Sample records for silicon direct bonding

  1. Direct bonding of ALD Al2O3 to silicon nitride thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laganà, Simone; Mikkelsen, E. K.; Marie, Rodolphe


    Direct bonding is an advanced joining technique for bonding of silicon based surfaces at low temperature without any specific surface pretreatment. The main purpose of this work is to develop new techniques to enhance the fabrication process for nanofluidic systems for in situ transmission electron......, the current bonding method can be also used for further MEMS applications. ...

  2. Nanofluidic chip for liquid TEM cell fabricated by parylene and silicon nitride direct bonding (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Jonghyun; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Lee, Wonhee


    Despite the importance of nanofluidic transmission electron microscope (TEM) chips, a simple fabrication method has yet to be developed due to the difficulty of wafer bonding techniques using a nanoscale thick bonding layer. We present a simple and robust wafer scale bonding technique using parylene as a bonding layer. A nanoscale thick parylene layer was deposited on a silicon nitride (SiN) wafer and patterned to construct nanofluidic channels. The patterned parylene layer was directly bonded to another SiN wafer by thermal surface activation and bonding, with a bonding strength of ˜3 MPa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that carbon-oxygen bonds were generated by thermal activation. We demonstrated TEM imaging of gold nanoparticles suspended in liquid using the fabricated nanofluidic chip.

  3. Interface structure in directly bonded silicon crystals studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Feidenhans'l, R.; Howes, P.B.


    Fusion-bonded silicon wafers exhibit a superstructure at their common interface due to the spatial beating of the two crystal lattices. The superstructure consists of a network of screw dislocations with a period determined by the twist angle theta. By synchrotron X-ray diffraction, the periodic...... elastic modulation in the two crystals resulting from the dislocation network has been measured. The characteristic thickness of the modulated region is found to be inversely proportional to theta, reaching over 160 Angstrom for theta = 0.4 degrees. This behavior is reproduced in numerical simulations...

  4. Low-temperature wafer direct bonding of silicon and quartz glass by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning (United States)

    Wang, Chenxi; Xu, Jikai; Zeng, Xiaorun; Tian, Yanhong; Wang, Chunqing; Suga, Tadatomo


    We demonstrate a facile bonding process for combining silicon and quartz glass wafers by a two-step wet chemical surface cleaning. After a post-annealing at 200 °C, strong bonding interfaces with no defects or microcracks were obtained. On the basis of the detailed surface and bonding interface characterizations, the bonding mechanism was explored and discussed. The amino groups terminated on the cleaned surfaces might contribute to the bonding strength enhancement during the annealing. This cost-effective bonding process has great potentials for silicon- and glass-based heterogeneous integrations without requiring a vacuum system.

  5. Hydroxide catalysis bonding of silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, A.A. van; Ende, D.A. van den; Bogenstahl, J.; Rowan, S.; Cunningham, W.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Nijmeijer, H.


    For bonding silicon carbide optics, which require extreme stability, hydroxide catalysis bonding is considered [Rowan, S., Hough, J. and Elliffe, E., Silicon carbide bonding. UK Patent 040 7953.9, 2004. Please contact Mr. D. Whiteford for further information:]. This

  6. Interface Structure and Atomic Bonding Characteristics in Silicon Nitride Ceramics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Ziegler; J. C. Idrobo; M. K. Cinibulk; C. Kisielowski; N. D. Browning; R. O. Ritchie


    Direct atomic resolution images have been obtained that illustrate how a range of rare-earth atoms bond to the interface between the intergranular phase and the matrix grains in an advanced silicon nitride ceramic...

  7. Silicon-to-silicon wafer bonding using evaporated glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Lindahl, M.


    Anodic bending of silicon to silicon 4-in. wafers using an electron-beam evaporated glass (Schott 8329) was performed successfully in air at temperatures ranging from 200 degrees C to 450 degrees C. The composition of the deposited glass is enriched in sodium as compared to the target material...... of silicon/glass structures in air around 340 degrees C for 15 min leads to stress-free structures. Bonded wafer pairs, however, show no reduction in stress and always exhibit compressive stress. The bond yield is larger than 95% for bonding temperatures around 350 degrees C and is above 80% for bonding...... from 25 N/mm(2) to 0 N/mm(2) at 200 degrees C. A weak dependence on feature size was observed. For bonding temperatures higher than 300 degrees C fracture occurs randomly in the bulk of the silicon, whereas for bonding temperatures lower than 300 degrees C fracture always occurs at the bonding...

  8. Fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Kasper; Østergaard, Christian; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    results on bonding of thin and thick Si3N4 layers. The new results include high temperature bonding without any pretreatment, along with improved bonding ability achieved by thermal oxidation and chemical pretreatment. The bonded wafers include both unprocessed and processed wafers with a total silicon......While silicon nitride surfaces are widely used in many micro electrical mechanical system devices, e.g. for chemical passivation, electrical isolation or environmental protection, studies on fusion bonding of two silicon nitride surfaces (Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding) are very few and highly application...... specific. Often fusion bonding of silicon nitride surfaces to silicon or silicon dioxide to silicon surfaces is preferred, though Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding is indeed possible and practical for many devices as will be shown in this paper. We present an overview of existing knowledge on Si3N4–Si3N4 bonding and new...

  9. Chemical Bonding Technology: Direct Investigation of Interfacial Bonds (United States)

    Koenig, J. L.; Boerio, F. J.; Plueddemann, E. P.; Miller, J.; Willis, P. B.; Cuddihy, E. F.


    This is the third Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project document reporting on chemical bonding technology for terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) modules. The impetus for this work originated in the late 1970s when PV modules employing silicone encapsulation materials were undergoing delamination during outdoor exposure. At that time, manufacturers were not employing adhesion promoters and, hence, module interfaces in common with the silicone materials were only in physical contact and therefore easily prone to separation if, for example, water were to penetrate to the interfaces. Delamination with silicone materials virtually vanished when adhesion promoters, recommended by silicone manufacturers, were used. The activities related to the direct investigation of chemically bonded interfaces are described.

  10. [Direct bonding in orthodontics]. (United States)

    Hablützel, W


    Composite materials have been used to attach orthodontic brackets on the conditioned enamel surface. A method of direct bonding with Enamelite of metal brackets with a mechanical retention on the basis is described. Clinical experience with the adhesive technique, its range of indication and possible failures are discussed in several case reports.

  11. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim


    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bulk...

  12. Characterization of germanium/silicon p-n junction fabricated by low temperature direct wafer bonding and layer exfoliation (United States)

    Gity, Farzan; Yeol Byun, Ki; Lee, Ko-Hsin; Cherkaoui, Karim; Hayes, John M.; Morrison, Alan P.; Colinge, Cindy; Corbett, Brian


    The current transport across a p-Ge/n-Si diode structure obtained by direct wafer bonding and layer exfoliation is analysed. A low temperature anneal at 400 °C for 30 min was used to improve the forward characteristics of the diode with the on/off ratio at -1 V being >8000. Post anneal, the transport mechanism has a strong tunnelling component. This fabrication technique using a low thermal budget (T ≤ 400 °C) is an attractive option for heterogeneous integration.

  13. Bond Testing for Effects of Silicone Contamination (United States)

    Plaia, James; Evans, Kurt


    In 2003 ATK Thiokol discovered that the smocks and coveralls worn by its operations personnel for safety and contamination control were themselves contaminated with a silicone defoamer and a silicone oil. As a growing list of items have been identified as having this form of contamination, it was desirable to devise a test method to determine if the contamination level detected could cause subsequent processing concerns. The smocks and coveralls could potentially contact bonding surfaces during processing so the test method focused on dry transfer of the silicone from the clothing to the bonding surface.

  14. Silicon waveguides produced by wafer bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette; Jensen, Flemming; Bunk, Oliver


    X-ray waveguides are successfully produced employing standard silicon technology of UV photolithography and wafer bonding. Contrary to theoretical expectations for similar systems even 100 mu m broad guides of less than 80 nm height do not collapse and can be used as one dimensional waveguides...

  15. Bond strength tests between silicon wafers and duran tubes (fusion bonded fluidic interconnects)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Berenschot, Johan W.; de Boer, J.H.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    The fusion bond strength of glass tubes with standard silicon wafers is presented. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and those coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are presented. Results obtained are discussed in terms of homogeneity and strength of fusion bond. High pressure testing

  16. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhandi Sidjaja


    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  17. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon


    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  18. LAMMPS Framework for Directional Dynamic Bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    We have extended the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) to support directional bonds and dynamic bonding. The framework supports stochastic formation of new bonds, breakage of existing bonds, and conversion between bond types. Bond formation can be controlled...... and bond types. When breaking bonds, all angular and dihedral interactions involving broken bonds are removed. The framework allows chemical reactions to be modeled, and use it to simulate a simplistic, coarse-grained DNA model. The resulting DNA dynamics illustrates the power of the present framework....... to limit the maximal functionality of a bead with respect to various bond types. Concomitant with the bond dynamics, angular and dihedral interactions are dynamically introduced between newly connected triplets and quartets of beads, where the interaction type is determined from the local pattern of bead...

  19. Bond strength between acrylic resin and maxillofacial silicone (United States)

    HADDAD, Marcela Filié; GOIATO, Marcelo Coelho; dos SANTOS, Daniela Micheline; CREPALDI, Nádia de Marchi; PESQUEIRA, Aldiéris Alves; BANNWART, Lisiane Cristina


    The development of implant dentistry improved the possibilities of rehabilitation with maxillofacial prosthesis. However, clinically it is difficult to bond the silicone to the attachment system. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an adhesive system on the bond strength between acrylic resin and facial silicone. Material and Methods A total of 120 samples were fabricated with auto-polymerized acrylic resin and MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. Both materials were bonded through mechanical retentions and/or application of primers (DC 1205 primer and Sofreliner primer S) and adhesive (Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A) or not (control group). Samples were divided into 12 groups according to the method used to attach the silicone to the acrylic resin. All samples were subjected to a T-peel test in a universal testing machine. Failures were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed. The data were evaluated by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey's HSD test (α=.05). Results The highest bond strength values (5.95 N/mm; 3.07 N/mm; 4.75 N/mm) were recorded for the samples that received a Sofreliner primer application. These values were significantly higher when the samples had no scratches and did not receive the application of Silastic Medical Adhesive Type A. Conclusions The most common type of failure was adhesive. The use of Sofreliner primer increased the bond strength between the auto-polymerized acrylic resin and the Silastic MDX 4-4210 facial silicone. PMID:23329247

  20. Silicon nanostructures produced by laser direct etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Dirac, Paul Andreas Holger; Petersen, Jon Wulff


    A laser direct-write process has been applied to structure silicon on a nanometer scale. In this process, a silicon substrate, placed in a chlorine ambience, is locally heated above its melting point by a continuous-wave laser and translated by high-resolution direct-current motor stages. Only...

  1. Why are Hydrogen Bonds Directional?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for an interaction to be characterized as a hydro- gen bond but does not provide any rationale for the same. This article reports a rationale for limiting the angle, based on the electron density topology using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. Electron density topol- ogy for common hydrogen bond donors HF, HCl, ...

  2. Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Takei


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO3. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range.

  3. Electronic properties of interfaces produced by silicon wafer hydrophilic bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trushin, Maxim


    The thesis presents the results of the investigations of electronic properties and defect states of dislocation networks (DNs) in silicon produced by wafers direct bonding technique. A new insight into the understanding of their very attractive properties was succeeded due to the usage of a new, recently developed silicon wafer direct bonding technique, allowing to create regular dislocation networks with predefined dislocation types and densities. Samples for the investigations were prepared by hydrophilic bonding of p-type Si (100) wafers with same small misorientation tilt angle ({proportional_to}0.5 ), but with four different twist misorientation angles Atw (being of < , 3 , 6 and 30 , respectively), thus giving rise to the different DN microstructure on every particular sample. The main experimental approach of this work was the measurements of current and capacitance of Schottky diodes prepared on the samples which contained the dislocation network at a depth that allowed one to realize all capabilities of different methods of space charge region spectroscopy (such as CV/IV, DLTS, ITS, etc.). The key tasks for the investigations were specified as the exploration of the DN-related gap states, their variations with gradually increasing twist angle Atw, investigation of the electrical field impact on the carrier emission from the dislocation-related states, as well as the establishing of the correlation between the electrical (DLTS), optical (photoluminescence PL) and structural (TEM) properties of DNs. The most important conclusions drawn from the experimental investigations and theoretical calculations can be formulated as follows: - DLTS measurements have revealed a great difference in the electronic structure of small-angle (SA) and large-angle (LA) bonded interfaces: dominating shallow level and a set of 6-7 deep levels were found in SA-samples with Atw of 1 and 3 , whereas the prevalent deep levels - in LA-samples with Atw of 6 and 30 . The critical twist

  4. Thermally activated emission from direct bandgap-like silicon quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dohnalova, K.; Saeed, S.; Poddubny, A. N.; Prokofiev, A.A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.


    Due to the covalent character of silicon-carbon (Si-C) bond, C-linked molecules on the silicon quantum dot (SiQD) surface lead to dramatic changes in wavefunctions of the excited electron-hole pairs. Some of the optical transitions are strongly modified and attain direct bandgap-like character,

  5. Facilitating Direct Bonding for Lingual Retainers. (United States)

    Koerich, Leonardo; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira


    Directly bonded lingual retainers are not always easy because the available techniques do not keep the wire totally stable in position and there is risk of moist contamination. Indirect methods help to keep a moist-free environment and reduce chair time but have other drawbacks, such as lack of control over the composite placement leading to adhesive-tooth failure or undesirable flow of adhesive to gingival embrasures. The purpose of this report is to show a direct bonding method, helped by a laboratory made acrylic guide, which has benefits of direct and indirect techniques.

  6. Refining of metallurgical silicon by directional solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorano, M.A., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Neto, J.B. Ferreira, E-mail: [Laboratory of Metallurgy and Ceramics Materials, Institute for Technological Research, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 532, Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-901 (Brazil); Oliveira, T.S., E-mail: [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Mello Moraes, 2463 Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Tsubaki, T.O., E-mail: [Laboratory of Metallurgy and Ceramics Materials, Institute for Technological Research, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 532, Sao Paulo-SP, 05508-901 (Brazil)


    The directional solidification of a typical and a previously refined metallurgical silicon was carried out in a vertical Bridgman furnace. The mold velocity out of the hot zone of the furnace changed from one experiment to another in the range between 5 and 110 {mu}m s{sup -1}. Samples were extracted from the cylindrical ingots obtained in the experiments to investigate the effects of the mold velocity on the micro and macrostructures and on the concentration profiles of impurities along the ingots. At the lowest mold velocity, the macrostructures consist of columnar grains oriented approximately parallel to the ingot axis. As velocity increases, grains become thinner and more inclined in the radial direction. Precipitated particles containing Si, Fe, Al, and Ti are observed at the top of all ingots and, as the mold velocity increases, they are also seen at the ingot bottom and middle. The concentration profiles of several impurities have been measured along the ingots by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP), indicating an accumulation of impurities at the ingot top. Consequently, the bottom and middle of the ingots are purer than the corresponding metallurgical silicon from which they solidified. Slices from the ingot bottom have also been analyzed by the glow discharge mass spectrometry technique (GDMS), allowing measurement of impurity concentrations that were below the quantification limit of the ICP. The purification effect and the accumulation of impurities at the ingot top are more pronounced as the mold velocity decreases. In the ingots obtained from the typical metallurgical silicon at the lowest mold velocities (5 and 10 {mu}m s{sup -1}), except for Al, all impurities are in concentrations below an important maximum limit for the feedstock of solar grade silicon. At the same mold velocities, the concentrations of Fe, Ti, Cu, Mn, and Ni measured at the bottom of the ingots obtained from both types of metallurgical silicon (typical

  7. Parylene to silicon nitride bonding for post-integration of high pressure microfluidics to CMOS devices. (United States)

    Ciftlik, Ata Tuna; Gijs, Martin A M


    High pressure-rated channels allow microfluidic assays to be performed on a smaller footprint while keeping the throughput, thanks to the higher enabled flow rates, opening up perspectives for cost-effective integration of CMOS chips to microfluidic circuits. Accordingly, this study introduces an easy, low-cost and efficient method for realizing high pressure microfluidics-to-CMOS integration. First, we report a new low temperature (280 °C) Parylene-C wafer bonding technique, where O(2) plasma-treated Parylene-C bonds directly to Si(3)N(4) with an average bonding strength of 23 MPa. The technique works for silicon wafers with a nitride surface and uses a single layer of Parylene-C deposited only on one wafer, and allows microfluidic structures to be easily formed by directly bonding to the nitride passivation layer of the CMOS devices. Exploiting this technology, we demonstrated a microfluidic chip burst pressure as high as 16 MPa, while metal electrode structures on the silicon wafer remained functional after bonding.

  8. Indirect versus direct bonding--a shear bond strength comparison: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Swetha, M; Pai, Vinaya S; Sanjay, N; Nandini, S


    The process of bonding orthodontic appliances to the enamel surface of the teeth has come to the forefront as a major improvement in bonding techniques. The purpose of this study is to compare the shear bond strength of stainless steel orthodontic brackets bonded using conventional direct bonding and indirect bonding as described by Thomas. Forty sound human premolars were divided into two groups of 20 each. Group I samples were bonded directly on the tooth surface using concise two paste adhesive system after etching and drying. Group II samples were bonded indirectly on the tooth surface according to Thomas indirect bonding technique using concise two paste adhesive system. The stored specimen was tested for shear bond strength in an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the shear bond strength between direct and indirect bonding techniques. Chi-square test showed that there were significant differences among the adhesive remnant index scores between direct and indirect bonding groups. In vitro shear bond strength comparison between direct and indirect-bonded attachments showed no significant difference between the two groups. Bond strength obtained with Thomas indirect bonding technique was comparable with direct bonding technique. Thomas indirect bonding technique can be used for bonding of the posterior teeth, where the risk of moisture contamination is high during bonding.

  9. Effects of direct and indirect bonding techniques on bond strength and microleakage after thermocycling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fırat, Öztürk; Babacan, Hasan; Nalçacı, Ruhi; Kuştarcı, Alper


    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of brackets and microleakage of a tooth-adhesive-bracket complex bonded with a direct and an indirect bonding technique after thermocycling...

  10. A technique for placement of direct bonded lingual retainer. (United States)

    Hattarki, Rohan S


    Different methods of bonding lingual retainers have evolved over the past three decades, both direct and indirect methods. The indirect method involves certain laboratory procedures to hold the retainer wire on the teeth, whereas the direct technique involves bonding the prefabricated retainer wire. The present article describes a new technique for direct-bonded lingual retainer.

  11. PECASE: New Directions for Silicon Integrated Optics (United States)


    silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted human plasma,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 42 (2013) A widely acknowledged...resonators as high sensitivity biosensors will be discussed. The results of the research including scientific publications and patents are...demonstrating mid-infrared integrated optics in silicon and pursuing new investigations into using silicon resonators as high sensitivity biosensors . A

  12. Silicon Based Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent

    The purpose of this project has been to investigate and fabricate small scale Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for Zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries...... such as lithium-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density. Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density and ease of refueling compared to charging batteries, making μDMFC a suitable replacement energy source. In this Ph.D. dissertation, silicon micro fabrication...... techniques where utilized to build μDMFCs with the purpose of engineering the structures, both on the micro and nano scales in order to realize a high level of control over the membrane and catalyst components. The work presents four different monolithic fuel cell designs. The primary design is based...

  13. Sintering behavior in zirconium phosphate bonded silicon nitride porous ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Fei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shen Qiang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)], E-mail:; Schoenung, Julie M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Lianmeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)


    A new method for preparing high bending strength porous silicon nitride ceramics with controlled porosity has been developed by using a pressureless sintering technique with zirconium phosphate (ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}) as a binder phase. The sintering behavior in these porous ceramics is investigated in this study by using XRD, SEM, and HRTEM analysis. The results show that the sintering process can be divided into two stages: one is at temperatures below 250 deg. C, during which ZrO{sub 2} can react completely with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to form ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7}, and a ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} bonded Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} porous structure is formed; the other is at temperatures above 250 deg. C, at which solid state sintering of the ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} dominates and a continuous open porosity network is obtained. The effect of the ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} binder content on sintering behavior, porosity and mechanical properties is also investigated.

  14. Reducing thermal mismatch stress in anodically bonded silicon-glass wafers: theoretical estimation (United States)

    Sinev, Leonid S.; Ryabov, Vladimir T.


    This paper reports the theoretical study and estimations of thermal mismatch stress reduction in anodically bonded silicon-glass stacks by justifiable selection of bonding temperature and glass thickness. This can be done only after prior thorough study of temperature dependence of the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the glass and silicon to be used. We show by analyzing such a dependence of several glass brands that the usual idea of decreasing the bonding process temperature as a solution to the thermal mismatch stress problem can be a failure. Interchanging glass brands during device design is shown to produce very contrasting changes in residual stresses. These results are in good agreement with finite-element modeling. This paper reports there is proportion between glass and silicon wafer thicknesses minimizing thermal mismatch stress at unbonded side of the silicon independently of the bonding or working temperatures chosen.

  15. Functionalization and bioimmobilization of silicon surfaces with Si-N bonded monolayer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert


    A new method for selective surface functionalization of silicon with a silicon-nitrogen bonded (Si-N) monolayer and subsequent bioimmobilization is presented. The Si-N monolayer was studied using Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence spectroscopy,

  16. Preservation of atomically clean silicon surfaces in air by contact bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Francois; Ljungberg, Karin


    When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find that the or......When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find...... that the ordered atomic structure of the surfaces is protected from oxidation, even after the bonded samples have been in air for weeks. Further, we show that silicon surfaces that have been cleaned and hydrogen-passivated in UHV can be contacted in UHV in a similarly hermetic fashion, protecting the surface...

  17. Direct tomography with chemical-bond contrast. (United States)

    Huotari, Simo; Pylkkänen, Tuomas; Verbeni, Roberto; Monaco, Giulio; Hämäläinen, Keijo


    Three-dimensional (3D) X-ray imaging methods have advanced tremendously during recent years. Traditional tomography uses absorption as the contrast mechanism, but for many purposes its sensitivity is limited. The introduction of diffraction, small-angle scattering, refraction, and phase contrasts has increased the sensitivity, especially in materials composed of light elements (for example, carbon and oxygen). X-ray spectroscopy, in principle, offers information on element composition and chemical environment. However, its application in 3D imaging over macroscopic length scales has not been possible for light elements. Here we introduce a new hard-X-ray spectroscopic tomography with a unique sensitivity to light elements. In this method, dark-field section images are obtained directly without any reconstruction algorithms. We apply the method to acquire the 3D structure and map the chemical bonding in selected samples relevant to materials science. The novel aspects make this technique a powerful new imaging tool, with an inherent access to the molecular-level chemical environment. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  18. A 15-month evaluation of bond failures of orthodontic brackets bonded with direct versus indirect bonding technique: a clinical trial


    Menini, Anna; Cozzani, Mauro; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Scribante, Andrea; Cozzani, Paolo; Gandini, Paola


    Background The purpose of this clinical longitudinal study was to investigate the effectiveness of indirect bonding technique evaluating the number of bond failures which occurred during treatment. Methods Fifty-two patients were selected and divided into two groups: group A (33 patients) bonded with the direct technique and group B (19 patients) bonded with the indirect technique. The number and date of bracket failure were recorded for over 15?months. Moreover, also the effect of crowding l...

  19. The fabrication of all-silicon micro gas chromatography columns using gold diffusion eutectic bonding (United States)

    Radadia, A. D.; Salehi-Khojin, A.; Masel, R. I.; Shannon, M. A.


    Temperature programming of gas chromatography (GC) separation columns accelerates the elution rate of chemical species through the column, increasing the speed of analysis, and hence making it a favorable technique to speedup separations in microfabricated GCs (micro-GC). Temperature-programmed separations would be preferred in an all-silicon micro-column compared to a silicon-Pyrex® micro-column given that the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of silicon is 2 orders of magnitude higher than Pyrex®. This paper demonstrates how to fabricate all-silicon micro-columns that can withstand the temperature cycling required for temperature-programmed separations. The columns were sealed using a novel bonding process where they were first bonded using a gold eutectic bond, then annealed at 1100 °C to allow gold diffusion into silicon and form what we call a gold diffusion eutectic bond. The gold diffusion eutectic-bonded micro-columns when examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) and blade insertion techniques showed bonding strength comparable to the previously reported anodic-bonded columns. Gas chromatography-based methane injections were also used as a novel way to investigate proper sealing between channels. A unique methane elution peak at various carrier gas inlet pressures demonstrated the suitability of gold diffusion eutectic-bonded channels as micro-GC columns. The application of gold diffusion eutectic-bonded all-silicon micro-columns to temperature-programmed separations (120 °C min-1) was demonstrated with the near-baseline separation of n-C6 to n-C12 alkanes in 35 s.

  20. Anisotropic bond model of nonlinear optics and applications to silicon and silicon-dielectric interfaces (United States)

    Adles, Eric J.

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) techniques are important for the characterization and studying of materials, thin films and interfaces, particularly in this era of nanotechnology and photonics. However, interpretation of nonlinear optical data has been difficult and phenomenological. Here we present the Anisotropic Bond Model (ABM), which is an extension of the previous simplified bond-hyperpolarizability model (SBHM) to include gradient effects. Both the ABM and SBHM describe NLO data with physically meaningful parameters and much simpler mathematics than alternative approaches. We use the ABM to describe second-harmonic generation (SHG) from planar crystalline silicon (c-Si), amorphous materials and nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) spheres embedded in glass. Data for nc-Si spheres in glass were recently reported by Figliozzi et al. [1] and provide a critical new test of the theory in that they can only be described when gradient effects are included. We begin by reviewing previous theoretical treatments, including the Ewald-Oseen Extinction Theorem and the SBHM. The SBHM is effectively the Extinction Theorem for NLO, but as we point out, is one of the rare instances where the nonlinear problem is much simpler than the linear problem because NLO signals are generally weak and at a different frequency from the driving field. Therefore, a self-consistent solution is not required. This leads to the completely counter-intuitive result that the NLO treatment is actually easier than that for linear optics. We next develop necessary theoretical tools for our model, starting from the Lienard-Wiechart potentials and calculating the far-field radiation from point charges in terms of their displacements from equilibrium positions. From this we are able to identify the various physical mechanisms contributing to SHG: intrinsic bond anharmonicity, spatial dispersion (field gradient) effects, and higher multipole contributions. Specifically, we show the latter are equivalent to

  1. Porous silicon-based direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cells. (United States)

    Dzhafarov, T D; Yuksel, S Aydin


    In this paper, the use of Au/porous silicon/Silicon Schottky type structure, as a direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell is demonstrated. The porous silicon filled with hydrochlorid acid was developed as a proton conduction membrane. The Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon cells were fabricated by first creating the porous silicon layer in single-crystalline Si using the anodic etching under illumination and then deposition Au catalyst layer onto the porous silicon. Using 80 mM H2S solution as fuel the open circuit voltage of 0.4 V was obtained and maximum power density of 30 W/m2 at room temperature was achieved. These results demonstrate that the Au/Porous Silicon/Silicon direct hydrogen sulphide fuel cell which uses H2S:dH2O solution as fuel and operates at room temperature can be considered as the most promising type of low cost fuel cell for small power-supply units.

  2. Practice-based comparison of direct and indirect bonding. (United States)

    Deahl, S Thomas; Salome, Norman; Hatch, John P; Rugh, John D


    The purpose of this study was to compare bond-failure prevalences, numbers of appointments, and treatment times between direct and indirect bracket bonding for patients treated in private orthodontic practices. A convenience sample was collected from 11 orthodontic offices; 5 orthodontists (772 patients) used a direct bonding technique, and 6 (596 patients) used an indirect technique. Altogether, they examined 29,963 brackets in 1,368 patients. Bond failures were recorded by tooth number and by patient during 10 consecutive practice days. In addition, the orthodontists reported the treatment time and number of visits for each of their 10 most recently completed comprehensive patients. The per-patient debond prevalences were 1.17% +/- 3.62% for direct bonding and 1.21% +/- 3.81% for indirect bonding (P = .225). Direct-bonded patients required a mean (+/- SD) treatment time of 750 +/- 220 days and 22.0 +/- 7.3 visits; indirect bonding required a mean treatment time of 745 +/- 256 days and 22.2 +/- 7.3 visits (P = .691 and P = .653, respectively). This practice-based study showed no difference in the failure rates between direct and indirect bonding. Furthermore, total treatment times and numbers of appointments did not differ between the 2 techniques.

  3. Shear bond strength comparison between direct and indirect bonded orthodontic brackets. (United States)

    Yi, Gia K; Dunn, William J; Taloumis, Louis J


    The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to teeth with either an indirect bonding technique and a new adhesive resin or a direct bonding technique and a light-activated adhesive. Fifty-four extracted premolars were mounted in acrylic blocks and randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 27). In one group, orthodontic brackets were bonded to premolars with an indirect bonding adhesive system; in the other, brackets were bonded with the direct method. Seventy-two hours later, the brackets were placed in a testing machine and subjected to a shear force with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute. The mean shear bond strengths for the indirect and direct groups were 11.2 and 10.9 MPa, respectively, both exceeding the minimum shear bond strength range of 5.9 to 7.8 MPa often cited in the literature for clinical success. Data were analyzed with Student t tests. No significant difference in shear bond strength between the 2 groups was detected (P =.76). Resin remnants on orthodontic bracket pads were observed with a dissecting microscope at 30x magnification and scored with a modified adhesive remnant index. There was no significant difference between groups (P >.05). There was also no correlation between shear bond strength and the percentage of adhesive resin remnants left on the orthodontic bracket. Under the conditions of this study, no evidence suggests a difference in shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to tooth enamel, whether they are bonded with the direct or indirect technique.

  4. Morphology and stress at silicon-glass interface in anodic bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jiali [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Cai, Cheng [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Ming, Xiaoxiang [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Yu, Xinhai, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Shuangliang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Tu, Shan-Tung [Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Honglai [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)


    Highlights: • Amorphous SiO{sub 2} is the most probable silica morphology generated in anodic bonding. • Amorphous SiO{sub 2} thickness at the interface is at least 2 nm for 90 min anodic bonding. • Silicon oxidation rate at the interface is 0.022 nm min{sup −1} from 30 to 90 min. - Abstract: The morphologies and structural details of formed silica at the interface of silicon-glass anodic bonding determine the stress at the interface but they have been rarely clarified. In this study, a miniaturized anodic bonding device was developed and coupled with a Raman spectrometer. The silicon-glass anodic bonding was carried out and the evolution of the stress at the bonding interface was measured in situ by a Raman spectrometer. In addition, large-scale atomistic simulations were conducted by considering the formed silica with different morphologies. The most conceivable silica morphology was identified as the corresponding silicon-glass interfacial stress presents qualitatively agreement with the experimental observation. It was found that amorphous SiO{sub 2} is the silica morphology generated in anodic bonding. The amorphous SiO{sub 2} thickness is at least 2 nm in the case of 90 min anodic bonding at 400 °C with the DC voltage of −1000 V. The combination of experimental and simulation results can ascertain the silicon oxidation reaction rate in anodic bonding process, and under the above-mentioned condition, the reaction rate was estimated as 0.022 nm min{sup −1} from 30 to 90 min.

  5. Expanding the Repertoire of Molecular Linkages to Silicon: Si-S, Si-Se, and Si-Te Bonds. (United States)

    Hu, Minjia; Liu, Fenglin; Buriak, Jillian M


    Silicon is the foundation of the electronics industry and is now the basis for a myriad of new hybrid electronics applications, including sensing, silicon nanoparticle-based imaging and light emission, photonics, and applications in solar fuels, among others. From interfacing of biological materials to molecular electronics, the nature of the chemical bond plays important roles in electrical transport and can have profound effects on the electronics of the underlying silicon itself, affecting its work function, among other things. This work describes the chemistry to produce ≡Si-E bonds (E = S, Se, and Te) through very fast microwave heating (10-15 s) and direct thermal heating (hot plate, 2 min) through the reaction of hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces with dialkyl or diaryl dichalcogenides. The chemistry produces surface-bound ≡Si-SR, ≡Si-SeR, and ≡Si-TeR groups. Although the interfacing of molecules through ≡Si-SR and ≡Si-SeR bonds is known, to the best of our knowledge, the heavier chalcogenide variant, ≡Si-TeR, has not been described previously. The identity of the surface groups was determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and depth profiling with time-of-flight-secondary ionization mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Possible mechanisms are outlined, and the most likely, based upon parallels with well-established molecular literature, involve surface silyl radicals or dangling bonds that react with either the alkyl or aryl dichalcogenide directly, REER, or its homolysis product, the alkyl or aryl chalcogenyl radical, RE· (where E = S, Se, and Te).

  6. The direct way of indirect bonding--the combined effect. (United States)

    Gayake, Prasad Vinayakrao; Chitko, Shrikant S; Sutrave, Nagdeepak; Gaikwad, Pallavi M


    The placement of orthodontic bonded brackets may be accomplished by either a direct or indirect technique. Most orthodontists will agree that brackets can be positioned more accurately on study casts than directly on teeth in the mouth. And, also direct bonding is more demanding to the orthodontist. Yet, very few orthodontists routinely use an indirect bonding technique. The reasons commonly given for not using the indirect method are difficulty in achieving consistent and predictable adhesion to the teeth, excess of composite around the bracket margins, failure to get all the brackets to adhere to the teeth e the expense of the materials. These disadvantages can be overcome by a new simplified method of bonding outlined in this article; additionally it has advantages of direct bonding also.

  7. Effect of light aging on silicone-resin bond strength in maxillofacial prostheses. (United States)

    Polyzois, Gregory; Pantopoulos, Antonis; Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Hatamleh, Muhanad


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of accelerated light aging on bond strength of a silicone elastomer to three types of denture resin. A total of 60 single lap joint specimens were fabricated with auto-, heat-, and photopolymerized (n = 20) resins. An addition-type silicone elastomer (Episil-E) was bonded to resins treated with the same primer (A330-G). Thirty specimens served as controls and were tested after 24 hours, and the remaining were aged under accelerated exposure to daylight for 546 hours (irradiance 765 W/m(2) ). Lap shear joint tests were performed to evaluate bond strength at 50 mm/min crosshead speed. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were carried out to detect statistical significance (p < 0.05). ANOVA showed that the main effect of light aging was the most important factor determining the shear bond strength. The mean bond strength values ranged from 0.096 to 0.136 MPa. The highest values were recorded for auto- (0.131 MPa) and photopolymerized (0.136 MPa) resins after aging. Accelerated light aging for 546 hours affects the bond strength of an addition-type silicone elastomer to three different denture resins. The bond strength significantly increased after aging for photo- and autopolymerized resins. All the bonds failed adhesively. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. A comparison of bond strength between direct- and indirect-bonding methods. (United States)

    Linn, Brandon James; Berzins, David W; Dhuru, Virendra B; Bradley, Thomas Gerard


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength and the sites of bond failure for brackets bonded to teeth, using two indirect-bonding material protocols and a direct-bonding technique. Sixty extracted human premolars were collected and randomly divided into three groups. The direct-bonded group (group 1) used a light-cured adhesive and primer (Transbond XT). One indirect-bonded group (group 2) consisted of a chemical-cured primer (Sondhi Rapid Set) and light-cured adhesive (Transbond XT), whereas the other group (group 3) used a light-cured primer (Orthosolo) and adhesive (Enlight LV). Forty hours after bonding, the samples were debonded. Mean shear bond strengths were 16.27, 13.83, and 14.76 MPa for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A one-way analysis of variance showed no significant difference in mean bond strength between groups (P = .21). Furthermore, a Weibull analysis showed all three groups tested provided over a 90% survival rate at normal masticatory and orthodontic force levels. For each tooth, an Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) score was determined. Group 2 was found to have a significantly lower ARI score (P < .05) compared with groups 1 and 3. In addition, Pearson correlation coefficients indicated no strong correlation between bond strength and ARI score within or across all groups.

  9. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction topography study of bonding-induced strain in silicon-on-insulator wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankinen, A., E-mail: [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 AALTO (Finland); Okmetic Oyj, Piitie 2, FI-01510 Vantaa, Koivuhaka (Finland); Tuomi, T.O.; Kostamo, P.; Jussila, H.; Sintonen, S.; Lipsanen, H. [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FIN-00076 AALTO (Finland); Tilli, M.; Mäkinen, J. [Okmetic Oyj, Piitie 2, FI-01510 Vantaa, Koivuhaka (Finland); Danilewsky, A.N. [Kristallographie, Institut für Geo- und Umweltnaturwissenschaften, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, Hermann-Herder-Straße 5, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)


    Large-area back-reflection and transmission X-ray diffraction topographs of bonded silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers made with synchrotron radiation allowed direct and simultaneous imaging of bonding-induced strain patterns of both the 7 μm thick (011) top layers and the (001) Si substrates of the SOI structures. The bonding-induced strain pattern consists of cells having a diameter of about 40 μm. Section topographs show a lattice misorientation of the adjacent cells of about 0.001° and the maximum observed strain-induced lattice plane rotation ten times larger, i.e. about 0.01°. Topographs made after etching away the insulator layer show no indication of residual strain or defects either in the silicon-on-insulator layer or in the substrate. This is in agreement with the experimentally determined maximum bonding stress of 30 MPa, which is much smaller than the estimated stress needed to nucleate dislocations. - Highlights: • SOI wafer strain consists of sharp-edged strain cells. • Bonding-induced strain patterns are not permanent in SOI wafers. • Observed stress was much lower than required for dislocation nucleation.

  10. The structure and bonding of iron-acceptor pairs in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, S.; Assali, L.V.C.; Kimerling, L.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The highly mobile interstitial iron and Group III impurities (B, Al, Ga, In) form iron-acceptor pairs in silicon. Based on the migration kinetics and taking host silicon as a dielectric medium, we have simulated the pairing process in a static silicon lattice. Different from the conventional point charge ionic model, our phenomenological calculations include (1) a correction that takes into account valence electron cloud polarization which adds a short range, attractive interaction in the iron-acceptor pair bonding; and (2) silicon lattice relaxation due to the atomic size difference which causes a local strain field. Our model explains qualitatively (1) trends among the iron-acceptor pairs revealing an increase of the electronic state hole emission energy with increasing principal quantum number of acceptor and decreasing pair separation distance; and (2) the stable and metastable sites and configurational symmetries of the iron-acceptor pairs. The iron-acceptor pairing and bonding mechanism is also discussed.

  11. Strength, character, and directionality of halogen bonds involving cationic halogen bond donors. (United States)

    Riley, Kevin E; Tran, Khanh-An


    Halogen bonds involving cationic halogen bond donors and anionic halogen bond acceptors have recently been recognized as being important in stabilizing the crystal structures of many salts. Theoretical characterization of these types of interactions, most importantly in terms of their directionality, has been limited. Here we generate high-quality symmetry adapted perturbation theory potential energy curves of a H3N-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-Br+Cl- model system in order to characterize halogen bonds involving charged species, in terms of contributions from electrostatics, exchange, induction, and dispersion, with special emphasis on analyzing contributions that are most responsible for the directionality of these interactions. It is found that, as in the case of neutral halogen bonds, exchange forces are important contributors to the directionality of charged halogen bonds, however, it is also found that induction effects, which contribute little to the stability and directionality of neutral halogen bonds, play a large role in the directionality of halogen bonds involving charged species. Potential energy curves based on the ωB97X-D/def2-TZVP/C-PCM method, which includes an implicit solvation model in order to mimic the effects of the crystal medium, are produced for both the H3N-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-Br+Cl- model system and for the 4-bromoaniliniumCl- dimer, which is based on the real 4-bromoanilinium chloride salt, whose crystal structure has been determined experimentally. It is found that, within a crystal-like medium, charged halogen bond are significantly weaker than in the gas phase, having optimum interaction energies up to approximately -20 kcal mol-1.

  12. Evaluation of the Effect of Silicone Contamination on Various Bond Systems and the Feasibility of Removing the Contamination (United States)

    Stanley, Stephanie D.


    Silicone is a contaminant that can cause catastrophic failure of a bond system depending on the materials and processes used to fabricate the bond system, Unfortunately, more and more materials are fabricated using silicone. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate which bond systems are sensitive to silicone contamination and whether or not a cleaning process could be utilized to remove the silicone to bring the bond system performance back to baseline. Due to the extensive nature of the testing attempts will be made to generalize the understanding within classes of substrates, bond systems, and surface preparation and cleaning methods. This study was done by contaminating various meta! (steel, inconel, and aluminum), phenolic (carbon cloth phenolic and glass cloth phenolic), and rubber (natural rubber, asbestos-silicone dioxide filled natural butyldiene rubber, silica-filled ethylene propylenediene monomer, and carbon-filled ethylene propylenediene monomer) substrates which were then bonded using various adhesives and coatings (epoxy-based adhesives, paints, ablative compounds, and Chemlok adhesives) to determine the effect silicone contamination has on a given bond system's performance. The test configurations depended on the bond system being evaluated. The study also evaluated the feasibility of removing the silicone contamination by cleaning the contaminated substrate prior to bonding. The cleaning processes also varied depending on bond system.

  13. A 15-month evaluation of bond failures of orthodontic brackets bonded with direct versus indirect bonding technique: a clinical trial. (United States)

    Menini, Anna; Cozzani, Mauro; Sfondrini, Maria Francesca; Scribante, Andrea; Cozzani, Paolo; Gandini, Paola


    The purpose of this clinical longitudinal study was to investigate the effectiveness of indirect bonding technique evaluating the number of bond failures which occurred during treatment. Fifty-two patients were selected and divided into two groups: group A (33 patients) bonded with the direct technique and group B (19 patients) bonded with the indirect technique. The number and date of bracket failure were recorded for over 15 months. Moreover, also the effect of crowding level on bracket failures was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed by means of t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and chi-squared test. No statistically significant differences were found in the total bond failure rate between direct and indirect techniques, also when comparing the upper and lower arches. The only significant difference was found comparing the posterior segment of the lower arches, in which a higher percentage of detachments were recorded in group B, bonded with the indirect technique. Moreover, no significant differences between direct and indirect bonding were found when evaluating crowding level. Orthodontic practitioners can safely use the indirect bonding technique, even in patients with severe crowding, because it does not influence the adhesive quality and the bracket survival rate.

  14. Indications of chemical bond contrast in AFM images of a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. (United States)

    Labidi, Hatem; Koleini, Mohammad; Huff, Taleana; Salomons, Mark; Cloutier, Martin; Pitters, Jason; Wolkow, Robert A


    The origin of bond-resolved atomic force microscope images remains controversial. Moreover, most work to date has involved planar, conjugated hydrocarbon molecules on a metal substrate thereby limiting knowledge of the generality of findings made about the imaging mechanism. Here we report the study of a very different sample; a hydrogen-terminated silicon surface. A procedure to obtain a passivated hydrogen-functionalized tip is defined and evolution of atomic force microscopy images at different tip elevations are shown. At relatively large tip-sample distances, the topmost atoms appear as distinct protrusions. However, on decreasing the tip-sample distance, features consistent with the silicon covalent bonds of the surface emerge. Using a density functional tight-binding-based method to simulate atomic force microscopy images, we reproduce the experimental results. The role of the tip flexibility and the nature of bonds and false bond-like features are discussed.

  15. Computations to model three-center bonds in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (United States)

    Snyder, Lawrence C.; Moskowitz, Jules W.; Topiol, Sid


    Effective-potential ab initio self-consistent-field molecular-orbital computations of electronic wave functions and total energy have been made on the molecule H3SiH.SiH3, which was chosen to model the paramagnetic three-center bonded system T0 postulated by Fisch and Licciardello to exchange charge and produce the diamagnetic anion T- and cation T+ exothermically (in a process with negative U) with states in the gap of hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Structural computations described here predict a three-center bonded system for T+, which is symmetrical. For T0 and T- a much weaker three-center bond is found. It is more appropriate to describe T0 and T- as SiH4 weakly associated with SiH3 and SiH-3, respectively. We find that stability of the three-center bond of T+ provides a driving force of 33 kcal/mole for charge transfer, while the 1-kcal "hydrogen bond" of T- is unimportant in this regard. We are unable to estimate reliably the sign of U for charge transfer by T0 embedded in hydrogenated amorphous silicon because of the large uncertainty in our estimates of the Born cavity energy: Our results do not exclude the possibility that U is negative. We suggest that at low concentrations of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a more probable process is for a dangling bond of silicon proximate to a Si-H bond to form T+ with the transfer of its electron to an isolated dangling bond. We model this process with the reaction T0+SiH3=T++SiH3-.

