical understanding of fundamental geometry induced phonon scattering processes and having robust analytical and computational models capable of exploring the nanostructure design space, simulating the phonon scattering events, and linking the behavior of individual phonon modes to overall thermal behavior. The overall goal of this research is to predict and analyze the effect of nanostructure geometry on thermal transport. To this end, a harmonic lattice-dynamics based atomistic computational modeling tool was created to calculate phonon spectra and modal phonon transmission coefficients in geometrically irregular nanostructures. The computational tool is used to evaluate the accuracy and regimes of applicability of alternative computational techniques based upon continuum elastic wave theory. The model is also used to investigate phonon transmission and thermal conductance in diameter modulated silicon nanowires. Motivated by the complexity of the transmission results, a simplified model based upon long wavelength beam theory was derived and helps explain geometry induced phonon scattering of low frequency nanowire phonon modes.

  14. Silicon nanostructures for photonics and photovoltaics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priolo, F.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Galli, M.; Krauss, T.F.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon has long been established as the material of choice for the microelectronics industry. This is not yet true in photonics, where the limited degrees of freedom in material design combined with the indirect bandgap are a major constraint. Recent developments, especially those enabled by

  15. Selective hierarchical patterning of silicon nanostructures via soft nanostencil lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ke; Ding, Junjun; Wathuthanthri, Ishan; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2017-11-17

    It is challenging to hierarchically pattern high-aspect-ratio nanostructures on microstructures using conventional lithographic techniques, where photoresist (PR) film is not able to uniformly cover on the microstructures as the aspect ratio increases. Such non-uniformity causes poor definition of nanopatterns over the microstructures. Nanostencil lithography can provide an alternative means to hierarchically construct nanostructures on microstructures via direct deposition or plasma etching through a free-standing nanoporous membrane. In this work, we demonstrate the multiscale hierarchical fabrication of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures on microstructures of silicon using a free-standing nanostencil, which is a nanoporous membrane consisting of metal (Cr), PR, and anti-reflective coating. The nanostencil membrane is used as a deposition mask to define Cr nanodot patterns on the predefined silicon microstructures. Then, deep reactive ion etching is used to hierarchically create nanostructures on the microstructures using the Cr nanodots as an etch mask. With simple modification of the main fabrication processes, high-aspect-ratio nanopillars are selectively defined only on top of the microstructures, on bottom, or on both top and bottom.

  16. Nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium ion rechargeable batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Ranganath; Datta, Moni K; Krishnan, Rahul; Parker, Thomas C; Lu, Toh-Ming; Kumta, Prashant N; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2009-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are integral to today's information-rich, mobile society. Currently they are one of the most popular types of battery used in portable electronics because of their high energy density and flexible design. Despite their increasing use at the present time, there is great continued commercial interest in developing new and improved electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that would lead to dramatically higher energy capacity and longer cycle life. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials because it has the highest known theoretical charge capacity and is the second most abundant element on earth. However, silicon anodes have limited applications because of the huge volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium. This causes cracking and pulverization of the anode, which leads to a loss of electrical contact and eventual fading of capacity. Nanostructured silicon anodes, as compared to the previously tested silicon film anodes, can help overcome the above issues. As arrays of silicon nanowires or nanorods, which help accommodate the volume changes, or as nanoscale compliant layers, which increase the stress resilience of silicon films, nanoengineered silicon anodes show potential to enable a new generation of lithium ion batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity and longer cycle life.

  17. Silicon diatom frustules as nanostructured photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Soundarrajan; Sweetman, Martin J; Kant, Krishna; Skinner, William; Losic, Dusan; Nann, Thomas; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-09-18

    In the quest for solutions to meeting future energy demands, solar fuels play an important role. A particularly promising example is photocatalysis since even incremental improvements in performance in this process are bound to translate into significant cost benefits. Here, we report that semiconducting and high surface area 3D silicon replicas prepared from abundantly available diatom fossils sustain photocurrents and enable solar energy conversion.

  18. Ordered silicon nanostructures for silicon-based photonics devices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtík, A.; Valenta, J.; Pelant, Ivan; Kálal, M.; Fiala, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 5, Suppl. (2007), S250-S253 ISSN 1671-7694 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010316 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME 933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : nanocrystals * silicon * self-assembled monolayers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Fluorescence studies of Rhodamine 6G functionalized silicon oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, Thomas; Borczyskowski, Christian von; Graaf, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Selective anchoring of optically active molecules on nanostructured surfaces is a promising step towards the creation of nanoscale devices with new functionalities. Recently we have demonstrated the electrostatic attachment of charged fluorescent molecules on silicon oxide nanostructures prepared by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanolithography via local anodic oxidation (LAO) of dodecyl-terminated silicon. In this paper we report on our findings from a more detailed optical investigation of the bound dye Rhodamine 6G. High sensitivity optical wide field microscopy as well as confocal laser microscopy have been used to characterize the Rhodamine fluorescence emission. A highly interesting question concerns the interaction between an emitter close to a silicon surface because mechanisms such as energy transfer and fluorescence quenching will occur which are still not fully understood. Since the oxide thickness can be varied during preparation continuously from 1 to ∼ 5 nm, it is possible to investigate the fluorescence of the bound dye in close proximity to the underlying silicon. Using confocal laser microscopy we were also able to obtain optical spectra from the bound molecules. Together with the results from an analysis of their photochemical bleaching behaviour, we conjecture that some of the Rhodamine 6G molecules on the structure are interacting with the oxide, causing a spectral shift and differences in their photochemical properties.

  20. Directional Etching of Silicon by Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pradeep; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2011-02-01

    We report directional etching of nanostructures (nanochannels and nanotrenches) into the Si(100) substrates in aqueous HF and H2O2 solution by lithographically defined Ag patterns (nanoparticles, nanorods, and nanorings). The Effect of Ag/Si interface oxide on the directional etching has been studied by etching Ag/SiOx/Si samples of known interface oxide thickness. Based on high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging and TEM-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the Ag/Si interfaces, we propose that maintenance of the sub-nanometer oxide at the Ag/Si interfaces and Ag-Si interaction are the key factors which regulate the directional etching of Si.

  1. Development of nano-structured silicon carbide ceramics: from synthesis of the powder to sintered ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reau, A.

    2008-12-01

    The materials used inside future nuclear reactors will be subjected to very high temperature and neutrons flux. Silicon carbide, in the form of SiC f /SiC nano-structured composite is potentially interesting for this type of application. It is again necessary to verify the contribution of nano-structure on the behaviour of this material under irradiation. To verify the feasibility and determine the properties of the matrix, it was envisaged to produce it by powder metallurgy from SiC nanoparticles. The objective is to obtain a fully dense nano-structured SiC ceramic without additives. For that, a parametric study of the phases of synthesis and agglomeration was carried out, the objective of which is to determine the active mechanisms and the influence of the key parameters. Thus, studying the nano-powder synthesis by laser pyrolysis allowed to produce, with high production rates, homogeneous batches of SiC nanoparticles whose size can be adjusted between 15 and 90 nm. These powders have been densified by an innovating method: Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The study and the optimization of the key parameters allowed the densification of silicon carbide ceramic without sintering aids while preserving the nano-structure of material. The thermal and mechanical properties of final materials were studied in order to determine the influence of the microstructure on their properties. (author)

  2. The structural properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Kevin Alvin; Suhaimi, Mohd Husairi Fadzillah; Guliling, Muliyadi; Mohamad, Maryam; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2018-05-01

    The flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) were successfully synthesized on porous silicon (PSi) via hydrothermal method. The characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was investigated using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray). The FESEM images show the flower-like ZnO nanostructures composed ZnO nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction shows that strong intensity of (100), (002) and (101) peaks. The structural analysis revealed that the peaks angles were shifted due to the stress or imperfection of the crystalline of ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline sizes in range of 42.60 to 54.09 nm were produced.

  3. Silicon-germanium (Sige) nanostructures production, properties and applications in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Usami, N

    2011-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) provides the prospect of novel and enhanced electronic device performance. This book reviews the materials science and technology of SiGe nanostructures, including crystal growth, fabrication of nanostructures, material properties and applications in electronics.$bNanostructured silicon-germanium (SiGe) opens up the prospects of novel and enhanced electronic device performance, especially for semiconductor devices. Silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures reviews the materials science of nanostructures and their properties and applications in different electronic devices. The introductory part one covers the structural properties of SiGe nanostructures, with a further chapter discussing electronic band structures of SiGe alloys. Part two concentrates on the formation of SiGe nanostructures, with chapters on different methods of crystal growth such as molecular beam epitaxy and chemical vapour deposition. This part also includes chapters covering strain engineering and mo...

  4. Secondary electron emission in nanostructured porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano, G D; Ferron, J; Koropecki, R R, E-mail: gdruano@ceride.gov.a [INTEC-UNL-CONICET, Gueemes 3450 - 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We studied the reversible reduction induced by ion bombardment of the secondary electron emission (SEE) yield. This effect has been modelled as due to changes in dynamically sustained dipoles related with ions and electrons penetration ranges. Such charge configuration precludes the escape of electrons from the nanoporous silicon, making the SEE dependent on the flux of impinging ions. Since this dipolar momentum depends on the electric conduction of the porous medium, by controlled oxidation of the nanoporous structure we change the conduction features of the sample, studying the impact on the SEE reduction effect. Li ion bombardment was also used with the intention of changing the parameters determining the effect. FT-IR and Auger electron spectroscopy were used to characterize the oxidation degree of the samples at different depth scales

  5. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices’ applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H 2 O 2 /HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing. (paper)

  6. Composite silicon nanostructure arrays fabricated on optical fibre by chemical etching of multicrystal silicon film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zewen; Zhu, Kai; Ning, Lixin; Cui, Guanglei; Qu, Jun; Huang, Wanxia; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hong

    2015-04-17

    Integrating nanostructures onto optical fibers presents a promising strategy for developing new-fashioned devices and extending the scope of nanodevices' applications. Here we report the first fabrication of a composite silicon nanostructure on an optical fiber. Through direct chemical etching using an H2O2/HF solution, multicrystal silicon films with columnar microstructures are etched into a vertically aligned, inverted-cone-like nanorod array embedded in a nanocone array. A faster dissolution rate of the silicon at the void-rich boundary regions between the columns is found to be responsible for the separation of the columns, and thus the formation of the nanostructure array. The morphology of the nanorods primarily depends on the microstructure of the columns in the film. Through controlling the microstructure of the as-grown film and the etching parameters, the structural control of the nanostructure is promising. This fabrication method can be extended to a larger length scale, and it even allows roll-to-roll processing.

  7. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  8. Tailoring the Optical Properties of Silicon with Ion Beam Created Nanostructures for Advanced Photonics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Perveen

    light trapping in poly-Si thin films using ion implantation induced surface texturing. In addition to surface texturing produced by H and Ar ion implantations, metal nanostructures are also added to the surface to further suppress light reflection at the plasmonic resonance of metal nanostructures. Remarkable suppression has been achieved resulting in reflection from the air/Si interface to below ˜5%. In the second part, optical properties of embedded metal nanostructures in silicon matrix gettered into the ion implantation created nanocavities are studied. Embedded nanostructures can have a huge impact in future photonics applications by replacing the existing electronic and photonic components such as interconnects, waveguides, modulators and amplifiers with their plasmonic counterparts. This new method of encapsulating metal nanostructures in silicon is cost-effective and compatible with silicon fabrication technology. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to study the dielectric properties of silicon with embedded silver nanostructures. High absorption regions around 900 nm, corresponding to plasmonic absorption of Ag nanoparticles in Si, have been observed and compared to theoretical calculations and simulation results. The possibility of modifying the dielectric function of Si with metal nanostructures can lay the foundation for functional base structures for advanced applications in silicon photonics, photovoltaics and plasmonics.

  9. Lifetime of ALD Al2O3 Passivated Black Silicon Nanostructured for Photovoltaic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plakhotnyuk, Maksym; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Black silicon nano-structures provide significant reduction of silicon surface reflection due to highly corrugated nano-structures with excellent light trapping properties. However, most recent RIE techniques for black silicon nano-structuring have one very important limitation for PV applications...

  10. Ion induced segregation in gold nanostructured thin films on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satyam, P.V.

    2008-01-01

    We report a direct observation of segregation of gold atoms to the near surface regime due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion impact on isolated gold nanostructures deposited on silicon. Irradiation at fluences of 6 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 14 and 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 at a high beam flux of 6.3 x 10 12 ions cm -2 s -1 show a maximum transported distance of gold atoms into the silicon substrate to be 60, 45 and 23 nm, respectively. At a lower fluence (6 x 10 13 ions cm -2 ) transport has been found to be associated with the formation of gold silicide (Au 5 Si 2 ). At a high fluence value of 5 x 10 14 ions cm -2 , disassociation of gold silicide and out-diffusion lead to the segregation of gold to defect - rich surface and interface regions.

  11. Nanostructured Porous Silicon Photonic Crystal for Applications in the Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Recio-Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades great interest has been devoted to photonic crystals aiming at the creation of novel devices which can control light propagation. In the present work, two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D devices based on nanostructured porous silicon have been fabricated. 2D devices consist of a square mesh of 2 μm wide porous silicon veins, leaving 5×5 μm square air holes. 3D structures share the same design although multilayer porous silicon veins are used instead, providing an additional degree of modulation. These devices are fabricated from porous silicon single layers (for 2D structures or multilayers (for 3D structures, opening air holes in them by means of 1 KeV argon ion bombardment through the appropriate copper grids. For 2D structures, a complete photonic band gap for TE polarization is found in the thermal infrared range. For 3D structures, there are no complete band gaps, although several new partial gaps do exist in different high-symmetry directions. The simulation results suggest that these structures are very promising candidates for the development of low-cost photonic devices for their use in the thermal infrared range.

  12. Reflectance analysis of porosity gradient in nanostructured silicon layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurečka, Stanislav; Imamura, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Taketoshi; Kobayashi, Hikaru

    2017-12-01

    In this work we study optical properties of nanostructured layers formed on silicon surface. Nanostructured layers on Si are formed in order to reach high suppression of the light reflectance. Low spectral reflectance is important for improvement of the conversion efficiency of solar cells and for other optoelectronic applications. Effective method of forming nanostructured layers with ultralow reflectance in a broad interval of wavelengths is in our approach based on metal assisted etching of Si. Si surface immersed in HF and H2O2 solution is etched in contact with the Pt mesh roller and the structure of the mesh is transferred on the etched surface. During this etching procedure the layer density evolves gradually and the spectral reflectance decreases exponentially with the depth in porous layer. We analyzed properties of the layer porosity by incorporating the porosity gradient into construction of the layer spectral reflectance theoretical model. Analyzed layer is splitted into 20 sublayers in our approach. Complex dielectric function in each sublayer is computed by using Bruggeman effective media theory and the theoretical spectral reflectance of modelled multilayer system is computed by using Abeles matrix formalism. Porosity gradient is extracted from the theoretical reflectance model optimized in comparison to the experimental values. Resulting values of the structure porosity development provide important information for optimization of the technological treatment operations.

  13. Composition of silicon fibrous nanostructures synthesized using ultrafast laser pulses under ambient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the composition of nanostructures generated owing to ablation of crystalline silicon using high repletion rate femtosecond laser under ambient condition is investigated. The web-like silicon fibrous nanostructures are formed in and around the laser irradiated area. Electron Microscopy investigation revealed that the nanostructures are made of nanoparticles of size about 40 nm. In addition Micro-Raman analysis shows that the nanofibrous structures comprises a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline silicon. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals the oxidized and un-oxidized elemental states of silicon in the nanostructures. Moreover web-like fibrous nanostructures are generated due to condensation of super saturated vapour and subsequent nucleus growth in the laser induced plasma plume.

  14. Silicon nanoparticles produced by spark discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vons, Vincent A.; Smet, Louis C. P. M. de; Munao, David; Evirgen, Alper; Kelder, Erik M.; Schmidt-Ott, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    On the example of silicon, the production of nanoparticles using spark discharge is shown to be feasible for semiconductors. The discharge circuit is modelled as a damped oscillator circuit. This analysis reveals that the electrode resistance should be kept low enough to limit energy loss by Joule heating and to enable effective nanoparticle production. The use of doped electrodes results in a thousand-fold increase in the mass production rate as compared to intrinsic silicon. Pure and oxidised uniformly sized silicon nanoparticles with a primary particle diameter of 3–5 nm are produced. It is shown that the colour of the particles can be used as a good indicator of the oxidation state. If oxygen and water are banned from the spark generation system by (a) gas purification, (b) outgassing and (c) by initially using the particles produced as getters, unoxidised Si particles are obtained. They exhibit pyrophoric behaviour. This continuous nanoparticle preparation method can be combined with other processing techniques, including surface functionalization or the immediate impaction of freshly prepared nanoparticles onto a substrate for applications in the field of batteries, hydrogen storage or sensors.

  15. Dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides on the surface of silicon nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagraev, N. T., E-mail: bagraev@mail.ioffe.ru [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Chernev, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation); Klyachkin, L. E. [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Malyarenko, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Emel’yanov, A. K.; Dubina, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Academic University—Nanotechnology Research and Education Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Planar silicon nanostructures that are formed as a very narrow silicon quantum well confined by δ barriers heavily doped with boron are used to study the dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotides deposited onto the surface of the nanostructures. The capacitance characteristics of the silicon nanostructures with oligonucleotides deposited onto their surface are determined by recording the local tunneling current–voltage characteristics by means of scanning tunneling microscopy. The results show the possibility of identifying the local dielectric properties of DNA oligonucleotide segments consisting of repeating G–C pairs. These properties apparently give grounds to correlate the segments with polymer molecules exhibiting the properties of multiferroics.

  16. Polarization dependent nanostructuring of silicon with femtosecond vortex pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Rahimian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated conical nanostructures on silicon with a tip dimension of ∼ 70 nm using a single twisted femtosecond light pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (ℓ=±1. The height of the nano-cone, encircled by a smooth rim, increased from ∼ 350 nm to ∼ 1 μm with the pulse energy and number of pulses, whereas the apex angle remained constant. The nano-cone height was independent of the helicity of the twisted light; however, it is reduced for linear polarization compared to circular at higher pulse energies. Fluid dynamics simulations show nano-cones formation when compressive forces arising from the radial inward motion of the molten material push it perpendicular to the surface and undergo re-solidification. Simultaneously, the radial outward motion of the molten material re-solidifies after reaching the cold boundary to form a rim. Overlapping of two irradiated spots conforms to the fluid dynamics model.

  17. Enhanced light absorption in an ultrathin silicon solar cell utilizing plasmonic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels A.

    2012-10-01

    Nowadays, bringing photovoltaics to the market is mainly limited by high cost of electricity produced by the photovoltaic solar cell. Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar cells is generally limited by poor light absorption. We propose an ultrathin-film silicon solar cell configuration based on SOI structure, where the light absorption is enhanced by use of plasmonic nanostructures. By placing a one-dimensional plasmonic nanograting on the bottom of the solar cell, the generated photocurrent for a 200 nm-thickness crystalline silicon solar cell can be enhanced by 90% in the considered wavelength range. These results are paving a promising way for the realization of high-efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  18. Method of producing silicon carbide articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J.V.

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing articles comprising reaction-bonded silicon carbide (SiC) and graphite (and/or carbon) is given. The process converts the graphite (and/or carbon) in situ to SiC, thus providing the capability of economically obtaining articles made up wholly or partially of SiC having any size and shape in which graphite (and/or carbon) can be found or made. When the produced articles are made of an inner graphite (and/or carbon) substrate to which SiC is reaction bonded, these articles distinguish SiC-coated graphite articles found in the prior art by the feature of a strong bond having a gradual (as opposed to a sharply defined) interface which extends over a distance of mils. A method for forming SiC whisker-reinforced ceramic matrices is also given. The whisker-reinforced articles comprise SiC whiskers which substantially retain their structural integrity

  19. Stain-etched porous silicon nanostructures for multicrystalline silicon-based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Rabha, M.; Hajji, M.; Belhadj Mohamed, S.; Hajjaji, A.; Gaidi, M.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bessais, B.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study the optical, optoelectronic and photoluminescence properties of stain-etched porous silicon nanostructures obtained with different etching times. Special attention is given to the use of the stain-etched PS as an antireflection coating as well as for surface passivating capabilities. The surface morphology has been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The evolution of the Si-O and Si-H absorption bands was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry before and after PS treatment. Results show that stain etching of the silicon surface drops the total reflectivity to about 7% in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range and the minority carrier lifetime enhances to about 48 μs.

  20. Hierarchical and Size Dependent Mechanical Properties of Silica and Silicon Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Chaniotakis. The physical and mechanical properties of composite cements manufactured with cal- careous and clayey greek diatomite mixtures. Cement and...Hierarchical and size dependent mechanical properties of silica and silicon nanostructures inspired by diatom algae by Andre Phillipe Garcia B.S...dependent mechanical properties of silica and silicon nanostructures inspired by diatom algae 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  1. Polarization dependent femtosecond laser modification of MBE-grown III-V nanostructures on silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Zandbergen, Sander R.; Gibson, Ricky; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Mehravar, Soroush; Keiffer, Patrick; Azarm, Ali; Kieu, Khanh

    2017-01-01

    We report a novel, polarization dependent, femtosecond laser-induced modification of surface nanostructures of indium, gallium, and arsenic grown on silicon via molecular beam epitaxy, yielding shape control from linear and circular polarization of laser excitation. Linear polarization causes an elongation effect, beyond the dimensions of the unexposed nanostructures, ranging from 88 nm to over 1 um, and circular polarization causes the nanostructures to flatten out or form loops of material,...

  2. Printable nanostructured silicon solar cells for high-performance, large-area flexible photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Biswas, Roshni; Li, Weigu; Kang, Dongseok; Chan, Lesley; Yoon, Jongseung

    2014-10-28

    Nanostructured forms of crystalline silicon represent an attractive materials building block for photovoltaics due to their potential benefits to significantly reduce the consumption of active materials, relax the requirement of materials purity for high performance, and hence achieve greatly improved levelized cost of energy. Despite successful demonstrations for their concepts over the past decade, however, the practical application of nanostructured silicon solar cells for large-scale implementation has been hampered by many existing challenges associated with the consumption of the entire wafer or expensive source materials, difficulties to precisely control materials properties and doping characteristics, or restrictions on substrate materials and scalability. Here we present a highly integrable materials platform of nanostructured silicon solar cells that can overcome these limitations. Ultrathin silicon solar microcells integrated with engineered photonic nanostructures are fabricated directly from wafer-based source materials in configurations that can lower the materials cost and can be compatible with deterministic assembly procedures to allow programmable, large-scale distribution, unlimited choices of module substrates, as well as lightweight, mechanically compliant constructions. Systematic studies on optical and electrical properties, photovoltaic performance in experiments, as well as numerical modeling elucidate important design rules for nanoscale photon management with ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells and their interconnected, mechanically flexible modules, where we demonstrate 12.4% solar-to-electric energy conversion efficiency for printed ultrathin (∼ 8 μm) nanostructured silicon solar cells when configured with near-optimal designs of rear-surface nanoposts, antireflection coating, and back-surface reflector.

  3. Method For Producing Mechanically Flexible Silicon Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-08-28

    A method for making a mechanically flexible silicon substrate is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method includes providing a silicon substrate. The method further includes forming a first etch stop layer in the silicon substrate and forming a second etch stop layer in the silicon substrate. The method also includes forming one or more trenches over the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer. The method further includes removing the silicon substrate between the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer.

  4. Method For Producing Mechanically Flexible Silicon Substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-01-01

    A method for making a mechanically flexible silicon substrate is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method includes providing a silicon substrate. The method further includes forming a first etch stop layer in the silicon substrate and forming a second etch stop layer in the silicon substrate. The method also includes forming one or more trenches over the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer. The method further includes removing the silicon substrate between the first etch stop layer and the second etch stop layer.

  5. Laser ablation of a silicon target in chloroform: formation of multilayer graphite nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrafi, Kamal; García-Calzada, Raúl; Sanchez-Royo, Juan F.; Chirvony, Vladimir S.; Agouram, Saïd; Abargues, Rafael; Ibáñez, Rafael; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P.

    2013-04-01

    With the use of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy methods of analysis we show that the laser ablation of a Si target in chloroform (CHCl3) by nanosecond UV pulses (40 ns, 355 nm) results in the formation of about 50-80 nm core-shell nanoparticles with a polycrystalline core composed of small (5-10 nm) Si and SiC mono-crystallites, the core being coated by several layers of carbon with the structure of graphite (the shell). In addition, free carbon multilayer nanostructures (carbon nano-onions) are also found in the suspension. On the basis of a comparison with similar laser ablation experiments implemented in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), where only bare (uncoated) Si nanoparticles are produced, we suggest that a chemical (solvent decomposition giving rise to highly reactive CH-containing radicals) rather than a physical (solvent atomization followed by carbon nanostructure formation) mechanism is responsible for the formation of graphitic shells. The silicon carbonization process found for the case of laser ablation in chloroform may be promising for silicon surface protection and functionalization.

  6. Engineered valley-orbit splittings in quantum-confined nanostructures in silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, R.; Verduijn, J.; Kharche, N.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Klimeck, G.; Hollenberg, L.C.L.; Rogge, S.

    2011-01-01

    An important challenge in silicon quantum electronics in the few electron regime is the potentially small energy gap between the ground and excited orbital states in 3D quantum confined nanostructures due to the multiple valley degeneracies of the conduction band present in silicon. Understanding

  7. Patterned titania nanostructures produced by electrochemical anodization of titanium sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Junzhe; Ariyanti, Dessy; Gao, Wei; Niu, Zhenjiang; Weil, Emeline

    2017-07-01

    A two-step anodization method has been used to produce patterned arrays of TiO2 on the surface of Ti sheet. Hexagonal ripples were created on Ti substrate after removing the TiO2 layer produced by first-step anodization. The shallow concaves were served as an ideal position for the subsequent step anodization due to their low electrical resistance, resulting in novel hierarchical nanostructures with small pits inside the original ripples. The mechanism of morphology evolution during patterned anodization was studied through changing the anodizing voltages and duration time. This work provides a new idea for controlling nanostructures and thus tailoring the photocatalytic property and wettability of anodic TiO2.

  8. Tailoring the optical constants in single-crystal silicon with embedded silver nanostructures for advanced silicon photonics applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, Perveen; Huang, Mengbing; Spratt, William; Kadakia, Nirag; Amir, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic effects associated with metal nanostructures are expected to hold the key to tailoring light emission/propagation and harvesting solar energy in materials including single crystal silicon which remains the backbone in the microelectronics and photovoltaics industries but unfortunately, lacks many functionalities needed for construction of advanced photonic and optoelectronics devices. Currently, silicon plasmonic structures are practically possible only in the configuration with metal nanoparticles or thin film arrays on a silicon surface. This does not enable one to exploit the full potential of plasmonics for optical engineering in silicon, because the plasmonic effects are dominant over a length of ∼50 nm, and the active device region typically lies below the surface much beyond this range. Here, we report on a novel method for the formation of silver nanoparticles embedded within a silicon crystal through metal gettering from a silver thin film deposited at the surface to nanocavities within the Si created by hydrogen ion implantation. The refractive index of the Ag-nanostructured layer is found to be 3–10% lower or higher than that of silicon for wavelengths below or beyond ∼815–900 nm, respectively. Around this wavelength range, the optical extinction values increase by a factor of 10–100 as opposed to the pure silicon case. Increasing the amount of gettered silver leads to an increased extinction as well as a redshift in wavelength position for the resonance. This resonance is attributed to the surface plasmon excitation of the resultant silver nanoparticles in silicon. Additionally, we show that the profiles for optical constants in silicon can be tailored by varying the position and number of nanocavity layers. Such silicon crystals with embedded metal nanostructures would offer novel functional base structures for applications in silicon photonics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and plasmonics

  9. Effects of nanostructurized silicon on proliferation of stem and cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osminkina, L A; Luckyanova, E N; Gongalsky, M B; Kudryavtsev, A A; Gaydarova, A Kh; Poltavtseva, R A; Kashkarov, P K; Timoshenko, V Yu; Sukhikh, G T

    2011-05-01

    In vitro experiments showed that stem and cancer cells retained their viability on the surface of porous silicon with 10-100 nm nanostructures, but their proliferation was inhibited. Silicon nanoparticles of 100 nm in size obtained by mechanical grinding of porous silicon films or crystal silicon plates in a concentration below 1 mg/ml in solution did not modify viability and proliferation of mouse fibroblast and human laryngeal cancer cells. Additional ultrasonic exposure of cancer cells in the presence of 1 mg/ml silicon nanoparticles added to nutrient medium led to complete destruction of cells or to the appearance of membrane defects blocking their proliferation and initiating their apoptotic death.

  10. Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conibeer, Gavin; Green, Martin; Corkish, Richard; Cho, Young; Cho, Eun-Chel; Jiang, Chu-Wei; Fangsuwannarak, Thipwan; Pink, Edwin; Huang, Yidan; Puzzer, Tom; Trupke, Thorsten; Richards, Bryce; Shalav, Avi; Lin, Kuo-lung

    2006-01-01

    The concept of third generation photovoltaics is to significantly increase device efficiencies whilst still using thin film processes and abundant non-toxic materials. This can be achieved by circumventing the Shockley-Queisser limit for single band gap devices, using multiple energy threshold approaches. At University of NSW, as part of our work on Third Generation devices, we are using the energy confinement of silicon based quantum dot nanostructures to engineer wide band gap materials to be used as upper cell elements in Si based tandem cells. HRTEM data shows Si nanocrystal formation in oxide and nitride matrixes with a controlled nanocrystal size, grown by layered reactive sputtering and layered PECVD. Photoluminescence evidence for quantum confinement in the Si quantum dots in oxide agrees with the calculated increase in PL energy with reduction in dot size. Resistivity measurements with temperature give tentative proof of conduction and we are investigating junction formation in these materials. We are also using similar Si quantum dot structures in double barrier resonant tunneling structures for use in hot carrier solar cell contacts. These must collect carriers over a limited energy range. Negative differential resistance has been observed in room temperature I-V on these samples, a necessary proof of concept for selective energy filter contacts

  11. Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Chattopadhyay, Surojit; Jen, Yi-Jun; Peng, Cheng-Yu; Liu, Tze-An; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Pan, Ci-Ling; Lo, Hung-Chun; Hsu, Chih-Hsun; Chang, Yuan-Huei; Lee, Chih-Shan; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2007-12-01

    Nature routinely produces nanostructured surfaces with useful properties, such as the self-cleaning lotus leaf, the colour of the butterfly wing, the photoreceptor in brittlestar and the anti-reflection observed in the moth eye. Scientists and engineers have been able to mimic some of these natural structures in the laboratory and in real-world applications. Here, we report a simple aperiodic array of silicon nanotips on a 6-inch wafer with a sub-wavelength structure that can suppress the reflection of light at a range of wavelengths from the ultraviolet, through the visible part of the spectrum, to the terahertz region. Reflection is suppressed for a wide range of angles of incidence and for both s- and p-polarized light. The antireflection properties of the silicon result from changes in the refractive index caused by variations in the height of the silicon nanotips, and can be simulated with models that have been used to explain the low reflection from moth eyes. The improved anti-reflection properties of the surfaces could have applications in renewable energy and electro-optical devices for the military.

  12. Silicon-germanium and platinum silicide nanostructures for silicon based photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhevykh, M. S.; Dubkov, V. P.; Arapkina, L. V.; Chizh, K. V.; Mironov, S. A.; Chapnin, V. A.; Yuryev, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports a study of two types of silicon based nanostructures prospective for applications in photonics. The first ones are Ge/Si(001) structures forming at room temperature and reconstructing after annealing at 600°C. Germanium, being deposited from a molecular beam at room temperature on the Si(001) surface, forms a thin granular film composed of Ge particles with sizes of a few nanometers. A characteristic feature of these films is that they demonstrate signs of the 2 x 1 structure in their RHEED patterns. After short-term annealing at 600°C under the closed system conditions, the granular films reconstruct to heterostructures consisting of a Ge wetting layer and oval clusters of Ge. A mixed type c(4x2) + p(2x2) reconstruction typical to the low-temperature MBE (Tgr Ge. The other type of the studied nanostructures is based on Pt silicides. This class of materials is one of the friendliest to silicon technology. But as silicide film thickness reaches a few nanometers, low resistivity becomes of primary importance. Pt3Si has the lowest sheet resistance among the Pt silicides. However, the development of a process of thin Pt3Si films formation is a challenging task. This paper describes formation of a thin Pt3Si/Pt2Si structures at room temperature on poly-Si films. Special attention is paid upon formation of poly-Si and amorphous Si films on Si3N4 substrates at low temperatures.

  13. Silicon-ion-implanted PMMA with nanostructured ultrathin layers for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristov, G. B.; Ivanov, Tz E.; Marinov, Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Being of interest for plastic electronics, ion-beam produced nanostructure, namely silicon ion (Si+) implanted polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) with ultrathin nanostructured dielectric (NSD) top layer and nanocomposite (NC) buried layer, is examined by electric measurements. In the proposed field-effect organic nanomaterial structure produced within the PMMA network by ion implantation with low energy (50 keV) Si+ at the fluence of 3.2 × 1016 cm-2 the gate NSD is ion-nanotracks-modified low-conductive surface layer, and the channel NC consists of carbon nanoclusters. In the studied ion-modified PMMA field-effect configuration, the gate NSD and the buried NC are formed as planar layers both with a thickness of about 80 nm. The NC channel of nano-clustered amorphous carbon (that is an organic semiconductor) provides a huge increase in the electrical conduction of the material in the subsurface region, but also modulates the electric field distribution in the drift region. The field effect via the gate NSD is analyzed. The most important performance parameters, such as the charge carrier field-effect mobility and amplification of this particular type of PMMA- based transconductance device with NC n-type channel and gate NSD top layer, are determined.

  14. Characterization of Ag-porous silicon nanostructured layer formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type silicon surface for bio-application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Al-Mariri, A.; Haj-Mhmoud, N.

    2017-06-01

    Nanostructured layers composed of silver-porous silicon (Ag-PS) have been formed by an electrochemical etching of p-type (1 1 1) silicon substrate in a AgNO3:HF:C2H5OH solution at different etching times (10 min-30 min). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) results reveal that the produced layers consist of Ag dendrites and a silicon-rich porous structure. The nanostructuring nature of the layer has been confirmed by spatial micro-Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction techniques. The Ag dendrites exhibit a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum, while the porous structure shows a typical PS Raman spectrum. Upon increasing the etching time, the average size of silicon nanocrystallite in the PS network decreases, while the average size of Ag nanocrystals is slightly affected. In addition, the immobilization of prokaryote Salmonella typhimurium DNA via physical adsorption onto the Ag-PS layer has been performed to demonstrate its efficiency as a platform for detection of biological molecules using SERS.

  15. An Antireflective Nanostructure Array Fabricated by Nanosilver Colloidal Lithography on a Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seong-Je

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An alternative method is presented for fabricating an antireflective nanostructure array using nanosilver colloidal lithography. Spin coating was used to produce the multilayered silver nanoparticles, which grew by self-assembly and were transformed into randomly distributed nanosilver islands through the thermodynamic action of dewetting and Oswald ripening. The average size and coverage rate of the islands increased with concentration in the range of 50–90 nm and 40–65%, respectively. The nanosilver islands were critically affected by concentration and spin speed. The effects of these two parameters were investigated, after etching and wet removal of nanosilver residues. The reflection nearly disappeared in the ultraviolet wavelength range and was 17% of the reflection of a bare silicon wafer in the visible range.

  16. Mn-silicide nanostructures aligned on massively parallel silicon nano-ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Padova, Paola; Ottaviani, Carlo; Ronci, Fabio; Colonna, Stefano; Quaresima, Claudio; Cricenti, Antonio; Olivieri, Bruno; Dávila, Maria E; Hennies, Franz; Pietzsch, Annette; Shariati, Nina; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    The growth of Mn nanostructures on a 1D grating of silicon nano-ribbons is investigated at atomic scale by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and core level photoelectron spectroscopy. The grating of silicon nano-ribbons represents an atomic scale template that can be used in a surface-driven route to control the combination of Si with Mn in the development of novel materials for spintronics devices. The Mn atoms show a preferential adsorption site on silicon atoms, forming one-dimensional nanostructures. They are parallel oriented with respect to the surface Si array, which probably predetermines the diffusion pathways of the Mn atoms during the process of nanostructure formation.

  17. Dysprosium disilicide nanostructures on silicon(001) studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Gangfeng; Nogami, Jun; Crimp, Martin A.

    2006-01-01

    The microstructure of self-assembled dysprosium silicide nanostructures on silicon(001) has been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The studies focused on nanostructures that involve multiple atomic layers of the silicide. Cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy images and fast Fourier transform analysis showed that both hexagonal and orthorhombic/tetragonal silicide phases were present. Both the magnitude and the anisotropy of lattice mismatch between the silicide and the substrate play roles in the morphology and epitaxial growth of the nanostructures formed

  18. Aligned three-dimensional prismlike magnesium nanostructures realized onto silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaili; Rossi, Carole; Tenailleau, Christophe; Alphonse, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A simple approach is proposed to realize three-dimensional (3D) prismlike Mg nanostructures, which has several advantages over previous investigations such as suitable for mass production, reduced impurities, tailored dimensions, and easier integration into microsystem. 3D Mg nanostructures are realized onto silicon substrate using a conventional thermal evaporator, where the incident angle of Mg vapor flux with respect to the substrate surface normal is fixed at 88 deg. The as-prepared 3D Mg nanostructures are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and surface area measurement

  19. HRTEM analysis of the nanostructure of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Palma, R.J.; Pascual, L.; Landa-Canovas, A.R.; Herrero, P.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The nanometric structure of porous silicon makes this material to be very suitable for its use in many different fields, including optoelectronics and biological applications. In the present work, the structure of porous silicon was investigated in detail by means of cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image processing, together with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The structure of the Si/porous silicon interface and that of the silicon nanocrystals that compose porous silicon have been analyzed in detail. A strong strain contrast in the Si/porous silicon interface caused by high stresses was observed. Accordingly, dislocation pairs are found to be a possible mechanism of lattice matching between porous silicon and the Si substrate. Finally, high relative concentration of oxygen in the porous silicon layer was observed, together with low relative electron concentration in the conduction band when compared to Si

  20. Photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline silicon produced by mechanical grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poffo, C.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Lima, J.C. de, E-mail: fsc1jcd@fisica.ufsc.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Souza, S.M.; Triches, D.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grandi, T.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Biasi, R.S. de [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical grinding (MG) was used to produce nanocrystalline silicon and its thermal and transport properties were investigated by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental results suggest that in as-milled nanocrystalline silicon for 10 h the heat transfer through the crystalline and interfacial components is similar, and after annealed at 470 {sup o}C the heat transfer is controlled by crystalline component.

  1. Photoacoustic study of nanocrystalline silicon produced by mechanical grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poffo, C.M.; Lima, J.C. de; Souza, S.M.; Triches, D.M.; Grandi, T.A.; Biasi, R.S. de

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical grinding (MG) was used to produce nanocrystalline silicon and its thermal and transport properties were investigated by photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental results suggest that in as-milled nanocrystalline silicon for 10 h the heat transfer through the crystalline and interfacial components is similar, and after annealed at 470 o C the heat transfer is controlled by crystalline component.

  2. Characterization of nanostructured CuO-porous silicon matrixformed on copper coated silicon substrate via electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Mrad, O.; Al-Zier, A.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed anodic etching method has been utilized for nanostructuring of a copper-coated p-type (100) silicon substrate, using HF-based solution as electrolyte. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the formation of a nanostructured matrix that consists of island-like textures with nanosize grains grown onto fiber-like columnar structures separated with etch pits of grooved porous structures. Spatial micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates that the island-like texture is composed of single-phase cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystals, while the grooved porous structure is barely related to formation of porous silicon (PS). X-ray diffraction shows that both the grown CuO nanostructures and the etched silicon layer have the same preferred (220) orientation. Chemical composition obtained by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirms the presence of the single-phase CuO on the surface of the patterned CuO-PS matrix. As compared to PS formed on the bare silicon substrate, the room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) from the CuO-PS matrix exhibits an additional weak (blue) PL band as well as a blue shift in the PL band of PS (S-band). This has been revealed from XPS analysis to be associated with the enhancement in the SiO2 content as well as formation of the carbonyl group on the surface in the case of the CuO-PS matrix.(author)

  3. Characterization of nanostructured CuO-porous silicon matrix formed on copper-coated silicon substrate via electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Mrad, O.; Al-zier, A.

    2014-06-01

    A pulsed anodic etching method has been utilized for nanostructuring of a copper-coated p-type (100) silicon substrate, using HF-based solution as electrolyte. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the formation of a nanostructured matrix that consists of island-like textures with nanosize grains grown onto fiber-like columnar structures separated with etch pits of grooved porous structures. Spatial micro-Raman scattering analysis indicates that the island-like texture is composed of single-phase cupric oxide (CuO) nanocrystals, while the grooved porous structure is barely related to formation of porous silicon (PS). X-ray diffraction shows that both the grown CuO nanostructures and the etched silicon layer have the same preferred (220) orientation. Chemical composition obtained by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis confirms the presence of the single-phase CuO on the surface of the patterned CuO-PS matrix. As compared to PS formed on the bare silicon substrate, the room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) from the CuO-PS matrix exhibits an additional weak `blue' PL band as well as a blue shift in the PL band of PS (S-band). This has been revealed from XPS analysis to be associated with the enhancement in the SiO2 content as well as formation of the carbonyl group on the surface in the case of the CuO-PS matrix.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Chemically Etched Nanostructured Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2012-01-01

    dramatically. It transforms from an indirect bandgap material that does not absorb or emit light efficiently into one which can emit visible light at room temperatures. Although much work has been conducted in understanding the properties of nanostructured Si

  5. Towards Ordered Silicon Nanostructures through Self-Assembling Mechanisms and Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Puglisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of innovative architectures for memory storage and energy conversion devices are at the forefront of current research efforts driving us towards a sustainable future. However, issues related to the cost, efficiency, and reliability of current technologies are still severely limiting their overtake of the standard designs. The use of ordered nanostructured silicon is expected to overcome these limitations and push the advancement of the alternative technologies. Specifically, self-assembling of block copolymers has been recognized as a promising and cost-effective approach to organize silicon nanostructures. This work reviews some of the most important findings on block copolymer self-assembling and complements those with the results of new experimental studies. First of all, a quantitative analysis is presented on the ordering and fluctuations expected in the synthesis of silicon nanostructures by using standard synthesis methods like chemical vapour deposition. Then the effects of the several parameters guiding the ordering mechanisms in the block copolymer systems, such as film thickness, molecular weight, annealing conditions, solvent, and substrate topography are discussed. Finally, as a proof of concept, an in-house developed example application to solar cells is presented, based on silicon nanostructures resulting from self-assembling of block copolymers.

  6. Synergistically Enhanced Performance of Ultrathin Nanostructured Silicon Solar Cells Embedded in Plasmonically Assisted, Multispectral Luminescent Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Min; Dhar, Purnim; Chen, Huandong; Montenegro, Angelo; Liaw, Lauren; Kang, Dongseok; Gai, Boju; Benderskii, Alexander V.; Yoon, Jongseung

    2017-04-12

    Ultrathin silicon solar cells fabricated by anisotropic wet chemical etching of single-crystalline wafer materials represent an attractive materials platform that could provide many advantages for realizing high-performance, low-cost photovoltaics. However, their intrinsically limited photovoltaic performance arising from insufficient absorption of low-energy photons demands careful design of light management to maximize the efficiency and preserve the cost-effectiveness of solar cells. Herein we present an integrated flexible solar module of ultrathin, nanostructured silicon solar cells capable of simultaneously exploiting spectral upconversion and downshifting in conjunction with multispectral luminescent waveguides and a nanostructured plasmonic reflector to compensate for their weak optical absorption and enhance their performance. The 8 μm-thick silicon solar cells incorporating a hexagonally periodic nanostructured surface relief are surface-embedded in layered multispectral luminescent media containing organic dyes and NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals as downshifting and upconverting luminophores, respectively, via printing-enabled deterministic materials assembly. The ultrathin nanostructured silicon microcells in the composite luminescent waveguide exhibit strongly augmented photocurrent (~40.1 mA/cm2) and energy conversion efficiency (~12.8%) than devices with only a single type of luminescent species, owing to the synergistic contributions from optical downshifting, plasmonically enhanced upconversion, and waveguided photon flux for optical concentration, where the short-circuit current density increased by ~13.6 mA/cm2 compared with microcells in a nonluminescent medium on a plain silver reflector under a confined illumination.

  7. Hydrophilic functionalized silicon nanoparticles produced by high energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Steffen

    The mechanochemical synthesis of functionalized silicon nanoparticles using High Energy Ball Milling (HEBM) is described. This method facilitates the fragmentation of mono crystalline silicon into the nanometer regime and the simultaneous surface functionalization of the formed particles. The surface functionalization is induced by the reaction of an organic liquid, such as alkynes and alkenes with reactive silicon sites. This method can be applied to form water soluble silicon nanoparticles by lipid mediated micelle formation and the milling in organic liquids containing molecules with bi-functional groups, such as allyl alcohol. Furthermore, nanometer sized, chloroalkyl functionalized particles can be synthesized by milling the silicon precursor in the presence of an o-chloroalkyne with either alkenes or alkynes as coreactants. This process allows tuning of the concentration of the exposed, alkyl linked chloro groups, simply by varying the relative amounts of the coreactant. The silicon nanoparticles that are formed serve as the starting point for a wide variety of chemical reactions, which may be used to alter the surface properties of the functionalized nanoparticles. Finally, the use of functionalized silicon particles for the production of superhydrophobic films is described. Here HEBM proves to be an efficient method to produce functionalized silicon particles, which can be deposited to form a stable coating exhibiting superhydrophobic properties. The hydrophobicity of the silicon film can be tuned by the milling time and thus the resulting surface roughness of the films.

  8. Passivation properties of alumina for multicrystalline silicon nanostructure prepared by spin-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Shen, Honglie; Yang, Wangyang; Zheng, Chaofan; Tang, Quntao; Yao, Hanyu; Raza, Adil; Li, Yufang; Huang, Chunlai

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report passivation properties of inverted pyramidal nanostructure based multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) by Al2O3 films with spin-coating method. Precursors AlCl3 and Al(acac)3 for Al2O3 films were chosen for comparison. Al2O3/SiO x stacks were found to be able to passivate the nanostructured surface well. With the number of spin-coating up to five, the Al2O3 films could conformally attach the nanostructure. The weighted average reflectance values (ranging from 400-900 nm) of the passivated silicon surface could be reduced to 10.74% (AlCl3) and 11.12% (Al(acac)3), and the effective carrier lifetime could reach 7.84 and 16.98 μs, respectively. This work presented a potential process to fabricate low cost high efficiency mc-Si solar cells.

  9. Hybrid luminescent/magnetic nanostructured porous silicon particles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Noval, Álvaro; Sánchez-Vaquero, Vanessa; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Gallach, Darío; Ferro-Llanos, Vicente; Javier Serrano, José; Manso-Silván, Miguel; García-Ruiz, Josefa Predestinación; Del Pozo, Francisco; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2011-02-01

    This work describes a novel process for the fabrication of hybrid nanostructured particles showing intense tunable photoluminescence and a simultaneous ferromagnetic behavior. The fabrication process involves the synthesis of nanostructured porous silicon (NPSi) by chemical anodization of crystalline silicon and subsequent in pore growth of Co nanoparticles by electrochemically-assisted infiltration. Final particles are obtained by subsequent sonication of the Co-infiltrated NPSi layers and conjugation with poly(ethylene glycol) aiming at enhancing their hydrophilic character. These particles respond to magnetic fields, emit light in the visible when excited in the UV range, and internalize into human mesenchymal stem cells with no apoptosis induction. Furthermore, cytotoxicity in in-vitro systems confirms their biocompatibility and the viability of the cells after incorporation of the particles. The hybrid nanostructured particles might represent powerful research tools as cellular trackers or in cellular therapy since they allow combining two or more properties into a single particle.

  10. Nanostructured silicon for photonics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Gaburro, Z; Daldosso, N

    2006-01-01

    The use of light to channel signals around electronic chips could solve several current problems in microelectronic evolution including: power dissipation, interconnect bottlenecks, input/output from/to optical communication channels, poor signal bandwidth, etc. It is unfortunate that silicon is not a good photonic material: it has a poor light-emission efficiency and exhibits a negligible electro-optical effect. Silicon photonics is a field having the objective of improving the physical properties of silicon; thus turning it into a photonic material and permitting the full convergence of elec

  11. Cavity-assisted quantum computing in a silicon nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bao; Qin Hao; Zhang Rong; Xue Peng; Liu Jin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We present a scheme of quantum computing with charge qubits corresponding to one excess electron shared between dangling-bond pairs of surface silicon atoms that couple to a microwave stripline resonator on a chip. By choosing a certain evolution time, we propose the realization of a set of universal single- and two-qubit logical gates. Due to its intrinsic stability and scalability, the silicon dangling-bond charge qubit can be regarded as one of the most promising candidates for quantum computation. Compared to the previous schemes on quantum computing with silicon bulk systems, our scheme shows such advantages as a long coherent time and direct control and readout. (general)

  12. Low-energy ion beam synthesis of Ag endotaxial nanostructures in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajappa, Kiran; Guha, Puspendu; Thirumurugan, Arun; Satyam, Parlapalli V.; Bhatta, Umananda M.

    2018-06-01

    Coherently, embedded metal nanostructures (endotaxial) are known to have potential applications concerning the areas of plasmonics, optoelectronics and thermoelectronics. Incorporating appropriate concentrations of metal atoms into crystalline silicon is critical for these applications. Therefore, choosing proper dose of low-energy ions, instead of depositing thin film as a source of metal atoms, helps in avoiding surplus concentration of metal atoms that diffuses into the silicon crystal. In this work, 30 keV silver negative ions are implanted into a SiO x /Si(100) at two different fluences: 1 × 1015 and 2.5 × 1015 Ag- ions/cm2. Later, the samples are annealed at 700 °C for 1 h in Ar atmosphere. Embedded silver nanostructures have been characterized using planar and cross-sectional TEM (XTEM) analysis. Planar TEM analysis shows the formation of mostly rectangular silver nanostructures following the fourfold symmetry of the substrate. XTEM analysis confirms the formation of prism-shaped silver nanostructures embedded inside crystalline silicon. Endotaxial nature of the embedded crystals has been discussed using selected area electron diffraction analysis.

  13. ``New'' energy states lead to phonon-less optoelectronic properties in nanostructured silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Yu, Yixuan; Korgel, Brian; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is arguably one of the most important technological material for electronic applications. However, indirect bandgap of silicon semiconductor has prevented optoelectronic applications due to phonon assistance required for photon light absorption/emission. Here we show, that previously unexplored surface states in nanostructured silicon can couple with quantum-confined energy levels, leading to phonon-less exciton-recombination and photoluminescence. We demonstrate size dependence (2.4 - 8.3 nm) of this coupling observed in small uniform silicon nanocrystallites, or quantum-dots, by direct measurements of their electronic density of states and low temperature measurements. To enhance the optical absorption of the these silicon quantum-dots, we utilize generation of resonant surface plasmon polariton waves, which leads to several fold increase in observed spectrally-resolved photocurrent near the quantum-confined bandedge states. Therefore, these enhanced light emission and absorption enhancement can have important implications for applications of nanostructured silicon for optoelectronic applications in photovoltaics and LEDs.

  14. Method of producing buried porous silicon-geramanium layers in monocrystalline silicon lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si--Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are stain etched resulting in porosification of the Si--Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si--Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  15. Angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Ormstrup, Jeppe; Ommen, Martin Lind

    2015-01-01

    current, open circuit voltage, fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency are each measured as function of the relative incident angle between the solar cell and the light source. The relative incident angle is varied from 0° to 90° in steps of 10° in orthogonal axes, such that each solar cell......We report angle resolved characterization of nanostructured and conventionally textured silicon solar cells. The nanostructured solar cells are realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etching (RIE) texturing of the surface. Photovoltaic properties including short circuit...

  16. Nanostructured silicon-based biosensors for the selective identification of analytes of social interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Sabato; Champdore, Marcella de; Aurilia, Vincenzo; Parracino, Antonietta; Staiano, Maria; Vitale, Annalisa; Rossi, Mose; Rea, Ilaria; Rotiroti, Lucia; Rossi, Andrea M; Borini, Stefano; Rendina, Ivo; Stefano, Luca De

    2006-01-01

    Small analytes such as glucose, L-glutamine (Gln), and ammonium nitrate are detected by means of optical biosensors based on a very common nanostructured material, porous silicon (PSi). Specific recognition elements, such as protein receptors and enzymes, were immobilized on hydrogenated PSi wafers and used as probes in optical sensing systems. The binding events were optically transduced as wavelength shifts of the porous silicon reflectivity spectrum or were monitored via changes of the fluorescence emission. The biosensors described in this article suggest a general approach for the development of new sensing systems for a wide range of analytes of high social interest

  17. Enhanced photoconductivity and fine response tuning in nanostructured porous silicon microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urteaga, R; MarIn, O; Acquaroli, L N; Schmidt, J A; Koropecki, R R [INTEC-UNL-CONICET, Guemes 3450 - 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Comedi, D, E-mail: rkoro@intec.ceride.gov.a [CONICET y LAFISO, Departamento de Fisica, FACET, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2009-05-01

    We used light confinement in optical microcavities to achieve a strong enhancement and a precise wavelength tunability of the electrical photoconductance of nanostructured porous silicon (PS). The devices consist of a periodic array of alternating PS layers, electrochemically etched to have high and low porosities - and therefore distinct dielectric functions. A central layer having a doubled thickness breaks up the symmetry of the one-dimensional photonic structure, producing a resonance in the photonic band gap that is clearly observed in the reflectance spectrum. The devices were transferred to a glass coated with a transparent SnO{sub 2} electrode, while an Al contact was evaporated on its back side. The electrical conductance was measured as a function of the photon energy. A strong enhancement of the conductance is obtained in a narrow (17nm FWHM) band peaking at the resonance. We present experimental results of the angular dependence of this photoconductance peak energy, and propose an explanation of the conductivity behaviour supported by calculations of the internal electromagnetic field. These devices are promising candidates for finely tuned photoresistors with potential application as chemical sensors and biosensors.

  18. Fabrication of antireflective nanostructures for crystalline silicon solar cells by reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hsin-Han; Chen, Wen-Hua; Wang, Chi-Jen; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2013-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) subwavelength antireflection structure on poly-Si substrates to reduce their solar reflectivity. A reactive ion etching system was used to fabricate nanostructures on the poly-silicon surface. Reactive gases, composed of chlorine (Cl 2 ), sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and oxygen (O 2 ), were activated to fabricate nanoscale pyramids by RF plasma. The poly-Si substrates were etched in various gas compositions for 6–10 min to form nano-pyramids. The sizes of pyramids were about 200–300 nm in heights and about 100 nm in width. Besides the nanoscale features, the high pyramid density on the poly-Si surface is another important factor to reduce the reflectivity. Low-reflectivity surface was fabricated with reflectivity significantly reduced down to < 2% for photons in a wavelength range of 500–900 nm. - Highlights: ► Large-area (15 × 15 cm 2 ) antireflection structures fabricated on poly-Si substrates ► Si nano-pyramids produced by utilizing self-masked reactive ion etching process ► High density of nanoscale pyramids was formed on the entire substrate surface. ► Surface reflectivity below 2% was achieved in the wavelength range of 500–900 nm

  19. Silicon vacancy-related centers in non-irradiated 6H-SiC nanostructur

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bagraev, N.T.; Danilovskii, E.Yu.; Gets, D.S.; Kalabukhova, E.N.; Klyachkin, L.E.; Koudryavtsev, A.A.; Malyarenko, A.M.; Mashkov, V.A.; Savchenko, Dariia; Shanina, B.D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2015), 649-657 ISSN 1063-7826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-06697P; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011029 Grant - others:SAFMAT(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/22132 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron spin resonance * 6H-SiC nanostructures * silicon vacancy related centers * NV centers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2015

  20. Study of the technology of the plasma nanostructuring of silicon to form highly efficient emission structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galperin, V. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P. [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation); Pavlov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Nanotechnologies in Microelectronics (Russian Federation); Shamanaev, A. A., E-mail: artemiy.shamanaev@tcen.ru [“Technological Center” Research-and-Production Company (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    New methods for silicon nanostructuring and the possibility of raising the aspect ratios of the structures being formed are considered. It is shown that the technology developed relates to self-formation methods and is an efficient tool for improving the quality of field-emission cathodes based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by increasing the Si–CNT contact area and raising the efficiency of the heat sink.

  1. Increased carrier lifetimes in epitaxial silicon layers on buried silicon nitride produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupa, W.; Kreissig, U.; Hensel, E.; Bartsch, H.

    1984-01-01

    Carrier lifetimes were measured in epitaxial silicon layers deposited on buried silicon nitride produced by high-dose nitrogen implantation at 330 keV. The values were in the range 20-200 μs. The results are remarkable taking into account the high density of crystal defects in the epitaxial layers. Comparing with other SOI technologies the measured lifetimes are higher by 1-2 orders of magnitude. (author)

  2. Effective Chemical Route to 2D Nanostructured Silicon Electrode Material: Phase Transition from Exfoliated Clay Nanosheet to Porous Si Nanoplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adpakpang, Kanyaporn; Patil, Sharad B.; Oh, Seung Mi; Kang, Joo-Hee; Lacroix, Marc; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Effective morphological control of porous silicon 2D nanoplate can be achieved by the magnesiothermically-induced phase transition of exfoliated silicate clay nanosheets. The promising lithium storage performance of the obtained silicon materials with huge capacity and excellent rate characteristics underscores the prime importance of porously 2D nanostructured morphology of silicon. - Highlights: • 2D nanostructured silicon electrode materials are successfully synthesized via the magnesiothermically-induced phase transition of exfoliated clay 2D nanosheets. • High discharge capacity and rate capability are achieved from the 2D nanoplates of silicon. • Silicon 2D nanoplates can enhance both Li"+ diffusion and charge-transfer kinetics. • 2D nanostructured silicon is beneficial for the cycling stability by minimizing the volume change during lithiation-delithiation. - Abstract: An efficient and economical route for the synthesis of porous two-dimensional (2D) nanoplates of silicon is developed via the magnesiothermically-induced phase transition of exfoliated clay 2D nanosheets. The magnesiothermic reaction of precursor clay nanosheets prepared by the exfoliation and restacking with Mg"2"+ cations yields porous 2D nanoplates of elemental silicon. The variation in the Mg:SiO_2 ratio has a significant effect on the porosity and connectivity of silicon nanoplates. The porous silicon nanoplates show a high discharge capacity of 2000 mAh g"−"1 after 50 cycles. Of prime importance is that this electrode material still retains a large discharge capacity at higher C-rates, which is unusual for the elemental silicon electrode. This is mainly attributed to the improved diffusion of lithium ions, charge-transfer kinetics, and the preservation of the electrical connection of the porous 2D plate-shaped morphology. This study highlights the usefulness of clay mineral as an economical and scalable precursor of high-performance silicon electrodes with

  3. Correlating the silicon surface passivation to the nanostructure of low-temperature a-Si:H after rapid thermal annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, B.; Melskens, J.; Podraza, N.J.; Arts, K.; Pugh, C.; Thomas, O.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Using an inductively coupled plasma, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been prepared at very low temperatures (<50 °C) to provide crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface passivation. Despite the limited nanostructural quality of the a-Si:H bulk, a surprisingly high minority carrier

  4. Ultrafast photoluminescence dynamics of blue-emitting silicon nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žídek, K.; Trojánek, F.; Malý, P.; Pelant, Ivan; Gilliot, P.; Hönerlange, B.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 979-984 ISSN 1862-6351 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA101120804; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : silicon * nanocrystals * time-resolved spectroscopy * luminescence * polarization * two-photon absorption Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pssc.201000394/abstract

  5. Development of colour-producing β-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Quinn, Tim; Waters, Karla

    2009-01-01

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of β-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. ‘Channel’ nanostructures consist of β-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. ‘Spherical’ nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin β-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary β-keratin in feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of β-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary β-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the hollow

  6. Development of colour-producing beta-keratin nanostructures in avian feather barbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O; Dufresne, Eric R; Quinn, Tim; Waters, Karla

    2009-04-06

    The non-iridescent structural colours of avian feather barbs are produced by coherent light scattering from amorphous (i.e. quasi-ordered) nanostructures of beta-keratin and air in the medullary cells of feather barb rami. Known barb nanostructures belong to two distinct morphological classes. 'Channel' nanostructures consist of beta-keratin bars and air channels of elongate, tortuous and twisting forms. 'Spherical' nanostructures consist of highly spherical air cavities that are surrounded by thin beta-keratin bars and sometimes interconnected by tiny passages. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observe that the colour-producing channel-type nanostructures of medullary beta-keratin in feathers of the blue-and-yellow macaw (Ara ararauna, Psittacidae) develop by intracellular self-assembly; the process proceeds in the absence of any biological prepattern created by the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum or cellular intermediate filaments. We examine the hypothesis that the shape and size of these self-assembled, intracellular nanostructures are determined by phase separation of beta-keratin protein from the cytoplasm of the cell. The shapes of a broad sample of colour-producing channel-type nanostructures from nine avian species are very similar to those self-assembled during the phase separation of an unstable mixture, a process called spinodal decomposition (SD). In contrast, the shapes of a sample of spherical-type nanostructures from feather barbs of six species show a poor match to SD. However, spherical nanostructures show a strong morphological similarity to morphologies produced by phase separation of a metastable mixture, called nucleation and growth. We propose that colour-producing, intracellular, spongy medullary beta-keratin nanostructures develop their characteristic sizes and shapes by phase separation during protein polymerization. We discuss the possible role of capillary flow through drying of medullary cells in the development of the

  7. Broadband antireflective silicon carbide surface produced by cost-effective method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Ou, Yiyu; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    A cost-effective method for fabricating antireflective subwavelength structures on silicon carbide is demonstrated. The nanopatterning is performed in a 2-step process: aluminum deposition and reactive ion etching. The effect, of the deposited aluminum film thickness and the reactive ion etching...... conditions, on the average surface reflectance and nanostructure landscape have been investigated systematically. The average reflectance of silicon carbide surface is significantly suppressed from 25.4% to 0.05%, under the optimal experimental conditions, in the wavelength range of 390-784 nm. The presence...... of stochastic nanostructures also changes the wetting properties of silicon carbide surface from hydrophilic (47°) to hydrophobic (108°)....

  8. Ab initio design of nanostructures for solar energy conversion: a case study on silicon nitride nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Design of novel materials for efficient solar energy conversion is critical to the development of green energy technology. In this work, we present a first-principles study on the design of nanostructures for solar energy harvesting on the basis of the density functional theory. We show that the indirect band structure of bulk silicon nitride is transferred to direct bandgap in nanowire. We find that intermediate bands can be created by doping, leading to enhancement of sunlight absorption. We further show that codoping not only reduces the bandgap and introduces intermediate bands but also enhances the solubility of dopants in silicon nitride nanowires due to reduced formation energy of substitution. Importantly, the codoped nanowire is ferromagnetic, leading to the improvement of carrier mobility. The silicon nitride nanowires with direct bandgap, intermediate bands, and ferromagnetism may be applicable to solar energy harvesting.

  9. Silicon photonic crystal nanostructures for refractive index sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfner, Dominic; Hürlimann, T.; Zabel, T.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and optical investigation of Silicon on Insulator photonic crystal drop-filters for use as refractive index sensors. Two types of defect nanocavities (L3 and H1-r) are embedded between two W1 photonic crystal waveguides to evanescently route light at the cavity...... mode frequency between input and output waveguides. Optical characterization of the structures in air and various liquids demonstrate detectivities in excess of n=n = 0:018 and n=n = 0:006 for the H1-r and L3 cavities, respectively. The measured cavity-frequencies and detector refractive index...... responsivities are in good agreement with simulations, demonstrating that the method provides a background free transducer signal with frequency selective addressing of a specic area of the sensor chip....

  10. Nanostructured gold and platinum electrodes on silicon structures for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogurtsov, V I; Sheehan, M M

    2005-01-01

    Gold and platinum metal electrodes on Si/SiO 2 having undergone anisotropic potassium hydroxide (KOH) etch treatment are considered. This treatment etches at different rates and directions in the material resulting in creation of numerous pyramid shaped holes in the silicon substrate. This surface is used to make metal electrodes with increased electrode efficiency. The electrodes can serve as the sensors or as the sensor substrates (for surface polymer modification) and because both gold and platinum are inert they have applications for food safety biosensing. Wine, an economically significant food product, was chosen as a matrix, and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was selected as a method of investigation of electrode behaviour. Based on results of EIS, different complexity equivalent circuits were determined by applying fitting mean square root optimisation of sensor complex impedance measurements

  11. The effect of thermal oxidation on the luminescence properties of nanostructured silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijia; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2012-08-06

    Herein is reported a detailed study of the luminescence properties of nanostructured Si using X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) in combination with X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES). P-type Si nanowires synthesized via electroless chemical etching from Si wafers of different doping levels and porous Si synthesized using electrochemical method are examined under X-ray excitation across the Si K-, L(3,2) -, and O K-edges. It is found that while as-prepared Si nanostructures are weak light emitters, intense visible luminescence is observed from thermally oxidized Si nanowires and porous Si. The luminescence mechanism of Si upon oxidation is investigated by oxidizing nanostructured Si at different temperatures. Interestingly, the two luminescence bands observed show different response with the variation of absorption coefficient upon Si and O core-electron excitation in elemental silicon and silicon oxide. A correlation between luminescence properties and electronic structures is thus established. The implications of the finding are discussed in terms of the behavior of the oxygen deficient center (OCD) and non-bridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Influence of fabrication parameter on the nanostructure and photoluminescence of highly doped p-porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shaoyuan [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Ma, Wenhui, E-mail: mwhsilicon@163.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhou, Yang, E-mail: zhouyangnano@163.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Chen, Xiuhua [Faculty of Physical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Ma, Mingyu [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Xiao, Yongyin [Faculty of Physical Science and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Xu, Yaohui [National Engineering Laboratory for Vacuum Metallurgy, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Faculty of Metallurgical and energy engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Porous silicon (PS) was prepared by anodizing highly doped p-type silicon in the solution of H{sub 2}O/ethanol/HF. The effects of key fabrication parameters (HF concentration, etching time and current density) on the nanostructure of PS were carefully investigated by AFM, SEM and TEM characterization. According to the experimental results, a more full-fledged model was developed to explain the crack behaviors on PS surface. The photoluminescence (PL) of resulting PS was studied by a fluorescence spectrophotometer and the results show that PL peak positions shift to shorter wavelength with the increasing current density, anodisation time and dilution of electrolyte. The PL spectra blue shift of the sample with higher porosity is confirmed by HRTEM results that the higher porosity results in smaller Si nanocrystals. A linear model (λ{sub PL/nm}=620.3–0.595P, R=0.905) was established to describe the correlation between PL peak positions and porosity of PS. -- Highlights: • The effect of fabrication parameter on the nanostructure of PS is investigated. • The influence of nanostructure on the photoluminescence behaviors is studied • A full-fledged model for expounding the crack behaviors of PS is presented. • The correlation between the porosity and PL peak blue shift is described by a linear model.

  13. Functionality of novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces studied by TOF SIMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Aranyosiova, M.; Orinak, A.

    2010-01-01

    A functionality of the novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces (BS 2) with different metal surface modifications was tested by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). Mainly two surface functions were studied: analytical signal enhancement and analyte pre-ionization e......A functionality of the novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces (BS 2) with different metal surface modifications was tested by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). Mainly two surface functions were studied: analytical signal enhancement and analyte pre......-ionization effect in SIMS due to nanostructure type and the assistance of the noble metal surface coating (Ag or Au) for secondary ion formation. As a testing analyte a Rhodamine 6G was applied. Bi+ has been used as SIMS primary ions. It was found out that SIMS signal enhancement of the analyte significantly...... depends on Ag layer thickness and measured ion mode (negative, positive). The best SIMS signal enhancement was obtained at BS2 surface coated with 400 nm of Ag layer. SIMS fragmentation schemes were developed for a model analyte deposited onto a silver and gold surface. Significant differences in pre...

  14. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-01

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  15. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-26

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  16. Self-organized nanostructures in silicon and glass for MEMS, MOEMS and BioMEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienthal, K.; Fischer, M.; Stubenrauch, M.; Schober, A.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of self-organization in the process workflows for Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and their derivatives is a smart way to get large areas of nanostructured surfaces for various applications. The generation of nano-masking spots by self-organizing residues in the plasma can lead to needle- or tube-like structures on the surface after (deep-) reactive ion etching. With lengths of 3 up to 25 μm and 150 up to 500 nm in diameter for silicon broad applications in the fields of micro fluidics with catalysts, micro-optical or mechanical mountings or carrier wafer bonding in microelectronics are possible. Now, we also developed dry etching processes for fused silica which shows analogue properties to 'Black Silicon' and investigated these glass nanostructures by a first parameter study to identify new usable structures and hybrids. This innovative starting point allows the transfer of 'Black Silicon' technologies and its applications to another important material class in micro- and nanotechnologies, fused silica.

  17. Self-organized nanostructures in silicon and glass for MEMS, MOEMS and BioMEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, K., E-mail: katharina.lilienthal@tu-ilmenau.de [Research Group ' Micro fluidics and Biosensors' , Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Fischer, M. [Research Group ' Micro fluidics and Biosensors' , Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Stubenrauch, M. [Department of Micromechanical Systems, Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Schober, A. [Research Group ' Micro fluidics and Biosensors' , Ilmenau University of Technology, Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2010-05-25

    The utilization of self-organization in the process workflows for Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and their derivatives is a smart way to get large areas of nanostructured surfaces for various applications. The generation of nano-masking spots by self-organizing residues in the plasma can lead to needle- or tube-like structures on the surface after (deep-) reactive ion etching. With lengths of 3 up to 25 {mu}m and 150 up to 500 nm in diameter for silicon broad applications in the fields of micro fluidics with catalysts, micro-optical or mechanical mountings or carrier wafer bonding in microelectronics are possible. Now, we also developed dry etching processes for fused silica which shows analogue properties to 'Black Silicon' and investigated these glass nanostructures by a first parameter study to identify new usable structures and hybrids. This innovative starting point allows the transfer of 'Black Silicon' technologies and its applications to another important material class in micro- and nanotechnologies, fused silica.

  18. Improvement of Infrared Detectors for Tissue Oximetry using Black Silicon Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Dahl; Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Alcala, Lucia R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a nanostructured surface, made of dry etched black silicon, which lowers the reflectance for light incident at all angles. This surface is fabricated on infrared detectors used for tissue oximetry, where the detection of weak diffuse light signals is important. Monte Carlo simulations...... performed on a model of a neonatal head shows that approximately 60% of the injected light will be diffuse reflected. However, the change in diffuse reflected light due to the change in cerebral oxygenation is very low and the light will be completely isotropic scattered. The reflectance of the black...... in quantum efficiency for both normal incident light and light incident at 38°....

  19. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, R., E-mail: roberto.martini@imec.be [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark 10, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Universiteit Hasselt, Martelarenlaan 42, B-3500 Hasselt (Belgium)

    2014-10-27

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  20. Thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling of silicon for high efficiency solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, R.; Kepa, J.; Stesmans, A.; Debucquoy, M.; Depauw, V.; Gonzalez, M.; Gordon, I.; Poortmans, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the drastic improvement of the quality of thin silicon foils produced by epoxy-induced spalling. In the past, researchers have proposed to fabricate silicon foils by spalling silicon substrates with different stress-inducing materials to manufacture thin silicon solar cells. However, the reported values of effective minority carrier lifetime of the fabricated foils remained always limited to ∼100 μs or below. In this work, we investigate epoxy-induced exfoliated foils by electron spin resonance to analyze the limiting factors of the minority carrier lifetime. These measurements highlight the presence of disordered dangling bonds and dislocation-like defects generated by the exfoliation process. A solution to remove these defects compatible with the process flow to fabricate solar cells is proposed. After etching off less than 1 μm of material, the lifetime of the foil increases by more than a factor of 4.5, reaching a value of 461 μs. This corresponds to a lower limit of the diffusion length of more than 7 times the foil thickness. Regions with different lifetime correlate well with the roughness of the crack surface which suggests that the lifetime is now limited by the quality of the passivation of rough surfaces. The reported values of the minority carrier lifetime show a potential for high efficiency (>22%) thin silicon solar cells.

  1. Nanostructured 2D cellular materials in silicon by sidewall transfer lithography NEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syms, Richard R. A.; Liu, Dixi; Ahmad, Munir M.

    2017-07-01

    Sidewall transfer lithography (STL) is demonstrated as a method for parallel fabrication of 2D nanostructured cellular solids in single-crystal silicon. The linear mechanical properties of four lattices (perfect and defected diamond; singly and doubly periodic honeycomb) with low effective Young’s moduli and effective Poisson’s ratio ranging from positive to negative are modelled using analytic theory and the matrix stiffness method with an emphasis on boundary effects. The lattices are fabricated with a minimum feature size of 100 nm and an aspect ratio of 40:1 using single- and double-level STL and deep reactive ion etching of bonded silicon-on-insulator. Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) containing cellular materials are used to demonstrate stretching, bending and brittle fracture. Predicted edge effects are observed, theoretical values of Poisson’s ratio are verified and failure patterns are described.

  2. Growing Embossed Nanostructures of Polymer Brushes on Wet-Etched Silicon Templated via Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaobin; Yan, Qin; Ma, Yinzhou; Guo, Xin; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Block copolymer nanolithography has attracted enormous interest in chip technologies, such as integrated silicon chips and biochips, due to its large-scale and mass production of uniform patterns. We further modified this technology to grow embossed nanodots, nanorods, and nanofingerprints of polymer brushes on silicon from their corresponding wet-etched nanostructures covered with pendent SiHx (X = 1-3) species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the topomorphologies, and multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) was used to monitor the surface molecular films in each step for the sequential stepwise reactions. In addition, two layers of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) brush nanodots were observed, which were attributed to the circumferential convergence growth and the diffusion-limited growth of the polymer brushes. The pH response of PMAA nanodots in the same region was investigated by AFM from pH 3.0 to 9.0.

  3. Mechanism of erosion of nanostructured porous silicon drug carriers in neoplastic tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzur-Balter, Adi; Shatsberg, Zohar; Beckerman, Margarita; Segal, Ester; Artzi, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) is emerging as a promising platform for drug delivery owing to its biocompatibility, degradability and high surface area available for drug loading. The ability to control PSi structure, size and porosity enables programming its in vivo retention, providing tight control over embedded drug release kinetics. In this work, the relationship between the in vitro and in vivo degradation of PSi under (pre)clinically relevant conditions, using breast cancer mouse model, is defined. We show that PSi undergoes enhanced degradation in diseased environment compared with healthy state, owing to the upregulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tumour vicinity that oxidize the silicon scaffold and catalyse its degradation. We further show that PSi degradation in vitro and in vivo correlates in healthy and diseased states when ROS-free or ROS-containing media are used, respectively. Our work demonstrates that understanding the governing mechanisms associated with specific tissue microenvironment permits predictive material performance. PMID:25670235

  4. The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by focused-ion-beam implantation and TMAH wet etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievilae, Paeivi; Chekurov, Nikolai; Tittonen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    Local gallium implantation of silicon by a focused ion beam (FIB) has been used to create a mask for anisotropic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching. The dependence of the etch stop properties of gallium-doped silicon on the implanted dose has been investigated and a dose of 4 x 10 13 ions cm -2 has been determined to be the threshold value for achieving observable etching resistance. Only a thin, approx. 50 nm, surface layer is found to be durable enough to serve as a mask with a high selectivity of at least 2000:1 between implanted and non-implanted areas. The combined FIB-TMAH process has been used to generate various types of 3D nanostructures including nanochannels separated by thin vertical sidewalls with aspect ratios up to 1:30, ultra-narrow (approx. 25 nm) freestanding bridges and cantilevers, and gratings with a resolution of 20 lines μm -1 .

  5. Influence of Surface Chemistry on the Release of an Antibacterial Drug from Nanostructured Porous Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjia; Hartman, Philip S; Loni, Armando; Canham, Leigh T; Bodiford, Nelli; Coffer, Jeffery L

    2015-06-09

    Nanostructured mesoporous silicon possesses important properties advantageous to drug loading and delivery. For controlled release of the antibacterial drug triclosan, and its associated activity versus Staphylococcus aureus, previous studies investigated the influence of porosity of the silicon matrix. In this work, we focus on the complementary issue of the influence of surface chemistry on such properties, with particular regard to drug loading and release kinetics that can be ideally adjusted by surface modification. Comparison between drug release from as-anodized, hydride-terminated hydrophobic porous silicon and the oxidized hydrophilic counterpart is complicated due to the rapid bioresorption of the former; hence, a hydrophobic interface with long-term biostability is desired, such as can be provided by a relatively long chain octyl moiety. To minimize possible thermal degradation of the surfaces or drug activity during loading of molten drug species, a solution loading method has been investigated. Such studies demonstrate that the ability of porous silicon to act as an effective carrier for sustained delivery of antibacterial agents can be sensitively altered by surface functionalization.

  6. Design and optimization of Ag-dielectric core-shell nanostructures for silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xiang Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal-dielectric core-shell nanostructures have been proposed as a light trapping scheme for enhancing the optical absorption of silicon solar cells. As a potential application of such enhanced effects, the scattering efficiencies of three core-shell structures (Ag@SiO2, Ag@TiO2, and Ag@ZrO2 are discussed using the Mie Scattering theory. For compatibility with experiment results, the core diameter and shell thickness are limited to 100 and 30 nm, respectively, and a weighted scattering efficiency is introduced to evaluate the scattering abilities of different nanoparticles under the solar spectrum AM 1.5. The simulated results indicate that the shell material and thickness are two key parameters affecting the weighted scattering efficiency. The SiO2 is found to be an unsuitable shell medium because of its low refractive index. However, using the high refractive index mediumTiO2 in Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles, only the thicker shell (30 nm is more beneficial for light scattering. The ZrO2 is an intermediate refractive index material, so Ag@ZrO2 nanoparticles are the most effective core-shell nanostructures in these silicon solar cells applications.

  7. Mesoporous silicon oxide films and their uses as templates in obtaining nanostructured conductive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, R.; Arteaga, G. C.; Arias, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining conductive polymers (CPs) for the manufacture of OLEDs, solar cells, electrochromic devices, sensors, etc., has been possible through the use of electrochemical techniques that allow obtaining films of controlled thickness with positive results in different applications. Current trends point towards the manufacture of nanomaterials, and therefore it is necessary to develop methods that allow obtaining CPs with nanostructured morphology. This is possible by using a porous template to allow the growth of the polymeric materials. However, prior and subsequent treatments are required to separate the material from the template so that it can be evaluated in the applications mentioned above. This is why mesoporous silicon oxide films (template) are essential for the synthesis of nanostructured polymers since both the template and the polymer are obtained on the electrode surface, and therefore it is not necessary to separate the material from the template. Thus, the material can be evaluated directly in the applications mentioned above. The dimensions of the resulting nanostructures will depend on the power, time and technique used for electropolymerization as well as the monomer and the surfactant of the mesoporous film.

  8. Preparation of polymer composites using nanostructured carbon produced at large scale by catalytic decomposition of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suelves, I.; Utrilla, R.; Torres, D.; Llobet, S. de; Pinilla, J.L.; Lázaro, M.J.; Moliner, R.

    2013-01-01

    Polymer-based composites were prepared using different concentrations of nanostructured carbons (NCs), produced by catalytic decomposition of methane (CDM). Four carbonaceous nanostructures were produced using different catalysts (with Ni and Fe as active phases) in a rotary bed reactor capable of producing up to 20 g of carbon per hour. The effect of nanostructured carbon on the thermal and electrical behaviour of epoxy-based composites is studied. An increase in the thermal stability and the decrease of electrical resistivity were observed for the composites at carbon contents as low as 1 wt%. The highest reduction of the electrical resistivity was obtained using multi-walled carbon nanotubes obtained with the Fe based catalysts. This effect could be related to the high degree of structural order of these materials. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial carbon nanofibre, showing that the use of carbon nanostructures from CDM can be a valid alternative to the commercial nanofibres. -- Highlights: ► Preparation of polymer nanocomposites with enhanced thermal and electrical properties. ► Formation of nanostructured carbon materials with different textural and structural properties at large scale. ► Catalytic decomposition of methane to simultaneously produce hydrogen and carbon materials.

  9. Application of hydrogen-plasma technology for property modification of silicon and producing the silicon-based structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, A.K.; Mazanik, A.V.; Ul'yashin, A.G.; Dzhob, R; Farner, V.R.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of atomic hydrogen on the properties of Czochralski-grown single crystal silicon as well as polycrystalline shaped silicon have been investigated. It was established that the buried defect layers created by high-energy hydrogen or helium ion implantation act as a good getter centers for hydrogen atoms introduced in silicon in the process of hydrogen plasma hydrogenation. Atomic hydrogen was shown to be active as a catalyzer significantly enhancing the rate of thermal donors formation in p-type single crystal silicon. This effect can be used for n-p- and p-n-p-silicon based device structures producing [ru

  10. Band-gap engineering by molecular mechanical strain-induced giant tuning of the luminescence in colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, A; El Demellawi, J K; Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2014-12-14

    Nano-silicon is a nanostructured material in which quantum or spatial confinement is the origin of the material's luminescence. When nano-silicon is broken into colloidal crystalline nanoparticles, its luminescence can be tuned across the visible spectrum only when the sizes of the nanoparticles, which are obtained via painstaking filtration methods that are difficult to scale up because of low yield, vary. Bright and tunable colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures have not yet been reported. In this letter, we report on a 100 nm modulation in the emission of freestanding colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures via band-gap engineering. The mechanism responsible for this tunable modulation, which is independent of the size of the individual particles and their distribution, is the distortion of the molecular orbitals by a strained silicon-silicon bond angle. This mechanism is also responsible for the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of silicon.

  11. Band-gap engineering by molecular mechanical strain-induced giant tuning of the luminescence in colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    Nano-silicon is a nanostructured material in which quantum or spatial confinement is the origin of the material\\'s luminescence. When nano-silicon is broken into colloidal crystalline nanoparticles, its luminescence can be tuned across the visible spectrum only when the sizes of the nanoparticles, which are obtained via painstaking filtration methods that are difficult to scale up because of low yield, vary. Bright and tunable colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures have not yet been reported. In this letter, we report on a 100 nm modulation in the emission of freestanding colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures via band-gap engineering. The mechanism responsible for this tunable modulation, which is independent of the size of the individual particles and their distribution, is the distortion of the molecular orbitals by a strained silicon-silicon bond angle. This mechanism is also responsible for the amorphous-to-crystalline transformation of silicon. This journal is

  12. Method of producing catalytic material for fabricating nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-30

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  13. Formation of superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns by combination of nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide for biological droplet generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Taizo; Shimizu, Kazunori; Kaizuma, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Satoshi

    2011-03-01

    In this letter, we report a technology for fabricating superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns using a combination of a nanostructure-imprinted perfluoropolymer and nanostructured silicon oxide. In our previous study, we used a combination of hydrophobic and superhydrophilic materials. However, it was difficult to split low-surface-tension liquids such as biological liquids into droplets solely using hydrophobic/hydrophilic patterns. In this study, the contact angle of the hydrophobic region was enhanced from 109.3° to 155.6° by performing nanostructure imprinting on a damage-reduced perfluoropolymer. The developed superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic patterns allowed the splitting of even those media that contained fetal bovine serum into droplets of a desired shape.

  14. Fabrication of Up-Conversion Phosphor Films on Flexible Substrates Using a Nanostructured Organo-Silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Young-Sun; Kim, Tae-Un; Kim, Seon-Hoon; Lee, Young-Hwan; Choi, Pil-Son; Hwang, Kyu-Seog

    2018-03-01

    Up-conversion phosphors have attracted considerable attention because of their applications in solid-state lasers, optical communications, flat-panel displays, photovoltaic cells, and biological labels. Among them, NaYF4 is reported as one of the most efficient hosts for infrared to visible photon up-conversion of Yb3+ and Er3+ ions. However, a low-temperature method is required for industrial scale fabrication of photonic and optoelectronic devices on flexible organic substrates. In this study, hexagonal β-NaYF4: 3 mol% Yb3+, 3 mol% Er3+ up-conversion phosphor using Ca2+ was prepared by chemical solution method. Then, we synthesized a nanostructured organo-silicon compound from methyl tri-methoxysilane and 3-glycidoxy-propyl-trimethoxy-silane. The transmittance of the organo-silicon compound was found to be over 90% in the wavelength range of 400~1500 nm. Then we prepared a fluoride-based phosphor paste by mixing the organo-silicon compound with Na(Ca)YF4:Yb3+, Er3+. Subsequently, this paste was coated on polyethylene terephthalate, followed by heat-treatment at 120 °C. The visible emission of the infrared detection card was found to be at 655 nm and 661 nm an excitation wavelength of 980 nm.

  15. Nanostructured porous silicon: The winding road from photonics to cell scaffolds. A review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo eHernandez-Montelongo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS has found a vast number of applications in the broad fields of photonics and optoelectronics, triggered by the discovery of its photoluminescent behavior in 1990. Besides, its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability make porous silicon (PSi an appealing biomaterial. These properties are largely a consequence of its particular susceptibility to oxidation, leading to the formation of silicon oxide which is readily dissolved by body fluids. This paper reviews the evolution of the applications of PSi and nanoPS from photonics through biophotonics, to their use as cell scaffolds, whether as an implantable substitute biomaterial, mainly for bony and ophthalmological tissues, or as an in-vitro cell conditioning support, especially for pluripotent cells. For any of these applications, PSi/nanoPS can be used directly after synthesis from Si wafers, upon appropriate surface modification processes, or as a composite biomaterial. Unedited studies of fluorescently active PSi structures for cell culture are brought to evidence the margin for new developments.

  16. Nanostructured Porous Silicon: The Winding Road from Photonics to Cell Scaffolds – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Montelongo, Jacobo; Muñoz-Noval, Alvaro; García-Ruíz, Josefa Predestinación; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raul J.; Manso-Silván, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    For over 20 years, nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) has found a vast number of applications in the broad fields of photonics and optoelectronics, triggered by the discovery of its photoluminescent behavior in 1990. Besides, its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability make porous silicon (PSi) an appealing biomaterial. These properties are largely a consequence of its particular susceptibility to oxidation, leading to the formation of silicon oxide, which is readily dissolved by body fluids. This paper reviews the evolution of the applications of PSi and nanoPS from photonics through biophotonics, to their use as cell scaffolds, whether as an implantable substitute biomaterial, mainly for bony and ophthalmological tissues, or as an in vitro cell conditioning support, especially for pluripotent cells. For any of these applications, PSi/nanoPS can be used directly after synthesis from Si wafers, upon appropriate surface modification processes, or as a composite biomaterial. Unedited studies of fluorescently active PSi structures for cell culture are brought to evidence the margin for new developments. PMID:26029688

  17. Fabrication of Silicon nanostructures by UHV-STM lithography in Self-Assembled Monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundermann, M.; Brechling, A.; Rott, K.; Meyners, D.; Kleineberg, U.; Heinzmann, U.; Knueller, A.; Eck, W.; Goelzhueuser, A.; Grunze, M.

    2002-01-01

    Our approach utilizes UHV-STM writing in Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAM). SAMs form highly-ordered ultrathin (∼2-3 nm) monomolecular layers on top of pre-activated Si(100) or Si(111) surfaces. After patterning by UHV-STM writing in constant-current mode at different write parameters (gap voltage, electron dose) the modified Self-Assembled Monolayer serves as an etch mask for an anisotropic wet etch transfer (two-step etch process in aqueous solutions of 5 % HF and 1 M KOH), of the write structure into the silicon substrate. The corresponding silicon nano-structures have been analyzed afterwards by AFM or SEM to characterize the pattern accuracy. We have studied the suitability of three different types of SAMs on silicon single-crystals. Alkyl-chain-type SAMs like Octadecylsilane (ODS) monolayer have been formed by immersion of hydroxylated Si(100) in Octadecyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 (CH 27 SiCl 3 ) while SAMs with aromatic spacer groups such as Hydroxybiphenyl (HBP, (C 6 H 6 ) 2 OH) and Ethoxybiphenyl silane (EBP, (C 6 H 6 ) 2 O(CH 2 ) 3 Si(OCH 3 ) 3 ) are formed on Si(111). (Authors)

  18. High Sensitivity and High Detection Specificity of Gold-Nanoparticle-Grafted Nanostructured Silicon Mass Spectrometry for Glucose Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Yang, Zhi-Jie

    2015-10-14

    Desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) is a high-performance matrix-free mass spectrometry (MS) analysis method that involves using silicon nanostructures as a matrix for MS desorption/ionization. In this study, gold nanoparticles grafted onto a nanostructured silicon (AuNPs-nSi) surface were demonstrated as a DIOS-MS analysis approach with high sensitivity and high detection specificity for glucose detection. A glucose sample deposited on the AuNPs-nSi surface was directly catalyzed to negatively charged gluconic acid molecules on a single AuNPs-nSi chip for MS analysis. The AuNPs-nSi surface was fabricated using two electroless deposition steps and one electroless etching step. The effects of the electroless fabrication parameters on the glucose detection efficiency were evaluated. Practical application of AuNPs-nSi MS glucose analysis in urine samples was also demonstrated in this study.

  19. Study of optical and luminescence properties of silicon — semiconducting silicide — silicon multilayer nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galkin, N.G.; Galkin, K.N.; Dotsenko, S.A.; Goroshko, D.L.; Shevlyagin, A.V.; Chusovitin, E.A.; Chernev, I.M.

    2017-01-01

    By method of in situ differential spectroscopy it was established that at the formation of monolayer Fe, Cr, Ca, Mg silicide and Mg stannide islands on the atomically clean silicon surface an appearance of loss peaks characteristic for these materials in the energy range of 1.1-2.6 eV is observed. An optimization of growth processes permit to grow monolithic double nanoheterostructures (DNHS) with embedded Fe, Cr and Ca nanocrystals, and also polycrystalline DNHS with NC of Mg silicide and Mg stannide and Ca disilicide. By methods of optical spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy it was shown that embedded NC form intensive peaks in the reflectance spectra at energies up to 2.5 eV and Raman peaks. In DNS with β-FeSi2 NC a photoluminescence and electroluminescence at room temperature were firstly observed.

  20. Tailoring dislocation structures and mechanical properties of nanostructured metals produced by plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a dislocation structure associated with low-angle dislocation boundaries and interior dislocations is a common and characteristic feature in nanostructured metals produced by plastic deformation, and plays an important role in determining both the strength and ductility...

  1. Size-dependent Fano Interaction in the Laser-etched Silicon Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhoto-excitation and size-dependent Raman scattering studies on the silicon (Si nanostructures (NSs prepared by laser-induced etching are presented here. Asymmetric and red-shifted Raman line-shapes are observed due to photo-excited Fano interaction in the quantum confined nanoparticles. The Fano interaction is observed between photo-excited electronic transitions and discrete phonons in Si NSs. Photo-excited Fano studies on different Si NSs show that the Fano interaction is high for smaller size of Si NSs. Higher Fano interaction for smaller Si NSs is attributed to the enhanced interference between photo-excited electronic Raman scattering and phonon Raman scattering.

  2. Towards the Development of Electrical Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Porous Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Manso, Miguel; Gallach, Darío; López-García, Juan; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.

    2010-01-01

    The typical large specific surface area and high reactivity of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) make this material very suitable for the development of sensors. Moreover, its biocompatibility and biodegradability opens the way to the development of biosensors. As such, in this work the use of nanoPS in the field of electrical biosensing is explored. More specifically, nanoPS-based devices with Al/nanoPS/Al and Au-NiCr/nanoPS/Au-NiCr structures were fabricated for the electrical detection of glucose and Escherichia Coli bacteria at different concentrations. The experimental results show that the current-voltage characteristics of these symmetric metal/nanoPS/metal structures strongly depend on the presence/absence and concentration of species immobilized on the surface.

  3. Towards the Development of Electrical Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical large specific surface area and high reactivity of nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS make this material very suitable for the development of sensors. Moreover, its biocompatibility and biodegradability opens the way to the development of biosensors. As such, in this work the use of nanoPS in the field of electrical biosensing is explored. More specifically, nanoPS-based devices with Al/nanoPS/Al and Au-NiCr/nanoPS/Au-NiCr structures were fabricated for the electrical detection of glucose and Escherichia Coli bacteria at different concentrations. The experimental results show that the current-voltage characteristics of these symmetric metal/nanoPS/metal structures strongly depend on the presence/absence and concentration of species immobilized on the surface.

  4. The fabrication of silicon nanostructures by local gallium implantation and cryogenic deep reactive ion etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekurov, N; Grigoras, K; Franssila, S; Tittonen, I; Peltonen, A

    2009-01-01

    We show that gallium-ion-implanted silicon serves as an etch mask for fabrication of high aspect ratio nanostructures by cryogenic plasma etching (deep reactive ion etching). The speed of focused ion beam (FIB) patterning is greatly enhanced by the fact that only a thin approx. 30 nm surface layer needs to be modified to create a mask for the etching step. Etch selectivity between gallium-doped and undoped material is at least 1000:1, greatly decreasing the mask erosion problems. The resolution of the combined FIB-DRIE process is 20 lines μm -1 with the smallest masked feature size of 40 nm. The maximum achieved aspect ratio is 15:1 (e.g. 600 nm high pillars 40 nm in diameter).

  5. SERS analysis of Ag nanostructures produced by ion-beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, P. A.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Nikov, Ru G.; Grüner, Ch; Rauschenbach, B.; Fukata, N.

    2018-03-01

    This study deals with the development of a novel technique for formation of advanced Ag nanostructures (NSs) to be applied to high-resolution analyses based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It has direct bearing on human health and food quality, e.g., monitoring small amount or traces of pollutants or undesirable additives. Three types of nanostructured Ag samples were produced using ion-beam deposition at glancing angle (GLAD) on quartz. All fabricated structures were covered with BI-58 pesticide (dimethoate) or Rhodamine 6G (R6G) for testing their potential for use as substrates for (SERS).

  6. Metal/Carbon Hybrid Nanostructures Produced from Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition over Nafion-Supported Electrochemically Deposited Cobalt Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Islam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report development of hybrid nanostructures of metal nanoparticles (NP and carbon nanostructures with strong potential for catalysis, sensing, and energy applications. First, the etched silicon wafer substrates were passivated for subsequent electrochemical (EC processing through grafting of nitro phenyl groups using para-nitrobenzene diazonium (PNBT. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS and atomic force microscope (AFM studies confirmed presence of few layers. Cobalt-based nanoparticles were produced over dip or spin coated Nafion films under different EC reduction conditions, namely CoSO4 salt concentration (0.1 M, 1 mM, reduction time (5, 20 s, and indirect or direct EC reduction route. Extensive AFM examination revealed NP formation with different attributes (size, distribution depending on electrochemistry conditions. While relatively large NP with >100 nm size and bimodal distribution were obtained after 20 s EC reduction in H3BO3 following Co2+ ion uptake, ultrafine NP (<10 nm could be produced from EC reduction in CoSO4 and H3BO3 mixed solution with some tendency to form oxides. Different carbon nanostructures including few-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT and carbon nanosheets were grown in a C2H2/NH3 plasma using the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The devised processing routes enable size controlled synthesis of cobalt nanoparticles and metal/carbon hybrid nanostructures with unique microstructural features.

  7. Electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrova, E. V.; Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Zhdanov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    High-aspect periodic structures with thin vertical walls are studied as regards their applicability as negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. The nanostructures are fabricated from single-crystal silicon using photolithography, electrochemical anodization, and subsequent anisotropic shaping. The capacity per unit of the visible surface area of the electrode and the specific internal surface area are compared for structures of varied architecture: 1D (wires), 2D (zigzag walls), and 3D structures (walls forming a grid). Main attention is given to testing the endurance of anodes based on zigzag and grid structures, performed by galvanostatic cycling in half-cells with a lithium counter electrode. The influence exerted by the geometric parameters of the structures and by the testing mode on the degradation rate is determined. It is shown that the limiting factor of the lithiation and delithiation processes is diffusion. The endurance of an electrode dramatically increases when the charging capacity is limited to ∼1000 mA h/g. In this case, nanostructures with 300-nm-thick walls, which underwent cyclic testing at a rate of 0.36C, retain a constant discharge capacity and a Coulomb efficiency close to 100% for more than 1000 cycles.

  8. Electrochemical characteristics of nanostructured silicon anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrova, E. V., E-mail: east@mail.ioffe.ru; Li, G. V.; Rumyantsev, A. M.; Zhdanov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    High-aspect periodic structures with thin vertical walls are studied as regards their applicability as negative electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. The nanostructures are fabricated from single-crystal silicon using photolithography, electrochemical anodization, and subsequent anisotropic shaping. The capacity per unit of the visible surface area of the electrode and the specific internal surface area are compared for structures of varied architecture: 1D (wires), 2D (zigzag walls), and 3D structures (walls forming a grid). Main attention is given to testing the endurance of anodes based on zigzag and grid structures, performed by galvanostatic cycling in half-cells with a lithium counter electrode. The influence exerted by the geometric parameters of the structures and by the testing mode on the degradation rate is determined. It is shown that the limiting factor of the lithiation and delithiation processes is diffusion. The endurance of an electrode dramatically increases when the charging capacity is limited to ∼1000 mA h/g. In this case, nanostructures with 300-nm-thick walls, which underwent cyclic testing at a rate of 0.36C, retain a constant discharge capacity and a Coulomb efficiency close to 100% for more than 1000 cycles.