  16. Bonding of the Inner Tracker Silicon Microstrip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, Filippo; Brianzi, Mirko; Cariola, P; Costa, Salvatore; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Fiore, Luigi; Galet, G; Giudice, Nunzio; Kaminski, A; Mammini, Paolo; Manolescu, Florentina; Pantano, Devis; Profeti, Alessandro; Raimondo, F S; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Scarlini, Enrico; Tempesta, Paolo; Tessaro, Mario


    Microbonding of the CMS Tracker Inner Barrel (TIB) and Tracker Inner Disks (TID) modules was shared among six different Italian Institutes. The organization devised and the infrastructure deployed to handle this task is illustrated. Microbonding specifications and procedures for the different types of TIB and TID modules are given. The tooling specially designed and developed for these types of modules is described. Experience of production is presented. Attained production rates are given. An analysis of the microbonding quality achieved is presented, based on bond strengths measured in sample bond pull tests as well as on rates of bonding failures. Italian Bonding Centers routinely performed well above minimum specifications and a very low global introduced failure rate, at the strip level, of only $\\sim$0.015 \\% is observed.

  17. Recent progress in the catalytic carbene insertion reactions into the silicon-hydrogen bond. (United States)

    Keipour, Hoda; Carreras, Virginie; Ollevier, Thierry


    The following review will explore the historical development of Si-H bond insertion reactions, giving an up-to-date account on the metal catalysts often employed, in addition to an assessment of their strengths and weaknesses. Diazo compounds have great synthetic potential as versatile reagents for the formation of metal carbenes, allowing the selective formation of C-C and C-heteroatom bonds and thus the introduction of functional groups into organic molecules. C-Si bond-forming methods, that introduce silicon motifs into organic molecules, rely on catalysts derived from metals such as rhodium, copper, iridium, silver, ruthenium, and iron to achieve the desired activities and selectivities.

  18. Theory of a three-dimensional nanoporous silicon lattice with unsaturated bonding (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Stojkovic, Dragan S.; Crespi, Vincent H.


    Several molecules are known to contain stable silicon double or triple bonds that are sterically protected by bulky side groups. Through first-principles computation, we demonstrate that well-defined π bonds can also be stabilized in a prototypical crystalline Si structure: Schwarzite Si-168, when modest negative pressures are applied to a nanoscale porous framework. The sp2-bonded Si-168 is thermodynamically preferred over diamond silicon at a negative pressure of -2.5 GPa. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of Si-168 at 1000 K reveal significant thermal stability. Si-168 is metallic at P =0 in density functional theory, but a gap (between π-like and π∗-like bands) opens around the Fermi level at the transition pressure of -2.5 GPa. Alternatively, a band gap buried below the Fermi level at P =0 can be accessed via hole doping in semiconducting Si144B24.

  19. Functionalization and bioimmobilization of silicon surfaces with Si–N bonded monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masood, Muhammad Nasir, E-mail: [Bios Lab on a Chip Group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Carlen, Edwin T.; Berg, Albert van den [Bios Lab on a Chip Group, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)


    Highlights: • Chemistry of Ethylene diamine (EDA) studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on hydrogen terminated Si (1 1 1) surface under UV-irradiation. • Fast, efficient and selective surface modification via symmetric functional molecule. • Do not involve protection and deprotection steps which deteoriate the monolayer integrity, time consuming and expensive. • Si–N bond remain intact on sub-oxidized silicon surface. • Free amine groups availability for bioimmobilization. • Selectivity and sensitivity was demonstrated by SEM, fluorscence and electrochemical (C–V) measurements. - Abstract: A new method for selective surface functionalization of silicon with a silicon–nitrogen bonded (Si–N) monolayer and subsequent bioimmobilization is presented. The Si–N monolayer was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence spectroscopy, and capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements using an electrolyte insulator semiconductor (EIS) sensor. A symmetric ethylene diamine (EDA, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) molecule was used as a precursor compound for monolayer formation in an inert environment in the liquid phase. XPS results show the attachment of EDA molecules proceeds via dissociative and dative bond formation whereas free amine groups on the surface were used for further immobilization of biomolecules. SEM shows selective functionalization and bioimmobilization on a patterned surface such as a silicon nanowire on silicon oxide substrate. Biosensing experiments with bioimmobilized surfaces were carried out in aqueous buffer and show high sensitivity for biosensing.

  20. Direct Electroplating on Highly Doped Patterned Silicon Wafers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas Llona, Laura Dolores; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Nickel thin films have been electrodeposited directly on highly doped silicon wafers after removal of the native oxide layer. These substrates conduct sufficiently well to allow deposition using a periferical electrical contact on the wafer. Films 2 μm thick were deposited using a nickel sulfamate

  1. An Experimental Investigation of Silicone-to-Metal Bond Strength in Composite Space Docking System Seals (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Larkin, Elizabeth M. G.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing a new universal docking mechanism for future space exploration missions called the Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). A candidate LIDS main interface seal design is a composite assembly of silicone elastomer seals vacuum molded into grooves in an electroless nickel plated aluminum retainer. The strength of the silicone-tometal bond is a critical consideration for the new system, especially due to the presence of small areas of disbond created during the molding process. In the work presented herein, seal-to-retainer bonds of subscale seal specimens with different sizes of intentional disbond were destructively tensile tested. Nominal specimens without intentional disbonds were also tested. Tension was applied either uniformly on the entire seal circumference or locally in one short circumferential length. Bond failure due to uniform tension produced a wide scatter of observable failure modes and measured load-displacement behaviors. Although the preferable failure mode for the seal-to-retainer bond is cohesive failure of the elastomer material, the dominant observed failure mode under the uniform loading condition was found to be the less desirable adhesive failure of the bond in question. The uniform tension case results did not show a correlation between disbond size and bond strength. Localized tension was found to produce failure either as immediate tearing of the elastomer material outside the bond region or as complete peel-out of the seal in one piece. The obtained results represent a valuable benchmark for comparison in the future between adhesion loads under various separation conditions and composite seal bond strength.

  2. Kinematic Alignment and Bonding of Silicon Mirrors for High-Resolution Astronomical X-Ray Optics (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Mazzarella, James R.; Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; Mcclelland, Ryan S.; Biskack, Michael P.; Riveros, Raul E.; Allgood, Kim D.; Kearney, John D.; Sharpe, Marton V.; hide


    Optics for the next generation's high-resolution, high throughput x-ray telescope requires fabrication of well-formed lightweight mirror segments and their integration at arc-second precision. Recent advances in the fabrication of silicon mirrors developed at NASA/Goddard prompted us to develop a new method of mirror alignment and integration. In this method, stiff silicon mirrors are aligned quasi-kinematically and are bonded in an interlocking fashion to produce a "meta-shell" with large collective area. We address issues of aligning and bonding mirrors with this method and show a recent result of 4 seconds-of-arc for a single pair of mirrors tested at soft x-rays.

  3. In situ metalation of free base phthalocyanine covalently bonded to silicon surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lupo


    Full Text Available Free 4-undecenoxyphthalocyanine molecules were covalently bonded to Si(100 and porous silicon through thermic hydrosilylation of the terminal double bonds of the undecenyl chains. The success of the anchoring strategy on both surfaces was demonstrated by the combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with control experiments performed adopting the commercially available 2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octakis(octyloxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine, which is not suited for silicon anchoring. Moreover, the study of the shape of the XPS N 1s band gave relevant information on the interactions occurring between the anchored molecules and the substrates. The spectra suggest that the phthalocyanine ring interacts significantly with the flat Si surface, whilst ring–surface interactions are less relevant on porous Si. The surface-bonded molecules were then metalated in situ with Co by using wet chemistry. The efficiency of the metalation process was evaluated by XPS measurements and, in particular, on porous silicon, the complexation of cobalt was confirmed by the disappearance in the FTIR spectra of the band at 3290 cm−1 due to –NH stretches. Finally, XPS results revealed that the different surface–phthalocyanine interactions observed for flat and porous substrates affect the efficiency of the in situ metalation process.

  4. Low-Temperature Bonding for Silicon-Based Micro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiheng Qin


    Full Text Available Silicon-based integrated systems are actively pursued for sensing and imaging applications. A major challenge to realize highly sensitive systems is the integration of electronic, optical, mechanical and fluidic, all on a common platform. Further, the interface quality between the tiny optoelectronic structures and the substrate for alignment and coupling of the signals significantly impacts the system’s performance. These systems also have to be low-cost, densely integrated and compatible with current and future mainstream technologies for electronic-photonic integration. To address these issues, proper selection of the fabrication, integration and assembly technologies is needed. In this paper, wafer level bonding with advanced features such as surface activation and passive alignment for vertical electrical interconnections are identified as candidate technologies to integrate different electronics, optical and photonic components. Surface activated bonding, superior to other assembly methods, enables low-temperature nanoscaled component integration with high alignment accuracy, low electrical loss and high transparency of the interface. These features are preferred for the hybrid integration of silicon-based micro-opto-electronic systems. In future, new materials and assembly technologies may emerge to enhance the performance of these micro systems and reduce their cost. The article is a detailed review of bonding techniques for electronic, optical and photonic components in silicon-based systems.

  5. Silicon Nitride for Direct Water-Splitting and Corrosion Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, J.; Turner, J.A.


    Todays fossil fuels are becoming harder to obtain, creating pollution problems, and posing hazards to people’s health. One alternative to fossil fuels is hydrogen, capable of serving as a clean and efficient energy carrier. Certain semiconductors are able to harness the energy of photons and direct it into water electrolysis in a process known as photoelectrochemical water splitting. Triple junction devices integrate three semiconductors of different band gaps resulting in a monolithic material that absorbs over a broader spectrum. Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one such material that, when stacked in tandem, possesses water-splitting capabilities. Even though a-Si is capable of splitting water, it is an unstable material in solution and therefore requires a coating to protect the surface from corrosion. A stable, transparent material that has the potential for corrosion protection is silicon nitride. In this study, silicon nitride thin films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with varying amounts of argon and nitrogen added to the system. X-ray diffraction indicated amorphous silicon nitride films. Current as a function of potential was determined from cyclic voltammetry measurements. Mott-Schottky analysis showed n-type behavior with absorption and transmission measurements indicated variation in flatband potentials. Variation in band gap values ranging from 1.90 to 4.0 eV. Corrosion measurements reveal that the silicon nitride samples exhibit both p-type and n-type behavior. Photocurrent over a range of potentials was greater in samples that were submerged in acidic electrolyte. Silicon nitride shows good stability in acidic, neutral, and basic solutions, indicative of a good material for corrosion mitigation.

  6. Atomic White-Out: Enabling Atomic Circuitry through Mechanically Induced Bonding of Single Hydrogen Atoms to a Silicon Surface. (United States)

    Huff, Taleana R; Labidi, Hatem; Rashidi, Mohammad; Koleini, Mohammad; Achal, Roshan; Salomons, Mark H; Wolkow, Robert A


    We report the mechanically induced formation of a silicon-hydrogen covalent bond and its application in engineering nanoelectronic devices. We show that using the tip of a noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM), a single hydrogen atom could be vertically manipulated. When applying a localized electronic excitation, a single hydrogen atom is desorbed from the hydrogen-passivated surface and can be transferred to the tip apex, as evidenced from a unique signature in frequency shift curves. In the absence of tunnel electrons and electric field in the scanning probe microscope junction at 0 V, the hydrogen atom at the tip apex is brought very close to a silicon dangling bond, inducing the mechanical formation of a silicon-hydrogen covalent bond and the passivation of the dangling bond. The functionalized tip was used to characterize silicon dangling bonds on the hydrogen-silicon surface, which was shown to enhance the scanning tunneling microscope contrast, and allowed NC-AFM imaging with atomic and chemical bond contrasts. Through examples, we show the importance of this atomic-scale mechanical manipulation technique in the engineering of the emerging technology of on-surface dangling bond based nanoelectronic devices.

  7. Direct deposition of gold on silicon with focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Irradiation with ions at very low energies (below 500 eV) no longer induces a removal of substrate material, but the ions are directly deposited on the surface. In this way, gold has been deposited on silicon with focused ion beam exposure and the properties of the film have been investigated with atomic force microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy. (author) 3 figs., 1 ref.

  8. A posttreatment evaluation of direct bonding in orthodontics. (United States)

    Zachrisson, B J


    A long-term evaluation was made of results achieved in direct bonding of metal attachments with a chemically polymerized composite material. A total of 705 attachments were bonded to different teeth, including premolars and molars, in forty-six children. Slim bracket bases, small quantities of adhesive paste, and trimming of the excess material were used to improve esthetics and to benefit in respect of gingival condition. The same person bonded all brackets and performed the orthodontic treatment by a friction-free edgewise light-wire technique. Mean treatment time was 17 months. The clinical appearance before, during, and after treatment is shown in Figs. 3 to 5. The failure rates for the whole treatment period were 4 to 10 per cent for central and lateral incisors, canines, and first premolars in both dental arches. The second premolars, which were often in various stages of eruption at the time of bonding, and the molars had higher failure rates (Table I). An evident individual variation was noted, as a few children had a high number of loose brackets. Clinical and scanning electron microscopic studies of tooth surfaces following removal of the brackets demonstrated normal surface appearance when plain-cut tungsten carbide burs rotated at low speed were used to remove remnants of adhesive that could not easily be scraped off. Precoating etched enamel with sealant, in combination with daily fluoride mouth rinses and good oral hygiene, virtually eliminated the caries problem, but regular inspection for interproximal cavities was needed. There were no signs of enamel damage or discoloration for periods of up to 12 months subsequent to bracket removal. Further details of the technical operative procedure, failure analysis, bracket type and design, gingival health, and other aspects of direct bonding were also discussed.

  9. Temperature-feedback direct laser reshaping of silicon nanostructures (United States)

    Aouassa, M.; Mitsai, E.; Syubaev, S.; Pavlov, D.; Zhizhchenko, A.; Jadli, I.; Hassayoun, L.; Zograf, G.; Makarov, S.; Kuchmizhak, A.


    Direct laser reshaping of nanostructures is a cost-effective and fast approach to create or tune various designs for nanophotonics. However, the narrow range of required laser parameters along with the lack of in-situ temperature control during the nanostructure reshaping process limits its reproducibility and performance. Here, we present an approach for direct laser nanostructure reshaping with simultaneous temperature control. We employ thermally sensitive Raman spectroscopy during local laser melting of silicon pillar arrays prepared by self-assembly microsphere lithography. Our approach allows establishing the reshaping threshold of an individual nanostructure, resulting in clean laser processing without overheating of the surrounding area.

  10. Hydrogen-bonding directed crystal engineering of some molecular solids (United States)

    Xue, Feng


    The design of crystalline clathrates and microporous solids is a contemporary goal in crystal engineering, in which hydrogen bonds play a central role because of their strength, directionality and flexibility. We have constructed various layer- and channel-type host structures by using hydrogen-bonding interactions. A novel hydrogen-bonded supramolecular rosette structure is generated from guanidinium and hydrogen carbonate ions in (1) and ( 2). The rosettes are fused into linear ribbons, which are cross-linked by terephthalate or 4-nitrobenzoate ions functioning as hydrogen-bond acceptors, resulting in anionic host layers with tetra-n-butylammonium guest species sandwiched between them. In (3) ˜ (6), new crystalline adducts of tetraalkylammonium terephthalate/trimesate with urea and water molecules result from hydrogen-bond directed assembly of complementary acceptors and donors that generate anionic channel- and layer-type host lattices for the accommodation of bulky hydrophobic cations. Some 4,4'-disubstituted biphenyls manifest their robustness and flexibility as supramolecular building blocks to construct host structures. 4,4'-biphenyl dicarboxylate ion has a strong tendency in generating ladder-type structure in (7) ˜ (10) due to its rigidity and effectiveness as a bifunctional hydrogen-bond acceptor. In (11) ˜ (15), 4,4 '-dicyanobiphenyl, 4,4'-bipyridine-N,N '-dioxide and 4,4'-dinitrobiphenyl exhibit a constructive interplay of strong and weak hydrogen bond functionalities that generate robust synthons. 4-Tritylbenzoic acid crystallizes via the carboxyl dimer supramolecular synthon to produce a wheel-and-axle host lattice that includes different aromatic solvents in its microporous framework in (16) ˜ (25 ), in which the host architecture is robust and yet adaptive. Based on the trigonal symmetry of 2,4,6-tris-4-(halo-phenoxy)-1,3,5-triazines (halo = chloro, bromo) and the Br3 or Cl3 supramolecular synthon, a new hexagonal host lattice has been designed

  11. Assessment of shear bond strength of brackets bonded by direct and indirect techniques: an in vitro study


    Shimizu,Roberto Hideo; Grando, Karlos Giovani; Shimizu, Isabela Almeida; Andriguetto, Augusto Ricardo; MELO, Ana Cláudia Moreira; Witters,Eduardo Leão


    OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets bonded by direct and indirect techniques. METHODS: Thirty healthy human maxillary premolar teeth were used. The teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each: Group I - indirect bonding with SondhiTM Rapid-Set system (3M/Unitek), Group II - indirect bonding with TransbondTM XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek) and Group III - direct bonding with TransbondTM XT adhesive system ...

  12. A bonding study toward the quality assurance of Belle-II silicon vertex detector modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, K.H.; Jeon, H.B. [RSRI, Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H., E-mail: [RSRI, Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Uozumi, S. [RSRI, Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); and others


    A silicon vertex detector (SVD) for the Belle-II experiment comprises four layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs), assembled in a ladder-like structure. Each ladder module of the outermost SVD layer has four rectangular and one trapezoidal DSSDs supported by two carbon-fiber ribs. In order to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio and minimize material budget, a novel chip-on-sensor “Origami” method has been employed for the three rectangular sensors that are sandwiched between the backward rectangular and forward (slanted) trapezoidal sensors. This paper describes the bonding procedures developed for making electrical connections between sensors and signal fan-out flex circuits (i.e., pitch adapters), and between pitch adapters and readout chips as well as the results in terms of the achieved bonding quality and pull force. - Highlights: • Gluing and wire binding for Belle-II SVD are studied. • Gluing robot and Origami module are used. • QA are satisfied in terms of the achieved bonding throughput and the pull force. • Result will be applied for L6 ladder assembly.

  13. Processing development for ceramic structural components: the influence of a presintering of silicon on the final properties of reaction bonded silicon nitride. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The influence of a presintering of silicon on the final properties of reaction bonded silicon nitride has been studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, 4 pt. bend test, and mecury intrusion porosimetry. It has been shown that presintering at 1050/sup 0/C will not affect the final nitrided properties. At 1200/sup 0/C, the oxide layer is removed, promoting the formation of B-phase silicon nitride. Presintering at 1200/sup 0/C also results in compact weight loss due to the volatilization of silicon, and the formation of large pores which severely reduce nitrided strength. The development of the structure of sintered silicon compacts appears to involve a temperature gradient, with greater sintering observed near the surface.

  14. Integrating III-V compound semiconductors with silicon using wafer bonding (United States)

    Zhou, Yucai


    From Main Street to Wall Street, everyone has felt the effects caused by the Internet revolution. The Internet has created a new economy in the New Information Age and has brought significant changes in both business and personal life. This revolution has placed strong demands for higher bandwidth and higher computing speed due to high data traffic on today's information highway. In order to alleviate this problem, growing interconnection bottlenecks in digital designs have to be solved. The most feasible and practical way is to replace the conventional electrical interconnect with an optical interconnect. Since silicon does not have the optical properties necessary to accommodate these optical interconnect requirements, III-V based devices, most of which are GaAs-based or InP-based, must be intimately interconnected with the Si circuit at chip level. This monolithic integration technology enables the development of both intrachip and interchip optical connectors to take advantage of the enormous bandwidth provided by both high-performance very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits and allied fiber and free-space optical technologies. However, lattice mismatch and thermal expansion mismatches between III-V materials and Si create enormous challenges for developing a feasible technology to tackle this problem. Among all the available approaches today, wafer bonding distinguishes itself as the most promising technology for integration due to its ability to overcome the constraints of both lattice constant mismatch and thermal expansion coefficient differences and even strain due to the crystal orientation. We present our development of wafer bonding technology for integrating III-V with Si in my dissertation. First, the pick-and-place multiple-wafer bonding technology was introduced. Then we systematically studied the wafer bonding of GaAs and InP with Si. Both high temperature wafer fusion and low/room temperature (LT/RT) wafer bonding have been investigated for

  15. A porous silicon Bragg grating waveguide by direct laser writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, Ilaria; Iodice, Mario; Coppola, Giuseppe; Rendina, Ivo; De Stefano, Luca [National Council of Research, Institute for Microelectronic and Microsystems, Department of Naples, Via P Castellino 111, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Marino, Antigone [Department of Physics, ' Federico II' University of Naples, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)], E-mail:


    We have designed, fabricated and characterized a porous silicon-based Bragg grating integrated in an optical waveguide, by using a low cost and fast technique, direct laser writing. A periodic optical structure with a pitch of 10 {mu}m, resonant in the near-infrared wavelength region, has been obtained. The simulated transmission spectra, calculated by the transfer matrix method and waveguide modal computation, are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental ones. The waveguide transmission losses have been quantified as 22 dB cm{sup -1}.

  16. Direct observation of intermolecular interactions mediated by hydrogen bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, Luigi; Reppert, Mike [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Chemistry, James Frank Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 E 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Thämer, Martin; Tokmakoff, Andrei, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, James Frank Institute and The Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 E 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)


    Although intermolecular interactions are ubiquitous in physicochemical phenomena, their dynamics have proven difficult to observe directly, and most experiments rely on indirect measurements. Using broadband two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR), we have measured the influence of hydrogen bonding on the intermolecular vibrational coupling between dimerized N-methylacetamide molecules. In addition to strong intramolecular coupling between N–H and C=O oscillators, cross-peaks in the broadband 2DIR spectrum appearing upon dimerization reveal strong intermolecular coupling that changes the character of the vibrations. In addition, dimerization changes the effects of intramolecular coupling, resulting in Fermi resonances between high and low-frequency modes. These results illustrate how hydrogen bonding influences the interplay of inter- and intramolecular vibrations, giving rise to correlated nuclear motions and significant changes in the vibrational structure of the amide group. These observations have direct impact on modeling and interpreting the IR spectra of proteins. In addition, they illustrate a general approach to direct molecular characterization of intermolecular interactions.

  17. Spatial control of direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on silicon dioxide by directional copper dewetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    In this paper we present a method for the spatial control of direct graphene synthesis onto silicon dioxide by controlled dewetting. The dewetting process is controlled through a combination of using a grooved substrate and conducting copper deposition at an angle. The substrate is then treated

  18. Contact effects and quantum interference in engineered dangling bond loops on silicon surfaces. (United States)

    Kleshchonok, Andrii; Gutierrez, Rafael; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio


    Dangling bond structures created on H-passivated silicon surfaces offer a novel platform for engineering planar nanoscale circuits, compatible with conventional semiconductor technologies. In this investigation we focus on the electronic structure and quantum transport signatures of dangling bond loops built on H-passivated Si(100) surfaces contacted by carbon nanoribbons, thus leading to a two-terminal planar, nanoscale setup. The computational studies were carried out to rationalize the influence of the local atomic-scale contacts of the dangling bond system to the mesoscopic electrodes as well as the possibility of revealing quantum interference effects in the dangling bond loops. Our results reveal a strong sensitivity of the low-energy quantum transmission to the loop topology and to the atomistic details of the electrode-loop contact. Varying the length of the loop or the spatial position of at least one of the electrodes has a drastic impact on the quantum interference pattern; depending on whether constructive or destructive interference within the loop takes place, the conductance of the system can be tuned over several orders of magnitude, thus suggesting the possibility of exploiting such quantum mechanical effects in the design of two-dimensional, atomic-scale electronic devices such as logic gates.

  19. Pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals: effects on optoelectronics and thermoelectrics. (United States)

    Singh, Vivek; Yu, Yixuan; Sun, Qi-C; Korgel, Brian; Nagpal, Prashant


    While silicon nanostructures are extensively used in electronics, the indirect bandgap of silicon poses challenges for optoelectronic applications like photovoltaics and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here, we show that size-dependent pseudo-direct bandgap transitions in silicon nanocrystals dominate the interactions between (photoexcited) charge carriers and phonons, and hence the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals. Direct measurements of the electronic density of states (DOS) for different sized silicon nanocrystals reveal that these pseudo-direct transitions, likely arising from the nanocrystal surface, can couple with the quantum-confined silicon states. Moreover, we demonstrate that since these transitions determine the interactions of charge carriers with phonons, they change the light emission, absorption, charge carrier diffusion and phonon drag (Seebeck coefficient) in nanoscaled silicon semiconductors. Therefore, these results can have important implications for the design of optoelectronics and thermoelectric devices based on nanostructured silicon.

  20. Electrical transport in transverse direction through silicon carbon alloy multilayers containing regular size silicon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Aparajita [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Kole, Arindam, E-mail: [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Dasgupta, Arup [Microscopy and Thermophysical Property Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chaudhuri, Partha [Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)


    Highlights: • Low temperature columnar growth of regular sized Si-quantum dots (Si-QDs) within a-SiC:H/μc-SiC:H multilayer structure by tuning the a-SiC:H layer thickness. • Thickness optimization of the a-SiC:H layers resulted in a sharp increase of the transverse current and a decrease of the trap concentrations. • The arrangements of the Si-QDs favor percolation paths for the transverse current. - Abstract: Electrical transport in the transverse direction has been studied through a series of hydrogenated silicon carbon alloy multilayers (SiC-MLs) deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. Each SiC-ML consists of 30 cycles of the alternating layers of a nearly amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC:H) and a microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H) that contains high density of silicon quantum dots (Si-QDs). A detailed investigation by cross sectional TEM reveals preferential growth of densely packed Si-QDs of regular sizes ∼4.8 nm in diameter in a vertically aligned columnar structure within the SiC-ML. More than six orders of magnitude increase in transverse current through the SiC-ML structure were observed for decrease in the a-SiC:H layer thickness from 13 nm to 2 nm. The electrical transport mechanism was established to be a combination of grain boundary or band tail hopping and Frenkel–Poole (F-P) type conduction depending on the temperature and externally applied voltage ranges. Evaluation of trap concentration within the multilayer structures from the fitted room temperature current voltage characteristics by F-P function shows reduction up-to two orders of magnitude indicating an improvement in the short range order in the a-SiC:H matrix for decrease in the thickness of a-SiC:H layer.

  1. 1366 Direct Wafer: Demolishing the Cost Barrier for Silicon Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Adam [1366 Technologies


    The goal of 1366 Direct Wafer™ is to drastically reduce the cost of silicon-based PV by eliminating the cost barrier imposed by sawn wafers. The key characteristics of Direct Wafer are 1) kerf-free, 156-mm standard silicon wafers 2) high throughput for very low CAPEX and rapid scale up. Together, these characteristics will allow Direct Wafer™ to become the new standard for silicon PV wafers and will enable terawatt-scale PV – a prospect that may not be possible with sawn wafers. Our single, high-throughput step will replace the expensive and rate-limiting process steps of ingot casting and sawing, thereby enabling drastically lower wafer cost. This High-Impact PV Supply Chain project addressed the challenges of scaling Direct Wafer technology for cost-effective, high-throughput production of commercially viable 156 mm wafers. The Direct Wafer process is inherently simple and offers the potential for very low production cost, but to realize this, it is necessary to demonstrate production of wafers at high-throughput that meet customer specifications. At the start of the program, 1366 had demonstrated (with ARPA-E funding) increases in solar cell efficiency from 10% to 15.9% on small area (20cm2), scaling wafer size up to the industry standard 156mm, and demonstrated initial cell efficiency on larger wafers of 13.5%. During this program, the throughput of the Direct Wafer furnace was increased by more than 10X, simultaneous with quality improvements to meet early customer specifications. Dedicated equipment for laser trimming of wafers and measurement methods were developed to feedback key quality metrics to improve the process and equipment. Subsequent operations served both to determine key operating metrics affecting cost, as well as generating sample product that was used for developing downstream processing including texture and interaction with standard cell processing. Dramatic price drops for silicon wafers raised the bar significantly, but the

  2. Demonstration and challenges for joining technology based on direct bonding usable for construction of (large) structures in space (United States)

    Fischer, Hartmut R.; Gelinck, Edwin; Semprimoschnig, Christopher; van Munster, Marc; van der Heijden, John


    A direct bonding process relying on van der Waals forces offers an ideal combination of easiness to assemble and material compatibility. Such a bonding procedure, also denoted as optical bonding, is already known and used frequently in different applications. However, there are strict requirements to achieve optical bonding: (1) a high level of cleanliness of the surfaces and (2) low roughness (RMS roughness <2 nm and preferably <0.5 nm). The first condition will be possible to realize in space, since the vacuum prevents the absorption of a thin water layer present on all surfaces under atmospheric conditions and forces a desorption of all residual water. Also, particle contamination will be minimized, due to the absence of strong capillary forces which attract particles if present and the absence of particles in space, providing a suitable and without residue removable protection prior to bonding. The second condition is now state of the art of silicon carbide (SiC) polishing and can hence be realized. While meeting the requirements, theoretically very large adhesion forces can be realized in vacuum. Surfaces have been polished according to the requirements. The forces measured on these surfaces are nearly as high as theoretically predicted and demonstrate the proof of principle of direct bonding of SiC under ambient conditions and in vacuum. However, the realization of the required flatness over large contact areas is still a challenge. Furthermore, since the surfaces display a really low roughness, extremely clean handling and bonding conditions need to be realized to avoid the spontaneous adhesion of small particles which would as such prevent direct bonding of larger areas.

  3. Effect of Curing Direction on Microtensile Bond Strength of Fifth and Sixth Generation Dental Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nadaf


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Composite restorative materials and dental adhesives are usually cured with light sources. The light direction may influence the bond strength of dental adhesives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light direction on the microtensile bond strength of fifth and sixth generation dental adhesives.Materials and Methods: Prime & Bond NT and Clearfil SE bond were used with different light directions.Sixty human incisor teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=15. In groups A and C, Clearfil SE bond with light curing direction from buccal was used for bonding a composite resin to dentin. In groups B and D, Prime & Bond NT with light curing direction from composite was used. After thermocycling the specimens were subjected to tensile force until debonding occurred and values for microtensile bond strength were recorded. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test.Results: The findings showed that the bond strength of Clearfil SE bond was significantly higher than that of Prime&Bond NT (P<0.001. There was no significant difference between light curing directions (P=0.132.Conclusion: Light curing direction did not have significant effect on the bond strength. Sixth generation adhesives was more successful than fifth generation in terms of bond strength to dentin.

  4. Immobilization of functional oxide nanoparticles on silicon surfaces via Si-C bonded polymer brushes. (United States)

    Xu, F J; Wuang, S C; Zong, B Y; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G


    A method for immobilizing and mediating the spatial distribution of functional oxide (such as SiO2 and Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) on (100)-oriented single crystal silicon surface, via Si-C bonded poly(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) (P(TMSPM)) brushes from surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) (TMSPM), was described. The ATRP initiator was covalently immobilized via UV-induced hydrosilylation of 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) with the hydrogen-terminated Si(100) surface (Si-H surface). The surface-immobilized Fe3O4 NPs retained their superparamagnetic characteristics and their magnetization intensity could be mediated by adjusting the thickness of the P(TMSPM) brushes.

  5. New applications of r.f.-sputtered glass films as protection and bonding layers in silicon micromachining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenschot, Johan W.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Different r.f-sputtered borosilicate glass films are characterized. Layers sputtered in 100% Ar and annealed in N2 at 550 °C for 3.5 h are found to be best applicable as protection layers in anisotropic etching of Si in KOH solutions and as bonding layers in silicon micromachining. For in situ

  6. Surface modification of silicon nanowire field-effect devices with Si-C and Si-N bonded Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.


    The research work was mainly focused on the surface modification/surface functionalization of active-gate areas of silicon nanowire field-effect transistor devices (Si-NW FET) using hydrogen terminated surfaces, Si-C and Si-N bonded monolayers and subsequent bioimmobilization for biosensor

  7. Evaluation of an alternative technique to optimize direct bonding of orthodontic brackets to temporary crowns


    Francilena Maria Campos Santos Dias; Célia Regina Maio Pinzan-Vercelino; Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavares; Júlio de Araújo Gurgel; Fausto Silva Bramante; Melissa Nogueira Proença Fialho


    OBJECTIVE: To compare shear bond strength of different direct bonding techniques of orthodontic brackets to acrylic resin surfaces.METHODS: The sample comprised 64 discs of chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) randomly divided into four groups: discs in group 1 were bonded by means of light-cured composite resin (conventional adhesive); discs in group 2 had surfaces roughened with a diamond bur followed by conventional direct bonding by means of light-cured composite resin; discs in grou...

  8. A search for thermal isomerization of olefins to carbenes: Thermal generations of the silicon-nitrogen double bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xianping.


    The first part of this thesis will search for the thermal isomerization of olefins to carbenes which is predicted to be a high energy process by calculations and has only been observed in a few strained olefins. The possibility of thermal isomerization of simple olefins to carbenes will be explored. Substitution of a silyl group on the double bond of an olefin allows a potential intermediate which has a {beta}-radical to the silyl group during the cis-trans isomerization. The effects of a trimethylsilyl group on this isomerization are the subject of this study. The second part of this thesis will include the generation and chemistry of intermediates containing a silicon-nitrogen double bond. The isomerization of parent silanimine to the aminosilylene was calculated to be a high energy process. New approaches to the silicon-nitrogen double bond will also be presented. 92 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Direct bonding in diastema closure--high drama, immediate resolution. (United States)

    Blitz, N


    Aesthetic rehabilitation in complex diastema closure cases is guided by the principles of proportion. The width to length ratio of the centrals must be pleasing. Achievement of this proper balance dictates treatment. It determines the following: 1) the amount of distal proximal reduction; 2) the decision to completely veneer the incisors vs. just adding to the interproximal; 3) the number of teeth to be treated; 4) the placement and location of naturally occurring prominences and concavities to create the illusion of a narrower tooth. The proper accommodation of these four topics will permit the maintenance or restoration of acceptable dimensions in the centrals. If they are made to appear harmonious then the principle of "golden proportion" (1.6:1:0.6) can be achieved among the centrals, laterals and cuspids. Direct bonding in diastema closure cases allow the dentist and the patient complete control in the formation of that smile. This treatment modality is challenging and ultimately rewarding for the patient and the dentist. At times it enables us to restore form and function and to make our patients whole again not just figuratively but literally.

  10. Surface-Mediated Hydrogen Bonding of Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids on Silicon. (United States)

    Rahsepar, Fatemeh R; Moghimi, Nafiseh; Leung, K T


    Understanding the adsorption, film growth mechanisms, and hydrogen bonding interactions of biological molecules on semiconductor surfaces has attracted much recent attention because of their applications in biosensors, biocompatible materials, and biomolecule-based electronic devices. One of the most challenging questions when studying the behavior of biomolecules on a metal or semiconductor surface is "What are the driving forces and film growth mechanisms for biomolecular adsorption on these surfaces?" Despite a large volume of work on self-assembly of amino acids on single-crystal metal surfaces, semiconductor surfaces offer more direct surface-mediated interactions and processes with biomolecules. This is due to their directional surface dangling bonds that could significantly perturb hydrogen bonding arrangements. For all the proteinogenic biomolecules studied to date, our group has observed that they generally follow a "universal" three-stage growth process on Si(111)7×7 surface. This is supported by corroborating data obtained from a three-pronged approach of combining chemical-state information provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the site-specific local density-of-state images obtained by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with large-scale quantum mechanical modeling based on the density functional theory with van der Waals corrections (DFT-D2). Indeed, this three-stage growth process on the 7×7 surface has been observed for small benchmark biomolecules, including glycine (the simplest nonchiral amino acid), alanine (the simplest chiral amino acid), cysteine (the smallest amino acid with a thiol group), and glycylglycine (the smallest (di)peptide of glycine). Its universality is further validated here for the other sulfur-containing proteinogenic amino acid, methionine. We use methionine as an example of prototypical proteinogenic amino acids to illustrate this surface-mediated process. This type of growth begins with the formation of

  11. Manufacture of Φ1.2m reaction bonded silicon carbide mirror blank CFID (United States)

    Zhang, Ge; Zhao, Rucheng; Zhao, Wenxing; Bao, Jianxun


    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a new type candidate material for large-scale lightweight space mirror. Its low thermal distortion, high stiffness, fine optical quality and dimensional stability, make SiC an ideal material for large space born telescope. Since ten years Changchun institute optics, fine mechanics and physics (CIOMP) has developed reaction bonded SiC (RB-SiC) technology for space application, and can fabricate RB-SiC mirror with scale less than 1.0 meter for telescope. The green body is prepared with gel-casting method which is an attractive new ceramic forming process for making high-quality, complex-shaped ceramic parts. And then unmolding, drying, binder burning out, reacting bonded, the RB-SiC can be obtained. But with the development of space-born or ground telescope, the scale of primary mirror has exceeded 1.0 meter. So CIOMP has developed an assembly technique which called novel reaction-formed joint technology for larger RB-SiC mirror blank. The steps include joining of green bodies with mixture comprised of SiC particles and phenolic resin etc, firing, machining and sintering. Joining the Φ1.2 meter RB-SiC mirror blank by the novel reaction-formed joint technology. And testing the welding layer's performance, the results show that the thickness of 54-77μm, the microstructure and thermal property can be comparable to the substrate and the mechanical property are excellent in bending strength of 307MPa.

  12. Nano-Bonding of Silicon Oxides-based surfaces at Low Temperature: Bonding Interphase Modeling via Molecular Dynamics and Characterization of Bonding Surfaces Topography, Hydro-affinity and Free Energy (United States)

    Whaley, Shawn D.

    In this work, a new method, "Nanobonding(TM)" [1,2] is conceived and researched to bond Si-based surfaces, via nucleation and growth of a 2 D silicon oxide SiOxHx interphase connecting the surfaces at the nanoscale across macroscopic domains. Nanobonding cross-bridges two smooth surfaces put into mechanical contact in an O2/H 2O mixed ambient below T ≤200 °C via arrays of SiOxH x molecules connecting into a continuous macroscopic bonding interphase. Nano-scale surface planarization via wet chemical processing and new spin technology are compared via Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy (TMAFM) , before and after nano-bonding. Nanobonding uses precursor phases, 2D nano-films of beta-cristobalite (beta-c) SiO2, nucleated on Si(100) via the Herbots-Atluri (H-A) method [1]. beta-c SiO2 on Si(100) is ordered and flat with atomic terraces over 20 nm wide, well above 2 nm found in native oxides. When contacted with SiO2 this ultra-smooth nanophase can nucleate and grow domains with cross-bridging molecular strands of hydroxylated SiOx, instead of point contacts. The high density of molecular bonds across extended terraces forms a strong bond between Si-based substrates, nano- bonding [2] the Si and silica. A new model of beta-cristobalite SiO2 with its axis aligned along Si[100] direction is simulated via ab-initio methods in a nano-bonded stack with beta-c SiO2 in contact with amorphous SiO2 (a-SiO2), modelling cross-bridging molecular bonds between beta-c SiO2 on Si(100) and a-SiO2 as during nanobonding. Computed total energies are compared with those found for Si(100) and a-SiO2 and show that the presence of two lattice cells of !-c SiO2 on Si(100) and a-SiO2 lowers energy when compared to Si(100)/ a-SiO 2 Shadow cone calculations on three models of beta-c SiO2 on Si(100) are compared with Ion Beam Analysis of H-A processed Si(100). Total surface energy measurements via 3 liquid contact angle analysis of Si(100) after H-A method processing are also compared. By

  13. Direct chemical vapour deposited grapheme synthesis on silicon oxide by controlled copper dewettting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.


    In this paper we present a novel method for direct uniform graphene synthesis onto silicon oxide in a controlled manner. On a grooved silicon oxide wafer is copper deposited under a slight angle and subsequently the substrate is treated by a typical graphene synthesis process. During this process

  14. First-Principle Investigation on the Bonding Mechanism of the Silicon Particles on the Copper Foil in Cold Spraying (United States)

    Song, Jun; Liu, Juanfang; Chen, Qinghua

    For lithium-ion batteries, the composite silicon-based electrodes can prevent from losing electrical contact and hence retain the capacity over many cycles. To uncover the adhesion mechanism on the interface formed by the copper foil and the thin silicon coatings during the cold gas dynamic spraying (CGDS) at the microscopic level, the first-principle calculations are performed to investigate the interface properties between them. The ideal work of adhesion, fracture toughness and the interface electronic properties are analyzed. It is found that all the atoms on the interface have vertical displacements, and covalent and ionic bonds are formed between the interfacial Cu and Si atoms which increases the bonding strength. However, the ideal work of adhesion on the interface is lower than one of the Cu bulk and Si bulk, so that fracture would be easier to take place on the interface.

  15. Evaluation of an alternative technique to optimize direct bonding of orthodontic brackets to temporary crowns. (United States)

    Dias, Francilena Maria Campos Santos; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia Regina Maio; Tavares, Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus; Gurgel, Júlio de Araújo; Bramante, Fausto Silva; Fialho, Melissa Nogueira Proença


    To compare shear bond strength of different direct bonding techniques of orthodontic brackets to acrylic resin surfaces. The sample comprised 64 discs of chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR) randomly divided into four groups: discs in group 1 were bonded by means of light-cured composite resin (conventional adhesive); discs in group 2 had surfaces roughened with a diamond bur followed by conventional direct bonding by means of light-cured composite resin; discs in group 3 were bonded by means of CAAR (alternative adhesive); and discs in group 4 had surfaces roughened with a diamond bur followed by direct bonding by means of CAAR. Shear bond strength values were determined after 24 hours by means of a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min, and compared by analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Tukey test. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was measured and compared among groups by means of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Groups 3 and 4 had significantly greater shear bond strength values in comparison to groups 1 and 2. Groups 3 and 4 yielded similar results. Group 2 showed better results when compared to group 1. In ARI analyses, groups 1 and 2 predominantly exhibited a score equal to 0, whereas groups 3 and 4 predominantly exhibited a score equal to 3. Direct bonding of brackets to acrylic resin surfaces using CAAR yielded better results than light-cured composite resin. Surface preparation with diamond bur only increased shear bond strength in group 2.