  9. New Nanostructured Li 2 S/Silicon Rechargeable Battery with High Specific Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2010-04-14

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are important energy storage devices; however, the specific energy of existing lithium ion batteries is still insufficient for many applications due to the limited specific charge capacity of the electrode materials. The recent development of sulfur/mesoporous carbon nanocomposite cathodes represents a particularly exciting advance, but in full battery cells, sulfur-based cathodes have to be paired with metallic lithium anodes as the lithium source, which can result in serious safety issues. Here we report a novel lithium metal-free battery consisting of a Li 2S/mesoporous carbon composite cathode and a silicon nanowire anode. This new battery yields a theoretical specific energy of 1550 Wh kg ?1, which is four times that of the theoretical specific energy of existing lithium-ion batteries based on LiCoO2 cathodes and graphite anodes (∼410 Wh kg?1). The nanostructured design of both electrodes assists in overcoming the issues associated with using sulfur compounds and silicon in lithium-ion batteries, including poor electrical conductivity, significant structural changes, and volume expansion. We have experimentally realized an initial discharge specific energy of 630 Wh kg ?1 based on the mass of the active electrode materials. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Band-gap engineering by molecular mechanical strain-induced giant tuning of the luminescence in colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad Jahangir; El Demellawi, Jehad K.; Chaieb, Saharoui

    2014-01-01

    reported. In this letter, we report on a 100 nm modulation in the emission of freestanding colloidal amorphous porous silicon nanostructures via band-gap engineering. The mechanism responsible for this tunable modulation, which is independent of the size

  11. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W., E-mail: u.paetzold@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Meier, Matthias, E-mail: ma.meier@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Moulin, Etienne, E-mail: e.moulin@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Smirnov, Vladimir, E-mail: v.smirnov@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Pieters, Bart E., E-mail: b.pieters@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Rau, Uwe, E-mail: u.rau@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Carius, Reinhard, E-mail: r.carius@fz-juelich.de [IEK5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The light–matter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells.

  12. Plasmonic back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures for light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetzold, Ulrich W.; Meier, Matthias; Moulin, Etienne; Smirnov, Vladimir; Pieters, Bart E.; Rau, Uwe; Carius, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the light trapping of thin-film silicon solar cells which apply plasmonic Ag back contacts with non-ordered Ag nanostructures. The preparation, characterization and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of these back contacts with various distributions of non-ordered Ag nanostructures are presented. The measured reflectance spectra of the Ag back contacts with non-ordered nanostructures in air are well reproduced in reflectance spectra derived from the three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of isolated nanostructures on Ag back contacts. The light–matter interaction of these nanostructures is given by localized surface plasmons and, thus, the measured diffuse reflectance of the back contacts is attributed to plasmon-induced light scattering. A significant plasmonic light-trapping effect in n-i-p substrate-type μc-Si:H thin-film solar cell prototypes which apply a Ag back contact with non-ordered nanostructures is identified when compared with flat reference solar cells

  13. Modelling of the hydrogen effects on the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brulin, Q.

    2006-01-01

    This work pursues the goal of understanding mechanisms related to the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor through modeling techniques. Current technologies are first reviewed with an aim to understand the purpose behind their development. Then follows a summary of the possible studies which are useful in this particular context. The various techniques which make it possible to simulate the trajectories of atoms by molecular dynamics are discussed. The quantum methods of calculation of the interaction potential between chemical species are then developed, reaching the conclusion that only semi-empirical quantum methods are sufficiently fast to be able to implement an algorithm of quantum molecular dynamics on a reasonable timescale. From the tools introduced, a reflection on the nature of molecular metastable energetic states is presented for the theoretical case of the self-organized growth of a linear chain of atoms. This model - which consists of propagating the growth of a chain by the successive addition of the atom which least increases the electronic energy of the chain - shows that the Fermi level is a parameter essential to self organization during growth. This model also shows that the structure formed is not necessarily a total minimum energy structure. From all these numerical tools, the molecular growth of clusters can be simulated by using parameters from magnetohydrodynamic calculation results of plasma reactor modeling (concentrations of the species, interval between chemical reactions, energy of impact of the reagents...). The formation of silicon-hydrogen clusters is thus simulated by the successive capture of silane molecules. The structures formed in simulation at the operating temperatures of the plasma reactor predict the formation of spherical clusters constituting an amorphous silicon core covered by hydrogen. These structures are thus not in a state of minimum energy, contrary to certain experimental

  14. A semi-local quasi-harmonic model to compute the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H; Aluru, N R

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a semi-local quasi-harmonic model with local phonon density of states (LPDOS) to compute the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of silicon nanostructures at finite temperature. In contrast to an earlier approach (Tang and Aluru 2006 Phys. Rev. B 74 235441), where a quasi-harmonic model with LPDOS computed by a Green's function technique (QHMG) was developed considering many layers of atoms, the semi-local approach considers only two layers of atoms to compute the LPDOS. We show that the semi-local approach combines the accuracy of the QHMG approach and the computational efficiency of the local quasi-harmonic model. We present results for several silicon nanostructures to address the accuracy and efficiency of the semi-local approach

  15. Organic nanostructures on silicon, created with semitransparent polystyrene spheres and 248 nm laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, Erhard W; Manke, Charles W; Piparia, Reema; Baird, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    Arrays of nanostructures are made starting with a template of close-packed, polystyrene spheres on a silicon surface. The spheres are either 1.091 or 2.99 μm in diameter (d) and are of polystyrene (PS). They are irradiated with a pulse of either 308 or 248 nm light to which they are transparent and semitransparent, respectively. A transparent sphere with d = 1.091 μm diameter concentrates incident light onto a small substrate area. As has been previously reported, that creates silicon nanobumps that rise from circular craters. At 248 nm and d = 2.99 μm, the light energy is mainly absorbed, destroys the sphere, and leaves a shrunken mass (typically about 500 nm wide and 100 nm high) of organic material that is probably polystyrene and its thermal degradation products. At 248 nm and d = 1.091 μm, the residual organic structures are on the order of 300 nm wide and 100 nm high. A distinctive feature is that these organic structures are connected by filaments that are on the order of 50 nm wide and 10 nm high. Filaments form because the close-packed PS spheres expand into each other during the early part of the laser pulse, and then, as the main structures shrink, their viscoelasticity leads to threads between them. Our results with 248 nm and d = 1.091 μm differ from those described by Huang et al with 248 nm and d = 1.0 μm. Future studies might include the further effect of wavelength and fluence upon the process as well the use of other materials and the replacement of nanospheres by other focusing shapes, such as ellipsoids or rods

  16. Oxide-Free Bonding of III-V-Based Material on Silicon and Nano-Structuration of the Hybrid Waveguide for Advanced Optical Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pantzas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxide-free bonding of III-V-based materials for integrated optics is demonstrated on both planar Silicon (Si surfaces and nanostructured ones, using Silicon on Isolator (SOI or Si substrates. The hybrid interface is characterized electrically and mechanically. A hybrid InP-on-SOI waveguide, including a bi-periodic nano structuration of the silicon guiding layer is demonstrated to provide wavelength selective transmission. Such an oxide-free interface associated with the nanostructured design of the guiding geometry has great potential for both electrical and optical operation of improved hybrid devices.

  17. Spatially resolved determination of lattice distortions in silicon nanostructures by means of electron-backscattering diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the submitted thesis, a novel combined approach of both focused ion beam (FIB) based target preparation and strain determination using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in semiconductor nanostructures is presented. In the first part, a powerful cross-correlation algorithm for detecting small feature shifts within EBSD patterns and, consequently, determining the strain, is presented. The corresponding strain sensitivity is demonstrated using dynamically simulated diffraction patterns. Furthermore, novel procedures for automated pattern analysis are introduced. Results of systematic studies concerning the influence of ion species, ion energy and dose density on the surface quality of silicon surfaces are presented in the second part. For that matter, the assessment of surface amorphization and rippling is based on high resolution microstructural diagnostics (TEM, AFM, Raman) and molecular dynamics simulation. The high application potential of combined FIB preparation and strain analysis using EBSD is exemplarily demonstrated for a 60 nm thick sSOI-sample. The good agreement with established techniques like Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction is also shown.

  18. Optical spectra of composite silver-porous silicon (Ag-pSi) nanostructure based periodical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedome Min-Dianey, Kossi Aniya; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Brohi, Ali Anwar; Yu, Haiyan; Xia, Xinlin

    2018-03-01

    Numerical finite differential time domain (FDTD) tools were used in this study for predicting the optical characteristics through the nanostructure of composite silver-porous silicon (Ag-pSi) based periodical lattice. This is aimed at providing an interpretation of the optical spectra at known porosity in improvement of the light manipulating efficiency through a proposed structure. With boundary conditions correctly chosen, the numerical simulation was achieved using FDTD Lumerical solutions. This was used to investigate the effect of porosity and the number of layers on the reflection, transmission and absorption characteristics through a proposed structure in a visible wavelength range of 400-750 nm. The results revealed that the higher the number of layers, the lower the reflection. Also, the reflection increases with porosity increase. The transmission characteristics were the inverse to those found in the case of reflection spectra and optimum transmission was attained at high number of layers. Also, increase in porosity results in reduced transmission. Increase in porosity as well as in the number of layers led to an increase in absorption. Therefore, absorption into such structure can be enhanced by elevating the number of layers and the degree of porosity.

  19. Prolonged controlled delivery of nerve growth factor using porous silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilony, Neta; Rosenberg, Michal; Holtzman, Liran; Schori, Hadas; Shefi, Orit; Segal, Ester

    2017-07-10

    Although nerve growth factor (NGF) is beneficial for the treatment of numerous neurological and non-neurological diseases, its therapeutic administration represents a significant challenge, due to the difficulty to locally deliver relevant doses in a safe and non-invasive manner. In this work, we employ degradable nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) films as carriers for NGF, allowing its continuous and prolonged release, while retaining its bioactivity. The PSi carriers exhibit high loading efficacy (up to 90%) of NGF and a continuous release, with no burst, over a period of>26days. The released NGF bioactivity is compared to that of free NGF in both PC12 cells and dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We show that the NGF has retained its bioactivity and induces neurite outgrowth and profound differentiation (of >50% for PC12 cells) throughout the period of release within a single administration. Thus, this proof-of-concept study demonstrates the immense therapeutic potential of these tunable carriers as long-term implants of NGF reservoirs and paves the way for new localized treatment strategies of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid and label-free detection of protein a by aptamer-tethered porous silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urmann, Katharina; Reich, Peggy; Walter, Johanna-Gabriela; Beckmann, Dieter; Segal, Ester; Scheper, Thomas

    2017-09-10

    Protein A, which is secreted by and displayed on the cell membrane of Staphylococcus aureus is an important biomarker for S. aureus. Thus, its rapid and specific detection may facilitate the pathogen identification and initiation of proper treatment. Herein, we present a simple, label-free and rapid optical biosensor enabling specific detection of protein A. Protein A-binding aptamer serves as the capture probe and is immobilized onto a nanostructured porous silicon thin film, which serves as the optical transducer element. We demonstrate high sensitivity of the biosensor with a linear detection range between 8 and 23μM. The apparent dissociation constant was determined as 13.98μM and the LoD is 3.17μM. Harnessing the affinity between protein A and antibodies, a sandwich assay format was developed to amplify the optical signal associated with protein A capture by the aptamer. Using this approach, we increase the sensitivity of the biosensor, resulting in a three times lower LoD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface nanostructuring in the carbon–silicon(100) system upon microwave plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yafarov, R. K., E-mail: pirpc@yandex.ru; Shanygin, V. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Saratov Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    The study is concerned with the physical and chemical processes and the mechanisms of the effect of plasma preparation of a surface on the systematic features of condensation and surface phase transformations during the formation of Si–C mask domains on p-Si(100) crystals by the deposition of submonolayer C coatings in the microwave plasma of low-pressure ethanol vapors. It is shown that, at short durations of the deposition of carbon onto silicon wafers with a natural-oxide coating at a temperature of 100°C, the formation of domains is observed. The lateral dimensions of the domains lie in the range from 10–15 to 200 nm, and the heights of ridges produced by the plasma chemical etching of silicon through the mask domain coatings vary in the range from 40 to 80 nm.

  2. Development of nano-structured silicon carbide ceramics: from synthesis of the powder to sintered ceramics; Elaboration de ceramiques nanostructurees en carbure de silicium: de la synthese de la poudre a la ceramique frittee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reau, A.

    2008-12-15

    The materials used inside future nuclear reactors will be subjected to very high temperature and neutrons flux. Silicon carbide, in the form of SiC{sub f}/SiC nano-structured composite is potentially interesting for this type of application. It is again necessary to verify the contribution of nano-structure on the behaviour of this material under irradiation. To verify the feasibility and determine the properties of the matrix, it was envisaged to produce it by powder metallurgy from SiC nanoparticles. The objective is to obtain a fully dense nano-structured SiC ceramic without additives. For that, a parametric study of the phases of synthesis and agglomeration was carried out, the objective of which is to determine the active mechanisms and the influence of the key parameters. Thus, studying the nano-powder synthesis by laser pyrolysis allowed to produce, with high production rates, homogeneous batches of SiC nanoparticles whose size can be adjusted between 15 and 90 nm. These powders have been densified by an innovating method: Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The study and the optimization of the key parameters allowed the densification of silicon carbide ceramic without sintering aids while preserving the nano-structure of material. The thermal and mechanical properties of final materials were studied in order to determine the influence of the microstructure on their properties. (author)

  3. Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Silicon Nanostructure Arrays by Laser Interference Lithography and Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Heydari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper metal-assisted chemical etching has been applied to pattern porous silicon regions and silicon nanohole arrays in submicron period simply by using positive photoresist as a mask layer. In order to define silicon nanostructures, Metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE was carried out with silver catalyst. Provided solution (or materiel in combination with laser interference lithography (LIL fabricated different reproducible pillars, holes and rhomboidal structures. As a result, Submicron patterning of porous areas and nanohole arrays on Si substrate with a minimum feature size of 600nm was achieved. Measured reflection spectra of the samples present different optical characteristics which is dependent on the shape, thickness of metal catalyst and periodicity of the structure. These structures can be designed to reach a photonic bandgap in special range or antireflection layer in energy harvesting applications. The resulted reflection spectra of applied method are comparable to conventional expensive and complicated dry etching techniques.

  4. Electronic properties of interfaces produced by silicon wafer hydrophilic bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trushin, Maxim

    2011-07-15

    The thesis presents the results of the investigations of electronic properties and defect states of dislocation networks (DNs) in silicon produced by wafers direct bonding technique. A new insight into the understanding of their very attractive properties was succeeded due to the usage of a new, recently developed silicon wafer direct bonding technique, allowing to create regular dislocation networks with predefined dislocation types and densities. Samples for the investigations were prepared by hydrophilic bonding of p-type Si (100) wafers with same small misorientation tilt angle ({proportional_to}0.5 ), but with four different twist misorientation angles Atw (being of < , 3 , 6 and 30 , respectively), thus giving rise to the different DN microstructure on every particular sample. The main experimental approach of this work was the measurements of current and capacitance of Schottky diodes prepared on the samples which contained the dislocation network at a depth that allowed one to realize all capabilities of different methods of space charge region spectroscopy (such as CV/IV, DLTS, ITS, etc.). The key tasks for the investigations were specified as the exploration of the DN-related gap states, their variations with gradually increasing twist angle Atw, investigation of the electrical field impact on the carrier emission from the dislocation-related states, as well as the establishing of the correlation between the electrical (DLTS), optical (photoluminescence PL) and structural (TEM) properties of DNs. The most important conclusions drawn from the experimental investigations and theoretical calculations can be formulated as follows: - DLTS measurements have revealed a great difference in the electronic structure of small-angle (SA) and large-angle (LA) bonded interfaces: dominating shallow level and a set of 6-7 deep levels were found in SA-samples with Atw of 1 and 3 , whereas the prevalent deep levels - in LA-samples with Atw of 6 and 30 . The critical twist

  5. Systemic embolism produced by subcutaneous injections of liquid silicone for esthetic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconi, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    Even though its use is not recommended, liquid silicone is a substance that has been used illegally for esthetic purposes for a long time. A case report is presented in which a young woman was injected subcutaneously, by an uncertified practitioner, industrial fluid silicone and subsequently developed a case of systemic embolism with pulmonary, skin and ocular complications. This article explains the physiopathology and the different manifestations of systemic embolism produced by fluid silicone. TAC was used. (The author)

  6. Self-bridging of vertical silicon nanowires and a universal capacitive force model for spontaneous attraction in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhelin; Wang, Deli; Xiang, Jie

    2014-11-25

    Spontaneous attractions between free-standing nanostructures have often caused adhesion or stiction that affects a wide range of nanoscale devices, particularly nano/microelectromechanical systems. Previous understandings of the attraction mechanisms have included capillary force, van der Waals/Casimir forces, and surface polar charges. However, none of these mechanisms universally applies to simple semiconductor structures such as silicon nanowire arrays that often exhibit bunching or adhesions. Here we propose a simple capacitive force model to quantitatively study the universal spontaneous attraction that often causes stiction among semiconductor or metallic nanostructures such as vertical nanowire arrays with inevitably nonuniform size variations due to fabrication. When nanostructures are uniform in size, they share the same substrate potential. The presence of slight size differences will break the symmetry in the capacitive network formed between the nanowires, substrate, and their environment, giving rise to electrostatic attraction forces due to the relative potential difference between neighboring wires. Our model is experimentally verified using arrays of vertical silicon nanowire pairs with varied spacing, diameter, and size differences. Threshold nanowire spacing, diameter, or size difference between the nearest neighbors has been identified beyond which the nanowires start to exhibit spontaneous attraction that leads to bridging when electrostatic forces overcome elastic restoration forces. This work illustrates a universal understanding of spontaneous attraction that will impact the design, fabrication, and reliable operation of nanoscale devices and systems.

  7. A new electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen and codeine based on porous silicon/palladium nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A; Ahmadi, Najmeh; Rezaei, Behzad; Abarghoui, Mehdi Mokhtari

    2015-03-01

    A porous silicon/palladium nanostructure was prepared and used as a new electrode material for the simultaneous determination of acetaminophen (ACT) and codeine (COD). Palladium nanoparticles were assembled on porous silicon (PSi) microparticles by a simple redox reaction between the Pd precursor and PSi in an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. This novel nanostructure was characterized by different spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The high electrochemical activity, fast electron transfer rate, high surface area and good antifouling properties of this nanostructure enhanced the oxidation peak currents and reduced the peak potentials of ACT and COD at the surface of the proposed sensor. Simultaneous determination of ACT and COD was explored using differential pulse voltammetry. A linear range of 1.0-700.0 µmol L(-1) was achieved for ACT and COD with detection limits of 0.4 and 0.3 µmol L(-1), respectively. Finally, the proposed method was used for the determination of ACT and COD in blood serum, urine and pharmaceutical compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Low-field microwave absorption and magnetoresistance in iron nanostructures grown by electrodeposition on n-type lightly doped silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, J.F. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa-UFV, Departamento de Física, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Figueiredo, L.C. [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Mendes, J.B.S. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa-UFV, Departamento de Física, 36570-900 Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Morais, P.C. [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil); Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Automation, 430074 Wuhan (China); Araujo, C.I.L. de., E-mail: dearaujo@ufv.br [Universidade de Brasília-UnB, Instituto de Física, Núcleo de Física Aplicada, 70910-900 Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2015-12-01

    In this study we investigate magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystal structure in iron nanoclusters electrodeposited on lightly doped (100) n-type silicon substrates. Our goal is to investigate the spin injection and detection in the Fe/Si lateral structures. The samples obtained under electric percolation were characterized by magnetoresistive and magnetic resonance measurements with cycling the sweeping applied field in order to understand the spin dynamics in the as-produced samples. The observed hysteresis in the magnetic resonance spectra, plus the presence of a broad peak in the non-saturated regime confirming the low field microwave absorption (LFMA), were correlated to the peaks and slopes found in the magnetoresistance curves. The results suggest long range spin injection and detection in low resistive silicon and the magnetic resonance technique is herein introduced as a promising tool for analysis of electric contactless magnetoresistive samples. - Highlights: • Electrodeposition of Fe nanostructures on high resistive silicon substrates. • Spin polarized current among clusters through Si suggested by isotropic magnetoresistance. • Low field microwave absorption arising from the sample shape anisotropy. • Contactless magnetoresistive device characterization by resonance measurements.

  9. Comparison of Maraging Steel Micro- and Nanostructure Produced Conventionally and by Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Jägle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD and Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on the microstructure—in particular the content of retained and reversed austenite as well as the nanostructure, especially the precipitate density and chemistry, are not yet explored. Here, we study these features using microhardness measurements, Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, and Atom Probe Tomography (APT in the as-produced state and during ageing heat treatment. We find that due to microsegregation, retained austenite exists in the as-LMD- and as-SLM-produced states but not in the conventionally-produced material. The hardness in the as-LMD-produced state is higher than in the conventionally and SLM-produced materials, however, not in the uppermost layers. By APT, it is confirmed that this is due to early stages of precipitation induced by the cyclic re-heating upon further deposition—i.e., the intrinsic heat treatment associated with LMD. In the peak-aged state, which is reached after a similar time in all materials, the hardness of SLM- and LMD-produced material is slightly lower than in conventionally-produced material due to the presence of retained austenite and reversed austenite formed during ageing.

  10. Comparison of Maraging Steel Micro- and Nanostructure Produced Conventionally and by Laser Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jägle, Eric A; Sheng, Zhendong; Kürnsteiner, Philipp; Ocylok, Sörn; Weisheit, Andreas; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-12-24

    Maraging steels are used to produce tools by Additive Manufacturing (AM) methods such as Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Although it is well established that dense parts can be produced by AM, the influence of the AM process on the microstructure-in particular the content of retained and reversed austenite as well as the nanostructure, especially the precipitate density and chemistry, are not yet explored. Here, we study these features using microhardness measurements, Optical Microscopy, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Atom Probe Tomography (APT) in the as-produced state and during ageing heat treatment. We find that due to microsegregation, retained austenite exists in the as-LMD- and as-SLM-produced states but not in the conventionally-produced material. The hardness in the as-LMD-produced state is higher than in the conventionally and SLM-produced materials, however, not in the uppermost layers. By APT, it is confirmed that this is due to early stages of precipitation induced by the cyclic re-heating upon further deposition-i.e., the intrinsic heat treatment associated with LMD. In the peak-aged state, which is reached after a similar time in all materials, the hardness of SLM- and LMD-produced material is slightly lower than in conventionally-produced material due to the presence of retained austenite and reversed austenite formed during ageing.

  11. Tuning of structural, light emission and wetting properties of nanostructured copper oxide-porous silicon matrix formed on electrochemically etched copper-coated silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.

    2017-01-01

    Matrices of copper oxide-porous silicon nanostructures have been formed by electrochemical etching of copper-coated silicon surfaces in HF-based solution at different etching times (5-15 min). Micro-Raman, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that the nature of copper oxide in the matrix changes from single-phase copper (I) oxide (Cu2O) to single-phase copper (II) oxide (CuO) on increasing the etching time. This is accompanied with important variation in the content of carbon, carbon hydrides, carbonyl compounds and silicon oxide in the matrix. The matrix formed at the low etching time (5 min) exhibits a single broad "blue" room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) band. On increasing the etching time, the intensity of this band decreases and a much stronger "red" PL band emerges in the PL spectra. The relative intensity of this band with respect to the "blue" band significantly increases on increasing the etching time. The "blue" and "red" PL bands are attributed to Cu2O and porous silicon of the matrix, respectively. In addition, the water contact angle measurements reveal that the hydrophobicity of the matrix surface can be tuned from hydrophobic to superhydrophobic state by controlling the etching time.

  12. Properties of plasmonic arrays produced by pulsed-laser nanostructuring of thin Au films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Grochowska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief description of research advances in the area of short-pulse-laser nanostructuring of thin Au films is followed by examples of experimental data and a discussion of our results on the characterization of structural and optical properties of gold nanostructures. These consist of partially spherical or spheroidal nanoparticles (NPs which have a size distribution (80 ± 42 nm and self-organization characterized by a short-distance order (length scale ≈140 nm. For the NP shapes produced, an observably broader tuning range (of about 150 nm of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR band is obtained by renewal thin film deposition and laser annealing of the NP array. Despite the broadened SPR bands, which indicate damping confirmed by short dephasing times not exceeding 4 fs, the self-organized Au NP structures reveal quite a strong enhancement of the optical signal. This was consistent with the near-field modeling and micro-Raman measurements as well as a test of the electrochemical sensing capability.

  13. Influence of femtosecond laser produced nanostructures on biofilm growth on steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperlein, Nadja; Menzel, Friederike; Schwibbert, Karin; Koter, Robert; Bonse, Jörn; Sameith, Janin; Krüger, Jörg; Toepel, Jörg

    2017-10-01

    Biofilm formation poses high risks in multiple industrial and medical settings. However, the robust nature of biofilms makes them also attractive for industrial applications where cell biocatalysts are increasingly in use. Since tailoring material properties that affect bacterial growth or its inhibition is gaining attention, here we focus on the effects of femtosecond laser produced nanostructures on bacterial adhesion. Large area periodic surface structures were generated on steel surfaces using 30-fs laser pulses at 790 nm wavelength. Two types of steel exhibiting a different corrosion resistance were used, i.e., a plain structural steel (corrodible) and a stainless steel (resistant to corrosion). Homogeneous fields of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were realized utilizing laser fluences close to the ablation threshold while scanning the sample under the focused laser beam in a multi-pulse regime. The nanostructures were characterized with optical and scanning electron microscopy. For each type of steel, more than ten identical samples were laser-processed. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbial adhesion tests. Bacteria of different shape and adhesion behavior (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) were exposed to laser structures and to polished reference surfaces. Our results indicate that E. coli preferentially avoids adhesion to the LIPSS-covered areas, whereas S. aureus favors these areas for colonization.

  14. Electrochemical synthesis of MoS2 quantum dots embedded nanostructured porous silicon with enhanced electroluminescence property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Megha; Kumari, Reeta; Parra, Mohammad Ramzan; Pandey, Padmini; Siddiqui, Hafsa; Haque, Fozia Z.

    2017-11-01

    In this report we present the successful enhancement in electroluminescence (EL) in nanostructured n-type porous silicon (PS) with an idea of embedding luminophorous Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) quantum dots (QD's). Electrochemical anodization technique was used for the formation of PS surface and MoS2 QD's were prepared using the electrochemical route. Spin coating technique was employed for the proper incorporation of MoS2 QD's within the PS nanostructures. The crystallographic analysis was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. However, surface morphology was determined using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The optical measurements were performed on photoluminescence (PL) spectrophotometer; additionally for electroluminescence (EL) study special arrangement of instrumental setup was made at laboratory level which provides novelty to this work. A diode prototype was made comprising Ag/MoS2:PS/Silicon/Ag for EL study. The MoS2:PS shows a remarkable concentration dependent enhancement in PL as well as in EL intensities, which paves a way to better utilize this strategy in optoelectronic device applications.

  15. Nanostructured silicon via metal assisted catalyzed etch (MACE): chemistry fundamentals and pattern engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toor, Fatima; Miller, Jeffrey B.; Davidson, Lauren M.; Nichols, Logan; Duan, Wenqi; Jura, Michael P.; Yim, Joanne; Forziati, Joanne; Black, Marcie R.

    2016-10-01

    There are a range of different methods to generate a nanostructured surface on silicon (Si) but the most cost effective and optically interesting is the metal assisted wet chemical etching (MACE) (Koynov et al 2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 203107). MACE of Si is a controllable, room-temperature wet-chemical technique that uses a thin layer of metal to etch the surface of Si, leaving behind various nano- and micro-scale surface features or ‘black silicon’. MACE-fabricated nanowires (NWs) provide improved antireflection and light trapping functionality (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66) compared with the traditional ‘iso-texturing’ (Campbell and Green 1987 J. Appl. Phys. 62 243-9). The resulting lower reflection and improved light trapping can lead to higher short circuit currents in NW solar cells (Toor et al 2011 Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 103501). In addition, NW cells can have higher fill factors and voltages than traditionally processed cells, thus leading to increased solar cell efficiencies (Cabrera et al 2013 IEEE J. Photovolt. 3 102-7). MACE NW processing also has synergy with next generation Si solar cell designs, such as thin epitaxial-Si and passivated emitter rear contact (Toor et al 2016 Nanoscale 8 15448-66). While several companies have begun manufacturing black Si, and many more are researching these techniques, much of the work has not been published in traditional journals and is publicly available only through conference proceedings and patent publications, which makes learning the field challenging. There have been three specialized review articles published recently on certain aspects of MACE or black Si, but do not present a full review that would benefit the industry (Liu et al 2014 Energy Environ. Sci. 7 3223-63 Yusufoglu et al 2015 IEEE J. Photovolt. 5 320-8 Huang et al 2011 Adv. Mater. 23 285-308). In this feature article, we review the chemistry of MACE and explore how changing parameters in the wet etch process effects the resulting

  16. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tavangar, Amirhossein; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  17. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premnath, Priyatha, E-mail: priyatha.premnath@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tavangar, Amirhossein, E-mail: atavanga@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tan, Bo, E-mail: tanbo@ryerson.ca [Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan, E-mail: venkat@ryerson.ca [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada)

    2015-09-10

    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  18. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  19. Electrical Double Layer-Induced Ion Surface Accumulation for Ultrasensitive Refractive Index Sensing with Nanostructured Porous Silicon Interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefano; Strambini, Lucanos Marsilio; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2018-03-23

    Herein, we provide the first experimental evidence on the use of electrical double layer (EDL)-induced accumulation of charged ions (using both Na + and K + ions in water as the model) onto a negatively charged nanostructured surface (e.g., thermally growth SiO 2 )-Ion Surface Accumulation, ISA-as a means of improving performance of nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) interferometers for optical refractometric applications. Nanostructured PSi interferometers are very promising optical platforms for refractive index sensing due to PSi huge specific surface (hundreds of m 2 per gram) and low preparation cost (less than $0.01 per 8 in. silicon wafer), though they have shown poor resolution ( R) and detection limit (DL) (on the order of 10 -4 -10 -5 RIU) compared to other plasmonic and photonic platforms ( R and DL on the order of 10 -7 -10 -8 RIU). This can be ascribed to both low sensitivity and high noise floor of PSi interferometers when bulk refractive index variation of the solution infiltrating the nanopores either approaches or is below 10 -4 RIU. Electrical double layer-induced ion surface accumulation (EDL-ISA) on oxidized PSi interferometers allows the interferometer output signal (spectral interferogram) to be impressively amplified at bulk refractive index variation below 10 -4 RIU, increasing, in turn, sensitivity up to 2 orders of magnitude and allowing reliable measurement of refractive index variations to be carried out with both DL and R of 10 -7 RIU. This represents a 250-fold-improvement (at least) with respect to the state-of-the-art literature on PSi refractometers and pushes PSi interferometer performance to that of state-of-the-art ultrasensitive photonics/plasmonics refractive index platforms.

  20. Silicon nanostructures-induced photoelectrochemical solar water splitting for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadwal, U.; Singh, R. [Nanoscale Research Facility (NRF), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016 (India); Ranjan, Neha [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2016-05-23

    We study the photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar water splitting assisted with synthesized nanostructures. Si nanowires decorated with silver dendrite nanostructures have been synthesized using metal assisted wet chemical etching of (100) Si wafer. Etching has been carried out in an aqueous solution consisting of 5M HF and 0.02M AgNO{sub 3}. Investigations showed that such type of semiconductor nanostructures act as efficient working electrodes for the splitting of normal water in PEC method. An enhancement in the photon-to-current conversion efficiency and solar-to-hydrogen evolution was observed for obtaining a practical source of clean and renewable fuel.

  1. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, Lars [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); TOTAL Marketing Services, New Energies, La Défense 10, 92069 Paris La Défense Cedex (France); Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Schofield, Steven R. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCL, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Curson, Neil J., E-mail: n.curson@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); London Centre for Nanotechnology, UCL, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  2. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberbeck, Lars; Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Schofield, Steven R.; Curson, Neil J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  3. Morphology and stress study of nanostructured porous silicon as a substrate for PbTe thin films growth by electrochemical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata Borges Miranda

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Porous silicon layers (PSL were produced by stain etching from a HF:HNO3 500:1 mixture with etching time varying in the range of 1 up to 10 min. The samples have presented nanometric porosity as a function of etching time, characteristic of heavily doped p type silicon. The residual stress and the correlation length of the layers were obtained through the analysis of the micro-Raman spectra using a phonon confinement model including a term to account for the amorphous phase. The residual compressive stress tends to increase as expected due to the contribution of smaller crystallites to be more representative as the etching time increases. PbTe thin films were electrodeposited on PSL from aqueous alkaline solutions of Pb(CH3COO2, disodium salt of ethylendiaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and TeO2 by galvanostatic and potentiostatic method. It was also obtained nanostructured PbTe thin films with polycrystalline morphology evidenced by X-ray Diffraction (XRD spectra. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis has demonstrated good films reproducibility with an average grain size of 100 nm.

  4. Annealing Behavior of Nanostructured Aluminum Produced by Cold Rolling to Ultrahigh Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, W.Q.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The isochronal annealing behavior of nanostructured commercial purity aluminum (AA1100 and AA1200) produced by either cold rolling (CR) or accumulative roll bonding (ARB) up to ultrahigh strains of about 99.5 pct reduction in thickness has been studied in the temperature range from 200 degrees C...... to 420 degrees C. Microstructural and texture measurements were made using data from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigations, and the change in mechanical strength was followed using hardness measurements. A large effect of the rolling strain is observed on recovery at temperatures below...... for analyzing the uniformity of the structural coarsening, based on analysis of the crystallite size distribution with respect to the mode, is described. The analysis demonstrates that annealing leads to locally nonuniform changes in the microstructure, and to a description of the annealing process...

  5. Metal-like self-organization of periodic nanostructures on silicon and silicon carbide under femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemini, Laura; Hashida, Masaki; Shimizu, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji; Limpouch, Jiri; Mocek, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Periodic structures were generated on Si and SiC surfaces by irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses. Self-organized structures with spatial periodicity of approximately 600 nm appear on silicon and silicon carbide in the laser fluence range just above the ablation threshold and upon irradiation with a large number of pulses. As in the case of metals, the dependence of the spatial periodicity on laser fluence can be explained by the parametric decay of laser light into surface plasma waves. The results show that the proposed model might be universally applicable to any solid state material

  6. Separation followed by direct SERS detection of explosives on a novel black silicon multifunctional nanostructured surface prepared in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Hübner, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the multifunctionality of a novel black silicon (BS) nanostructured surface covered with a thin layer of noble metal prepared in the a microfluidic channel. It is focused on the separation properties of the BS substrate with direct detection of the separated analytes utilizing...

  7. Intense ${^31-35}$Ar beams produced with a nanostructured CaO target at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, J P; Mendonça, T M; Seiffert, C; Senos, A M R; Fynbo, H O U; Tengblad, O; Briz, J A; Lund, M V; Koldste, G T; Carmona-Gallardo, M; Pesudo, V; Stora, T

    2014-01-01

    At the ISOLDE facility at CERN, thick targets are bombarded with highly energetic pulsed protons to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The isotopes produced in the bulk of the material have to diffuse out of the grain and effuse throughout the porosity of the material to a transfer line which is connected to an ionizer, from which the charged isotopes are extracted and delivered for physics experiments. Calcium oxide (CaO) powder targets have been used to produce mainly neutron deficient argon and carbon RIBs over the past decades. Such targets presented unstable yields, either decaying over time or low from the beginning of operation. These problems were suspected to come from the degradation of the target microstructure (sintering due to high temperature and/or high proton intensity). In this work, a CaO microstructural study in terms of sintering was conducted on a nanostructured CaO powder synthesized from the respective carbonate. Taking the results of this study, several changes were made at ISOLDE i...

  8. nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    In this method no special electrolytes, chemicals and surfactants are needed. ... tures collected from the bottom of the cell are either nanothreads embodying beads of different diameters,. ~10–40 nm or .... when copious oxygen produced through electrolysis at- ... corresponding bandgap calculations of the as synthesized.

  9. Using reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy to characterize capped silver nanostructures grown on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, K.; Jacob, J.; McGilp, J.F. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Chandola, S. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); ISAS - Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Esser, N. [ISAS - Institute for Analytical Sciences, Department Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Using the single domain Si(111)-3 x 1-Ag surface as a template, room temperature deposition of two or more monolayers of Ag leads to the formation of metallic nanostructures. Reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) in the infrared (IR) spectral region is used to analyse the anisotropic conductivity of the structures. The anisotropy is found to be influenced by the offcut angle of the substrate, and hence the terrace width. The Ag nanostructures were capped with Si to form a near-IR transparent protecting layer. The samples are stable to exposure to ambient conditions for significant periods. The RAS spectra are compared to model calculations, which support the conclusion that the buried metallic Ag nanostructures survive the capping process. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Electrochemical Fabrication of Nanostructures on Porous Silicon for Biochemical Sensing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Euna; Hwang, Joonki; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Joo Heon; Lee, Sung Hwan; Tran, Van-Khue; Chung, Woo Sung; Park, Chan Ho; Choo, Jaebum; Seong, Gi Hun

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for the electrochemical patterning of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on porous silicon, and explore their applications in: (1) the quantitative analysis of hydroxylamine as a chemical sensing electrode and (2) as a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate for Rhodamine 6G. For hydroxylamine detection, AuNPs-porous silicon can enhance the electrochemical oxidation of hydroxylamine. The current changed linearly for concentrations ranging from 100 μM to 1.32 mM (R(2) = 0.995), and the detection limit was determined to be as low as 55 μM. When used as SERS substrates, these materials also showed that nanoparticles decorated on porous silicon substrates have more SERS hot spots than those decorated on crystalline silicon substrates, resulting in a larger SERS signal. Moreover, AgNPs-porous silicon provided five-times higher signal compared to AuNPs-porous silicon. From these results, we expect that nanoparticles decorated on porous silicon substrates can be used in various types of biochemical sensing platforms.

  11. Process for producing silicon nitride based articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, M.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-10

    A process for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength is disclosed. The process involves densifying to at least 98% of theoretical density a mixture including (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12 m[sup 2]/g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. Optionally, the mixture may be blended with a binder and injection molded to form a green body, which then may be densified by, for example, hot isostatic pressing.

  12. Electrically active, doped monocrystalline silicon nanoparticles produced by hot wire thermal catalytic pyrolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Doped silicon nanoparticles have successfully been produced by hot wire thermal catalytic pyrolysis at 40 mbar and a filament temperature of 1800 °C, using a mixture of silane and diborane or phosphine. All particles are monocrystalline with shapes...

  13. Modelling of the hydrogen effects on the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor; Modelisation des effets de l'hydrogene sur la morphogenese des nanostructures de silicium hydrogene dans un reacteur plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brulin, Q

    2006-01-15

    This work pursues the goal of understanding mechanisms related to the morphogenesis of hydrogenated silicon nano-structures in a plasma reactor through modeling techniques. Current technologies are first reviewed with an aim to understand the purpose behind their development. Then follows a summary of the possible studies which are useful in this particular context. The various techniques which make it possible to simulate the trajectories of atoms by molecular dynamics are discussed. The quantum methods of calculation of the interaction potential between chemical species are then developed, reaching the conclusion that only semi-empirical quantum methods are sufficiently fast to be able to implement an algorithm of quantum molecular dynamics on a reasonable timescale. From the tools introduced, a reflection on the nature of molecular metastable energetic states is presented for the theoretical case of the self-organized growth of a linear chain of atoms. This model - which consists of propagating the growth of a chain by the successive addition of the atom which least increases the electronic energy of the chain - shows that the Fermi level is a parameter essential to self organization during growth. This model also shows that the structure formed is not necessarily a total minimum energy structure. From all these numerical tools, the molecular growth of clusters can be simulated by using parameters from magnetohydrodynamic calculation results of plasma reactor modeling (concentrations of the species, interval between chemical reactions, energy of impact of the reagents...). The formation of silicon-hydrogen clusters is thus simulated by the successive capture of silane molecules. The structures formed in simulation at the operating temperatures of the plasma reactor predict the formation of spherical clusters constituting an amorphous silicon core covered by hydrogen. These structures are thus not in a state of minimum energy, contrary to certain experimental

  14. Silicon based multilayer photoelectrodes for photoelectrolysis of water to produce hydrogen from the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Faisal

    The main objective of this work is to study different materials for the direct photosynthesis of hydrogen from water. A variety of photocatalysts such as titanium dioxide, titanium oxy-nitride, silicon carbide, and gallium nitride are being investigated by others for the clean production of hydrogen for fuel cells and hydrogen economy. Our approach was to deposit suitable metallic regions on photocatalyst nanoparticles to direct the efficient synthesis of hydrogen to a particular site for convenient collection. We studied different electrode metals such as gold, platinum, titanium, palladium, and tungsten. We also studied different solar cell materials such as silicon (p- and n-types), silicon carbide and titanium dioxide semiconductors in order to efficiently generate electrons under illumination. We introduced a novel silicon-based multilayer photosynthesis device to take advantage of suitable properties of silicon and tungsten to efficiently produce hydrogen. The device consisted of a silicon (0.5mm) substrate, a deposited atomic layer of Al2O 3 (1nm), a doped polysilicon (0.1microm), and finally a tungsten nanoporous (5-10nm) layer acting as an interface electrode with water. The Al2O 3 layer was introduced to reduce leakage current and to prevent the spreading of the diffused p-n junction layer between the silicon and doped polysilicon layers. The surface of the photoelectrode was coated with nanotextured tungsten nanopores (TNP), which increased the surface area of the electrodes to the electrolyte, assisting in electron-hole mobility, and acting as a photocatalyst. The reported device exhibited a fill factor (%FF) of 27.22% and solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 0.03174%. This thesis describes the structures of the device, and offers a characterization and comparison between different photoelectrodes.

  15. High performance nanostructured Silicon heterojunction for water splitting on large scales

    KAUST Repository

    Bonifazi, Marcella

    2017-11-02

    In past years the global demand for energy has been increasing steeply, as well as the awareness that new sources of clean energy are essential. Photo-electrochemical devices (PEC) for water splitting applications have stirred great interest, and different approach has been explored to improve the efficiency of these devices and to avoid optical losses at the interfaces with water. These include engineering materials and nanostructuring the device\\'s surfaces [1]-[2]. Despite the promising initial results, there are still many drawbacks that needs to be overcome to reach large scale production with optimized performances [3]. We present a new device that relies on the optimization of the nanostructuring process that exploits suitably disordered surfaces. Additionally, this device could harvest light on both sides to efficiently gain and store the energy to keep the photocatalytic reaction active.

  16. High performance nanostructured Silicon heterojunction for water splitting on large scales

    KAUST Repository

    Bonifazi, Marcella; Fu, Hui-chun; He, Jr-Hau; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In past years the global demand for energy has been increasing steeply, as well as the awareness that new sources of clean energy are essential. Photo-electrochemical devices (PEC) for water splitting applications have stirred great interest, and different approach has been explored to improve the efficiency of these devices and to avoid optical losses at the interfaces with water. These include engineering materials and nanostructuring the device's surfaces [1]-[2]. Despite the promising initial results, there are still many drawbacks that needs to be overcome to reach large scale production with optimized performances [3]. We present a new device that relies on the optimization of the nanostructuring process that exploits suitably disordered surfaces. Additionally, this device could harvest light on both sides to efficiently gain and store the energy to keep the photocatalytic reaction active.

  17. Gold Nanostructures for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Prepared by Electrodeposition in Porous Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio H. Ogata

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposition of gold into porous silicon was investigated. In the present study, porous silicon with ~100 nm in pore diameter, so-called medium-sized pores, was used as template electrode for gold electrodeposition. The growth behavior of gold deposits was studied by scanning electron microscope observation of the gold deposited porous silicon. Gold nanorod arrays with different rod lengths were prepared, and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties were investigated. We found that the absorption peak due to the surface plasmon resonance can be tuned by changing the length of the nanorods. The optimum length of the gold nanorods was ~600 nm for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy using a He-Ne laser. The reason why the optimum length of the gold nanorods was 600 nm was discussed by considering the relationship between the absorption peak of surface plasmon resonance and the wavelength of the incident laser for Raman scattering.

  18. Generation of silicon nanostructures by atmospheric microplasma jet: the role of hydrogen admixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barwe, B.; Stein, A.; Cibulka, Ondřej; Pelant, Ivan; Ghanbaja, J.; Belmonte, T.; Benedikt, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2015), s. 132-140 ISSN 1612-8850 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atmospheric pressure plasmas * HRTEM * microplasmas * photoluminescence * silicon nanocrystals Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2015

  19. Spin-on nanostructured silicon-silica film displaying room-temperature nanosecond lifetime photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y.; Hatton, B.; Miguez, H.; Coombs, N.; Fournier-Bidoz, S.; Ozin, G.A. [Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, Lash Miller Chemical Laboratories, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Grey, J.K.; Beaulac, R.; Reber, C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2003-04-17

    A yellow transparent mesoporous silica film has been achieved by the incorporation of silicon nanoclusters into its channels. The resulting nanocomposite - fabricated using a combination of evaporation induced self- assembly and chemical vapor deposition - emits light brightly at visible wavelengths and has nanosecond radiative lifetimes at room temperature when excited by ultraviolet light (see Figure). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Modal analysis of silicon nanostructured waveguide with holey cladding in 2-D isosceles triangular lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Vos, Willem L.

    2009-01-01

    Silicon photonics, either in the form of integrated optical chips or fiber, has attracted much interest due to their small foot-print, high refractive-index, high thermal conductivity, high non-linear-optical coefficient, and compatibility with CMOS and fiber-drawing process technology. Recently,

  1. Ultrathin silicon solar cells with enhanced photocurrents assisted by plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Stassen, Erik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar cells is limited by poor light absorption. We have devised an ultra-thin-film silicon solar cell configuration assisted by plasmonic nan...

  2. Detection of gain enhancement in laser-induced fluorescence of rhodamine B lasing dye by silicon dioxide nanostructures-coated cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tameemi, Mohammed N. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, nanostructured silicon dioxide films are deposited by closed-field unbalanced direct-current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering technique on two sides of quartz cells containing rhodamine B dye dissolved in ethanol with 10‒5 M concentration as a random gain medium. The preparation conditions are optimized to prepare highly pure SiO2 nanostructures with a minimum particle size of about 20 nm. The effect of SiO2 films as external cavity for the random gain medium is determined by the laser-induced fluorescence of this medium, and an increase of about 200% in intensity is observed after the deposition of nanostructured SiO2 thin films on two sides of the dye cell.

  3. Laser desorption/ionization from nanostructured surfaces: nanowires, nanoparticle films and silicon microcolumn arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Luo Guanghong; Diao Jiajie; Chornoguz, Olesya; Reeves, Mark; Vertes, Akos

    2007-01-01

    Due to their optical properties and morphology, thin films formed of nanoparticles are potentially new platforms for soft laser desorption/ionization (SLDI) mass spectrometry. Thin films of gold nanoparticles (with 12±1 nm particle size) were prepared by evaporation-driven vertical colloidal deposition and used to analyze a series of directly deposited polypeptide samples. In this new SLDI method, the required laser fluence for ion detection was equal or less than what was needed for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) but the resulting spectra were free of matrix interferences. A silicon microcolumn array-based substrate (a.k.a. black silicon) was developed as a new matrix-free laser desorption ionization surface. When low-resistivity silicon wafers were processed with a 22 ps pulse length 3xω Nd:YAG laser in air, SF 6 or water environment, regularly arranged conical spikes emerged. The radii of the spike tips varied with the processing environment, ranging from approximately 500 nm in water, to ∼2 μm in SF 6 gas and to ∼5 μm in air. Peptide mass spectra directly induced by a nitrogen laser showed the formation of protonated ions of angiotensin I and II, substance P, bradykinin fragment 1-7, synthetic peptide, pro14-arg, and insulin from the processed silicon surfaces but not from the unprocessed areas. Threshold fluences for desorption/ionization were similar to those used in MALDI. Although compared to silicon nanowires the threshold laser pulse energy for ionization is significantly (∼10x) higher, the ease of production and robustness of microcolumn arrays offer complementary benefits

  4. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Frey, M.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Hänsel, S.; Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M.; Kucharski, K.; Macchiolo, A.; Marczewski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  5. Results from a first production of enhanced Silicon Sensor Test Structures produced by ITE Warsaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at; Frey, M. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Haensel, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Hartmann, F.; Hoffmann, K.-H. [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Universitaet Karlsruhe (Thailand) (Germany); Hrubec, J.; Krammer, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Kucharski, K. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland); Macchiolo, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (MPI), Munich (Germany); Marczewski, J. [Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring the manufacturing process of silicon sensors is essential to ensure stable quality of the produced detectors. During the CMS silicon sensor production we were utilising small Test Structures (TS) incorporated on the cut-away of the wafers to measure certain process-relevant parameters. Experience from the CMS production and quality assurance led to enhancements of these TS. Another important application of TS is the commissioning of new vendors. The measurements provide us with a good understanding of the capabilities of a vendor's process. A first batch of the new TS was produced at the Institute of Electron Technology in Warsaw Poland. We will first review the improvements to the original CMS test structures and then discuss a selection of important measurements performed on this first batch.

  6. Study of the phase composition of nanostructures produced by the local anodic oxidation of titanium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avilov, V. I.; Ageev, O. A.; Konoplev, B. G.; Smirnov, V. A.; Solodovnik, M. S.; Tsukanova, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental studies of the phase composition of oxide nanostructures formed by the local anodic oxidation of a titanium thin film are reported. The data of the phase analysis of titanium-oxide nanostructures are obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the ion profiling mode of measurements. It is established that the surface of titanium-oxide nanostructures 4.5 ± 0.2 nm in height possesses a binding energy of core levels characteristic of TiO_2 (458.4 eV). By analyzing the titanium-oxide nanostructures in depth by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the formation of phases with binding energies of core levels characteristic of Ti_2O_3 (456.6 eV) and TiO (454.8 eV) is established. The results can be used in developing the technological processes of the formation of a future electronic-component base for nanoelectronics on the basis of titanium-oxide nanostructures and probe nanotechnologies.

  7. Sub-parts per million NO2 chemi-transistor sensors based on composite porous silicon/gold nanostructures prepared by metal-assisted etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainato, Michela; Strambini, Lucanos Marsilio; Rella, Simona; Mazzotta, Elisabetta; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2015-04-08

    Surface doping of nano/mesostructured materials with metal nanoparticles to promote and optimize chemi-transistor sensing performance represents the most advanced research trend in the field of solid-state chemical sensing. In spite of the promising results emerging from metal-doping of a number of nanostructured semiconductors, its applicability to silicon-based chemi-transistor sensors has been hindered so far by the difficulties in integrating the composite metal-silicon nanostructures using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Here we propose a facile and effective top-down method for the high-yield fabrication of chemi-transistor sensors making use of composite porous silicon/gold nanostructures (cSiAuNs) acting as sensing gate. In particular, we investigate the integration of cSiAuNs synthesized by metal-assisted etching (MAE), using gold nanoparticles (NPs) as catalyst, in solid-state junction-field-effect transistors (JFETs), aimed at the detection of NO2 down to 100 parts per billion (ppb). The chemi-transistor sensors, namely cSiAuJFETs, are CMOS compatible, operate at room temperature, and are reliable, sensitive, and fully recoverable for the detection of NO2 at concentrations between 100 and 500 ppb, up to 48 h of continuous operation.

  8. Inverse metal-assisted chemical etching produces smooth high aspect ratio InP nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Mohseni, Parsian K; Song, Yi; Ishihara, Tatsumi; Li, Xiuling

    2015-01-14

    Creating high aspect ratio (AR) nanostructures by top-down fabrication without surface damage remains challenging for III-V semiconductors. Here, we demonstrate uniform, array-based InP nanostructures with lateral dimensions as small as sub-20 nm and AR > 35 using inverse metal-assisted chemical etching (I-MacEtch) in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), a purely solution-based yet anisotropic etching method. The mechanism of I-MacEtch, in contrast to regular MacEtch, is explored through surface characterization. Unique to I-MacEtch, the sidewall etching profile is remarkably smooth, independent of metal pattern edge roughness. The capability of this simple method to create various InP nanostructures, including high AR fins, can potentially enable the aggressive scaling of InP based transistors and optoelectronic devices with better performance and at lower cost than conventional etching methods.

  9. Nano-structure and tribological properties of B+ and Ti+ co-implanted silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Noda, Katsutoshi; Yamauchi, Yukihiko

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics have been co-implanted with boron and titanium ions at a fluence of 2 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 and an energy of 200 keV. TEM results indicated that the boron and titanium-implanted layers were amorphized separately and titanium nitride nano-crystallites were formed in the titanium-implanted layer. XPS results indicated that the implantation profile varied a little depending on the ion implantation sequence of boron and titanium ions, with the boron implantation peak shifting to a shallower position when implanted after Ti + -implantation. Wear tests of these ion-implanted materials were carried out using a block-on-ring wear tester under non-lubricated conditions against commercially available silicon nitride materials. The specific wear rate was reduced by ion implantation and showed that the specific wear rate of Ti + -implanted sample was the lowest, followed by B + , Ti + co-implanted and B + -implanted samples

  10. UV Laser Deposition of Nanostructured Si/C/O/N/H Precursor to Silicon Oxycarbonitride

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pola, Josef; Galíková, Anna; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Vacek, Karel; Brus, Jiří; Ouchi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2006), s. 648-655 ISSN 0268-2605 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 684 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : laser photolysis * silicon oxycarbonitride * chemical vapor deposition Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.233, year: 2006

  11. Dielectrophoretic trapping of multilayer DNA origami nanostructures and DNA origami-induced local destruction of silicon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Boxuan; Linko, Veikko; Dietz, Hendrik; Toppari, J Jussi

    2015-01-01

    DNA origami is a widely used method for fabrication of custom-shaped nanostructures. However, to utilize such structures, one needs to controllably position them on nanoscale. Here we demonstrate how different types of 3D scaffolded multilayer origamis can be accurately anchored to lithographically fabricated nanoelectrodes on a silicon dioxide substrate by DEP. Straight brick-like origami structures, constructed both in square (SQL) and honeycomb lattices, as well as curved "C"-shaped and angular "L"-shaped origamis were trapped with nanoscale precision and single-structure accuracy. We show that the positioning and immobilization of all these structures can be realized with or without thiol-linkers. In general, structural deformations of the origami during the DEP trapping are highly dependent on the shape and the construction of the structure. The SQL brick turned out to be the most robust structure under the high DEP forces, and accordingly, its single-structure trapping yield was also highest. In addition, the electrical conductivity of single immobilized plain brick-like structures was characterized. The electrical measurements revealed that the conductivity is negligible (insulating behavior). However, we observed that the trapping process of the SQL brick equipped with thiol-linkers tended to induce an etched "nanocanyon" in the silicon dioxide substrate. The nanocanyon was formed exactly between the electrodes, that is, at the location of the DEP-trapped origami. The results show that the demonstrated DEP-trapping technique can be readily exploited in assembling and arranging complex multilayered origami geometries. In addition, DNA origamis could be utilized in DEP-assisted deformation of the substrates onto which they are attached. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Silicon-carbon fullerenelike nanostructures: An ab initio study on the stability of Si60C2n (n=1, 2) clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, A.; Huda, M. N.; Ray, A. K.

    2005-01-01

    Fullerenelike nanostructures of silicon with two and four carbon atoms substituted on the surface of Si 60 cages, as well as inside the cage at various symmetry orientations, have been studied within the generalized-gradient approximation to density-functional theory. Full geometry optimizations have been performed without any symmetry constraints using the GAUSSIAN 03 suite of programs and the Los Alamos National Laboratory 2 double-ζ basis set. For the silicon atom, the Hay-Wadt pseudopotential with the associated basis set are used for the core electrons and the valence electrons, respectively. For the carbon atom, the Dunning-Huzinaga double-ζ basis set is employed. Electronic and geometric properties of the nanostructures are presented and discussed in detail. It was found that optimized silicon-carbon fullerenelike cages have increased stability compared to the bare Si 60 cage and the stability depends on the number and orientation of carbon atoms, as well as on the nature of bonding between silicon and carbon atoms

  13. Fabrication and characterization of a chemically oxidized-nanostructured porous silicon based biosensor implementing orienting protein A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveas, Nelson; Hernandez-Montelongo, Jacobo; Pulido, Ruth; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Villanueva-Guerrero, Raúl; Predestinación García Ruiz, Josefa; Manso-Silván, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured porous silicon (PSi) elicits as a very attractive material for future biosensing systems due to its high surface area, biocompatibility and well-established fabrication methods. In order to engineer its performance as a biosensor transducer platform, the density of immunoglobulins properly immobilized and oriented onto the surface needs to be optimized. In this work we fabricated and characterized a novel biosensing system focusing on the improvement of the biofunctionalization cascade. The system consists on a chemically oxidized PSi platform derivatized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) that is coupled to Staphylococcus protein A (SpA). The chemical oxidation has previously demonstrated to enhance the biofunctionalization process and here "by implementing SpA" a molecularly oriented immunosensor is achieved. The biosensor system is characterized in terms of its chemical composition, wettability and optical reflectance. Finally, this system is successfully exploited to develop a biosensor for detecting asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous molecule involved in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this work is relevant from the point of view of design and optimization of the biomolecular immobilization cascade on PSi surfaces with the added value of contribution to the development of new assays for detecting ADMA with a view on prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polymorphous silicon thin films produced in dusty plasmas: application to solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Chaabane, N; Kharchenko, A V; Tchakarov, S

    2004-01-01

    We summarize our current understanding of the optimization of PIN solar cells produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from silane-hydrogen mixtures. To increase the deposition rate, the discharge is operated under plasma conditions close to powder formation, where silicon nanocrystals contribute to the deposition of so-called polymorphous silicon thin films. We show that the increase in deposition rate can be achieved via an accurate control of the plasma parameters. However, this also results in a highly defective interface in the solar cells due to the bombardment of the P-layer by positively charged nanocrystals during the deposition of the I-layer. We show that decreasing the ion energy by increasing the total pressure or by using silane-helium mixtures allows us to increase both the deposition rate and the solar cells efficiency, as required for cost effective thin film photovoltaics

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy on novel black silicon-based nanostructured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Orinak, A.

    2009-01-01

    , effects of Ti and Ti/Pt adhesion layers underneath the gold layers on the analytical signal enhancement were tested. An enhancement factor of 7.6 x 10(7) with the excitation laser 785 nm was achieved for the tested analyte, Rhodamine 6G, and non-resonance SER spectra were recorded in a 5 s acquisition...... mode. Such an enhancement enables to achieve a detection limit down to 2.4 pg of Rhodamine 6G on a black silicon-based nanosurface coated with a 400-nm-thin layer of gold....

  16. Influence of irradiation dose on laser-induced surface nanostructures on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlamova, Olga [Brandenburgische Technische Universität BTU Cottbus, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Cottbus JointLab, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Bounhalli, Mourad [Brandenburgische Technische Universität BTU Cottbus, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université St. Etienne, Bâtiment F 18 Rue du Professeur Benoît Lauras, 42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Reif, Juergen, E-mail: REIF@TU-COTTBUS.DE [Brandenburgische Technische Universität BTU Cottbus, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany); Cottbus JointLab, Platz der Deutschen Einheit 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the dependence of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on an increase of incident pulse number. On silicon, the patterns evolve from linear, parallel sub-wavelength ripples, grossly perpendicular to the laser polarization, via coalesced wider features parallel to the polarization, to a crater with periodically structured, pillar-like walls. Closer inspection of the patterns indicates that the different features always continue to exhibit reminiscence to the preceding lower-dose patterns, suggesting that, indeed, all patterns can be created by ONE single GENERAL formation process, as in self-organized structure formation, and the different structures/feature sizes are NOT due to DIFFERENT mechanisms.

  17. Influence of irradiation dose on laser-induced surface nanostructures on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamova, Olga; Bounhalli, Mourad; Reif, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    We report on the dependence of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on an increase of incident pulse number. On silicon, the patterns evolve from linear, parallel sub-wavelength ripples, grossly perpendicular to the laser polarization, via coalesced wider features parallel to the polarization, to a crater with periodically structured, pillar-like walls. Closer inspection of the patterns indicates that the different features always continue to exhibit reminiscence to the preceding lower-dose patterns, suggesting that, indeed, all patterns can be created by ONE single GENERAL formation process, as in self-organized structure formation, and the different structures/feature sizes are NOT due to DIFFERENT mechanisms.

  18. [Investigation of emergency capacities for occupational hazard accidents in silicon solar cell producing enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D D; Xu, J N; Zhu, B L

    2016-11-20

    Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces. The poisoning chemicals included nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, chlorine, phos-phorus oxychloride, phosphorus pentoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, silane, and so on; the workplaces in-cluded the area of producing battery slides and auxiliary producing area. Among the nine enterprises, gas detec-tors were installed in special gas supplying stations and sites, but the height, location and alarmvalues of gas detectors in six enterprises were not according with standard criteria; emergency shower and eyewash equip-ment were installed in workplaces with strong corrosive chemicals, but the issues of waste water were not solved; ventilation systems were set in the workplaces with ammonia and silane, but not qualified with part lo-cations and parameters in two enterprises; warehouses with materials of acid, alkali, chemical ammonia and phosphorus oxychloride were equipped with positive - pressure air respirator resuscitator and emergency cabi-nets, but with insufficient quantity in seven enterprises and expiration in part of products. The error rate of set-up emergency program and wearing chemical cloth were 30%~100% and 10%~30%, respectively. Among the nine enterprises, there were emergency rescue plans for dangerous chemical accidents, but without profession-al heatstroke and irradiation accident emergency plans

  19. Structural investigations of silicon nanostructures grown by self-organized island formation for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roczen, Maurizio; Malguth, Enno; Barthel, Thomas; Gref, Orman; Toefflinger, Jan A.; Schoepke, Andreas; Schmidt, Manfred; Ruske, Florian; Korte, Lars; Rech, Bernd [Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schade, Martin; Leipner, Hartmut S. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften, Halle (Germany); Callsen, Gordon; Hoffmann, Axel [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Berlin (Germany); Phillips, Matthew R. [University of Technology Sydney, Department of Physics and Advanced Materials, NSW (Australia)

    2012-09-15

    The self-organized growth of crystalline silicon nanodots and their structural characteristics are investigated. For the nanodot synthesis, thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers with different thicknesses have been deposited onto the ultrathin (2 nm) oxidized (111) surface of Si wafers by electron beam evaporation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The solid phase crystallization of the initial layer is induced by a subsequent in situ annealing step at 700 C, which leads to the dewetting of the initial a-Si layer. This process results in the self-organized formation of highly crystalline Si nanodot islands. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that size, shape, and planar distribution of the nanodots depend on the thickness of the initial a-Si layer. Cross-sectional investigations reveal a single-crystalline structure of the nanodots. This characteristic is observed as long as the thickness of the initial a-Si layer remains under a certain threshold triggering coalescence. The underlying ultra-thin oxide is not structurally affected by the dewetting process. Furthermore, a method for the fabrication of close-packed stacks of nanodots is presented, in which each nanodot is covered by a 2 nm thick SiO{sub 2} shell. The chemical composition of these ensembles exhibits an abrupt Si/SiO{sub 2} interface with a low amount of suboxides. A minority charge carrier lifetime of 18 {mu}s inside of the nanodots is determined. (orig.)

  20. Silver nanoparticles incorporated into nanostructured biopolymer membranes produced by electrospinning: a study of antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Segala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study examines the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles incorporated into nanostructured membranes made of cellulose acetate (CA and blends of chitosan/poly-(ethylene oxide, CTS/PEO and prepared by electrospinning. The formation of chemically synthesized Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size distribution of the AgNPs was measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS, with an average size of approximately 20 nm. The presence of AgNPs on the surface of electrospun nanofibers was observed by field emission electron microscopy (FEG and confirmed by TEM. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs incorporated into nanostructured membranes made of CA and CTS/PEO electrospun nanofibers was evaluated in the presence of both Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919, and Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli ATCC 25992 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 17933. Microbiological results showed that the presence of AgNPs in CA and CTS/PEO nanostructured membranes has significant antimicrobial activity for the Gram-positive bacteria Escherichia coli and Propionibacterium acnes.

  1. Plasmonic Nanostructure for Enhanced Light Absorption in Ultrathin Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinna He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of thin film solar cells are considerably limited by the low light absorption. Plasmonic nanostructures have been introduced in the thin film solar cells as a possible solution around this issue in recent years. Here, we propose a solar cell design, in which an ultrathin Si film covered by a periodic array of Ag strips is placed on a metallic nanograting substrate. The simulation results demonstrate that the designed structure gives rise to 170% light absorption enhancement over the full solar spectrum with respect to the bared Si thin film. The excited multiple resonant modes, including optical waveguide modes within the Si layer, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR of Ag stripes, and surface plasmon polaritons (SPP arising from the bottom grating, and the coupling effect between LSPR and SPP modes through an optimization of the array periods are considered to contribute to the significant absorption enhancement. This plasmonic solar cell design paves a promising way to increase light absorption for thin film solar cell applications.

  2. Molecular-mediated crystal growth of PbTiO3 nanostructure on silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Chunying; Ren Zhaohui; Liu Zhenya; Xiao Zhen; Xu Gang; Li Xiang; Wei Xiao; Shen Ge; Han Gaorong

    2011-01-01

    A simple approach based on an organically modified sol-gel process has been developed to fabricate PbTiO 3 (PT) nanocrystals on Si (1 0 0) substrate, where the amorphous powder modified by acetylacetone (acac) was used as precursor. After dropping the amorphous powder precursor prepared by freeze-drying process, PT nanocrystals on Si (1 0 0) substrate were obtained after heat treatment at 720 deg. C for 30 min in air. PT nanocrystals have been detected by XRD to be tetragonal perovskite structure. With the increase of acac/Pb molar ratio, the relative (1 0 0)/(0 0 1) diffraction peak intensity gradually increases, which probably suggested an oriented growth of PT nanocrystal along [1 0 0] on Si (1 0 0) substrates. In addition, Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results indicated that the height and the average lateral size of PT nanocrystal increased and then decreased as the acac/Pb molar ratio increased. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrated that all the samples show obvious piezoelectric activity. These results implied that the acetylacetone molecular mediated the growth of PT nanocrystals on Si (1 0 0) substrates possibly by the acac/Pb molar ratio. This simple method has been suggested to be attractive for tailoring an oriented growth of the nanostructures of perovskite oxide systems on Si substrates.

  3. Adsorption of small NaCl clusters on surfaces of silicon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, Maximilian; Alireza Ghasemi, S; Goedecker, Stefan; Neelov, Alexey; Genovese, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    We have studied possible adsorption geometries of neutral NaCl clusters on the disordered surface of a large silicon model tip used in non-contact atomic force microscopy. The minima hopping method was used to determine low energy model tip configurations as well as ground state geometries of isolated NaCl clusters. The combined system was treated with density functional theory. Alkali halides have proven to be strong structure seekers and tend to form highly stable ground state configurations whenever possible. The favored adsorption geometry for four Na and four Cl atoms was found to be an adsorption of four NaCl dimers due to the formation of Cl-Si bonds. However, for larger NaCl clusters, the increasing energy required to dissociate the cluster into NaCl dimers suggests that adsorption of whole clusters in their isolated ground state configuration is preferred.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd, E-mail: utocoglu@sakarya.edu.tr; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  5. Electrochemical characterization of silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid lithium-ion battery anodes produced via RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toçoğlu, Ubeyd; Hatipoğlu, Gizem; Alaf, Miraç; Kayış, Fuat; Akbulut, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid composite anodes were produced via RF magnetron sputtering technique. CR2016 type coin cells were assembled for electrochemical characterization of anodes. Electrochemical characterizations of anodes were conducted via galvanostatic charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. - Highlights: • Silicon/graphene/MWCNT hybrid negative lithium ion battery anodes were produced via magnetron sputtering. • Structural and electrochemical characterizations of composite anodes were conducted comprehensively. • The capacity values exhibited by composite anodes were found to be almost more than two times compared to thin film anodes after 100 cycles. - Abstract: In this study it was aimed to enhance cycling performance of silicon lithium ion battery anodes via producing flexible Silicon/Graphene/MWCNT composite structures. The volumetric expansions, which are the primary obstacle that hinders the practical usage of silicon anodes, were tried to suppress using flexible graphene/MWCNT paper substrates. Moreover to achieve lightweight and high electrical conductive anodes, the advantage of graphene was aimed to be exploited. Silicon/graphene/MWCNT flexible composite anodes were produced via radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique. Graphene/MWCNT papers were produced with vacuum filtration technique as substrate for sputtering process. At coating process of papers constant sputtering power was applied. Phase analysis was conducted with X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and Raman spectroscopy. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) tests were carried out to reveal reversible reactions between silicon and lithium. Galvanostatic charge/discharge technique was employed to determine the cyclic performance of anodes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique was used to understand the relation between cyclic performance and

  6. Correlation of displacement effects produced by electrons, protons, and neutrons in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lint, V.A.J.; Gigas, G.; Barengoltz, J.

    1975-01-01

    The correlation of displacement effects produced by electrons, protons, and neutrons in silicon is studied. Available data from the literature is employed. In particular the scope of the study is limited to the degradation of excess carrier lifetime and device electrical parameters directly related to it. The degree to which displacement effects may be correlated in order to predict semiconductor device response based on response data to another type of radiation is discussed. Useful ranges of the correlation factors (K/sub tau/ ratios) as a function of device majority carrier type, device resistivity, and injection level are presented. A significant dependence on injection level for the correlation factors is found

  7. Comparison of pad detectors produced on different silicon materials after irradiation with neutrons, protons and pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2010-01-01

    A set of 44 pad detectors produced on p- and n-type MCz and Fz wafers was irradiated with 23 GeV protons, 200 MeV pions and reactor neutrons up to the equivalent fluences of Φ eq =3x10 15 cm -2 . The evolution of the full depletion voltage and the leakage current were monitored during short- and long-term annealing. At selected representative annealing steps, charge collection measurements were performed for all samples with LHC speed electronics. Measurements of full depletion voltage, leakage current and charge collection efficiency were compared for different irradiation particles and silicon materials.

  8. Comparison of pad detectors produced on different silicon materials after irradiation with neutrons, protons and pions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramberger, G., E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.s [Jozef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-01-01

    A set of 44 pad detectors produced on p- and n-type MCz and Fz wafers was irradiated with 23 GeV protons, 200 MeV pions and reactor neutrons up to the equivalent fluences of PHI{sub eq}=3x10{sup 15}cm{sup -2}. The evolution of the full depletion voltage and the leakage current were monitored during short- and long-term annealing. At selected representative annealing steps, charge collection measurements were performed for all samples with LHC speed electronics. Measurements of full depletion voltage, leakage current and charge collection efficiency were compared for different irradiation particles and silicon materials.

  9. Channeling-based collimators for generation of microbeams produced by silicon micromachining technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, V.; Antonini, A.; Milan, E.; Ronzoni, A.; Martinelli, G.; Biryukov, V.M.; Chesnokov, Yu.A.

    2006-01-01

    The growing interest on micro-beams in recent years and the combined development of channeling technology in high-energy physics have opened the way to new concepts for micro-beams devices. Silicon micromachining technology is here applied to manufacture micro-collimators in inexpensive and feasible ways. Both dry and wet etchings can be employed for the purpose, though the latter technique appears to be cheaper and easier. Two designs for micro-collimator devices have been considered and preliminary samples have been produced accordingly

  10. Oxidation of nanostructured Ti films produced by low energy cluster beam deposition: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, Monica de; Snidero, Elena; Coreno, Marcello; Bongiorno, Gero; Giorgetti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Cepek, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    We used in-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the oxidation process of a cluster-assembled metallic titanium film exposed to molecular oxygen at room temperature. The nanostructured film has been grown on a Si(111) substrate, in ultra high vacuum conditions, by coupling a supersonic cluster beam deposition system with an XPS experimental chamber. Our results show that upon in-situ oxygen exposure Ti 3+ is the first oxidation state observed, followed by Ti 4+ , whereas Ti 2+ is practically absent during the whole process. Our results compare well with the existing literature on Ti films produced using other techniques.

  11. Nanostructural optimization of silicon/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells for performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanzhou; Shao, Pengfei; Li, Yali; Li, Junshuai; He, Deyan; Chen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an inverted silicon (Si) nanopyramid (iSiNP) surface structure with low aspect ratio and remarkable antireflection is developed through sequential treatments of NaOH and HF/CH 3 COOH/HNO 3 solutions to Si nanowire (SiNW)-textured Si wafers, which are prepared by traditional electroless chemical etching. The iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cell is fabricated through conformally spin-coating poly(3.4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) onto the iSiNPs; it exhibits enhanced device performance owing to the improved junction and contact quality as compared to the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS counterpart. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.6% mainly contributed from an increased fill factor (FF) of 0.61 and improved open circuit voltage ( V oc ) of 0.53 V is delivered by the iSiNP/PEDOT:PSS solar cell. As a comparison, the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS structure delivers a 7.1% PCE with a FF of 0.45 and V oc of 0.46 V. Considering the submicro-scale characteristic dimensions, iSiNPs are expected to be applicable to highly efficient thin film Si/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. (paper)

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of one-dimensional metallic nanostructures on silicon vicinal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Chung Vu

    2010-06-23

    Vicinal silicon(111) surfaces are used as templates for the growth of lead nanowires as well as gold and indium atom chains. The morphology of the Au atom chains was studied by use of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED). The In chains were investigated by infrared spectroscopy with the electrical field component of the IR light polarized either parallel or perpendicular to the wires. It is shown that at room temperature, In atom-chains display a plasmonic absorption feature along the chain but not in the perpendicular direction. Furthermore, upon cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, a metal to insulator transition is observed. A structural distortion is also confirmed by RHEED. As for the result of Pb nanowires, by means of infrared spectroscopy, it is now possible to control the average length of parallel nanowire arrays by monitoring four experimental parameters that influence on the nucleation density; namely: Pb coverage, evaporation rate, substrate temperature and the surface itself. The system shows an enhancement of the absorption at the antenna frequency in the low temperature regime. This scenario is assigned to the reduction of electron-phonon scattering due to low temperature. (orig.)

  13. Infrared spectroscopy of one-dimensional metallic nanostructures on silicon vicinal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Chung Vu

    2010-01-01

    Vicinal silicon(111) surfaces are used as templates for the growth of lead nanowires as well as gold and indium atom chains. The morphology of the Au atom chains was studied by use of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED). The In chains were investigated by infrared spectroscopy with the electrical field component of the IR light polarized either parallel or perpendicular to the wires. It is shown that at room temperature, In atom-chains display a plasmonic absorption feature along the chain but not in the perpendicular direction. Furthermore, upon cooling down to liquid nitrogen temperature, a metal to insulator transition is observed. A structural distortion is also confirmed by RHEED. As for the result of Pb nanowires, by means of infrared spectroscopy, it is now possible to control the average length of parallel nanowire arrays by monitoring four experimental parameters that influence on the nucleation density; namely: Pb coverage, evaporation rate, substrate temperature and the surface itself. The system shows an enhancement of the absorption at the antenna frequency in the low temperature regime. This scenario is assigned to the reduction of electron-phonon scattering due to low temperature. (orig.)

  14. Kinetics and fracture resistance of lithiated silicon nanostructure pairs controlled by their mechanical interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seok Woo; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.; Lee, Hyun-Wook; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Ryu, Ill; /Brown U.; Nix, William D.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Gao, Huajian; /Brown U.; Cui, Yi; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC

    2015-06-01

    Following an explosion of studies of silicon as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the anomalous volumetric changes and fracture of lithiated single Si particles have attracted significant attention in various fields, including mechanics. However, in real batteries, lithiation occurs simultaneously in clusters of Si in a confined medium. Hence, understanding how the individual Si structures interact during lithiation in a closed space is necessary. Herein, we demonstrate physical/mechanical interactions of swelling Si structures during lithiation using well-defined Si nanopillar pairs. Ex situ SEM and in situ TEM studies reveal that compressive stresses change the reaction kinetics so that preferential lithiation occurs at free surfaces when the pillars are mechanically clamped. Such mechanical interactions enhance the fracture resistance of This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. SLAC-PUB-16300 2 lithiated Si by lessening the tensile stress concentrations in Si structures. This study will contribute to improved design of Si structures at the electrode level for high performance Li-ion batteries.

  15. Enhanced light scattering in Si nanostructures produced by pulsed laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sberna, P. M.; Scapellato, G. G.; Boninelli, S.; Miritello, M.; Crupi, I.; Bruno, E.; Privitera, V.; Simone, F.; Mirabella, S. [MATIS IMM-CNR and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Piluso, N. [IMM-CNR, VIII strada 5, 95121 Catania (Italy)

    2013-11-25

    An innovative method for Si nanostructures (NS) fabrication is proposed, through nanosecond laser irradiation (λ = 532 nm) of thin Si film (120 nm) on quartz. Varying the laser energy fluences (425–1130 mJ/cm{sup 2}) distinct morphologies of Si NS appear, going from interconnected structures to isolated clusters. Film breaking occurs through a laser-induced dewetting process. Raman scattering is enhanced in all the obtained Si NS, with the largest enhancement in interconnected Si structures, pointing out an increased trapping of light due to multiple scattering. The reported method is fast, scalable and cheap, and can be applied for light management in photovoltaics.

  16. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  17. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  18. A novel one-pot room-temperature synthesis route to produce very small photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Gallardo, Oscar A.; Burgos-Paci, Maxi A.; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Putnam, Karl G.; Josefina Arellano-Jiménez, M.; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Macagno, Vicente A.; Sánchez, Cristián G.; Pérez, Manuel A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) from a reaction between tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethyl-hexadecyl-ammonium borohydride (CTABH4) in organic solvent is presented. The formation reaction occurs spontaneously at room temperature in homogeneous phase. The produced silicon nanocrystals are characterized by using their photoluminescent properties and via HRTEM. In addition, theoretical calculations of the optical absorption spectrum of silicon quantum dots in vacuum with different sizes and surface moieties were performed in order to compare with the experimental findings. The new chemical reaction is simple and can be implemented to produce silicon nanocrystal with regular laboratory materials by performing easy and safe procedures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Enhanced light absorption in an ultrathin silicon solar cell utilizing plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, bringing photovoltaics to the market is mainly limited by high cost of electricity produced by the photovoltaic solar cell. Thin-film photovoltaics offers the potential for a significant cost reduction compared to traditional photovoltaics. However, the performance of thin-film solar...

  20. An etching mask and a method to produce an etching mask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to an etching mask comprising silicon containing block copolymers produced by self-assembly techniques onto silicon or graphene substrate. Through the use of the etching mask, nanostructures having long linear features having sub-10 nm width can be produced....

  1. Optimization of HNA etching parameters to produce high aspect ratio solid silicon microneedles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A A; Yeop Majlis, B; Yunas, J; Dee, C F; Abd Aziz, N; Bais, B

    2012-01-01

    High aspect ratio solid silicon microneedles with a concave conic shape were fabricated. Hydrofluoric acid–nitric acid–acetic acid (HNA) etching parameters were characterized and optimized to produce microneedles that have long and narrow bodies with smooth surfaces, suitable for transdermal drug delivery applications. The etching parameters were characterized by varying the HNA composition, the optical mask's window size, the etching temperature and bath agitation. An L9 orthogonal Taguchi experiment with three factors, each having three levels, was utilized to determine the optimal fabrication parameters. Isoetch contours for HNA composition with 0% and 10% acetic acid concentrations were presented and a high nitric acid region was identified to produce microneedles with smooth surfaces. It is observed that an increase in window size indiscriminately increases the etch rate in both the vertical and lateral directions, while an increase in etching temperature beyond 35 °C causes the etching to become rapid and uncontrollable. Bath agitation and sample placement could be manipulated to achieve a higher vertical etch rate compared to its lateral counterpart in order to construct high aspect ratio microneedles. The Taguchi experiment performed suggests that a HNA composition of 2:7:1 (HF:HNO 3 :CH 3 COOH), window size of 500 µm and agitation rate of 450 RPM are optimal. Solid silicon microneedles with an average height of 159.4 µm, an average base width of 110.9 µm, an aspect ratio of 1.44, and a tip angle and diameter of 19.2° and 0.38 µm respectively were successfully fabricated. (paper)

  2. Polarized luminescence of nc-Si-SiO x nanostructures on silicon substrates with patterned surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailovska, Katerina; Mynko, Viktor; Indutnyi, Ivan; Shepeliavyi, Petro

    2018-05-01

    Polarization characteristics and spectra of photoluminescence (PL) of nc-Si-SiO x structures formed on the patterned and plane c-Si substrates are studied. The interference lithography with vacuum chalcogenide photoresist and anisotropic wet etching are used to form a periodic relief (diffraction grating) on the surface of the substrates. The studied nc-Si-SiO x structures were produced by oblique-angle deposition of Si monoxide in vacuum and the subsequent high-temperature annealing. The linear polarization memory (PM) effect in PL of studied structure on plane substrate is manifested only after the treatment of the structures in HF and is explained by the presence of elongated Si nanoparticles in the SiO x nanocolumns. But the PL output from the nc-Si-SiO x structure on the patterned substrate depends on how this radiation is polarized with respect to the grating grooves and is much less dependent on the polarization of the exciting light. The measured reflection spectra of nc-Si-SiO x structure on the patterned c-Si substrate confirmed the influence of pattern on the extraction of polarized PL.

  3. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  4. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures produced with [DMIm]BF{sub 4} using ultrasonic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, I. B. Abdul; Ayob, M. T. M.; Ishak, I. S.; Mohd Lawi, R. L.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Hamid, M. H. N. Abd; Othman, N. K.; Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2012-11-27

    Great interests in metallic oxides have emerged because of the promising properties of these materials for various applications such as solar cells and sensors. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were successfully synthesized from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} Bullet 2H{sub 2}O, NaOH and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] with ultrasound irradiation. Parameters such as the effect of sonication time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) and Zn(Ac){sub 2} precursor to [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] ratios of 3:5, 5:5 and 5:3 were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the ZnO nanocrystals were hexagonal zincite crystalline in structure. The band gap energies (E{sub g}) were estimated to be 3.35-3.55 eV from the UV-Visible spectrum. The solution with the highest ratio of Zn was analysed with photoluminescence spectroscopy, which exhibited peaks at 362, 403, 468 and 539 nm, at room temperature. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesis products were spherical (30-60 nm), spindle ({approx}10 Multiplication-Sign 70 nm for width Multiplication-Sign length) and whisker-like (100-200 nm), with their dimensions decreasing systematically with increased sonication time. Chemical compositions were approximated at 1:1 for Zn and O, estimated by electron dispersive x-ray spectrum.

  5. Nanodiamond infiltration into porous silicon through etching of solid carbon produced at different graphitization temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, C. R. B., E-mail: claudia_rbm@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, Centro de Ciencias do Sistema Terrestre-CCST, Centro de Ciencias do Sistema Terrestre-CCST (Brazil); Baldan, M. R.; Beloto, A. F.; Ferreira, N. G. [CTE/INPE, Centro de Tecnologias Espaciais (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) was grown on the porous silicon (PS) substrate using Reticulated Vitreous Carbon (RVC) as an additional solid carbon source. RVC was produced at different heat treatment temperatures of 1300, 1500, and 2000 Degree-Sign C, resulting in samples with different turbostratic carbon organizations. The PS substrate was produced by an electrochemical method. NCD film was obtained by the chemical vapor infiltration/deposition process where a RVC piece was positioned just below the PS substrate. The PS and NCD samples were characterized by Field Emission Gun-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FEG-SEM). NCD films presented faceted nanograins with uniform surface texture covering all the pores resulting in an apparent micro honeycomb structure. Raman's spectra showed the D and G bands, as well as, the typical two shoulders at 1,150 and 1,490 cm{sup -1} attributed to NCD. X-ray diffraction analyses showed the predominant (111) diamond orientation as well as the (220) and (311) peaks. The structural organization and the heteroatom presence on the RVC surface, analyzed from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, showed their significant influence on the NCD growth process. The hydrogen etching released, from RVC surface, associated to carbon and/or oxygen/nitrogen amounts led to different contributions for NCD growth.

  6. Interaction between rare-earth ions and amorphous silicon nanoclusters produced at low processing temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldrum, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada)]. E-mail: ameldrum@ualberta.ca; Hryciw, A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada); MacDonald, A.N. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada); Blois, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2J1 (Canada); Clement, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2V4 (Canada); De Corby, R. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, T6G2V4 (Canada); Wang, J. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Li Quan [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-12-15

    Temperatures of 1000 deg. C and higher are a significant problem for the incorporation of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal devices into standard silicon technology, and make the fabrication of contacts and reflectors in light emitting devices difficult. In the present work, we use energy-filtered TEM imaging techniques to show the formation of size-controlled amorphous silicon nanoclusters in SiO films annealed between 400 and 500 deg. C. The PL properties of such films are characteristic of amorphous silicon, and the spectrum can be controlled via a statistical size effect-as opposed to quantum confinement-that has previously been proposed for porous amorphous silicon. Finally, we show that amorphous nanoclusters sensitize the luminescence from the rare-earth ions Er, Nd, Yb, and Tm with excitation cross-sections similar in magnitude to erbium-doped silicon nanocrystal composites, and with a similar nonresonant energy transfer mechanism.

  7. Power mixture and green body for producing silicon nitride base articles of high fracture toughness and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, M.L.; Buljan, S.T.; Neil, J.T.

    1991-09-17

    A powder mixture and a green body for producing a silicon nitride-based article of improved fracture toughness and strength are disclosed. The powder mixture includes (a) a bimodal silicon nitride powder blend consisting essentially of about 10-30% by weight of a first silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.2 [mu]m and a surface area of about 8-12m[sup 2]g, and about 70-90% by weight of a second silicon nitride powder of an average particle size of about 0.4-0.6 [mu]m and a surface area of about 2-4 m[sup 2]/g, (b) about 10-50 percent by volume, based on the volume of the densified article, of refractory whiskers or fibers having an aspect ratio of about 3-150 and having an equivalent diameter selected to produce in the densified article an equivalent diameter ratio of the whiskers or fibers to grains of silicon nitride of greater than 1.0, and (c) an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid. The green body is formed from the powder mixture, an effective amount of a suitable oxide densification aid, and an effective amount of a suitable organic binder. No Drawings

  8. Investigation of intrinsic and extrinsic defects effective role on producing intense red emission in ZnO:Eu nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Mehrdad, E-mail: najafi@shahroodut.ac.ir; Haratizadeh, Hamid

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective role of defects on producing red emission at indirect excitation. • V{sub Zn} and V{sub O} defects have important role on energy transfer. • Mg related defects and Zn{sub i} defects were responsible for blue emission. • Extrinsic and intrinsic defects mediated energy transfer to sensitize Eu{sup 3+} ions. • Decrease of red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. - Abstract: Europium doped ZnO nanorads and nanosheets were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Effects of Mg doping, morphology and annealing in oxygen ambient on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis (PSA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermo gravimetry (DTG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). This study recommends that both of intrinsic and extrinsic defects facilitate energy transfer (ET) from the ZnO host to Eu{sup 3+} ions and consequently have efficient role on producing intense red emission at indirect excitation. The results also showed that annealing process improved the crystal structure of ZnO nanosheets due to decrease of surface defects; however decreased ET and red emission because of diminishing in oxygen vacancy. In addition in ZnO nanorods sample with more surface area in comparison with ZnO nanosheets sample deep level emissions are enhanced.

  9. Spiral patterns of gold nanoclusters in silicon (100) produced by metal vapour vacuum arc implantation of gold ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, Dinesh Kumar; Sood, Dinesh Kumar; Bhargava, Suresh Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Self-assembled gold nanoclusters are attractive building blocks for future nanoscale sensors and optical devices due to their exciting catalytic properties. In this work, we report direct bottom-up synthesis of spiral patterns of gold nanoclusters in silicon (100) substrates by Au ion implantation followed by thermal annealing. This unique phenomenon is observed only above a critical threshold implantation dose and annealing temperature. Systematic study by electron microscopy, analytical x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy shows the temperature- and time-dependent nucleation, growth of Au nanoclusters and evolution of the spiral patterns. The observed patterns of gold nanoclusters bear a resemblance to the spiral growth prevalent in some directionally solidified eutectic alloys. Based on this systematic study of the growth and morphology of nanoclusters, a tentative model has been proposed for the formation mechanism of this unusual self-assembled pattern in an amorphous Si/Au system. This model shows that melting of the implanted layer is essential and without which no spiral patterns are observed. A better understanding of this self-assembly process will open up new ways to fabricate ordered arrays of gold nanoclusters in silicon substrates for seeding selective growth of one-dimensional nanostructures

  10. Physical and optical characterisation of carbon-silicon layers produced by rapid thermal chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, G.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Quplas II reactor is a novel chemical vapour deposition (CVD) system, which was recently designed and built at The Queen's University of Belfast. The system was intended to produce layers of Silicon (Si) for application in advanced bipolar transistor manufacture. It became clear that the system was capable of depositing novel materials such as Silicon-Carbon (Si-C) films which could have application as the emitter material in heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT's) formed on silicon substrates. This work focuses mainly on the development of analytical techniques to allow characterisation of the deposited layers of Si-C and permit optimisation of both the process conditions and the deposition system. The techniques that were developed to characterise the Si-C films in terms of their physical and optical properties included: Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM), Near Infrared (NIR) and Ultraviolet/Visible/Near Infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) Spectroscopy. From assessing the data obtained from the analysis of the samples using the techniques mentioned above, it was possible to characterise the Si-C films in terms of: stoichiometry, crystallinity, degree of oxygen contamination, thickness, optical roughness of the film/air and film/substrate interfaces, and energy bandgap. In the fabrication of Si-C films it was found to be necessary to use low process pressures in order to ensure that the film deposition was slow enough to allow for a more ordered growth process. This led to the formation of polycrystalline Si-C films which had greatly reduced levels of oxygen compared to earlier amorphous films. In addition the polycrystalline Si-C films tended to have optically rough film/air and film/substrate interfaces. For most samples it was possible to obtain the thickness of their Si-C films from their SIMS profiles. Based on the method of interferometry, the thickness of the Si-C films

  11. Improvement in the degradation resistance of silicon nanostructures by the deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyui, N. I., E-mail: klyui@isp.kiev.ua; Semenenko, M. A.; Khatsevich, I. M.; Makarov, A. V.; Kabaldin, A. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine); Fomovskii, F. V. [Kremenchug National University (Ukraine); Han, Wei [Jilin University, College of Physics (China)

    2015-08-15

    It is established that the deposition of a diamond-like film onto a structure with silicon nanoclusters in a silicon dioxide matrix yields an increase in the long-wavelength photoluminescence intensity of silicon nanoclusters due to the passivation of active-recombination centers with hydrogen and a shift of the photoluminescence peak to the region of higher photosensitivity of silicon-based solar cells. It is also shown that, due to the deposited diamond-like film, the resistance of such a structure to degradation upon exposure to γ radiation is improved, which is also defined by the effect of the passivation of radiation-induced activerecombination centers by hydrogen that is released from the films during treatment.

  12. Chemically produced nanostructured ODS-lanthanum oxide-tungsten composites sintered by spark plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, Mazher Ahmed; Wahlberg, Sverker; Bergqvist, Hans; Salem, Hanadi G.; Johnsson, Mats; Muhammed, Mamoun

    2011-01-01

    High purity W and W-0.9La 2 O 3 (wt.%) nanopowders were produced by a wet chemical route. The precursor was prepared by the reaction of ammonium paratungstate (APT) with lanthanum salt in aqueous solutions. High resolution electron microscopy investigations revealed that the tungstate particles were coated with oxide precipitates. The precursor powder was reduced to tungsten metal with dispersed lanthanum oxide. Powders were consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 1300 and 1400 o C to suppress grain growth during sintering. The final grain size relates to the SPS conditions, i.e. temperature and heating rate, regardless of the starting powder particle size. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that oxide phases were mainly accumulated at grain boundaries while the tungsten matrix constituted of nanosized sub-grains. The transmission electron microscopy revealed that the tungsten grains consist of micron-scale grains and finer sub-grains. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of W in dispersed oxide phases with varying chemical composition, which evidenced the presence of complex oxide phases (W-O-La) in the sintered metals.

  13. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon solar cells passivated by an atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-10-07

    Inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon (BS) solar cells with an Al2O3 passivation layer grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been demonstrated. A multi-scale textured BS surface combining silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and inverted pyramids was obtained for the first time by lithography and metal catalyzed wet etching. The reflectance of the as-prepared BS surface was about 2% lower than that of the more commonly reported upright pyramid-based SiNW BS surface over the whole of the visible light spectrum, which led to a 1.7 mA cm(-2) increase in short circuit current density. Moreover, the as-prepared solar cells were further passivated by an ALD-Al2O3 layer. The effect of annealing temperature on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells was investigated. It was found that the values of all solar cell parameters including short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor exhibit a further increase under an optimized annealing temperature. Minority carrier lifetime measurements indicate that the enhanced cell performance is due to the improved passivation quality of the Al2O3 layer after thermal annealing treatments. By combining these two refinements, the optimized SiNW BS solar cells achieved a maximum conversion efficiency enhancement of 7.6% compared to the cells with an upright pyramid-based SiNWs surface and conventional SiNx passivation.

  14. Wide angle light collection with ultralow reflection and super scattering by silicon micro-nanostructures for thin crystalline silicon solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonali; Kundu, Avra; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan K

    2016-01-01

    Conventional c-Si solar cells employ micron-sized pyramids for achieving reduced reflection (∼10%) and enhanced light trapping by multiple bounces (maximum 3) of the incident light. Alternatively, bio-mimetic, moth-eye sub-wavelength nanostructures offer broadband antireflection properties (∼3%) suitable for solar cell applications in the optical regime. However, such structures do not provide any advantage in the charge carrier extraction process as radial junctions cannot be formed in such sub-wavelength dimensions and they have high surface area causing increased charged carrier recombination. The choice of the geometry for achieving optimum photon–electron harvesting for solar applications is therefore very critical. Cross-fertilization of the conventional solar cell light-trapping techniques and the sub-wavelength nanostructures results in unique micro-nanostructures (structures having sub-wavelength dimensions as well as dimensions of the order of few microns) which provide advanced light management capabilities along with the ability of realizing radial junctions. It is seen that an ultralow reflection along with wide angle light collection is obtained which enables such structures to overcome the morning, evening and winter light losses in solar cells. Further, super-scattering in the structures offer enhanced light trapping not only in the structure itself but also in the substrate housing the structure. Ray and wave optics have been used to understand the optical benefits of the structures. It is seen that the aspect ratio of the structures plays the most significant role for achieving such light management capabilities, and efficiencies as high as 12% can be attained. Experiments have been carried out to fabricate a unique micro-nanomaze-like structure instead of a periodic array of micro-nanostructures with the help of nanosphere lithography and the MacEtch technique. It is seen that randomized micro-nanomaze geometry offers very good

  15. Metallurgy of high-silicon steel parts produced using Selective Laser Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, Michele; Ashcroft, Ian; Simonelli, Marco; Hague, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The metallurgy of high-silicon steel (6.9%wt.Si) processed using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is presented for the first time in this study. High-silicon steel has great potential as a soft magnetic alloy, but its employment has been limited due to its poor workability. The effect of SLM-processing on the metallurgy of the alloy is investigated in this work using microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). XRD analysis suggests that the SLM high-silicon steel is a single ferritic phase (solid solution), with no sign of phase ordering. This is expected to have beneficial effects on the material properties, since ordering has been shown to make silicon steels more brittle and electrically conductive. For near-fully dense samples, columnar grains with a high aspect ratio and oriented along the build direction are found. Most importantly, a <001> fibre-texture along the build direction can be changed into a cube-texture when the qualitative shape of the melt-pool is altered (from shallow to deep) by increasing the energy input of the scanning laser. This feature could potentially open the path to the manufacture of three-dimensional grain-oriented high-silicon steels for electromechanical applications.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thermoelectric nanostructured n-type silicon-germanium alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathula, Sivaiah [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India); Gahtori, Bhasker; Tripathy, S. K.; Tyagi, Kriti; Srivastava, A. K.; Dhar, Ajay, E-mail: adhar@nplindia.org [CSIR-Network of Institutes for Solar Energy, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jayasimhadri, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Delhi (India)

    2014-08-11

    Owing to their high thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit, nanostructured Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys are evolving as a potential replacement for their bulk counterparts in designing efficient radio-isotope TE generators. However, as the mechanical properties of these alloys are equally important in order to avoid in-service catastrophic failure of their TE modules, we report the strength, hardness, fracture toughness, and thermal shock resistance of nanostructured n-type Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} alloys synthesized employing spark plasma sintering of mechanically alloyed nanopowders of its constituent elements. These mechanical properties show a significant enhancement, which has been correlated with the microstructural features at nano-scale, delineated by transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Method of producing p-i-n structures by compensation of lithium ions from both side of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, R.A.; Radjapov, S.A.; Saymbetov, A.K.; Tursunkulov, O.M.; Pindurin, Yu.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors are needed to solve certain problems in nuclear spectroscopy. The development of efficiency detectors became possible with advances in growing high purify silicon single crystals with the required properties, satisfying the requirements for obtaining detectors based on them. One important requirement for obtaining detectors with sensitive area is that its resistance must be high. This is achieved by using the lithium ion drift process in the volume of the semiconductor detector. Thus it has been developed and created silicon semiconductor nuclear radiation detectors with vide range of diameter of sensitive area up to 100 mm and thickness (from 1mm to 10mm). At present work a new method for producing p-i-n structures was developed to decrease substantially the time required for compensation of silicon by lithium ions and to eliminate at the same time the negative consequences of holding the crystal at a high temperature and under a high voltage. Drift of lithium ions from two ends of prepared samples is conducted to a depth sufficient for the required compensation of the initial acceptor impurity in silicon. The method described above was used to fabricate a batch of Si(Li) detectors with a 1-10 mm thick and 10-110 mm in diameter sensitive region. The thickness of the sensitive region was determined by performing standard measurements and chemical pigmentation. Advantages of detectors are they have improved properties and less time for compensation of lithium ions. (authors)

  18. Studies of annealing of neutron-produced defects in silicon by transconductance measurements of junction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Y.; Usami, A.