  16. From Molecules to Surfaces: Radical-Based Mechanisms of Si-S and Si-Se Bond Formation on Silicon. (United States)

    Buriak, Jillian M; Sikder, Md Delwar H


    The derivatization of silicon surfaces can have profound effects on the underlying electronic properties of the semiconductor. In this work, we investigate the radical surface chemistry of silicon with a range of organochalcogenide reagents (comprising S and Se) on a hydride-terminated silicon surface, to cleanly and efficiently produce surface Si-S and Si-Se bonds, at ambient temperature. Using a diazonium-based radical initiator, which induces formation of surface silicon radicals, a group of organochalcogenides were screened for reactivity at room temperature, including di-n-butyl disulfide, diphenyl disulfide, diphenyl diselenide, di-n-butyl sulfide, diphenyl selenide, diphenyl sulfide, 1-octadecanethiol, t-butyl disulfide, and t-butylthiol, which comprises the disulfide, diselenide, thiol, and thioether functionalities. The surface reactions were monitored by transmission mode Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry. Calculation of Si-Hx consumption, a semiquantitative measure of yield of production of surface-bound Si-E bonds (E = S, Se), was carried out via FTIR spectroscopy. Control experiments, sans the BBD diazonium radical initiator, were all negative for any evident incorporation, as determined by FTIR spectroscopy. The functional groups that did react with surface silicon radicals included the dialkyl/diphenyl disulfides, diphenyl diselenide, and 1-octadecanethiol, but not t-butylthiol, diphenyl sulfide/selenide, and di-n-butyl sulfide. Through a comparison with the rich body of literature regarding molecular radicals, and in particular, silyl radicals, reaction mechanisms were proposed for each. Armed with an understanding of the reaction mechanisms, much of the known chemistry within the extensive body of radical-based reactivity has the potential to be harnessed on silicon and could be extended to a range of technologically relevant semiconductor

  17. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of silicone-based denture liners after thermocycling and surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsimran Kaur


    Full Text Available Purpose: To examine, evaluate, and compare the tensile bond strength of two silicone-based liners; one autopolymerizing and one heat cured, when treated with different chemical etchants to improve their adhesion with denture base resin. Materials and Methods: Hundred and sixty test specimens of heat-cured polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA were fabricated; out of which 80 specimens were tested for tensile bond strength after bonding it to autopolymerizing resilient liner (Ufigel P and rest 80 to heat-cured resilient liner (Molloplast B. Each main group was further divided into four subgroups of 20 specimens each, one to act as a control and three were subjected to surface treatment with different chemical etchants namely dichloromethane, MMA monomer, and chloroform. The two silicone-based denture liners were processed between 2 PMMA specimens (10 mm × 10 mm × 40 mm in the space provided by a spacer of 3 mm, thermocycled (5-55°C for 500 cycles, and then their tensile strength measurements were done in the universal testing machine. Results: One-way ANOVA technique showed a highly significant difference in the mean tensile bond strength values for all the groups. The Student′s t-test computed values of statistics for the compared groups were greater than the critical values both at 5% and at 1% levels. Conclusion: Surface treatment of denture base resin with chemical etchants prior to the application of silicone-based liner (Ufigel P and Molloplast-B increased the tensile bond strength. The increase was the highest with specimens subjected to 180 s of MMA surface treatment and the lowest with control group specimens.

  18. A Direct Proof of the Resonance-Impaired Hydrogen Bond (RIHB) Concept. (United States)

    Lin, Xuhui; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong


    The concept of resonance-enhanced hydrogen bond (RAHB) has been widely accepted and applied as it highlights the positive impact of π-conjugation on intramolecular H-bonds. However, electron delocalization is directional and there is a possibility that π-resonance goes from the H-bond acceptor to the H-bond donor, leading to a negative impact on H-bonds. Here we used the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method which is a variant of ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and able to derive strictly electron-localized structures self-consistently, to quantify the interplay between H-bond and π-resonance in the terms of geometry, energetics and spectral properties. The comparison of geometrical optimizations with and without π-resonance shows that conjugation can indeed either enhance or weaken intramolecular H-bonds. We further experimented with various substituents attached to either the H-bond acceptor and/or H-bond donor side(s) to tune the H-bonding strength in both directions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Direct growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes on silicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis from Glycine max oil on silicon substrate using ferrocene as catalyst at 650 °C. Glycine max oil, a plant-based hydrocarbon precursor was used as a source of carbon and argon as a carrier gas. The as-grown vertically aligned carbon nanotubes ...

  20. Solar Grade Silicon by a Direct Metallurgical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovrelid, E.; Waernes, A.; Raaness, O.; Solheim, I.; Jensen, R.; Tang, K. [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Geerligs, L.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Santeen, S. [Scanarc Plasma Technologies, Hofors (Sweden); Wiersma, B. [Sunergy Investco, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    The paper gives a background on solar grade silicon and presents the SOLSILC concept. A theoretical description of the design criteria for engineering of the refining reactors is given. C, Ti and Al are used in the calculations because they are important with respect to cell efficiency and yield.

  1. Development of optical guiding forceps for a direct bonding system using lightcured resin adhesives. (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Terada, Kazuto


    Multi-bracket systems are popular orthodontic appliances and are commonly bonded directly to enamel surfaces by resin adhesives. In light-cured bonding, the tip of the curing unit must be kept at a distance from the adhesive on the tooth, which can lead to low polymerization and insufficient bond strength. The curing lights also generate low-frequency electromagnetic fields, which can be harmful to patient health. Furthermore, bacterial contamination of the light-curing tips during use presents an infection risk for patients. In this study, we describe the development of optical guiding forceps (OGFs) for polymerizing light-cured resin as a solution to these problems. With OGFs, polymerization of adhesives was deeper than with lower magnetic fields and the bonds had the same shear strength as those formed by conventional procedures. These results suggest that OGFs may have practical use in the direct bonding of orthodontic appliances as well as in provisional bonding.

  2. Rhodium-Catalyzed C-C Bond Formation via Heteroatom-Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Denise; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    Once considered the 'holy grail' of organometallic chemistry, synthetically useful reactions employing C-H bond activation have increasingly been developed and applied to natural product and drug synthesis over the past decade. The ubiquity and relative low cost of hydrocarbons makes C-H bond functionalization an attractive alternative to classical C-C bond forming reactions such as cross-coupling, which require organohalides and organometallic reagents. In addition to providing an atom economical alternative to standard cross - coupling strategies, C-H bond functionalization also reduces the production of toxic by-products, thereby contributing to the growing field of reactions with decreased environmental impact. In the area of C-C bond forming reactions that proceed via a C-H activation mechanism, rhodium catalysts stand out for their functional group tolerance and wide range of synthetic utility. Over the course of the last decade, many Rh-catalyzed methods for heteroatom-directed C-H bond functionalization have been reported and will be the focus of this review. Material appearing in the literature prior to 2001 has been reviewed previously and will only be introduced as background when necessary. The synthesis of complex molecules from relatively simple precursors has long been a goal for many organic chemists. The ability to selectively functionalize a molecule with minimal pre-activation can streamline syntheses and expand the opportunities to explore the utility of complex molecules in areas ranging from the pharmaceutical industry to materials science. Indeed, the issue of selectivity is paramount in the development of all C-H bond functionalization methods. Several groups have developed elegant approaches towards achieving selectivity in molecules that possess many sterically and electronically similar C-H bonds. Many of these approaches are discussed in detail in the accompanying articles in this special issue of Chemical Reviews. One approach

  3. Laser direct writing of oxide structures on hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müllenborn, Matthias; Birkelund, Karen; Grey, Francois


    on amorphous and crystalline silicon surfaces in order to determine the depassivation mechanism. The minimum linewidth achieved is about 450 nm using writing speeds of up to 100 mm/s. The process is fully compatible with local oxidation of silicon by scanning probe lithography. Wafer-scale patterns can......A focused laser beam has been used to induce oxidation of hydrogen-passivated silicon. The scanning laser beam removes the hydrogen passivation locally from the silicon surface, which immediately oxidizes in air. The process has been studied as a function of power density and excitation wavelength...... be generated by laser direct oxidation and complemented with nanometer resolution by scanning probe techniques. The combined micro- and nanoscale pattern can be transferred to the silicon in a single etching step by either wet or dry etching techniques. (C) 1996 American Institute of Physics....

  4. Spontaneous emission control of silicon nanocrystals by silicon three-dimensional photonic crystal structure fabricated by self-aligned two-directional electrochemical etching method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, Daihei, E-mail: [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); SORST-JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Urakawa, Kei [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Yoshishige [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); SORST-JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Mizuta, Hiroshi [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); SORST-JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Koshida, Nobuyoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); SORST-JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Oda, Shunri [Quantum Nanoelectronics Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); SORST-JST (Japan Science and Technology Agency), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)


    A silicon three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) structure has been fabricated using a self-aligned, two-directional electrochemical etching method. The spectral component of the photoluminescence (PL) for silicon nanocrystals deposited on the 3DPC structures increase at 750 nm and slightly decrease at 800 nm. Time-resolved PL measurements reveal that the radiative recombination lifetime of the silicon nanocrystals on 3DPC structures decreases at 750 nm and increases at 800 nm compared to those on a silicon substrate without 3DPC structures. We conclude that the spontaneous emission control of silicon nanocrystals has been observed using the 3DPC structures.

  5. Fused silica GRISMs manufactured by hydrophilic direct bonding at moderate heating (United States)

    Kalkowski, G.; Grabowski, K.; Harnisch, G.; Flügel-Paul, T.; Zeitner, U.; Risse, S.


    For high-resolution spectroscopy in space, GRISM elements—obtained by patterning gratings onto a prism surface—find increasing applications. We report on GRISM manufacturing by joining the individual functional elements—prisms and gratings—to suitable components by the technology of hydrophilic direct bonding. Fused silica was used as a substrate material and binary gratings were fabricated by standard e-beam lithography and dry etching. Alignment of the grating dispersion direction to the prism angle was realized by passive adjustment on dedicated bonding gear matched to the substrate geometry. Materials adapted bonds of high transmission, stiffness, and strength were obtained after heat treatment at temperatures of about 200 °C in vacuum. Examples for bonding uncoated as well as coated grating surfaces are given. The results illustrate the great potential of hydrophilic glass direct bonding for manufacturing transmission optics to be used in space or other heavy duty applications.

  6. Fused silica GRISMs manufactured by hydrophilic direct bonding at moderate heating (United States)

    Kalkowski, G.; Grabowski, K.; Harnisch, G.; Flügel-Paul, T.; Zeitner, U.; Risse, S.


    For high-resolution spectroscopy in space, GRISM elements—obtained by patterning gratings onto a prism surface—find increasing applications. We report on GRISM manufacturing by joining the individual functional elements—prisms and gratings—to suitable components by the technology of hydrophilic direct bonding. Fused silica was used as a substrate material and binary gratings were fabricated by standard e-beam lithography and dry etching. Alignment of the grating dispersion direction to the prism angle was realized by passive adjustment on dedicated bonding gear matched to the substrate geometry. Materials adapted bonds of high transmission, stiffness, and strength were obtained after heat treatment at temperatures of about 200 °C in vacuum. Examples for bonding uncoated as well as coated grating surfaces are given. The results illustrate the great potential of hydrophilic glass direct bonding for manufacturing transmission optics to be used in space or other heavy duty applications.

  7. Silicon-carbon bond inversions driven by 60-keV electrons in graphene. (United States)

    Susi, Toma; Kotakoski, Jani; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Mangler, Clemens; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Zan, Recep; Bangert, Ursel; Ayala, Paola; Meyer, Jannik C; Ramasse, Quentin


    We demonstrate that 60-keV electron irradiation drives the diffusion of threefold-coordinated Si dopants in graphene by one lattice site at a time. First principles simulations reveal that each step is caused by an electron impact on a C atom next to the dopant. Although the atomic motion happens below our experimental time resolution, stochastic analysis of 38 such lattice jumps reveals a probability for their occurrence in a good agreement with the simulations. Conversions from three- to fourfold coordinated dopant structures and the subsequent reverse process are significantly less likely than the direct bond inversion. Our results thus provide a model of nondestructive and atomically precise structural modification and detection for two-dimensional materials.

  8. Silicon-Carbon Bond Inversions Driven by 60-keV Electrons in Graphene (United States)

    Susi, Toma; Kotakoski, Jani; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Mangler, Clemens; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Zan, Recep; Bangert, Ursel; Ayala, Paola; Meyer, Jannik C.; Ramasse, Quentin


    We demonstrate that 60-keV electron irradiation drives the diffusion of threefold-coordinated Si dopants in graphene by one lattice site at a time. First principles simulations reveal that each step is caused by an electron impact on a C atom next to the dopant. Although the atomic motion happens below our experimental time resolution, stochastic analysis of 38 such lattice jumps reveals a probability for their occurrence in a good agreement with the simulations. Conversions from three- to fourfold coordinated dopant structures and the subsequent reverse process are significantly less likely than the direct bond inversion. Our results thus provide a model of nondestructive and atomically precise structural modification and detection for two-dimensional materials.

  9. Void-Free Direct Bonding of CMUT Arrays with Single Crystalline Plates and Pull- In Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Hansen, Ole; Dahl Johnsen, Mathias


    The implications on direct bonding quality, when using a double oxidation step to fabricate capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs), is analyzed. The protrusions along the CMUT cavity edges created during the second oxidation are investigated using simulations, AFM measurements...

  10. Evaluation of an alternative technique to optimize direct bonding of orthodontic brackets to temporary crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilena Maria Campos Santos Dias


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare shear bond strength of different direct bonding techniques of orthodontic brackets to acrylic resin surfaces.METHODS: The sample comprised 64 discs of chemically activated acrylic resin (CAAR randomly divided into four groups: discs in group 1 were bonded by means of light-cured composite resin (conventional adhesive; discs in group 2 had surfaces roughened with a diamond bur followed by conventional direct bonding by means of light-cured composite resin; discs in group 3 were bonded by means of CAAR (alternative adhesive; and discs in group 4 had surfaces roughened with a diamond bur followed by direct bonding by means of CAAR. Shear bond strength values were determined after 24 hours by means of a universal testing machine at a speed of 0.5 mm/min, and compared by analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Tukey test. Adhesive remnant index (ARI was measured and compared among groups by means of Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests.RESULTS: Groups 3 and 4 had significantly greater shear bond strength values in comparison to groups 1 and 2. Groups 3 and 4 yielded similar results. Group 2 showed better results when compared to group 1. In ARI analyses, groups 1 and 2 predominantly exhibited a score equal to 0, whereas groups 3 and 4 predominantly exhibited a score equal to 3.CONCLUSIONS: Direct bonding of brackets to acrylic resin surfaces using CAAR yielded better results than light-cured composite resin. Surface preparation with diamond bur only increased shear bond strength in group 2.

  11. Comparative study on direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques regarding time length and bracket detachment


    Bozelli, Jefferson Vinicius; Bigliazzi, Renato [UNESP; Barbosa, Helga Adachi Medeiros; Ortolani,Cristina Lucia Feijo; Bertoz, Francisco Antonio [UNESP; Faltin Junior, Kurt


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the time spent for direct (DBB - direct bracket bonding) and indirect (IBB - indirect bracket bonding) bracket bonding techniques. The time length of laboratorial (IBB) and clinical steps (DBB and IBB) as well as the prevalence of loose bracket after a 24-week follow-up were evaluated. METHODS: Seventeen patients (7 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 21 years, requiring orthodontic treatment were selected for this study. A total of 304 brackets...

  12. Direct fabrication of silicone lenses with 3D printed parts (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Watkins, Rachel; Cen, Zijian; Lee, W. M.


    The traditional process of making glass lenses requires grinding and polishing of the material which is a tedious and sensitive process. Existing polymer lens making techniques, such as high temperature reflow techniques, have been significantly simple lens making processes which cater well to customer industry. Recently, the use of UV-curing liquid lens has ushered in customized lens making (Printed Optics), but contains undesirable yellowing effects. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a transparent polymer curable at low temperature (silicone droplets which are formed in a guided and controlled passive manner using 3D printed tools. These silicone lenses have attributes such as smoothness of curvature, resilience to temperature change, low optical aberrations, high transparency (>95%) and minimal aging (yellowing). Moreover, these lenses have a range of focal lengths (3.5 mm to 14.5 mm as well as magnifications (up to 160X). In addition, we created smartphone attachment to turn smart device (tablet or smartphone) into a low-powered microscope. In future we plan to extend this method to produce microlens array.

  13. Silicon measurement in serum and urine by direct current plasma emission spectrometry. (United States)

    Roberts, N B; Williams, P


    Elemental silicon, present as soluble silicic acid in serum and urine, has been measured by direct current plasma emission spectrometry. The method is precise and accurate, yields a standard curve that is linear up to 1000 mumol/L, and requires only a simple dilution in 10 mL/L HNO3. No spectral or background interferences have been observed from serum or urine; the absolute detection limit for silicon was 0.5 mumol/L. Silicon concentrations in serum increase by up to 20-fold in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, an increase apparently related to dietary silicon intake. No relationship with aluminum was observed in hemodialysis patients, with or without aluminum toxicity. In the undialyzed patient with chronic renal failure, the concentrations of silicon in plasma increased with decreasing glomerular filtration rate. This increase may protect renal-failure patients from possible aluminum toxicity by promoting formation of the relatively inactive aluminosilicate complex. Silicon concentrations in urine of healthy individuals exceed their serum concentrations by 20- to 100-fold. Silicon excretion in patients with renal stones was not different from that in healthy controls and showed no relationship with calcium and (or) oxalate excretion.

  14. Bi-directional ultrasonic wave coupling to FBGs in continuously bonded optical fiber sensing. (United States)

    Wee, Junghyun; Hackney, Drew; Bradford, Philip; Peters, Kara


    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are typically spot-bonded onto the surface of a structure to detect ultrasonic waves in laboratory demonstrations. However, to protect the rest of the optical fiber from any environmental damage during real applications, bonding the entire length of fiber, called continuous bonding, is commonly done. In this paper, we investigate the impact of continuously bonding FBGs on the measured Lamb wave signal. In theory, the ultrasonic wave signal can bi-directionally transfer between the optical fiber and the plate at any adhered location, which could potentially produce output signal distortion for the continuous bonding case. Therefore, an experiment is performed to investigate the plate-to-fiber and fiber-to-plate signal transfer, from which the signal coupling coefficient of each case is theoretically estimated based on the experimental data. We demonstrate that the two coupling coefficients are comparable, with the plate-to-fiber case approximately 19% larger than the fiber-to-plate case. Finally, the signal waveform and arrival time of the output FBG responses are compared between the continuous and spot bonding cases. The results indicate that the resulting Lamb wave signal output is only that directly detected at the FBG location; however, a slight difference in signal waveform is observed between the two bonding configurations. This paper demonstrates the practicality of using continuously bonded FBGs for ultrasonic wave detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  15. Room Temperature InP DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhechao; Pantouvaki, Marianna; Guo, Weiming; Absil, Philippe; Van Campenhout, Joris; Merckling, Clement; Van Thourhout, Dries


    Fully exploiting the silicon photonics platform requires a fundamentally new approach to realize high-performance laser sources that can be integrated directly using wafer-scale fabrication methods. Direct band gap III-V semiconductors allow efficient light generation but the large mismatch in lattice constant, thermal expansion and crystal polarity makes their epitaxial growth directly on silicon extremely complex. Here, using a selective area growth technique in confined regions, we surpass this fundamental limit and demonstrate an optically pumped InP-based distributed feedback (DFB) laser array grown on (001)-Silicon operating at room temperature and suitable for wavelength-division-multiplexing applications. The novel epitaxial technology suppresses threading dislocations and anti-phase boundaries to a less than 20nm thick layer not affecting the device performance. Using an in-plane laser cavity defined by standard top-down lithographic patterning together with a high yield and high uniformity provides ...

  16. Development of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit for air breathing PEMFC stack using silicone adhesive bonding (United States)

    Kim, Minkook; Lee, Dai Gil


    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) exhibit a wide power range, low operating temperature, high energy density and long life time. These advantages favor PEMFC for applications such as vehicle power sources, portable power, and backup power applications. With the push towards the commercialization of PEMFC, especially for portable power applications, the overall balance of plants (BOPs) of the systems should be minimized. To reduce the mass and complexity of the systems, air-breathing PEMFC stack design with open cathode channel configuration is being developed. However, the open cathode channel configuration incurs hydrogen leakage problem. In this study, the bonding strength of a silicon adhesive between the Nafion membrane and the carbon fiber/epoxy composite bipolar plate was measured. Then, an anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit which was bonded with the silicone adhesive was developed to solve the hydrogen leakage problem. The reliability of the anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was estimated under the internal pressure of hydrogen by the FE analysis. Additionally, the gas sealability of the developed air breathing PEMFC unit cell was experimentally measured. Finally, unit cell performance of the developed anode bipolar plate/membrane assembly unit was tested and verified under operating conditions without humidity and temperature control.

  17. Minimally invasive cosmetic dentistry: smile reconstruction using direct resin bonding. (United States)

    Prieto, Lucia Trazzi; Araujo, Cintia Tereza Pimenta; de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles; de Azevedo Vaz, Sergio Lins; D'Arce, Maria Beatriz Freitas; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini


    Discrepancies in tooth size and shape can interfere with smile harmony. Composite resin can be used to improve the esthetics of the smile at a low cost while offering good clinical performance. This article presents an approach for restoring and correcting functional, anatomic, and esthetic discrepancies with minimal intervention, using composites and a direct adhesive technique. This conservative restorative procedure provided the patient with maximum personal esthetic satisfaction.

  18. Peel bond strength of two silicone soft liners to a heat-cured denture base resin. (United States)

    Demir, Hakan; Dogan, Arife; Dogan, Orhan Murat; Keskin, Selda; Bolayir, Giray; Soygun, Koray


    This study investigated the peel strength of two different soft liners to a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin before and after thermocycling. The silicone-based soft liner materials tested were Molloplast B and Permaflex; the denture base material was a heat-cured acrylic resin, Meliodent. A total of 40 specimens was prepared using rectangular molds with dimensions of 100 x 10 x 2 mm for PMMA and 150 x 10 x 2 mm for soft liners, as described in ASTM-D903-93. For each of the liner materials, 10 specimens were packed against a cured PMMA denture base surface as recommended by the manufacturers. The other 10 specimens were packed against PMMA denture base dough and processed together. In each group, 5 of the specimens were tested directly, while the other 5 were thermocycled in a water bath (5°C to 55°C; 3000 cycles) before testing. Peel testing was performed using an Instron testing machine. The results revealed that peel strength values of the Permaflex specimens prepared according to the manufacturer's recommendations were significantly higher than those of Molloplast B (p < 0.05). However, when packing was done against uncured PMMA dough, the difference between the specimens of two liners was not significant. Thermocycling led to significant decreases in the peel strength of both Permaflex liner specimens packed against cured/uncured PMMA resin surfaces (p < 0.05), whereas this process did not affect the strength of Molloplast B specimens. Results indicated that the material Molloplast B was superior to the material Permaflex in terms of peel strength when the specimens were simultaneously polymerized with PMMA and thermocycled.

  19. Direct human contact with siloxanes (silicones – safety or riskPart 1. Characteristics of siloxanes (silicones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna eMojsiewicz-Pieńkowska


    Full Text Available Siloxanes are commonly known as silicones. They belong to the organosilicon compounds and are exclusively obtained by synthesis. Their chemical structure determines a range of physicochemical properties which were recognized as unique. Due to the susceptibility to chemical modifications, ability to create short, long or complex polymer particles, siloxanes found an application in many areas of human life. Siloxanes differ in particle size, molecular weight, shape and chemical groups. As a result, this determines the different physico-chemical properties, that directly affect the safety or the risk of their use. The areas that can be a source of danger to human health will be commented in this paper.

  20. Bonding of lithium niobate to silicon in ambient air using laser irradiation (United States)

    Kawano, Hiroki; Takigawa, Ryo; Ikenoue, Hiroshi; Asano, Tanemasa


    In this paper, we introduce a bonding method in ambient air using laser irradiation to the face-to-face interface of dissimilar materials. This method is performed while keeping whole wafers of the materials at room temperature. We demonstrate the bonding of LiNbO3 to Si using pulsed nanosecond green laser irradiation. Laser use can minimize thermal stress owing to a large thermal expansion mismatch. The bonding characteristic obtained by an irradiation laser up to 2.5 J/cm2 in fluence is investigated. It is found that a LiNbO3 chip is strongly bonded to a Si chip by setting the laser fluence at the optimum range. A bond strength of over 2 MPa, which may be enough for the device applications, can be obtained.

  1. A mathematical model for distribution of calcium in silicon by vacuum directional solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng D.


    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the main impurity elements in silicon. The removal of calcium strongly affects the quality of the polycrystalline silicon ingot produced by a vacuum directional solidification method. Based on the considerations of the theory of segregation, mass transfer and evaporation during vacuum directional solidification process, a mathematical model for calcium distribution in silicon was proposed and it can be used to explain the removal mechanism. In order to confirm the mathematical model, an industrial scale experiment on UMG-Si with an initial purity of 99.98 wt. % was performed. Since the reaction temperature strongly influences both the evaporation and segregation of calcium, the dependences of effective segregation coefficient (keff and the evaporation coefficient (kE on temperature were carefully investigated. The results showed that the proposed mathematical model was highly consistent with the experimental data and the calcium removal efficiency mainly relied on the evaporation step.

  2. Towards large size substrates for III-V co-integration made by direct wafer bonding on Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Daix


    Full Text Available We report the first demonstration of 200 mm InGaAs-on-insulator (InGaAs-o-I fabricated by the direct wafer bonding technique with a donor wafer made of III-V heteroepitaxial structure grown on 200 mm silicon wafer. The measured threading dislocation density of the In0.53Ga0.47As (InGaAs active layer is equal to 3.5 × 109 cm−2, and it does not degrade after the bonding and the layer transfer steps. The surface roughness of the InGaAs layer can be improved by chemical-mechanical-polishing step, reaching values as low as 0.4 nm root-mean-square. The electron Hall mobility in 450 nm thick InGaAs-o-I layer reaches values of up to 6000 cm2/Vs, and working pseudo-MOS transistors are demonstrated with an extracted electron mobility in the range of 2000–3000 cm2/Vs. Finally, the fabrication of an InGaAs-o-I substrate with the active layer as thin as 90 nm is achieved with a Buried Oxide of 50 nm. These results open the way to very large scale production of III-V-o-I advanced substrates for future CMOS technology nodes.

  3. Carboxylic Acids as Directing Groups for C-H Bond Functionalization. (United States)

    Pichette Drapeau, Martin; Gooßen, Lukas J


    The selective transformation of C-H bonds is one of the most desirable approaches to creating complexity from simple building blocks. Several directing groups are efficient in controlling the regioselectivity of catalytic C-H bond functionalizations. Among them, carboxylic acids are particularly advantageous, since they are widely available in great structural diversity and at low cost. The carboxylate directing groups can be tracelessly cleaved or may serve as the anchor point for further functionalization through decarboxylative couplings. This Minireview summarizes the substantial progress made in the last few years in the development of reactions in which carboxylate groups direct C-H bond functionalizations with formation of C-C, C-O, C-N, or C-halogen bonds at specific positions. It is divided into sections on C-C, C-O, C-N, and C-halogen bond formation, each of which is subdivided by reactions and product classes. Particular emphasis is placed on methods that enable multiple derivatizations by combining carboxylate-directed C-H functionalization with decarboxylative couplings. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Optimization of magnetically driven directional solidification of silicon using artificial neural networks and Gaussian process models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dropka, N.; Holeňa, Martin


    Roč. 471, 1 August (2017), s. 53-61 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01251S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : computer simulation * fluid flows * magnetic fields * directional solidification * semiconnducting silicon Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  5. Simultaneous On-State Voltage and Bond-Wire Resistance Monitoring of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco


    -Oxide-Semiconductor-Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), it is shown that there are opposing trends in the evolution of the on-state resistances of both the bond-wires and the MOSFET die. In summary, after 50,000 temperature cycles, the resistance of the bond-wires increased by up to 2 mΩ, while the on-state resistance of the MOSFET dies...

  6. Direct observation of the lattice sites of implanted manganese in silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Daniel; Wahl, Ulrich; Martins Correia, Joao; Amorim, Lígia; Decoster, Stefan; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro


    Mn-doped Si has attracted significant interest in the context of dilute magnetic semiconductors. We investigated the lattice location of implanted Mn in silicon of different doping types (n, n+ and p+) in the highly dilute regime. Three different lattice sites were identified by means of emission channeling experiments: ideal substitutional sites; sites displaced from bond-centered towards substitutional sites and sites displaced from anti-bonding towards tetrahedral interstitial sites. For all doping types investigated, the substitutional fraction remained below ∼ 30%. We discuss the origin of the observed lattice sites as well as the implications of such structures on the understanding of Mn-doped Si systems.

  7. Micro direct methanol fuel cell with perforated silicon-plate integrated ionomer membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Johansson, Anne-Charlotte Elisabeth Birgitta


    This article describes the fabrication and characterization of a silicon based micro direct methanol fuel cell using a Nafion ionomer membrane integrated into a perforated silicon plate. The focus of this work is to provide a platform for micro- and nanostructuring of a combined current collector...... at a perforation ratio of 40.3%. The presented fuel cells also show a high volumetric peak power density of 2 mW cm−3 in light of the small system volume of 480 μL, while being fully self contained and passively feed....

  8. Modification of Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleosides by Direct C-H Bond Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liang


    Full Text Available Transition metal-catalyzed modifications of the activated heterocyclic bases of nucleosides as well as DNA or RNA fragments employing traditional cross-coupling methods have been well-established in nucleic acid chemistry. This review covers advances in the area of cross-coupling reactions in which nucleosides are functionalized via direct activation of the C8-H bond in purine and the C5-H or C6-H bond in uracil bases. The review focuses on Pd/Cu-catalyzed couplings between unactivated nucleoside bases with aryl halides. It also discusses cross-dehydrogenative arylations and alkenylations as well as other reactions used for modification of nucleoside bases that avoid the use of organometallic precursors and involve direct C-H bond activation in at least one substrate. The scope and efficiency of these coupling reactions along with some mechanistic considerations are discussed.

  9. Microwave Nitridation of Sintered Reaction Bonded Silicon Parts for Natural Gas Fueled Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edler, J.; Kiggans, J.O.; Suman, A.W.; Tiegs, T.N.


    This cooperative project was a joint development program between Eaton Corporation and Lockheed Martin Energy Research (LMER). Cooperative work was of benefit to both parties. ORNL was able to assess up-scale of the microwave nitridation process using a more intricate-shaped part designed for application in advanced diesel engines. Eaton Corporation mined access to microwave facilities and expertise for the nitridation of SRBSN materials. The broad objective of the CRADA established with Eaton Corporation and ORNL was to develop cost-effective silicon nitride ceramics compared to the current materials available. The following conclusions can be made from the work performed under the CRADA: (1) Demonstrated that the binder burnout step can be incorporated into the SRBSN processing in the microwave furnace. (2) Scale-up of the microwave nitridation process using Eaton Corporation parts showed that the nitridation weight gains were essentially identical to those obtained by conventional heating. (3) Combined nitridation and sintering processes using silicon nitride beads as packing powders results in degradation of the mechanical properties. (4) Gelcasting of silicon nitride materials using Eaton Si mixtures was demonstrated.

  10. Nature of bonding forces between two hydrogen-passivated silicon wafers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kurt; Nielsen, E.; Hult, E.


    The nature and strength of the bonding forces between two II-passivated Si surfaces are studied with the density-functional theory, using an approach based on recent theoretical advances in understanding of van der Waals forces between two surfaces. Contrary to previous suggestions of van der Waals...... attraction between H overlayers, we find that the attraction is mainly due to long-range van der Waals interactions between the Si substrates, while the equilibrium separation is determined by short-range repulsion between occupied Si-H orbitals. Estimated bonding energies and Si-H frequency shifts...

  11. A simple technique for the direct bonding of a lingual retainer: a clinical hint. (United States)

    Sabrish, Sharanya; Kumar, Shravan; Shetty, K Sadashiva


    The direct bonding of a fixed wire retainer often poses clinical difficulties. While there are several possible techniques, the present paper describes a simple method employing a ball clasp (S handle) to assist in the stabilisation of the wire to be attached. The advantages and disadvantages are indicated.

  12. Rh(III-catalyzed directed C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes with isocyanates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takebayashi


    Full Text Available [RhCp*(OAc2(H2O] [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl] catalyzed the C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes possessing directing groups with isocyanates in the presence of 2 equiv/Rh of HBF4·OEt2. A variety of disubstituted ferrocenes were prepared in high yields, or excellent diastereoselectivities.

  13. Direct measurement of the strength of single ionic bonds between hydrated charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, E.; Berg, van den S.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.


    The strength of ionic bonds is essentially unknown, despite their widespread occurrence in natural and man-made assemblies. Here, we use single-molecule force spectroscopy to measure their strength directly. We disrupt a complex between two oppositely charged polyelectrolyte chains and find two

  14. Droplet-Assisted Laser Direct Nanoscale Writing on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jen Chang


    Full Text Available Nano-structuring using laser direct writing technology has shown great potential for industrial applications. A novel application of water droplets to this technology is proposed in this paper. With a hydrophobic layer and a controlled substrate temperature, a layer of randomly distributed water droplets with a high contact angle is formed on the substrate. These liquid droplets can be used as lenses to enhance the laser intensity at the bottom of the droplets. As a result, nanoscale holes can be fabricated on the substrate by controlling the laser energy density. We successfully fabricated holes with a diameter of 600 nm at a substrate temperature of 12 ∘C and a power density of 1.2 × 108 W/cm2 in our experiments. We also found that the hole diameter was around a ninth of the water droplet diameter. Meanwhile, the machined holes are not affected much by the focal length of the lens, but a hole with less than 100 nm in diameter at the center was observed.

  15. Dentin bond strength of a new adhesive system containing calcium phosphate experimentally developed for direct pulp capping. (United States)

    Shinkai, Koichi; Taira, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Masaya; Kato, Chikage; Ebihara, Takashi; Wakaki, Suguru; Seki, Hideaki; Shirono, Manabu; Ogisu, Takahito; Yamauchi, Junichi; Suzuki, Shiro; Katoh, Yoshiroh


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) to human dentin of an experimental bonding agent containing calcium phosphates experimentally developed for direct pulp capping. Different concentrations of four types of calcium phosphates were added to an experimental bonding monomer, and six experimental bonding agents were thus prepared. Clearfil SE Bond/Bond was used as the control. Flat dentin surfaces of human molars were assigned to the experimental adhesive systems and the control. After Clearfil SE Bond/Primer was applied to the dentin surface, each experimental bonding agent was applied and photopolymerized, and then a resin composite paste was placed and photopolymerized. The specimens were subjected to microTBS testing. Results revealed that there were no significant differences among the microTBS values of the experimental bonding agents and the control. In other words, the calcium phosphate-containing experimental adhesives did not adversely affect the microTBS to dentin.

  16. Osmium-mediated direct C–H bond activation at the 8-position of quinolines


    Esteruelas, Miguel A.; Larramona, Carmen; Oñate, Enrique


    Metal-mediated direct C–H bond activation at the 8-position of quinolines, which is the essential step for the functionalization of this bond, is promoted by the hexahydride OsH6(PiPr3)2. This complex activates quinoline and 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-methylquinoline to afford the classical trihydride derivatives OsH3{κ2-C8,N-(quinolinyl)}(PiPr3)2 and OsH3{κ2-C8,N-(quinolinyl-n-Me)}(PiPr3)2 (n = 2, 3, 6, 7), containing a four-membered heterometalla ring.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy study on silicon nitride/stainless steel bonded interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poza, P. [Departamento de Ciencia e Ingenieria de los Materiales, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28933 Mostoles, Madrid (Spain); Miranzo, P. [Institute of Ceramics and Glass, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Osendi, M.I. [Institute of Ceramics and Glass, CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail:


    The reaction zone of a diffusion bonded Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/stainlees steel (ss) interface formed at 1100 deg. C was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Besides the formation of various iron silicides, iron nitride and chromium nitride phases detected by XRD, Cr{sub 3}Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} crystals were identified at the interface by TEM.

  18. Impedimetric immunosensor for human serum albumin detection on a direct aldehyde-functionalized silicon nitride surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, David, E-mail: [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, C/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Martinez, Elena [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Bausells, Joan [Centre Nacional de Microelectronica (CNM-IMB), CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Errachid, Abdelhamid, E-mail: [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Universite Claude Bernard - Lyon 1, LSA - UMR 5180, 43 Bd du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Samitier, Josep [Nanobioengineering group-IBEC, Barcelona Science Park, C/ Baldiri Reixach 10-12, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, C/ Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An impedimetric label-free immunosensor was developed for the specific detection of human serum albumin proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-HSA antibodies were covalently immobilized on silicon nitride surfaces using a direct functionalization methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silicon nitride offers multiple advantages compared to other common materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed sensor has high sensitivity and good selectivity for the detection of HSA proteins. - Abstract: In this work we report the fabrication and characterization of a label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on a silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) surface for the specific detection of human serum albumin (HSA) proteins. Silicon nitride provides several advantages compared with other materials commonly used, such as gold, and in particular in solid-state physics for electronic-based biosensors. However, few Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based biosensors have been developed; the lack of an efficient and direct protocol for the integration of biological elements with silicon-based substrates is still one of its the main drawbacks. Here, we use a direct functionalization method for the direct covalent binding of monoclonal anti-HSA antibodies on an aldehyde-functionalized Si-p/SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} structure. This methodology, in contrast with most of the protocols reported in literature, requires less chemical reagents, it is less time-consuming and it does not need any chemical activation. The detection capability of the immunosensor was tested by performing non-faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements for the specific detection of HSA proteins. Protein concentrations within the linear range of 10{sup -13}-10{sup -7} M were detected, showing a sensitivity of 0.128 {Omega} {mu}M{sup -1} and a limit of detection of 10{sup -14} M. The specificity of the sensor was also addressed by studying the

  19. Comparison of enamel-bracket bond strength using direct- and indirect-bonding techniques with a self-etching ion releasing S-PRG filler. (United States)

    Flores, Teresa; Mayoral, Juan R; Giner, Lluís; Puigdollers, Andreu


    This in vitro study compared the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) of two systems for bonding orthodontic brackets to enamel. The first system involved a self-etching primer (Beauty Ortho Bond, BO) containing surface pre-reacted glass filler. The second involved a primer applied with phosphoric acid etching (Transbond XT, TX). Ninety-six extracted human premolars were divided into eight groups: Group I (TX/direct bonding), Group II (TX/indirect bonding), Group III (BO/direct bonding), and Group IV (BO/indirect bonding). Groups V-VIII were identical to Groups I-IV, respectively, but were also subjected to 1,500 thermal cycles between 5 and 55°C. ARI was scored by binocular microscopy. SBS was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and the Bonferroni test. ARI was analyzed by the chi-squared test. The BO groups showed lower SBS and ARI results than the TX groups. SBS was significantly influenced by the primer material, bonding technique, and thermal cycling.

  20. Effects of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bending strength and bonding of glass fibers in fiber-embedded maxillofacial silicone prostheses. (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C


    The purpose of this study was to test the effect of different periods of accelerated artificial daylight aging on bond strength of glass fiber bundles embedded into maxillofacial silicone elastomer and on bending strength of the glass fiber bundles. Forty specimens were fabricated by embedding resin-impregnated fiber bundles (1.5-mm diameter, 20-mm long) into maxillofacial silicone elastomer. Specimens were randomly allocated into four groups, and each group was subjected to different periods of accelerated daylight aging as follows (in hours); 0, 200, 400, and 600. The aging cycle included continuous exposure to quartz-filtered visible daylight (irradiance 760 W/m(2)) under an alternating weathering cycle (wet for 18 minutes, dry for 102 minutes). Pull-out tests were performed to evaluate bond strength between fiber bundles and silicone using a universal testing machine at 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Also a three-point bending test was performed to evaluate bending strength of the fiber bundles. One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests were carried out to detect statistical significance (p fiber bundles were in the range of 917.72 MPa to 1124.06 MPa. Bending strength significantly increased after 200 and 400 hours of aging only. After 200 hours of exposure to artificial daylight and moisture conditions, bond strength between glass fibers and heat-cured silicones is optimal, and the bending strength of the glass fiber bundles is enhanced.

  1. Comparative study on direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques regarding time length and bracket detachment. (United States)

    Bozelli, Jefferson Vinicius; Bigliazzi, Renato; Barbosa, Helga Adachi Medeiros; Ortolani, Cristina Lucia Feijo; Bertoz, Francisco Antonio; Faltin Junior, Kurt


    The aim of this study was to assess the time spent for direct (DBB - direct bracket bonding) and indirect (IBB - indirect bracket bonding) bracket bonding techniques. The time length of laboratorial (IBB) and clinical steps (DBB and IBB) as well as the prevalence of loose bracket after a 24-week follow-up were evaluated. Seventeen patients (7 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 21 years, requiring orthodontic treatment were selected for this study. A total of 304 brackets was used (151 DBB and 153 IBB). The same bracket type and bonding material were used in both groups. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Wilcoxon non-parametric test at 5% level of significance. Considering the total time length, the IBB technique was more time-consuming than the DBB (p < 0.001). However, considering only the clinical phase, the IBB took less time than the DBB (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference (p = 0.910) for the time spent during laboratorial positioning of the brackets and clinical session for IBB in comparison to the clinical procedure for DBB. Additionally, no difference was found as for the prevalence of loose bracket between both groups. The IBB can be suggested as a valid clinical procedure since the clinical session was faster and the total time spent for laboratorial positioning of the brackets and clinical procedure was similar to that of DBB. In addition, both approaches resulted in similar frequency of loose brackets.

  2. Bio-inspired co-catalysts bonded to a silicon photocathode for solar hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Yidong; Abrams, Billie; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard


    part of the spectrum is utilized for hydrogen evolution while the blue part is reserved for the more difficult oxygen evolution. The samples have been illuminated with a simulated red part of the solar spectrum i.e. long wavelength (" > 620 nm) part of simulated AM 1.5G radiation. The current densities...... deposited on various supports. It will be demonstrated how this overpotential can be eliminated by depositing the same type of hydrogen evolution catalyst on p-type Si which can harvest the red part of the solar spectrum. Such a system could constitute the cathode part of a tandem dream device where the red...... at the reversible potential match the requirement of a photoelectrochemical hydrogen production system with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency in excess of 10%. The experimental observations are supported by DFT calculations of the Mo3S4 cluster adsorbed on the hydrogen-terminated silicon surface providing insights...

  3. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gösele, Ulrich


    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  4. Effect of dangling bonds of ultra-thin silicon film surface on electronic states of internal atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji, E-mail: [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Sueoka, Koji, E-mail: [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)


    We investigate how dangling bonds at the surface of ultra-thin films affect electronic states inside the film by first principles calculation. In the calculation models, dangling bonds at the surface are directly treated, and the impact on the electronic states of the internal atoms was estimated. Models with a H-terminated surface at both sides have no state in the bandgap. Whereas, new states appear at around the midgap by removing terminated H at surfaces of one or both sides. These mid-gap states appear at all layers, the states of which decrease as the layer moves away from the surface with dangling bonds. The sum of local DOS corresponds to the number of dangling bonds of the model. If the activation rate is assumed as 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}, which is an ordinary value of thermal oxide passivation on Si (1 0 0) surface, volume concentration and surface concentration at the 18th layer from the surface in a 36-layer model are estimated to be 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3} and 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}, respectively. These numbers are comparable to the values, especially the dopant volume concentration of Si substrate used in current VLSI technology ({approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}). Therefore, the midgap states inside ultra-thin films may degrade performance of the FinFETs.

  5. Switchable directional scattering of electromagnetic radiation with subwavelength asymmetric silicon dimers. (United States)

    Albella, Pablo; Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Maier, Stefan A


    High refractive index dielectric nanoparticles show high promise as a complementary nanophotonics platform due to compared with plasmonic nanostructures low absorption losses and the co-existence of magnetic and electric resonances. Here we explore their use as resonantly enhanced directional scatterers. We theoretically demonstrate that an asymmetric dimer of silicon nanoparticles shows tuneable directional scattering depending on the frequency of excitation. This is due to the interference between electric and magnetic dipoles excited in each nanoparticle, enabling directional control of the scattered light. Interestingly, this control can be achieved regardless of the polarization direction with respect to the dimer axis; however, difference in the polarization can shift the wavelengths at which the directional scattering is achieved. We also explore the application of such an asymmetric nanoantenna as a tuneable routing element in a nanometer scale, suggesting applications in optical nanocircuitry.

  6. A technique for direct bonding of unerupted teeth as an aid to orthodontics. (United States)

    Mouser, P G


    (1) A significant percentage of orthodontic practice involves impacted teeth that require surgical procedures to aid in their successful realignment. (2) A technique for direct bonding to the crown is a simple, one operation procedure which dies not damage the tooth or adjacent tissues. (3) The most beneficial application of force to any preselected aspect of the crown to help reduce traction time can be used. (4) If carried out correctly, there is little likelihood of failure.

  7. Diastema closure using direct bonding restorations combined with orthodontic treatment: a case report. (United States)

    Hwang, Soon-Kong; Ha, Jung-Hong; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Sung-Kyo; Kim, Young-Kyung


    Closure of interdental spaces using proximal build-ups with resin composite is considered to be practical and conservative. However, a comprehensive approach combining two or more treatment modalities may be needed to improve esthetics. This case report describes the management of a patient with multiple diastemas, a peg-shaped lateral incisor and midline deviation in the maxillary anterior area. Direct resin bonding along with orthodontic movement of teeth allows space closure and midline correction, consequently, creating a better esthetic result.