    1978-01-01

    Annealing behavior of neutron-produced defects in silicon was studied by measuring the phase angle theta of the small-signal transconductance of the junction field-effect transistors (JFET's). Three deep levels (N-1, N-2, and N-3 levels) in n-type silicon and two deep levels (P-1 and P-2 levels) in p-type silicon, introduced by irradiation, annealed gradually. Their energy levels and capture cross sections have been already reported by us. Three deep levels (P-3, P-4, and P-5 levels) were observed in annealed p-type silicon in the temperature range 150--300 0 C. For these defects, theta was measured as a function of frequency to obtain the time constant. From the temperature dependence of the time constant, assuming that capture cross sections are independent of temperature, the energy levels of P-3, P-4, and P-5 were estimated to be E/sub v/+0.21, E/sub v/+0.40, and E/sub v/+0.30 eV, respectively. The calculated hole capture cross sections of these levels were 2.2 x 10 -15 , 8.7 x 10 -14 , and 1.2 x 10 -14 cm 2 , respectively. Comparison with other published data was made. It was found that N-3 and P-2 levels corresponded to the divacancy. Furthermore, it seemed that P-3, P-4, and P-5 levels corresponded to the high-order vacancy defects

  19. Integration of functional complex oxide nanomaterials on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel eVila-Fungueiriño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of standard wafer-scale semiconductor processing with the properties of functional oxides opens up to innovative and more efficient devices with high value applications that can be produced at large scale. This review uncovers the main strategies that are successfully used to monolithically integrate functional complex oxide thin films and nanostructures on silicon: the chemical solution deposition approach (CSD and the advanced physical vapor deposition techniques such as oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE. Special emphasis will be placed on complex oxide nanostructures epitaxially grown on silicon using the combination of CSD and MBE. Several examples will be exposed, with a particular stress on the control of interfaces and crystallization mechanisms on epitaxial perovskite oxide thin films, nanostructured quartz thin films, and octahedral molecular sieve nanowires. This review enlightens on the potential of complex oxide nanostructures and the combination of both chemical and physical elaboration techniques for novel oxide-based integrated devices.

  20. A method of producing a body comprising porous alpha silicon carbide and the body produced by the method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of producing porous alpha-SiC containing shaped body and porous alpha-SiC containing shaped body produced by that method. The porous alpha-SiC containing shaped body shows a characteristic microstructure providing a high degree of mechanical stability...

  1. Porosity and thickness effect of porous silicon layer on photoluminescence spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husairi, F. S.; Eswar, K. A.; Guliling, Muliyadi; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, S.

    2018-05-01

    The porous silicon nanostructures was prepared by electrochemical etching of p-type silicon wafer. Porous silicon prepared by using different current density and fix etching time with assistance of halogen lamp. The physical structure of porous silicon measured by the parameters used which know as experimental factor. In this work, we select one of those factors to correlate which optical properties of porous silicon. We investigated the surface morphology by using Surface Profiler (SP) and photoluminescence using Photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer. Different physical characteristics of porous silicon produced when current density varied. Surface profiler used to measure the thickness of porous and the porosity calculated using mass different of silicon. Photoluminescence characteristics of porous silicon depend on their morphology because the size and distribution of pore its self will effect to their exciton energy level. At J=30 mA/cm2 the shorter wavelength produced and it followed the trend of porosity with current density applied.

  2. Improved bandwidth and quantum efficiency in silicon photodiodes using photon-manipulating micro/nanostructures operating in the range of 700-1060 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansizoglu, Hilal; Gao, Yang; Ghandiparsi, Soroush; Kaya, Ahmet; Perez, Cesar Bartolo; Mayet, Ahmed; Ponizovskaya Devine, Ekaterina; Cansizoglu, Mehmet F.; Yamada, Toshishige; Elrefaie, Aly F.; Wang, Shih-Yuan; Islam, M. Saif

    2017-08-01

    Nanostructures allow broad spectrum and near-unity optical absorption and contributed to high performance low-cost Si photovoltaic devices. However, the efficiency is only a few percent higher than a conventional Si solar cell with thicker absorption layers. For high speed surface illuminated photodiodes, the thickness of the absorption layer is critical for short transit time and RC time. Recently a CMOS-compatible micro/nanohole silicon (Si) photodiode (PD) with more than 20 Gb/s data rate and with 52 % quantum efficiency (QE) at 850 nm was demonstrated. The achieved QE is over 400% higher than a similar Si PD with the same thickness but without absorption enhancement microstructure holes. The micro/nanoholes increases the QE by photon trapping, slow wave effects and generate a collective assemble of modes that radiate laterally, resulting in absorption enhancement and therefore increase in QE. Such Si PDs can be further designed to enhance the bandwidth (BW) of the PDs by reducing the device capacitance with etched holes in the pin junction. Here we present the BW and QE of Si PDs achievable with micro/nanoholes based on a combination of empirical evidence and device modeling. Higher than 50 Gb/s data rate with greater than 40% QE at 850 nm is conceivable in transceivers designed with such Si PDs that are integrated with photon trapping micro and nanostructures. By monolithic integration with CMOS/BiCMOS integrated circuits such as transimpedance amplifiers, equalizers, limiting amplifiers and other application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), the data rate can be increased to more than 50 Gb/s.

  3. Nanostructure Size Determination in N+-Type Porous Silicon by X-Ray diffractometry and Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Porras, A.

    1997-01-01

    A series of porous silicon surfaces were obtained after different exposition times of electrochemical etching on cristalline n+- type silicon in presence of hydrofluoric acid. These kind of surfaces show photoluminescence when illuminated by UV light. One possible explanation for this is that the treated surface is made up of small crystallites the nanometer scale that split away the semiconductor band edges up to optical photon energies for the band- to -band recombination processes. In this study, a nanometer size determination of such proposed structures was performed by the use of X-Ray Diffractometry and Raman Spectroscopy. The result suggest the consistency between the so called Quantum Confined Model and the experimental results. (Author) [es

  4. Nanostructure Size Determination in N+-Type Porous Silicon by X-Ray diffractometry and Raman Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Porras, A

    1997-01-01

    A series of porous silicon surfaces were obtained after different exposition times of electrochemical etching on cristalline n+- type silicon in presence of hydrofluoric acid. These kind of surfaces show photoluminescence when illuminated by UV light. One possible explanation for this is that the treated surface is made up of small crystallites the nanometer scale that split away the semiconductor band edges up to optical photon energies for the band- to -band recombination processes. In this study, a nanometer size determination of such proposed structures was performed by the use of X-Ray Diffractometry and Raman Spectroscopy. The result suggest the consistency between the so called Quantum Confined Model and the experimental results. (Author)

  5. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Martin; Kim, Jung Sub; Choi, Jeong-Gil; Lee, Joong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores

  6. Electrochemical characterization of carbon coated bundle-type silicon nanorod for anode material in lithium ion secondary batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Martin [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Sub [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science & Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Gil [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hannam University, 461-1 Junmin-dong, Yusung-gu, Taejon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joong Kee, E-mail: leejk@kist.re.kr [Center for Energy Convergence, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Energy and Environmental Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology, Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Bundle-type silicon nanorods (BSNR) were synthesized by metal assisted chemical etching. • Novel bundle-type nanorods electrode showed self-relaxant characteristics. • The self-relaxant property was enhanced by increasing the silver concentration. • PAA binder enhanced the self-relaxant property of the silicon material. • Carbon coated BSNR (BSNR@C) has evidently provided better cycle performance. - Abstract: Nanostructured silicon synthesis by surface modification of commercial micro-powder silicon was investigated in order to reduce the maximum volume change over cycle. The surface of micro-powder silicon was modified using an Ag metal-assisted chemical etching technique to produce nanostructured material in the form of bundle-type silicon nanorods. The volume change of the electrode using the nanostructured silicon during cycle was investigated using an in-situ dilatometer. Our result shows that nanostructured silicon synthesized using this method showed a self-relaxant characteristic as an anode material for lithium ion battery application. Moreover, binder selection plays a role in enhancing self-relaxant properties during delithiation via strong hydrogen interaction on the surface of the silicon material. The nanostructured silicon was then coated with carbon from propylene gas and showed higher capacity retention with the use of polyacrylic acid (PAA) binder. While the nano-size of the pore diameter control may significantly affect the capacity fading of nanostructured silicon, it can be mitigated via carbon coating, probably due to the prevention of Li ion penetration into 10 nano-meter sized pores.

  7. Semiconductor nanostructures on silicon. Carrier dynamics, optical amplification and lasing; Halbleiternanostrukturen auf Silizium. Ladungstraegerdynamik, optischer Verstaerker und Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Christoph

    2008-12-11

    Two material systems that can be grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate are experimentally investigated with respect to their optical properties. Quantum wells (qw) of Germanium were experimentally investigated by spectrally resolved white-light pump-probe-absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. A second material class is Ga(NAsP), which was grown as quantum wells on a silicon substrate matching the lattice constant of the substrate. The basic optical properties were determined using the variable stripe-length method. In order to relate the results to those of established materials, a selection of comparable III/V semiconductors were measured in the same setups. The pump-probe measurements on (GaIn)As quantum wells exhibited a much more rapid scattering. In these material systems, quite similar optical gain values of 10{sup -3}/QW were found with decay times of several 100 ps. For (GaIn)(NAs), slightly higher values were determined. Using the variable stripe-length method, GaSb quantum wells with dot-like morphology were investigated. (orig.)

  8. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilali, Mohamed M; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sreenivasan, S V; Yang Shuqiang; Miller, Mike; Xu, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  9. Visible and infrared photoluminescence from erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals produced by rf sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerqueira, M.F.; Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, Braga (Portugal); Losurdo, M. [Plasma Chemistry Research Center, CNR, Bari (Italy); Monteiro, T.; Soares, M.J.; Peres, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Stepikova, M. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, 603600 Nizhnij Novgorod GSP-105 (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    Erbium-doped low-dimensional Si films with different microstructures were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on glass substrates by varying the hydrogen flow rate during deposition. Amorphous, micro- and nanocrystalline samples, consisting of Si nanocrystalls embedded in silicon-based matrices with different structures, were achieved with optical properties in the visible and IR depending on nanocrystalline fraction and matrix structure and chemical composition. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction in the grazing incidence geometry and Raman spectroscopy. The chemical composition was studied using RBS/ERD techniques. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was combined with the previous techniques to further resolve the film microstructure and composition. In particular, the distribution along the film thickness of the volume fractions of nanocrystalline/amorphous silicon and SiO{sub x} phases has been obtained. In this contribution we discuss visible and infrared photoluminescence as a function of sample microstructure and of the oxygen/hydrogen concentration ratio present in the matrix. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Characterization of 150μm thick epitaxial silicon detectors from different producers after proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Moll, M.; Haerkoenen, J.; Kronberger, M.; Trummer, J.; Rodeghiero, P.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial (EPI) silicon has recently been investigated for the development of radiation tolerant detectors for future high-luminosity HEP experiments. A study of 150μm thick EPI silicon diodes irradiated with 24GeV/c protons up to a fluence of 3x10 15 p/cm 2 has been performed by means of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements, investigations with the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and standard CV/IV characterizations. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of radiation damage as well as the influence of the wafer processing on the material performance by comparing diodes from different manufacturers. The changes of CCE, full depletion voltage and leakage current as a function of fluence are reported. While the generation of leakage current due to irradiation is similar in all investigated series of detectors, a difference in the effective doping concentration can be observed after irradiation. In the CCE measurements an anomalous drop in performance was found even for diodes exposed to very low fluences (5x10 13 p/cm 2 ) in all measured series. This result was confirmed for one series of diodes in TCT measurements with an infrared laser. TCT measurements with a red laser showed no type inversion up to fluences of 3x10 15 p/cm 2 for n-type devices whereas p-type diodes undergo type inversion from p- to n-type for fluences higher than ∼2x10 14 p/cm 2

  11. Characterization of 150 $\\mu$m thick epitaxial silicon detectors from different producers after proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoedlmoser, H; Haerkoenen, J; Kronberger, M; Trummer, J; Rodeghiero, P

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxial (EPI) silicon has recently been investigated for the development of radiation tolerant detectors for future high-luminosity HEP experiments. A study of 150 mm thick EPI silicon diodes irradiated with 24GeV=c protons up to a fluence of 3 1015 p=cm2 has been performed by means of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE) measurements, investigations with the Transient Current Technique (TCT) and standard CV=IV characterizations. The aim of the work was to investigate the impact of radiation damage as well as the influence of the wafer processing on the material performance by comparing diodes from different manufacturers. The changes of CCE, full depletion voltage and leakage current as a function of fluence are reported. While the generation of leakage current due to irradiation is similar in all investigated series of detectors, a difference in the effective doping concentration can be observed after irradiation. In the CCE measurements an anomalous drop in performance was found even for diodes exposed to ...

  12. Systematic Moiety Variations of Ultrashort Peptides Produce Profound Effects on Self-Assembly, Nanostructure Formation, Hydrogelation, and Phase Transition

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Kiat Hwa

    2017-10-04

    Self-assembly of small biomolecules is a prevalent phenomenon that is increasingly being recognised to hold the key to building complex structures from simple monomeric units. Small peptides, in particular ultrashort peptides containing up to seven amino acids, for which our laboratory has found many biomedical applications, exhibit immense potential in this regard. For next-generation applications, more intricate control is required over the self-assembly processes. We seek to find out how subtle moiety variation of peptides can affect self-assembly and nanostructure formation. To this end, we have selected a library of 54 tripeptides, derived from systematic moiety variations from seven tripeptides. Our study reveals that subtle structural changes in the tripeptides can exert profound effects on self-assembly, nanostructure formation, hydrogelation, and even phase transition of peptide nanostructures. By comparing the X-ray crystal structures of two tripeptides, acetylated leucine-leucine-glutamic acid (Ac-LLE) and acetylated tyrosine-leucine-aspartic acid (Ac-YLD), we obtained valuable insights into the structural factors that can influence the formation of supramolecular peptide structures. We believe that our results have major implications on the understanding of the factors that affect peptide self-assembly. In addition, our findings can potentially assist current computational efforts to predict and design self-assembling peptide systems for diverse biomedical applications.

  13. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahu, G. L.; Li Voti, R.; Larciprete, M. C.; Belardini, A.; Mura, F.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Fratoddi, I.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures

  14. Bio-inspired water repellent surfaces produced by ultrafast laser structuring of silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberoglou, M.; Zorba, V.; Stratakis, E.; Spanakis, E.; Tzanetakis, P.; Anastasiadis, S.H.; Fotakis, C.

    2009-01-01

    We report here an efficient method for preparing stable superhydrophobic and highly water repellent surfaces by irradiating silicon wafers with femtosecond laser pulses and subsequently coating them with chloroalkylsilane monolayers. By varying the laser pulse fluence on the surface one can successfully control its wetting properties via a systematic and reproducible variation of roughness at micro- and nano-scale, which mimics the topology of natural superhydrophobic surfaces. The self-cleaning and water repellent properties of these artificial surfaces are investigated. It is found that the processed surfaces are among the most water repellent surfaces ever reported. These results may pave the way for the implementation of laser surface microstructuring techniques for the fabrication of superhydrophobic and self-cleaning surfaces in different kinds of materials as well

  15. Quantitative characterization of silicon- and aluminium oxynitride films produced by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreer, S.

    2000-05-01

    The deposition of aluminum and silicon oxynitride films by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering was systematically planned by design of experiments, carried out and evaluated with the application of specialized statistics software. The influence of the deposition parameters on the resulting films was evaluated by multiple regression analysis. With the obtained data a model of the deposition process for the quantitative prediction of the deposition parameters necessary to obtain films with desired composition was built. This is also of technological importance, since the physical properties of the films strongly depend on their composition. Furthermore, the long term repeatability of the deposition process was implemented into the model. A precise and economic way for quantitative bulk analysis of silicon/aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen based on EPMA was presented and the use of data gained by the latter method is discussed for the calculation of relative sensitivity factors for SIMS and hf-SNMS. Advantages and disadvantages of SIMS, hf-SNMS, hf-GD-OES, and sputter AES were compared. The combination FT-IR/EPMA/SIMS at present offers the best possibility for a quantitative bulk and in depth distribution analysis of such films in the range of 20 to 1000 nm thickness. The films were also characterized by XRD and PAA. The refractive index and the growth rate of the films were determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. With indentation by a nano hardness tester the hardness and the Young's modulus of the films were obtained. The results of these measurements were evaluated by statistical software. The dependencies of the physical properties on the deposition parameters and on the film thickness were evaluated and quantified. Furthermore, the dependencies of the physical properties on the film composition represented by the oxygen content were evaluated. (author)

  16. A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel produced by twin-roll strip casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang, E-mail: wy069024019@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Zhang, Yuan-Xiang; Lu, Xiang; Fang, Feng; Xu, Yun-Bo; Cao, Guang-Ming; Li, Cheng-Gang [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Misra, R.D.K. [Laboratory for Excellence in Advanced Steel Research, Department of Metallurgical, Materials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, TX 79968 (United States); Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-12-01

    A novel ultra-low carbon grain oriented silicon steel was successfully produced by strip casting and two-stage cold rolling method. The microstructure, texture and precipitate evolution under different first cold rolling reduction were investigated. It was shown that the as-cast strip was mainly composed of equiaxed grains and characterized by very weak Goss texture ({110}<001>) and λ-fiber (<001>//ND). The coarse sulfides of size ~100 nm were precipitated at grain boundaries during strip casting, while nitrides remained in solution in the as-cast strip and the fine AlN particles of size ~20–50 nm, which were used as grain growth inhibitors, were formed in intermediate annealed sheet after first cold rolling. In addition, the suitable Goss nuclei for secondary recrystallization were also formed during intermediate annealing, which is totally different from the conventional process that the Goss nuclei originated in the subsurface layer of the hot rolled sheet. Furthermore, the number of AlN inhibitors and the intensity of desirable Goss texture increased with increasing first cold rolling reduction. After secondary recrystallization annealing, very large grains of size ~10–40 mm were formed and the final magnetic induction, B{sub 8}, was as high as 1.9 T. - Highlights: • A novel chemical composition base on strip casting silicon steel was proposed. • The ultra-low carbon design could shorten the processing routes. • The novel composition and processes were beneficial to obtain more inhibitors. • The magnetic induction of grain oriented silicon steel was significantly improved.

  17. Improving Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Efficiency Using Graded-Refractive-Index SiON/ZnO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chun Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of silicon oxynitride (SiON/ZnO nanotube (NT arrays and their application in improving the energy conversion efficiency (η of crystalline Si-based solar cells (SCs are reported. The SiON/ZnO NT arrays have a graded-refractive-index that varies from 3.5 (Si to 1.9~2.0 (Si3N4 and ZnO to 1.72~1.75 (SiON to 1 (air. Experimental results show that the use of 0.4 μm long ZnO NT arrays coated with a 150 nm thick SiON film increases Δη/η by 39.2% under AM 1.5 G (100 mW/cm2 illumination as compared to that of regular SCs with a Si3N4/micropyramid surface. This enhancement can be attributed to SiON/ZnO NT arrays effectively releasing surface reflection and minimizing Fresnel loss.

  18. X-ray characterization of Ge dots epitaxially grown on nanostructured Si islands on silicon-on-insulator substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaumseil, Peter; Kozlowski, Grzegorz; Yamamoto, Yuji; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    On the way to integrate lattice mismatched semiconductors on Si(001), the Ge/Si heterosystem was used as a case study for the concept of compliant substrate effects that offer the vision to be able to integrate defect-free alternative semiconductor structures on Si. Ge nanoclusters were selectively grown by chemical vapour deposition on Si nano-islands on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates. The strain states of Ge clusters and Si islands were measured by grazing-incidence diffraction using a laboratory-based X-ray diffraction technique. A tensile strain of up to 0.5% was detected in the Si islands after direct Ge deposition. Using a thin (∼10 nm) SiGe buffer layer between Si and Ge the tensile strain increases to 1.8%. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the absence of a regular grid of misfit dislocations in such structures. This clear experimental evidence for the compliance of Si nano-islands on SOI substrates opens a new integration concept that is not only limited to Ge but also extendable to semiconductors like III-V and II-VI materials.

  19. Self-organized nickel nanoparticles on nanostructured silicon substrate intermediated by a titanium oxynitride (TiNxOy) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M.; Droppa, R., Jr.; de Mello, S. R. S.; Figueroa, C. A.; Zanatta, A. R.; Alvarez, F.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we report an experimental approach by combining in situ sequential top-down and bottom-up processes to induce the organization of nanosized nickel particles. The top-down process consists in xenon ion bombardment of a crystalline silicon substrate to generate a pattern, followed by depositing a ˜15 nm titanium oxynitride thin film to act as a metallic diffusion barrier. Then, metallic nanoparticles are deposited by argon ion sputtering a pure nickel target, and the sample is annealed to promote the organization of the nickel nanoparticles (a bottom-up process). According to the experimental results, the surface pattern and the substrate biaxial surface strain are the driving forces behind the alignment and organization of the nickel nanoparticles. Moreover, the ratio between the F of metallic atoms arriving at the substrate relative to its surface diffusion mobility determines the nucleation regime of the nickel nanoparticles. These features are presented and discussed considering the existing technical literature on the subject.

  20. Fabrication of core-shell nanostructures via silicon on insulator dewetting and germanium condensation: towards a strain tuning method for SiGe-based heterostructures in a three-dimensional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffouti, Meher; David, Thomas; Benkouider, Abdelmalek; Favre, Luc; Cabie, Martiane; Ronda, Antoine; Berbezier, Isabelle; Abbarchi, Marco

    2016-07-29

    We report on a novel method for the implementation of core-shell SiGe-based nanocrystals combining silicon on insulator dewetting in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor with an ex situ Ge condensation process. With an in situ two-step process (annealing and Ge deposition) we produce two families of islands on the same sample: Si-rich, formed during the first step and, all around them, Ge-rich formed after Ge deposition. By increasing the amount of Ge deposited on the annealed samples from 0 to 18 monolayers, the islands' shape in the Si-rich zones can be tuned from elongated and flat to more symmetric and with a larger vertical aspect ratio. At the same time, the spatial extension of the Ge-rich zones is progressively increased as well as the Ge content in the islands. Further processing by ex situ rapid thermal oxidation results in the formation of a core-shell composition profile in both Si and Ge-rich zones with atomically sharp heterointerfaces. The Ge condensation induces a Ge enrichment of the islands' shell of up to 50% while keeping a pure Si core in the Si-rich zones and a ∼25% SiGe alloy in the Ge-rich ones. The large lattice mismatch between core and shell, the absence of dislocations and the islands' monocrystalline nature render this novel class of nanostructures a promising device platform for strain-based band-gap engineering. Finally, this method can be used for the implementation of ultralarge scale meta-surfaces with dielectric Mie resonators for light manipulation at the nanoscale.

  1. Characterization of junctions produced by medium-energy ion implantation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monfret, A.

    1970-01-01

    Characteristics of diodes made by implanting 20 keV boron and phosphorus ions into silicon are reviewed. Special features of theses diodes are presented, and correlation with technology is studied. This paper includes three parts: - in the first part, the theory of range distribution is considered for both amorphous and single-crystal targets, - In the second part, a brief description of the experimental conditions is given. - In the third part, the experimental results are presented. The results lead to a schematic model of the component. They also show the influence of cleaning and annealing treatments from which optimized process of fabrication can be determined. In this study, the influence of a two stage annealing process is shown. For phosphorus and boron implants, the first stage is performed at 150 deg. C while the second stage is 450 deg. C for phosphorus and 550 deg. C for boron implants. The implanted diodes are found to exhibit good electrical characteristics. Comparisons with standard diffused diodes are quite favourable. (author) [fr

  2. Optimizing the quality of silicon strip sensors produced by Infineon Technologies Austria AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treberspurg, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; König, A; Bartl, U; Hacker, J; Wübben, T

    2014-01-01

    The tracking systems of most modern particle physics experiments are realized by silicon based sensors. The size of such systems has continuously increased and nowadays a sensitive area of several 100 m 2 has to be covered. This large amount of sensors might exceed the production capabilities of existing companies and institutes. Therefore the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) and the European semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed together a production process for p-on-n strip sensors. Although the first prototype run has shown a promising quality, it has been observed that weak strips exist, which are mainly located at distinctive areas on each wafer. At these areas the affected parameters are correlated to each other. A similar behaviour could be reproduced with a smaller second batch, whose sensors have been used for further analysis and advanced measurements. This paper sums up the characteristic behaviour of the specific effect and presents different possibilities how to cure the sensors. The systematic accumulation of weak strips can be traced back to a specific operation during the fabrication process. All data strongly indicate that the effect is caused by local charging effects on an isolating layer

  3. Silver-free Metallization Technology for Producing High Efficiency, Industrial Silicon Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelson, Lynne M [Technic Inc; Munoz, Krystal [Technic Inc.; Karas, Joseph [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Bowden, Stuart [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Rand, James A; Gallegos, Anthony [Technic Inc.; Tyson, Tom [Technic Inc.; Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2018-03-30

    The goal of this project is to provide a commercially viable Ag-free metallization technology that will both reduce cost and increase efficiency of standard silicon solar cells. By removing silver from the front grid metallization and replacing it with lower cost nickel, copper, and tin metal, the front grid direct materials costs will decrease. This reduction in material costs should provide a path to meeting the Sunshot 2020 goal of $1 / WDC. As of today, plated contacts are not widely implemented in large scale manufacturing. For organizations that wish to implement pilot scale manufacturing, only two equipment choices exist. These equipment manufacturers do not supply plating chemistry. The main goal of this project is to provide a chemistry and equipment solution to the industry that enables reliable manufacturing of plated contacts marked by passing reliability results and higher efficiencies than silver paste front grid contacts. To date, there have been several key findings that point to plated contacts performing equal to or better than the current state of the art silver paste contacts. Poor adhesion and reliability concerns are a few of the hurdles for plated contacts, specifically plated nickel directly on silicon. A key finding of the Phase 1 budget period is that the plated contacts have the same adhesion as the silver paste controls. This is a huge win for plated contacts. With very little optimization work, state of the art electrical results for plated contacts on laser ablated lines have been demonstrated with efficiencies up to 19.1% and fill factors ~80% on grid lines 40-50 um wide. The silver paste controls with similar line widths demonstrate similar electrical results. By optimizing the emitter and grid design for the plated contacts, it is expected that the electrical performance will exceed the silver paste controls. In addition, cells plated using Technic chemistry and equipment pass reliability testing; i.e. 1000 hours damp heat and 200

  4. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  5. Properties of Silicon Dioxide Amorphous Nanopowder Produced by Pulsed Electron Beam Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav G. Il’ves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SiO2 amorphous nanopowder (NP is produced with the specific surface area of 154 m2/g by means of evaporation by a pulsed electron beam aimed at Aerosil 90 pyrogenic amorphous NP (90 m2/g as a target. SiO2 NP nanoparticles showed improved magnetic, thermal, and optical properties in comparison to Aerosil 90 NP. Possible reasons of emergence of d0 ferromagnetism at the room temperature in SiO2 amorphous NP are discussed. Photoluminescent and cathode luminescent properties of the SiO2 NP were investigated.

  6. Processing and evaluation of x-ray line profiles measured from nanostructured materials produced by severe plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEXrber, M.; Schafler, E.; Zehetbauer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The classification of the microstructure of nanostructured materials and its relation to macroscopic properties is essential for the development and application of nanomaterials. X-ray line profile analysis is a nondestructive method yielding a series of interesting microstructural parameters: the Bragg reflection of an ideal crystal is a narrow delta-function liKEX peak. Distortions of the regular crystal lattice as well as a finite size of the coherently scattering domains lead to a significant broadening of the peak. By using physical models describing the individual types of broadening it is possible to relate the broadening of the peak to the microstructure of the material. The most successful applications to date assume mainly size and strain broadening. From these models various techniques have been developed to evaluate the same physical quantities via individual methods. Among these methods are the Williamson-Hall and Warren Averbach methods, their so called 'modified' variants and multiple-whole-profile-fitting/modeling. A number of typical problems arising during data preparation and evaluation are presented and a procedure to optimize the processing of the experimental data is given. Refs. 9 (author)

  7. Nanostructures produced by co-sputtering to study the optical properties of artistic middle-age nano-cermets: The lustres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reillon, Vincent [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France) and CNRS, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France)]. E-mail: vincent.reillon@insp.jussieu.fr; Berthier, Serge [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France); Chenot, Stephane [Universite Denis Diderot-Paris 7, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 75 88, INSP, 140 rue de Lourmel, F 75015 Paris (France)

    2007-05-15

    Nano-structures are not an invention of the 20th century. In Middle Age already, craftsmen were able to produce multi-layer structures of nano-particles at the surface of potteries creating lustres, this means potteries with shining effects. In order to study the optical properties of these objects and because, as a part of our patrimony, they cannot be destroyed, we decided to reproduce the structures observed by co-sputtering. Developing a model, we were able to predict the reflection spectrum of the created samples with a good accuracy, validating it. However, this work is a first experimental step and improvements are needed from both theoretical and experimental sides in order to understand fully the optical properties of the lustres.

  8. Intense 31-35Ar beams produced with a nanostructured CaO target at ISOLDE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, J. P.; Gottberg, A.; Mendonça, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    At the ISOLDE facility at CERN, thick targets are bombarded with highly energetic pulsed protons to produce radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The isotopes produced in the bulk of the material have to diffuse out of the grain and effuse throughout the porosity of the material to a transfer line which ...

  9. Harnessing no-photon exciton generation chemistry to engineer semiconductor nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, David; Károlyházy, Gyula; Czigány, Zsolt; Bortel, Gábor; Kamarás, Katalin; Gali, Adam

    2017-09-06

    Production of semiconductor nanostructures with high yield and tight control of shape and size distribution is an immediate quest in diverse areas of science and technology. Electroless wet chemical etching or stain etching can produce semiconductor nanoparticles with high yield but is limited to a few materials because of the lack of understanding the physical-chemical processes behind. Here we report a no-photon exciton generation chemistry (NPEGEC) process, playing a key role in stain etching of semiconductors. We demonstrate NPEGEC on silicon carbide polymorphs as model materials. Specifically, size control of cubic silicon carbide nanoparticles of diameter below ten nanometers was achieved by engineering hexagonal inclusions in microcrystalline cubic silicon carbide. Our finding provides a recipe to engineer patterned semiconductor nanostructures for a broad class of materials.

  10. CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, Noel; Fokine, Michael; Franz, Yohann; Hawkins, Thomas; Jones, Maxwell; Ballato, John; Peacock, Anna C.; Gibson, Ursula J.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced losses in silicon-core fibers are obtained using CO2 laser directional recrystallization of the core. Single crystals with aspect ratios up to 1500:1 are reported, limited by the scan range of the equipment. This processing technique holds promise for bringing crystalline silicon-core fibers to a central role in nonlinear optics and signal processing applications.

  11. Method for producing evaporation inhibiting coating for protection of silicon--germanium and silicon--molybdenum alloys at high temperatures in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    A method is given for protecting Si--Ge and Si-- Mo alloys for use in thermocouples. The alloys are coated with silicon to inhibit the evaporation of the alloys at high tempenatures in a vacuum. Specific means and methods are provided. (5 fig) (Official Gazette)

  12. Fabrication of Nanostructured Polymer Surfaces and Characterization of their Wetting Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    . • Simulations of wetting transitions. • Clean room fabrication of functional surfaces, and production of micro- and nanostructured mold inserts. • Injection molding of micro- and nanostructured polymer parts on a commercial injection molding machine. • Co-invented a patented technique for microstructuring steel...... molds able to produce superhydrophobic polymer parts. The patented microstructuring technique generates microstructures similar to those found on the leaf of the lotus flower, without the overlaying nanostructure. Despite the lack of hierarchical structures, the microstructured surface shows excellent...... structures and the irregular structures produced by the patented microstructuring technique. The second study bridges the gap between silicon structures produced by planar processes in the clean room and the smooth multi-height structures often found in nature. Finally i have demonstrated a novel type...

  13. Nanocomposited coatings produced by laser-assisted process to prevent silicone hydogels from protein fouling and bacterial contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Guobang; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nanocomposited-coating was deposited on silicone hydrogel by using the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) process. The ZnO–PEG nanocomposited coating reduces over 50% protein absorption on silicone hydrogel, and can inhibit the bacterial growth efficiently. - Highlights: • We developed a nanocomposited coating to prevent silicone hydrogel from biofouling. • Matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation can deposit inorganic–organic nanomaterials. • The designed nanocomposited coating reduces protein absorption by over 50%. • The designed nanocomposited coating shows significant antimicrobial efficiency. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles incorporating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) were deposited together on the surface of silicone hydrogel through matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). In this process, frozen nanocomposites (ZnO–PEG) in isopropanol were irradiated under a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm for 1 h. Our results indicate that the MAPLE process is able to maintain the chemical backbone of polymer and prevent the nanocomposite coating from contamination. The ZnO–PEG nanocomposited coating reduces over 50% protein absorption on silicone hydrogel. The cytotoxicity study shows that the ZnO–PEG nanocomposites deposited on silicone hydrogels do not impose the toxic effect on mouse NIH/3T3 cells. In addition, MAPLE-deposited ZnO–PEG nanocomposites can inhibit the bacterial growth significantly.

  14. The investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of ordered alominide-iron (boron) nanostructures produced by mechanical alloying and sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, S.; Akbari, Gh.; Janghorban, K.; Ghaffari, M.

    In this study, mechanical alloying (MA) of Fe-50Al, Fe-49.5Al-1B, and Fe-47.5Al-5B (at.%) alloy powders and mechanical properties of sintered products of the as-milled powders were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the addition of B caused more crystallite refinement compared to the B-free powders. To consider the sintering and ordering behaviors of the parts produced from cold compaction of the powders milled for 80 h, sintering was conducted at various temperatures. It was found that the sintering temperature has no meaningful effect on the long-range order parameter. The transformation of the disordered solid solution developed by MA to ordered Fe-Al- (B) intermetallics was a consequence of sintering. Also, the nano-scale structure of the samples was retained even after sintering. The microhardness of pore-free zones of the nanostructured specimens decreased by increasing the sintering temperature. Moreover, the sintering temperature has no effect on the compressive yield stress. However, the fracture strain increased by increasing the sintering temperature. The samples containing 1 at.% B showed more strain to fracture compared with the B-free and 5 at.% B samples.

  15. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400–900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells. PMID:27924911

  16. Investigation of neutron-produced defects in silicon by transconductance measurements of junction field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Y.; Usami, A.

    1976-01-01

    Defects introduced in silicon by neutron irradiation were investigated by measuring the phase angle theta of the small-signal transconductance of the junction field-effect transistors (JFET). Measurements of theta as a function of frequency allowed the determination of the time constant for each defect. From the temperature dependence of the time constant, assuming that capture cross sections are independent of temperature, the energy levels of E/sub v/+0.19 and E/sub v/+0.35 eV in p-type silicon and E/sub c/-0.16, E/sub c/-0.19, and E/sub c/-0.44 eV in n-type silicon were obtained. For these defects, calculations gave majority-carrier capture cross-section values of 2.8 x 10 -15 and 1.1 x 10 -14 cm 2 in p-type silicon, and 3.9 x 10 -14 , 1.6 x 10 -16 , and 2.3 x 10 -14 cm 2 in n-type silicon, respectively. Comparing with other published data, it was found that the energy level of E/sub c/-0.44 eV showed the value between the previously reported energy levels of E/sub c/-0.4 and E/sub c/-0.5 eV correlated with the doubly negative charge state and singly negative charge state of the divacancy, respectively. Thus, it is believed that a total of six energy levels are introduced in silicon by neutron irradiation. The energy levels of E/sub c/-0.16 and E/sub v/+0.35 eV were found to be correlated with the A center and the divacancy, respectively

  17. Nanostructuring of Solar Cell Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    Solar energy is by far the most abundant renewable energy source available, but the levelized cost of solar energy is still not competitive with that of fossil fuels. Therefore there is a need to improve the power conversion effciency of solar cells without adding to the production cost. The main...... objective of this PhD thesis is to develop nanostructured silicon (Si) solar cells with higher power conversion efficiency using only scalable and cost-efficient production methods. The nanostructures, known as 'black silicon', are fabricated by single-step, maskless reactive ion etching and used as front...... texturing of different Si solar cells. Theoretically the nanostructure topology may be described as a graded refractive index in a mean-field approximation between air and Si. The optical properties of the developed black Si were simulated and experimentally measured. Total AM1.5G-weighted average...

  18. Porous silicon used as an oxide diffusion mask to produce a periodic micro doped n{sup ++}/n regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimassi, Wissem; Jafel, Hayet; Lajnef, Mohamed; Ali Kanzari, M.; Bouaicha, Mongi; Bessais, Brahim; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, PB: 95, Hammam Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-06-15

    The realization of screen-printed contacts on silicon solar cells requires highly doped regions under the fingers and lowly doped and thin ones between them. In this work, we present a low-cost approach to fabricate selective emitter (n{sup ++}/n doped silicon regions), using oxidized porous silicon (ox-PS) as a mask. Micro-periodic fingers were opened on the porous silicon layer using a micro groove machining process. Optimized phosphorous diffusion through the micro grooved ox-PS let us obtain n{sup ++} doped regions in opened zones and n doped large regions underneath the ox-PS layer. The dark I-V characteristics of the obtained device and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigations of the PS layer show the possibility to use PS as a dielectric layer. The Light Beam Induced Current (LBIC) mapping of the realized device, confirm the presence of a micro periodic n{sup ++}/n type structure. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Low Cost Solar Array Project. Feasibility of the silane process for producing semiconductor-grade silicon. Final report, October 1975-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The commercial production of low-cost semiconductor-grade silicon is an essential requirement of the JPL/DOE (Department of Energy) Low-Cost Solar Array (LSA) Project. A 1000-metric-ton-per-year commercial facility using the Union Carbide Silane Process will produce molten silicon for an estimated price of $7.56/kg (1975 dollars, private financing), meeting the DOE goal of less than $10/kg. Conclusions and technology status are reported for both contract phases, which had the following objectives: (1) establish the feasibility of Union Carbide's Silane Process for commercial application, and (2) develop an integrated process design for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) and a commercial facility, and estimate the corresponding commercial plant economic performance. To assemble the facility design, the following work was performed: (a) collection of Union Carbide's applicable background technology; (b) design, assembly, and operation of a small integrated silane-producing Process Development Unit (PDU); (c) analysis, testing, and comparison of two high-temperature methods for converting pure silane to silicon metal; and (d) determination of chemical reaction equilibria and kinetics, and vapor-liquid equilibria for chlorosilanes.

  20. Formation of nanostructured weldments in the Al-Si system using electrospark welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, J.; Heard, D.W.; Brochu, M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospark welding (ESW) electrodes were manufactured from three binary aluminum-silicon alloys consisting of 12 and 17 wt% silicon, produced using chill and sand casting. The electrodes were used to assess the feasibility of producing aluminum-silicon weldments consisting of nano-sized silicon particles embedded in nanostructured aluminum matrix, using the ESW process. Line tests were performed to determine the optimal processing parameters resulting in a high quality deposit. X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as optical and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to determine the composition and microstructure of the depositions. It was determined that a capacitance of 110 μF and a voltage of 100 V resulted in the highest quality deposition. Furthermore it was determined that the ESW process was capable of producing a microstructure consisting of an extremely fine-grained silicon phase ranging from ∼6 to 50 nm for the eutectic composition, and 10-200 nm for the hypereutectic compositions. Finally it was determined that the functional thickness limit of the aluminum-silicon deposit produced under these process parameters was 120 μm.

  1. Mass-producible method for preparation of a carbon-coated graphite@plasma nano-silicon@carbon composite with enhanced performance as lithium ion battery anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hedong; Wang, Zhoulu; Hou, Xianhua; Fu, Lijun; Wang, Shaofeng; Hu, Xiaoqiao; Qin, Haiqing; Wu, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-coated core-shell structure artificial graphite@plasma nano-silicon@carbon (AG@PNSi@C) composite, applying as lithium ion battery anode material, has been prepared via spray drying method. The plasma nano-silicon (<100 nm), which contained amorphous silicon, was synthesized by radio frequency induction plasma system with the high temperatures processing capability and high quench rates. The artificial graphite in the composite acts as the core which supports the particle and provides electroconductivity, while PNSi attached on the surface of the core, enhances the specific capacity of the composite. The as prepared composite shows superior performance as anode in lithium-ion batteries, regarding to the initial Coulombic efficiency and cycle life. The initial Coulombic efficiency of AG@PNSi@C electrode is 81.0% with a discharge capacity of 553 mAh g −1 and a recharge capacity of 448 mAh g −1 . During cycling, AG@PNSi@C exhibits excellent performance with a very low capacity fading that the discharge capacity maintains 498.2 mAh g −1 and 449.4 mAh g −1 after 250 cycles and 500 cycles. AG@PNSi@C also shows enhanced resistance against high current density. Besides the remarkable electrochemical performances, the facile and mass-producible synthesis process makes the AG@PNSi@C composite very promising for its application in lithium-ion batteries.

  2. The role of silicon on the microstructure and magnetic behaviour of nanostructured (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hocine, M. [Département de Génie Mécanique, Faculté de Technologies, Université de M' sila, B.P 166 Ichbelia, M' sila (Algeria); UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria (Algeria); Guittoum, A., E-mail: aguittoum@gmail.com [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Hemmous, M. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Martínez-Blanco, D. [SCTs, University of Oviedo, EPM, Mieres, 33600 Spain (Spain); Gorria, P. [Department of Physics, EPI, University of Oviedo, Gijón, 33203 Spain (Spain); Rahal, B. [Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers, 02Bd Frantz Fanon, BP 399, Alger-Gare, Algiers (Algeria); Blanco, J.A. [Department of Physics, University of Oviedo, CalvoSotelo St., Oviedo, 330 07 Spain (Spain); Sunol, J.J. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montillivi, Girona, 17071 Spain (Spain); Laggoun, A. [UR-MPE, M' hamed Bougara University, Boumerdes, 35000 Algeria (Algeria)

    2017-01-15

    Single-phase(Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} nanostructured powders (x=0,5, 10, 15 and 20) have been elaborated by mechanical alloying in order to investigate the effect of silicon on the microstructure and magnetic properties of these alloys. A disordered Fe(Co, Si) solid solution with body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure is formed after 72 h of milling for all the compositions. The addition of Si gives rise to a progressive decrease of the lattice parameter, from about 2.865 Å for the binary Fe{sub 70}Co{sub 30} compound down to 2.841 Å for the powder with x=20. The sample with the uppermost Si content exhibits the lowest value for the mean grain size (≈10 nm) as well as the largest microstrain (above 1.1%). All the samples are ferromagnetic at room temperature, although the saturation magnetization value reduces almost linearly by adding Si to the composition. A similar trend is observed for the hyperfine magnetic field obtained from the analysis of the room temperature Mössbauer spectra. The hyperfine field distributions show a broad double-peak shape for x>0, which can be ascribed to multiple local environments for the Fe atoms inside a disordered solid solution. - Highlights: • Single-phase (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} nanostructured powders (x=0, 5, 10, 15 and 20) have been elaborated by mechanical alloying. • The sample with the uppermost Si content exhibits the lowest value for the mean grain size. • The magnetic and hyperfine parameters of (Fe{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.3}){sub 100−x}Si{sub x} depended intimately on Si content.

  3. Positron annihilation studies of silicon-rich SiO2 produced by high dose ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghislotti, G.; Nielsen, B.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Di Mauro, L.F.; Corni, F.; Tonini, R.

    1997-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is used to study Si-rich SiO 2 samples prepared by implantation of Si (160 keV) ions at doses in the range 3x10 16 endash 3x10 17 cm -2 and subsequent thermal annealing at high temperature (up to 1100 degree C). Samples implanted at doses higher than 5x10 16 cm -2 and annealed above 1000 degree C showed a PAS spectrum with an annihilation peak broader than the unimplanted sample. We discuss how these results are related to the process of silicon precipitation inside SiO 2 . copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Inclusion of gold nanoparticles in meso-porous silicon for the SERS analysis of cell adhesion on nano-structured surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, M.L.; De Vitis, S.; Strumbo, G.; Candeloro, P.; Perozziello, G.; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Gentile, F.

    2016-01-01

    MeP Si surfaces were realized by anodization of a Si wafer, creating the device for cell adhesion and growth. Gold nanoparticles were deposited on porous silicon by an electroless technique. We thus obtained devices with superior SERS capabilities, whereby cell activity may be controlled using Raman spectroscopy. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were cultured on the described substrates and SERS maps revealing the different expression and distribution of adhesion molecules were obtained by Raman spectroscopic analyses.

  5. CW-Laser-Induced Solid-State Reactions in Mixed Micron-Sized Particles of Silicon Monoxide and Titanium Monoxide: Nano-Structured Composite with Visible Light Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křenek, T.; Tesař, J.; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Netrvalová, M.; Pola, M.; Jandová, Věra; Pokorná, Dana; Cuřínová, Petra; Bezdička, Petr; Pola, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2017), s. 1640-1648 ISSN 1574-1443 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Cw CO2 laser heating * IR laser imaging * Silicon monoxide * Solid state redox reactions * Ti/Si/O composite * Titanium monoxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Chemical process engineering (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 1.577, year: 2016

  6. Ultraflexible nanostructures and implications for future nanorobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Robert W.; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2016-05-01

    Several high aspect ratio nanostructures have been made by capillary force directed self-assembly including polymeric nanofiber air-bridges, trampoline-like membranes, microsphere-beaded nanofibers, and intermetallic nanoneedles. Arrays of polymer air-bridges form in seconds by simply hand brushing a bead of polymeric liquid over an array of micropillars. The domination of capillary force that is thinning unstable capillary bridges leads to uniform arrays of nanofiber air-bridges. Similarly, arrays of vertically oriented Ag2Ga nanoneedles have been formed by dipping silvercoated arrays of pyramidal silicon into melted gallium. Force-displacement measurements of these structures are presented. These nanostructures, especially when compressively or torsionally buckled, have extremely low stiffnesses, motion due to thermal fluctuations that is relatively easily detected, and the ability to move great distances for very small changes in applied force. Nanofibers with bead-on-a-string structure, where the beads are micron diameter and loaded with magnetic iron oxide (maghemite), are shown to be simply viewable under optical microscopes, have micronewton/ m stiffness, and have ultralow torsional stiffnesses enabling the bead to be rotated numerous revolutions without breaking. Combination of these high aspect ratio structures with stretched elastomers offer interesting possibilities for robotic actuation and locomotion. Polydimethylsiloxane loaded with nanomaterials, e.g. nanotubes, graphene or MoS2, can be efficiently heated with directed light. Heating produces considerable force through the thermoelastic effect, and this force can be used for continuous translation or to trigger reversible elastic buckling of the nanostructures. The remote stimulation of motion with light provides a possible mechanism for producing cooperative behavior between swarms of semiautonomous nanorobots.

  7. Thermal conductivity of silicon nanocrystals and polystyrene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juangsa, Firman Bagja; Muroya, Yoshiki; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Ryu, Meguya; Morikawa, Junko

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) are well known for their size-dependent optical and electronic properties; they also have the potential for low yet controllable thermal properties. As a silicon-based low-thermal conductivity material is required in microdevice applications, SiNCs can be utilized for thermal insulation. In this paper, SiNCs and polymer nanocomposites were produced, and their thermal conductivity, including the density and specific heat, was measured. Measurement results were compared with thermal conductivity models for composite materials, and the comparison shows a decreasing value of the thermal conductivity, indicating the effect of the size and presence of the nanostructure on the thermal conductivity. Moreover, employing silicon inks at room temperature during the fabrication process enables a low cost of fabrication and preserves the unique properties of SiNCs. (paper)

  8. Nanoparticle production in arc generated fireballs of granular silicon powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyohito Ito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently we observed buoyant fireballs by arc igniting silicon that drift in air for several seconds and postulated that the low aggregate density was attributed to the formation of a network of nanoparticles that must completely surround the burning silicon core, trapping the heated vapor generated as a result of particle combustion [Ito et al. Phys Rev E 80, 067401 (2009]. In this paper, we describe the capturing of several of these fireballs in flight, and have characterized their nanostructure by high resolution microscopy. The nanoparticle network is found to have an unusually high porosity (> 99%, suggesting that this arc-ignition of silicon can be a novel method of producing ultra-porous silica. While we confirm the presence of a nanoparticle network within the fireballs, the extension of this mechanism to the production of ball lightning during atmospheric lightning strikes in nature is still the subject of ongoing debate.

  9. Nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters

    CERN Document Server

    Briscoe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a range of devices that use piezoelectricity to convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy and relates their output capabilities to a range of potential applications. Starting with a description of the fundamental principles and properties of piezo- and ferroelectric materials, where applications of bulk materials are well established, the book shows how nanostructures of these materials are being developed for energy harvesting applications. The authors show how a nanostructured device can be produced, and put in context some of the approaches that are being invest

  10. Plasmon-Enhanced Photoluminescence of an Amorphous Silicon Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Device by Localized Surface Plasmon Polaritons in Ag/SiOx:a-Si QDs/Ag Sandwich Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Han Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated experimentally the plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of the amorphous silicon quantum dots (a-Si QDs light-emitting devices (LEDs with the Ag/SiOx:a-Si QDs/Ag sandwich nanostructures, through the coupling between the a-Si QDs and localized surface plasmons polaritons (LSPPs mode, by tuning a one-dimensional (1D Ag grating on the top. The coupling of surface plasmons at the top and bottom Ag/SiOx:a-Si QDs interfaces resulted in the localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPPs confined underneath the Ag lines, which exhibit the Fabry-Pérot resonance. From the Raman spectrum, it proves the existence of a-Si QDs embedded in Si-rich SiOx film (SiOx:a-Si QDs at a low annealing temperature (300°C to prevent the possible diffusion of Ag atoms from Ag film. The photoluminescence (PL spectra of a-Si QDs can be precisely tuned by a 1D Ag grating with different pitches and Ag line widths were investigated. An optimized Ag grating structure, with 500 nm pitch and 125 nm Ag line width, was found to achieve up to 4.8-fold PL enhancement at 526 nm and 2.46-fold PL integrated intensity compared to the a-Si QDs LEDs without Ag grating structure, due to the strong a-Si QDs-LSPPs coupling.

  11. Influence of silicon and atomic order on the magnetic properties of (Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20}){sub 100}-{sub x}Si{sub x} nanostructured system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez, G. Y., E-mail: gyovelca@univalle.edu.co; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Zamora, Ligia E. [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Fisica (Colombia); Romero, J. J.; Martinez, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado IMA (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Mechanically alloyed (Fe{sub 80}Al{sub 20}){sub 100-x}Si{sub x} alloys (with x = 0, 10, 15 and 20) were prepared by using a high energy planetary ball mill, with milling times of 12, 24 and 36 h. The structural and magnetic study was conducted by X-rays diffraction and Moessbauer spectrometry. The system is nanostructured and presents only the BCC disordered phase, whose lattice parameter remains constant with milling time, and decreases when the Si content increases. We found that lattice contraction is influenced 39% by the iron substitution and 61% by the aluminum substitution, by silicon atoms. The Moessbauer spectra and their respective hyperfine magnetic field distributions show that for every milling time used here, the ferromagnetism decreases when x increases. For samples with x {>=} 15 a paramagnetic component appears. From the shape of the magnetic field distributions we stated that the larger ferromagnetic phase observed in the samples alloyed during 24 and 36 h is a consequence of the structural disorder induced by mechanical alloying.

  12. Nanostructures by ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, B.

    Ion beam techniques, including conventional broad beam ion implantation, ion beam synthesis and ion irradiation of thin layers, as well as local ion implantation with fine-focused ion beams have been applied in different fields of micro- and nanotechnology. The ion beam synthesis of nanoparticles in high-dose ion-implanted solids is explained as phase separation of nanostructures from a super-saturated solid state through precipitation and Ostwald ripening during subsequent thermal treatment of the ion-implanted samples. A special topic will be addressed to self-organization processes of nanoparticles during ion irradiation of flat and curved solid-state interfaces. As an example of silicon nanocrystal application, the fabrication of silicon nanocrystal non-volatile memories will be described. Finally, the fabrication possibilities of nanostructures, such as nanowires and chains of nanoparticles (e.g. CoSi2), by ion beam synthesis using a focused Co+ ion beam will be demonstrated and possible applications will be mentioned.

  13. Inclusion of gold nanoparticles in meso-porous silicon for the SERS analysis of cell adhesion on nano-structured surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Coluccio, M.L.

    2016-03-25

    The study and the comprehension of the mechanism of cell adhesion and cell interaction with a substrate is a key point when biology and medicine meet engineering. This is the case of several biomedical applications, from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to lab on chip and many others, in which the realization of the appropriate artificial surface allows the control of cell adhesion and proliferation. In this context, we aimed to design and develop a fabrication method of mesoporous (MeP) silicon substrates, doped with gold nanoparticles, in which we combine the capability of porous surfaces to support cell adhesion with the SERS capabilities of gold nanoparticles, to understand the chemical mechanisms of cell/surface interaction. MeP Si surfaces were realized by anodization of a Si wafer, creating the device for cell adhesion and growth. Gold nanoparticles were deposited on porous silicon by an electroless technique. We thus obtained devices with superior SERS capabilities, whereby cell activity may be controlled using Raman spectroscopy. MCF-7 breast cancer cells were cultured on the described substrates and SERS maps revealing the different expression and distribution of adhesion molecules were obtained by Raman spectroscopic analyses.

  14. Nanostructured thin films and coatings functional properties

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The second volume in ""The Handbook of Nanostructured Thin Films and Coatings"" set, this book focuses on functional properties, including optical, electronic, and electrical properties, as well as related devices and applications. It explores the large-scale fabrication of functional thin films with nanoarchitecture via chemical routes, the fabrication and characterization of SiC nanostructured/nanocomposite films, and low-dimensional nanocomposite fabrication and applications. The book also presents the properties of sol-gel-derived nanostructured thin films as well as silicon nanocrystals e

  15. Fabrication of Nanostructures Using Self-Assembled Peptides as Templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    the advantages of diphenylalanine are explained step by step offering new alternatives to fabricate nanostructures in a simple and rapid way. The chapter is complemented with techniques to manipulate the self-assembled diphenylalanine nanostructures without changing its properties during the manipulation process.......This chapter evaluates the use of a short-aromatic dipeptide, diphenylalanine, as a template in the fabrication of new nanostructures (nanowires, coaxial nanocables, nanochannels) using materials such as silicon, conducting and non-conducting polymers. Diphenylalanine self...

  16. Ion-implanted Si-nanostructures buried in a SiO{sub 2} substrate studied with soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Eisebitt, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In recent years silicon nanostructures have gained great interest because of their optical luminescence, which immediately suggests several applications, e.g., in optoelectronic devices. Nanostructures are also investigated because of the fundamental physics involved in the underlying luminescence mechanism, especially attention has been drawn to the influence of the reduced dimensions on the electronic structure. The forming of stable and well-defined nanostructured materials is one goal of cluster physics. For silicon nanostructures this goal has so far not been reached, but various indirect methods have been established, all having the problem of producing less well defined and/or unstable nanostructures. Ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a promising new technique to overcome some of these difficulties. In this experiment the authors investigate the electronic structure of ion-implanted silicon nanoparticles buried in a stabilizing SiO{sub 2} substrate. Soft X-ray emission (SXE) spectroscopy features the appropriate information depth to investigate such buried structures. SXE spectra to a good approximation map the local partial density of occupied states (LPDOS) in broad band materials like Si. The use of monochromatized synchrotron radiation (MSR) allows for selective excitation of silicon atoms in different chemical environments. Thus, the emission from Si atom sites in the buried structure can be separated from contributions from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. In this preliminary study strong size dependent effects are found, and the electronic structure of the ion-implanted nanoparticles is shown to be qualitatively different from porous silicon. The results can be interpreted in terms of quantum confinement and chemical shifts due to neighboring oxygen atoms at the interface to SiO{sub 2}.

  17. Porous Silicon Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-01-01

    In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999

  18. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do; Tahereh Fanaei Sheikholeslami; Hassan Azarkish

    2016-01-01

    Nanowires (NWs) are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW) is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW), is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method fo...

  19. Phonon engineering for nanostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, Sylvie (Stanford University); Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sullivan, John Patrick; Peebles, Diane Elaine; Hurley, David H. (Idaho National Laboratory); Shinde, Subhash L.; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Emerson, John Allen

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the physics of phonon transport at small length scales is increasingly important for basic research in nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, nanomechanics, and thermoelectrics. We conducted several studies to develop an understanding of phonon behavior in very small structures. This report describes the modeling, experimental, and fabrication activities used to explore phonon transport across and along material interfaces and through nanopatterned structures. Toward the understanding of phonon transport across interfaces, we computed the Kapitza conductance for {Sigma}29(001) and {Sigma}3(111) interfaces in silicon, fabricated the interfaces in single-crystal silicon substrates, and used picosecond laser pulses to image the thermal waves crossing the interfaces. Toward the understanding of phonon transport along interfaces, we designed and fabricated a unique differential test structure that can measure the proportion of specular to diffuse thermal phonon scattering from silicon surfaces. Phonon-scale simulation of the test ligaments, as well as continuum scale modeling of the complete experiment, confirmed its sensitivity to surface scattering. To further our understanding of phonon transport through nanostructures, we fabricated microscale-patterned structures in diamond thin films.

  20. Structurally controlled deposition of silicon onto nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weijie; Liu, Zuqin; Han, Song; Bornstein, Jonathan; Stefan, Constantin Ionel

    2018-03-20

    Provided herein are nanostructures for lithium ion battery electrodes and methods of fabrication. In some embodiments, a nanostructure template coated with a silicon coating is provided. The silicon coating may include a non-conformal, more porous layer and a conformal, denser layer on the non-conformal, more porous layer. In some embodiments, two different deposition processes, e.g., a PECVD layer to deposit the non-conformal layer and a thermal CVD process to deposit the conformal layer, are used. Anodes including the nanostructures have longer cycle lifetimes than anodes made using either a PECVD or thermal CVD method alone.

  1. Application of porous silicon in solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Ashokan, Jibinlal; Srivastava, Divesh N.

    2018-05-01

    Silicon is widely used in solar cell applications with over 95% of all solar cells produced worldwide composed of silicon. Nanostructured thin porous silicon (PSi) layer acting as anti-reflecting coating is used in photovoltaic solar cells due to its advantages including simple and low cost fabrication, highly textured surfaces enabling lowering of reflectance, controllability of thickness and porosity of layer, and high surface area. PSi layers have previously been reported to reduce the reflection of light and replaced the conventional anti-reflective coating layers on solar cells. This can essentially improve the efficiency and decrease the cost of silicon solar cells. Here, we investigate the reflectance of different PSi layers formed by varying current density and etching time. PSi layers were formed by a combination of current density including 60 and 80 mA/cm2 and time for fabrication as 2, 4, 6, and 8 seconds. The fabricated PSi layers were characterized using reflectance spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thickness and pore size of PSi layer were increased with increase in etching time and current density, respectively. The reflectance of PSi layers was decreased with increase in etching time until 6 seconds and increased again after 6 seconds, which was observed across both the current density. Reduction in reflectance indicates the increase of absorption of light by silicon due to the thin PSi layer. In comparison with the reflectance of silicon wafer, PSi layer fabricated at 80 mA/cm2 for 6 seconds gave the best result with reduction in reflectance up to 57%. Thus, the application of PSi layer as an effective anti-reflecting coating for the fabrication of solar cell has been demonstrated.

  2. Characterization of Urea Versus hmta in the Preparation of Zinc Oxide NANOSTRUCTURES by Catalytic Immersion Method Grown on Gold-seeded Silicon Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azlinda Abdul Aziz; Khusaimi, Z.; Rusop, M.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano structured prepared by immersed method were successfully grown on gold-seeded silicon substrate using Zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O) as a precursor was stabilized by a non-toxic urea (CH 4 N 2 O) in a ratio of 1:2 and 1:1 ratio of hexamethylene tetraamine (HMTA). The effect of changing the stabilizer of ZnO solution on the crystal structure, morphology and photoluminescence properties of the resultant ZnO is investigated. X-ray diffraction of the synthesized ZnO shows hexagonal zincite structure. The morphology of the ZnO was characterizing using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The growth of ZnO using urea as stabilizer shows the clusters of ZnO nano flower with serrated broad petals and sharp tips of approximately 25 nm were interestingly formed. ZnO in HMTA showed growth of nano rods. The structures has high surface area, is a potential metal oxide nano structures to be develop for optoelectronic devices and chemical sensors. The formation of ZnO nano structures is found to be significantly affected by the stabilizer. (author)

  3. A Lithium-Ion Battery using a 3 D-Array Nanostructured Graphene-Sulfur Cathode and a Silicon Oxide-Based Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Almudena; Di Lecce, Daniele; Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Caballero, Álvaro; Morales, Julián; Hassoun, Jusef

    2018-05-09

    An efficient lithium-ion battery was assembled by using an enhanced sulfur-based cathode and a silicon oxide-based anode and proposed as an innovative energy-storage system. The sulfur-carbon composite, which exploits graphene carbon with a 3 D array (3DG-S), was synthesized by a reduction step through a microwave-assisted solvothermal technique and was fully characterized in terms of structure and morphology, thereby revealing suitable features for lithium-cell application. Electrochemical tests of the 3DG-S electrode in a lithium half-cell indicated a capacity ranging from 1200 to 1000 mAh g -1 at currents of C/10 and 1 C, respectively. Remarkably, the Li-alloyed anode, namely, Li y SiO x -C prepared by the sol-gel method and lithiated by surface treatment, showed suitable performance in a lithium half-cell by using an electrolyte designed for lithium-sulfur batteries. The Li y SiO x -C/3DG-S battery was found to exhibit very promising properties with a capacity of approximately 460 mAh g S -1 delivered at an average voltage of approximately 1.5 V over 200 cycles, suggesting that the characterized materials would be suitable candidates for low-cost and high-energy-storage applications. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  5. Annealing treatments for producing cold-rolled low-silicon multi-phase steels for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrieze, J.; Vortrefflich, W.; Winter, L. de [Applied Physical Metallurgy, Hoogovens Research and Development, Ijmuiden (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Laboratory simulations of a hot-dip galvanizing line have been carried out on a 0.16%C-1.5%Mn-0.4%Si steel. It has been demonstrated that based on this steel composition materials with typical multi-phase properties can be produced on hot-dip galvanizing lines. By varying the process conditions a tensile strength between 570 and 650 MPa has been obtained. In addition, tensile tests at high strain rates have been carried out and the results have been compared with those of other non-multi-phase steel grades. (orig.)

  6. Friction-induced nanofabrication on monocrystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bingjun; Qian Linmao; Yu Jiaxin; Zhou Zhongrong; Dong Hanshan; Chen Yunfei

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of nanostructures has become a major concern as the scaling of device dimensions continues. In this paper, a friction-induced nanofabrication method is proposed to fabricate protrusive nanostructures on silicon. Without applying any voltage, the nanofabrication is completed by sliding an AFM diamond tip on a sample surface under a given normal load. Nanostructured patterns, such as linear nanostructures, nanodots or nanowords, can be fabricated on the target surface. The height of these nanostructures increases rapidly at first and then levels off with the increasing normal load or number of scratching cycles. TEM analyses suggest that the friction-induced hillock is composed of silicon oxide, amorphous silicon and deformed silicon structures. Compared to the tribochemical reaction, the amorphization and crystal defects induced by the mechanical interaction may have played a dominating role in the formation of the hillocks. Similar to other proximal probe methods, the proposed method enables fabrication at specified locations and facilitates measuring the dimensions of nanostructures with high precision. It is highlighted that the fabrication can also be realized on electrical insulators or oxide surfaces, such as quartz and glass. Therefore, the friction-induced method points out a new route in fabricating nanostructures on demand.

  7. Effect of Silicon Nanowire on Crystalline Silicon Solar Cell Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ostadmahmoodi Do

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanowires (NWs are recently used in several sensor or actuator devices to improve their ordered characteristics. Silicon nanowire (Si NW is one of the most attractive one-dimensional nanostructures semiconductors because of its unique electrical and optical properties. In this paper, silicon nanowire (Si NW, is synthesized and characterized for application in photovoltaic device. Si NWs are prepared using wet chemical etching method which is commonly used as a simple and low cost method for producing nanowires of the same substrate material. The process conditions are adjusted to find the best quality of Si NWs. Morphology of Si NWs is studied using a field emission scanning electron microscopic technique. An energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer is also used to provide elemental identification and quantitative compositional information. Subsequently, Schottky type solar cell samples are fabricated on Si and Si NWs using ITO and Ag contacts. The junction properties are calculated using I-V curves in dark condition and the solar cell I-V characteristics are obtained under incident of the standardized light of AM1.5. The results for the two mentioned Schottky solar cell samples are compared and discussed. An improvement in short circuit current and efficiency of Schottky solar cell is found when Si nanowires are employed.

  8. Structural and photoluminescence properties of silicon nanowires extracted by means of a centrifugation process from plasma torch synthesized silicon nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, Vincent; Agati, Marta; Boninelli, Simona; Castrucci, Paola; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Dolbec, Richard; El Khakani, My Ali

    2017-07-01

    We report on a method for the extraction of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) from the by-product of a plasma torch based spheroidization process of silicon. This by-product is a nanopowder which consists of a mixture of SiNWs and silicon particles. By optimizing a centrifugation based process, we were able to extract substantial amounts of highly pure Si nanomaterials (mainly SiNWs and Si nanospheres (SiNSs)). While the purified SiNWs were found to have typical outer diameters in the 10-15 nm range and lengths of up to several μm, the SiNSs have external diameters in the 10-100 nm range. Interestingly, the SiNWs are found to have a thinner Si core (2-5 nm diam.) and an outer silicon oxide shell (with a typical thickness of ˜5-10 nm). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations revealed that many SiNWs have a continuous cylindrical core, whereas others feature a discontinuous core consisting of a chain of Si nanocrystals forming a sort of ‘chaplet-like’ structures. These plasma-torch-produced SiNWs are highly pure with no trace of any metal catalyst, suggesting that they mostly form through SiO-catalyzed growth scheme rather than from metal-catalyzed path. The extracted Si nanostructures are shown to exhibit a strong photoluminescence (PL) which is found to blue-shift from 950 to 680 nm as the core size of the Si nanostructures decreases from ˜5 to ˜3 nm. This near IR-visible PL is shown to originate from quantum confinement (QC) in Si nanostructures. Consistently, the sizes of the Si nanocrystals directly determined from HRTEM images corroborate well with those expected by QC theory.

  9. Nanotechnologies. Properties and applications of nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, A A

    2007-01-01

    The review summarises the main methods for the preparation of nanostructured metals, alloys, semiconductors and ceramics. The formation mechanisms of nanostructures based on two different principles, viz. the assembly principle (bottom-up) and the disintegration principle (top-down), are analysed. Isolated nanoparticles, nanopowders and compact nanomaterials produced by these methods possess different properties. The scope of application of various classes of nanostructured materials is considered and the topicality of the development of nanoindustry is emphasised.

  10. Ultrafast Silicon Photonics with Visible to Mid-Infrared Pumping of Silicon Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diroll, Benjamin T; Schramke, Katelyn S; Guo, Peijun; Kortshagen, Uwe R; Schaller, Richard D

    2017-10-11

    Dynamic optical control of infrared (IR) transparency and refractive index is achieved using boron-doped silicon nanocrystals excited with mid-IR optical pulses. Unlike previous silicon-based optical switches, large changes in transmittance are achieved without a fabricated structure by exploiting strong light coupling of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) produced from free holes of p-type silicon nanocrystals. The choice of optical excitation wavelength allows for selectivity between hole heating and carrier generation through intraband or interband photoexcitation, respectively. Mid-IR optical pumping heats the free holes of p-Si nanocrystals to effective temperatures greater than 3500 K. Increases of the hole effective mass at high effective hole temperatures lead to a subpicosecond change of the dielectric function, resulting in a redshift of the LSPR, modulating mid-IR transmission by as much as 27%, and increasing the index of refraction by more than 0.1 in the mid-IR. Low hole heat capacity dictates subpicosecond hole cooling, substantially faster than carrier recombination, and negligible heating of the Si lattice, permitting mid-IR optical switching at terahertz repetition frequencies. Further, the energetic distribution of holes at high effective temperatures partially reverses the Burstein-Moss effect, permitting the modulation of transmittance at telecommunications wavelengths. The results presented here show that doped silicon, particularly in micro- or nanostructures, is a promising dynamic metamaterial for ultrafast IR photonics.

  11. The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured Fe60Al40 alloys produced by mechanical alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, M M; Alcázar, G A Pérez; Zamora, L E; González, C; Greneche, J M

    2008-06-01

    The effect of Mn and B on the magnetic and structural properties of nanostructured samples of the Fe60Al40 system, prepared by mechanical alloying, was studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In the case of the Fe(60-x)Mn(x)Al40 system, 24 h milling time is required to achieve the BCC ternary phase. Different magnetic structures are observed according to the temperature and the Mn content for alloys milled during 48 h: ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, spin-glass, reentrant spin-glass and superparamagnetic behavior. They result from the bond randomness behaviour induced by the atomic disorder introduced by the MA process and from the competitive interactions of the Fe-Fe ferromagnetic interactions and the Mn-Mn and Fe-Mn antiferromagnetic interactions and finally the presence of Al atoms acting as dilutors. When B is added in the Fe60Al40 alloy and milled for 12 and 24 hours, two crystalline phases were found: a prevailing FeAl BCC phase and a Fe2B phase type. In addition, one observes an additional contribution attributed to grain boundaries which increases when both milling time and boron composition increase. Finally Mn and B were added to samples of the Fe60Al40 system prepared by mechanical alloying during 12 and 24 hours. Mn content was fixed to 10 at.% and B content varied between 0 and 20 at.%, substituting Al. X-ray patterns show two crystalline phases, the ternary FeMnAl BCC phase, and a (Fe,Mn)2B phase type. The relative proportion of the last phase increases when the B content increases, in addition to changes of the grain size and the lattice parameter. Such behavior was observed for both milling periods. On the other hand, the magnetic hyperfine field distributions show that both phases exhibit chemical disorder, and that the contribution attributed to the grain boundaries is less important when the B content increases. Coercive field values of about 10(2) Oe slightly increase with boron content

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of H2S aqueous media using sulfide nanostructured solid-solution solar-energy-materials to produce hydrogen fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgari, Mohsen; Ghanimati, Majid

    2018-03-05

    H 2 S is a corrosive, flammable and noxious gas, which can be neutralized by dissolving in alkaline media and employed as H 2 -source by utilizing inside semiconductor-assisted/photochemical reactors. Herein, through a facile hydrothermal route, a ternary nanostructured solid-solution of iron, zinc and sulfur was synthesized in the absence and presence of Ag-dopant, and applied as efficient photocatalyst of hydrogen fuel production from H 2 S media. The effect of pH on the photocatalyst performance was scrutinized and the maximum activity was attained at pH=11, where HS - concentration is high. BET, diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence studies indicated that the ternary solid-solution photocatalyst, in comparison to its solid-solvent (ZnS), has a greater surface area, stronger photon absorption and less charge recombination, which justify its superiority. Moreover, the effect of silver-dopant on the photocatalyst performance was examined. The investigations revealed that although silver could boost the absorption of photons and increase the surface area, it could not appreciably enhance the photocatalyst performance due to its weak influence on retarding the charge-recombination process. Finally, the phenomenon was discussed in detail from mechanistic viewpoint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactor and method for production of nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kim, Jeong H.; Kumar, Vivekanand

    2017-04-25

    A reactor and method for production of nanostructures, including metal oxide nanowires or nanoparticles, are provided. The reactor includes a regulated metal powder delivery system in communication with a dielectric tube; a plasma-forming gas inlet, whereby a plasma-forming gas is delivered substantially longitudinally into the dielectric tube; a sheath gas inlet, whereby a sheath gas is delivered into the dielectric tube; and a microwave energy generator coupled to the dielectric tube, whereby microwave energy is delivered into a plasma-forming gas. The method for producing nanostructures includes providing a reactor to form nanostructures and collecting the formed nanostructures, optionally from a filter located downstream of the dielectric tube.

  14. Development of advanced Czochralski Growth Process to produce low cost 150 KG silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The goals in this program for advanced czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness are outlined. To provide a modified CG2000 crystal power capable of pulling a minimum of five crystals, each of approximately 30 kg in weight, 150 mm diameter from a single crucible with periodic melt replenishment. Crystals to have: resistivity of 1 to 3 ohm cm, p-type; dislocation density below 1- to the 6th power per cm; orientation (100); after growth yield of greater than 90%. Growth throughput of greater than 2.5 kg per hour of machine operation using a radiation shield. Prototype equipment suitable for use as a production facility. The overall cost goal is $.70 per peak watt by 1986. To accomplish these goals, the modified CG2000 grower and development program includes: (1) increased automation with a microprocessor based control system; (2) sensors development which will increase the capability of the automatic controls system, and provide technology transfer of the developed systems.

  15. Geometry and magnetism of L10 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, K.D.; Skomski, R.; Daniil, M.; Michalski, S.; Gao, L.; Zhou, J.; Yan, M.; Sui, Y.; Kirby, R.D.; Liou, S.H.; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The fabrication and magnetism of L1 0 nanostructures with different shapes (such as nanoparticles and nanotubes) is investigated. These nanostructures are produced by hydrogen processing and focused ion beam milling. The structures exhibit interesting reversal modes and are of present or potential interest for sensors and imaging, as well as magnetic recording

  16. Characterization of the porous anodic alumina nanostructures with a metal interlayer on Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Chia-Hui; Chen, Hung-Ing; Hsiao, Jui-Ju; Wang, Jen-Cheng; Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw

    2014-04-15

    Porous anodic alumina (PAA) films produced by the anodization technique have made possible the mass production of porous nano-scale structures where the pore height and diameter are controllable. A metal interlayer is observed to have a significant influence on the characteristics of these PAA nanostructures. In this study, we investigate in-depth the effect of the current density on the properties of porous anodic alumina nanostructures with a metal interlayer. A thin film layer of tungsten (W) and titanium (Ti) was sandwiched between a porous anodic alumina film and a silicon (Si) substrate to form PAA/W/Si and PAA/Ti/Si structures. The material and optical characteristics of the porous anodic alumina nanostructures, with and without a metal interlayer, on silicon substrates were studied using the scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The current densities of the porous anodic alumina nanostructures with the metal interlayer are higher than for the PAA/Si, resulting in an increase of the growth rate of the oxide layer. It can be observed from the X-ray diffraction curves that there is more aluminum oxide inside the structure with the metal interlayer. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a reduction in the photoluminescence intensity of the oxygen vacancy with only one electron due to the formation of oxygen vacancies inside the aluminum oxide during the re-crystallization process. This leads to competition between the two kinds of different oxygen-deficient defect centers (F+ and F centers) in the carrier recombination mechanism from the PL spectra of the porous anodic alumina nanostructures, with and without a metal interlayer, on silicon substrates. -- Highlights: • Study of porous anodic alumina (PAA) films with metal interlayers on silicon. • The highly ordered PAA film with a fairly regular nano-porous structure. • The luminescence properties of PAA films were

  17. Resonant tunnelling from nanometre-scale silicon field emission cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Markwitz, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we report the field emission properties of self-assembled silicon nanostructures formed on an n-type silicon (100) substrate by electron beam annealing. The nanostructures are square based, with an average height of 8 nm and are distributed randomly over the entire substrate surface. Following conditioning, the silicon nanostructure field emission characteristics become stable and reproducible with electron emission occurring for fields as low as 3 Vμm-1. At higher fields, a superimposed on a background current well described by conventional Fowler-Nordheim theory. These current peaks are understood to result from enhanced tunnelling through resonant states formed at the substrate-nanostructure and nanostructure-vacuum interface. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs

  18. Hydrogen-terminated mesoporous silicon monoliths with huge surface area as alternative Si-based visible light-active photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting; Li, Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Blazeby, Emma; Shang, Congxiao; Xu, Hualong; Zhang, Xixiang; Chao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Silicon-based nanostructures and their related composites have drawn tremendous research interest in solar energy storage and conversion. Mesoporous silicon with a huge surface area of 400-900 m2 g-1 developed by electrochemical etching exhibits

  19. Metal-assisted chemical etching in HF/Na2S2O8 OR HF/KMnO4 produces porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjersi, T.; Gabouze, N.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Zinine, A.; Zinine, A.; Ababou, A.; Chergui, W.; Cheraga, H.; Belhousse, S.; Djeghri, A.

    2004-01-01

    A new metal-assisted chemical etching method using Na2S2O8 or KMnO4 as an oxidizing agent was proposed to form a porous silicon layer on a highly resistive p-type silicon. A thin layer of Ag or Pd is deposited on the Si(100) surface prior to immersion in a solution of HF and Na2S2O8 or HF and KMnO4.

  20. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene nanostruc...... demonstrated the opening of what could be interpreted as a band gap....... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...

  1. Nanostructured Si-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, Julietta V.; Fosca, Marco; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Laureti, Sara; Bianco, Alessandra; Teghil, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, the Si-HAp coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. For deposition, the Si-HAp targets (1.4 wt.% of Si), produced starting from wet synthesized powders, were used. The properties of coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Vickers microhardness. The obtained Si-HAp coatings presented a nanosized structure, proper thickness and hardness for applications in orthopedical and dental surgery, aimed at improving the stability and the osteointegration of bone implants. - Highlights: ► Pulsed Laser Deposition method was applied to coat heated Titanium supports. ► Films were deposited using a target of Silicon-Hydroxyapatite sintered ceramics. ► Nanostructured crystalline hard film was grown replicating target composition. ► Prepared coating could be used for orthopedic and dental implants applications

  2. Nanostructured Si-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, Julietta V., E-mail: giulietta.rau@ism.cnr.it [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Fosca, Marco [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Cacciotti, Ilaria [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,UR INSTM “Roma Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Laureti, Sara [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria km 29.300-00016 Monterotondo Scalo (RM) (Italy); Bianco, Alessandra [Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,UR INSTM “Roma Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Teghil, Roberto [Università della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Scienze, Via dell' Ateneo Lucano 10-85100, Potenza (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    In the present work, the Si-HAp coatings were deposited on titanium substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. For deposition, the Si-HAp targets (1.4 wt.% of Si), produced starting from wet synthesized powders, were used. The properties of coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Vickers microhardness. The obtained Si-HAp coatings presented a nanosized structure, proper thickness and hardness for applications in orthopedical and dental surgery, aimed at improving the stability and the osteointegration of bone implants. - Highlights: ► Pulsed Laser Deposition method was applied to coat heated Titanium supports. ► Films were deposited using a target of Silicon-Hydroxyapatite sintered ceramics. ► Nanostructured crystalline hard film was grown replicating target composition. ► Prepared coating could be used for orthopedic and dental implants applications.

  3. Plasmonic Nanostructures for Biosensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Akshitha

    Improving the sensitivity of existing biosensors is an active research topic that cuts across several disciplines, including engineering and biology. Optical biosensors are the one of the most diverse class of biosensors which can be broadly categorized into two types based on the detection scheme: label-based and label-free detection. In label-based detection, the target bio-molecules are labeled with dyes or tags that fluoresce upon excitation, indicating the presence of target molecules. Label-based detection is highly-sensitive, capable of single molecule detection depending on the detector type used. One method of improving the sensitivity of label-based fluorescence detection is by enhancement of the emission of the labels by coupling them with metal nanostructures. This approach is referred as plasmon-enhanced fluorescence (PEF). PEF is achieved by increasing the electric field around the nano metal structures through plasmonics. This increased electric field improves the enhancement from the fluorophores which in turn improves the photon emission from the fluorophores which, in turn, improves the limit of detection. Biosensors taking advantage of the plasmonic properties of metal films and nanostructures have emerged an alternative, low-cost, high sensitivity method for detecting labeled DNA. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors employing noble metal nanostructures have recently attracted considerable attention as a new class of plasmonic nanosensors. In this work, the design, fabrication and characterization of plasmonic nanostructures is carried out. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations were performed using software from Lumerical Inc. to design a novel LSPR structure that exhibit resonance overlapping with the absorption and emission wavelengths of quantum dots (QD). Simulations of a composite Au/SiO2 nanopillars on silicon substrate were performed using FDTD software to show peak plasmonic enhancement at QD emission wavelength

  4. Hollow Micro-/Nanostructures: Synthesis and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen (David); Archer, Lynden A.; Yang, Zichao

    2008-01-01

    for Portland cement, to produce concrete with enhanced strength and durability. This review is devoted to the progress made in the last decade in synthesis and applications of hollow micro-nanostructures. We present a comprehensive overview of synthetic

  5. Tuning the Color of Silicon Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Linyou; Fan, Pengyu; Barnard, Edward S.; Brown, Ana M.; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    and Si structures have already been engineered to enable light emission, optical cloaking, waveguiding, nonlinear optics, enhanced light absorption, and sensing. Here, we demonstrate that a wide spectrum of colors can be generated by harnessing the strong

  6. Electroluminescence from Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    passivation has been demonstrated and extensive experimental and theoretical studies of electronic, optical, and mechanical properties have been performed. SiNWs have a direct band gap, with potential applications in electronic, optoelectronic, and chemical sensors, Daryoush Shiri et al. (2008). Si is the leading material ...

  7. Electroluminescence from Silicon and Germanium Nanostructures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quantum confinement model (QCM), that can explain PL and EL on pure Si ... Matlab program have been developed for the model equations that simulates the data to compare ... for data simulation. ... this model, the luminescence process is.

  8. Effects of silicon, copper and iron on static and dynamic properties of alloy 206 (aluminum-copper) in semi-solids produced by the SEED process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Alain

    The advantages of producing metal parts by rheocasting are generally recognised for common foundry alloys of Al-Si. However, other more performing alloys in terms of mechanical properties could have a great interest in specialized applications in the automotive industry, while remaining competitive in the forming. Indeed, the growing demand for more competitive products requires the development of new alloys better suited to semi-solid processes. Among others, Al-Cu alloys of the 2XX series are known for their superior mechanical strength. However, in the past, 2XX alloys were never candidates for pressure die casting. The main reason is their propensity to hot tearing. Semi-solid processes provide better conditions for molding with the rheological behavior of dough and molding temperatures lower reducing this type of defect. In the initial phase, this research has studied factors that reduce hot tearing susceptibility of castings produced by semi-solid SEED of alloy 206. Subsequently, a comparative study on the tensile properties and fatigue was performed on four variants of the alloy 206. The results of tensile strength and fatigue were compared with the specifications for applications in the automotive industry and also to other competing processes and alloys. During this study, several metallurgical aspects were analyzed. The following main points have been validated: i) the main effects of compositional variations of silicon, iron and copper alloy Al-Cu (206) on the mechanical properties, and ii) certain relationships between the mechanism of hot cracking and the solidification rate in semi-solid. Parts produced from the semi-solid paste coming from the SEED process combined with modified 206 alloys have been successfully molded and achieved superior mechanical properties than the requirements of the automotive industry. The fatigue properties of the two best modified 206 alloys were higher than those of A357 alloy castings and are close to those of the

  9. Resolving the nanostructure of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline SiOx layers for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsporn, M.; Kirner, S.; Villringer, C.; Abou-Ras, D.; Costina, I.; Lehmann, M.; Stannowski, B.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon suboxides (nc-SiOx) have attracted attention during the past years for the use in thin-film silicon solar cells. We investigated the relationships between the nanostructure as well as the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of phosphorous, doped, nc-SiO0.8:H fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure was varied through the sample series by changing the deposition pressure from 533 to 1067 Pa. The samples were then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and a specialized plasmon imaging method. We found that the material changed with increasing pressure from predominantly amorphous silicon monoxide to silicon dioxide containing nanocrystalline silicon. The nanostructure changed from amorphous silicon filaments to nanocrystalline silicon filaments, which were found to cause anisotropic electron transport.

  10. Generation of reactive oxygen species from porous silicon microparticles in cell culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Suet Peng; Williams, Keryn A; Canham, Leigh T; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2010-06-01

    Nanostructured (porous) silicon is a promising biodegradable biomaterial, which is being intensively researched as a tissue engineering scaffold and drug-delivery vehicle. Here, we tested the biocompatibility of non-treated and thermally-oxidized porous silicon particles using an indirect cell viability assay. Initial direct cell culture on porous silicon determined that human lens epithelial cells only poorly adhered to non-treated porous silicon. Using an indirect cell culture assay, we found that non-treated microparticles caused complete cell death, indicating that these particles generated a toxic product in cell culture medium. In contrast, thermally-oxidized microparticles did not reduce cell viability significantly. We found evidence for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by means of the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin. Our results suggest that non-treated porous silicon microparticles produced ROS, which interacted with the components of the cell culture medium, leading to the formation of cytotoxic species. Oxidation of porous silicon microparticles not only mitigated, but also abolished the toxic effects.

  11. Semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstein Erik Stensrud

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents a study of two material systems containing semiconductor nanocrystals, namely porous silicon (PSi) films and germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) films. The PSi films were made by anodic etching of silicon (Si) substrates in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid. The PSi films were doped with erbium (Er) using two different doping methods. electrochemical doping and doping by immersing the PSi films in a solution containing Er. The resulting Er concentration profiles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEN1) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The main subject of the work on PSi presented in this thesis was investigating and comparing these two doping methods. Ge nanocrystals were made by implanting Ge ions into Si02 films that were subsequently annealed. However. nanocrystal formation occurred only for certain sets of processing parameters. The dependence of the microstructure of the Ge implanted Si02 films on the processing parameters were therefore investigated. A range of methods were employed for these investigations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The observed structures, ranging from Ge nanocrystals to voids with diameters of several tens of nanometers and Ge rich Si02 films without any nanocrystals is described. A model explaining the void formation is also presented. For certain sets of processing parameters. An accumulation of Ge at the Si-Si02 interface was observed. The effect of this accumulation on the electrical properties of MOS structures made from Ge implanted SiO2 films was investigated using CV-measurements. (Author)

  12. Passivation of surface-nanostructured f-SiC and porous SiC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang; Ou, Yiyu

    The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper.......The further enhancement of photoluminescence from nanostructured fluorescent silicon carbide (f-SiC) and porous SiC by using atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 is studied in this paper....

  13. Matrix-assisted energy conversion in nanostructured piezoelectric arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirbuly, Donald J.; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Yinmin

    2013-01-01

    A nanoconverter is capable of directly generating electricity through a nanostructure embedded in a polymer layer experiencing differential thermal expansion in a stress transfer zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or substantially vertically aligned on a substrate. The resulting nanoforest is then embedded with the polymer layer, which transfers stress to the nanostructures in the stress transfer zone, thereby creating a nanostructure voltage output due to the piezoelectric effect acting on the nanostructure. Electrodes attached at both ends of the nanostructures generate output power at densities of .about.20 nW/cm.sup.2 with heating temperatures of .about.65.degree. C. Nanoconverters arrayed in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries.

  14. Towards highly sensitive strain sensing based on nanostructured materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Dzung Viet; Nakamura, Koichi; Sugiyama, Susumu; Bui, Tung Thanh; Dau, Van Thanh; Yamada, Takeo; Hata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents our recent theoretical and experimental study of piezo-effects in nanostructured materials for highly sensitive, high resolution mechanical sensors. The piezo-effects presented here include the piezoresistive effect in a silicon nanowire (SiNW) and single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin film, as well as the piezo-optic effect in a Si photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity. Firstly, the electronic energy band structure of the silicon nanostructure is discussed and simulated by using the First-Principles Calculations method. The result showed a remarkably different energy band structure compared with that of bulk silicon. This difference in the electronic state will result in different physical, chemical, and therefore, sensing properties of silicon nanostructures. The piezoresistive effects of SiNW and SWCNT thin film were investigated experimentally. We found that, when the width of ( 110 ) p-type SiNW decreases from 500 to 35 nm, the piezoresistive effect increases by more than 60%. The longitudinal piezoresistive coefficient of SWCNT thin film was measured to be twice that of bulk p-type silicon. Finally, theoretical investigations of the piezo-optic effect in a PhC nanocavity based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) showed extremely high resolution strain sensing. These nanostructures were fabricated based on top-down nanofabrication technology. The achievements of this work are significant for highly sensitive, high resolution and miniaturized mechanical sensors

  15. Development of a plasma assisted ITER level controlled heat source and observation of novel micro/nanostructures produced upon exposure of tungsten targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aomoa, N.; Sarmah, Trinayan; Sah, Puspalata [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); Chaudhuri, P.; Khirwarker, S.; Ghosh, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 Gujarat (India); Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Kakati, M., E-mail: mayurkak@rediffmail.com [CIMPLE-PSI Laboratory, Centre of Plasma Physics-Institute for Plasma Research, Sonapur 782 402 Assam (India); De Temmerman, G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046 Saint Paul Lez Durance, Cedex (France)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Developed a plasma assisted ITER level high heat flux device for material testing. • The beam deposits over 10 MW/m{sup 2} flux uniformly over a remote material target. • Hopper micro-crystals were growing while exposing Plansee tungsten in the device. • CIMPLE-PSI being developed for exact reproduction of Tokomak Divertor conditions. - Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a simple, low-cost, segmented plasma torch assisted high-heat flux device for material testing, which can simulate the extreme heat flux expected in future fusion devices. Calorimetric measurements confirmed uniform heat deposition by the well collimated argon plasma beam over a target surface with power fluxes in excess of 10 MW/m{sup 2} during high current, high gas flow rate operations. To understand the outcome of possible melting of first wall material in an ITER like machine, an Plansee tungsten target was exposed in this device, which witnessed growth of micrometer level Hopper crystals and their aggregation to vertical grains in central exposed region. Increase in viscosity of the metal during high under-cooling is believed to have lead to the skeletal patterns, observed for the first time for tungsten here. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that re-solidified grains on the target actually had crystalline substructures in the nanometer level. This laboratory is in the process of developing an exact linear Tokamak Divertor simulator, where a magnetized hydrogen/helium collimated plasma jet will be produced at higher vacuum, for plasma material interaction studies with direct relevance to modern plasma fusion machines.

  16. Characterization of electrical and optical properties of silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guobin

    2009-12-04

    characteristic DRL lines D1 to D4 has been detected, indicating the dislocations in the Alile sample are relatively clean. Test p-n junction diodes with dislocation networks (DNs) produced by silicon wafer direct bonding have been investigated by EBIC technique. Charge carriers collection and electrical conduction phenomena by the DNs were observed. Inhomogeneities in the charge collection were detected in n- and p-type samples under appropriate beam energy. The diffusion lengths in the thin top layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been measured by EBIC with full suppression of the surface recombination at the buried oxide (BOX) layer and at surface of the top layer by biasing method. The measured diffusion length is several times larger than the layer thickness. Silicon nanostructures are another important subject of this work. Electrical and optical properties of various silicon based materials like silicon nanowires, silicon nano rods, porous silicon, and Si/SiO{sub 2} multi quantum wells (MQWs) samples were investigated in this work. Silicon sub-bandgap infrared (IR) luminescence around 1570 nm was found in silicon nanowires, nano rods and porous silicon. PL measurements with samples immersed in different liquid media, for example, in aqueous HF (50%), concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (98%) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} established that the subbandgap IR luminescence originated from the Si/SiO{sub x} interface. EL in the sub-bandgap IR range has been observed in simple devices prepared on porous silicon and MQWs at room temperature. (orig.)

  17. Stochastic quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon layers: The role of quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramírez-Porras, A.; García, O.; Vargas, C.; Corrales, A.; Solís, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models

  18. Stochastic quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon layers: The role of quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.

  19. Selective formation of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.

  20. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  1. Condensation on Superhydrophobic Copper Oxide Nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Enright, Ryan; Miljkovic, Nenad; Dou, Nicholas; Nam, Youngsuk; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    Condensation is an important process in both emerging and traditional power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructures promise enhanced condensation heat transfer by reducing the characteristic size of departing droplets via a surface-tension-driven mechanism [1]. In this work, we investigated a scalable synthesis technique to produce oxide nanostructures on copper surfaces capable of sustaining superhydrophobic condensation and characterized the growth an...

  2. Stepwise Nanopore Evolution in One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Jang Wook

    2010-04-14

    We report that established simple lithium (Li) ion battery cycles can be used to produce nanopores inside various useful one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures such as zinc oxide, silicon, and silver nanowires. Moreover, porosities of these 1D nanomaterials can be controlled in a stepwise manner by the number of Li-battery cycles. Subsequent pore characterization at the end of each cycle allows us to obtain detailed snapshots of the distinct pore evolution properties in each material due to their different atomic diffusion rates and types of chemical bonds. Also, this stepwise characterization led us to the first observation of pore size increases during cycling, which can be interpreted as a similar phenomenon to Ostwald ripening in analogous nanoparticle cases. Finally, we take advantage of the unique combination of nanoporosity and 1D materials and demonstrate nanoporous silicon nanowires (poSiNWs) as excellent supercapacitor (SC) electrodes in high power operations compared to existing devices with activated carbon. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. Characterization of ion beam induced nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, J.; Satpati, B.; Umananda, M.; Kabiraj, D.; Som, T.; Dev, B.N.; Akimoto, K.; Ito, K.; Emoto, T.; Satyam, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Tailoring of nanostructures with energetic ion beams has become an active area of research leading to the fundamental understanding of ion-solid interactions at nanoscale regime and with possible applications in the near future. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and asymmetric X-ray Bragg-rocking curve experimental methods have been used to characterize ion-induced effects in nanostructures. The possibility of surface and sub-surface/interface alloying at nano-scale regime, ion-beam induced embedding, crater formation, sputtering yield variations for systems with isolated nanoislands, semi-continuous and continuous films of noble metals (Au, Ag) deposited on single crystalline silicon will be reviewed. MeV-ion induced changes in specified Au-nanoislands on silicon substrate are tracked as a function of ion fluence using ex situ TEM. Strain induced in the bulk silicon substrate surface due to 1.5 MeV Au 2+ and C 2+ ion beam irradiation is determined by using HRTEM and asymmetric Bragg X-ray rocking curve methods. Preliminary results on 1.5 MeV Au 2+ ion-induced effects in nanoislands of Co deposited on silicon substrate will be discussed

  4. Process for making silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  5. PREFACE: Self-organized nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Sylvie; Ortega, Enrique

    2006-04-01

    the EUROCORES SONS Programme under the auspices of the European Science Foundation and the VI Framework Programme of the European Community. It was also funded by CNRS `formation permanente'. Major topics relevant to self-organization are covered in these papers. The first two papers deal with the physics of self-organized nucleation and growth. Both metal and semiconductor templates are investigated. The paper by Meyer zu Heringdorf focuses on the mesoscopic patterns formed by the Au-induced faceting of vicinal Si (001). Repain et al describe how uniform and long-range ordered nanostructures are built on a surface by using nucleation on a point-defect array. Electronic properties of such self-organized systems are reviewed by Mugarza and Ortega. The next three papers deal with molecules and self-organization. In the paper presented by Kröger, molecules are deposited on vicinal Au surfaces and are studied by STM. A very active field in self-organized nanostructures is the chemical route for nanoparticle synthesis. The paper by Piléni deals with self-organization of inorganic crystals produced by evaporation of a solution, also called colloids. Their physical properties are also treated. Gacoin et al illustrate chemical synthesis, including the template approach, using organized mesoporous silica films for the production of semiconductor or metal arrays of particles. An alternative method is developed in the paper by Allongue and Maroun which is the electrochemical method of building arrays of nanostructures. Ultimately, self-organization is a very interdisciplinary field. There is also an attempt in this issue to present some of the challenges using biology. The paper by Belamie et al deals with the self-assembly of biological macromolecules, such as chitin and collagen. Finally, Molodtsov and co-workers describe how a biological template can be used in order to achieve novel materials made of hybrid metallo-organic nanostructures.

  6. Periodic nanostructures on unpolished substrates and their integration in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornago, I; Dominguez, S; Bravo, J; Ezquer, M; Rodríguez, M J; Lagunas, A R; Pérez-Conde, J; Rodriguez, R

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel fabrication process based on laser interference lithography, lift-off and reactive ion etching, which allows us to fabricate periodic nanostructures on photovoltaic substrates with an average root mean square (RMS) roughness of 750 nm. We fabricate nanostructures on unpolished crystalline silicon substrates, which reduces their reflectance 30% as fabricated. When an additional passivation layer is deposited, the light trapping grows, achieving a reflectance reduction of 60%. In addition, we have successfully integrated the nanostructured substrates in silicon wafer–based solar cells following standard processes, achieving a final efficiency of 15.56%. (paper)

  7. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  8. Silicon etch process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.J.; White, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A silicon etch process wherein an area of silicon crystal surface is passivated by radiation damage and non-planar structure produced by subsequent anisotropic etching. The surface may be passivated by exposure to an energetic particle flux - for example an ion beam from an arsenic, boron, phosphorus, silicon or hydrogen source, or an electron beam. Radiation damage may be used for pattern definition and/or as an etch stop. Ethylenediamine pyrocatechol or aqueous potassium hydroxide anisotropic etchants may be used. The radiation damage may be removed after etching by thermal annealing. (author)

  9. MICROSTRUCTURE AND WEAR PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE COATINGS PRODUCED BY LASER CLADDING OF Ti-6Al-4V WITH GRAPHITE AND SILICON MIXED POWDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. TIAN; C. Z. CHEN; D. Y. WANG; Q. H. HUO; T. Q. LEI

    2005-01-01

    Composite coatings are fabricated by laser cladding of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with graphite and silicon mixed powders. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that the coatings mainly consist of pre-eutectic TiC and eutectic Ti5Si3 compounds. Test results show that the coatings exhibit a higher microhardness and a lower friction coefficient compared with the as-received sample. EPMA micrographs show that the compounds' morphology in the top zone of the coat...