  8. Diastema closure using direct bonding restorations combined with orthodontic treatment: a case report


    Hwang, Soon-Kong; Ha, Jung-Hong; Jin, Myoung-Uk; Kim, Sung-Kyo; Kim, Young-Kyung


    Closure of interdental spaces using proximal build-ups with resin composite is considered to be practical and conservative. However, a comprehensive approach combining two or more treatment modalities may be needed to improve esthetics. This case report describes the management of a patient with multiple diastemas, a peg-shaped lateral incisor and midline deviation in the maxillary anterior area. Direct resin bonding along with orthodontic movement of teeth allows space closure and midline co...

  9. Direct fabrication of cone array microstructure on monocrystalline silicon surface by femtosecond laser texturing (United States)

    Wang, Quanji; Zhou, Weidong


    Improving the utilization ratio of sunlight is a key factor for the development of solar cell. In this paper, a quasi uniform cone-array-like microstructure was directly fabricated on monocrystal silicon surface in atmosphere by using an alternative femtosecond laser texturing technique. The fabricated cone array like microstructure has a spike depth of up to 8 μm and is able to substantially reduce light reflection due to the effective optical coupling between the incident light with the cone array like microstructure. Compare to planar silicon wafer, the relative reflectance of the cone array structure has been decreased to less than 9% in the measured wavelength range from 400 to 1000 nm. This may be a promising method for the optimal fabrication of surface-microstructure photovoltaic material, such as solar cell, infrared sensor, etc.

  10. Micro direct methanol fuel cell with perforated silicon-plate integrated ionomer membrane (United States)

    Larsen, J. V.; Dalslet, B. T.; Johansson, A.-C.; Kallesøe, C.; Thomsen, E. V.


    This article describes the fabrication and characterization of a silicon based micro direct methanol fuel cell using a Nafion ionomer membrane integrated into a perforated silicon plate. The focus of this work is to provide a platform for micro- and nanostructuring of a combined current collector and catalytic electrode. AC impedance spectroscopy is utilized alongside IV characterization to determine the influence of the plate perforation geometries on the cell performance. It is found that higher ratios of perforation increases peak power density, with the highest achieved being 2.5 mW cm-2 at a perforation ratio of 40.3%. The presented fuel cells also show a high volumetric peak power density of 2 mW cm-3 in light of the small system volume of 480 μL, while being fully self contained and passively feed.

  11. Bonding temperature dependence of GaInAsP/InP laser diode grown on hydrophilically directly bonded InP/Si substrate (United States)

    Aikawa, Masaki; Onuki, Yuya; Hayasaka, Natsuki; Nishiyama, Tetsuo; Kamada, Naoki; Han, Xu; Kallarasan Periyanayagam, Gandhi; Uchida, Kazuki; Sugiyama, Hirokazu; Shimomura, Kazuhiko


    The bonding-temperature-dependent lasing characteristics of 1.5 a µm GaInAsP laser diode (LD) grown on a directly bonded InP/Si substrate were successfully obtained. We have fabricated the InP/Si substrate using a direct hydrophilic wafer bonding technique at bonding temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 °C, and deposited GaInAsP/InP double heterostructure layers on this InP/Si substrate. The surface conditions, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and electrical characteristics after the growth were compared at these bonding temperatures. No significant differences were confirmed in X-ray diffraction analysis and PL spectra at these bonding temperatures. We realized the room-temperature lasing of the GaInAsP LD on the InP/Si substrate bonded at 350 and 400 °C. The threshold current densities were 4.65 kA/cm2 at 350 °C and 4.38 kA/cm2 at 400 °C. The electrical resistance was found to increase with annealing temperature.

  12. Palladium(II)-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation/C-C and C-O Bond Formation Reaction Cascade: Direct Synthesis of Coumestans. (United States)

    Neog, Kashmiri; Borah, Ashwini; Gogoi, Pranjal


    A palladium catalyzed cascade reaction of 4-hydroxycoumarins and in situ generated arynes has been developed for the direct synthesis of coumestans. This cascade strategy proceeds via C-H bond activation/C-O and C-C bond formations in a single reaction vessel. This methodology affords moderate to good yields of coumestans and is tolerant of a variety of functional groups including halide. The methodology was applied to the synthesis of natural product flemichapparin C.

  13. Development of an Indium bump bond process for silicon pixel detectors at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broennimann, Ch. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Glaus, F. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Gobrecht, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Heising, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Horisberger, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kaestli, H.C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Lehmann, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Rohe, T. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Streuli, S. [ETH Zuerich, IPP, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    The hybrid pixel detectors used in the high-energy physics experiments currently under construction use a vertical connection technique, the so-called bump bonding. As the pitch below 100{mu}m, required in these applications, cannot be fulfilled with standard industrial processes (e.g. the IBM C4 process), an in-house bump bond process using reflowed indium bumps was developed at PSI as part of the R and D for the CMS-pixel detector. The bump deposition on the sensor is performed in two subsequent lift-off steps. As the first photolithographic step a thin under bump metalization (UBM) is sputtered onto bump pads. It is wettable by indium and defines the diameter of the bump. The indium is evaporated via a second photolithographic step with larger openings and is reflowed afterwards. The height of the balls is defined by the volume of the indium. On the readout chip only one photolithographic step is carried out to deposit the UBM and a thin indium layer for better adhesion. After mating both parts a second reflow is performed for self-alignment and obtaining high mechanical strength. For the placement of the chips a manual and an automatic machine were constructed. The former is very flexible in handling different chip and module geometries but has a limited throughput while the latter features a much higher grade of automatization and is therefore much more suited for producing hundreds of modules with a well-defined geometry. The reliability of this process was proven by the successful construction of the PILATUS detector. The construction of PILATUS 6M (60 modules) and the CMS pixel barrel (roughly 800 modules) has started in early 2006.

  14. TIARA: a large solid angle silicon array for direct reaction studies with radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Labiche, M; Lemmon, R C; Timis, C N; Orr, N A; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Chapman, R; Achouri, N L; Amzal, N; Appleton, S; Ashwood, N I; Baldwin, T D; Burns, M; Caballero, L; Cacitti, J; Casadjian, J M; Chartier, M; Curtis, N; Faiz, K; De France, G; Freer, M; Gautier, J M; Gelletly, W; Iltis, G; Lecornu, B; Liang, X; Marry, C; Merrer, Y; Moores, G; Olivier, L; Pain, S D; Pucknell, V F E; Raine, B; Rejmund, M; Rubio, B; Saillant, F; Savajols, H; Sorlin, O; Spohr, K; Theisen, Ch; Voltolini, G; Warner, D D


    A compact, quasi-4pi position sensitive silicon array, TIARA, designed to study direct reactions induced by radioactive beams in inverse kinematics is described here. The Transfer and Inelastic All-angle Reaction Array (TIARA) consists of 8 resistive-strip silicon detectors forming an octagonal barrel around the target and a set of double-sided silicon-strip annular detectors positioned at each end of the barrel. The detector was coupled to the gamma-ray array EXOGAM and the spectrometer VAMOS at the GANIL Laboratory to demonstrate the potential of such an apparatus with radioactive beams. The 14N(d,p)15N reaction, well known in normal kinematics, has been carried out in inverse kinematics for that purpose. The observation of the 15N ground state and excited states at 7.16 and 7.86 MeV is presented here as well as the comparison of the measured proton angular distributions with DWBA calculations. Transferred l-values are in very good agreement with both theoretical calculations and previous experimental resul...

  15. Study of Direct Bonding Ceramics with Metal Using Sn2La Solder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koleňák


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the direct bonding of ceramic materials, mainly Al2O3 and selected metals, with primary attention given to Cu substrate. Soldering was performed with Sn-based solder alloyed with 2% La. We found that the bond formation between Sn2La solder and Al2O3 occurs at the activation of lanthanum phases in solder by ultrasound. Lanthanum in the solder becomes oxidised in air during the soldering process. However, due to ultrasonic activation, the lanthanum particles are distributed to the boundary with ceramic material. A uniformly thin layer containing La, 1.5 µm in thickness, is formed on the boundary with Al2O3 material, ensuring both wetting and joint formation. The shear strength with Al2O3 ceramics is 7.5 MPa. Increased strength to 13.5 MPa was observed with SiC ceramics.

  16. Comparative study on direct and indirect bracket bonding techniques regarding time length and bracket detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Vinicius Bozelli


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the time spent for direct (DBB - direct bracket bonding and indirect (IBB - indirect bracket bonding bracket bonding techniques. The time length of laboratorial (IBB and clinical steps (DBB and IBB as well as the prevalence of loose bracket after a 24-week follow-up were evaluated. METHODS: Seventeen patients (7 men and 10 women with a mean age of 21 years, requiring orthodontic treatment were selected for this study. A total of 304 brackets were used (151 DBB and 153 IBB. The same bracket type and bonding material were used in both groups. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by Wilcoxon non-parametric test at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Considering the total time length, the IBB technique was more time-consuming than the DBB (p < 0.001. However, considering only the clinical phase, the IBB took less time than the DBB (p < 0.001. There was no significant difference (p = 0.910 for the time spent during laboratorial positioning of the brackets and clinical session for IBB in comparison to the clinical procedure for DBB. Additionally, no difference was found as for the prevalence of loose bracket between both groups. CONCLUSION: the IBB can be suggested as a valid clinical procedure since the clinical session was faster and the total time spent for laboratorial positioning of the brackets and clinical procedure was similar to that of DBB. In addition, both approaches resulted in similar frequency of loose bracket.

  17. The Significance of Multivalent Bonding Motifs and “Bond Order” in DNA-Directed Nanoparticle Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaner, Ryan V.; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Macfarlane, Robert J.; Brown, Keith A.; Lee, Byeongdu; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Mirkin, Chad A.


    Multivalent oligonucleotide-based bonding elements have been synthesized and studied for the assembly and crystallization of gold nanoparticles. Through the use of organic branching points, divalent and trivalent DNA linkers were readily incorporated into the oligonucleotide shells that define DNA-nanoparticles and compared to monovalent linker systems. These multivalent bonding motifs enable the change of "bond strength" between particles and therefore modulate the effective "bond order." In addition, the improved accessibility of strands between neighboring particles, either due to multivalency or modifications to increase strand flexibility, gives rise to superlattices with less strain in the crystallites compared to traditional designs. Furthermore, the increased availability and number of binding modes also provide a new variable that allows previously unobserved crystal structures to be synthesized, as evidenced by the formation of a thorium phosphide superlattice.

  18. Placement of direct composite veneers utilizing a silicone buildup guide and intraoral mock-up. (United States)

    Behle, C


    The indications for direct composite resins have recently been expanded to include predictable and convenient application in the aesthetic zone. The availability of composite materials with improved physical and optical characteristics facilitates the development of enhanced aesthetics while maintaining vital function. This article presents a simplified technique that combines function with aesthetics by utilizing an intraoral composite mock-up for initial communication and a lingual/incisal silicone stent of the mock-up to transfer the information to the definitive restorative buildup.

  19. Directly modulated and fully tunable hybrid silicon lasers for future generation of coherent colorless ONU. (United States)

    de Valicourt, G; Le Liepvre, A; Vacondio, F; Simonneau, C; Lamponi, M; Jany, C; Accard, A; Lelarge, F; Make, D; Poingt, F; Duan, G H; Fedeli, J-M; Messaoudene, S; Bordel, D; Lorcy, L; Antona, J-C; Bigo, S


    We propose and demonstrate asymmetric 10 Gbit/s upstream--100 Gbit/s downstream per wavelength colorless WDM/TDM PON using a novel hybrid-silicon chip integrating two tunable lasers. The first laser is directly modulated in burst mode for upstream transmission over up to 25 km of standard single mode fiber and error free transmission over 4 channels across the C-band is demonstrated. The second tunable laser is successfully used as local oscillator in a coherent receiver across the C-band simultaneously operating with the presence of 80 downstream co-channels.

  20. Materials with a buried C[sub 60] layer produced by direct wafer bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Q.Y.; Eom, C.B.; Goesele, U. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of Engineering); Hebard, A.F. (AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))


    The C[sub 60] molecule has received close attention in the research community because of its high symmetry and unusual properties. Since in combination with other elements it can be made into super conductors, ferromagnets, and photoconductors, there are expectations that a broad range of possible applications may be possible. Si wafers covered with a sublimed C[sub 60] layer have been directly bonded to bare or oxidized Si wafers at room temperature via Van der Waals attraction forces. The interface energies of the bonded pairs increase during storage in air at room temperature and approach saturated values after [approximately]200 h. The typical saturated interface energy of C[sub 60]/SiO[sub 2] ([approximately]40 erg/cm[sup 2]) is higher than that of C[sub 60]/Si (20--30 erg/cm[sup 2]). Other material combinations having a C[sub 60] buried layer may also be realized by wafer bonding for specific applications.

  1. Phase sensitive degenerate parametric amplification using directly-bonded PPLN ridge waveguides. (United States)

    Umeki, Takeshi; Tadanaga, Osamu; Takada, Atsushi; Asobe, Masaki


    We constructed the first CW pumped degenerate parametric amplifier based on periodically poled and ZnO-doped LiNbO3 ridge waveguides. An in-phase gain of + 11 dB was achieved owing to the high conversion efficiency and high damage resistance of the waveguide obtained by employing direct bonding and dry etching techniques. Nearly identical amplification and deamplification were obtained owing to a sufficient spatial and temporal overlap between the pump and signal beams. No secondary wavelength conversion process was observed, and a maximum output of 22 dBm was obtained. We also successfully demonstrated the phase sensitive amplification of a modulated signal light.

  2. Reduction of mandible fractures with direct bonding technique and orthodontic appliances: two case reports. (United States)

    Chen, Chih-yu; Chang, Li-ren; Chen, Wen-hui; Lin, Li-wen


    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with the arch bars or looped wires has been widely used to treat mandible fractures. However, manipulation of these appliances takes time and the medical staff is endangered by wire stabbing injuries. A modified method, the direct bonding technique combined with orthodontic appliances, simplifies the IMF concept to overcome these problems. It is faster, safer and easier to apply while the response of patients, with respect to treatment results, ease of the living and oral hygiene is more favorable. This report presents two cases of mandible fractures treated according to this protocol which resulted in good outcomes as expected.

  3. Diastema closure using direct bonding restorations combined with orthodontic treatment: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Kong Hwang


    Full Text Available Closure of interdental spaces using proximal build-ups with resin composite is considered to be practical and conservative. However, a comprehensive approach combining two or more treatment modalities may be needed to improve esthetics. This case report describes the management of a patient with multiple diastemas, a peg-shaped lateral incisor and midline deviation in the maxillary anterior area. Direct resin bonding along with orthodontic movement of teeth allows space closure and midline correction, consequently, creating a better esthetic result.

  4. Direct Mechanism of the First Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation in the Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Process. (United States)

    Wu, Xinqiang; Xu, Shutao; Zhang, Wenna; Huang, Jindou; Li, Jinzhe; Yu, Bowen; Wei, Yingxu; Liu, Zhongmin


    In the past two decades, the reaction mechanism of C-C bond formation from either methanol or dimethyl ether (DME) in the methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) process has been a highly controversial issue. Described here is the first observation of a surface methyleneoxy analogue, originating from the surface-activated DME, by in situ solid-state NMR spectroscopy, a species crucial to the first C-C bond formation in the MTH process. New insights into the first C-C bond formation were provided, thus suggesting DME/methanol activation and direct C-C bond formation by an interesting synergetic mechanism, involving C-H bond breakage and C-C bond coupling during the initial methanol reaction within the chemical environment of the zeolite catalyst. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Identification of nitriding mechanisms in high purity reaction bonded silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, J.S.


    The rapid, low-temperature nitriding results from surface effects on the Si particles beginning with loss of chemisorbed H and sequential formation of thin amorphous Si nitride layers. Rapid complete conversion to Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] during the fast reaction can be inhibited when either too few or too many nuclei form on Si particels. Optimally, [approximately] 10 Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] nuclei form per Si particles under rapid, complete nitridation conditions. Nitridation during the slow reaction period appears to progress by both continued reaction of nonpreferred Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] growth interfaces and direct nitridation of the remaining Si/vapor interfaces.

  6. Identification of nitriding mechanisms in high purity reaction bonded silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, J.S.


    The rapid, low-temperature nitriding results from surface effects on the Si particles beginning with loss of chemisorbed H and sequential formation of thin amorphous Si nitride layers. Rapid complete conversion to Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} during the fast reaction can be inhibited when either too few or too many nuclei form on Si particels. Optimally, {approximately} 10 Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nuclei form per Si particles under rapid, complete nitridation conditions. Nitridation during the slow reaction period appears to progress by both continued reaction of nonpreferred Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} growth interfaces and direct nitridation of the remaining Si/vapor interfaces.

  7. Fusion-bonded fluidic interconnects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazal, I.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    A new approach to realize fluidic interconnects based on the fusion bonding of glass tubes with silicon is presented. Fusion bond strength analyses have been carried out. Experiments with plain silicon wafers and coated with silicon oxide and silicon nitride are performed. The obtained results are

  8. Study of Dislocations in the Minicrystallized Regions in Multicrystalline Silicon Grown by the Directional Solidification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Chen


    Full Text Available Directionally solidified multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si-based solar cells have dominated the global photovoltaic market in recent years. The photovoltaic performance of mc-Si solar cells is strongly influenced by their crystalline defects. The occurrence of minicrystallization results in much smaller grain size and, therefore, a larger number of grain boundaries in mc-Si ingots. Dislocations in the minicrystallized regions have been rarely investigated in the literature. In this work, optical microscopy was used to investigate dislocations in the mincrystallized regions in mc-Si ingots grown by the directional solidification method. The distribution of dislocations was found to be highly inhomogeneous from one grain to another in the mincrystallized regions. High inhomogeneity of dislocation distribution was also observed in individual grains. Serious shunting behavior was observed in the mc-Si solar cells containing minicrystallized regions, which strongly deteriorates their photovoltaic properties. The shunting was found to be highly localized to the minicrystallized regions.

  9. Phase field modeling of grain structure evolution during directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon sheet (United States)

    Lin, H. K.; Lan, C. W.


    Evolution of grain structures and grain boundaries (GBs), especially the coincident site lattice GBs, during directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon sheet are simulated by using a phase field model for the first time. Since the coincident site lattice GBs having lower mobility, tend to follow their own crystallographic directions despite thermal gradients, the anisotropic energy and mobility of GBs are considered in the model. Three basic interactions of GBs during solidification are examined and they are consistent with experiments. The twinning process for new grain formation is further added in the simulation by considering twin nucleation. The effect of initial distribution of GB types and grain orientations is also investigated for the twinning frequency and the evolution of grain size and GB types.

  10. Batch fabrication of polymer microfluidic cartridges for QCM sensor packaging by direct bonding (United States)

    Sandström, Niklas; Zandi Shafagh, Reza; Gylfason, Kristinn B.; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter


    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensing is an established technique commonly used in laboratory based life-science applications. However, the relatively complex, multi-part design and multi-step fabrication and assembly of state-of-the-art QCM cartridges make them unsuited for disposable applications such as point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics. In this work, we present the uncomplicated manufacturing of QCMs in polymer microfluidic cartridges. Our novel approach comprises two key innovations: the batch reaction injection molding of microfluidic parts; and the integration of the cartridge components by direct, unassisted bonding. We demonstrate molding of batches of 12 off-stoichiometry thiol-ene epoxy polymer (OSTE+) polymer parts in a single molding cycle using an adapted reaction injection molding process; and the direct bonding of the OSTE+  parts to other OSTE+  substrates, to printed circuit boards, and to QCMs. The microfluidic QCM OSTE+  cartridges were successfully evaluated in terms of liquid sealing as well as electrical properties, and the sensor performance characteristics are on par with those of a commercially available QCM biosensor cartridge. The simplified manufacturing of QCM sensors with maintained performance potentializes novel application areas, e.g. as disposable devices in a point of care setting. Moreover, our results can be extended to simplifying the fabrication of other microfluidic devices with multiple heterogeneously integrated components.

  11. Process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction (United States)

    Toet, Daniel; Sigmon, Thomas W.


    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  12. Control of the Gas Flow in an Industrial Directional Solidification Furnace for Production of High Purity Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu


    Full Text Available A crucible cover was designed as gas guidance to control the gas flow in an industrial directional solidification furnace for producing high purity multicrystalline silicon. Three cover designs were compared to investigate their effect on impurity transport in the furnace and contamination of the silicon melt. Global simulations of coupled oxygen (O and carbon (C transport were carried out to predict the SiO and CO gases in the furnace as well as the O and C distributions in the silicon melt. Cases with and without chemical reaction on the cover surfaces were investigated. It was found that the cover design has little effect on the O concentration in the silicon melt; however, it significantly influences CO gas transport in the furnace chamber and C contamination in the melt. For covers made of metal or with a coating on their surfaces, an optimal cover design can produce a silicon melt free of C contamination. Even for a graphite cover without a coating, the carbon concentration in the silicon melt can be reduced by one order of magnitude. The simulation results demonstrate a method to control the contamination of C impurities in an industrial directional solidification furnace by crucible cover design.

  13. Formation and growth of crystal defects in directionally solidified multicrystalline silicon for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryningen, Birgit


    Included in this thesis are five publications and one report. The common theme is characterisation of directionally solidified multicrystalline silicon for solar cells. Material characterisation of solar cell silicon is naturally closely linked to both the casting process and to the solar cell processing: Many of the material properties are determined by the casting process, and the solar cell processing will to some extend determine which properties will influence the solar cell performance. Solar grade silicon (SoG-Si) made by metallurgical refining route and supplied by Elkem Solar was directionally solidified and subsequently characterised, and a simple solar cell process was applied. Except from some metallic co-precipitates in the top of the ingot, no abnormalities were found, and it is suggested that within the limits of the tests performed in this thesis, the casting and the solar cell processing, rather than the assumed higher impurity content, was the limiting factor. It is suggested in this thesis that the main quality problem in multicrystalline silicon wafers is the existence of dislocation clusters covering large wafer areas. The clusters will reduce the effect of gettering and even if gettering could be performed successfully, the clusters will still reduce the minority carrier mobility and hence the solar cell performance. It has further been pointed out that ingots solidified under seemingly equal conditions might have a pronounced difference in minority carrier lifetime. Ingots with low minority carrier lifetime have high dislocation densities. The ingots with the substantially higher lifetime seem all to be dominated by twins. It is also found a link between a higher undercooling and the ingots dominated by twins. It is suggested that the two types of ingots are subject to different nucleation and crystal growth mechanisms: For the ingots dominated by dislocations, which are over represented, the crystal growth is randomly nucleated at the

  14. Fabrication of high quality, thin Ge-on-insulator layers by direct wafer-bonding for nanostructured thermoelectric devices (United States)

    Veerappan, Manimuthu; Mukannan, Arivanandhan; Salleh, Faiz; Shimura, Yosuke; Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Ikeda, Hiroya


    A simple means of fabricating thin Ge-on-insulator (GOI) layers with a strong bond at the Ge/SiO2 interface through direct wafer-bonding is described. In this work, high quality Ge/SiO2 bonding was achieved under ambient air and at room temperature as a result of the extremely hydrophilic bonding surfaces obtained by chemical treatment prior to direct bonding. Based on the results of this work, the first-ever bonding mechanism between ammonium hydroxide treated Ge and SiO2/Si wafer surfaces is proposed. In addition, strain generated during post-annealing as a consequence of the significant thermal-expansion mismatch between Ge and SiO2 was gradually relieved by applying a multistep-cooling process. Structural characteristics of the thin GOI layer were analyzed by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that direct wafer-bonding followed by polishing could produce a GOI layer as thin as 156 nm, with sub-nm surface roughness.

  15. A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy applied to drug delivery system. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Xin, Dingcheng; Hu, Jiawen; Liu, Kaijian; Pan, Jiangao; Xiang, Jiannan


    A model ternary heparin conjugate by direct covalent bond strategy has been developed, in which modified heparin using active mix anhydride as intermediate conjugates with model drug molecule and model specific ligand, respectively. Designed ester bonds between model drug and heparin facilitate hydrolysis kinetics research. The strategy can be extended to design and synthesize a targeted drug delivery system. The key point is to use mixed anhydride groups as activating intermediates to mediate the synthesis of the ternary heparin conjugate. Formation of mixed anhydride is detected by the conductimetry experiment. The ternary heparin conjugate is characterized by (13)C NMR, FT-IR and GPC, respectively. The decreased trend on degree of substitution (DS) is consistent with that of introduced anticancer drug and specific ligand in drug delivery system. Moreover, their anticoagulant activity is evaluated by measuring activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and anti-factor Xa activity. The results show that model ternary heparin conjugate with reduced anticoagulant activity may avoid the risk of severe hemorrhagic complication during the administration and is potential to develop a safe and effective drug delivery system on anticancer research.

  16. Optimization of magnetically driven directional solidification of silicon using artificial neural networks and Gaussian process models (United States)

    Dropka, Natasha; Holena, Martin


    In directional solidification of silicon, the solid-liquid interface shape plays a crucial role for the quality of crystals. The interface shape can be influenced by forced convection using travelling magnetic fields. Up to now, there is no general and explicit methodology to identify the relation and the optimum combination of magnetic and growth parameters e.g., frequency, phase shift, current magnitude and interface deflection in a buoyancy regime. In the present study, 2D CFD modeling was used to generate data for the design and training of artificial neural networks and for Gaussian process modeling. The aim was to quickly assess the complex nonlinear dependences among the parameters and to optimize them for the interface flattening. The first encouraging results are presented and the pros and cons of artificial neural networks and Gaussian process modeling discussed.

  17. Direct and simultaneous determination of Co and Cu on a silicon wafer using a chemiluminescence system. (United States)

    Sung, Y I; Jang, J W; Lim, H B


    In this work, we developed a drop-type chemiluminescence (CL) system with a partial least squares (PLS) calibration in which the coaxial optical fiber sensing head was developed for sampling and detection to determine Cu(2+) and Co(2+) on a silicon wafer directly. The use of time-resolved signal generation and PLS calibration in addition to CL allowed us to determine the metal ions simultaneously and selectively, based on the kinetic difference of Cu and Co ions in the luminol-H(2)O(2) system. Two component mixtures with a set of 15 wafer fragments were orthogonally calibrated. After prediction test, the method was applied to an intentionally contaminated silicon wafer and validated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) measurement with a HF-HNO(3) scanning solution. The average concentrations of Cu(2+) and Co(2+) of 3.45 (±0.95) × 10(13) and 2.30 (±1.18) × 10(11) atoms per cm(2), respectively, were obtained, which were very close to the ICP-MS results of 3.70 × 10(13) for Cu(2+) and 2.46 × 10(11) atoms per cm(2) for Co(2+). In conclusion, this drop mode CL showed almost more than 10 times better reproducibility than the typical batch mode for the profile measurement. Moreover, the adoption of PLS calibration added the function of selectivity for the simultaneous determination to this CL system, in addition to the direct mapping capability for the solid surface analysis.

  18. Compensation of the dangling-bond space charge in amorphous silicon solar cells by graded low-level doping in the intrinsic layer


    Fischer, D.; Shah, Arvind


    The compensation of the dangling-bond space charge in amorphous silicon p-i-n solar cells by graded, low-level doping in the intrinsic layer is discussed and demonstrated experimentally. Carrier collection in p-i-n cells without doping indicates that the degraded state space charge is largely positive, and thus that boron doping should be beneficial. Solar cells with linearly decreasing boron doping profiles are shown to yield a homogeneous collection in the intrinsic layer, and a red light c...

  19. Solar-grade silicon by a direct route based on carbothermic reduction of silica. Requirements and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerligs, L.J.; Wyers, G.P. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands); Jensen, R.; Raaness, O.; Waernes, A.N. [Sintef Materials Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Santen, S. [ScanArc Plasma Technologies, Hofors (Sweden); Reinink, A.; Wiersma, B. [Sunergy, Rijswijk (Netherlands)


    In the European projects SOLSILC and SPURT, a process is developed for the production of solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) by carbothermic reduction of silica, based on very pure raw materials. The purity of the raw materials greatly reduces the requirements on purification of the silicon, from dopants and other impurities. This paper reports the technology used for the Si production, which is suitable for the available high purity silica and carbon materials. It also reports results from the carbon removal process, which brings the carbon content of the silicon from several hundred ppmw to below 5 ppmw. Finally, it discusses experiments on the allowable impurity concentrations in SOG-Si feedstock for directional solidification. Segregation observed during directional solidification is better than previously published, and allowable concentrations of Fe and Ti are similar to what was previously published for monocrystalline material by Westinghouse Corp.

  20. Analysis of Silicones Released from Household Items and Baby Articles by Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Gross, Jürgen H.


    Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) enables screening of articles of daily use made of polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), commonly known as silicone rubber, to assess their tendency to release low molecular weight silicone oligomers. DART-MS analyses were performed on a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Flexible silicone baking molds, a watch band, and a dough scraper, as baby articles different brands of pacifiers, nipples, and a teething ring have been examined. While somewhat arbitrarily chosen, the set can be regarded as representative of household items, baby articles, and other objects made of silicone rubber. For comparison, two brands of silicone septa and as blanks a glass slide and a latex pacifier were included. Differences between the objects were mainly observed in terms of molecular weight distribution and occasional release of other compounds in addition to PDMS. Other than that, all objects made of silicone rubber released significant amounts of PDMS during DART analysis. To provide a coarse quantification, a calibration based on silicone oil was established, which delivered PDMS losses from 20 μg to >100 μg during the 16-s period per measurement. Also, the extraction of baking molds in rapeseed oil demonstrated a PDMS release at the level of 1 μg mg-1. These findings indicate a potential health hazard from frequent or long-term use of such items. This work does not intend to blame certain brands of such articles. Nonetheless, a higher level of awareness of this source of daily silicone intake is suggested.

  1. Directed Binding of Gliding Bacterium, Mycoplasma mobile, Shown by Detachment Force and Bond Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Tanaka


    Full Text Available Mycoplasma mobile, a fish-pathogenic bacterium, features a protrusion that enables it to glide smoothly on solid surfaces at a velocity of up to 4.5 µm s−1 in the direction of the protrusion. M. mobile glides by a repeated catch-pull-release of sialylated oligosaccharides fixed on a solid surface by hundreds of 50-nm flexible “legs” sticking out from the protrusion. This gliding mechanism may be explained by a possible directed binding of each leg with sialylated oligosaccharides, by which the leg can be detached more easily forward than backward. In the present study, we used a polystyrene bead held by optical tweezers to detach a starved cell at rest from a glass surface coated with sialylated oligosaccharides and concluded that the detachment force forward is 1.6- to 1.8-fold less than that backward, which may be linked to a catch bond-like behavior of the cell. These results suggest that this directed binding has a critical role in the gliding mechanism.

  2. A new class of cuprous bromide cluster-based hybrid materials: direct observation of the stepwise replacement of hydrogen bonds by coordination bonds. (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Ming; Hou, Juan-Juan; Guo, Cai-Hong; Li, Chun-Fang


    Although a variety of functional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been synthesized, post-modified, and applied in various areas, there is little knowledge about how molecular cluster building units are stepwise evolved into MOFs via intermediates. Coordination bonds are generally stronger than hydrogen bonds, and thus equivalent replacement of X-H···Y hydrogen bonds by X-M-Y coordination bonds can transform hydrogen bond networks into MOFs. In this work, solvothermal in situ reduction reactions of CuBr2 and 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO) generated a myriad of tunable photoluminescent cuprous body-centered cubic bromide cluster-based networks with the general formula [Cu4+xH4-xBr6(DABCO)4](HCO2)2·S (x = 0, 0.56, 0.81, 1.27, 1.39, 2.56, 2.78, and 4 for compounds 1-8, respectively). All of these compounds crystallize in the cubic space group with the largest volume difference being only 5.2%, but they belong to three remarkably different kinds of crystals. Complex 1 is a molecular crystal and consists of tetrahedral [Cu4Br6(HDABCO)4](2+) clusters with monodentate HDABCO groups that are supported via N-H···Br synthons in the hydrogen bond network. Compound 8 is a [Cu8Br6](2+) cube cluster-based MOF with bridged DABCO ligands. Complexes 2-7 are seemingly impossible Cu/H-substituted solid solutions of 1 and 8. The CuBr framework components in 1-8 are Cu4Br6, Cu4.56Br6, Cu4.81Br6, Cu5.27Br6, Cu5.39Br6, Cu6.56Br6, Cu6.78Br6, and Cu8Br6, respectively. Crystallization kinetics studies revealed that the [Cu4Br6(HDABCO)4](2+) cluster-based hydrogen bond network (1) was initially formed such that N-H···Br hydrogen bonds could be stepwise replaced by N-Cu-Br coordination bonds to form the [Cu8Br6](2+) cube cluster-based MOF (8) via solid solutions. These observations directly reveal the equivalence and transformation between the N-H···Br hydrogen bond and the N-Cu-Br coordination bond and the evolutionary mechanism of a molecular crystal to a MOF via

  3. Rapid crystallization of a-Si:H films with various silicon-to-hydrogen bonding configurations using rapid energy transfer annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Y.-L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail:; Chang, Y.-C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)


    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were prepared by changing substrate temperature of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to induce different contents of monohydride and polyhydride bonds, which were then crystallized into polysilicon (poly-Si) films by rapid energy transfer annealing. Fourier transform infrared and transmission spectra show that the formation of numerous polyhydride bonds increases the hydrogen content and reduces the refractive index of a-Si:H films. The rise in the concentration of polyhydride bonds in as-deposited a-Si:H films can result in the increase of ultraviolet reflectance, small peak shift, and change in full width at half maximum of Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction peaks of the obtained poly-Si films after annealing. These results demonstrate that high-concentration polyhydride bonds can promote the rapid crystallization of a-Si:H and obtain high-crystallinity poly-Si films. Transmission electron microscopy identifies that the poly-Si films have the typical dendrite-like grain structure.

  4. Predicting the valley physics of silicon quantum dots directly from a device layout (United States)

    Gamble, John King; Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Bacewski, Andrew D.; Nielsen, Erik; Montaño, Inès; Rudolph, Martin; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Muller, Richard P.

    Qubits made from electrostatically-defined quantum dots in Si-based systems are excellent candidates for quantum information processing applications. However, the multi-valley structure of silicon's band structure provides additional challenges for the few-electron physics critical to qubit manipulation. Here, we present a theory for valley physics that is predictive, in that we take as input the real physical device geometry and experimental voltage operation schedule, and with minimal approximation compute the resulting valley physics. We present both effective mass theory and atomistic tight-binding calculations for two distinct metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) quantum dot systems, directly comparing them to experimental measurements of the valley splitting. We conclude by assessing these detailed simulations' utility for engineering desired valley physics in future devices. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Sandia National Laboratories Truman Fellowship Program, which is funded by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program.

  5. Direct exchange between silicon nanocrystals and tunnel oxide traps under illumination on single electron photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatbouri, S., E-mail:; Troudi, M.; Sghaier, N.; Kalboussi, A. [Avenue de I’environnement, Université de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro électronique et Instrumentation (LR13ES12), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Aimez, V. [Université de Sherbrooke, Laboratoire Nanotechnologies et Nanosystémes (UMI-LN2 3463), Université de Sherbrooke—CNRS—INSA de Lyon-ECL-UJF-CPE Lyon, Institut Interdisciplinaire d’Innovation Technologique (Canada); Drouin, D. [Avenue de I’environnement, Université de Monastir, Laboratoire de Micro électronique et Instrumentation (LR13ES12), Faculté des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Souifi, A. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon—site INSA de Lyon, UMR CNRS 5270 (France)


    In this paper we present the trapping of photogenerated charge carriers for 300 s resulted by their direct exchange under illumination between a few silicon nanocrystals (ncs-Si) embedded in an oxide tunnel layer (SiO{sub x} = 1.5) and the tunnel oxide traps levels for a single electron photodetector (photo-SET or nanopixel). At first place, the presence of a photocurrent limited in the inversion zone under illumination in the I–V curves confirms the creation of a pair electron/hole (e–h) at high energy. This photogenerated charge carriers can be trapped in the oxide. Using the capacitance-voltage under illumination (the photo-CV measurements) we show a hysteresis chargement limited in the inversion area, indicating that the photo-generated charge carriers are stored at traps levels at the interface and within ncs-Si. The direct exchange of the photogenerated charge carriers between the interface traps levels and the ncs-Si contributed on the photomemory effect for 300 s for our nanopixel at room temperature.

  6. Orthogonal decomposition of core loss along rolling and transverse directions of non-grain oriented silicon steels (United States)

    Wan, Xuezhi; Li, Yongjian; Li, Jingsong; Liu, Chengcheng; Zhu, Jianguo


    Rotational core loss of the silicon steel laminations are measured under elliptical rotating excitation. The core loss decomposition model is very important in magnetic core design, in which the decomposition coefficients are calculated through the measurement data. By using the transformation of trigonometric function, the elliptical rotational magnetic flux can be decomposed into two parts along two directions. It is assumed that the rotating core loss is the sum of alternating core losses along rolling and transverse directions. The magnetic strength vector H of non-grain oriented (NGO) silicon steel 35WW270 along rolling and transverse directions is measured by a novel designed 3-D magnetic properties tester. Alternating core loss along the rolling, transverse directions and rotating core loss in the xoy-plane of this specimen in different frequencies such as 50 Hz, 100 Hz, and 200 Hz. Experimental results show that the core loss model is more accurate and useful to predict the total core loss.

  7. GaN-Si direct wafer bonding at room temperature for thin GaN device transfer after epitaxial lift off (United States)

    Mu, Fengwen; Morino, Yuki; Jerchel, Kathleen; Fujino, Masahisa; Suga, Tadatomo


    Room temperature GaN-Si direct wafer bonding was done by surface activated bonding (SAB). At first, a feasibility study using GaN template has been done. Then, crystal-face dependence of the bonding results for freestanding GaN substrate has been investigated between Ga-face and N-face. The results of Ga-face to Si bonding are better than that of N-face to Si bonding such as higher bonding energy and larger bonded area. This difference should be caused by their different surface roughnesses after chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). Besides, both of the structure and composition of the two kinds of interfaces were investigated to understand the bonding mechanisms. The phenomenon of Ga-enrichment during surface activation and Ga-diffusion into Si at room temperature for both Ga-face bonding and N-face bonding has been confirmed.

  8. Direct comparison of the bond strength results of the different test methods: a critical literature review. (United States)

    Scherrer, Susanne S; Cesar, Paulo F; Swain, Mike V


    The goal of this paper is to undertake a literature search collecting all dentin bond strength data obtained for six adhesives with four tests (shear, microshear, tensile and microtensile) and to critically analyze the results with respect to average bond strength, coefficient of variation, mode of failure and product ranking. A PubMed search was carried out for the years between 1998 and 2009 identifying publications on bond strength measurements of resin composite to dentin using four tests: shear, tensile, microshear and microtensile. The six adhesive resins were selected covering three step systems (OptiBond FL, Scotch Bond Multi-Purpose Plus), two-step (Prime & Bond NT, Single Bond, Clearfil SE Bond) and one step (Adper Prompt L Pop). Pooling results from 147 references showed an ongoing high scatter in the bond strength data regardless which adhesive and which bond test was used. Coefficients of variation remained high (20-50%) even with the microbond test. The reported modes of failure for all tests still included high number of cohesive failures. The ranking seemed to be dependant on the test used. The scatter in dentin bond strength data remains regardless which test is used confirming Finite Element Analysis predicting non-uniform stress distributions due to a number of geometrical, loading, material properties and specimens preparation variables. This reopens the question whether, an interfacial fracture mechanics approach to analyze the dentin-adhesive bond is not more appropriate for obtaining better agreement among dentin bond related papers. Copyright 2009 Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct Functionalization of Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation (United States)

    Lewis, Jared C.; Bergman, Robert G.; Ellman, Jonathan A.


    Conspectus Nitrogen heterocycles are present in many compounds of enormous practical importance, ranging from pharmaceutical agents and biological probes to electroactive materials. Direct functionalization of nitrogen heterocycles through C-H bond activation constitutes a powerful means of regioselectively introducing a variety of substituents with diverse functional groups onto the heterocycle scaffold. Working together, our two groups have developed a family of Rh-catalyzed heterocycle alkylation and arylation reactions that are notable for their high level of functional-group compatibility. This Account describes our work in this area, emphasizing the relevant mechanistic insights that enabled synthetic advances and distinguished the resulting transformations from other methods. We initially discovered an intramolecular Rh-catalyzed C-2-alkylation of azoles by alkenyl groups. That reaction provided access to a number of di-, tri-, and tetracyclic azole derivatives. We then developed conditions that exploited microwave heating to expedite these reactions. While investigating the mechanism of this transformation, we discovered that a novel substrate-derived Rh-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex was involved as an intermediate. We then synthesized analogous Rh–NHC complexes directly by treating precursors to the intermediate [RhCl(PCy3)2] with N-methylbenzimidazole, 3-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazoline, and 1-methyl-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one. Extensive kinetic analysis and DFT calculations supported a mechanism for carbene formation in which the catalytically active RhCl(PCy3)2 fragment coordinates to the heterocycle before intramolecular activation of the C-H bond occurs. The resulting Rh-H intermediate ultimately tautomerizes to the observed carbene complex. With this mechanistic information and the discovery that acid co-catalysts accelerate the alkylation, we developed conditions that efficiently and intermolecularly alkylate a variety of heterocycles, including

  10. Direct Functionalization of Nitrogen Heterocycles via Rh-Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jared; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    Nitrogen heterocycles are present in many compounds of enormous practical importance, ranging from pharmaceutical agents and biological probes to electroactive materials. Direct funtionalization of nitrogen heterocycles through C-H bond activation constitutes a powerful means of regioselectively introducing a variety of substituents with diverse functional groups onto the heterocycle scaffold. Working together, our two groups have developed a family of Rh-catalyzed heterocycle alkylation and arylation reactions that are notable for their high level of functional-group compatibility. This Account describes their work in this area, emphasizing the relevant mechanistic insights that enabled synthetic advances and distinguished the resulting transformations from other methods. They initially discovered an intramolecular Rh-catalyzed C-2-alkylation of azoles by alkenyl groups. That reaction provided access to a number of di-, tri-, and tetracyclic azole derivatives. They then developed conditions that exploited microwave heating to expedite these reactions. While investigating the mechanism of this transformation, they discovered that a novel substrate-derived Rh-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex was involved as an intermediate. They then synthesized analogous Rh-NHC complexes directly by treating precursors to the intermediate [RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2}] with N-methylbenzimidazole, 3-methyl-3,4-dihydroquinazolein, and 1-methyl-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one. Extensive kinetic analysis and DFT calculations supported a mechanism for carbene formation in which the catalytically active RhCl(PCy{sub 3}){sub 2} fragment coordinates to the heterocycle before intramolecular activation of the C-H bond occurs. The resulting Rh-H intermediate ultimately tautomerizes to the observed carbene complex. With this mechanistic information and the discovery that acid co-catalysts accelerate the alkylation, they developed conditions that efficiently and intermolecularly alkylate a variety of

  11. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture (United States)

    Reynolds, Olivia L.; Padula, Matthew P.; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M.


    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a “beneficial substance”. This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  12. Direct NMR detection of bifurcated hydrogen bonding in the α-helix N-caps of ankyrin repeat proteins. (United States)

    Preimesberger, Matthew R; Majumdar, Ananya; Aksel, Tural; Sforza, Kevin; Lectka, Thomas; Barrick, Doug; Lecomte, Juliette T J


    In biomolecules, bifurcated H-bonds typically involve the interaction of two donor protons with the two lone pairs of oxygen. Here, we present direct NMR evidence for a bifurcated H-bonding arrangement involving nitrogen as the acceptor atom. Specifically, the H-bond network comprises the Nδ1 atom of histidine and both the backbone N-H and side-chain Oγ-H of threonine within the conserved TXXH motif of ankyrin repeat (AR) proteins. Identification of the H-bonding partners is achieved via solution NMR H-bond scalar coupling (HBC) and H/D isotope shift experiments. Quantitative determination of (2h)J(NN) HBCs supports that Thr N-H···Nδ1 His H-bonds within internal repeats are stronger (∼4 Hz) than in the solvent exposed C-terminal AR (∼2 Hz). In agreement, pKa values for the buried histidines bridging internal ARs are several units lower than those of the C-terminus. Quantum chemical calculations show that the relevant (2h)J and (1h)J couplings are dominated by the Fermi contact interaction. Finally, a Thr-to-Val replacement, which eliminates the Thr Oγ-H···Nδ1 His H-bond and decreases protein stability, results in a 25% increase in (2h)J(NN), attributed to optimization of the Val N-H···Nδ1 His H-bond. Overall, the results provide new insights into the H-bonding properties of histidine, a refined structural rationalization for the folding cooperativity of AR proteins, and a challenging benchmark for the calculation of HBCs.

  13. Polydimethylsiloxane extraction from silicone rubber into baked goods detected by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Gross, Jürgen H


    Flexible baking molds and other household utensils are made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), also known as silicone rubber. PDMS is prone to release oligomers upon elongated contact with fats, e.g., in the process of baking dough. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) provides an efficient tool for the analysis of PDMS up to m/z 3000. Here, DART ionization is employed in combination with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS to detect PDMS released into muffins when baked in silicone rubber baking molds. Intensive signals caused by PDMS do occur in the m/z 700-1500 range of DART mass spectra obtained from the crusty surface of muffins after the use of such silicone rubber molds. In addition, triacylglyceroles (TAGs) present as natural ingredients of the analyzed muffins were detected as [TAG+NH(4)](+) ions.

  14. Influence of Crucible Thermal Conductivity on Crystal Growth in an Industrial Directional Solidification Process for Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaoyang Li


    Full Text Available We carried out transient global simulations of heating, melting, growing, annealing, and cooling stages for an industrial directional solidification (DS process for silicon ingots. The crucible thermal conductivity is varied in a reasonable range to investigate its influence on the global heat transfer and silicon crystal growth. It is found that the crucible plays an important role in heat transfer, and therefore its thermal conductivity can influence the crystal growth significantly in the entire DS process. Increasing the crucible thermal conductivity can shorten the time for melting of silicon feedstock and growing of silicon crystal significantly, and therefore large thermal conductivity is helpful in saving both production time and power energy. However, the high temperature gradient in the silicon ingots and the locally concave melt-crystal interface shape for large crucible thermal conductivity indicate that high thermal stress and dislocation propagation are likely to occur during both growing and annealing stages. Based on the numerical simulations, some discussions on designing and choosing the crucible thermal conductivity are presented.

  15. Porous silicon in solar cell structures : a review of achievements and modern directions of further use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerokhov, VY; Melnyk, [No Value


    Porous silicon, which is being obtained by electrochemical etching of silicon wafers in electrolytes on the base of hydrofluoric acid, recently attracted the attention of specialists in photovoltaics even more due to a number of its unique properties. However, at present, acceptable results are

  16. The role of continuing bonds in coping with grief: overview and future directions. (United States)

    Root, Briana L; Exline, Julie Juola


    The existing empirical literature depicts a complex picture of the role that continuing bonds play in coping with bereavement, with contradictory findings emerging across studies. This article presents an overview of continuing bonds research and highlights several areas ripe for exploration. First, definitional issues are identified. Second, three paths for clarification are presented: the bereaved's perception of the bond as positive or negative, the quality of the predeath relationship, and the bereaved's afterlife beliefs. Through refining the definition and exploring these potential avenues of research, we hope to clarify the roles that continuing bonds may play in coping with bereavement.

  17. Development and Property Evaluation of Selected HfO2-Silicon and Rare Earth-Silicon Based Bond Coats and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming


    Ceramic environmental barrier coatings (EBC) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will play a crucial role in future aircraft propulsion systems because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, improve component durability, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. Advanced EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC turbine and combustor hot section components are currently being developed to meet future turbine engine emission and performance goals. One of the significant material development challenges for the high temperature CMC components is to develop prime-reliant, high strength and high temperature capable environmental barrier coating bond coat systems, since the current silicon bond coat cannot meet the advanced EBC-CMC temperature and stability requirements. In this paper, advanced NASA HfO2-Si and rare earth Si based EBC bond coat EBC systems for SiC/SiC CMC combustor and turbine airfoil applications are investigated. High temperature properties of the advanced EBC systems, including the strength, fracture toughness, creep and oxidation resistance have been studied and summarized. The advanced NASA EBC systems showed some promise to achieve 1500C temperature capability, helping enable next generation turbine engines with significantly improved engine component temperature capability and durability.

  18. Dual-cured etch-and-rinse adhesive systems increase the bond durability of direct coronal dentin restorations. (United States)

    Borges, B C D; Vilela, A R R C; da Silva-Junior, C A; Souza-Junior, E J; Sinhoreti, M A C; Pinheiro, F H S L; Braz, R; Montes, M A J R


    This study aimed to evaluate the bond durability of dentin restorations bonded with light- or dual-cured etch-and-rinse adhesive systems. A three-step adhesive system (Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus), an acetone-based two-step adhesive system (Prime & Bond 2.1), and an ethanol-based two-step adhesive system (Excite) were tested. Both the light- and the dual-cured versions were evaluated. High C-factor dentin cavities were prepared on 120 bovine incisors, which were then restored with resin composite (n=10). The samples were stored in water for 24 hours, and half of them were subjected to additional degradation with 10% NaOCl for five hours. The push-out bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine until failure. Failure modes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and Tukey tests (padhesive system presented a higher immediate bond strength and durability than those that were light cured. The three-step adhesive system produced the highest values, whereas the acetone-based adhesive system produced the lowest result. Therefore, the use of dual-cured etch-and-rinse adhesive systems can induce increased bond durability to direct coronal dentin restorations.

  19. Advanced silicon on insulator technology (United States)

    Godbey, D.; Hughes, H.; Kub, F.


    Undoped, thin-layer silicon-on-insulator was fabricated using wafer bonding and selective etching techniques employing a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown Si0.7Ge0.3 layer as an etch stop. Defect free, undoped 200-350 nm silicon layers over silicon dioxide are routinely fabricated using this procedure. A new selective silicon-germanium etch was developed that significantly improves the ease of fabrication of the bond and etch back silicon insulator (BESOI) material.

  20. Bond strength durability of direct and indirect composite systems following surface conditioning for repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; Ozcan, Mutlu; Vanderlei, Aleska Dias; Leite, Fabiola Pessoa Pereira; Kimpara, Estevao Tomomitsu; Bottino, Marco Antonio


    Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of surface conditioning methods and thermocycling on the bond strength between a resin composite and an indirect composite system in order to test the repair bond strength. Materials and Methods: Eighteen blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of indirect resin composite

  1. THz Direct Detector and Heterodyne Receiver Arrays in Silicon Nanoscale Technologies (United States)

    Grzyb, Janusz; Pfeiffer, Ullrich


    The main scope of this paper is to address various implementation aspects of THz detector arrays in the nanoscale silicon technologies operating at room temperatures. This includes the operation of single detectors, detectors operated in parallel (arrays), and arrays of detectors operated in a video-camera mode with an internal reset to support continuous-wave illumination without the need to synchronize the source with the camera (no lock-in receiver required). A systematic overview of the main advantages and limitations in using silicon technologies for THz applications is given. The on-chip antenna design challenges and co-design aspects with the active circuitry are thoroughly analyzed for broadband detector/receiver operation. A summary of the state-of-the-art arrays of broadband THz direct detectors based on two different operation principles is presented. The first is based on the non-quasistatic resistive mixing process in a MOSFET channel, whereas the other relies on the THz signal rectification by nonlinearity of the base-emitter junction in a high-speed SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). For the MOSFET detector arrays implemented in a 65 nm bulk CMOS technology, a state-of-the-art optical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 14 pW/ at 720 GHz was measured, whereas for the HBT detector arrays in a 0.25 μm SiGe process technology, an optical NEP of 47 pW/ at 700 GHz was found. Based on the implemented 1k-pixel CMOS camera with an average power consumption of 2.5 μW/pixel, various design aspects specific to video-mode operation are outlined and co-integration issues with the readout circuitry are analyzed. Furthermore, a single-chip 2 × 2 array of heterodyne receivers for multi-color active imaging in a 160-1000 GHz band is presented with a well-balanced NEP across the operation bandwidth ranging from 0.1 to 0.24 fW/Hz (44.1-47.8 dB single-sideband NF) and an instantaneous IF bandwidth of 10 GHz. In its present implementation, the receiver RF

  2. Hydrogen-bond-assisted controlled C-H functionalization via adaptive recognition of a purine directing group. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Ajitha, Manjaly J; Lee, Yongjae; Ryu, Jaeyune; Kim, Jin; Lee, Yunho; Jung, Yousung; Chang, Sukbok


    We have developed the Rh-catalyzed selective C-H functionalization of 6-arylpurines, in which the purine moiety directs the C-H bond activation of the aryl pendant. While the first C-H amination proceeds via the N1-chelation assistance, the subsequent second C-H bond activation takes advantage of an intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interaction between the initially formed amino group and one nitrogen atom, either N1 or N7, of the purinyl part. Isolation of a rhodacycle intermediate and the substrate variation studies suggest that N1 is the main active site for the C-H functionalization of both the first and second amination in 6-arylpurines, while N7 plays an essential role in controlling the degree of functionalization serving as an intramolecular hydrogen-bonding site in the second amination process. This pseudo-Curtin-Hammett situation was supported by density functional calculations, which suggest that the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding capability helps second amination by reducing the steric repulsion between the first installed ArNH and the directing group.

  3. Direct assessment of quantum nuclear effects on hydrogen bond strength by constrained-centroid ab initio path integral molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Walker, Brent; Michaelides, Angelos


    The impact of quantum nuclear effects on hydrogen (H-) bond strength has been inferred in earlier work from bond lengths obtained from path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations. To obtain a direct quantitative assessment of such effects, we use constrained-centroid PIMD simulations to calculate the free energy changes upon breaking the H-bonds in dimers of HF and water. Comparing ab initio simulations performed using PIMD and classical nucleus molecular dynamics (MD), we find smaller dissociation free energies with the PIMD method. Specifically, at 50 K, the H-bond in (HF)(2) is about 30% weaker when quantum nuclear effects are included, while that in (H(2)O)(2) is about 15% weaker. In a complementary set of simulations, we compare unconstrained PIMD and classical nucleus MD simulations to assess the influence of quantum nuclei on the structures of these systems. We find increased heavy atom distances, indicating weakening of the H-bond consistent with that observed by direct calculation of the free energies of dissociation.

  4. Stable configurations of graphene on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)


    Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.

  5. Self-assembly of alkanethiolates directs sulfur bonding with GaAs(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancheno-Posso, Pablo; Muscat, Anthony J., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Alkanethiolate monolayers were formed on GaAs(100) using a 20 min liquid immersion. • The longest chain containing 20 CH{sub 2} groups protected the surface for 30 min from reoxidation. • A reaction-diffusion model shows that oxygen diffusion through the carbon chains is fast. • Alkanethiolates protect the surface by reducing the reaction rate of oxygen with the surface. • Assembly of the alkane chains directs sulfur atoms to bond to the surface. - Abstract: Molecules that contain linear alkane chains self-assemble on a variety of surfaces changing the degree of wetting, lubricity, and reactivity. We report on the reoxidation of GaAs(100) in air after adsorbing five alkanethiols (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}-SH where n = 3, 6, 12, 18, 20) and one alkanedithiol (HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 8}-SH) deposited from the liquid phase. The alignment of the alkane chains forms a self-assembled layer, however, air diffuses readily through the carbon layer and reaches the surface. The impact of alignment is to improve the bonding of sulfur with the surface atoms which reduces the oxidation rate based on fitting the data to a reaction-diffusion model. The layer thickness and molecular density scale linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the alkane chain. The thickness of the alkanethiolate (RS{sup −}) layer grows by 0.87 ± 0.06 Å for each C atom in the chain and the surface density by 0.13 ± 0.03 molecule per nm{sup 2} per C atom up to a coverage of 5.0 molecules/nm{sup 2} for n = 20 or 0.8 monolayer. The surface coverage increases with length because interactions between methylene (CH{sub 2}) groups in neighboring chains reduce the tilt angle of the molecules with the surface normal. The tight packing yields areas per alkanethiolate as low as 20 Å{sup 2} for n = 20. The amount of C in the layer divided by the chain length is approximately constant up to n = 12 but increases sharply by a factor of 2–4× for n = 18 and 20 based on the C 1s X

  6. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries (United States)

    Goldman, Jason


    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  7. Tuning cell adhesion by direct nanostructuring silicon into cell repulsive/adhesive patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premnath, Priyatha, E-mail: [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tavangar, Amirhossein, E-mail: [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Tan, Bo, E-mail: [Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada); Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan, E-mail: [Micro/Nanofabrication Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5B 2K3 (Canada)


    Developing platforms that allow tuning cell functionality through incorporating physical, chemical, or mechanical cues onto the material surfaces is one of the key challenges in research in the field of biomaterials. In this respect, various approaches have been proposed and numerous structures have been developed on a variety of materials. Most of these approaches, however, demand a multistep process or post-chemical treatment. Therefore, a simple approach would be desirable to develop bio-functionalized platforms for effectively modulating cell adhesion and consequently programming cell functionality without requiring any chemical or biological surface treatment. This study introduces a versatile yet simple laser approach to structure silicon (Si) chips into cytophobic/cytophilic patterns in order to modulate cell adhesion and proliferation. These patterns are fabricated on platforms through direct laser processing of Si substrates, which renders a desired computer-generated configuration into patterns. We investigate the morphology, chemistry, and wettability of the platform surfaces. Subsequently, we study the functionality of the fabricated platforms on modulating cervical cancer cells (HeLa) behaviour. The results from in vitro studies suggest that the nanostructures efficiently repel HeLa cells and drive them to migrate onto untreated sites. The study of the morphology of the cells reveals that cells evade the cytophobic area by bending and changing direction. Additionally, cell patterning, cell directionality, cell channelling, and cell trapping are achieved by developing different platforms with specific patterns. The flexibility and controllability of this approach to effectively structure Si substrates to cell-repulsive and cell-adhesive patterns offer perceptible outlook for developing bio-functionalized platforms for a variety of biomedical devices. Moreover, this approach could pave the way for developing anti-cancer platforms that selectively repel

  8. A first principles analysis of the effect of hydrogen concentration in hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the formation of strained Si-Si bonds and the optical and mobility gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legesse, Merid; Nolan, Michael, E-mail:; Fagas, Giorgos, E-mail: [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork (Ireland)


    In this paper, we use a model of hydrogenated amorphous silicon generated from molecular dynamics with density functional theory calculations to examine how the atomic geometry and the optical and mobility gaps are influenced by mild hydrogen oversaturation. The optical and mobility gaps show a volcano curve as the hydrogen content varies from undersaturation to mild oversaturation, with largest gaps obtained at the saturation hydrogen concentration. At the same time, mid-gap states associated with dangling bonds and strained Si-Si bonds disappear at saturation but reappear at mild oversaturation, which is consistent with the evolution of optical gap. The distribution of Si-Si bond distances provides the key to the change in electronic properties. In the undersaturation regime, the new electronic states in the gap arise from the presence of dangling bonds and strained Si-Si bonds, which are longer than the equilibrium Si-Si distance. Increasing hydrogen concentration up to saturation reduces the strained bonds and removes dangling bonds. In the case of mild oversaturation, the mid-gap states arise exclusively from an increase in the density of strained Si-Si bonds. Analysis of our structure shows that the extra hydrogen atoms form a bridge between neighbouring silicon atoms, thus increasing the Si-Si distance and increasing disorder in the sample.

  9. Directed deposition of silicon nanowires using neopentasilane as precursor and gold as catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Kämpken


    Full Text Available In this work the applicability of neopentasilane (Si(SiH34 as a precursor for the formation of silicon nanowires by using gold nanoparticles as a catalyst has been explored. The growth proceeds via the formation of liquid gold/silicon alloy droplets, which excrete the silicon nanowires upon continued decomposition of the precursor. This mechanism determines the diameter of the Si nanowires. Different sources for the gold nanoparticles have been tested: the spontaneous dewetting of gold films, thermally annealed gold films, deposition of preformed gold nanoparticles, and the use of “liquid bright gold”, a material historically used for the gilding of porcelain and glass. The latter does not only form gold nanoparticles when deposited as a thin film and thermally annealed, but can also be patterned by using UV irradiation, providing access to laterally structured layers of silicon nanowires.

  10. The role of directed van der Waals bonded interactions in the determination of the structures of molecular arsenate solids (United States)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Wallace, A. F.; Cox, D. F.; Dove, P. M.; Downs, R. T.; Ross, N. L.; Rosso, K. M.


    On the basis of his famous electrostatic theorem, Feynman (1939) showed that it is not the fluctuating dipole- dipole interactions among neighboring molecules that lead to van der Waals forces, but rather it is the net attraction of the nuclei for the distorted electron density, ED, accumulated between the nuclei of bonded atoms that accounts for the van der Waals R-7 forces. Bader and his coworkers (1990) have since concluded that the distortions in the internuclear region arise by dint of the formation of local maxima and minima of the Laplacian distribution, L(r) = ▽2ρ(r), with the formation of van der Waals bond paths associated with the maxima and minima. The maxima are ascribed to Lewis base domains where the ED is locally charge concentrated, CC, whereas the minima are ascribed to Lewis acid domains where the ED is locally charge depleted, CD. For the As2O3 molecular crystals arsenolite, claudetite I and claudetite II, AsO2 and the As- metalloid, arsenolamprite, the ED of the constituent molecules were found to adopt a configuration where the Lewis acid and base domains of molecules are aligned and connected by As-O, O-O and As-As van der Waals intermolecular bond paths. Despite the relative weakness of the van der Waals bonded interactions relative to the intramolecular As-O bonded interactions, the interactions are concluded to serve as mainstays for the individual molecules in each of the molecular solids. Intermolecular As-O bond paths between the bonded atoms connect Lewis base CC and Lewis acid CD domains whereas the O-O and As-As paths connect Lewis base-pair CC-CC domains and Lewis acid pair CD-CD domains, respectively, give rise to sets of directed van der Waals bond paths. The alignment of the bond paths, like any other bond path, results in the periodic structures adopted by the molecules in the arsenates. The cubic structure adopted by arsenolite polymorph can be understood in terms of sets of As-O and O-O directed bond paths that radiate from

  11. Mixed Directing-Group Strategy: Oxidative C-H/C-H Bond Arylation of Unactivated Arenes by Cobalt Catalysis. (United States)

    Du, Cong; Li, Peng-Xiang; Zhu, Xinju; Suo, Jian-Feng; Niu, Jun-Long; Song, Mao-Ping


    A mixed directing-group strategy for inexpensive [Co(acac)3 ]-catalyzed oxidative C-H/C-H bond arylation of unactivated arenes has been disclosed. This strategy enables the arylation of a wide range of benzamide and arylpyridines effectively to afford novel bifunctionalized biaryls, which are difficult to achieve by common synthetic routes. Two different pathways, namely, a single-electron-transmetalation process (8-aminoquinoline-directed) and a concerted metalation-deprotonation process (pyridine-directed), were involved to activate two different inert aromatic C-H bonds. Moreover, the aryl radicals have been trapped by 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol to form benzylated products. This unique strategy should be useful in the design of other arene C-H/C-H cross-couplings as well. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Diketopyrrolopyrrole Columnar Liquid-Crystalline Assembly Directed by Quadruple Hydrogen Bonds. (United States)

    Soberats, Bartolome; Hecht, Markus; Würthner, Frank


    A diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) dye self-assembles via a unique hydrogen-bonding motif into an unprecedented columnar liquid-crystalline (LC) structure. X-ray and polarized FTIR experiments reveal that the DPPs organize into a one-dimensional assembly with the chromophores oriented parallel to the columnar axis. This columnar structure is composed of two π-π-stacked DPP dimers with mirror-image configurations that stack alternately through quadruple hydrogen bonding by 90° rotation. This exotic packing is dictated by the complementarity between H-bonds and the steric demands of the wedge-shaped groups attached at the core. This novel LC supramolecular material opens a new avenue of research on DPP dye assemblies with photofunctional properties tailored by H-bonding networks. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Solid state direct bonding of polymers by vacuum ultraviolet light below 160 nm (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yuki; Yamamoto, Takatoki


    This work investigated the application of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to the bonding of various substrates, including glass, polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin polymer (COP), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). This method has the advantage of being able to bond various substrates without the application of heat or adhesives, and therefore may be very useful in the fabrication of micro/nanoscale structures composed of polymers. In contrast to previous applications of this technique, the present study used VUV radiation at wavelengths at and below 160 nm so as to take advantage of the higher energy in this range. Bonding was assessed based on measuring the shear stress of various test specimens subjected to VUV irradiation and then pressed together, and a number of analytical methods were also employed to examine the irradiated surfaces in order to elucidate the morphological and chemical changes following VUV treatment. These analyses included water contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Poor bonding was identified between combinations consisting of PMMA/PC, PMMA/COP, PMMA/PMMA, PMMA/glass, and PC/COP, whereas all other combinations resulted in successful bonding with the bonding stress values such as PC/PC = 2.0 MPa, PC/glass = 10.7 MPa and COP/COP = 1.7 MPa, respectively.

  14. Direct dentin bonding technique sensitivity when using air/suction drying steps. (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Mahallati, Ramin; Bazos, Panaghiotis; So, Woong-Seup


    Moisture control before and after application of the primer/adhesive components of etch-and-rinse dentin bonding agents is usually achieved using a stream of air delivered by an air syringe. Suction drying with a suction tip is a common alternative for moisture control, but data about the use of suction drying instead of the air syringe is scarce or nonexistent. The purpose of this study was to compare the dentin microtensile bond strength (MTBS) using either the air syringe or the suction tip to control the amount of moisture. Fifteen freshly extracted human molars were divided randomly into three groups of five. A three-step etch-and-rinse dentin bonding agent (OptiBond FL) was used. Group 1 was the control group and utilized air drying alone (with an air syringe) during the placement of the dentin adhesive on the ground-flat occlusal dentin surface. Group 2 also used air drying alone, but teeth were prepared with a standardized MOD cavity. Group 3 utilized suction drying alone in the standardized MOD cavity. All teeth were restored with 1.5-mm-thick horizontal increments of composite resin (Filtek Z100). Specimens were stored in water for 24 hours, then prepared for a nontrimming MTBS test. Bond strength data were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test at p drying, flat dentin), 53.4 MPa (air-drying, MOD), and 49.2 MPa (suction drying, MOD). Microscopic evaluation of failure modes indicated that most failures were interfacial. Failed interfaces, when analyzed under SEM, appeared typically mixed with areas of failed adhesive resin and areas of cohesively failed dentin. There are no differences in MTBS to human dentin using either the air syringe or the suction tip to control the amount of moisture. The conventional three-step dentin bonding agent used in the present study not only proved insensitive to the moisture-control method but also to the effect of increased polymerization shrinkage stress (ground-flat versus MOD preparation). Although the effect of common

  15. Direct Bonding of Chitosan Biomaterials to Tissues Using Transglutaminase for Surgical Repair or Device Implantation. (United States)

    Fernandez, Javier G; Seetharam, Suneil; Ding, Christopher; Feliz, Juani; Doherty, Ed; Ingber, Donald E


    Natural biomaterials, such as chitosan and collagen, are useful for biomedical applications because they are biocompatible, mechanically robust, and biodegradable, but it is difficult to rapidly and tightly bond them to living tissues. In this study, we demonstrate that the microbial transglutaminase (mTG), can be used to rapidly (chitosan and collagen biomaterials to the surfaces of hepatic, cardiac, and dermal tissues, as well as to functionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials that are used in medical products. The mTG-bonded chitosan patches effectively sealed intestinal perforations, and a newly developed two-component mTG-bonded chitosan spray effectively repaired ruptures in a breathing lung when tested ex vivo. The mechanical strength of mTG-catalyzed chitosan adhesive bonds were comparable to those generated by commonly used surgical glues. These results suggest that mTG preparations may be broadly employed to bond various types of organic materials, including polysaccharides, proteins, and functionalized inorganic polymers to living tissues, which may open new avenues for biomedical engineering, medical device integration, and tissue repair.

  16. Oxide-Oxide Thermocompression Direct Bonding Technologies with Capillary Self-Assembly for Multichip-to-Wafer Heterogeneous 3D System Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Fukushima


    Full Text Available Plasma- and water-assisted oxide-oxide thermocompression direct bonding for a self-assembly based multichip-to-wafer (MCtW 3D integration approach was demonstrated. The bonding yields and bonding strengths of the self-assembled chips obtained by the MCtW direct bonding technology were evaluated. In this study, chemical mechanical polish (CMP-treated oxide formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD as a MCtW bonding interface was mainly employed, and in addition, wafer-to-wafer thermocompression direct bonding was also used for comparison. N2 or Ar plasmas were utilized for the surface activation. After plasma activation and the subsequent supplying of water as a self-assembly mediate, the chips with the PE-CVD oxide layer were driven by the liquid surface tension and precisely aligned on the host wafers, and subsequently, they were tightly bonded to the wafers through the MCtW oxide-oxide direct bonding technology. Finally, a mechanism of oxide-oxide direct bonding to support the previous models was discussed using an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometer (APIMS.

  17. An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell stack employing a single shared anode using silicon microfabrication technologies (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yan'an; Zhang, Qian; Zhu, Yiming; Liu, Litian


    This paper presents a silicon-based air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) stack with a shared anode plate and two air-breathing cathode plates. Three kinds of anode plates featured by different methanol transport methods are designed and simulated. Microfabrication technologies, including double-side lithography and bulk-micromachining, are used to fabricate both anode and cathode silicon plates on the same wafer simultaneously. Three μDMFC stacks with different kinds of anodes are assembled, and characterized with a single cell together. Simulation and experimental results show that the μDMFC stack with fuel transport in a shared model has the best performance, and this stack achieves a power of 2.52 mW which is almost double that of a single cell of 1.28 mW.

  18. Comparison of shear bond strength of resin reinforced chemical cure glass ionomer, conventional chemical cure glass ionomer and chemical cure composite resin in direct bonding systems: an in vitro study. (United States)

    Rao, Kolasani Srinivasa; Reddy, T Praveen Kumar; Yugandhar, Garlapati; Kumar, B Sunil; Reddy, S N Chandrasekhar; Babu, Devatha Ashok


    The acid pretreatment and use of composite resins as the bonding medium has disadvantages like scratching and loss of surface enamel, decalcification, etc. To overcome disadvantages of composite resins, glass ionomers and its modifications are being used for bonding. The study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of resin reinforced glass ionomer as a direct bonding system with conventional glass ionomer cement and composite resin. The study showed that shear bond strength of composite resin has the higher value than both resin reinforced glass ionomer and conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration and it increased from 1 to 24 hours in all groups. The shear bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement was higher than the conventional glass ionomer cement in both 1 and 24 hours duration. Conditioning with polyacrylic acid improved the bond strength of resin reinforced glass ionomer cement significantly but not statistically significant in the case of conventional glass ionomer cement.

  19. Proton-directed redox control of O-O bond activation by heme hydroperoxidase models. (United States)

    Soper, Jake D; Kryatov, Sergey V; Rybak-Akimova, Elena V; Nocera, Daniel G


    Hangman metalloporphyrin complexes poise an acid-base group over a redox-active metal center and in doing so allow the "pull" effect of the secondary coordination environment of the heme cofactor of hydroperoxidase enzymes to be modeled. Stopped-flow investigations have been performed to decipher the influence of a proton-donor group on O-O bond activation. Low-temperature reactions of tetramesitylporphyrin (TMP) and Hangman iron complexes containing acid (HPX-CO2H) and methyl ester (HPX-CO2Me) functional groups with peroxyacids generate high-valent Fe=O active sites. Reactions of peroxyacids with (TMP)FeIII(OH) and methyl ester Hangman (HPX-CO2Me)FeIII(OH) give both O-O heterolysis and homolysis products, Compound I (Cpd I) and Compound II (Cpd II), respectively. However, only the former is observed when the hanging group is the acid, (HPX-CO2H)FeIII(OH), because odd-electron homolytic O-O bond cleavage is inhibited. This proton-controlled, 2e- (heterolysis) vs 1e- (homolysis) redox specificity sheds light on the exceptional catalytic performance of the Hangman metalloporphyrin complexes and provides tangible benchmarks for using proton-coupled multielectron reactions to catalyze O-O bond-breaking and bond-making reactions.

  20. Room Temperature O-band DFB Laser Array Directly Grown on (001) Silicon. (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Zhechao; Pantouvaki, Marianna; Absil, Philippe; Van Campenhout, Joris; Merckling, Clement; Van Thourhout, Dries


    Several approaches for growing III-V lasers on silicon were recently demonstrated. Most are not compatible with further integration, however, and rely on thick buffer layers and require special substrates. Recently, we demonstrated a novel approach for growing high quality InP without buffer on standard 001-silicon substrates using a selective growth process compatible with integration. Here we show high quality InGaAs layers can be grown on these InP-templates. High-resolution TEM analysis shows these layers are free of optically active defects. Contrary to InP, the InGaAs material exhibits strong photoluminescence for wavelengths relevant for integration with silicon photonics integrated circuits. Distributed feedback lasers were defined by etching a first order grating in the top surface of the device. Clear laser operation at a single wavelength with strong suppression of side modes was demonstrated. Compared to the previously demonstrated InP lasers 65% threshold reduction is observed. Demonstration of laser arrays with linearly increasing wavelength prove the control of the process and the high quality of the material. This is an important result toward realizing fully integrated photonic ICs on silicon substrates.

  1. Degradation of Glyphosate by Mn-Oxide May Bypass Sarcosine and Form Glycine Directly after C-N Bond Cleavage. (United States)

    Li, Hui; Wallace, Adam F; Sun, Mingjing; Reardon, Patrick; Jaisi, Deb P


    Glyphosate is the active ingredient of the common herbicide Roundup. The increasing presence of glyphosate and its byproducts has raised concerns about its potential impact on the environment and human health. In this research, we investigated abiotic pathways of glyphosate degradation as catalyzed by birnessite under aerobic and neutral pH conditions to determine whether certain pathways have the potential to generate less harmful intermediate products. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were utilized to identify and quantify reaction products, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate the bond critical point (BCP) properties of the C-N bond in glyphosate and Mn(IV)-complexed glyphosate. We found that sarcosine, the commonly recognized precursor to glycine, was not present at detectable levels in any of our experiments despite the fact that its half-life (∼13.6 h) was greater than our sampling intervals. Abiotic degradation of glyphosate largely followed the glycine pathway rather than the AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid) pathway. Preferential cleavage of the phosphonate adjacent C-N bond to form glycine directly was also supported by our BCP analysis, which revealed that this C-N bond was disproportionately affected by the interaction of glyphosate with Mn(IV). Overall, these results provide useful insights into the potential pathways through which glyphosate may degrade via relatively benign intermediates.

  2. Direct measurement and modulation of single-molecule coordinative bonding forces in a transition metal complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Xian; Zhu, Nan; Gschneidtner, Tina


    Coordination chemistry has been a consistently active branch of chemistry since Werner's seminal theory of coordination compounds inaugurated in 1893, with the central focus on transition metal complexes. However, control and measurement of metal-ligand interactions at the single-molecule level...... remain a daunting challenge. Here we demonstrate an interdisciplinary and systematic approach that enables measurement and modulation of the coordinative bonding forces in a transition metal complex. Terpyridine is derived with a thiol linker, facilitating covalent attachment of this ligand on both gold...... substrate surfaces and gold-coated atomic force microscopy tips. The coordination and bond breaking between terpyridine and osmium are followed in situ by electrochemically controlled atomic force microscopy at the single-molecule level. The redox state of the central metal atom is found to have...

  3. Direct α-C-H bond functionalization of unprotected cyclic amines (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Ma, Longle; Paul, Anirudra; Seidel, Daniel


    Cyclic amines are ubiquitous core structures of bioactive natural products and pharmaceutical drugs. Although the site-selective abstraction of C-H bonds is an attractive strategy for preparing valuable functionalized amines from their readily available parent heterocycles, this approach has largely been limited to substrates that require protection of the amine nitrogen atom. In addition, most methods rely on transition metals and are incompatible with the presence of amine N-H bonds. Here we introduce a protecting-group-free approach for the α-functionalization of cyclic secondary amines. An operationally simple one-pot procedure generates products via a process that involves intermolecular hydride transfer to generate an imine intermediate that is subsequently captured by a nucleophile, such as an alkyl or aryl lithium compound. Reactions are regioselective and stereospecific and enable the rapid preparation of bioactive amines, as exemplified by the facile synthesis of anabasine and (-)-solenopsin A.

  4. Direct integration of MEMS, dielectric pumping and cell manipulation with reversibly bonded gecko adhesive microfluidics (United States)

    Warnat, S.; King, H.; Wasay, A.; Sameoto, D.; Hubbard, T.


    We present an approach to form a microfluidic environment on top of MEMS dies using reversibly bonded microfluidics. The reversible polymeric microfluidics moulds bond to the MEMS die using a gecko-inspired gasket architecture. In this study the formed microchannels are demonstrated in conjunction with a MEMS mechanical single cell testing environment for BioMEMS applications. A reversible microfluidics placement technique with an x-y and rotational accuracy of  ±2 µm and 1° respectively on a MEMS die was developed. No leaks were observed during pneumatic pumping of common cell media (PBS, sorbitol, water, seawater) through the fluidic channels. Thermal chevron actuators were successful operated inside this fluidic environment and a performance deviation of ~15% was measured compared to an open MEMS configuration. Latex micro-spheres were pumped using traveling wave di-electrophoresis and compared to an open (no-microfluidics) configuration with velocities of 24 µm s-1 and 20 µm s-1.

  5. High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology. (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinsuke; Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Sekiguchi, Shigeaki; Kurahashi, Teruo; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken


    An Si/III-V hybrid laser oscillating at a single wavelength was developed for use in a large-scale Si optical I/O chip. The laser had an InP-based reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) chip integrated with an Si wavelength-selection-mirror chip in a flip-chip configuration. A low coupling loss of 1.55 dB at the Si-SOA interface was accomplished by both mode-field-matching between Si-SOA waveguides and accurately controlling the bonding position. The fabricated Si hybrid laser exhibited a very low threshold current of 9.4 mA, a high output power of 15.0 mW, and a high wall-plug efficiency of 7.6% at 20 °C. Moreover, the device maintained a high output power of >10 mW up to 60°C due to the high thermal conductance between the SOA chip and Si substrate. The short cavity length of the flip-chip bonded laser expanded the longitudinal mode spacing. This resulted in temperature-stable single longitudinal mode lasing and a low RIN level of <-130 dB/Hz.

  6. Direct monolithic integration of vertical single crystalline octahedral molecular sieve nanowires on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), UMR-CNRS 5270, Ecole Central de Lyon, Ecully (France); Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona ICMAB, Catalonia (Spain); Sorbonne Univ., UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Oro-Sole, Judith [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona ICMAB, Catalonia (Spain); Gazquez, Jaume [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona ICMAB, Catalonia (Spain); Magen, Cesar [Univ. de Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain); Miranda, Laura [Sorbonne Univ., UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Puig, Teresa [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona ICMAB, Catalonia (Spain); Obradors, Xavier [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona ICMAB, Catalonia (Spain); Ferain, Etienne [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Sanchez, Clement [Sorbonne Univ., UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, College de France, Paris (France); Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble Cedex (France); Mestres, Narcis [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona ICMAB, Catalonia (Spain)


    We developed an original strategy to produce vertical epitaxial single crystalline manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) nanowires with tunable pore sizes and compositions on silicon substrates by using a chemical solution deposition approach. The nanowire growth mechanism involves the use of track-etched nanoporous polymer templates combined with the controlled growth of quartz thin films at the silicon surface, which allowed OMS nanowires to stabilize and crystallize. α-quartz thin films were obtained after thermal activated crystallization of the native amorphous silica surface layer assisted by Sr2+- or Ba2+-mediated heterogeneous catalysis in the air at 800 °C. These α-quartz thin films work as a selective template for the epitaxial growth of randomly oriented vertical OMS nanowires. Furthermore, the combination of soft chemistry and epitaxial growth opens new opportunities for the effective integration of novel technological functional tunneled complex oxides nanomaterials on Si substrates.

  7. Demonstration of a directed XNOR/XOR optical logic circuit based on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer (United States)

    Ding, Jianfeng; Yang, Lin; Chen, Qiaoshan; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Ping


    We demonstrate a directed XNOR/XOR optical logic circuit based on silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The device with the symmetric arm design is wavelength-insensitive in a wavelength range of 40 nm. The device has an electro-optical bandwidth of around 20 GHz. When the device is optically biased at the maximum or minimum transmission points by tuning the heater on one of its arms, it can perform the XNOR or XOR operations respectively at a speed up to 20 Gbps. The high-speed and reconfigurable abilities of the device make it suitable for the future programmable optical logic array.

  8. Silicon microreactors for measurements of catalytic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Toke Riishøj

    . The reactors consist of a microchannel system etched in an oxidized silicon chip and sealed with a glass lid using anodic bonding. The chip design relies on a gas flow through the channel system and is designed for reactions at pressures at the order of 1 bar. A high sensitivity is obtained by directing...... the entire gas flow through the reaction zone to a mass spectrometer, thus ensuring that nearly all reaction products are present in the analyzed gas flow. An experimental study has been carried out of the conditions for cavity collapse during anodic bonding of wide, shallow grooves etched in silicon....... The aim of this study has been to determine appropriate dimensions for the reaction chamber in the microsystem. It has been found that 200μm diameter circular silicon pillars distributed in the chamber are effective in preventing cavity collapse in such grooves. In particular, the pillars allow anodic...

  9. A visible light-activated direct-bonding material: An in vivo comparative study


    O'Brien, K. D.; Read, M. J F; Sandison, R. J.; Roberts, C. T.


    A clinical trial was carried out to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of a visible light-cured material with a chemically cured adhesive. This was used in combination with two types of bracket base. Fifty-two patients entered the trial and 542 bracket bases were placed. The incidence and site of bond failure were recorded. The overall failure rate for the light-cured material in combination with both types of bracket was 4.7% and 6% for the chemical-cured adhesive. There were no s...

  10. Bulky α-diimine palladium complexes: highly efficient for direct C-H bond arylation of heteroarenes under aerobic conditions. (United States)

    Ouyang, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yan-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Ke, Zhuofeng; Liu, Feng-Shou


    Through the strategy to enhance the bulkiness on both the backbone and the N-aryl moieties, we designed and synthesized a type of bulky α-diimine palladium complex (i.e., {[Ar-N[double bond, length as m-dash]C(R)-C(R)[double bond, length as m-dash]N-Ar]PdCl2, (Ar = 2-benzhydryl-4,6-dimethylphenyl)}, C1, R = H; C2, R = An; C3, R = Ph). The structures of these palladium complexes were well characterized, while C1 and C3 were further characterized by X-ray diffraction. The catalytic performances of the precatalysts were screened for direct C-H bond arylation of heteroarenes. The bidentate N,N-palladium complex C3 with both a backbone and N-aryl bulkiness was found to be a highly efficient precatalyst under aerobic conditions. With a low palladium loading of 0.5-0.1 mol%, a variety of heteroarenes with challenging bulky steric aryl bromides as well as heteroaryl bromides are all applicable for this cross-coupling reaction.

  11. Intramolecular direct oxygen transfer from oxoferryl porphyrin to a sulfide bond. (United States)

    Ueda, Takunori; Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Kano, Koji


    A 1:1 supramolecular complex (met-hemoCD) of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrinatoiron(III) (Fe(III)TPPS) with a per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer having a -SCH2PyCH2S- (Py = pyridin-3,5-diyl) linker (Py3CD) reacted rapidly with hydrogen peroxide or cumene hydroperoxide in an aqueous solution forming two types of hydroperoxo or alkylperoxo intermediates, ROO-Fe(III)(OH(-))PCD and ROO-Fe(III)(Py)PCD, which underwent rapid homolysis to the corresponding ferryloxo species, namely, O═Fe(IV)(OH(-))PCD and O═Fe(IV)(Py)PCD, respectively. For the O═Fe(IV)(OH(-))PCD species, the iron-oxo oxygen facing the linker gradually transferred to the nearby sulfide bond on the linker, forming the sulfoxidized Py3CD (Py3CD-O)/Fe(II)TPPS complex, which then bound dioxygen in air forming an oxy-ferrous complex, O2-Fe(II)TPPS/Py3CD-O. In contrast, the O═Fe(IV)(Py)PCD species, in which the iron-oxo oxygen was located on the opposite side of the sulfide bond on the linker across the porphyrin ring, was reduced to the resting state (met-hemoCD) by the surroundings without any oxidation of the Py3CD linker.

  12. Aesthetic Management of Fluoresced Teeth with Ceramic Veneers and Direct Composite Bonding - An Overview and A Case Presentation. (United States)

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Shah, Harsh Haren; Paliwal, Ashutosh; Parikh, Viral; Patel, Shrikant


    Tooth discolouration is a common problem and affects people of all ages. Apart from the conventional treatment modalities for the same, newer options are available today with better techniques and materials. The present case report describes a 17-year-old girl who had stained and pitted teeth, attributable to dental fluorosis and she desired aesthetic treatment for the same. The pros and cons of all treatment options were carefully weighed and a multistep treatment process involving ceramic veneers and direct bonding were planned. The execution of the planned treatment yielded a good aesthetic and functional outcome.

  13. Aesthetic Management of Fluoresced Teeth with Ceramic Veneers and Direct Composite Bonding – An Overview and A Case Presentation (United States)

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Shah, Harsh Haren; Paliwal, Ashutosh; Parikh, Viral


    Tooth discolouration is a common problem and affects people of all ages. Apart from the conventional treatment modalities for the same, newer options are available today with better techniques and materials. The present case report describes a 17-year-old girl who had stained and pitted teeth, attributable to dental fluorosis and she desired aesthetic treatment for the same. The pros and cons of all treatment options were carefully weighed and a multistep treatment process involving ceramic veneers and direct bonding were planned. The execution of the planned treatment yielded a good aesthetic and functional outcome. PMID:26266231

  14. Silicon membrane interface for the direct analysis of Kathon CG in aqueous solutions and cosmetic emulsions. (United States)

    Favretto, D; Traldi, P; Benassi, C A; Bettero, A


    An easy determination of Kathon CG, an antimicrobial agent widely used in cosmetic and toiletry products, has been achieved by means of silicone membrane interfaced mass spectrometry. Low levels of the above preservative (up to p.p.b.) could be easily detected in both aqueous solutions and cosmetic emulsions. Valuable information has been obtained on the stabilization and decomposition processes to which the organic components of Kathon CG are subject. The role of magnesium ions, which are present as a stabilizing agent in Kathon CG formulation, in these processes has been investigated, leading to the identification of some degradation products.