  10. Silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klanner, R.

    1984-08-01

    The status and recent progress of silicon detectors for high energy physics is reviewed. Emphasis is put on detectors with high spatial resolution and the use of silicon detectors in calorimeters. (orig.)

  11. Combined up conversion, down conversion and down shifting photo-luminescence of low cost erbium-ytterbium co-doped porous silicon produced by stain etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Herrera, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Linsun Power Technology (Quanzhou) Corp. Ltd. Co., Economic Development Zone, Jinjiang 362200, Fujian (China); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A. (ITER), Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, S/N, E38600, Granadilla de Abona (Spain); Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Velazquez, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Guerrero-Lemus, R., E-mail: rglemus@ull.es [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avenida Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 2, 38206 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada, Programa Focus-Abengoa de Energia y Cambio Climaticoi, Jorge Juan 46, 28001 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    In this work, erbium and ytterbium have been incorporated into luminescent porous silicon (PS) layers by simple impregnation of the PS substrate with a saturated nitrate solution of erbium and ytterbium. The photoluminescence of the co-doped rare earth layers have been evaluated. The doping process has been designed for its potential in silicon-based solar cell production, with the aim to improve the Shockley-Queisser limit with a reasonable cost effective method for the industry, which implies a significant enhancement of the efficiency under non-concentrated sunlight irradiation. The temperature and annealing time of the doping process were selected according to industry standards in order to ease a trial adoption. The composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to characterize the doping profile. Different up-conversion and down-conversion contributions from the rare earths in the visible and IR were detected, together with the down shifting effect of the stain etched PS. There is no evidence of energy transference between the PS matrix and the rare earths.

  12. Combined up conversion, down conversion and down shifting photo-luminescence of low cost erbium-ytterbium co-doped porous silicon produced by stain etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Herrera, B.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Montesdeoca-Santana, A.; Velazquez, J.J.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, erbium and ytterbium have been incorporated into luminescent porous silicon (PS) layers by simple impregnation of the PS substrate with a saturated nitrate solution of erbium and ytterbium. The photoluminescence of the co-doped rare earth layers have been evaluated. The doping process has been designed for its potential in silicon-based solar cell production, with the aim to improve the Shockley-Queisser limit with a reasonable cost effective method for the industry, which implies a significant enhancement of the efficiency under non-concentrated sunlight irradiation. The temperature and annealing time of the doping process were selected according to industry standards in order to ease a trial adoption. The composition was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to characterize the doping profile. Different up-conversion and down-conversion contributions from the rare earths in the visible and IR were detected, together with the down shifting effect of the stain etched PS. There is no evidence of energy transference between the PS matrix and the rare earths.

  13. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peercy, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH 1 ) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon

  14. Highly Sensitive Bulk Silicon Chemical Sensors with Sub-5 nm Thin Charge Inversion Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahad, Hossain M; Gupta, Niharika; Han, Rui; Desai, Sujay B; Javey, Ali

    2018-03-27

    There is an increasing demand for mass-producible, low-power gas sensors in a wide variety of industrial and consumer applications. Here, we report chemical-sensitive field-effect-transistors (CS-FETs) based on bulk silicon wafers, wherein an electrostatically confined sub-5 nm thin charge inversion layer is modulated by chemical exposure to achieve a high-sensitivity gas-sensing platform. Using hydrogen sensing as a "litmus" test, we demonstrate large sensor responses (>1000%) to 0.5% H 2 gas, with fast response (<60 s) and recovery times (<120 s) at room temperature and low power (<50 μW). On the basis of these performance metrics as well as standardized benchmarking, we show that bulk silicon CS-FETs offer similar or better sensing performance compared to emerging nanostructures semiconductors while providing a highly scalable and manufacturable platform.

  15. Process Development for Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic manufacturing is an emerging industry that promises a carbon-free, nearly limitless source of energy for our nation. However, the high-temperature manufacturing processes used for conventional silicon-based photovoltaics are extremely energy-intensive and expensive. This high cost imposes a critical barrier to the widespread implementation of photovoltaic technology. Argonne National Laboratory and its partners recently invented new methods for manufacturing nanostructured photovoltaic devices that allow dramatic savings in materials, process energy, and cost. These methods are based on atomic layer deposition, a thin film synthesis technique that has been commercialized for the mass production of semiconductor microelectronics. The goal of this project was to develop these low-cost fabrication methods for the high efficiency production of nanostructured photovoltaics, and to demonstrate these methods in solar cell manufacturing. We achieved this goal in two ways: 1) we demonstrated the benefits of these coatings in the laboratory by scaling-up the fabrication of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells; 2) we used our coating technology to reduce the manufacturing cost of solar cells under development by our industrial partners.

  16. The external costs of electricity generation. A comparison of environmental damage of silicon photovoltaic electricity, produced with different electricity mixes, vs natural gas and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Veltkamp, A.C.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper the environmental damages of crystalline silicon photovoltaics are calculated, using the most recent photovoltaics data, and compared with those of the prevalent conventional energy technologies. A life cycle assessment of selected environmental impacts of 1kWh of electricity generated by various technologies was performed using Simapro software (version 7.2.4) in conjunction with the Ecoinvent database (version 2.2). The environmental impacts were assessed using the ReCiPe methodology. Because of the important role of coal and natural gas in the global electricity generation portfolio, special attention is given to the comparison of PV with those technologies. The environmental consequences of manufacturing PV modules with renewable, UCTE or 100% coal electricity mixes are explored. A brief update of the estimated monetarization of damages due to coal and climate change is included. A rough estimate of the true cost of coal and PV electricity is made in 2011.

  17. Transmission Electron Microscopy of Amorphous Tandem Thin-Film Silicon Modules Produced by A Roll-to-Roll Process on Plastic Foil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couty, P.; Duchamp, Martial; Söderström, K.

    2011-01-01

    An improvement of the photo-current is expected when amorphous silicon solar cells are grown on a ZnO texture. A full understanding of the relationship between cell structure and electrical performance is essential for the rapid development of high efficiency VHF-tandem cells on textured substrates...... a control-lost of shape fidelity is used to smooth the texture and make it compatible with subsequent layer growth. Then, we present the electrical performances of the most promising reference solar cell single junction which was obtained on a roll-to-roll foil. Finally, a tandem amorphous/amorphous Si....... At first, we present the systematic study where amorphous cells are grown on ZnO based textures. For varying the texture, the same original master LPCVD ZnO was successively transferred to nickel molds and finally transferred to the plastic foil by roll-to-roll process. From TEM images, we show how...

  18. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  1. Pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals: effects on optoelectronics and thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Yu, Yixuan; Sun, Qi-C.; Korgel, Brian; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-11-01

    While silicon nanostructures are extensively used in electronics, the indirect bandgap of silicon poses challenges for optoelectronic applications like photovoltaics and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we show that size-dependent pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals dominate the interactions between (photoexcited) charge carriers and phonons, and hence the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Direct measurements of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different sized silicon nanocrystals reveal that these pseudo-direct transitions, likely arising from the nanocrystal surface, can couple with the quantum-confined silicon states. Moreover, we demonstrate that since these transitions determine the interactions of charge carriers with phonons, they change the light emission, absorption, charge carrier diffusion and phonon drag (Seebeck coefficient) in nanoscaled silicon semiconductors. Therefore, these results can have important implications for the design of optoelectronics and thermoelectric devices based on nanostructured silicon.While silicon nanostructures are extensively used in electronics, the indirect bandgap of silicon poses challenges for optoelectronic applications like photovoltaics and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we show that size-dependent pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals dominate the interactions between (photoexcited) charge carriers and phonons, and hence the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Direct measurements of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different sized silicon nanocrystals reveal that these pseudo-direct transitions, likely arising from the nanocrystal surface, can couple with the quantum-confined silicon states. Moreover, we demonstrate that since these transitions determine the interactions of charge carriers with phonons, they change the light emission, absorption, charge carrier diffusion and phonon drag (Seebeck coefficient) in

  2. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  3. Nanostructured Materials for Magnetoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikailzade, Faik

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date review of nanometer-scale magnetism and focuses on the investigation of the basic properties of magnetic nanostructures. It describes a wide range of physical aspects together with theoretical and experimental methods. A broad overview of the latest developments in this emerging and fascinating field of nanostructured materials is given with emphasis on the practical understanding and operation of submicron devices based on nanostructured magnetic materials.

  4. Microwave-Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This account summarizes a microwave (MW)-assisted synthetic approach for producing silver nanostructures. The rapid and in-core MW heating has received considerable attention as a promising new method for the one-pot synthesis of metallic nanostructures in solutions. Conceptually...

  5. Pressure effects on nanostructured manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acha, C.; Garbarino, G.; Leyva, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the pressure sensitivity of magnetic properties on La 5/8-y Pr y Ca 3/8 MnO 3 (y=0.3) nanostructured powders. Samples were synthesized following a microwave assisted denitration process and a final heat treatment at different temperatures to control the grain size of the samples. A span in grain diameters from 40 nm to ∼1000 nm was obtained. Magnetization curves as a function of temperature were measured following different thermomagnetic histories. AC susceptibility as a function of temperature was also measured at different hydrostatic pressures (up to 10 kbar) and for different frequencies. Our results indicate that the nanostructuration plays a role of an internal pressure, producing a structural deformation with similar effects to those obtained under an external hydrostatic pressure

  6. Silicon nanowire structures as high-sensitive pH-sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belostotskaya, S O; Chuyko, O V; Kuznetsov, A E; Kuznetsov, E V; Rybachek, E N

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive elements for pH-sensors created on silicon nanostructures were researched. Silicon nanostructures have been used as ion-sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) for the measurement of solution pH. Silicon nanostructures have been fabricated by 'top-down' approach and have been studied as pH sensitive elements. Nanowires have the higher sensitivity. It was shown, that sensitive element, which is made of 'one-dimensional' silicon nanostructure have bigger pH-sensitivity as compared with 'two-dimensional' structure. Integrated element formed from two p- and n-type nanowire ISFET ('inverter') can be used as high sensitivity sensor for local relative change [H+] concentration in very small volume.

  7. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  8. Formation and photoluminescence of "Cauliflower" silicon nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, W.; Eilers, J.J.; Huis, van M.A.; Wang, D.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Vece, Di M.

    2015-01-01

    The technological advantages of silicon make silicon nanoparticles, which can be used as quantum dots in a tandem configuration, highly relevant for photovoltaics. However, producing a silicon quantum dot solar cell structure remains a challenge. Here we use a gas aggregation cluster source to

  9. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  10. High-current-density electrodeposition using pulsed and constant currents to produce thick CoPt magnetic films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Jacob; Wang, Yuzheng; Arnold, David P.

    2018-05-01

    This paper investigates methods for electroplating thick (>20 μm), high-coercivity CoPt films using high current densities (up to 1 A/cm2) and elevated bath temperatures (70 °C). Correlations are made tying current-density and temperature process parameters with plating rate, elemental ratio and magnetic properties of the deposited CoPt films. It also investigates how pulsed currents can increase the plating rate and film to substrate adhesion. Using 500 mA/cm2 and constant current, high-quality, dense CoPt films were successfully electroplated up to 20 μm thick in 1 hr on silicon substrates (0.35 μm/min plating rate). After standard thermal treatment (675°C, 30 min) to achieve the ordered L10 crystalline phase, strong magnetic properties were measured: coercivities up 850 kA/m, remanences >0.5 T, and maximum energy products up to 46 kJ/m3.

  11. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Leroy, C; Glaser, M

    2002-01-01

    %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

  12. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubenko, E. B., E-mail: eugene.chubenko@gmail.com; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P. [Belarusian State University of Information and RadioElectronics (Belarus)

    2016-03-15

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  13. Influence of the Surface Layer on the Electrochemical Deposition of Metals and Semiconductors into Mesoporous Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubenko, E. B.; Redko, S. V.; Sherstnyov, A. I.; Petrovich, V. A.; Kotov, D. A.; Bondarenko, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface layer on the process of the electrochemical deposition of metals and semiconductors into porous silicon is studied. It is shown that the surface layer differs in structure and electrical characteristics from the host porous silicon bulk. It is established that a decrease in the conductivity of silicon crystallites that form the surface layer of porous silicon has a positive effect on the process of the filling of porous silicon with metals and semiconductors. This is demonstrated by the example of nickel and zinc oxide. The effect can be used for the formation of nanocomposite materials on the basis of porous silicon and nanostructures with a high aspect ratio.

  14. Subwavelength silicon photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.

    2011-01-01

    With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)

  15. Plasma texturing on large-area industrial grade CZ silicon solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Nordseth, Ørnulf; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental study of nanostructuring of silicon solar cells using reactive ion etching (RIE). A simple mask-less, scalable RIE nanostructuring of the solar cell surface is shown to reduce the AM1.5-weighted average reflectance to a level below 1 % in a fully optimized RIE texturi...

  16. Fabrication of gold nanostructures through pulsed laser interference patterning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Dajun, E-mail: dajun.yuan@gmail.com; Acharya, Ranadip, E-mail: racharya@gatech.edu [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Das, Suman, E-mail: sumandas@gatech.edu [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2013-11-25

    In this Letter, we report on the experimental development and computational modeling of a simple, one-step method for the fabrication of diverse 2D and 3D periodic nanostructures derived from gold films on silicon substrates and over areas spanning 1 cm{sup 2}. These nanostructures can be patterned on films of thickness ranging from 50 nm to 500 nm with pulsed interfering laser beams. A finite volume-based inhomogeneous multiphase model of the process shows reasonable agreement with the experimentally obtained topographies and provides insights on the flow physics including normal and radial expansion that results in peeling of film from the substrate.

  17. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azawi, A; Smistrup, K; Kristensen, A

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro- and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate the minimum line width that can be realized by our fabrication method and the influence of etching angle on the structure profile during the ion beam etching process. Trenches down to 400 nm in width have been successfully fabricated into a 316 type electro-polished steel wafer. Afterward a plastic replica has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items, are produced. (paper)

  18. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  19. Porous Silicon Covered with Silver Nanoparticles as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Substrate for Ultra-Low Concentration Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosović, Marin; Balarin, Maja; Ivanda, Mile; Đerek, Vedran; Marciuš, Marijan; Ristić, Mira; Gamulin, Ozren

    2015-12-01

    Microporous and macro-mesoporous silicon templates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were produced by anodization of low doped p-type silicon wafers. By immersion plating in AgNO3, the templates were covered with silver metallic film consisting of different silver nanostructures. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of these SERS substrates showed diverse morphology with significant difference in an average size and size distribution of silver nanoparticles. Ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) reflection spectroscopy showed plasmonic absorption at 398 and 469 nm, which is in accordance with the SEM findings. The activity of the SERS substrates was tested using rhodamine 6G (R6G) dye molecules and 514.5 nm laser excitation. Contrary to the microporous silicon template, the SERS substrate prepared from macro-mesoporous silicon template showed significantly broader size distribution of irregular silver nanoparticles as well as localized surface plasmon resonance closer to excitation laser wavelength. Such silver morphology has high SERS sensitivity that enables ultralow concentration detection of R6G dye molecules up to 10(-15) M. To our knowledge, this is the lowest concentration detected of R6G dye molecules on porous silicon-based SERS substrates, which might even indicate possible single molecule detection.

  20. Metal Nanoparticles Deposited on Porous Silicon Templates as Novel Substrates for SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Mikac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results on preparation of stable and uniform SERS solid substrates using macroporous silicon (pSi with deposited silver and gold are presented. Macroporous silicon is produced by anodisation of p-type silicon in hydrofluoric acid. The as prepared pSi is then used as a template for Ag and Au depositions. The noble metals were deposited in three different ways: by immersion in silver nitrate solution, by drop-casting silver colloidal solution and by pulsed laser ablation (PLA. Substrates obtained by different deposition processes were evaluated for SERS efficiency using methylene blue (MB and rhodamine 6G (R6G at 514.5, 633 and 785 nm. Using 514.5 nm excitation and R6G the limits of detection (LOD for macroporous Si samples with noble metal nanostructures obtained by immersion of pSi sample in silver nitrate solution and by applying silver colloidal solution to pSi template were 10–9 M and 10–8 M respectively. Using 633 nm laser and MB the most noticeable SERS activity gave pSi samples ablated with 30000 and 45000 laser pulses where the LODs of 10–10 M were obtained. The detection limit of 10–10 M was also reached for 4 mA cm–2-15 min pSi sample, silver ablated with 30000 pulses. Macroporous silicon proved to be a good base for the preparation of SERS substrates.

  1. Microstructural and magnetic characterizations of CoFeCu electrodeposited in self-assembled mesoporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortas, G., E-mail: g.fortas@gmail.com [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Haine, N. [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Physique, BP 32 El Alia 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Sam, S.; Gabouze, N. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria); Saifi, A. [Université Mouloud Mammeri, laboratoire de physique et de chimie quantique, BP No. 17 RP Hasnaoua Tizi-Ouzou 15000 (Algeria); Ouir, S. [Université Said SDB, Route De Soumaa BP 270, Blida (Algeria); Menari, H. [Centre de Recherche en Technologie des Semi-conducteur pour l’Energétique, Bd. 2 Frantz Fanon, les sept merveilles B.P.140, Alger (Algeria)

    2015-03-15

    Self-assembled mesoporous silicon with quasi-regular pore arrangements has been fabricated by the electrochemical anodization process in hydrofluoric acid solution. CoFeCu was electrodeposited in this structure from a bath containing sodium acetate as a complexing agent with a pH value of 5. The effect of current density on the morphology, the structure and the magnetic properties of CoFeCu deposit was studied by SEM, EDS, DRX and VSM. It has been shown that the morphology and structure of samples were strongly influenced by the current density and etching duration. The micrographs show the vertical and branched nanowires and also a discontinuous growth of wires. Further, the growth of a thick layer from the grain boundaries of released CoFeCu wires is produced. The magnetic hysteresis loops demonstrate that the CoFeCu nanowires exhibit easy magnetic axis perpendicular to the PS channels axis when the current density varied from 3 to 10 mA/cm{sup 2}. Nevertheless, they reveal a no magnetic anisotropy of CoFeCu nanostructures deposited only in the outside of porous silicon, probably due to the vanishing the shape anisotropy. - Highlights: • CoFeCu deposit has been electrodeposited on self assembled mesoporous silicon. • SEM observation shows that CoFeCu embedded in Porous silicon channels. • Magnetic measurements show the anisotropy magnetic behavior of CoFeCu nanostructures. • The growth rate of nanowires is enhanced with an increase of current density.

  2. Characterization of junctions produced by medium-energy ion implantation in silicon; Caracterisation de jonctions obtenues par implantation d'ions de moyenne energie dans le silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfret, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    Characteristics of diodes made by implanting 20 keV boron and phosphorus ions into silicon are reviewed. Special features of theses diodes are presented, and correlation with technology is studied. This paper includes three parts: - in the first part, the theory of range distribution is considered for both amorphous and single-crystal targets, - In the second part, a brief description of the experimental conditions is given. - In the third part, the experimental results are presented. The results lead to a schematic model of the component. They also show the influence of cleaning and annealing treatments from which optimized process of fabrication can be determined. In this study, the influence of a two stage annealing process is shown. For phosphorus and boron implants, the first stage is performed at 150 deg. C while the second stage is 450 deg. C for phosphorus and 550 deg. C for boron implants. The implanted diodes are found to exhibit good electrical characteristics. Comparisons with standard diffused diodes are quite favourable. (author) [French] On examine les caracteristiques de diodes obtenues par implantation d'ions bore et phosphore de 20 keV dans le silicium. On met en evidence le comportement particulier de ces diodes et on presente certaines correlations avec la technologie. L'expose comprend trois parties: - la premiere partie est consacree au calcul du profil de dopage en mode canalise ou non. - Dans la deuxieme partie, on decrit l'appareillage et les conditions experimentales d'implantation. - Dans la troisieme partie, on presente les resultats experimentaux. On propose un modele schematique pour expliquer le comportement des tenues en tension des diodes. L'etude des courants de fuite en fonction de la preparation des echantillons et des traitements thermiques permet de determiner des conditions optimales d'elaboration. Au cours de cette etude on met en evidence l'influence de deux stades de recuit: le premier a 150 deg. C pour les implantations de

  3. Continuous Czochralski growth. Development of advanced Czochralski growth process to produce low cost 150 kg silicon ingots from a single crucible for technology readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    The improvement of growth rates using radiation shielding and investigation of the crucible melt interaction for improved yields were emphasized. Growth runs were performed from both 15 and 16 inch diameter crucibles, producing 30 and 37 kg ingots respectively. Efforts to increase the growth rate of 150 mm diameter ingots were limited by temperature instabilities believed to be caused by undesirable thermal convections in the larger melts. The radiation shield improved the growth rate somewhat, but the thermal instability was still evident, leading to nonround ingots and loss of dislocation-free structure. A 38 kg crystal was grown to demonstrate the feasibility of producing 150 kg with four growth cycles. After the grower construction phase, the Hamco microprocessor control system was interfaced to the growth facility, including the sensor for automatic control of seeding temperature, and the sensor for automatic shouldering. Efforts focused upon optimization of the seeding, necking, and shoulder growth automation programs.

  4. Research of Self-Formation Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romas Petrauskas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lateral etching processes for the modeling of the geometry of self-formation nanostructures with Silvaco TCAD Athena program are analyzed. Self-formation nanostructures is modeled with different mask selectivity values equal to 2, 10, 40 and 100 with respect to the etching layer, with the etching duration of 0–180 s. The etching rates are constant – 1.33 nm/s. The analysis of the dependence of the etching systematic error on its thickness has been carried out. The computer modeled results are close to the ones produced by means of the application of the analytical calculation models by other authors.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Nanocoatings size effect in nanostructured films

    CERN Document Server

    Aliofkhazraei, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Size effect in structures has been taken into consideration over the last years. In comparison with coatings with micrometer-ranged thickness, nanostructured coatings usually enjoy better and appropriate properties, such as strength and resistance. These coatings enjoy unique magnetic properties and are used with the aim of producing surfaces resistant against erosion, lubricant system, cutting tools, manufacturing hardened sporadic alloys, being resistant against oxidation and corrosion. This book reviews researches on fabrication and classification of nanostructured coatings with focus on size effect in nanometric scale. Size effect on electrochemical, mechanical and physical properties of nanocoatings are presented.

  6. Growth of ZnO nanostructures on Au-coated Si: Influence of growth temperature on growth mechanism and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; McGlynn, E.; Biswas, M.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on Au-catalyzed Si silicon substrates using vapor phase transport at growth temperatures from 800 to 1150 degrees C. The sample location ensured a low Zn vapor supersaturation during growth. Nanostructures grown at 800 and 850 degrees C showed a faceted rodlike...... growth tended to dominate resulting in the formation of a porous, nanostructured morphology. In all cases growth was seen only on the Au-coated region. Our results show that the majority of the nanostructures grow via a vapor-solid mechanism at low growth temperatures with no evidence of Au nanoparticles...

  7. Low Thermal Budget Fabrication of III-V Quantum Nanostructures on Si Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, S; Somaschini, C; Sanguinetti, S; Koguchi, N; Isella, G; Chrastina, D; Fedorov, A

    2010-01-01

    We show the possibility to integrate high quality III-V quantum nanostructures tunable in shape and emission energy on Si-Ge Virtual Substrate. Strong photoemission is observed, also at room temperature, from two different kind of GaAs quantum nanostructures fabricated on Silicon substrate. Due to the low thermal budget of the procedure used for the fabrication of the active layer, Droplet Epitaxy is to be considered an excellent candidate for implementation of optoelectronic devices on CMOS circuits.

  8. Time-Efficient High-Resolution Large-Area Nano-Patterning of Silicon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A nano-patterning approach on silicon dioxide (SiO2 material, which could be used for the selective growth of III-V nanowires in photovoltaic applications, is demonstrated. In this process, a silicon (Si stamp with nanopillar structures was first fabricated using electron-beam lithography (EBL followed by a dry etching process. Afterwards, the Si stamp was employed in nanoimprint lithography (NIL assisted with a dry etching process to produce nanoholes on the SiO2 layer. The demonstrated approach has advantages such as a high resolution in nanoscale by EBL and good reproducibility by NIL. In addition, high time efficiency can be realized by one-spot electron-beam exposure in the EBL process combined with NIL for mass production. Furthermore, the one-spot exposure enables the scalability of the nanostructures for different application requirements by tuning only the exposure dose. The size variation of the nanostructures resulting from exposure parameters in EBL, the pattern transfer during nanoimprint in NIL, and subsequent etching processes of SiO2 were also studied quantitatively. By this method, a hexagonal arranged hole array in SiO2 with a hole diameter ranging from 45 to 75 nm and a pitch of 600 nm was demonstrated on a four-inch wafer.

  9. Silicon containing copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Sahar; Amiri, Sanam

    2014-01-01

    Silicones have unique properties including thermal oxidative stability, low temperature flow, high compressibility, low surface tension, hydrophobicity and electric properties. These special properties have encouraged the exploration of alternative synthetic routes of well defined controlled microstructures of silicone copolymers, the subject of this Springer Brief. The authors explore the synthesis and characterization of notable block copolymers. Recent advances in controlled radical polymerization techniques leading to the facile synthesis of well-defined silicon based thermo reversible block copolymers?are described along with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), a technique utilized to develop well-defined functional thermo reversible block copolymers. The brief also focuses on Polyrotaxanes and their great potential as stimulus-responsive materials which produce poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based thermo reversible block copolymers.

  10. Floating Silicon Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter

    2013-12-21

    The Floating Silicon Method (FSM) project at Applied Materials (formerly Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates), has been funded, in part, by the DOE under a “Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross Cutting Technologies” grant (number DE-EE0000595) for the past four years. The original intent of the project was to develop the FSM process from concept to a commercially viable tool. This new manufacturing equipment would support the photovoltaic industry in following ways: eliminate kerf losses and the consumable costs associated with wafer sawing, allow optimal photovoltaic efficiency by producing high-quality silicon sheets, reduce the cost of assembling photovoltaic modules by creating large-area silicon cells which are free of micro-cracks, and would be a drop-in replacement in existing high efficiency cell production process thereby allowing rapid fan-out into the industry.

  11. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs

  12. Properties of Nanostructure Bismuth Telluride Thin Films Using Thermal Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth telluride has high thermoelectric performance at room temperature; in present work, various nanostructure thin films of bismuth telluride were fabricated on silicon substrates at room temperature using thermal evaporation method. Tellurium (Te and bismuth (Bi were deposited on silicon substrate in different ratio of thickness. These films were annealed at 50°C and 100°C. After heat treatment, the thin films attained the semiconductor nature. Samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM to show granular growth.

  13. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  14. Customizable nanotweezers for manipulation of free-standing nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Hansen, Torben Mikael; Mølhave, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel nanotweezer device for manipulation and measurement of free-standing nanostructures, where the shape of the tweezer tips can be customized for the application. Electrostatic actuators with submicron interelectrode spacings are fabricated on a batch level using silicon microfabr......We present a novel nanotweezer device for manipulation and measurement of free-standing nanostructures, where the shape of the tweezer tips can be customized for the application. Electrostatic actuators with submicron interelectrode spacings are fabricated on a batch level using silicon...... microfabrication techniques. The actuators are capable of opening and closing with respect to the neutral position, and the full range of actuation exceeds 330 nm. The nanotweezer tips are fabricated using electron beam induced deposition; an electron beam of a scanning electron microscope is focused at the ends...

  15. Femtosecond laser irradiation-induced infrared absorption on silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The near-infrared (NIR absorption below band gap energy of crystalline silicon is significantly increased after the silicon is irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at a simple experimental condition. The absorption increase in the NIR range primarily depends on the femtosecond laser pulse energy, pulse number, and pulse duration. The Raman spectroscopy analysis shows that after the laser irradiation, the silicon surface consists of silicon nanostructure and amorphous silicon. The femtosecond laser irradiation leads to the formation of a composite of nanocrystalline, amorphous, and the crystal silicon substrate surface with microstructures. The composite has an optical absorption enhancement at visible wavelengths as well as at NIR wavelength. The composite may be useful for an NIR detector, for example, for gas sensing because of its large surface area.

  16. Influence of stain etching on low minority carrier lifetime areas of multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen, Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Gonzalez-Diaz, B. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Departamento de Energia Fotovoltaica, Instituto Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables. Poligono Industrial de Granadilla s/n, 38600 San Isidro-Granadilla de Abona (Spain); Jimenez-Rodriguez, E. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Ziegler, J. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Laboratory- and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen. Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Velazquez, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna. Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain); Hohage, S.; Borchert, D. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Laboratory and Servicecenter Gelsenkirchen. Auf der Reihe 2, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Guerrero-Lemus, R., E-mail: rglemus@ull.es [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda. Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38206 La Laguna (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > An enhanced minority carrier lifetime at extended defects in multicrystalline silicon is observed with the use of HF/HNO{sub 3} stain etching to texture the surface. > FTIR analysis shows no influence of oxide passivation in this effect. > SEM images show a preferential etching at extended defects suggesting smoothing at defects as one of the causes for the reduced recombination activity. > LBIC images show a reduction in IQE at extended defects in HF/HNO{sub 3} textured multicrystalline solar cells. - Abstract: In this work the use of HF/HNO{sub 3} solutions for texturing silicon-based solar cell substrates by stain etching and the influence of texturing on minority carrier lifetimes are studied. Stain etching is currently used to decrease the reflectance and, subsequently improve the photogenerated current of the cells, but also produces nanostructures on the silicon surface. In the textured samples it has been observed that an improvement on the minority carrier lifetime with respect to the samples treated with a conventional saw damage etching process is produced on grain boundaries and defects, and the origin of this effect has been discussed.

  17. Influence of stain etching on low minority carrier lifetime areas of multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesdeoca-Santana, A.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Jimenez-Rodriguez, E.; Ziegler, J.; Velazquez, J.J.; Hohage, S.; Borchert, D.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → An enhanced minority carrier lifetime at extended defects in multicrystalline silicon is observed with the use of HF/HNO 3 stain etching to texture the surface. → FTIR analysis shows no influence of oxide passivation in this effect. → SEM images show a preferential etching at extended defects suggesting smoothing at defects as one of the causes for the reduced recombination activity. → LBIC images show a reduction in IQE at extended defects in HF/HNO 3 textured multicrystalline solar cells. - Abstract: In this work the use of HF/HNO 3 solutions for texturing silicon-based solar cell substrates by stain etching and the influence of texturing on minority carrier lifetimes are studied. Stain etching is currently used to decrease the reflectance and, subsequently improve the photogenerated current of the cells, but also produces nanostructures on the silicon surface. In the textured samples it has been observed that an improvement on the minority carrier lifetime with respect to the samples treated with a conventional saw damage etching process is produced on grain boundaries and defects, and the origin of this effect has been discussed.

  18. Metal-organic framework templated electrodeposition of functional gold nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrall, Stephen D.; Bissett, Mark A.; Hill, Patrick I.; Rooney, Aidan P.; Haigh, Sarah J.; Attfield, Martin P.; Dryfe, Robert A.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrodeposition of anisotropic Au nanostructures templated by HKUST-1. • Au nanostructures replicate ∼1.4 nm pore spaces of HKUST-1. • Encapsulated Au nanostructures active as SERS substrate for 4-fluorothiophenol. - Abstract: Utilizing a pair of quick, scalable electrochemical processes, the permanently porous MOF HKUST-1 was electrochemically grown on a copper electrode and this HKUST-1-coated electrode was used to template electrodeposition of a gold nanostructure within the pore network of the MOF. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that a proportion of the gold nanostructures exhibit structural features replicating the pore space of this ∼1.4 nm maximum pore diameter MOF, as well as regions that are larger in size. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the electrodeposited gold nanostructure, produced under certain conditions of synthesis and template removal, is sufficiently inter-grown and mechanically robust to retain the octahedral morphology of the HKUST-1 template crystals. The functionality of the gold nanostructure within the crystalline HKUST-1 was demonstrated through the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) detection of 4-fluorothiophenol at concentrations as low as 1 μM. The reported process is confirmed as a viable electrodeposition method for obtaining functional, accessible metal nanostructures encapsulated within MOF crystals.

  19. On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, Vito

    2008-01-01

    On the evening of June 15, 2008, ALICE physicists saw the first tracks at LHC during the first injection test in transfer line TI 2. The Silicon Pixel detector recorded muon tracks produced in the beam dump near Point 2 of the LHC

  20. Nanoparticles and nanorods of silicon carbide from the residues of corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, S. B.; Gorzkowski, E.; Rath, B. B.; Feng, J.; Qadri, S. N.; Kim, H.; Caldwell, J. D.; Imam, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the thermally induced transformation of various residues of the corn plant into nanoparticles and nanorods of different silicon carbide (SiC) polytypes. This has been accomplished by both microwave-induced and conventional furnace pyrolysis in excess of 1450 °C in an inert atmosphere. This simple process of producing nanoparticles of different polytypes of SiC from the corn plant opens a new method of utilizing agricultural waste to produce viable industrial products that are technologically important for nanoelectronics, molecular sensors, nanophotonics, biotechnology, and other mechanical applications. Using x-ray and Raman scattering characterization, we have demonstrated that the processed samples of corn husk, leaves, stalks, and cob consist of SiC nanostructures of the 2H, 3C, 4H, and 6H polytypes.

  1. Field emission from patterned SnO2 nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Yu Ke; Li Guodong; Peng Deyan; Zhang Qiuxiang; Hu Hongmei; Xu Feng; Bai Wei; Ouyang Shixi; Zhu Ziqiang

    2006-01-01

    A simple and reliable method has been developed for synthesizing finely patterned tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanostructure arrays on silicon substrates. A patterned Au catalyst film was prepared on the silicon wafer by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and photolithographic patterning processes. The patterned SnO 2 nanostructures arrays, a unit area is of ∼500 μm x 200 μm, were synthesized via vapor phase transport method. The surface morphology and composition of the as-synthesized SnO 2 nanostructures were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mechanism of formation of SnO 2 nanostructures was also discussed. The measurement of field emission (FE) revealed that the as-synthesized SnO 2 nanorods, nanowires and nanoparticles arrays have a lower turn-on field of 2.6, 3.2 and 3.9 V/μm, respectively, at the current density of 0.1 μA/cm 2 . This approach must have a wide variety of applications such as fabrications of micro-optical components and micropatterned oxide thin films used in FE-based flat panel displays, sensor arrays and so on

  2. Lateral epitaxial overgrowth of GaN on a patterned GaN-on-silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Hu, Fangren; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We report here the lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) of GaN on a patterned GaN-on-silicon substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth with radio frequency nitrogen plasma as a gas source. Two kinds of GaN nanostructures are defined by electron beam lithography and realized on a GaN substrate by fast atom beam etching. The epitaxial growth of GaN by MBE is performed on the prepared GaN template, and the selective growth of GaN takes place with the assistance of GaN nanostructures. The LEO of GaN produces novel GaN epitaxial structures which are dependent on the shape and the size of the processed GaN nanostructures. Periodic GaN hexagonal pyramids are generated inside the air holes, and GaN epitaxial strips with triangular section are formed in the grating region. This work provides a promising way for producing novel GaN-based devices by the LEO of GaN using the MBE technique

  3. Nuclear radiation detectors using high resistivity neutron transmutation doped silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessner, T.; Irmer, K.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the production of semiconductor detectors based on high resistivity n-type silicon is described. The n-type silicon is produced by neutron irradiation of p-type silicon. The detectors are produced by planar technique. They are suitable for the spectrometry of alpha particles and for the pulse count measurement of beta particles at room temperature. (author)

  4. Dynamics study of green AuNP formation and their basis for Au-Pt core-shell nanostructure synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Seselj, Nedjeljko; Ulstrup, Jens

    The SAMENS method (saccharide - based approach to metallic nanostructure synthesis) is a synthesis platform for metallic nanostructures. The method has been developed since 2008 and can produce nanostructures of various sizes, shapes and compositions. Recently, a new methodology for studying the ...

  5. Apparatus for making molten silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A reactor apparatus (10) adapted for continuously producing molten, solar grade purity elemental silicon by thermal reaction of a suitable precursor gas, such as silane (SiH.sub.4), is disclosed. The reactor apparatus (10) includes an elongated reactor body (32) having graphite or carbon walls which are heated to a temperature exceeding the melting temperature of silicon. The precursor gas enters the reactor body (32) through an efficiently cooled inlet tube assembly (22) and a relatively thin carbon or graphite septum (44). The septum (44), being in contact on one side with the cooled inlet (22) and the heated interior of the reactor (32) on the other side, provides a sharp temperature gradient for the precursor gas entering the reactor (32) and renders the operation of the inlet tube assembly (22) substantially free of clogging. The precursor gas flows in the reactor (32) in a substantially smooth, substantially axial manner. Liquid silicon formed in the initial stages of the thermal reaction reacts with the graphite or carbon walls to provide a silicon carbide coating on the walls. The silicon carbide coated reactor is highly adapted for prolonged use for production of highly pure solar grade silicon. Liquid silicon (20) produced in the reactor apparatus (10) may be used directly in a Czochralski or other crystal shaping equipment.

  6. Plasmonic nanostructures for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruiqian

    In the last three decades, a large number of different plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their unique optical properties. Those plasmonic nanostructures include nanoparticles, nanoholes and metal nanovoids. They have been widely utilized in optical devices and sensors. When the plasmonic nanostructures interact with the electromagnetic wave and their surface plasmon frequency match with the light frequency, the electrons in plasmonic nanostructures will resonate with the same oscillation as incident light. In this case, the plasmonic nanostructures can absorb light and enhance the light scattering. Therefore, the plasmonic nanostructures can be used as substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to enhance the Raman signal. Using plasmonic nanostructures can significantly enhance Raman scattering of molecules with very low concentrations. In this thesis, two different plasmonic nanostructures Ag dendrites and Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles are investigated. Simple methods were used to produce these two plasmonic nanostructures. Then, their applications in surface enhanced Raman scattering have been explored. Ag dendrites were produced by galvanic replacement reaction, which was conducted using Ag nitrate aqueous solution and copper metal. Metal copper layer was deposited at the bottom side of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane. Silver wires formed inside AAO channels connected Ag nitrate on the top of AAO membrane and copper layer at the bottom side of AAO. Silver dendrites were formed on the top side of AAO. The second plasmonic nanostructure is Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles. They were fabricated by electroless plating (galvanic replacement) reaction in a silver plating solution. First, electrochemically evolved hydrogen bubbles were used as template through electroless deposition to produce hollow Au nanoparticles. Then, the Au nanoparticles were coated with Cu shells in a Cu plating solution. In the following step, a Ag

  7. Industrial Silicon Wafer Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Neuhaus, Dirk-Holger; Münzer, Adolf

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, around 86% of all wafer-based silicon solar cells were produced using screen printing to form the silver front and aluminium rear contacts and chemical vapour deposition to grow silicon nitride as the antireflection coating onto the front surface. This paper reviews this dominant solar cell technology looking into state-of-the-art equipment and corresponding processes for each process step. The main efficiency losses of this type of solar cell are analyzed to demonstrate the future e...

  8. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  9. Genesis of nanostructured, magnetically tunable ceramics from the pyrolysis of cross-linked polyferrocenylsilane networks and formation of shaped macroscopic objects and micron scale patterns by micromolding inside silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Madlen; MacLachlan, Mark J; Yang, San Ming; Coombs, Neil; Coyle, Thomas W; Raju, Nandyala P; Greedan, John E; Herber, Rolfe H; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Manners, Ian

    2002-03-20

    The ability to form molded or patterned metal-containing ceramics with tunable properties is desirable for many applications. In this paper we describe the evolution of a ceramic from a metal-containing polymer in which the variation of pyrolysis conditions facilitates control of ceramic structure and composition, influencing magnetic and mechanical properties. We have found that pyrolysis under nitrogen of a well-characterized cross-linked polyferrocenylsilane network derived from the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of a spirocyclic [1]ferrocenophane precursor gives shaped macroscopic magnetic ceramics consisting of alpha-Fe nanoparticles embedded in a SiC/C/Si(3)N(4) matrix in greater than 90% yield up to 1000 degrees C. Variation of the pyrolysis temperature and time permitted control over the nucleation and growth of alpha-Fe particles, which ranged in size from around 15 to 700 A, and the crystallization of the surrounding matrix. The ceramics contained smaller alpha-Fe particles when prepared at temperatures lower than 900 degrees C and displayed superparamagnetic behavior, whereas the materials prepared at 1000 degrees C contained larger alpha-Fe particles and were ferromagnetic. This flexibility may be useful for particular materials applications. In addition, the composition of the ceramic was altered by changing the pyrolysis atmosphere to argon, which yielded ceramics that contain Fe(3)Si(5). The ceramics have been characterized by a combination of physical techniques, including powder X-ray diffraction, TEM, reflectance UV-vis/near-IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, XPS, SQUID magnetometry, Mössbauer spectroscopy, nanoindentation, and SEM. Micromolding of the spirocyclic [1]ferrocenophane precursor within soft lithographically patterned channels housed inside silicon wafers followed by thermal ROP and pyrolysis enabled the formation of predetermined micron scale designs of the magnetic ceramic.

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1998. Research and development of nano-structural materials for ceramic bearing application (the second year); 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Ceramic bearing yo nano seigyo zairyo no kenkyu kaihatsu (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Development is made on ceramic bearing using high-performance and low-cost nano-structural materials, and its application is performed to high-quality bearings suitable for energy conservation in automobiles and industrial machines, and bearings for office automation devices, electronics, and aeronautic and maritime development. To achieve these goals, raw material synthesizing technologies, forming technologies, structural control technologies, processing technologies and mass production technologies shall be established. Fiscal 1998 had the following achievements: establishment of nano-structure controlled ceramic material powder synthesizing technology (nano-lamination type composite powder made by using the beads mill co-precipitation method, nano-lamination type composite powder made by using the New Mymill co-precipitation method, nano-lamination type composite powder made by using the controlled liquid phase method, composite nano-structured gel, and nano-powder synthesis); near net forming technology for spherical ceramics; high-speed processing technology for ultra smooth surface; evaluation of rolling fatigue properties of ceramic bearings; and analysis and evaluation of nano-structured materials. Since this alumina-based ceramic bearing can be produced at reduced cost with performance comparable to silicon nitride based bearing, investigations and discussions are being given on the application thereof. (NEDO)

  11. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  12. Electrometallurgy of Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    wind, plants, and water impounded in elevated reservoirs. Photovoltaic or solar cells, which convert sunlight directly to electricity, belongs tc, the...on record is that of St. Claire DeVille, who claimed that silicon was produced by electrolysing an impure melt of NaAlC14, but his material did not...this composition and purified melts were electrolysed at about 14500C in graphite crucible and using graphite electrodes. Applied potentials were

  13. Nanostructure Engineered Chemical Sensors for Hazardous Gas and Vapor Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2005-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and metal oxides nanowires or nanobelts, on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to hazardous gases and vapors, such as acetone, benzene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing in our sensor platform can be understood by electron modulation between the nanostructure engineered device and gas molecules. As a result of the electron modulation, the conductance of nanodevice will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost.

  14. Electrochemical approach for monitoring the effect of anti tubulin drugs on breast cancer cells based on silicon nanograss electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanganeh, Somayeh; Khosravi, Safoora; Namdar, Naser; Amiri, Morteza Hassanpour; Gharooni, Milad; Abdolahad, Mohammad

    2016-09-28

    One of the most interested molecular research in the field of cancer detection is the mechanism of drug effect on cancer cells. Translating molecular evidence into electrochemical profiles would open new opportunities in cancer research. In this manner, applying nanostructures with anomalous physical and chemical properties as well as biocompatibility would be a suitable choice for the cell based electrochemical sensing. Silicon based nanostructure are the most interested nanomaterials used in electrochemical biosensors because of their compatibility with electronic fabrication process and well engineering in size and electrical properties. Here we apply silicon nanograss (SiNG) probing electrodes produced by reactive ion etching (RIE) on silicon wafer to electrochemically diagnose the effect of anticancer drugs on breast tumor cells. Paclitaxel (PTX) and mebendazole (MBZ) drugs have been used as polymerizing and depolymerizing agents of microtubules. PTX would perturb the anodic/cathodic responses of the cell-covered biosensor by binding phosphate groups to deformed proteins due to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) pathway. MBZ induces accumulation of Cytochrome C in cytoplasm. Reduction of the mentioned agents in cytosol would change the ionic state of the cells monitored by silicon nanograss working electrodes (SiNGWEs). By extending the contacts with cancer cells, SiNGWEs can detect minor signal transduction and bio recognition events, resulting in precise biosensing. Effects of MBZ and PTX drugs, (with the concentrations of 2 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively) on electrochemical activity of MCF-7 cells are successfully recorded which are corroborated by confocal and flow cytometry assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Annealing temperature dependence of photoluminescent characteristics of silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon-rich silicon nitride films grown by PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, D.S.; Liang, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, light emission from silicon nanostructures has gained great interest due to its promising potential of realizing silicon-based optoelectronic applications. In this study, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (Si–NCs) were in situ synthesized in silicon-rich silicon nitride (SRSN) films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). SRSN films with various excess silicon contents were deposited by adjusting SiH 4 flow rate to 100 and 200 sccm and keeping NH 3 one at 40 sccm, and followed by furnace annealing (FA) treatments at 600, 850 and 1100 °C for 1 h. The effects of excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature on optical properties of Si–NCs were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The origins of two groups of PL peaks found in this study can be attributed to defect-related interface states and quantum confinement effects (QCE). Defect-related interface states lead to the photon energy levels almost kept constant at about 3.4 eV, while QCE results in visible and tunable PL emission in the spectral range of yellow and blue light which depends on excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature. In addition, PL intensity was also demonstrated to be highly correlative to the excess silicon content and post-annealing temperature due to its corresponding effects on size, density, crystallinity, and surface passivation of Si–NCs. Considering the trade-off between surface passivation and structural properties of Si–NCs, an optimal post-annealing temperature of 600 °C was suggested to maximize the PL intensity of the SRSN films

  16. Nanostructured Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skandan, G.; Hahn, H.; Parker, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    It has been shown that a variety of nanostructured (n-) metal-oxide ceramics such as n-TiO 2 , n-ZrO 2 , n-Al 2 O 3 , n-ZnO and n-MgO can be produced using the inert gas condensation process. Amongst all the nanostructured oxides, the synthesis, microstructure, sintering, and mechanical properties of n-TiO 2 have been studied the most extensively. The gas condensation preparation of nanostructured metal-oxide ceramics involves evaporation of metal nanoparticles, collection and post- oxidation. The original synthesis studies of n-TiO 2 showed that in order to avoid formation of the many low oxidation state oxides in the Ti-O system, the post-oxidation had to be performed by rapidly exposing the Ti nanoparticles to pure oxygen gas. By doing so, the highest oxidation state and the most stable structure, rutile, was obtained. An undesired feature of this step is that the nanoparticles heat up to high temperatures for a brief period of time due to the exothermic nature of the oxidation. As a consequence, the particles with an average size of 12 nm tend to agglomerate into larger structures up to 50 nm. The agglomerated state of the powder is important since it determines the original density and pore size distribution after compaction, as well as the sintering characteristics and final microstructure of the bulk sample. As a consequence of the preparation procedure of n-TiO 2 and the resulting agglomeration, the pore size distribution of n-TiO 2 compacted at room temperature is very wide, with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 200 nm. Nevertheless, the n-TiO 2 sinters at temperatures several hundred degrees lower than conventional coarse grained ceramics. From the previous results on n- TiO 2 it is anticipated that better microstructures and properties can be achieved by reducing the agglomeration of nanostructured powders through a more controlled post- oxidation process

  17. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrew J.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2007-12-04

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  18. Nanostructures from nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Paula M; Chen Yu; Palmer, Richard E; Nikitin, Kirill; Fitzmaurice, Donald; Preece, Jon A

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent experimental approaches to the development of surface nanostructures from nanoparticles. The formation of nanowires by electron beam writing in films of gold nanoparticles passivated with a specially designed class of ligand molecules (dialkyl sulfides) is presented, together with illustrations of practical nanostructures. Potential applications of this methodology are discussed. Another alternative to the controlled fabrication of arrays of nanoparticles, based on nanocrystals which contain molecular recognition elements in the ligand shell, is also surveyed. These particles aggregate in the presence of specifically designed molecular dications which act as a molecular binder. Finally, recent work on the formation of nanoscale surface architectures using x-ray patterning of self-assembled monolayers is introduced. Current and potential future applications of these surface nanostructures are discussed

  19. Studies of nanostructures using time-resolved x-ray excited optical luminescence*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Shenoy, G.K.; Smita, S.; Burda, C.; Sham, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The scientific community is currently investing a great deal of effort into understanding the physics and chemistry of nanoscale structures. Synchrotron radiation techniques are being used to study the physical, electronic, and magnetic structure of nanosystems, albeit at a relatively large size (greater than 30 nm). A major challenge facing researchers is finding methods that can probe structures of the smallest scale (less than 10 nm). Optical luminescence has been shown to be directly sensitive to structures in this size range due to quantum confinement phenomena. X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) provides the capability to chemically map the sites responsible for producing low-energy (1-6 eV) fluorescence. By taking advantage of the time structure of the x-ray pulses at the Advanced Photon Source (70 ps wide, 153 ns separation), it also possible to determine the dynamic behavior of the states involved in the luminescence. In this paper we will present results of time-resolved XEOL experiments on various nanostructures including porous silicon, silicon nanowires, and CdSe nanodots

  20. Thermoelectric properties and nanostructures of materials prepared from rice husk ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukird, S.; Tipparach, U.; Kasian, P. [Ubon Ratchathani Univ., Ubon Ratchathani (Thailand). Dept. of Physics; Limsuwan, P. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Thailand produces large amounts of agricultural residues such as rice husk and coconut shells. Rice husk is considered to be a potential source for solar grade silicon. Studies have shown that reasonably pure polycrystalline silicon can be prepared from rice husk white ash by a metallothermic reduction process. This paper reported on a study that investigated the thermoelectric properties of ceramic material prepared by mixing silica from rice husk ash and carbon obtained from coconut shell charcoal. The thermoelectric properties of the materials were examined along with their microstructures. The materials were made from burning rice husk ash and coconut shell at different temperatures and then doped with metal oxides. Pellets were heated at temperature of 700 degrees C for 1-3 hours. The voltage on both sides of the pellets was observed. The electromotive force was found when different temperatures were applied on both sides of the pellet specimens. The Seebeck coefficient was then calculated. The results showed that these materials can be used as thermoelectric devices. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX) were used to investigate the source of materials and the products on the substrates. The images of SEM and EDX showed nanostructures of materials such as nanowires, nanorods and nanoparticles of the products and sources. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Nano structures of amorphous silicon: localization and energy gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nourbakhsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy research has created a push for new materials; one of the most attractive material in this field is quantum confined hybrid silicon nano-structures (nc-Si:H embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H. The essential step for this investigation is studying a-Si and its ability to produce quantum confinement (QC in nc-Si: H. Increasing the gap of a-Si system causes solar cell efficiency to increase. By computational calculations based on Density Functional Theory (DFT, we calculated a special localization factor, [G Allan et al., Phys. Rev. B 57 (1997 6933.], for the states close to HOMO and LUMO in a-Si, and found most weak-bond Si atoms. By removing these silicon atoms and passivating the system with hydrogen, we were able to increase the gap in the a-Si system. As more than 8% hydrogenate was not experimentally available, we removed about 2% of the most localized Si atoms in the almost tetrahedral a-Si system. After removing localized Si atoms in the system with 1000 Si atoms, and adding 8% H, the gap increased about 0.24 eV. Variation of the gap as a function of hydrogen percentage was in good agreement with the Tight –Binding results, but about 2 times more than its experimental value. This might come from the fact that in the experimental conditions, it does not have the chance to remove the most localized states. However, by improving the experimental conditions and technology, this value can be improved.