  15. A large scale enzyme screen in the search for new methods of silicon-oxygen bond formation. (United States)

    Abbate, Vincenzo; Bassindale, Alan R; Brandstadt, Kurt F; Taylor, Peter G


    Biotransformations make use of biological systems to catalyze or promote specific chemical reactions. Transformations that utilize enzymes as "greener" and milder catalysts compared to traditional reaction conditions are of particular interest. Recently, organosilicon compounds have begun to be explored as non-natural enzymatic substrates for biotransformations. The aims of this study were to screen readily available (approximately eighty) enzymes for their ability to catalyze in vitro siloxane bond formation under mild reaction conditions using a model monoalkoxysilane as the substrate and to make a preliminary evaluation of potential factors that might lead to activity or inactivity of a particular enzyme. Several new hydrolase enzymes were observed to catalyze the formation of the condensation product when compared to peptide controls, or buffer solutions at the same pH, as judged from quantitative analyses by gas chromatography. Aspergillus ficuum phytase, Aspergillus niger phytase, chicken egg white lysozyme, porcine gastric mucosa pepsin, and Rhizopus oryzae lipase all catalyzed the condensation of silanols in aqueous media. Factors involved in determining the activity of an enzyme towards silanol condensation appear to include: the presence of imidazole and hydroxyl functions in the active site; solvent; the presence of water; the surface properties of the enzyme; possible covalent inhibition; and steric factors in the substrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Silicone-containing composition (United States)

    Mohamed, Mustafa


    A silicone-containing composition comprises the reaction product of a first component and an excess of an isocyanate component relative to the first component to form an isocyanated intermediary. The first component is selected from one of a polysiloxane and a silicone resin. The first component includes a carbon-bonded functional group selected from one of a hydroxyl group and an amine group. The isocyanate component is reactive with the carbon-bonded functional group of the first component. The isocyanated intermediary includes a plurality of isocyanate functional groups. The silicone-containing composition comprises the further reaction product of a second component, which is selected from the other of the polysiloxane and the silicone resin. The second component includes a plurality of carbon-bonded functional groups reactive with the isocyanate functional groups of the isocyanated intermediary for preparing the silicone-containing composition.

  17. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia


    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) is part of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment : . SPD Structure . Bump Bonding . Test beam . ALICE1LHCb Readout Chip . Chip Tests . Data from the SPD

  18. Label-Free Direct Detection of miRNAs with Poly-Silicon Nanowire Biosensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    Full Text Available The diagnostic and prognostic value of microRNAs (miRNAs in a variety of diseases is promising. The novel silicon nanowire (SiNW biosensors have advantages in molecular detection because of their high sensitivity and fast response. In this study, poly-crystalline silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (poly-SiNW FET device was developed to achieve specific and ultrasensitive detection of miRNAs without labeling and amplification.The poly-SiNW FET was fabricated by a top-down Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS wafer fabrication based technique. Single strand DNA (ssDNA probe was bind to the surface of the poly-SiNW device which was silanated and aldehyde-modified. By comparing the difference of resistance value before and after ssDNA and miRNA hybridization, poly-SiNW device can be used to detect standard and real miRNA samples.Poly-SiNW device with different structures (different line width and different pitch was applied to detect standard Let-7b sample with a detection limitation of 1 fM. One-base mismatched sequence could be distinguished meanwhile. Furthermore, these poly-SiNW arrays can detect snRNA U6 in total RNA samples extracted from HepG2 cells with a detection limitation of 0.2 μg/mL. In general, structures with pitch showed better results than those without pitch in detection of both Let-7b and snRNA U6. Moreover, structures with smaller pitch showed better detection efficacy.Our findings suggest that poly-SiNW arrays could detect standard and real miRNA sample without labeling or amplification. Poly-SiNW biosensor device is promising for miRNA detection.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Multi-Crystalline Silicon Crystal Growth Using a Macro–Micro Coupled Method during the Directional Solidification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Lian


    Full Text Available In this work, the crystal growth of multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si during the directional solidification process was studied using the cellular automaton method. The boundary heat transfer coefficient was adjusted to get a suitable temperature field and a high-quality mc-Si ingot. Under the conditions of top adiabatic and bottom constant heat flux, the shape of the crystal-melt interface changes from concave to convex with the decrease of the heat transfer coefficient on the side boundaries. In addition, the nuclei form at the bottom boundary while columnar crystals develop into silicon melt with amzigzag-faceted interface. The higher-energy silicon grains were merged into lower energy ones. In the end, the number of silicon grains decreases with the increase of crystal length.

  20. Direct fixation of extraocular muscles to a silicone sphere: a cost-sensitive, low-risk enucleation procedure. (United States)

    Wells, Timothy S; Harris, Gerald J


    To describe a simple, cost-sensitive enucleation technique and to evaluate it in the context of intended benefits and long-term outcomes of alternate methods. A retrospective record review of patients who underwent enucleation using the described technique at a single institution by 2 surgeons. Surgery involved direct fixation of extraocular muscles to a solid silicone sphere, using nonabsorbable braided sutures with knots tied beneath the muscle insertions. Outcome measures included implant-related complications. Seventy-five patients meeting inclusion criteria ranged in age from 3 to 94 years (mean, 54 years; median, 56 years). Surgical indications included a blind painful or disrupted eye in 56 cases; uveal melanoma in 15 cases; retinoblastoma in 2 cases; and endophthalmitis in 2 cases. Follow-up intervals ranged from 3 to 57 months (mean, 27 months; median, 22 months). Complications requiring surgical revision of the implant occurred in 2 of the 75 cases (one luxation; one exposure). There were no instances of chronic socket discharge or implant infection. Nonabsorbable-suture attachment of muscles to a solid silicone implant offers an inexpensive enucleation option, with minimal risk of implant migration, exposure, or infection. In light of widespread disaffection with pegging of porous implants, and with no motility advantage of unpegged porous over nonporous implants, consideration should be given to techniques that are equally effective, less costly, and perhaps more reliable.

  1. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby (United States)

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.


    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  2. The effect of different surface treatments of stainless steel crown and different bonding agents on shear bond strength of direct composite resin veneer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajami B


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stainless steel crown (SSC is the most durable and reliable restoration for primary teeth with extensive caries but its metalic appearance has always been a matter of concern. With advances in restorative materials and metal bonding processes, composite veneer has enhanced esthetics of these crowns in clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of SSC to composite resin using different surface treatments and adhesives. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 90 stainless steel crowns were selected. They were mounted in molds and divided into 3 groups of 30 each (S, E and F. In group S (sandblast, buccal surfaces were sandblasted for 5 seconds. In group E (etch acidic gel was applied for 5 minutes and in group F (fissure bur surface roughness was created by fissure diamond bur. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups (SB, AB, P based on different adhesives: Single Bond, All Bond2 and Panavia F. Composite was then bonded to specimens. Cases were incubated in 100% humidity at 37°C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength was measured by Zwick machine with crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test with p0.05 so the two variables were studied separately. No significant difference was observed in mean shear bond strength of composite among the three kinds of adhesives (P>0.05. Similar results were obtained regarding surface treatments (P>0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treating the SSC surface with bur and using single bond adhesive and composite can be used successfully to obtain esthetic results in pediatric restorative treatments.

  3. Hybrid Integrated Platforms for Silicon Photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Bowers


    Full Text Available A review of recent progress in hybrid integrated platforms for silicon photonics is presented. Integration of III-V semiconductors onto silicon-on-insulator substrates based on two different bonding techniques is compared, one comprising only inorganic materials, the other technique using an organic bonding agent. Issues such as bonding process and mechanism, bonding strength, uniformity, wafer surface requirement, and stress distribution are studied in detail. The application in silicon photonics to realize high-performance active and passive photonic devices on low-cost silicon wafers is discussed. Hybrid integration is believed to be a promising technology in a variety of applications of silicon photonics.

  4. Functionalization of N 2 to NH 3 via direct N≡ N bond cleavage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atmospheric N2 can be cleaved directly to yield metal-nitride (before proceeding to the functionalization of N of coordinated N2) and subsequently functionalized to ammonia using M(III)(NMe2)3 (M = W/Mo) as a catalyst, and suitable proton and electron sources. The calculated energies of thermodynamic and kinetic ...

  5. Direct measurement of free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon thin films (United States)

    Shi, Frank G.


    A method is introduced to measure the free-energy barrier W(sup *), the activation energy, and activation entropy to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous solids, independent of the energy barrier to growth. The method allows one to determine the temperature dependence of W(sup *), and the effect of the preparation conditions of the initial amorphous phase, the dopants, and the crystallization methds on W(sup *). The method is applied to determine the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. For thermally induced nucleation in a-Si thin films with annealing temperatures in the range of from 824 to 983 K, the free-energy barrier W(sup *) to nucleation of silicon crystals is about 2.0 - 2.1 eV regardless of the preparation conditions of the films. The observation supports the idea that a-Si transforms into an intermediate amorphous state through the structural relaxation prior to the onset of nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. The observation also indicates that the activation entropy may be an insignificant part of the free-energy barrier for the nucleation of crystallites in a-Si. Compared with the free-energy barrier to nucleation of crystallites in undoped a-Si films, a significant reduction is observed in the free-energy barrier to nucleation in Cu-doped a-Si films. For a-Si under irradiation of Xe(2+) at 10(exp 5) eV, the free-energy barrier to ion-induced nucleation of crystallites is shown to be about half of the value associated with thermal-induced nucleation of crystallites in a-Si under the otherwise same conditions, which is much more significant than previously expected. The present method has a general kinetic basis; it thus should be equally applicable to nucleation of crystallites in any amorphous elemental semiconductors and semiconductor alloys, metallic and polymeric glasses, and to nucleation of crystallites in melts and solutions.

  6. Endodontic treatment and esthetic management of a primary double tooth with direct composite using silicone buildup guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya Kumar Kulkarni


    Full Text Available Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.

  7. Endodontic treatment and esthetic management of a primary double tooth with direct composite using silicone buildup guide. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Ragavendra, T Raju; Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Vanka, Amit; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Patil, Anand Kumar G


    Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.

  8. Design and fabrication of a silicon-based direct methanol fuel cell with a new cathode spoke structure (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Yuan, Zhenyu; Li, Yuling; Jia, Qi; Chen, Song; Liu, Xiaowei


    In this paper, a self-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) featuring a new cathode current collector with a spoke configuration is presented to improve cell performance. Simulation results show that the new spoke structure can effectively increase the efficiency of oxygen mass transport and exhibit higher pressure than the conventional perforated structure. The water transfer to the proton exchange membrane (PEM) is promoted to reduce the PEM resistance with the increase in the membrane water content. Additionally, the effects of the spoke blades on performance were evaluated to determine the optimal cathode structure. The self-breathing μDMFCs with conventional and new cathode structures were fabricated using silicon-based micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies and tested at room temperature with 1 M methanol solution. The experimental results revealed that the spoke cathode structure exhibits significantly higher performance than the conventional structure, showing a substantial 30% increase in peak power density.

  9. Optimization of heat transfer during the directional solidification process of 1600 kg silicon feedstock (United States)

    Hu, Chieh; Chen, Jyh Chen; Nguyen, Thi Hoai Thu; Hou, Zhi Zhong; Chen, Chun Hung; Huang, Yen Hao; Yang, Michael


    In this study, the power ratio between the top and side heaters and the moving velocity of the side insulation are designed to control the shape of the crystal-melt interface during the growth process of a 1600 kg multi-crystalline silicon ingot. The power ratio and insulation gap are adjusted to ensure solidification of the melt. To ensure that the crystal-melt interface is slightly convex in relation to the melt during the entire solidification process, the power ratio should be augmented gradually in the initial stages while being held to a constant value in the middle stages. Initially the gap between the side and the bottom insulation is kept small to reduce thermal stress inside the seed crystals. However, the growth rate will be slow in the early stages of the solidification process. Therefore, the movement of the side insulation is fast in the initial stages but slower in the middle stages. In the later stages, the side insulation gap is fixed. With these modifications, the convexity of the crystal-melt interface in relation to the melt can be maintained during the growth process with an approximately 41% reduction in the thermal stress inside the growing ingot and an 80% reduction in dislocation density along the center line of the ingot compared with the original case.

  10. The structural landscape in 14-vertex clusters of silicon, M@Si14: when two bonding paradigms collide. (United States)

    Jin, Xiao; Arcisauskaite, Vaida; McGrady, John E


    The structural chemistry of the title clusters has been the source of controversy in the computational literature because the identity of the most stable structure appears to be pathologically dependent on the chosen theoretical model. The candidate structures include a D 3h -symmetric 'fullerene-like' isomer with 3-connected vertices (A), an 'arachno' architecture (B) and an octahedral isomer with high vertex connectivities typical of 'closo' electron-deficient clusters (C). The key to understanding these apparently very different structures is the fact that they make use of the limited electron density available from the endohedral metal in very different ways. Early in the transition series the favoured structure is the one that maximises transfer of electron density from the electropositive metal to the cage whereas for later metals it is the one that minimises repulsions with the increasingly core-like d electrons. The varying role of the d electrons across the transition series leads directly to strong functional dependency, and hence to the controversy in the literature.

  11. 25-Gb/s transmission over 2.5-km SSMF by silicon MRR enhanced 1.55-μm III-V/SOI DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Ozolins, Oskars


    a 11-GHz 1.55-μm directly modulated hybrid III-V/SOI DFB laser realized by bonding III-V materials (InGaAlAs) on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and a silicon MRR also fabricated on SOI. Such a transmitter enables error-free transmission (BER5-km SSMF without...

  12. Angular sensitivity of modeled scientific silicon charge-coupled devices to initial electron direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plimley, Brian, E-mail: [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Coffer, Amy; Zhang, Yigong [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Vetter, Kai [Nuclear Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Previously, scientific silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) with 10.5-μm pixel pitch and a thick (650 μm), fully depleted bulk have been used to measure gamma-ray-induced fast electrons and demonstrate electron track Compton imaging. A model of the response of this CCD was also developed and benchmarked to experiment using Monte Carlo electron tracks. We now examine the trade-off in pixel pitch and electronic noise. We extend our CCD response model to different pixel pitch and readout noise per pixel, including pixel pitch of 2.5 μm, 5 μm, 10.5 μm, 20 μm, and 40 μm, and readout noise from 0 eV/pixel to 2 keV/pixel for 10.5 μm pixel pitch. The CCD images generated by this model using simulated electron tracks are processed by our trajectory reconstruction algorithm. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm defines the expected angular sensitivity as a function of electron energy, CCD pixel pitch, and readout noise per pixel. Results show that our existing pixel pitch of 10.5 μm is near optimal for our approach, because smaller pixels add little new information but are subject to greater statistical noise. In addition, we measured the readout noise per pixel for two different device temperatures in order to estimate the effect of temperature on the reconstruction algorithm performance, although the readout is not optimized for higher temperatures. The noise in our device at 240 K increases the FWHM of angular measurement error by no more than a factor of 2, from 26° to 49° FWHM for electrons between 425 keV and 480 keV. Therefore, a CCD could be used for electron-track-based imaging in a Peltier-cooled device.

  13. Enantioselective Intramolecular Hydroarylation of Alkenes via Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hitoshi; Thalji, Reema; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan


    Highly enantioselective catalytic intramolecular ortho-alkylation of aromatic imines containing alkenyl groups tethered at the meta position relative to the imine directing group has been achieved using [RhCl(coe){sub 2}]{sub 2} and chiral phosphoramidite ligands. Cyclization of substrates containing 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted as well as trisubstituted alkenes were achieved with enantioselectivities >90% ee for each substrate class. Cyclization of substrates with Z-alkene isomers proceeded much more efficiently than substrates with E-alkene isomers. This further enabled the highly stereoselective intramolecular alkylation of certain substrates containing Z/E-alkene mixtures via a Rh-catalyzed alkene isomerization with preferential cyclization of the Z-isomer.

  14. Directly UV written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zauner, Dan; Svalgaard, Mikael; Kristensen, Martin


    The photosensitive properties of germanosilica may be utilized to directly induce waveguide patterns into thin-film structures using ultraviolet (UV) light. The advantages of fabricating planar waveguides with UV light include the absence of photolithography and reactive ion etching, flexibility...... in waveguide geometry, and excellent control of the refractive index step. Direct UV writing of waveguides became a realistic alternative to other fabrication methods when propagation losses below 0.2 dB/cm were reported in single-mode waveguides. However, the coupling loss to optical fibers remained high...

  15. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kübra Yıldırım; Banu Sağlam Aydınatay


    Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment...

  16. Pd-catalyzed direct arylation of tautomerizable heterocycles with aryl boronic acids via C-OH bond activation using phosphonium salts. (United States)

    Kang, Fu-An; Sui, Zhihua; Murray, William V


    The first direct arylation via C-OH bond activation of tautomerizable heterocycles has been achieved using phosphonium salts, on the basis of a combination of the phosphonium coupling and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling conditions. Optimal reaction condition is obtained through screening of phosphonium salts, Pd catalysts, and bases. The direct arylation via C-OH bond activation tolerates a variety of tautomerizable heterocycles and aryl boronic acids. The mechanism of the Pd-catalyzed phosphonium coupling is proposed to proceed via a domino seven-step process including the unprecedented heterocycle-Pd(II)-phosphonium species. Application of the Pd-catalyzed direct arylation via C-OH bond activation using PyBroP leads to the most efficient synthesis of the biologically important 6-arylpurine ribonucleoside in a single step from unactivated and unprotected inosine.

  17. Indirect vs direct bonding of mandibular fixed retainers in orthodontic patients: a single-center randomized controlled trial comparing placement time and failure over a 6-month period. (United States)

    Bovali, Efstathia; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Cornelis, Marie A


    The objective of this 2-arm parallel single-center trial was to compare placement time and numbers of failures of mandibular lingual retainers bonded with an indirect procedure vs a direct bonding procedure. Sixty-four consecutive patients at the postgraduate orthodontic clinic of the University of Geneva in Switzerland scheduled for debonding and mandibular fixed retainer placement were randomly allocated to either an indirect bonding procedure or a traditional direct bonding procedure. Eligibility criteria were the presence of the 4 mandibular incisors and the 2 mandibular canines, and no active caries, restorations, fractures, or periodontal disease of these teeth. The patients were randomized in blocks of 4; the randomization sequence was generated using an online randomization service ( Allocation concealment was secured by contacting the sequence generator for treatment assignment; blinding was possible for outcome assessment only. Bonding time was measured for each procedure. Unpaired t tests were used to assess differences in time. Patients were recalled at 1, 2, 4, and 6 months after bonding. Mandibular fixed retainers having at least 1 composite pad debonded were considered as failures. The log-rank test was used to compare the Kaplan-Meier survival curves of both procedures. A test of proportion was applied to compare the failures at 6 months between the treatment groups. Sixty-four patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio. One patient dropped out at baseline after the bonding procedure, and 3 patients did not attend the recalls at 4 and 6 months. Bonding time was significantly shorter for the indirect procedure (321 ± 31 seconds, mean ± SD) than for the direct procedure (401 ± 40 seconds) (per protocol analysis of 63 patients: mean difference = 80 seconds; 95% CI = 62.4-98.1; P technique and 7 of 29 (24%) with the direct technique (log rank: P = 0.35; test of proportions: risk difference = 0.08; 95% CI = -0.15 to

  18. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.


    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  19. Trace analytics in silicon. Electrothermal evaporation for the direct analysis of solid components; Spurenanalytik in Silicium. Elektrothermische Verdampfung zur direkten Feststoffanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Thomas; Tesch, Silke [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie; Hassler, Juergen


    The classical analysis of trace elements in silicon and other semiconductor materials by means of ICP-MS/OES with a previous chemical decomposition is time-consuming, expensive, error-prone and detrimental to the environment due to the chemicals. The coupling of the electrothermal evaporation as a direct manual feeding of solids to an atom emission spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma enables a multi-element trace element in powders and granules of silicon without the disadvantages of a chemical decomposition. The Institute of Analytical Chemistry at the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg (Federal Republic of Germany) currently investigates the opportunities and limits of this method for the analysis of solar silicon within the scope of the project ''RefineS'' funded by the Saechsische Aufbaubank (Dresden, Federal Republic of Germany).

  20. Directionally Solidified Aluminum - 7 wt% Silicon Alloys: Comparison of Earth and International Space Station Processed Samples (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N,; Tewari, Surendra; Rajamure, R. S.; Erdman, Robert; Poirier, David


    Primary dendrite arm spacings of Al-7 wt% Si alloy directionally solidified in low gravity environment of space (MICAST-6 and MICAST-7: Thermal gradient approx. 19 to 26 K/cm, Growth speeds varying from 5 to 50 microns/s show good agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Primary dendrite trunk diameters of the ISS processed samples show a good fit with a simple analytical model based on Kirkwood s approach, proposed here. Natural convection, a) decreases primary dendrite arm spacing. b) appears to increase primary dendrite trunk diameter.

  1. Characterisation of micro direct methanol fuel cells with silicon plate supported integrated ionomer membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jackie Vincent; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Kallesee, C.


    This work deals with the investigation and fabrication of Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (μDMFC). They are investigated as a possible alternative for zinc-air batteries in small size consumer devices such as hearing aids. In such devices the conventional rechargeable batteries such as lithium......-ion batteries have insufficiently low energy density in the range 240 Wh/L to 300 Wh/L Methanol is a promising fuel for such devices due to the high energy density, with pure methanol having an energy density of 4400 Wh/L. Using a liquid fuel also allows refueling, which can be achieved much faster than battery...

  2. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.


    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  3. Estudo in vitro da resistência ao cisalhamento da colagem direta de tubos ortodônticos em molares In vitro study of shear bond strength in direct bonding of orthodontic molar tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Regina Maio Pinzan Vercelino


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: apesar da colagem direta despender menor tempo clínico, com maior preservação da integridade gengival, ainda hoje se observa uma alta incidência de bandagem dos molares. Portanto, torna-se interessante a idealização de recursos para o aumento da eficiência desse procedimento para dentes submetidos a maiores impactos mastigatórios, como, por exemplo, os molares. OBJETIVO: esse estudo teve o propósito de avaliar se a resistência à adesão com a aplicação de uma camada de resina adicional na região oclusal da interface tubo/dente aumenta a qualidade do procedimento de colagem direta de tubos em molares. MÉTODOS: selecionou-se uma amostra composta por 40 terceiros molares inferiores, que foram aleatoriamente divididos em 2 grupos: Grupo 1 - colagem direta convencional, seguida pela aplicação de uma camada de resina na oclusal da interface tubo/dente; e Grupo 2 - colagem direta convencional. O teste de resistência ao cisalhamento foi realizado 24 horas após a colagem, utilizando-se uma máquina de ensaio universal, operando a uma velocidade de 0,5mm/min. Os resultados foram analisados por meio do teste t independente. RESULTADOS: os valores médios obtidos nos testes de cisalhamento foram: 17,08MPa para o Grupo 1 e 12,60MPa para o Grupo 2. O Grupo 1 apresentou uma resistência ao cisalhamento estatisticamente significativa mais alta do que o Grupo 2. CONCLUSÃO: a aplicação de uma camada adicional de resina na oclusal da interface tubo/dente aumenta a qualidade da adesão do procedimento de colagem direta de tubos ortodônticos em molares.OBJECTIVE: Although direct bonding takes up less clinical time and ensures increased preservation of gingival health, the banding of molar teeth is still widespread nowadays. It would therefore be convenient to devise methods capable of increasing the efficiency of this procedure, notably for teeth subjected to substantial masticatory impact, such as molars. This study was

  4. Hybrid III-V/silicon lasers (United States)

    Kaspar, P.; Jany, C.; Le Liepvre, A.; Accard, A.; Lamponi, M.; Make, D.; Levaufre, G.; Girard, N.; Lelarge, F.; Shen, A.; Charbonnier, P.; Mallecot, F.; Duan, G.-H.; Gentner, J.-.; Fedeli, J.-M.; Olivier, S.; Descos, A.; Ben Bakir, B.; Messaoudene, S.; Bordel, D.; Malhouitre, S.; Kopp, C.; Menezo, S.


    The lack of potent integrated light emitters is one of the bottlenecks that have so far hindered the silicon photonics platform from revolutionizing the communication market. Photonic circuits with integrated light sources have the potential to address a wide range of applications from short-distance data communication to long-haul optical transmission. Notably, the integration of lasers would allow saving large assembly costs and reduce the footprint of optoelectronic products by combining photonic and microelectronic functionalities on a single chip. Since silicon and germanium-based sources are still in their infancy, hybrid approaches using III-V semiconductor materials are currently pursued by several research laboratories in academia as well as in industry. In this paper we review recent developments of hybrid III-V/silicon lasers and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of several integration schemes. The integration approach followed in our laboratory makes use of wafer-bonded III-V material on structured silicon-on-insulator substrates and is based on adiabatic mode transfers between silicon and III-V waveguides. We will highlight some of the most interesting results from devices such as wavelength-tunable lasers and AWG lasers. The good performance demonstrates that an efficient mode transfer can be achieved between III-V and silicon waveguides and encourages further research efforts in this direction.

  5. Small cycloalkane (CN)2C-C(CN)2 structures are highly directional non-covalent carbon-bond donors. (United States)

    Bauzá, Antonio; Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Frontera, Antonio


    High-level calculations (RI-MP2/def2-TZVP) disclosed that the σ-hole in between two C atoms of cycloalkane X2 CCX2 structures (X=F, CN) is increasingly exposed with decreasing ring size. The interacting energy of complexes of F(-) , HO(-) , N≡C(-) , and H2 CO with cyclopropane and cyclobutane X2 CCX2 derivatives was calculated. For X=F, these energies are small to positive, while for X=CN they are all negative, ranging from -6.8 to -42.3 kcal mol(-1) . These finding are corroborated by a thorough statistical survey of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). No clear evidence could be found in support of non-covalent carbon bonding between electron-rich atoms (El.R.) and F2 CCF2 structures. In marked contrast, El.R.⋅⋅⋅(CN)2 CC(CN)2 interactions are abundant and highly directional. Based on these findings, the hydrophobic electrophilic bowl formed by 1,1',2,2'-tetracyano cyclopropane or cyclobutane derivatives is proposed as a new and synthetically accessible supramolecular synthon. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Ionic liquid [OMIm][OAc] directly inducing oxidation cleavage of the β-O-4 bond of lignin model compounds. (United States)

    Yang, Yingying; Fan, Honglei; Meng, Qinglei; Zhang, Zhaofu; Yang, Guanying; Han, Buxing


    We explored the oxidation reactions of lignin model compounds directly induced by ionic liquids under metal-free conditions. In this work, it was found that ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate as a solvent could promote the aerobic oxidation of lignin model compound 2-phenoxyacetophenone (1) and the yields of phenol and benzoic acid from 1 could be as high as 96% and 86%, respectively. A possible reaction pathway was proposed based on a series of control experiments. An acetate anion from the ionic liquid attacked the hydrogen from the β-carbon thereby inducing the cleavage of the C-O bond of the aromatic ether. Furthermore, it was found that 2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-1-phenylethanone (4) with a methoxyl group could also be transformed into aromatic products in this simple reaction system and the yields of phenol and benzoic acid from 4 could be as high as 98% and 85%, respectively. This work provides a simple way for efficient transformation of lignin model compounds.

  7. Note: Anodic bonding with cooling of heat-sensitive areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Olsen, Jakob Lind; Henriksen, Toke Riishøj


    Anodic bonding of silicon to glass always involves heating the glass and device to high temperatures so that cations become mobile in the electric field. We present a simple way of bonding thin silicon samples to borosilicate glass by means of heating from the glass side while locally cooling heat......-sensitive areas from the silicon side. Despite the high thermal conductivity of silicon, this method allows a strong anodic bond to form just millimeters away from areas essentially at room temperature....

  8. Probing the importance of hydrogen bonds in the active site of the subtilisin nattokinase by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics simulation. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong-liang; Ye, Mao-qing; Zuo, Zhen-yu; Liu, Zhi-gang; Tai, Keng-chang; Zou, Guo-lin


    Hydrogen bonds occurring in the catalytic triad (Asp32, His64 and Ser221) and the oxyanion hole (Asn155) are very important to the catalysis of peptide bond hydrolysis by serine proteases. For the subtilisin NK (nattokinase), a bacterial serine protease, construction and analysis of a three-dimensional structural model suggested that several hydrogen bonds formed by four residues function to stabilize the transition state of the hydrolysis reaction. These four residues are Ser33, Asp60, Ser62 and Thr220. In order to remove the effect of these hydrogen bonds, four mutants (Ser33-->Ala33, Asp60-->Ala60, Ser62-->Ala62, and Thr220-->Ala220) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The results of enzyme kinetics indicated that removal of these hydrogen bonds increases the free-energy of the transition state (DeltaDeltaG(T)). We concluded that these hydrogen bonds are more important for catalysis than for binding the substrate, because removal of these bonds mainly affects the kcat but not the K(m) values. A substrate, SUB1 (succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide), was used during enzyme kinetics experiments. In the present study we have also shown the results of FEP (free-energy perturbation) calculations with regard to the binding and catalysis reactions for these mutant subtilisins. The calculated difference in FEP also suggested that these four residues are more important for catalysis than binding of the substrate, and the simulated values compared well with the experimental values from enzyme kinetics. The results of MD (molecular dynamics) simulations further demonstrated that removal of these hydrogen bonds partially releases Asp32, His64 and Asn155 so that the stability of the transition state decreases. Another substrate, SUB2 (H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-p-nitroanilide), was used for FEP calculations and MD simulations.

  9. Direct local solvent probing by transient infrared spectroscopy reveals the mechanism of hydrogen-bond induced nonradiative deactivation. (United States)

    Dereka, Bogdan; Vauthey, Eric


    The fluorescence quenching of organic dyes via H-bonding interactions is a well-known phenomenon. However, the mechanism of this Hydrogen-Bond Induced Nonradiative Deactivation (HBIND) is not understood. Insight into this process is obtained by probing in the infrared the O-H stretching vibration of the solvent after electronic excitation of a dye with H-bond accepting cyano groups. The fluorescence lifetime of this dye was previously found to decrease from 1.5 ns to 110 ps when going from an aprotic solvent to the strongly protic hexafluoroisopropanol (HFP). Prompt strengthening of the H-bond with the dye was identified by the presence of a broad positive O-H band of HFP, located at lower frequency than the O-H band of the pure solvent. Further strengthening occurs within a few picoseconds before the excited H-bonded complex decays to the ground state in 110 ps. The latter process is accompanied by the dissipation of energy from the dye to the solvent and the rise of a characteristic hot solvent band in the transient spectrum. Polarization-resolved measurements evidence a collinear alignment of the nitrile and hydroxyl groups in the H-bonded complex, which persists during the whole excited-state lifetime. Measurements in other fluorinated alcohols and in chloroform/HFP mixtures reveal that the HBIND efficiency depends not only on the strength of the H-bond interactions between the dye and the solvent but also on the ability of the solvent to form an extended H-bond network. The HBIND process can be viewed as an enhanced internal conversion of an excited complex consisting of the dye molecule connected to a large H-bond network.

  10. Application of factorial design and Doehlert matrix in the optimisation of instrumental parameters for direct determination of silicon in naphtha using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry


    Amaro, Joana Angélica de Azerêdo; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa


    p. 246 – 249 A method for direct determination of silicon in naphtha samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) is proposed. The optimisation of the instrumental conditions was multivariate using a fractional factorial design and Doehlert matrix. Firstly, the fractional factorial design was performed for preliminary evaluation of the significance of the factors, the factors chosen being: sample volume, atomisation temperature, pyrolysis time and pyrolysis temp...

  11. Nano-laminate vs. direct deposition of high permittivity gadolinium scandate on silicon by high pressure sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: [Dpto. Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. de CC. Físicas. Av/Complutense S/N, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pampillón, M.A.; San Andrés, E. [Dpto. Física Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electrónica), Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. de CC. Físicas. Av/Complutense S/N, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Fierro, J.L.G. [Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, C/Marie Curie 2, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain)


    In this work we use the high pressure sputtering technique to deposit the high permittivity dielectric gadolinium scandate on silicon substrates. This nonconventional deposition technique prevents substrate damage and allows for growth of ternary compounds with controlled composition. Two different approaches were assessed: the first one consists of depositing the material directly from a stoichiometric GdScO{sub 3} target; in the second one, we anneal a nano-laminate of < 0.5 nm thick Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} films in order to control the composition of the scandate. Metal–insulator–semiconductor capacitors were fabricated with platinum gates for electrical characterization. Accordingly, we grew a Gd-rich Gd{sub 2−x}Sc{sub x}O{sub 3} film that, in spite of higher leakage currents, presents a better effective relative permittivity of 21 and lower density of defects. - Highlights: • GdScO is deposited on Si as a high permittivity dielectric by two procedures. • Films sputtered from GdScO{sub 3} target are Sc-rich and present thick interface SiO{sub x}. • Gd-rich GdScO is obtained from a nano-laminate sputtered from Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • Gd{sub 1.8}Sc{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} shows good effective permittivity and electrical properties.

  12. Self-Assembly of Chip-Size Components with Cavity Structures: High-Precision Alignment and Direct Bonding without Thermal Compression for Hetero Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsumasa Koyanagi


    Full Text Available New surface mounting and packaging technologies, using self-assembly with chips having cavity structures, were investigated for three-dimensional (3D and hetero integration of complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS. By the surface tension of small droplets of 0.5 wt% hydrogen fluoride (HF aqueous solution, the cavity chips, with a side length of 3 mm, were precisely aligned to hydrophilic bonding regions on the surface of plateaus formed on Si substrates. The plateaus have micro-channels to readily evaporate and fully remove the liquid from the cavities. The average alignment accuracy of the chips with a 1 mm square cavity was found to be 0.4 mm. The alignment accuracy depends, not only on the area of the bonding regions on the substrates and the length of chip periphery without the widths of channels in the plateaus, but also the area wetted by the liquid on the bonding regions. The precisely aligned chips were then directly bonded to the substrates at room temperature without thermal compression, resulting in a high shear bonding strength of more than 10 MPa.

  13. An All-Integrated Anode via Interlinked Chemical Bonding between Double-Shelled-Yolk-Structured Silicon and Binder for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Liu, Yajie; Tai, Zhixin; Zhou, Tengfei; Sencadas, Vitor; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Guo, Zaiping; Liu, Hua Kun


    The concept of an all-integrated design with multifunctionalization is widely employed in optoelectronic devices, sensors, resonator systems, and microfluidic devices, resulting in benefits for many ongoing research projects. Here, maintaining structural/electrode stability against large volume change by means of an all-integrated design is realized for silicon anodes. An all-integrated silicon anode is achieved via multicomponent interlinking among carbon@void@silica@silicon (CVSS) nanospheres and cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose and citric acid polymer binder (c-CMC-CA). Due to the additional protection from the silica layer, CVSS is superior to the carbon@void@silicon (CVS) electrode in terms of long-term cyclability. The as-prepared all-integrated CVSS electrode exhibits high mechanical strength, which can be ascribed to the high adhesivity and ductility of c-CMC-CA binder and the strong binding energy between CVSS and c-CMC-CA, as calculated based on density functional theory (DFT). This electrode exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1640 mA h g -1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 1 A g -1 , high rate performance, and long-term cycling stability with 84.6% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 5 A g -1 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Detachment of Tertiary Dendrite Arms during Controlled Directional Solidification in Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Observations from Ground-based and Microgravity Processed Samples (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert; Van Hoose, James R.; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David


    Electron Back Scattered Diffraction results from cross-sections of directionally solidified aluminum 7wt% silicon alloys unexpectedly revealed tertiary dendrite arms that were detached and mis-oriented from their parent arm. More surprisingly, the same phenomenon was observed in a sample similarly processed in the quiescent microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in support of the joint US-European MICAST investigation. The work presented here includes a brief introduction to MICAST and the directional solidification facilities, and their capabilities, available aboard the ISS. Results from the ground-based and microgravity processed samples are compared and possible mechanisms for the observed tertiary arm detachment are suggested.

  15. Catalytic functionalization of unactivated sp3 C-H bonds via exo-directing groups: synthesis of chemically differentiated 1,2-diols. (United States)

    Ren, Zhi; Mo, Fanyang; Dong, Guangbin


    We describe a Pd-catalyzed site-selective functionalization of unactivated aliphatic C-H bonds, providing chemically differentiated 1,2-diols from monoalcohol derivatives. The oxime was employed as both a directing group (DG) and an alcohol surrogate for this transformation. As demonstrated in a range of substrates, the C-H bonds β to the oxime group are selectively oxidized. Besides activation of the methyl groups, methylene groups (CH(2)) in cyclic substrates and methine groups (CH) at bridge-head positions can also be functionalized. In addition, an intriguing oxidative skeleton rearrangement was observed using the menthol-derived substrate. The use of exo-directing groups in C-H activation, as illustrated in this work, would potentially open doors for the discovery of new transformations and new cleavable DGs.

  16. Electron-Induced (EI Mass Fragmentation is Directed by Intra- molecular H-Bonding in Two Isomeric Benzodipyran Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mabic


    Full Text Available The striking differences observed in the electron-induced (EI mass fragmentationpathways of two isomeric benzodipyrans are attributable to hydrogen bonding in thesemolecules. In the "angular" isomer, 6-butyryl-5-hydroxy-2,2,8,8-tetramethyl-3,4,9,10-tetra-hydro-2H,8H-benzo[1,2-b:3,4-b1]dipyran (2, H-bonding occurs between the aromatic OHgroup and the alpha carbonyl moiety contained in the ortho-phenone group, whereas in the"linear" isomer, 10-butyryl-5-hydroxy-2,2,8,8-tetramethyl-3,4,6,7-tetrahydro-2H,8H-benzo-[1,2-b:5,4-b1]dipyran (3, the aromatic OH group is para to the phenone moiety, effectivelyprecluding any H-bonding. Semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations (AM1 were used tocompare predicted sites of ionization with associated fragmentation patterns. In bothmolecules, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO was located predominantly on thearomatic moiety. Similarly, in the radical cation species of both compounds, maximum spindensity was located over the aromatic rings. Neither the HOMO nor the spin density mapsprovided a rational explanation for the differences in fragmentation patterns of the twobenzodipyran isomers. The H-bonding favors EI alpha aromatic ring C-O bond cleavage in the"angular" benzodipyran and in 5,7-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-8-butyryl chroman (1, a relatedmonochroman also containing a hydrogen proximal to the aromatic ring C-O bond. In contrast,fragmentation of the "linear" benzodipyran followed a different route, which was exhibited byits base peak resulting from the loss of a propyl group from the butyryl side-chain.

  17. Tomographic Evaluation of Reparative Dentin Formation after Direct Pulp Capping with Ca(OH)2, MTA, Biodentine, and Dentin Bonding System in Human Teeth. (United States)

    Nowicka, Alicja; Wilk, Grażyna; Lipski, Mariusz; Kołecki, Janusz; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga


    New materials can increase the efficiency of pulp capping through the formation of a complete reparative dentin bridge with no toxic effects. The present study involved tomographic evaluations of reparative dentin bridge formation after direct pulp capping with calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France), and Single Bond Universal (3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) in human teeth. Forty-four caries-free, intact, human third molars scheduled for extraction were subjected to mechanical pulp exposure and assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups depending on the pulp capping agent used: calcium hydroxide, MTA, Biodentine, or Single Bond Universal. After 6 weeks, the teeth were extracted and processed for cone-beam computed tomographic imaging and histologic examination. Tomographic data, including the density and volume of formed reparative dentin bridges, were evaluated using a scoring system. The reparative dentin formed in the calcium hydroxide, MTA, and Biodentine groups was significantly superior to that formed in the Single Bond Universal group in terms of thickness and volume. The dentin bridges in the Biodentine group showed the highest average and maximum volumes. The mean density of dentin bridges was the highest in the MTA group and the lowest in the Single Bond Universal group. The volume of reparative dentin bridges formed after direct pulp capping is dependent on the material used. Biodentine and MTA resulted in the formation of bridges with a significantly higher average volume compared with Single Bond Universal, and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging allowed for the identification of the location of dentin bridges. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Mechanical Stirring on the Crucible Dissolution Rate and Impurities Distribution in Directional Solidification of Multicrystalline Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Alexandra


    Full Text Available In this study, time dependent three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out using the STHAMAS3D software in order to understand the effects of forced convection induced by mechanical stirring of the melt, on the crucible dissolution rate and on the impurities distribution in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si melt for different values of the diffusion coefficient.

  19. Influence of Mechanical Stirring on the Crucible Dissolution Rate and Impurities Distribution in Directional Solidification of Multicrystalline Silicon


    Popescu Alexandra; Vizman Daniel


    In this study, time dependent three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out using the STHAMAS3D software in order to understand the effects of forced convection induced by mechanical stirring of the melt, on the crucible dissolution rate and on the impurities distribution in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) melt for different values of the diffusion coefficient.

  20. Direct observation and measurements of neutron induced deep levels responsible for N{sub eff} changes in high resistivity silicon detectors using TCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E. [AN SSSR, Leningrad (Russian Federation). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.


    Neutron induced deep levels responsible for changes of space charge concentration {ital N{sub eff}} in high resistivity silicon detectors have been observed directly using the transient current technique (TCT). It has been observed by TCT that the absolute value and sign of {ital N{sub eff}} experience changes due to the trapping of non- equilibrium free carriers generated near the surface (about 5 micrometers depth into the silicon) by short wavelength laser pulses in fully depleted detectors. Electron trapping causes {ital N{sub eff}} to change toward negative direction (or more acceptor-like space charges) and hole trapping causes {ital N{sub eff}} to change toward positive direction (or more donor-like space charges). The specific temperature associated with these {ital N{sub eff}} changes are those of the frozen-up temperatures for carrier emission of the corresponding deep levels. The carrier capture cross sections of various deep levels have been measured directly using different free carrier injection schemes. 10 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Low-temperature glass bonding for sensor application using boron oxide thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Bouwstra, S.; Bouwstra, Siebe; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    Low-temperature glass bonding of silicon, silicon dioxide and silicon nitride is described. Boron oxide was used as the intermediate glass layer at a bonding temperature of 450°C. First experiments indicate that due to reflow and deformation of the molten glass layer, bonding over metal patterns is

  2. Exploring the Nature of Silicon-Noble Gas Bonds in H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi Compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Pan


    Full Text Available Ab initio and density functional theory-based computations are performed to investigate the structure and stability of H3SiNgNSi and HSiNgNSi compounds (Ng = Xe, Rn. They are thermochemically unstable with respect to the dissociation channel producing Ng and H3SiNSi or HSiNSi. However, they are kinetically stable with respect to this dissociation channel having activation free energy barriers of 19.3 and 23.3 kcal/mol for H3SiXeNSi and H3SiRnNSi, respectively, and 9.2 and 12.8 kcal/mol for HSiXeNSi and HSiRnNSi, respectively. The rest of the possible dissociation channels are endergonic in nature at room temperature for Rn analogues. However, one three-body dissociation channel for H3SiXeNSi and one two-body and one three-body dissociation channels for HSiXeNSi are slightly exergonic in nature at room temperature. They become endergonic at slightly lower temperature. The nature of bonding between Ng and Si/N is analyzed by natural bond order, electron density and energy decomposition analyses. Natural population analysis indicates that they could be best represented as (H3SiNg+(NSi− and (HSiNg+(NSi−. Energy decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution from the orbital term (ΔEorb is dominant (ca. 67%–75% towards the total attraction energy associated with the Si-Ng bond, whereas the electrostatic term (ΔEelstat contributes the maximum (ca. 66%–68% for the same in the Ng–N bond, implying the covalent nature of the former bond and the ionic nature of the latter.

  3. Direct observation of crystallization of HfO{sub 2} promoted on silicon surfaces in gate dielectric stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suhyun, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Oshima, Yoshifumi [Research Center for Ultra HVEM, Osaka University, 7-1 Mihogaoka, Osaka, Ibaraki 567-0047 (Japan); Nakajima, Nobue; Hashikawa, Naoto; Asayama, Kyoichiro [Renesas Electronics Corporation, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8588 (Japan); Takayanagi, Kunio [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)


    High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the crystallization mechanism of amorphous hafnium dioxide (HfO{sub 2}) layers in gate stacks (polysilicon/HfO{sub 2}/SiON/Si substrate). A 0.9-nm-thick HfO{sub 2} layer remained amorphous with a uniform thickness on annealing at 1050 Degree-Sign C. In contrast, crystalline islands with a cubic structure formed when a 1.8-nm-thick HfO{sub 2} layer was annealed. These islands had commensurate interfaces with both the silicon substrate and the polysilicon film. These results suggest that crystallization is promoted on a silicon surface.

  4. Influence of Mechanical Stirring on the Crucible Dissolution Rate and Impurities Distribution in Directional Solidification of Multicrystalline Silicon (United States)

    Popescu, Alexandra; Vizman, Daniel


    In this study, time dependent three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out using the STHAMAS3D software in order to understand the effects of forced convection induced by mechanical stirring of the melt, on the crucible dissolution rate and on the impurities distribution in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) melt for different values of the diffusion coefficient. Numerical simulations were performed on a pilot scale furnace with crucible dimensions of 38x38x40cm3. The computational domain used for the local 3D-simulations consists of melt and crystal. The dissolution rate was estimated from the total mass of impurities that was found in the silicon melt after a certain period of time. The obtained results show that enhanced convection produced by a mechanical stirrer leads to a significant increase of the dissolution rate and also to a uniform distribution of impurities in the melt.

  5. Numerical study of the influence of forced melt convection on the impurities transport in a silicon directional solidification process (United States)

    Popescu, Alexandra; Vizman, Daniel


    Time dependent three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out in order to understand the effects of forced convection induced by electromagnetic stirring of the melt, on the crucible dissolution rate and on the impurity distribution in multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) melt for different values of the diffusion coefficient and electric and magnetic field parameters. Once the electromagnetic stirring is switched on, in a relative short period of time approx. 400 s the impurities are almost homogenized in the whole melt. The dissolution rate was estimated from the total mass of impurities that was found in the silicon melt after a certain period of time. The obtained results show that enhanced convection produced by the electromagnetic stirring leads to a moderate increase of the dissolution rate and also to a uniform distribution of impurities in the melt.

  6. Direct probing of micromechanical properties of hydrogen-bonded layer-by-layer microcapsule shells with different chemical compositions. (United States)

    Lisunova, Milana O; Drachuk, Irina; Shchepelina, Olga A; Anderson, Kyle D; Tsukruk, Vladimir V


    The mechanical properties of hydrogen-bonded layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsule shells constructed from tannic acid (TA) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVPON) components have been studied in both the dry and swollen states. In the dry state, the value of the elastic modulus was measured to be within 0.6-0.7 GPa, which is lower than the typical elastic modulus for electrostatically assembled LbL shells. Threefold swelling of the LbL shells in water results in a significant reduction of the elastic modulus to values well below 1 MPa, which is typical value seen for highly compliant gel materials. The increase of the molecular weight of the PVPON component from 55 to 1300 kDa promotes chain entanglements and causes a stiffening of the LbL shells with a more than 2-fold increase in elastic modulus value. Moreover, adding a polyethylenimine prime layer to the LbL shell affects the growth of hydrogen-bonded multilayers which consequently results in dramatically stiffer, thicker, and rougher LbL shells with the elastic modulus increasing by more than an order of magnitude, up to 4.3 MPa. An alternation of the elastic properties of very compliant hydrogen-bonded shells by variation of molecular weight is a characteristic feature of weakly bonded LbL shells. Such an ability to alter the elastic modulus in a wide range is critically important for the design of highly compliant microcapsules with tunable mechanical stability, loading ability, and permeability. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. A General Method for Aminoquinoline-Directed, Copper-Catalyzed sp2 C?H Bond Amination


    Roane, James; Daugulis, Olafs


    An operationally simple and general method for copper-catalyzed, aminoquinoline-assisted amination of ?-C(sp2)-H bonds of benzoic acid derivatives is reported. The reaction employs Cu(OAc)2 or (CuOH)2CO3 catalysts, an amine coupling partner, and oxygen from air as a terminal oxidant. Exceptionally high generality with respect to amine coupling partners is observed. Specifically, primary and secondary aliphatic and aromatic amines, heterocycles, such as indoles, pyrazole, and carbazole, sulfon...

  8. High-resolution computer-generated reflection holograms with three-dimensional effects written directly on a silicon surface by a femtosecond laser. (United States)

    Wædegaard, Kristian J; Balling, Peter


    An infrared femtosecond laser has been used to write computer-generated holograms directly on a silicon surface. The high resolution offered by short-pulse laser ablation is employed to write highly detailed holograms with resolution up to 111 kpixels/mm2. It is demonstrated how three-dimensional effects can be realized in computer-generated holograms. Three-dimensional effects are visualized as a relative motion between different parts of the holographic reconstruction, when the hologram is moved relative to the reconstructing laser beam. Potential security applications are briefly discussed.

  9. A thin tracheal silicone washer to solve periprosthetic leakage in laryngectomies: direct results and long-term clinical effects. (United States)

    Hilgers, Frans J M; Soolsma, Jessica; Ackerstaff, Annemieke H; Balm, Fons J M; Tan, I Bing; van den Brekel, Michiel W M


    Assessment of the immediate results and long-term clinical effects of a thin silicone washer placed behind the tracheal flange of voice prostheses to treat periprosthetic leakage. Three year retrospective analysis of 32 laryngectomized patients with 107 periprosthetic leakage events (PLEs). Custom-made silicone washers (outer diameter 18 mm, inner diameter 7.5 mm, thickness 0.5 mm) were placed behind the tracheal flange either in combination with prosthesis replacement or later. There was immediate resolution of periprosthetic leakage in 88 PLEs (median, 38 d; mean, 53 d; range, 8-330 d) and in 6 PLEs with the washer still in situ at the date of analysis (median, 75; mean, 97 d; range, 38-240 d). There was no resolution for periprosthetic leakage in 13 PLEs. Thus, in total, 94 of 107 PLEs (88%) were successfully resolved. In 29 of 32 (91%) patients, the washer resolved the problem at least in one PLE successfully. Twelve of 32 patients, including all 3 with washer failures, also required other interventions to ultimately solve the problem. The vast majority of patients (80%) did not consider placement of the washer to be inconvenient. In consideration of the high success rate and limited inconvenience for patients, this simple thin silicon washer application provides a good first option for the treatment of periprosthetic leakage.

  10. Detective quantum efficiency, modulation transfer function and energy resolution comparison between CdTe and silicon sensors bump-bonded to XPAD3S. (United States)

    Medjoubi, Kadda; Bucaille, Thierry; Hustache, Stéphanie; Bérar, Jean François; Boudet, Nathalie; Clemens, Jean Claude; Delpierre, Pierre; Dinkespiler, Bernard


    XPAD3S is a single-photon-counting chip developed in collaboration by SOLEIL Synchrotron, the Institut Louis Néel and the Centre de Physique de Particules de Marseille. The circuit, designed in the 0.25 microm IBM technology, contains 9600 square pixels with 130 microm side giving a total size of 1 cm x 1.5 cm. The main features of each pixel are: single threshold adjustable from 4.5 keV up to 35 keV, 2 ms frame rate, 10(7) photons s(-1) mm(-2) maximum local count rate, and a 12-bit internal counter with overflow allowing a full 27-bit dynamic range to be reached. The XPAD3S was hybridized using the flip-chip technology with both a 500 microm silicon sensor and a 700 microm CdTe sensor with Schottky contacts. Imaging performances of both detectors were evaluated using X-rays from 6 keV up to 35 keV. The detective quantum efficiency at zero line-pairs mm(-1) for a silicon sensor follows the absorption law whereas for CdTe a strong deficit at low photon energy, produced by an inefficient entrance layer, is measured. The modulation transfer function was evaluated and it was shown that both detectors present an ideal modulation transfer function at 26 keV, limited only by the pixel size. The influence of the Cd and Te K-edges of the CdTe sensor was measured and simulated, establishing that fluorescence photons reduce the contrast transfer at the Nyquist frequency from 60% to 40% which remains acceptable. The energy resolution was evaluated at 6% with silicon using 16 keV X-rays, and 8% with CdTe using 35 keV X-rays. A 7 cm x 12 cm XPAD3 imager, built with eight silicon modules (seven circuits per module) tiled together, was successfully used for X-ray diffraction experiments. A first result recently obtained with a new 2 cm x 3 cm CdTe imager is also presented.

  11. Comparing n- and p-type polycrystalline silicon absorbers in thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deckers, J. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 94, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Bourgeois, E. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Jivanescu, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Abass, A. [Photonics Research Group (INTEC), Ghent University-imec, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 41, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Gestel, D.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, K.; Douhard, B. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); D' Haen, J.; Nesladek, M.; Manca, J. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Gordon, I.; Bender, H. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Stesmans, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); Mertens, R.; Poortmans, J. [imec, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium); ESAT, KU Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierlaan 94, B-3001 Heverlee, Leuven (Belgium)


    We have investigated fine grained polycrystalline silicon thin films grown by direct chemical vapor deposition on oxidized silicon substrates. More specifically, we analyze the influence of the doping type on the properties of this model polycrystalline silicon material. This includes an investigation of defect passivation and benchmarking of minority carrier properties. In our investigation, we use a variety of characterization techniques to probe the properties of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin films, including Fourier Transform Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Electron Spin Resonance, Conductivity Activation, and Suns-Voc measurements. Amphoteric silicon dangling bond defects are identified as the most prominent defect type present in these layers. They are the primary recombination center in the relatively lowly doped polysilicon thin films at the heart of the current investigation. In contrast with the case of solar cells based on Czochralski silicon or multicrystalline silicon wafers, we conclude that no benefit is found to be associated with the use of n-type dopants over p-type dopants in the active absorber of the investigated polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. - Highlights: • Comparison of n- and p-type absorbers for thin-film poly-Si solar cells • Extensive characterization of the investigated layers' characteristics • Literature review pertaining the use of n-type and p-type dopants in silicon.

  12. Bubble evolution mechanism and stress-induced crystallization in low-temperature silicon wafer bonding based on a thin intermediate amorphous Ge layer (United States)

    Ke, Shaoying; Lin, Shaoming; Ye, Yujie; Mao, Danfeng; Huang, Wei; Xu, Jianfang; Li, Cheng; Chen, Songyan


    The dependence of the morphology and crystallinity of an amorphous Ge (a-Ge) interlayer between two Si wafers on the annealing temperature is identified to understand the bubble evolution mechanism. The effect of a-Ge layer thickness on the bubble density and size at different annealing temperatures is also clearly clarified. It suggests that the bubble density is significantly affected by the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer. With the increase of the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer, the bubble density decreases. It is important that a near-bubble-free Ge interface, which is also an oxide-free interface, is achieved when the bonded Si wafers (a-Ge layer thickness  ⩾  20 nm) are annealed at 400 °C. Furthermore, the crystallization temperature of the a-Ge between the bonded Si wafers is lower than that on a Si substrate alone and the Ge grains firstly form at the Ge/Ge bonded interface, rather than the Ge/Si interface. We believe that the stress-induced crystallization of a-Ge film and the intermixing of Ge atoms at the Ge/Ge interface can be responsible for this feature.

  13. Silicon web process development (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.


    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  14. 2-nitroveratryl as a photocleavable thiol-protecting group for directed disulfide bond formation in the chemical synthesis of insulin. (United States)

    Karas, John A; Scanlon, Denis B; Forbes, Briony E; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J; Gardiner, James; Separovic, Frances; Wade, John D; Hossain, Mohammed A


    Chemical synthesis of peptides can allow the option of sequential formation of multiple cysteines through exploitation of judiciously chosen regioselective thiol-protecting groups. We report the use of 2-nitroveratryl (oNv) as a new orthogonal group that can be cleaved by photolysis under ambient conditions. In combination with complementary S-pyridinesulfenyl activation, disulfide bonds are formed rapidly in situ. The preparation of Fmoc-Cys(oNv)-OH is described together with its use for the solid-phase synthesis of complex cystine-rich peptides, such as insulin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A General Method for Aminoquinoline-Directed, Copper-Catalyzed sp(2) C-H Bond Amination. (United States)

    Roane, James; Daugulis, Olafs


    An operationally simple and general method for copper-catalyzed, aminoquinoline-assisted amination of β-C(sp(2))-H bonds of benzoic acid derivatives is reported. The reaction employs Cu(OAc)2 or (CuOH)2CO3 catalysts, an amine coupling partner, and oxygen from air as a terminal oxidant. Exceptionally high generality with respect to amine coupling partners is observed. Specifically, primary and secondary aliphatic and aromatic amines, heterocycles, such as indoles, pyrazole, and carbazole, sulfonamides, as well as electron-deficient aromatic and heteroaromatic amines are competent coupling components.

  16. Sealing of cavities with lateral feed-throughs by anodic bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fléron, René; Jensen, Flemming


    The SESiBon(1)) project under the EU Growth programme has focussed on the investigation and exploitation of various silicon bonding techniques. Both standard silicon to pyrex wafer bonding and the more advanced silicon-to-silicon thin film anodic bonding has been investigated. Here we present...... the results of the work done to enable bonding of structured wafer surfaces, allowing lateral feed-throughs into sealed cavities.Lateral feed throughs are formed by means of RIE in a high-doped poly-silicon film deposited on an oxidized 4" silicon wafer. Next a BPSG (Boron Phosphorus Silicate Glass) layer...

  17. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming


    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  18. Non-coordinating-Anion-Directed Reversal of Activation Site: Selective C-H Bond Activation of N-Aryl Rings. (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Yu, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiang; Ge, Bingyang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yaxuan


    An Rh-catalyzed selective C-H bond activation of diaryl-substituted anilides is described. In an attempt to achieve C-H activation of C-aryl rings, we unexpectedly obtained an N-aryl ring product under non-coordinating anion conditions, whereas the C-aryl ring product was obtained in the absence of a non-coordinating anion. This methodology has proved to be an excellent means of tuning and adjusting selective C-H bond activation of C-aryl and N-aryl rings. The approach has been rationalized by mechanistic studies and theoretical calculations. In addition, it has been found and verified that the catalytic activity of the rhodium catalyst is obviously improved by non-coordinating anions, which provides an efficient strategy for obtaining a highly chemoselective catalyst. Mechanistic experiments also unequivocally ruled out the possibility of a so-called "silver effect" in this transformation involving silver. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Heteroarene-Directed Oxidative sp(2) C-H Bond Allylation with Aliphatic Alkenes Catalyzed by an (Electron-Deficient η(5)-Cyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) Complex. (United States)

    Takahama, Yuji; Shibata, Yu; Tanaka, Ken


    It has been established that the oxidative sp(2) C-H bond allylation with aliphatic alkenes proceeds under mild conditions by using heteroarenes as directing groups and an (electron-deficient η(5)-cyclopentadienyl)rhodium(III) complex, [Cp(E)RhCl2]2, as a precatalyst. In sharp contrast, the use of [Cp*RhCl2]2 instead of [Cp(E)RhCl2]2 led to a complex mixture of products under the same reaction conditions.

  20. An all-glass microfluidic network with integrated amorphous silicon photosensors for on-chip monitoring of enzymatic biochemical assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, Francesca; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Salvio, Riccardo; Nardecchia, Marco; Schlautmann, Stefan; Manetti, Cesare; Gardeniers, Han J.G.E.; de Cesare, Giampiero; Caputo, Domenico; Nascetti, Augusto


    A lab-on-chip system, integrating an all-glass microfluidics and on-chip optical detection, was developed and tested. The microfluidic network is etched in a glass substrate, which is then sealed with a glass cover by direct bonding. Thin film amorphous silicon photosensors have been fabricated on

  1. Synthesis and reactivity of tris(imido)rhenium complexes containing rhenium-main group element bonds. silicon-carbon bond activations of PhSiH(3) by silyl complexes. (United States)

    Gavenonis, John; Tilley, T Don


    The synthesis and reactivity of a series of complexes of the (DippN=)(3)Re (Dipp = 2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)) fragment are reported. The anionic, Re(V) complex (THF)(2)Li(micro,micro-NDipp)(2)Re(=NDipp) (1), prepared by the reaction of (DippN=)(3)ReCl with (THF)(3)LiSi(SiMe(3))(3) or (t)BuLi (2 equiv) in the presence of THF (4 equiv), served as an important starting material for the synthesis of rhenium-element-bonded complexes. For example, treatment of 1 with ClSiR(3) gave the corresponding silyl complexes (DippN=)(3)ReSiR(3) (SiR(3) = SiMe(3) (2a), SiHPh(2) (2b), SiH(2)Ph (2c)). Complexes 2a-c are thought to exist in equilibrium between the Re(VII) (DippN=)(3)ReSiR(3) and Re(V) (DippN=)(2)ReN(SiR(3))Dipp isomers. Complexes 2a,b reacted with PhSiH(3) to give reaction mixtures that included 2c, Ph(2)SiH(2), SiH(4), and C(6)H(6). The silane and organic products arise from Si-C bond formation and cleavage. Treatment of 2a with CO gave (DippN=)(2)Re[N(SiMe(3))Dipp](CO) (3), which appears to result from trapping of the reactive Re(V) isomer of 2a by CO. Complex 1 reacted with the main group halides MeI, Ph(3)GeCl, Me(3)SnCl, Ph(2)PCl, and PhSeCl to give the corresponding rhenium complexes (DippN=)(3)ReER(n) (ER(n)() = Me (4), GePh(3) (5), SnMe(3) (6), PPh(2) (7), SePh (8)) in high yields. X-ray diffraction data for 5 indicate that the germyl ligand is bonded to rhenium, but positional disorder of the phenyl and Dipp groups prevented refinement of accurate metric parameters.

  2. Optical and passivating properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for application on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, Daniel Nilsen


    quality, etch rate. The response of these parameters to high temperature anneals were correlated with structural changes in the silicon nitride films as measured by using the hydrogen bond concentration. Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition allows continuous variation in nearly all deposition parameters. The parameters studied in this work are the gas flow ratios and excitation power. In both direct and remote deposition systems, the increase in deposition power density lead to higher activation of ammonia which in turn lead to augmented incorporation of nitrogen into the films and thus lower refractive index. For a direct system, the same parameter change lead to a drastic fall in passivation quality of Czochralski silicon attributed to an increase in ion bombardment as well as the general observation that as deposited passivation tends to increase with refractive index. Silicon nitride films with variations in refractive index were also made by varying the silane-to-ammonia gas flow ratio. This simple parameter adjustment makes plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride applicable to double layer anti-reflective coatings simulated in this work. The films were found to have an etch rate in 5% hydrofluoric acid that decreased with increasing refractive index. This behaviour is attributed to the decreasing concentration of nitrogen-to-hydrogen bonds in the films. Such bonds at the surface of silicon nitride have been suggested to be involved in the main reaction mechanism when etching silicon nitride in hydrofluoric acid. Annealing the films lead to a drastic fall in etch rates and was linked to the release of hydrogen from the nitrogen-hydrogen bonds. (author). 115 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Efficacy of Esthetic Retainers: Clinical Comparison between Multistranded Wires and Direct-Bond Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composite Splints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Scribante


    Full Text Available The purpose of this longitudinal prospective randomized study was to evaluate the reliability of two different types of orthodontic retainers in clinical use: a multistrand stainless steel wire and a polyethylene ribbon-reinforced resin composite. Moreover the level of satisfaction of the patient about the esthetic result was also analyzed by means of a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. 34 patients (9 boys and 25 girls, mean age 14.3, in the finishing phase of orthodontic treatment, were selected for the study. Since splints were applied the number, cause, and date of splint failures were recorded for each single tooth over 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed using a paired -test, Kaplan Meier survival estimates, and the log-rank test. Kruskal Wallis test was performed to analyze VAS recordings. Differences between the bond failure rates were not statistically significant. Esthetic result of VAS was significantly higher for polyethylene ribbon-reinforced resin retainers than for stainless steel wires.

  4. Troponate/Aminotroponate Ruthenium-Arene Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Ligand-Tuned Mechanistic Pathway for Direct C-H Bond Arylation with Aryl Chlorides in Water. (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ambikesh D; Binnani, Chinky; Tyagi, Deepika; Rawat, Kuber S; Li, Pei-Zhou; Zhao, Yanli; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pathak, Biswarup; Singh, Sanjay K


    A series of water-soluble troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium(II)-arene complexes were synthesized, where O,O and N,O chelating troponate/aminotroponate ligands stabilized the piano-stool mononuclear ruthenium-arene complexes. Structural identities for two of the representating complexes were also established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These newly synthesized troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium-arene complexes enable efficient C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine in water. The unique structure-activity relationship in these complexes is the key to achieve efficient direct C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine. Moreover, the steric bulkiness of the carboxylate additives systematically directs the selectivity toward mono- versus diarylation of arylpyridines. Detailed mechanistic studies were performed using mass-spectral studies including identification of several key cyclometalated intermediates. These studies provided strong support for an initial cycloruthenation driven by carbonate-assisted deprotonation of 2-phenylpyridine, where the relative strength of η(6)-arene and the troponate/aminotroponate ligand drives the formation of cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-arene species, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine) (OH2)](+) by elimination of troponate/aminotroponate ligands and retaining η(6)-arene, while cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-troponate/aminotroponate species [(κ (2)-troponate/aminotroponate)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine)(OH2)2] was generated by decoordination of η(6)-arene ring during initial C-H bond activation of 2-phenylpyridine. Along with the experimental mass-spectral evidence, density functional theory calculation also supports the formation of such species for these complexes. Subsequently, these cycloruthenated products activate aryl chloride by facile oxidative addition to generate C-H arylated products.

  5. Device characterization of the VCSEL-on-silicon as an on chip light source (United States)

    Kwack, Myung-Joon; Jang, Ki-Seok; Joo, Jiho; Park, Hyundai; Oh, Jin Hyuk; Park, Jaegyu; Kim, Sanggi; Kim, Gyungock


    Advancement of silicon photonics technology can offer a new dimension in data communications with un-precedent bandwidth. Increasing the integration level in the silicon photonics is required to develop compact high-performance chip-level optical interconnects for future systems. Especially, monolithic integration of light source on a silicon wafer is important for future silicon photonic integrated circuits, since realizing a compact on-chip light source on a silicon wafer is a serious issue which impedes practical implementation of the silicon photonic interconnects. At present, due to the lack of a practical light source based on Group IV elements, flip chip-bonded or packaged lasers based on III-V semiconductor are usually being used as external light sources, to feed silicon modulators on SOI wafers to complete a photonic transmitter, except the reported silicon hybrid lasers monolithic-integrated on SOI wafers. To overcome above problem, we have proposed a compact on-chip light source, the directly monolithic-integrated VCSEL on a bulk silicon wafer (VCSEL-on-Si), based on the transplanted epitaxial film by substrate lift-off process and following device-fabrication on the bulk Si wafer. This can offer practical low-power-consumption light sources integrated on a silicon wafer, which can provide a complete chip-level I/O set when combined with monolithic-integrated vertical-illumination Ge-on-Si photodetectors on the same silicon wafer. In this work, we report the characterization of direct-modulation VCSELs-on-Si for λ ~850 nm with CW optical output power > ~2 mW and the threshold current VCSELs-on-Si.

  6. Broadband TM-mode-pass polarizer and polarization beam splitter using asymmetrical directional couplers based on silicon subwavelength grating (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Yang, Junbo; Liang, Linmei; Wu, Wenjun


    In this paper, an on-chip polarizer passing the transverse-magnetic mode and a polarization beam splitter are proposed. The polarizer achieves an extinction ratio exceeding 20 dB within a spectral range from 1500 nm to 1610 nm, and has a value of 24dB at 1550 nm with a coupling efficiency of 84%. By employing a specific wavelength of 1570 nm, the polarizer behaves as the polarization beam splitter with extinction ratio for the transverse-electric mode and the transverse-magnetic mode of 29dB and 24 dB, respectively. In addition, the coupling efficiency of 95.98% and 78.18% for above two polarizations, demonstrate that our approach has a potential to efficiently control coupling splitting ratio via silicon subwavelength grating.

  7. Silicon Wafer-Scale Substrate for Microshutters and Detector Arrays (United States)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Franz, David E.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Jhabvala, Christine; Babu, Sachi; Snodgrass, Stephen; Costen, Nicholas; Zincke, Christian


    The silicon substrate carrier was created so that a large-area array (in this case 62,000+ elements of a microshutter array) and a variety of discrete passive and active devices could be mounted on a single board, similar to a printed circuit board. However, the density and number of interconnects far exceeds the capabilities of printed circuit board technology. To overcome this hurdle, a method was developed to fabricate this carrier out of silicon and implement silicon integrated circuit (IC) technology. This method achieves a large number of high-density metal interconnects; a 100-percent yield over a 6-in. (approximately equal to 15-cm) diameter wafer (one unit per wafer); a rigid, thermally compatible structure (all components and operating conditions) to cryogenic temperatures; re-workability and component replaceability, if required; and the ability to precisely cut large-area holes through the substrate. A method that would employ indium bump technology along with wafer-scale integration onto a silicon carrier was also developed. By establishing a silicon-based version of a printed circuit board, the objectives could be met with one solution. The silicon substrate would be 2 mm thick to survive the environmental loads of a launch. More than 2,300 metal traces and over 1,500 individual wire bonds are required. To mate the microshutter array to the silicon substrate, more than 10,000 indium bumps are required. A window was cut in the substrate to allow the light signal to pass through the substrate and reach the microshutter array. The substrate was also the receptacle for multiple unpackaged IC die wire-bonded directly to the substrate (thus conserving space over conventionally packaged die). Unique features of this technology include the implementation of a 2-mmthick silicon wafer to withstand extreme mechanical loads (from a rocket launch); integrated polysilicon resistor heaters directly on the substrate; the precise formation of an open aperture

  8. Silicon photonics beyond silicon-on-insulator (United States)

    Chiles, Jeff; Fathpour, Sasan


    The standard platform for silicon photonics has been ridge or channel waveguides fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. SOI waveguides are so versatile and the technology built around it is so mature and popular that silicon photonics is almost regarded as synonymous with SOI photonics. However, due to several shortcomings of SOI photonics, novel platforms have been recently emerging. The shortcomings could be categorized into two sets: (a) those due to using silicon as the waveguide core material; and (b) those due to using silicon dioxide as the bottom cladding layer. Several heterogeneous platforms have been developed to address the first set of shortcomings. In such important heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms, the top silicon layer of SOI is typically replaced by a thin film of another optical material with a refractive index higher than the buried oxide (BOX) bottom cladding layer. Silicon is still usually preferred as the substrate of choice, but silicon has no optical functionality. In contrast, the second category of solutions aim at using silicon as the core waveguide material, while resolving issues related to the BOX layer. Particularly, one of the main drawbacks of SOI is that the BOX layer induces high optical loss in the mid-wavelength infrared (mid-IR) range. Accordingly, a host of platforms have been proposed, and some have been demonstrated, in which the BOX is replaced with insulating materials that have low intrinsic loss in the mid-IR. Examples are sapphire, lithium niobate, silicon nitride and air (suspended Si membrane waveguides). Although silicon is still the preferred substrate, sometimes a thin film of silicon, on which the optical waveguide is formed, is directly placed on top of another substrate (e.g., sapphire or lithium niobate). These alternative substrates act as both mechanical support and the lower cladding layer. In addition to the demands of mid-IR photonics, the non-SOI platforms can potentially offer other

  9. Indirect bonding technique in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Yıldırım


    Full Text Available ‘Direct Bonding Technique’ which allows the fixed orthodontic appliances to be directly bonded to teeth without using bands decreased the clinic time for bracket bonding and increased esthetics and oral hygiene during orthodontic treatment. However, mistakes in bracket positioning were observed due to decreased direct visual sight and access to posterior teeth. ‘Indirect Bonding Technique’ was developed for eliminating these problems. Initially, decreased bond strength, higher bond failure rate, periodontal tissue irritation, compromised oral hygiene and increased laboratory time were the main disadvantages of this technique when compared to direct bonding. The newly developed materials and modified techniques help to eliminate these negative consequences. Today, the brackets bonded with indirect technique have similar bond strength with brackets bonded directly. Moreover, indirect and direct bonding techniques have similar effects on periodontal tissues. However, indirect bonding technique requires more attention and precision in laboratory and clinical stage, and has higher cost. Orthodontist's preference between these two bonding techniques may differ according to time spent in laboratory and clinic, cost, patient comfort and personal opinion.

  10. A new reaction mode of germanium-silicon bond formation: insertion reactions of H₂GeLiF with SiH₃X (X = F, Cl, Br). (United States)

    Yan, Bingfei; Li, Wenzuo; Xiao, Cuiping; Li, Qingzhong; Cheng, Jianbo


    A combined density functional and ab initio quantum chemical study of the insertion reactions of the germylenoid H2GeLiF with SiH3X (X = F, Cl, Br) was carried out. The geometries of all the stationary points of the reactions were optimized using the DFT B3LYP method and then the QCISD method was used to calculate the single-point energies. The theoretical calculations indicated that along the potential energy surface, there were one precursor complex (Q), one transition state (TS), and one intermediate (IM) which connected the reactants and the products. The calculated barrier heights relative to the respective precursors are 102.26 (X = F), 95.28 (X = Cl), and 84.42 (X = Br) kJ mol(-1) for the three different insertion reactions, respectively, indicating the insertion reactions should occur easily according to the following order: SiH3-Br > SiH3-Cl > SiH3-F under the same situation. The solvent effects on the insertion reactions were also calculated and it was found that the larger the dielectric constant, the easier the insertion reactions. The elucidations of the mechanism of these insertion reactions provided a new reaction model of germanium-silicon bond formation.

  11. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors (United States)

    McCarthy, Anthony M.


    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  12. Direct Carboxylation of C(sp3-H and C(sp2-H Bonds with CO2 by Transition-Metal-Catalyzed and Base-Mediated Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immacolata Tommasi


    Full Text Available This review focuses on recent advances in the field of direct carboxylation reactions of C(sp3-H and C(sp2-H bonds using CO2 encompassing both transition-metal-catalysis and base-mediated approach. The review is not intended to be comprehensive, but aims to analyze representative examples from the literature, including transition-metal catalyzed carboxylation of benzylic and allylic C(sp3-H functionalities using CO2 which is at a “nascent stage”. Examples of light-driven carboxylation reactions of unactivated C(sp3-H bonds are also considered. Concerning C(sp3-H and C(sp2-H deprotonation reactions mediated by bases with subsequent carboxylation of the carbon nucleophile, few examples of catalytic processes are reported in the literature. In spite of this, several examples of base-promoted reactions integrating “base recycling” or “base regeneration (through electrosynthesis” steps have been reported. Representative examples of synthetically efficient, base-promoted processes are included in the review.

  13. Pressure tuning of bond-directional exchange interactions and magnetic frustration in the hyperhoneycomb iridate β -Li2IrO3 (United States)

    Veiga, L. S. I.; Etter, M.; Glazyrin, K.; Sun, F.; Escanhoela, C. A.; Fabbris, G.; Mardegan, J. R. L.; Malavi, P. S.; Deng, Y.; Stavropoulos, P. P.; Kee, H.-Y.; Yang, W. G.; van Veenendaal, M.; Schilling, J. S.; Takayama, T.; Takagi, H.; Haskel, D.


    We explore the response of Ir 5 d orbitals to pressure in β -Li2IrO3 , a hyperhoneycomb iridate in proximity to a Kitaev quantum spin-liquid (QSL) ground state. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals a reconstruction of the electronic ground state below 2 GPa, the same pressure range where x-ray magnetic circular dichroism shows an apparent collapse of magnetic order. The electronic reconstruction, which manifests a reduction in the effective spin-orbit interaction in 5 d orbitals, pushes β -Li2IrO3 further away from the pure Jeff=1 /2 limit. Although lattice symmetry is preserved across the electronic transition, x-ray diffraction shows a highly anisotropic compression of the hyperhoneycomb lattice which affects the balance of bond-directional Ir-Ir exchange interactions driven by spin-orbit coupling at Ir sites. An enhancement of symmetric anisotropic exchange over Kitaev and Heisenberg exchange interactions seen in theoretical calculations that use precisely this anisotropic Ir-Ir bond compression provides one possible route to the realization of a QSL state in this hyperhoneycomb iridate at high pressures.

  14. Cooperative catalysis of metal and O-H···O/sp3-C-H···O two-point hydrogen bonds in alcoholic solvents: Cu-catalyzed enantioselective direct alkynylation of aldehydes with terminal alkynes. (United States)

    Ishii, Takaoki; Watanabe, Ryo; Moriya, Toshimitsu; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Mori, Seiji; Sawamura, Masaya


    Catalyst-substrate hydrogen bonds in artificial catalysts usually occur in aprotic solvents, but not in protic solvents, in contrast to enzymatic catalysis. We report a case in which ligand-substrate hydrogen-bonding interactions cooperate with a transition-metal center in alcoholic solvents for enantioselective catalysis. Copper(I) complexes with prolinol-based hydroxy amino phosphane chiral ligands catalytically promoted the direct alkynylation of aldehydes with terminal alkynes in alcoholic solvents to afford nonracemic secondary propargylic alcohols with high enantioselectivities. Quantum-mechanical calculations of enantiodiscriminating transition states show the occurrence of a nonclassical sp(3)-C-H···O hydrogen bond as a secondary interaction between the ligand and substrate, which results in highly directional catalyst-substrate two-point hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Solar silicon refining; Inclusions, settling, filtration, wetting


    Ciftja, Arjan


    The main objective of the present work is the removal of inclusions from silicon scrap and metallurgical grade silicon. To reach this goal, two various routes are investigated. First, settling of SiC particles from molten silicon followed by directional solidification is reported in this thesis. Then, removal of SiC and Si3N4 inclusions in silicon scrap by filtration with foam filters and wettabilities of silicon on graphite materials are studied. To supply the increasing needs of the...

  16. Synthesis of 8-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-7-deazapurine nucleosides by azide-alkyne click reactions and direct C-H bond functionalization. (United States)

    Kavoosi, Sam; Rayala, Ramanjaneyulu; Walsh, Brenna; Barrios, Maria; Gonzalez, Walter G; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Mathivathanan, Logesh; Raptis, Raphael G; Wnuk, Stanislaw F


    Treatment of toyocamycin or sangivamycin with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in MeOH (r.t./30 min) gave 8-bromotoyocamycin and 8-bromosangivamycin in good yields. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of 8-bromotoyocamycin with sodium azide provided novel 8-azidotoyocamycin. Strain promoted click reactions of the latter with cyclooctynes resulted in the formation of the 1,2,3-triazole products. Iodine-mediated direct C8-H bond functionalization of tubercidin with benzotriazoles in the presence of tert-butyl hydroperoxide gave the corresponding 8-benzotriazolyltubercidin derivatives. The 8-(1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)-7-deazapurine derivatives showed moderate quantum yields and a large Stokes shifts of ~ 100 nm.

  17. Nanoscale Etching and Indentation of Silicon Surfaces with Carbon Nanotubes (United States)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash


    The possibility of nanolithography of silicon and germanium surfaces with bare carbon nanotube tips of scanning probe microscopy devices is considered with large scale classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations employing Tersoff's reactive many-body potential for heteroatomic C/Si/Ge system. Lithography plays a key role in semiconductor manufacturing, and it is expected that future molecular and quantum electronic devices will be fabricated with nanolithographic and nanodeposition techniques. Carbon nanotubes, rolled up sheets of graphene made of carbon, are excellent candidates for use in nanolithography because they are extremely strong along axial direction and yet extremely elastic along radial direction. In the simulations, the interaction of a carbon nanotube tip with silicon surfaces is explored in two regimes. In the first scenario, the nanotubes barely touch the surface, while in the second they are pushed into the surface to make "nano holes". The first - gentle scenario mimics the nanotube-surface chemical reaction induced by the vertical mechanical manipulation of the nanotube. The second -digging - scenario intends to study the indentation profiles. The following results are reported in the two cases. In the first regime, depending on the surface impact site, two major outcomes outcomes are the selective removal of either a single surface atom or a surface dimer off the silicon surface. In the second regime, the indentation of a silicon substrate by the nanotube is observed. Upon the nanotube withdrawal, several surface silicon atoms are adsorbed at the tip of the nanotube causing significant rearrangements of atoms comprising the surface layer of the silicon substrate. The results are explained in terms of relative strength of C-C, C-Si, and Si-Si bonds. The proposed method is very robust and does not require applied voltage between the nanotube tips and the surface. The implications of the reported controllable etching and hole-creating for

  18. Fabricating Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers with Wafer Bonding Technique




    We report the fabrication of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer by wafer bonding technique. Membrane is transferred from SOI wafer to the prime wafer having silicon dioxide cavity. The thickness of cavity height depends on silicon dioxide grown on prime wafer by dry/wet oxidation. Thinning of device wafer of SOI by oxidation, controls membrane thickness. Two wafers are bonded in vacuum under optimized controlled parameters. Using this method, we can get single crystal silicon as m...

  19. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.

  20. SOI silicon on glass for optical MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Pontoppidan; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole


    A newly developed fabrication method for fabrication of single crystalline Si (SCS) components on glass, utilizing Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) of a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is presented. The devices are packaged at wafer level in a glass-silicon-glass (GSG) stack by anodic bonding...

  1. Ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present results for ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon clusters using the Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics with simulated annealing. We discuss the nature of bonding of hydrogen in these clusters. We find that hydrogen can form a bridge like Si–H–Si bond connecting two silicon ...

  2. Dynamics and Diffusion Mechanism of Low-Density Liquid Silicon. (United States)

    Shen, B; Wang, Z Y; Dong, F; Guo, Y R; Zhang, R J; Zheng, Y X; Wang, S Y; Wang, C Z; Ho, K M; Chen, L Y


    A first-order phase transition from a high-density liquid to a low-density liquid has been proposed to explain the various thermodynamic anomies of water. It also has been proposed that such liquid-liquid phase transition would exist in supercooled silicon. Computer simulation studies show that, across the transition, the diffusivity drops roughly 2 orders of magnitude, and the structures exhibit considerable tetrahedral ordering. The resulting phase is a highly viscous, low-density liquid silicon. Investigations on the atomic diffusion of such a novel form of liquid silicon are of high interest. Here we report such diffusion results from molecular dynamics simulations using the classical Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential of silicon. We show that the atomic diffusion of the low-density liquid is highly correlated with local tetrahedral geometries. We also show that atoms diffuse through hopping processes within short ranges, which gradually accumulate to an overall random motion for long ranges as in normal liquids. There is a close relationship between dynamical heterogeneity and hopping process. We point out that the above diffusion mechanism is closely related to the strong directional bonding nature of the distorted tetrahedral network. Our work offers new insights into the complex behavior of the highly viscous low density liquid silicon, suggesting similar diffusion behaviors in other tetrahedral coordinated liquids that exhibit liquid-liquid phase transition such as carbon and germanium.

  3. Magneto-optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon photonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shoji


    Full Text Available Silicon waveguide optical non-reciprocal devices based on the magneto-optical effect are reviewed. The non-reciprocal phase shift caused by the first-order magneto-optical effect is effective in realizing optical non-reciprocal devices in silicon waveguide platforms. In a silicon-on-insulator waveguide, the low refractive index of the buried oxide layer enhances the magneto-optical phase shift, which reduces the device footprints. A surface activated direct bonding technique was developed to integrate a magneto-optical garnet crystal on the silicon waveguides. A silicon waveguide optical isolator based on the magneto-optical phase shift was demonstrated with an optical isolation of 30 dB and insertion loss of 13 dB at a wavelength of 1548 nm. Furthermore, a four port optical circulator was demonstrated with maximum isolations of 15.3 and 9.3 dB in cross and bar ports, respectively, at a wavelength of 1531 nm.

  4. Electrochemically etched nanoporous silicon membrane for separation of biological molecules in mixture (United States)

    Burham, Norhafizah; Azlan Hamzah, Azrul; Yunas, Jumril; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin


    This paper presents a technique for separating biological molecules in mixture using nanoporous silicon membrane. Nanopores were formed using electrochemical etching process (ECE) by etching a prefabricated silicon membrane in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and ethanol, and then directly bonding it with PDMS to form a complete filtration system for separating biological molecules. Tygon S3™ tubings were used as fluid interconnection between PDMS molds and silicon membrane during testing. Electrochemical etching parameters were manipulated to control pore structure and size. In this work, nanopores with sizes of less than 50 nm, embedded on top of columnar structures have been fabricated using high current densities and variable HF concentrations. Zinc oxide was diluted with deionized (DI) water and mixed with biological molecules and non-biological particles, namely protein standard, serum albumin and sodium chloride. Zinc oxide particles were trapped on the nanoporous silicon surface, while biological molecules of sizes up to 12 nm penetrated the nanoporous silicon membrane. The filtered particles were inspected using a Zetasizer Nano SP for particle size measurement and count. The Zetasizer Nano SP results revealed that more than 95% of the biological molecules in the mixture were filtered out by the nanoporous silicon membrane. The nanoporous silicon membrane fabricated in this work is integratable into bio-MEMS and Lab-on-Chip components to separate two or more types of biomolecules at once. The membrane is especially useful for the development of artificial kidney.

  5. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvin, M.A.


    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  6. Focusing guided waves using surface bonded elastic metamaterials (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Zhu, Rui; Huang, Guoliang; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo


    Bonding a two-dimensional planar array of small lead discs on an aluminum plate with silicone rubber is shown numerically to focus low-frequency flexural guided waves. The "effective mass density profile" of this type of elastic metamaterials (EMMs), perpendicular to wave propagation direction, is carefully tailored and designed, which allows rays of flexural A0 mode Lamb waves to bend in succession and then focus through a 7 × 9 planar array. Numerical simulations show that Lamb waves can be focused beyond EMMs region with amplified displacement and yet largely retained narrow banded waveform, which may have potential application in structural health monitoring.

  7. Coherent phonon generation and detection in ultrathin SrTiO{sub 3} grown directly on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, C.; Levy, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Warusawithana, M.P. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)


    Time-resolved two color pump-probe polarization spectroscopy was performed at room temperature on SrTiO{sub 3} films grown directly on Si with film thickness varying from 2 nm to 7.8 nm. An E-symmetry mode with a characteristic frequency of 0.2 THz is impulsively generated and measured in these coherently strained tetragonal phase SrTiO{sub 3} thin films. A superimposed exponentially decaying signal observed indicates the possible relaxational hopping of Ti ion between double potential wells. The dependence of the coherent phonon signal on pump and probe laser polarization helps to identify the symmetry of the phonon modes. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Principle and modelling of Transient Current Technique for interface traps characterization in monolithic pixel detectors obtained by CMOS-compatible wafer bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Bronuzzi, J.; Moll, M.; Sallese, J.M.


    In the framework of monolithic silicon radiation detectors, a fabrication process based on a recently developed silicon wafer bonding technique at low temperature was proposed. Ideally, this new process would enable direct bonding of a read-out electronic chip wafer on a highly resistive silicon substrate wafer, which is expected to present many advantages since it would combine high performance IC's with high sensitive ultra-low doped bulk silicon detectors. But electrical properties of the bonded interface are critical for this kind of application since the mobile charges generated by radiation inside the bonded bulk are expected to transit through the interface in order to be collected by the read-out electronics. In this work, we propose to explore and develop a model for the so-called Transient Current Technique (TCT) to identify the presence of deep traps at the bonded interface. For this purpose, we consider a simple PIN diode reversely biased where the ultra-low doped active region of interest is set ...

  9. Theory of unsaturated silicon lattices (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Stucke, David; Stojkovic, Dragan; Crespi, Vincent


    Several molecules are known to contain stable silicon double or triple bonds that are sterically protected by bulky side groups. Through first-principles computation, we demonstrate that well-defined π bonds can also be formed in two prototypical crystalline Si structures: Schwarzite Si-168 and dilated diamond. The sp^2-bonded Si-168 is thermodynamically preferred over diamond silicon at a modest negative pressure of -2.5 GPa. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations of Si-168 at 1000 K reveal significant thermal stability. Si-168 is metallic in density functional theory, but with distinct π-like and &*circ;-like valence and conduction band complexes just above and below the Fermi energy. A bandgap buried in the valence band but close to the Fermi level can be accessed via hole doping in semiconducting Si144B24. A less-stable crystalline system with a silicon-silicon triple bond is also examined: a rare-gas intercalated open framework on a dilated diamond lattice.

  10. Structural Factors and Mechanisms Underlying the Improved Photodynamic Cell Killing with Silicon Phthalocyanine Photosensitizers Directed to Lysosomes Versus Mitochondria (United States)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Zhang, Ping; Azizuddin, Kashif; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Chiu, Song-mao; Xue, Liang-yan; Berlin, Jeffery C.; Peng, Xinzhan; Wu, Hongqiao; Lam, Minh; Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.