  2. Nonspecular reflection of light at an inhomogeneous interface between two media and in a nanostructured layer with a quasi-zero refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomsky, O. N.; Gadomskaya, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    We have derived formulas for the amplitudes of light reflection and refraction at an inhomogeneous interface between two media and in a nanostructured layer with a quasi-zero refractive index. These formulas are applied to explain the experimental spectra of nonspecular light reflection using a nanostructured (PMMA + Ag) layer with silver nanoparticles on a silicon surface as an example. We show that a surface wave is formed in the nanostructured layer at various angles of light incidence and the layer with a quasi-zero refractive index is an antireflection coating that provides uniform 5% silicon antireflection in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm

  3. Blocking germanium diffusion inside silicon dioxide using a co-implanted silicon barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, D.; Wang, C.; Nélis, A.; Terwagne, G.; Rosei, F.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the effect of co-implanting a silicon sublayer on the thermal diffusion of germanium ions implanted into SiO2 and the growth of Ge nanocrystals (Ge-ncs). High-resolution imaging obtained by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy measurements supported by Monte-Carlo calculations shows that the Si-enriched region acts as a diffusion barrier for Ge atoms. This barrier prevents Ge outgassing during thermal annealing at 1100 °C. Both the localization and the reduced size of Ge-ncs formed within the sample region co-implanted with Si are observed, as well as the nucleation of mixed Ge/Si nanocrystals containing structural point defects and stacking faults. Although it was found that the Si co-implantation affects the crystallinity of the formed Ge-ncs, this technique can be implemented to produce size-selective and depth-ordered nanostructured systems by controlling the spatial distribution of diffusing Ge. We illustrate this feature for Ge-ncs embedded within a single SiO2 monolayer, whose diameters were gradually increased from 1 nm to 5 nm over a depth of 100 nm.

  4. Effect of amorphisation on the thermal properties of nanostructured membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Termentzidis, Konstantinos; Verdier, Maxime; Lacroix, David [CNRS, LEMTA, UMR 7563, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Lorraine Univ., Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France). LEMTA UMR 7563

    2017-05-01

    The majority of the silicon devices contain amorphous phase and amorphous/crystalline interfaces which both considerably affect the transport of energy carriers as phonons and electrons. In this article, we investigate the impact of amorphous phases (both amorphous silicon and amorphous SiO{sub 2}) of silicon nanoporous membranes on their thermal properties via molecular dynamics simulations. We show that a small fraction of amorphous phase reduces dramatically the thermal transport. One can even create nanostructured materials with subamorphous thermal conductivity, while keeping an important crystalline fraction. In general, the a-SiO{sub 2} shell around the pores reduces the thermal conductivity by a factor of five to ten compared to a-Si shell. The phonon density of states for several systems is also given to give the impact of the amorphisation on the phonon modes.

  5. High-quality GaN nanowires grown on Si and porous silicon by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekari, L., E-mail: lsg09_phy089@student.usm.my [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Ramizy, A.; Omar, K.; Hassan, H. Abu; Hassan, Z. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new kind of substrate (porous silicon) was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also this research introduces an easy and safe method to grow high quality GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is a new growth process to decrease the cost, complexity of growth of GaN NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a controllable method to synthesize GaN NWs by thermal evaporation. - Abstract: Nanowires (NWs) of GaN thin films were prepared on as-grown Si (1 1 1) and porous silicon (PS) substrates using thermal evaporation method. The film growth produced high-quality wurtzite GaN NWs. The size, morphology, and nanostructures of the crystals were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The NWs grown on porous silicon were thinner, longer and denser compared with those on as-grown Si. The energy band gap of the NWs grown on PS was larger than that of NWs on as-grown Si. This is due to the greater quantum confinement effects of the crystalline structure of the NWs grown on PS.

  6. Highly efficient luminescent solar concentrators based on earth-abundant indirect-bandgap silicon quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinardi, Francesco; Ehrenberg, Samantha; Dhamo, Lorena; Carulli, Francesco; Mauri, Michele; Bruni, Francesco; Simonutti, Roberto; Kortshagen, Uwe; Brovelli, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaics is gaining consensus as a renewable energy technology for producing electricity at the point of use. Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) could extend architectural integration to the urban environment by realizing electrode-less photovoltaic windows. Crucial for large-area LSCs is the suppression of reabsorption losses, which requires emitters with negligible overlap between their absorption and emission spectra. Here, we demonstrate the use of indirect-bandgap semiconductor nanostructures such as highly emissive silicon quantum dots. Silicon is non-toxic, low-cost and ultra-earth-abundant, which avoids the limitations to the industrial scaling of quantum dots composed of low-abundance elements. Suppressed reabsorption and scattering losses lead to nearly ideal LSCs with an optical efficiency of η = 2.85%, matching state-of-the-art semi-transparent LSCs. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that optimized silicon quantum dot LSCs have a clear path to η > 5% for 1 m2 devices. We are finally able to realize flexible LSCs with performances comparable to those of flat concentrators, which opens the way to a new design freedom for building-integrated photovoltaics elements.

  7. Plasmonic and silicon spherical nanoparticle antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikova, K. V.; Petrov, M. I.; Babicheva, V. E.; Belov, P. A.

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, plasmonic antireflecting nanostructures have been extensively studied to be utilized in various optical and optoelectronic systems such as lenses, solar cells, photodetectors, and others. The growing interest to all-dielectric photonics as an alternative optical technology along with plasmonics motivates us to compare antireflective properties of plasmonic and all-dielectric nanoparticle coatings based on silver and crystalline silicon respectively. Our simulation results for spherical nanoparticles array on top of amorphous silicon show that both silicon and silver coatings demonstrate strong antireflective properties in the visible spectral range. For the first time, we show that zero reflectance from the structure with silicon coatings originates from the destructive interference of electric- and magnetic-dipole responses of nanoparticle array with the wave reflected from the substrate, and we refer to this reflection suppression as substrate-mediated Kerker effect. We theoretically compare the silicon and silver coating effectiveness for the thin-film photovoltaic applications. Silver nanoparticles can be more efficient, enabling up to 30% increase of the overall absorbance in semiconductor layer. Nevertheless, silicon coatings allow up to 64% absorbance increase in the narrow band spectral range because of the substrate-mediated Kerker effect, and band position can be effectively tuned by varying the nanoparticles sizes.

  8. Strain-induced generation of silicon nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollani, Monica; Osmond, Johann; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Spinella, Corrado; Narducci, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Silicon metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) is a nanostructuring technique exploiting the enhancement of the silicon etch rate at some metal–silicon interfaces. Compared to more traditional approaches, MACE is a high-throughput technique, and it is one of the few that enables the growth of vertical 1D structures of virtually unlimited length. As such, it has already found relevant technological applications in fields ranging from energy conversion to biosensing. Yet, its implementation has always required metal patterning to obtain nanopillars. Here, we report how MACE may lead to the formation of porous silicon nanopillars even in the absence of gold patterning. We show how the use of inhomogeneous yet continuous gold layers leads to the generation of a stress field causing spontaneous local delamination of the metal—and to the formation of silicon nanopillars where the metal disruption occurs. We observed the spontaneous formation of nanopillars with diameters ranging from 40 to 65 nm and heights up to 1 μm. Strain-controlled generation of nanopillars is consistent with a mechanism of silicon oxidation by hole injection through the metal layer. Spontaneous nanopillar formation could enable applications of this method to contexts where ordered distributions of nanopillars are not required, while patterning by high-resolution techniques is either impractical or unaffordable. (paper)

  9. Implantation damage in silicon devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    Ion implantation, is an attractive technique for producing doped layers in silicon devices but the implantation process involves disruption of the lattice and defects are formed, which can degrade device properties. Methods of minimizing such damage are discussed and direct comparisons made between implantation and diffusion techniques in terms of defects in the final devices and the electrical performance of the devices. Defects are produced in the silicon lattice during implantation but they are annealed to form secondary defects even at room temperature. The annealing can be at a low temperature ( 0 C) when migration of defects in silicon in generally small, or at high temperature when they can grow well beyond the implanted region. The defect structures can be complicated by impurity atoms knocked into the silicon from surface layers by the implantation. Defects can also be produced within layers on top of the silicon and these can be very important in device fabrication. In addition to affecting the electrical properties of the final device, defects produced during fabrication may influence the chemical properties of the materials. The use of these properties to improve devices are discussed as well as the degradation they can cause. (author)

  10. Nanoscale semiconducting silicon as a nutritional food additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canham, L T

    2007-01-01

    Very high surface area silicon powders can be realized by high energy milling or electrochemical etching techniques. Such nanoscale silicon structures, whilst biodegradable in the human gastrointestinal tract, are shown to be remarkably stable in most foodstuffs and beverages. The potential for using silicon to improve the shelf life and bioavailability of specific nutrients in functional foods is highlighted. Published drug delivery data implies that the nanoentrapment of hydrophobic nutrients will significantly improve their dissolution kinetics, through a combined effect of nanostructuring and solid state modification. Nutrients loaded to date include vitamins, fish oils, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. In addition, there is growing published evidence that optimized release of orthosilicic acid, the biodegradation product of semiconducting silicon in the gut, offers beneficial effects with regard bone health. The utility of nanoscale silicon in the nutritional field shows early promise and is worthy of much further study

  11. Nanoscale semiconducting silicon as a nutritional food additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, L T [pSiNutria Ltd, Malvern Hills Science Park, Geraldine Road, Malvern, Worcestershire WR14 3SZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-09

    Very high surface area silicon powders can be realized by high energy milling or electrochemical etching techniques. Such nanoscale silicon structures, whilst biodegradable in the human gastrointestinal tract, are shown to be remarkably stable in most foodstuffs and beverages. The potential for using silicon to improve the shelf life and bioavailability of specific nutrients in functional foods is highlighted. Published drug delivery data implies that the nanoentrapment of hydrophobic nutrients will significantly improve their dissolution kinetics, through a combined effect of nanostructuring and solid state modification. Nutrients loaded to date include vitamins, fish oils, lycopene and coenzyme Q10. In addition, there is growing published evidence that optimized release of orthosilicic acid, the biodegradation product of semiconducting silicon in the gut, offers beneficial effects with regard bone health. The utility of nanoscale silicon in the nutritional field shows early promise and is worthy of much further study.

  12. Efficiency Enhancement of Silicon Solar Cells by Porous Silicon Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus SHATKOVSKIS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Silicon solar cells produced by a usual technology in p-type, crystalline silicon wafer were investigated. The manufactured solar cells were of total thickness 450 mm, the junction depth was of 0.5 mm – 0.7 mm. Porous silicon technologies were adapted to enhance cell efficiency. The production of porous silicon layer was carried out in HF: ethanol = 1 : 2 volume ratio electrolytes, illuminating by 50 W halogen lamps at the time of processing. The etching current was computer-controlled in the limits of (6 ÷ 14 mA/cm2, etching time was set in the interval of (10 ÷ 20 s. The characteristics and performance of the solar cells samples was carried out illuminating by Xenon 5000 K lamp light. Current-voltage characteristic studies have shown that porous silicon structures produced affect the extent of dark and lighting parameters of the samples. Exactly it affects current-voltage characteristic and serial resistance of the cells. It has shown, the formation of porous silicon structure causes an increase in the electric power created of solar cell. Conversion efficiency increases also respectively to the initial efficiency of cell. Increase of solar cell maximum power in 15 or even more percent is found. The highest increase in power have been observed in the spectral range of Dl @ (450 ÷ 850 nm, where ~ 60 % of the A1.5 spectra solar energy is located. It has been demonstrated that porous silicon technology is effective tool to improve the silicon solar cells performance.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.3.2428

  13. Simulataneous Formation of InGaN Nanostructures with Varying Shapes for White Light Source Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gasim, Anwar A.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.

    2012-01-01

    Varying shapes of InGaN nanostructures were simultaneously formed on silicon epitaxially. The nanowires and nanomushrooms emit violet-blue light, and broad yellow-orange-red luminescence, respectively. The combination of which is promising for white light emission.

  14. Epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Zhang, Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hybrid nanostructures are a class of materials that are typically composed of two or more different components, in which each component has at least one dimension on the nanoscale. The rational design and controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures are of great importance in enabling the fine tuning of their properties and functions. Epitaxial growth is a promising approach to the controlled synthesis of hybrid nanostructures with desired structures, crystal phases, exposed facets and/or interfaces. This Review provides a critical summary of the state of the art in the field of epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures. We discuss the historical development, architectures and compositions, epitaxy methods, characterization techniques and advantages of epitaxial hybrid nanostructures. Finally, we provide insight into future research directions in this area, which include the epitaxial growth of hybrid nanostructures from a wider range of materials, the study of the underlying mechanism and determining the role of epitaxial growth in influencing the properties and application performance of hybrid nanostructures.

  15. A new approach for two-terminal electronic memory devices - Storing information on silicon nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranti, Konstantina; Alotaibi, Sultan; Paul, Shashi

    2016-06-01

    The work described in this paper focuses on the utilisation of silicon nanowires as the information storage element in flash-type memory devices. Silicon nanostructures have attracted attention due to interesting electrical and optical properties, and their potential integration into electronic devices. A detailed investigation of the suitability of silicon nanowires as the charge storage medium in two-terminal non-volatile memory devices are presented in this report. The deposition of the silicon nanostructures was carried out at low temperatures (less than 400 °C) using a previously developed a novel method within our research group. Two-terminal non-volatile (2TNV) memory devices and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures containing the silicon nanowires were fabricated and an in-depth study of their characteristics was carried out using current-voltage and capacitance techniques.

  16. Nanostructures for all-polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Bruus, Henrik; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    antistiction coating was found to improve the replication fidelity (shape and depth) of nanoscale features substantially. Arrays of holes of 50 nm diameter/35 nm depth and 100 nm/100 nm diameter, respectively, were mass-produced in cyclic olefin copolymer (Topas 5013) by injection molding. Polymer microfluidic...... channel chip parts resulted from a separate injection molding process. The microfluidic chip part and the nanostructured chip part were successfully bonded to form a sealed microfluidic system using air plasma assisted thermal bonding....

  17. Anodic growth of titanium dioxide nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing nanostructures of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) by anodisation of titanium (Ti) in an electrochemical cell, comprising the steps of: immersing a non-conducting substrate coated with a layer of titanium, defined as the anode, in an electrolyte solution...... an electrical contact to the layer of titanium on the anode, where the electrical contact is made in the electrolyte solution...

  18. Nanostructures-History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Nanostructures-History. Inspiration to Nanotechnology-. The Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi of the Tokyo University of Science was used the term "nano-technology" in a 1974 conference, to describe semiconductor processes such as thin film His definition was, ...

  19. A Novel Sensor for VOCs Using Nanostructured ZnO and MEMS Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Pandya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A sensor for detection of vapors of volatile organic compounds (VOCs incorporating nanostructured zinc oxide film and silicon micromachining is reported. One of the key features of the sensor is the use of nanostructured ZnO material which has been synthesized using a novel low cost process. Considerable reduction in the operating temperature of the sensor has been achieved due to the use of nanostructured ZnO material as compared to a sensor having ZnO thin film as the sensing layer. The sensor is formed on a micromachined silicon platform thereby reducing the heat loss. This resulted in reduction in power consumption. The sensor has been tested for a variety of VOCs such as: ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol and acetone. The maximum sensitivity of sensor was observed for ethanol vapors.

  20. Optical Characterization of Nanostructured Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    Micro- and nanostructured surfaces are interesting due to the unique properties they add to the bulk material. One example is structural colors, where the interaction between surface structures and visible light produce bright color effects without the use of paints or dyes. Several research groups...... modeling to evaluate the dimensions of subwavelength gratings, by correlating the reflected light measured from the structures with a database of simulations. A new method is developed and termed color scatterometry, since compared to typical spectroscopic scatterometry, which evaluates the full reflection...... spectrum; the new method only evaluates the color of the reflected light using a standard RGB color camera. Color scatterometry provides the combined advantages of spectroscopic scatterometry, which provides fast evaluations, and imaging scatterometry that provides an overview image from which small...

  1. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  2. Formation of different gold nanostructures by silk nanofibrils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guangqiang; Yang, Yuhong; Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanostructures that have unique size- and shape-dependent electronic, optical and chemical properties gain more and more attention in modern science and technology. In this article, we show the possibility that we are able to obtain different gold nanostructures simply with the help of silk nanofibrils. We demonstrate that only by varying the pH of the reaction solution, we get gold nanoparticles, nano-icosahedrons, nanocubes, and even microplates. Particularly, we develop a practical method for the preparation of gold microplates in acid condition in the presence of silk nanofibrils, which is impossible by using other forms of silk protein. We attribute the role of silk nanofibrils in the formation of gold nanostructure to their reduction ability from several specific amino acid residues, and the suitable structural anisotropic features to sustain the crystal growth after the reduction process. Although the main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that silk nanofibrils are able to mediate the formation of different gold nanostructure, we show the potential applications of these resulting gold nanostructures, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and photothermal transformation effect, as same as those produced by other methods. In conclusion, we present in this communication a facile and green synthesis route to prepare various gold nanostructures with silk nanofibrils by simply varying pH in the reaction system, which has remarkable advantages in future biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained by a facile and green protein reduction method. • Silk nanofibrils serve as both reductant and template in the formation of Au nanostructures. • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained simply by regulating the pH in the medium. • Large Au microplates can be obtained with a cheap, abundant, sustainable silk protein. • Silk/Au hybrid nanocomposites show potential application in SERS and

  3. Formation of different gold nanostructures by silk nanofibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guangqiang [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Yang, Yuhong [Research Centre for Analysis and Measurement, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yao, Jinrong; Shao, Zhengzhong [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: chenx@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Collaborative Innovation Center of Polymers and Polymer Composite Materials, Department of Macromolecular Science, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Metal nanostructures that have unique size- and shape-dependent electronic, optical and chemical properties gain more and more attention in modern science and technology. In this article, we show the possibility that we are able to obtain different gold nanostructures simply with the help of silk nanofibrils. We demonstrate that only by varying the pH of the reaction solution, we get gold nanoparticles, nano-icosahedrons, nanocubes, and even microplates. Particularly, we develop a practical method for the preparation of gold microplates in acid condition in the presence of silk nanofibrils, which is impossible by using other forms of silk protein. We attribute the role of silk nanofibrils in the formation of gold nanostructure to their reduction ability from several specific amino acid residues, and the suitable structural anisotropic features to sustain the crystal growth after the reduction process. Although the main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that silk nanofibrils are able to mediate the formation of different gold nanostructure, we show the potential applications of these resulting gold nanostructures, such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and photothermal transformation effect, as same as those produced by other methods. In conclusion, we present in this communication a facile and green synthesis route to prepare various gold nanostructures with silk nanofibrils by simply varying pH in the reaction system, which has remarkable advantages in future biomedical applications. - Highlights: • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained by a facile and green protein reduction method. • Silk nanofibrils serve as both reductant and template in the formation of Au nanostructures. • Different Au nanostructures can be obtained simply by regulating the pH in the medium. • Large Au microplates can be obtained with a cheap, abundant, sustainable silk protein. • Silk/Au hybrid nanocomposites show potential application in SERS and

  4. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: hh_amel@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: faridihr@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  5. Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-01-27

    Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon (a-C) films grown on silicon using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is correlated to both growth energetic and film thickness. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity probe both the topological nature of 3- and 4-fold coordinated carbon atom bonding and the topographical clustering of their distributions within a given film. In general, increasing the energetic of PLD growth results in films becoming more ``diamondlike'', i.e. increasing mass density and decreasing optical absorbance. However, these same properties decrease appreciably with thickness. The topology of carbon atom bonding is different for material near the substrate interface compared to material within the bulk portion of an a-C film. A simple model balancing the energy of residual stress and the free energies of resulting carbon topologies is proposed to provide an explanation of the evolution of topographical bonding clusters in a growing a-C film.

  6. Nanostructured thin films as functional coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Manoj A; Tadvani, Jalil K; Tung, Wing Sze; Lopez, Lorena; Daoud, Walid A, E-mail: Walid.Daoud@sci.monash.edu.au [School of Applied Sciences and Engineering, Monash University, Churchill, VIC 3842 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Nanostructured thin films is one of the highly exploiting research areas particularly in applications such as photovoltaics, photocatalysis and sensor technologies. Highly tuned thin films, in terms of thickness, crystallinity, porosity and optical properties, can be fabricated on different substrates using the sol-gel method, chemical solution deposition (CSD), electrochemical etching, along with other conventional methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and physical vapour deposition (PVD). The above mentioned properties of these films are usually characterised using surface analysis techniques such as XRD, SEM, TEM, AFM, ellipsometry, electrochemistry, SAXS, reflectance spectroscopy, STM, XPS, SIMS, ESCA, X-ray topography and DOSY-NMR. This article presents a short review of the preparation and characterisation of thin films of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and modified silicon as well as their application in solar cells, water treatment, water splitting, self cleaning fabrics, sensors, optoelectronic devices and lab on chip systems.

  7. A comprehensive study of thermoelectric and transport properties of β-silicon carbide nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentín, L. A.; Betancourt, J.; Fonseca, L. F., E-mail: luis.fonseca@upr.edu [Department of Physics University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras (Puerto Rico); Pettes, M. T.; Shi, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Soszyński, M.; Huczko, A. [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, Pasteur 1 Str., 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical and thermal conductivities of individual β-silicon carbide nanowires produced by combustion in a calorimetric bomb were studied using a suspended micro-resistance thermometry device that allows four-point probe measurements to be conducted on each nanowire. Additionally, crystal structure and growth direction for each measured nanowire was directly obtained by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The Fermi level, the carrier concentration, and mobility of each nanostructure were determined using a combination of Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements, energy band structure and transport theory calculations. The temperature dependence of the thermal and electrical conductivities of the nanowires was explained in terms of contributions from boundary, impurity, and defect scattering.

  8. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of active nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Noah F.

    Three different nanostructure active devices have been designed, fabricated and characterized. Junctionless transistors based on highly-doped silicon nanowires fabricated using a bottom-up fabrication approach are first discussed. The fabrication avoids the ion implantation step since silicon nanowires are doped in-situ during growth. Germanium junctionless transistors fabricated with a top down approach starting from a germanium on insulator substrate and using a gate stack of high-k dielectrics and GeO2 are also presented. The levels and origin of low-frequency noise in junctionless transistor devices fabricated from silicon nanowires and also from GeOI devices are reported. Low-frequency noise is an indicator of the quality of the material, hence its characterization can reveal the quality and perhaps reliability of fabricated transistors. A novel method based on low-frequency noise measurement to envisage trap density in the semiconductor bandgap near the semiconductor/oxide interface of nanoscale silicon junctionless transistors (JLTs) is presented. Low-frequency noise characterization of JLTs biased in saturation is conducted at different gate biases. The noise spectrum indicates either a Lorentzian or 1/f. A simple analysis of the low-frequency noise data leads to the density of traps and their energy within the semiconductor bandgap. The level of noise in silicon JLT devices is lower than reported values on transistors fabricated using a top-down approach. This noise level can be significantly improved by improving the quality of dielectric and the channel interface. A micro-vacuum electron device based on silicon field emitters for cold cathode emission is also presented. The presented work utilizes vertical Si nanowires fabricated by means of self-assembly, standard lithography and etching techniques as field emitters in this dissertation. To obtain a high nanowire density, hence a high current density, a simple and inexpensive Langmuir Blodgett technique

  10. GaN and ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Behrends, Arne; Al-Suleiman, Mohamed Aid Mansur; Merzsch, Stephan; Li, Shunfeng; Bakin, Andrey; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany); Laehnemann, Jonas; Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    GaN and ZnO are both wide band gap semiconductors with interesting properties concerning optoelectronic and sensor device applications. Due to the lack or the high costs of native substrates, alternatives like sapphire, silicon, or silicon carbide are taken, but the resulting lattice and thermal mismatches lead to increased defect densities which reduce the material quality. In contrast, nanostructures with high aspect ratio have lower defect densities as compared to layers. In this work, we give an overview on our results achieved on both ZnO as well as GaN based nanorods. ZnO nanostructures were grown by a wet chemical approach as well as by VPT on different substrates - even on flexible polymers. To compare the growth results we analyzed the structures by XRD and PL and show possible device applications. The GaN nano- and microstructures were grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy either in a self-organized process or by selective area growth for a better control of shape and material composition. Finally we take a look onto possible device applications, presenting our attempts, e.g., to build LEDs based on GaN nanostructures. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Photonic integration and photonics-electronics convergence on silicon platform

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jifeng; Baba, Toshihiko; Vivien, Laurent; Xu, Dan-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Silicon photonics technology, which has the DNA of silicon electronics technology, promises to provide a compact photonic integration platform with high integration density, mass-producibility, and excellent cost performance. This technology has been used to develop and to integrate various photonic functions on silicon substrate. Moreover, photonics-electronics convergence based on silicon substrate is now being pursued. Thanks to these features, silicon photonics will have the potential to be a superior technology used in the construction of energy-efficient cost-effective apparatuses for various applications, such as communications, information processing, and sensing. Considering the material characteristics of silicon and difficulties in microfabrication technology, however, silicon by itself is not necessarily an ideal material. For example, silicon is not suitable for light emitting devices because it is an indirect transition material. The resolution and dynamic range of silicon-based interference de...

  12. Enhancement of Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Polysilicon Layers Through Hydrogen Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D; Xu, T; Lambert, Y; Cristini-Robbe; Stiévenard, D

    2015-12-01

    The light absorption of polysilicon planar junctions can be improved using nanostructured top surfaces due to their enhanced light harvesting properties. Nevertheless, associated with the higher surface, the roughness caused by plasma etching and defects located at the grain boundary in polysilicon, the concentration of the recombination centers increases, leading to electrical performance deterioration. In this work, we demonstrate that wet oxidation combined with hydrogen passivation using SiN(x):H are the key technological processes to significantly decrease the surface recombination and improve the electrical properties of nanostructured n(+)-i-p junctions. Nanostructured surface is fabricated by nanosphere lithography in a low-cost and controllable approach. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the successive annealing of silicon nitride films has significant effect on the passivation quality, resulting in some improvements on the efficiency of the Si nanostructure-based solar cell device.

  13. Manganese Nanostructures and Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simov, Kirie Rangelov

    The primary goal of this study is to incorporate adatoms with large magnetic moment, such as Mn, into two technologically significant group IV semiconductor (SC) matrices, e.g. Si and Ge. For the first time in the world, we experimentally demonstrate Mn doping by embedding nanostructured thin layers, i.e. delta-doping. The growth is observed by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), which combines topographic and electronic information in a single image. We investigate the initial stages of Mn monolayer growth on a Si(100)(2x1) surface reconstruction, develop methods for classification of nanostructure types for a range of surface defect concentrations (1.0 to 18.2%), and subsequently encapsulate the thin Mn layer in a SC matrix. These experiments are instrumental in generating a surface processing diagram for self-assembly of monoatomic Mn-wires. The role of surface vacancies has also been studied by kinetic Monte Carlo modeling and the experimental observations are compared with the simulation results, leading to the conclusion that Si(100)(2x1) vacancies serve as nucleation centers in the Mn-Si system. Oxide formation, which happens readily in air, is detrimental to ferromagnetism and lessens the magnetic properties of the nanostructures. Therefore, the protective SC cap, composed of either Si or Ge, serves a dual purpose: it is both the embedding matrix for the Mn nanostructured thin film and a protective agent for oxidation. STM observations of partially deposited caps ensure that the nanostructures remain intact during growth. Lastly, the relationship between magnetism and nanostructure types is established by an in-depth study using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). This sensitive method detects signals even at coverages less than one atomic layer of Mn. XMCD is capable of discerning which chemical compounds contribute to the magnetic moment of the system, and provides a ratio between the orbital and spin contributions. Depending on the amount

  14. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all

  15. Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Joining Silicon Carbide to Silicon Carbide and Silicon Nitride to Silicon Nitride for Advanced Heat Engine Applications Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques were developed to produce reliable silicon nitride to silicon nitride (NCX-5101) curved joins which were used to manufacture spin test specimens as a proof of concept to simulate parts such as a simple rotor. Specimens were machined from the curved joins to measure the following properties of the join interlayer: tensile strength, shear strength, 22 C flexure strength and 1370 C flexure strength. In parallel, extensive silicon nitride tensile creep evaluation of planar butt joins provided a sufficient data base to develop models with accurate predictive capability for different geometries. Analytical models applied satisfactorily to the silicon nitride joins were Norton's Law for creep strain, a modified Norton's Law internal variable model and the Monkman-Grant relationship for failure modeling. The Theta Projection method was less successful. Attempts were also made to develop planar butt joins of siliconized silicon carbide (NT230).

  16. Trade-off between Photon Management Efficacy and Material Quality in Thin-Film Solar Cells on Nanostructured Substrates of High Aspect Ratio Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Chin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although texturing of the transparent electrode of thin-film solar cells has long been used to enhance light absorption via light trapping, such texturing has involved low aspect ratio features. With the recent development of nanotechnology, nanostructured substrates enable improved light trapping and enhanced optical absorption via resonances, a process known as photon management, in thin-film solar cells. Despite the progress made in the development of photon management in thin-film solar cells using nanostructures substrates, the structural integrity of the thin-film solar cells deposited onto such nanostructured substrates is rarely considered. Here, we report the observation of the reduction in the open circuit voltage of amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto a nanostructured substrate with increasing areal number density of high aspect ratio structures. For a nanostructured substrate with the areal number density of such nanostructures increasing in correlation with the distance from one edge of the substrate, a correlation between the open circuit voltage reduction and the increase of the areal number density of high aspect ratio nanostructures of the front electrode of the small-size amorphous silicon solar cells deposited onto different regions of the substrate with graded nanostructure density indicates the effect of the surface morphology on the material quality, i.e., a trade-off between photon management efficacy and material quality. This observed trade-off highlights the importance of optimizing the morphology of the nanostructured substrate to ensure conformal deposition of the thin-film solar cell.

  17. Extremely superhydrophobic surfaces with micro- and nanostructures fabricated by copper catalytic etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Pil; Choi, Sinho; Park, Soojin

    2011-01-18

    We demonstrate a simple method for the fabrication of rough silicon surfaces with micro- and nanostructures, which exhibited superhydrophobic behaviors. Hierarchically rough silicon surfaces were prepared by copper (Cu)-assisted chemical etching process where Cu nanoparticles having particle size of 10-30 nm were deposited on silicon surface, depending on the period of time of electroless Cu plating. Surface roughness was controlled by both the size of Cu nanoparticles and etching conditions. As-synthesized rough silicon surfaces showed water contact angles ranging from 93° to 149°. Moreover, the hierarchically rough silicon surfaces were chemically modified by spin-coating of a thin layer of Teflon precursor with low surface energy. And thus it exhibited nonsticky and enhanced hydrophobic properties with extremely high contact angle of nearly 180°.

  18. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin

    2008-12-15

    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  19. About the optical properties of oxidized black silicon structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincik, E.; Brunner, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Mikula, M.; Kučera, M.; Švec, P.; Greguš, J.; Vojtek, P.; Zábudlá, Z.; Imamura, K.; Zahoran, M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper deals with the optical and morphological properties of thermally oxidized black silicon (OBSi) nano-crystalline specimens produced by the surface structure chemical transfer method (SSCT). This method can produce a nano-crystalline Si black color layer on c-Si with a range of thickness of ∼50 nm to ∼300 nm by the contact of c-Si immersed in chemical solutions HF + H2O2 with a catalytic mesh. We present and discuss mainly the photoluminescence properties of both polished c-Si and OBSi structures, respectively. The similar photoluminescence (PL) behaviors recorded at liquid helium (6 K) and room temperatures on both polished crystalline Si and OBSi samples, respectively, indicate the similar origin of recorded luminescence light. As the positions of PL maxima of OBSi structures are mainly related to the size of Si nanocrystallites and SiO(x), we therefore suppose that the size of the dominant parts of the luminated OBSi nanostructure is pre-determined by the used polishing Si procedure, and/or the distribution function of the number of formed crystallites on their size is very similar. The blue shift of both PL spectra reaching almost value of 0.40 eV observed after the decrease of the sample temperature to 6 K we relate also with the change of the semiconductor band gap width.

  20. Recycling of silicon: from industrial waste to biocompatible nanoparticles for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, N. K.; Natashina, U. A.; Tamarov, K. P.; Gongalsky, M. B.; Solovyev, V. V.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Sivakov, V.; Osminkina, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    The formation of photoluminescent porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticles (NPs) is usually based on an expensive semiconductor grade wafers technology. Here, we report a low-cost method of PSi NPs synthesis from the industrial silicon waste remained after the wafer production. The proposed method is based on metal-assisted wet-chemical etching (MACE) of the silicon surface of cm-sized metallurgical grade silicon stones which leads to a nanostructuring of the surface due to an anisotropic etching, with subsequent ultrasound fracturing in water. The obtained PSi NPs exhibit bright red room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and demonstrate similar microstructure and physical characteristics in comparison with the nanoparticles synthesized from semiconductor grade Si wafers. PSi NPs prepared from metallurgical grade silicon stones, similar to silicon NPs synthesized from high purity silicon wafer, show low toxicity to biological objects that open the possibility of using such type of NPs in nanomedicine.

  1. Ductility of Nanostructured Bainite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales-Rivas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured bainite is a novel ultra-high-strength steel-concept under intensive current research, in which the optimization of its mechanical properties can only come from a clear understanding of the parameters that control its ductility. This work reviews first the nature of this composite-like material as a product of heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, the premises of ductility behavior are presented, taking as a reference related microstructures: conventional bainitic steels, and TRIP-aided steels. The ductility of nanostructured bainite is then discussed in terms of work-hardening and fracture mechanisms, leading to an analysis of the three-fold correlation between ductility, mechanically-induced martensitic transformation, and mechanical partitioning between the phases. Results suggest that a highly stable/hard retained austenite, with mechanical properties close to the matrix of bainitic ferrite, is advantageous in order to enhance ductility.

  2. Vortices and nanostructured superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides expert coverage of modern and novel aspects of the study of vortex matter, dynamics, and pinning in nanostructured and multi-component superconductors. Vortex matter in superconducting materials is a field of enormous beauty and intellectual challenge, which began with the theoretical prediction of vortices by A. Abrikosov (Nobel Laureate). Vortices, vortex dynamics, and pinning are key features in many of today’s human endeavors: from the huge superconducting accelerating magnets and detectors at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, which opened new windows of knowledge on the universe, to the tiny superconducting transceivers using Rapid Single Flux Quanta, which have opened a revolutionary means of communication. In recent years, two new features have added to the intrinsic beauty and complexity of the subject: nanostructured/nanoengineered superconductors, and the discovery of a range of new materials showing multi-component (multi-gap) superconductivity. In this book, leading researche...

  3. Hybrid phonons in nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Ridley, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline semiconductor nanostructures have special properties associated with electrons and lattice vibrations and their interaction, and this is the topic of the book. The result of spatial confinement of electrons is indicated in the nomenclature of nonostructures: quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Confinement also has a profound effect on lattice vibrations and an account of this is the prime focus. The documentation of the confinement of acoustic modes goes back to Lord Rayleigh’s work in the late nineteenth century, but no such documentation exists for optical modes. Indeed, it is only comparatively recently that any theory of the elastic properties of optical modes exists, and the account given in the book is comprehensive. A model of the lattice dynamics of the diamond lattice is given that reveals the quantitative distinction between acoustic and optical modes and the difference of connection rules that must apply at an interface. The presence of interfaces in nanostructures forces ...

  4. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures on noble-metal coated substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikovska, A.Og. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, G.B. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Avdeev, G.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on Au–Ag alloy coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. • Morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy content in the catalyst layer. • Increasing the Ag content in Au–Ag catalyst layer changes the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanobelts. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on noble-metal (Au, Ag and Au–Ag alloys) coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared at a substrate temperature of 550 °C, an oxygen pressure of 5 Pa, and a laser fluence of 2 J cm{sup −2} – process parameters usually used for deposition of smooth and dense thin films. The metal layer's role is substantial for the preparation of nanostructures. Heating of the substrate changed the morphology of the metal layer and, subsequently, nanoparticles were formed. The use of different metal particles resulted in different morphologies and properties of the ZnO nanostructures synthesized. The morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy's content of the catalyst layer. It was found that the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures evolved from nanorods to nanobelts as the ratio of Au/Ag in the alloy catalyst was varied. The use of a small quantity of Ag in the Au–Ag catalyst (Au{sub 3}Ag) layer resulted predominantly in the deposition of ZnO nanorods. A higher Ag content in the catalyst alloy (AuAg{sub 2}) layer resulted in the growth of a dense structure of ZnO nanobelts.

  6. Ab-initio modeling of oxygen on the surface passivation of 3C-SiC nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, J.L.; Trejo, A.; Calvino, M.; Carvajal, E.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the effect of OH on the electronic states of H-passivated 3C-SiC nanostructures, was studied by means of Density Functional Theory. We compare the electronic band structure for a [1 1 1]-oriented nanowire with total H, OH passivation and a combination of both. Also the electronic states of a porous silicon carbide case (PSiC) a C-rich pore surface in which the dangling bonds on the surface are saturated with H and OH was studied. The calculations show that the surface replacement of H with OH radicals is always energetically favorable and more stable. In all cases the OH passivation produced a similar effect than the H passivation, with electronic band gap of lower energy value than the H-terminated phase. When the OH groups are attached to C atoms, the band gap feature is changed from direct to indirect. The results indicate the possibility of band gap engineering on SiC nanostructures through the surface passivation species.

  7. Effect of Copper on the Carrier Lifetime in Black Silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porte, Henrik; Turchinovich, Dmitry; Persheyev, Saydulla

    2011-01-01

    Black silicon is produced by laser annealing of a-Si:H films. During annealing, silicon microstructures are formed on the surface. We use time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to study the photoconductivity dynamics in black silicon. We find that when a copper film is deposited on top of the a......-Si:H layer prior to laser annealing, the carrier lifetime of black silicon is significantly reduced....

  8. Low cost silicon-on-ceramic photovoltaic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, B. G.; Heaps, J. D.; Grung, B. L.; Zook, J. D.; Sibold, J. D.; Leipold, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    A technique has been developed for coating low-cost mullite-based refractory substrates with thin layers of solar cell quality silicon. The technique involves first carbonizing one surface of the ceramic and then contacting it with molten silicon. The silicon wets the carbonized surface and, under the proper thermal conditions, solidifies as a large-grained sheet. Solar cells produced from this composite silicon-on-ceramic material have exhibited total area conversion efficiencies of ten percent.

  9. Laser wafering for silicon solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-01-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W p (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs (∼20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions (∼50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 (micro)m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  10. Laser wafering for silicon solar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, Thomas Aquinas; Sweatt, William C.; Jared, Bradley Howell

    2011-03-01

    Current technology cuts solar Si wafers by a wire saw process, resulting in 50% 'kerf' loss when machining silicon from a boule or brick into a wafer. We want to develop a kerf-free laser wafering technology that promises to eliminate such wasteful wire saw processes and achieve up to a ten-fold decrease in the g/W{sub p} (grams/peak watt) polysilicon usage from the starting polysilicon material. Compared to today's technology, this will also reduce costs ({approx}20%), embodied energy, and green-house gas GHG emissions ({approx}50%). We will use short pulse laser illumination sharply focused by a solid immersion lens to produce subsurface damage in silicon such that wafers can be mechanically cleaved from a boule or brick. For this concept to succeed, we will need to develop optics, lasers, cleaving, and high throughput processing technologies capable of producing wafers with thicknesses < 50 {micro}m with high throughput (< 10 sec./wafer). Wafer thickness scaling is the 'Moore's Law' of silicon solar. Our concept will allow solar manufacturers to skip entire generations of scaling and achieve grid parity with commercial electricity rates. Yet, this idea is largely untested and a simple demonstration is needed to provide credibility for a larger scale research and development program. The purpose of this project is to lay the groundwork to demonstrate the feasibility of laser wafering. First, to design and procure on optic train suitable for producing subsurface damage in silicon with the required damage and stress profile to promote lateral cleavage of silicon. Second, to use an existing laser to produce subsurface damage in silicon, and third, to characterize the damage using scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping.

  11. Double side multicrystalline silicon passivation by one step stain etching-based porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Seifeddine Belhadj; Ben Rabha, Mohamed; Bessais, Brahim [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of stain etching-based porous silicon on the double side multicrystalline silicon. Special attention is given to the use of the stain etched PS as an antireflection coating as well as for surface passivating capabilities. Stain etching of double side multicrystalline silicon leads to the formation of PS nanostructures, that dramatically decrease the surface reflectivity from 30% to about 7% and increase the effective lifetime from 1 {mu}s to 10 {mu}s at a minority carrier density ({Delta}n) of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. These results let us correlate the rise of the lifetime values to the photoluminescence intensity to the hydrogen and oxide passivation as shown by FTIR analysis. This low-cost PS formation process can be applied in the photovoltaic cell technology as a standard procedure (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Black silicon laser-doped selective emitter solar cell with 18.1% efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Li, Hongzhao; To, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We report fabrication of nanostructured, laser-doped selective emitter (LDSE) silicon solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 18.1% and a fill factor (FF) of 80.1%. The nanostructured solar cells were realized through a single step, mask-less, scalable reactive ion etch (RIE) texturing......-texturing as well as the LDSE process, we consider this specific combination a promising candidate for a cost-efficient process for future Si solar cells....

  13. Silicon Nanocrystal Synthesis in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with grains smaller than 5 nm are widely recognized as a key material in optoelectronic devices, lithium battery electrodes, and bio-medical labels. Another important characteristic is that silicon is an environmentally safe material that is used in numerous silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. In this study, we explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles on a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using a very-high-frequency (144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with volume of less than 1 μl. Fundamental plasma parameters of the microplasma were characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, which respectively indicated electron density of 1015 cm-3, argon excitation temperature of 5000 K, and rotational temperature of 1500 K. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma can decompose silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated silicon vapor, followed by gas-phase nucleation via three-body collision: particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation processes. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei can be terminated in a short-residence-time reactor. Micro-Raman scattering spectra showed that as-deposited particles are mostly amorphous silicon with a small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrography confirmed individual 3-15 nm silicon nanocrystals. Although particles were not mono-dispersed, they were well separated and not coagulated.

  14. Synthesis of Silicon Nanocrystals in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with a grain size of at least less than 10 nm are widely recognized as one of the key materials in optoelectronic devices, electrodes of lithium battery, bio-medical labels. There is also important character that silicon is safe material to the environment and easily gets involved in existing silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. We explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for the efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles in a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using very high frequency (VHF = 144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with a volume of less than 1 μ-liter. Fundamental plasma parameters of VHF capacitively coupled microplasma were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy, showing electron density of approximately 1015 cm-3 and rotational temperature of 1500 K, respectively. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma has a capability of decomposing silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated atomic silicon vapor, followed by gas phase nucleation via three-body collision. The particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation process. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei was able to be favorably terminated in a short-residence time reactor. Micro Raman scattering spectrum showed that as-deposited particles were mostly amorphous silicon with small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrograph confirmed individual silicon nanocrystals of 3-15 nm size. Although those particles were not mono-dispersed, they were

  15. Investigation of a Mesoporous Silicon Based Ferromagnetic Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca AG

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A semiconductor/metal nanocomposite is composed of a porosified silicon wafer and embedded ferromagnetic nanostructures. The obtained hybrid system possesses the electronic properties of silicon together with the magnetic properties of the incorporated ferromagnetic metal. On the one hand, a transition metal is electrochemically deposited from a metal salt solution into the nanostructured silicon skeleton, on the other hand magnetic particles of a few nanometres in size, fabricated in solution, are incorporated by immersion. The electrochemically deposited nanostructures can be tuned in size, shape and their spatial distribution by the process parameters, and thus specimens with desired ferromagnetic properties can be fabricated. Using magnetite nanoparticles for infiltration into porous silicon is of interest not only because of the magnetic properties of the composite material due to the possible modification of the ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic transition but also because of the biocompatibility of the system caused by the low toxicity of both materials. Thus, it is a promising candidate for biomedical applications as drug delivery or biomedical targeting.

  16. Effect of Second Phase Particles on the Tensile Instability of a Nanostructured Al-1%Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tian Lin; Wu, Gui Lin; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured Al-1%Si alloy containing dispersed Si particles was produced by heavily cold-rolling to study the effect of second phase particles on the tensile instability of nanostructured metals. Tensile tests were conducted on the as-deformed sample and the samples after recovery annealing ...

  17. Particle stabilization of plastic flow in nanostructured Al-1 %Si Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tianlin; Li, Chao; Wu, Guilin

    2014-01-01

    A nanostructured Al-1 %Si alloy containing a dispersion of Si particles in ultrapure aluminum (99.9996 %) was produced by heavy cold rolling to study the effect of second-phase particles on the occurrence of plastic instability during tensile testing of a nanostructured metal. Tensile tests were...

  18. Atomic layer deposition of nanostructured materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pinna, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (du

  19. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-02-07

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.

  20. Selective Oxidations using Nanostructured Heterogeneous Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen

    and because they produce H2O as the only by-product. Chapter 1 gives a short introduction to basic concepts in heterogeneous catalysis and green chemistry. Furthermore, the chapter gives an overview of the most important strategies to synthesise functional nanostructured materials and highlights how detailed......The aim of this thesis is to investigate and develop new efficient methods to oxidise alcohols and amines using heterogeneous catalysts and either O2 or H2O2 as oxidants. From an economic and environmental point of view, these oxidants are ideal, because they are cheap and readily available...... understanding of size, shape and structure can help in the development of new and more efficient heterogeneous catalysts. The chapter is not intended to give a complete survey, but rather to introduce some of the recent developments in the synthesis of nanostructured heterogeneous catalysts. Finally...