    The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 has been shown to bind preferentially to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components, especially Bcl-2, are photodamaged and apoptosis, as indicated by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, is triggered. A series of analogs of Pc 4 were synthesized, and the results demonstrate that Pcs with the aminopropylsiloxy ligand of Pc 4 or a similar one on one side of the Pc ring and a second large axial ligand on the other side of the ring have unexpected properties, including enhanced cell uptake, greater monomerization resulting in greater intracellular fluorescence and three-fold higher affinity constants for liposomes. The hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands tend to reduce aggregation of the Pc and direct it to lysosomes, resulting in four to six times more killing of cells, as defined by loss of clonogenicity, than with Pc 4. Whereas Pc 4-PDT photodamages Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, Pc 181-PDT causes much less photodamage to Bcl-2 over the same dose–response range relative to cell killing, with earlier cleavage of Bid and slower caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. Therefore, within this series of photosensitizers, these hydroxyl-bearing axial ligands are less aggregated than is Pc 4, tend to localize to lysosomes and are more effective in overall cell killing than is Pc 4, but induce apoptosis more slowly and by a modified pathway. PMID:19508642

  11. Effect of flowable composite liner and glass ionomer liner on class II gingival marginal adaptation of direct composite restorations with different bonding strategies. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Yadav, Suman; Yadav, Harish


    The purpose of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of flowable composite resin liner and resin modified glass ionomer liner on gingival marginal adaptation of class II cavities restored using three bonding agents (Single Bond 3M ESPE, One Coat Self Etching Bond Coltene Whaledent; Adper Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive 3M ESPE) and respective composite resins, under cyclic loading. The marginal adaptation was evaluated in terms of 'continuous margin' (CM) at the gingival margin. Ninety class II cavities with margins extending 1mm below the cement-enamel junction were prepared in extracted mandibular third molars. The samples were divided into three groups: no liner placement; 0.5-1mm thick flowable resin liner placement (Filtek Z350 XT flowable resin) on gingival floor and; light cure glass ionomer (Ketac N100) liner. The groups were further subdivided into three sub-groups on the basis of the bonding agents used. Cavities were restored with composite resins (Z350 for Single Bond and Adper Easy Bond; and Synergy D6 Universal, for One Coat Self Etching Bond) in 2mm increments and the samples were mechanically loaded (60N, 1,50,000 cycles). Marginal adaptation was evaluated using a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. Statistical analysis was done with two way ANOVA with Holm-Sidak's correction for multiple comparisons. Placement of flowable composite liner significantly improved the CM values of Single Bond (78±11%) and One Coat Self Etching Bond (77±9%) compared with no liner group, but the values of CM of Adper Easy Bond were not improved (61±12%). Placement of glass ionomer liner significantly improved the values of CM in all the sub-groups (78±9%, 72±10% and 77±10% for Single Bond, One Coat Self Etching Bond & Adper Easy Bond respectively) compared with no liner group. Placement of liners improved the values of 'continuous margin' in the gingival floor of the proximal cavities restored with composite resins using different bonding

  12. Direct analysis of pharmaceutical formulations from non-bonded reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography plates by desorption electrospray ionisation ion mobility mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Harry, Emma L; Reynolds, James C; Bristow, Anthony W T; Wilson, Ian D; Creaser, Colin S


    The direct analysis of pharmaceutical formulations and active ingredients from non-bonded reversed-phase thin layer chromatography (RP-TLC) plates by desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) combined with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is reported. The analysis of formulations containing analgesic (paracetamol), decongestant (ephedrine), opiate (codeine) and stimulant (caffeine) active pharmaceutical ingredients is described, with and without chromatographic development to separate the active ingredients from the excipient formulation. Selectivity was enhanced by combining ion mobility and mass spectrometry to characterise the desorbed gas-phase analyte ions on the basis of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) and gas-phase ion mobility (drift time). The solvent composition of the DESI spray using a step gradient was varied to optimise the desorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients from the RP-TLC plates. The combined RP-TLC/DESI-IM-MS approach has potential as a rapid and selective technique for pharmaceutical analysis by orthogonal gas-phase electrophoretic and mass-to-charge separation. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Methods for bonding Incognito brackets using a chemo-polymerizable bonding agent]. (United States)

    Muller, Christine; Cuzin, Jean-François


    An indirect method is used to bond Incognito attachments. This article will give a step-by-step outline of the procedure that employs a traditional chemo-polymerized bonding agent carried in a silicone splint. Using this guide, every practitioner will be able to use a proven technique to achieve the same anticipated results.

  14. Ultra-compact integrated silicon photonics balanced coherent photodetectors (United States)

    Meyer, Jason T.

    The design, simulation, and initial fabrication of a novel ultra-compact 2x2 silicon multimode-interference device evanescently coupled to a dual germanium metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector is presented. For operation at the standard telecom wavelength of 1.5 mum, the simulations demonstrate high-speed operation at 30 GHz, low dark current in the nanoamp range, and external quantum efficiency of 80%. Error analysis was performed for possible tilt error introduced by hybrid integration of the MSM layer on top of the MMI waveguides by use of surface mount technology (SMT) and direct wafer bonding.

  15. Hydroxyapatite-coated double network hydrogel directly bondable to the bone: Biological and biomechanical evaluations of the bonding property in an osteochondral defect. (United States)

    Wada, Susumu; Kitamura, Nobuto; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Kiyama, Ryuji; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori


    We have developed a novel hydroxyapatite (HAp)-coated double-network (DN) hydrogel (HAp/DN gel). The purpose of this study was to determine details of the cell and tissue responses around the implanted HAp/DN gel and to determine how quickly and strongly the HAp/DN gel bonds to the bone in a rabbit osteochondral defect model. Immature osteoid tissue was formed in the space between the HAp/DN gel and the bone at 2weeks, and the osteoid tissue was mineralized at 4weeks. The push-out load of the HAp/DN gel averaged 37.54N and 42.15N at 4 and 12weeks, respectively, while the push-out load of the DN gel averaged less than 5N. The bonding area of the HAp/DN gel to the bone was above 80% by 4weeks, and above 90% at 12weeks. This study demonstrated that the HAp/DN gel enhanced osseointegration at an early stage after implantation. The presence of nanoscale structures in addition to osseointegration of HAp promoted osteoblast adhesion onto the surface of the HAp/DN gel. The HAp/DN gel has the potential to improve the implant-tissue interface in next-generation orthopaedic implants such as artificial cartilage. Recent studies have reported the development of various hydrogels that are sufficiently tough for application as soft supporting tissues. However, fixation of hydrogels on bone surfaces with appropriate strength is a great challenge. We have developed a novel, tough hydrogel hybridizing hydroxyapatite (HAp/DN gel), which is directly bondable to the bone. The present study demonstrated that the HAp/DN gel enhanced osseointegration in the early stage after implantation. The presence of nanoscale structures in addition to the osseointegration ability of hydroxyapatite promoted osteoblast adhesion onto the surface of the HAp/DN gel. The HAp/DN gel has the potential to improve the implant-tissue interface in next-generation orthopaedic implants such as artificial cartilage. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of germanium on thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the silicon template layer in thin silicon-on-insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P P; Yang, B; Rugheimer, P P; Roberts, M M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Liu Feng, E-mail: lagally@engr.wisc.ed [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)


    We investigate the influence of heteroepitaxially grown Ge on the thermal dewetting and agglomeration of the Si(0 0 1) template layer in ultrathin silicon-on-insulator (SOI). We show that increasing Ge coverage gradually destroys the long-range ordering of 3D nanocrystals along the (1 3 0) directions and the 3D nanocrystal shape anisotropy that are observed in the dewetting and agglomeration of pure SOI(0 0 1). The results are qualitatively explained by Ge-induced bond weakening and decreased surface energy anisotropy. Ge lowers the dewetting and agglomeration temperature to as low as 700 {sup 0}C.

  17. Lithium-assisted electrochemical welding in silicon nanowire battery electrodes. (United States)

    Karki, Khim; Epstein, Eric; Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Jia, Zheng; Li, Teng; Picraux, S Tom; Wang, Chunsheng; Cumings, John


    From in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, we present direct evidence of lithium-assisted welding between physically contacted silicon nanowires (SiNWs) induced by electrochemical lithiation and delithiation. This electrochemical weld between two SiNWs demonstrates facile transport of lithium ions and electrons across the interface. From our in situ observations, we estimate the shear strength of the welded region after delithiation to be approximately 200 MPa, indicating that a strong bond is formed at the junction of two SiNWs. This welding phenomenon could help address the issue of capacity fade in nanostructured silicon battery electrodes, which is typically caused by fracture and detachment of active materials from the current collector. The process could provide for more robust battery performance either through self-healing of fractured components that remain in contact or through the formation of a multiconnected network architecture. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Photonic Integration on the Hybrid Silicon Evanescent Device Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyundai Park


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the recent progress of hybrid silicon evanescent devices. The hybrid silicon evanescent device structure consists of III-V epitaxial layers transferred to silicon waveguides through a low-temperature wafer bonding process to achieve optical gain, absorption, and modulation efficiently on a silicon photonics platform. The low-temperature wafer bonding process enables fusion of two different material systems without degradation of material quality and is scalable to wafer-level bonding. Lasers, amplifiers, photodetectors, and modulators have been demonstrated with this hybrid structure and integration of these individual components for improved optical functionality is also presented. This approach provides a unique way to build photonic active devices on silicon and should allow application of silicon photonic integrated circuits to optical telecommunication and optical interconnects.

  19. Synthesis and orthogonal functionalization of oxazolo[5',4':4,5]pyrano[2,3-b]pyridine by intra- and intermolecular Pd-catalyzed direct C-H bond heteroarylation. (United States)

    Théveau, Laure; Schneider, Cédric; Querolle, Olivier; Meerpoel, Lieven; Levacher, Vincent; Hoarau, Christophe


    The construction and subsequent orthogonal functionalization of a hitherto unknown oxazolo[5',4':4,5]pyrano[2,3-b]pyridine are reported. A palladium-catalyzed direct C-H bond functionalization methodology was used to build the tricyclic scaffold as well as to achieve the subsequent C-H bond functionalization at the C-2 position of the oxazole unit with various (hetero)aryl iodides. Remarkably, selective C-H construction and functionalization procedures preserve the chorine atom on the pyridine moiety offering a late-stage substitution site to progress drug design.

  20. Direct space representation of metallicity and structural stability in SiO solids

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, S


    First principles calculations are performed on possible structures of silicon monoxide solids. The chemical character of all of the bonding interactions is systematically quantified in real space. It is found that the most stable SiO structure possesses the highest number of inequivalent bond paths. This process reveals a novel metallic Si-Si interaction and provides an explanation for the origin of the unexpectedly high conductivity in thin silicon oxide layers. In this paper a new measure for quantifying metallic character (in direct space) present in a bond has been introduced. Furthermore it has been possible to determine the directional properties of this metallic character in real space using the charge density. This finding is very important for future complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology.

  1. All-Aqueous Directed Assembly Strategy for Forming High-Capacity, Stable Silicon/Carbon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Chen, Yanjing; Xu, Mengqing; Zhang, Yuzi; Pan, Yue; Lucht, Brett L; Bose, Arijit


    Silicon (Si) particles have emerged as a promising active material for next-generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the large volume changes during lithiation/delithiation cycles result in fracture and pulverization of Si, leading to rapid fading of performance. Here, we report a simple, all-aqueous, directed assembly-based strategy to fabricate Si-based anodes that show capacity and capacity retention that are comparable or better than other more complex methods for forming anodes. We use a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), to stabilize Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) in water. This suspension is added to an aqueous suspension of para-amino benzoic acid-terminated carbon black (CB), pH 7. Charge interactions cause the well-dispersed SiNP to bind to the CB, allowing most of the SiNP to be available for lithiation and charge transfer. The CB forms a conducting network when the suspension pH is lowered. The dried SiNP/CTAB/CB anode exhibits a capacity of 1580 mAh g(-1) and efficiency of 97.3% after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.1C, and stable performance at cycling rates up to 5C. The directed spatial organization of the SiNP and CB using straightforward colloidal principles allows good contact between the well-dispersed active material and the electrically conducting network. The pore space in the CB network accommodates volume changes in the SiNPs. When CTAB is not used, the SiNPs form aggregates in the suspension, and do not contact the CB effectively. Therefore, the electrochemical performance of the SiNP/CB anode is inferior to that of the SiNP/CTAB/CB anode. This aqueous-based, room temperature, directed assembly technique is a new, but simple, low-cost scalable method to fabricate stable Si-based anodes for lithium-ion batteries with performance characteristics that match those made by other more sophisticated techniques.

  2. Nickel-Catalyzed C–O Bond-Cleaving Alkylation of Esters: Direct Replacement of the Ester Moiety by Functionalized Alkyl Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiangqian


    Two efficient protocols for the nickel-catalyzed aryl–alkyl cross-coupling reactions using esters as coupling components have been established. The methods enable the selective oxidative addition of nickel to acyl C–O and aryl C–O bonds and allow the aryl–alkyl cross-coupling via decarbonylative bond cleavage or through cleavage of a C–O bond with high efficiency and good functional group compatibility. The protocols allow the streamlined, unconventional utilization of widespread ester groups and their precursors, carboxylic acids and phenols, in synthetic organic chemistry.

  3. Electron-beam lithography and molecular liftoff for directed attachment of DNA nanostructures on silicon: top-down meets bottom-up. (United States)

    Pillers, Michelle; Goss, Valerie; Lieberman, Marya


    CONSPECTUS: Our work on lithographic patterning of DNA nanostructures was inspired by a collaboration on molecular electronic devices known as quantum-dot cellular automata or QCA. QCA is a paradigm for computation in which information is transmitted and processed through the interaction of coupled electrical charges or magnetic dipoles. We began to explore the idea of molecular scale QCA and found that ab initio methods, a thermodynamic Ising model, and larger scale circuit design work suggested that circuits that did computationally interesting things could function at room temperature if made from molecular QCA cells of chemically reasonable design. But how could the QCA cells be patterned to form the complex arrays needed for computationally interesting circuitry, and how could those arrays of molecular circuitry be integrated with conventional electronic inputs and outputs? Top-down methods lacked the spatial resolution and high level of parallelism needed to make molecular circuits. Bottom-up chemical synthesis lacked the ability to fabricate arbitrary and heterogeneous structures tens to hundreds of nanometers in size. Chemical self-assembly at the time could produce structures in the right size scale, but was limited to homogeneous arrays. A potential solution to this conundrum was just being demonstrated in the late 1990s and early 2000s: DNA nanostructures self-assembled from oligonucleotides, whose high information density could handle the creation of arbitrary structures and chemical inhomogeneity. Our group became interested in whether DNA nanostructures could function as self-assembling circuit boards for electrical or magnetic QCA systems. This Account focuses on what we learned about the interactions of DNA nanostructures with silicon substrates and, particularly, on how electron-beam lithography could be used to direct the binding of DNA nanostructures on a variety of functional substrates.

  4. Chemical bonding technology for terrestrial photovoltaic modules (United States)

    Coulter, D. R.; Cuddihy, E. F.; Plueddeman, E. P.


    Encapsulated photovoltaic modules must hold together for 20 years, reliably resisting delamination and separation of any of the component materials. Delamination of encapsulation materials from each other, or from solar cells and interconnects, can create voids for accumulation of water, promoting corrosive failure. Delamination of silicone elastomers from unprimed surfaces was a common occurrence with early modules, but the incidences of silicone delamination with later modules decreased when adhesion promoters recommended by silicone manufacturers were used. An investigation of silicone delamination from unprimed surfaces successfully identified the mechanism, which was related to atmospheric oxygen and moisture. This early finding indicated that reliance on physical bonding of encapsulation interfaces for long life in an outdoor environment would be risky. For long outdoor life, the material components of a module must therefore be held together by weather-stable adhesion promoters that desirably form strong, interfacial chemical bonds.

  5. Characterization of electrical and optical properties of silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guobin


    characteristic DRL lines D1 to D4 has been detected, indicating the dislocations in the Alile sample are relatively clean. Test p-n junction diodes with dislocation networks (DNs) produced by silicon wafer direct bonding have been investigated by EBIC technique. Charge carriers collection and electrical conduction phenomena by the DNs were observed. Inhomogeneities in the charge collection were detected in n- and p-type samples under appropriate beam energy. The diffusion lengths in the thin top layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) have been measured by EBIC with full suppression of the surface recombination at the buried oxide (BOX) layer and at surface of the top layer by biasing method. The measured diffusion length is several times larger than the layer thickness. Silicon nanostructures are another important subject of this work. Electrical and optical properties of various silicon based materials like silicon nanowires, silicon nano rods, porous silicon, and Si/SiO{sub 2} multi quantum wells (MQWs) samples were investigated in this work. Silicon sub-bandgap infrared (IR) luminescence around 1570 nm was found in silicon nanowires, nano rods and porous silicon. PL measurements with samples immersed in different liquid media, for example, in aqueous HF (50%), concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (98%) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} established that the subbandgap IR luminescence originated from the Si/SiO{sub x} interface. EL in the sub-bandgap IR range has been observed in simple devices prepared on porous silicon and MQWs at room temperature. (orig.)

  6. Porous silicon technology for integrated microsystems (United States)

    Wallner, Jin Zheng

    With the development of micro systems, there is an increasing demand for integrable porous materials. In addition to those conventional applications, such as filtration, wicking, and insulating, many new micro devices, including micro reactors, sensors, actuators, and optical components, can benefit from porous materials. Conventional porous materials, such as ceramics and polymers, however, cannot meet the challenges posed by micro systems, due to their incompatibility with standard micro-fabrication processes. In an effort to produce porous materials that can be used in micro systems, porous silicon (PS) generated by anodization of single crystalline silicon has been investigated. In this work, the PS formation process has been extensively studied and characterized as a function of substrate type, crystal orientation, doping concentration, current density and surfactant concentration and type. Anodization conditions have been optimized for producing very thick porous silicon layers with uniform pore size, and for obtaining ideal pore morphologies. Three different types of porous silicon materials: meso porous silicon, macro porous silicon with straight pores, and macro porous silicon with tortuous pores, have been successfully produced. Regular pore arrays with controllable pore size in the range of 2mum to 6mum have been demonstrated as well. Localized PS formation has been achieved by using oxide/nitride/polysilicon stack as masking materials, which can withstand anodization in hydrofluoric acid up to twenty hours. A special etching cell with electrolytic liquid backside contact along with two process flows has been developed to enable the fabrication of thick macro porous silicon membranes with though wafer pores. For device assembly, Si-Au and In-Au bonding technologies have been developed. Very low bonding temperature (˜200°C) and thick/soft bonding layers (˜6mum) have been achieved by In-Au bonding technology, which is able to compensate the potentially

  7. Study of a solid state microdosemeter based on a monolithic silicon telescope: irradiations with low-energy neutrons and direct comparison with a cylindrical TEPC. (United States)

    Agosteo, S; Colautti, P; Fanton, I; Fazzi, A; Introini, M V; Moro, D; Pola, A; Varoli, V


    A silicon device based on the monolithic silicon telescope technology coupled to a tissue-equivalent converter was proposed and investigated for solid state microdosimetry. The detector is constituted by a ΔE stage about 2 µm in thickness geometrically segmented in a matrix of micrometric diodes and a residual-energy measurement stage E about 500 µm in thickness. Each thin diode has a cylindrical sensitive volume 9 µm in nominal diameter, similar to that of a cylindrical tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). The silicon device and a cylindrical TEPC were irradiated in the same experimental conditions with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of energy between 0.64 and 2.3 MeV at the INFN-Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL-INFN, Legnaro, Italy). The aim was to study the capability of the silicon-based system of reproducing microdosimetric spectra similar to those measured by a reference microdosemeter. The TEPC was set in order to simulate a tissue site about 2 μm in diameter. The spectra of the energy imparted to the ▵E stage of the silicon telescope were corrected for tissue-equivalence through an optimized procedure that exploits the information from the residual energy measurement stage E. A geometrical correction based on parametric criteria for shape-equivalence was also applied. The agreement between the dose distributions of lineal energy and the corresponding mean values is satisfactory at each neutron energy considered.

  8. Choosing a Silicone Encapsulant for Photovoltaic Applications (United States)

    Velderrain, Michelle


    Growth in the solar industry has resulted in newer technologies, specifically concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules, to explore using new types of materials such as silicone encapsulants. CPV and LCPV module designs are to achieve the most efficient energy conversion possible however it is equally important to demonstrate long term reliability. Silicone is a material of interest due to its thermal stability and ability to absorb stresses incurred during thermal cycling. The refractive index of clear silicone adhesives is advantageous because it can be optimized using phenyl groups to match BK7 glass and other substrates to minimize light loss at the interfaces but it is relatively unknown how the optical properties change over time possibly yellowing in such a harsh environment. A 1.41 silicone encapsulant is compared to a 1.52 refractive index silicone. Optical Absorption (300 nm-1300 nm), Water Vapor Permeability, Moisture Absorption and effects of oxidation at elevated temperatures will be compared of these materials to aid the engineer in choosing a silicone for their CPV application. Non-phenyl containing 1.41 RI silicones have been used for several years for bonding solar arrays in the satellite industry. Phenyl groups on the siloxane polymer can change various properties of the silicone. Understanding how phenyl affects these properties allows the engineer to understand the benefits and risks when using a RI matching silicone to minimize light loss versus a non-phenyl containing silicone.

  9. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding


    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca; Daene Patrícia Tenório Salvador da Costa; Renata Cimões; Lúcia Carneiro de Souza Beatrice; Ana Cláudia da Silva Araújo


    The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified ...

  10. Mechanical Properties of Silicon Carbonitride Thin Films (United States)

    Peng, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xingfang; Wang, Wei; Song, Lixin


    Silicon carbonitride thin films were synthesized by reactive rf sputtering a silicon carbide target in nitrogen and argon atmosphere, or sputtering a silicon nitride target in methane and argon atmosphere, respectively. The Nanoindentation technique (Nanoindenter XP system with a continuous stiffness measurement technique) was employed to measure the hardness and elastic modulus of thin films. The effects of sputtering power on the mechanical properties are different for the two SiCN thin films. With increasing sputtering power, the hardness and the elastic modulus decrease for the former but increase for the latter. The tendency is similar to the evolution trend of Si-C bonds in SiCN materials. This reflects that Si-C bonds provide greater hardness for SiCN thin films than Si-N and C-N bonds.

  11. The effect of heating power on impurity formation and transport during the holding phase in a Bridgman furnace for directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon (United States)

    Ellingsen, Kjerstin; Lindholm, Dag; M`Hamdi, Mohammed


    Oxygen and carbon are the most common impurities in multi-crystalline silicon. The general mechanism for formation and transport of O and C in the solidification furnace is as follows: oxygen from the silica crucible comes into the melt and combines with a silicon atom and evaporates at the gas/melt interface in the form of silicon oxide (SiO). Argon inert gas, injected into the furnace chamber, carries the SiO to the hot graphite fixtures, where it reacts with carbon to form carbon monoxide (CO) and silicon carbide (SiC). CO is carried by the gas to the melt free surface, where it dissociates into carbon and oxygen. Finally, during solidification oxygen and carbon are incorporated into the crystal. A global furnace model accounting for heat transfer, melt flow, gas flow and impurity transport has been applied to investigate the oxygen and carbon formation and transport in a vertical Bridgman furnace during the holding phase when the furnace is at its hottest. A case study is performed to investigate the effect of the applied heating power on the carbon and oxygen concentrations in the melt prior to solidification.

  12. Solar silicon via the Dow Corning process (United States)

    Hunt, L. P.; Dosaj, V. D.


    Technical feasibility for high volume production of solar cell-grade silicon is investigated. The process consists of producing silicon from pure raw materials via the carbothermic reduction of quartz. This silicon was then purified to solar grade by impurity segregation during Czochralski crystal growth. Commercially available raw materials were used to produce 100 kg quantities of silicon during 60 hour periods in a direct arc reactor. This silicon produced single crystalline ingot, during a second Czochralski pull, that was fabricated into solar cells having efficiencies ranging from 8.2 percent to greater than 14 percent. An energy analysis of the entire process indicated a 5 month payback time.

  13. Effect of diamond bur cutting efficacy on dentin bond strengths of different bonding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirani F.


    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: As composite-dentin bond strength is affected by cavity preparation and the bond strength of composite resin to new and used bur prepared dentin has not yet been evaluated, this study evaluated the effects of cutting dentin with different cutting efficacy (new and used of burs on composite-dentin shear bond strength using self-etching primer bonding system and total etching bonding system. "nMaterials and Methods: Sixty caries free human 3rd molar were sectioned in occlosal surface to expose dentin, then polished with silicon carbide paper and randomly divided into four groups. Each group was prepared in a depth of 0.5mm of dentin, using new diamond bur, or used diamond bur. To change into a used bur, each new rough diamond bur had to work on bovine enamel for 30 minutes, under a load of 150g. Then, each group was bonded, using a total etch adhesive (single Bond or a self etch adhesive (clearfil SE Bond So there were 4 groups : 1-SE Bond, New bur; 2-SE Bond , used bur; 3-Single Bond , New bur ; 4-Single Bond, used bur. Similar composite capsules(Filtek Z250 were bonded to dentin surface and cured. specimens were stored in physiologic saline for 48h at 370 c , then put under shearing load to define composite - dentin shear bond strength. Results were interpreted via statistical analysis (T-test & two - way variance. "nResults: Shear bond strength of each group was as follows: 1-(27.3Mpa, 2-(33.5Mpa, 3-(16.9Mpa 4-(19.3Mpa. Statistical analysis proved that shear bond strength of used diamond bur prepared groups (2,4 was more than new diamond bur prepared ones (1,3. This statistical difference, specially, was seen between SE Bond groups (1,2 but not between single Bond groups (3,4. Also, shear bond strength of (SE Bond bonded groups (1,2 were more significantly than (single Bond bonded ones (3,4. "nConclusion: This study show that Bur cutting efficiency influences composite - dentin shear bond strength especially when the

  14. Quantum mechanical theory of epitaxial transformation of silicon to silicon carbide (United States)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.


    The paper focuses on the study of transformation of silicon crystal into silicon carbide crystal via substitution reaction with carbon monoxide gas. As an example, the Si(1 0 0) surface is considered. The cross section of the potential energy surface of the first stage of transformation along the reaction pathway is calculated by the method of nudged elastic bands. It is found that in addition to intermediate states associated with adsorption of CO and SiO molecules on the surface, there is also an intermediate state in which all the atoms are strongly bonded to each other. This intermediate state significantly reduces the activation barrier of transformation down to 2.6 eV. The single imaginary frequencies corresponding to the two transition states of this transformation are calculated, one of which is reactant-like, whereas the other is product-like. By methods of quantum chemistry of solids, the second stage of this transformation is described, namely, the transformation of precarbide silicon into silicon carbide. Energy reduction per one cell is calculated for this ‘collapse’ process, and bond breaking energy is also found. Hence, it is concluded that the smallest size of the collapsing islet is 30 nm. It is shown that the chemical bonds of the initial silicon crystal are coordinately replaced by the bonds between Si and C in silicon carbide, which leads to a high quality of epitaxy and a low concentration of misfit dislocations.

  15. Hydrogen bonding in ionic liquids. (United States)

    Hunt, Patricia A; Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P


    Ionic liquids (IL) and hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) are two diverse fields for which there is a developing recognition of significant overlap. Doubly ionic H-bonds occur when a H-bond forms between a cation and anion, and are a key feature of ILs. Doubly ionic H-bonds represent a wide area of H-bonding which has yet to be fully recognised, characterised or explored. H-bonds in ILs (both protic and aprotic) are bifurcated and chelating, and unlike many molecular liquids a significant variety of distinct H-bonds are formed between different types and numbers of donor and acceptor sites within a given IL. Traditional more neutral H-bonds can also be formed in functionalised ILs, adding a further level of complexity. Ab initio computed parameters; association energies, partial charges, density descriptors as encompassed by the QTAIM methodology (ρBCP), qualitative molecular orbital theory and NBO analysis provide established and robust mechanisms for understanding and interpreting traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds. In this review the applicability and extension of these parameters to describe and quantify the doubly ionic H-bond has been explored. Estimating the H-bonding energy is difficult because at a fundamental level the H-bond and ionic interaction are coupled. The NBO and QTAIM methodologies, unlike the total energy, are local descriptors and therefore can be used to directly compare neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. The charged nature of the ions influences the ionic characteristics of the H-bond and vice versa, in addition the close association of the ions leads to enhanced orbital overlap and covalent contributions. The charge on the ions raises the energy of the Ylp and lowers the energy of the X-H σ* NBOs resulting in greater charge transfer, strengthening the H-bond. Using this range of parameters and comparing doubly ionic H-bonds to more traditional neutral and ionic H-bonds it is clear that doubly ionic H-bonds cover the full range of weak

  16. A 150 nm ultraviolet excitation volume on a porous silicon membrane for direct optical observation of DNA coil relaxation during capture into nanopores (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hirohito; Esashika, Keiko; Saiki, Toshiharu


    We report the first optical observation of DNA coil relaxation during capture into silicon nanopores, which was achieved using fluorescence microscopy with a 150 nm observation volume. Compared with our previous results, the gradual increase and steep decay of the fluorescence signal can be interpreted as the capture of the DNA molecule and its translocation through the nanopore, respectively. Furthermore, a longer dwell time was obtained when we used a nanoporous membrane with high porosity. From a numerical calculation of the electric field distribution in the vicinity of the nanopore, we concluded that a ‘biased’ electric field, as well as funneling of the field into surrounding nanopores, hinders DNA coil relaxation. Our result showed the capability of a UV excitation volume on a silicon membrane for observation of DNA capture into nanopores at a single-molecule level.

  17. Deposition of thin layers of boron nitrides and hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon assisted by high current direct current arc plasma; Deposition assistee par un plasma a arc a haut courant continu de couches minces de Nitrure de Bore et de Silicium microcristallin hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, D. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)


    In the frame of this thesis, a high current direct current arc (HCDCA) used for the industrial deposition of diamond, has been adapted to study the deposition of two types of coatings: a) boron nitride, whose cubic phase is similar to diamond, for tribological applications, b) hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon, for applications in the semiconductor fields (flat panel displays, solar cells,...). For the deposition of these coatings, the substrates were placed in the diffusion region of the arc. The substrate heating is mainly due to atomic species recombining on its surface. The deposition temperature, varying from 300 to 900 {sup o}C according to the films deposited, is determined by the substrate position, the arc power and the injected gas fluxes, without the use of any external heating or cooling system. Measurements performed on the arc plasma show that the electronic temperature is around 2 eV (23'000 K) while the gas temperature is lower than 5500 K. Typical electronic densities are in the range of 10{sup 12}-10{sup 1'}3 cm{sup -3}. For the deposition of boron nitride films, different boron precursors were used and a wide parameter range was investigated. The extreme difficulty of synthesising cubic boron nitride films by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) did not allow to stabilize the cubic phase of boron nitride in HCDCA. Coatings resulted in hexagonal or amorphous boron nitride with a chemical composition close to stoichiometric. The presence of hydrogen leads to the deposition of rough and porous films. Negative biasing of the samples, for positive ion bombardment, is commonly used to stabilize the cubic phase. In HCDCA and in our biasing range, only a densification of the films could be observed. A boron nitride deposition plasma study by infrared absorption spectroscopy in a capacitive radio frequency reactor has demonstrated the usefulness of this diagnostic for the understanding of the various chemical reactions which occur in this kind

  18. 25-Gb/s Transmission Over 2.5-km SSMF by Silicon MRR Enhanced 1.55-mu m III-V/SOI DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Ozolins, Oskars


    -GHz 1.55-mu m directly modulated hybrid III-V/SOI DFB laser realized by bonding III-V materials (InGaAlAs) on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer and a silicon MRR also fabricated on SOI. Such a transmitter enables error-free transmission (BER ... mode fiber without dispersion compensation nor forward error correction. As both laser and MRR are fabricated on the SOI platform, they could be combined into a single device with enhanced performance, thus providing a cost-effective transmitter for short reach applications....

  19. Silicon nanocrystals and defect states in silicon rich silicon nitride for optoelectronic applications (United States)

    Mohammed, Shakil

    Research interest in silicon nanocrystals (Si-NC) has increased significantly as a result of the desire to improve the light emission efficiency of bulk silicon. Si-NCs embedded in silicon nitride have desirable characteristics for optoelectronic applications since they can increase the tunneling probability and have a lower tunneling barrier than silicon oxide. Higher tunneling probability is an important feature as it can be used to develop more efficient electroluminescent and photovoltaic devices. In this dissertation, the Si-rich Si3N 4 (SRN) was prepared using low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) and RF sputtering followed by high temperature treatment in order to precipitate Si-NCs within the silicon nitride matrix. Several different characterization techniques were used on the Si-NC samples in order to understand the physical, structural, optical and electrical behavior of the nanocrystals. Characterization techniques used in this analysis included photoluminescence (PL), time resolved PL, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ellipsometry and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. Silicon nitride was found to contain a high defect density which suppressed the PL effect from the Si-NC. The PL observed from each different SRN sample correlated to defect states, namely dangling bonds and oxygen related bonding. Although substantial evidence suggested that Si-NC had formed within the SRN sample, a PL effect due to the quantum confinement effect (QCE) from the nanocrystals could not be detected. However, Si rich SiOx samples exhibited excellent PL which correlated with the QCE for an indirect bandgap semiconductor. Further experiments were conducted using forming gas in order to passivate the defects in the SRN. Though significant changes in PL was not achieved due to passivation, the electrical behavior from the SRN indicated that the

  20. Curvature Control of Silicon Microlens for THz Dielectric Antenna (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cooper, Ken; Mehdi, Imran


    We have controlled the curvature of silicon microlens by changing the amount of photoresist in order to microfabricate hemispherical silicon microlens which can improve the directivity and reduce substrate mode losses.

  1. Assembly and validation of the SSD silicon microstrip detector of ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A.P.; Kuijer, P.G.; Nooren, G.J.L.; Oskamp, C.J.; Sokolov, A.N.; van den Brink, A.


    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) forms the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of ALICE. The SSD detector consists of 1698 double-sided silicon microstrip modules. The electrical connection between silicon sensor and front-end electronics is made via TAB-bonded

  2. Process for Patterning Indium for Bump Bonding (United States)

    Denis, Kevin


    An innovation was created for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor for integration of low-temperature detector chips with a silicon backshort and a silicon photonic choke through flipchip bonding. Indium bumps are typically patterned using liftoff processes, which require thick resist. In some applications, it is necessary to locate the bumps close to high-aspect-ratio structures such as wafer through-holes. In those cases, liftoff processes are challenging, and require complicated and time-consuming spray coating technology if the high-aspect-ratio structures are delineated prior to the indium bump process. Alternatively, processing the indium bumps first is limited by compatibility of the indium with subsequent processing. The present invention allows for locating bumps arbitrarily close to multiple-level high-aspect-ratio structures, and for indium bumps to be formed without liftoff resist. The process uses the poor step coverage of indium deposited on a silicon wafer that has been previously etched to delineate the location of the indium bumps. The silicon pattern can be processed through standard lithography prior to adding the high-aspect-ratio structures. Typically, high-aspectratio structures require a thick resist layer so this layer can easily cover the silicon topography. For multiple levels of topography, the silicon can be easily conformally coated through standard processes. A blanket layer of indium is then deposited onto the full wafer; bump bonding only occurs at the high points of the topography.

  3. Palladium-defect complexes in diamond and silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiona, A. A., E-mail:; Kemp, W.; Timmers, H. [University of New South Wales, Canberra, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia); Bharuth-Ram, K. [Durban University of Technology, Physics Department (South Africa)


    Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) studies, supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling, have shown that palladium atoms in silicon and germanium pair with vacancies. Building on these results, here we present DFT predictions and some tentative TDPAC results on palladium-defect complexes and site locations of palladium impurities in diamond and silicon carbide. For both diamond and silicon carbide, the DFT calculations predict that a split-vacancy V-PdBI-V complex is favoured, with the palladium atom on a bond-centred interstitial site having a nearest-neighbour semi-vacancy on either side. Consistent with experimental results, this configuration is also assigned to palladium complexes in silicon and germanium. For silicon carbide, the DFT modelling predicts furthermore that a palladium atom in replacing a carbon atom moves to a bond-centred interstitial site and pairs with a silicon vacancy to form a complex that is more stable than that of a palladium atom which replaces a silicon atom and then moves to a bond-centred interstitial site pairings with a carbon vacancy. These two competing alternatives differ by 8.94 eV. The favourable pairing with a silicon vacancy is also supported independently by TRIM Monte Carlo calculations, which predict that more silicon vacancies than carbon vacancies are created during heavy ion. implantation.

  4. Dynamic Silicon Nanophotonics (United States)


    the waveguide. Furthermore, the design is fabricated using standard contact’s/via’s in a CMOS process (i.e. that traditionally connect metal layers to...process steps or even materials. It directly makes use of the standard metal contacts/via’s used to connect upper Metal layers to the active Silicon...Low-Voltage Lithium Niobate Electro-Optic Modulator,” In Preparation PERSONNEL SUPPORTED The following personnel have been supported by the YIP

  5. Strength of Chemical Bonds (United States)

    Christian, Jerry D.


    Students are not generally made aware of the extraordinary magnitude of the strengths of chemical bonds in terms of the forces required to pull them apart. Molecular bonds are usually considered in terms of the energies required to break them, and we are not astonished at the values encountered. For example, the Cl2 bond energy, 57.00 kcal/mole, amounts to only 9.46 x 10(sup -20) cal/molecule, a very small amount of energy, indeed, and impossible to measure directly. However, the forces involved in realizing the energy when breaking the bond operate over a very small distance, only 2.94 A, and, thus, f(sub ave) approx. equals De/(r - r(sub e)) must be very large. The forces involved in dissociating the molecule are discussed in the following. In consideration of average forces, the molecule shall be assumed arbitrarily to be dissociated when the atoms are far enough separated so that the potential, relative to that of the infinitely separated atoms, is reduced by 99.5% from the potential of the molecule at the equilibrium bond length (r(sub e)) for Cl2 of 1.988 A this occurs at 4.928 A.

  6. Collision-Induced Dissociation of Fatty Acid [M - 2H + Na]- Ions: Charge-Directed Fragmentation and Assignment of Double Bond Position (United States)

    Thomas, Michael C.; Altvater, Jens; Gallagher, Thomas J.; Nette, Geoffrey W.


    The collision-induced dissociation (CID) of cationic fatty acid-metal ion complexes has been extensively studied and, in general, provides rich structural information. In particular, charge-remote fragmentation processes are commonly observed allowing the assignment of double bond position. In a previous manuscript, we presented two methods to doubly deprotonate polyunsaturated fatty acids to form anionic fatty acid-sodium ion complexes, referred to as [M - 2H + Na] - ions. In the current manuscript, the CID behavior of these [M - 2H + Na] - ions is investigated for the first time. Significantly, we also present a deuterium-labeling experiment, which excludes the possibility that deprotonation occurs predominately at the α-carbon in the formation of fatty acid [M - H + NaF]- ions. This supports our original proposal where deprotonation occurs at the bis-allylic positions of polyunsaturated fatty acids. CID spectra of polyunsaturated fatty acid [M - 2H + Na]- ions display abundant product ions arising from acyl chain cleavages. Through the examination of fatty acid isomers, it is demonstrated that double bond position may be unequivocally determined for methylene-interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids with three or more carbon-carbon double bonds. In addition, CID of [M - 2H + Na]- ions was applied to 18:3 isomers of Nannochloropsis oculata and three isomers were tentatively identified: ∆9,12,1518:3, ∆6,9,1218:3, and ∆5,8,1118:3. We propose that structurally-informative product ions are formed via charge-driven fragmentation processes at the site of the resonance-stabilized carbanion as opposed to charge-remote fragmentation processes, which could be inferred if deprotonation occurred predominately at the α-carbon.

  7. [Cu2R2BrLi(thf)3], R = Si(SiMe3)3–a complex containing five-coordinate silicon in a three-centre two-electron bond (thf = tetrahydrofuran)


    Heine, Andreas; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar


    The title compound is obtained from the reaction of (Me3Si)3SiLi(thf)3 with CuBr in n-hexane and structurally characterised by X-ray diffraction; in [Cu2R2BrLi(thf)3], R = Si(SiMe3)3 one silyl ligand is bridging a very short Cu–Cu bond, resulting in a three-centre two-electron bond, while the second is terminally bound to copper; the other copper atom is linked to a lithium atom via a Cu Br Li bridge. peerReviewed

  8. Electrodeposition of Gold to Conformally Fill High Aspect Ratio Nanometric Silicon Grating Trenches: A Comparison of Pulsed and Direct Current Protocols (United States)

    Znati, Sami A.; Chedid, Nicholas; Miao, Houxun; Chen, Lei; Bennett, Eric E.; Wen, Han


    Filling high-aspect-ratio trenches with gold is a frequent requirement in the fabrication of x-ray optics as well as micro-electronic components and other fabrication processes. Conformal electrodeposition of gold in sub-micron-width silicon trenches with an aspect ratio greater than 35 over a grating area of several square centimeters is challenging and has not been described in the literature previously. A comparison of pulsed plating and constant current plating led to a gold electroplating protocol that reliably filled trenches for such structures. PMID:27042384

  9. Ultrahigh-speed hybrid laser for silicon photonic integrated chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Park, Gyeong Cheol; Ran, Qijiang


    and light-emitting diode (LED) structures have been proposed so far. Our hybrid laser is one of these efforts [2]. The hybrid laser consists of a dielectric reflector, a III-V semiconductor active material, and a high-index-contrast grating (HCG) reflector formed in the silicon layer of a silicon......-oninsulator (SOI) wafer. ‘Hybrid’ indicates that a III-V active material is wafer-bonded to a silicon SOI wafer. In the hybrid laser, light is vertically amplified between the dielectric and the HCG reflectors, while the light output is laterally emitted to a normal Si ridge waveguide that is connected to the HCG...... reflector. The HCG works as a vertical mirror as well as a vertical-to-lateral coupler. Very small field penetration into the HCG allows for 3-4 times smaller modal volume than typical vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). This leads to high direct modulation speed. Details on device operating...

  10. The STAR silicon vertex tracker: a large area silicon drift detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, D; Beuttenmüller, Rolf H; Caines, H; Chen, W; Dimassimo, D; Dyke, H; Elliot, D; Eremin, V; Grau, M; Hoffmann, G W; Humanic, T; Ilyashenko, Yu S; Kotov, I; Kraner, H W; Kuczewski, P; Leonhardt, B; Li, Z; Liaw, C J; Lo Curto, G; Middelkamp, P; Minor, R; Munhoz, M; Ott, G; Pandey, S U; Pruneau, C A; Rykov, V L; Schambach, J; Sedlmeir, J; Soja, B; Sugarbaker, E R; Takahashi, J; Wilson, K; Wilson, R


    The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC-Silicon Vertex Tracker (STAR-SVT) is a three barrel microvertex detector based upon silicon drift detector technology. As designed for the STAR-SVT, silicon drift detectors (SDDs) are capable of providing unambiguous two-dimensional hit position measurements with resolutions on the order of 20 mu m in each coordinate. Achievement of such resolutions, particularly in the drift direction coordinate, depends upon certain characteristics of silicon and drift detector geometry that are uniquely critical for silicon drift detectors hit measurements. Here we describe features of the design of the STAR-SVT SDDs and the front-end electronics that are motivated by such characteristics.

  11. Lithographically patterned silicon nanostructures on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megouda, Nacera [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Piret, Gaeelle; Galopin, Elisabeth; Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI, USR 3078), Universite Lille1, Parc de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley-BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d' Ascq and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN, CNRS-8520), Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare-B.P. 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Hadjersi, Toufik, E-mail: [Unite de Developpement de la Technologie du Silicium (UDTS), 2 Bd. Frantz Fanon, B.P. 140 Alger-7 merveilles, Alger (Algeria); Elkechai, Omar [Faculte des Sciences, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); and others


    The paper reports on controlled formation of silicon nanostructures patterns by the combination of optical lithography and metal-assisted chemical dissolution of crystalline silicon. First, a 20 nm-thick gold film was deposited onto hydrogen-terminated silicon substrate by thermal evaporation. Gold patterns (50 {mu}m Multiplication-Sign 50 {mu}m spaced by 20 {mu}m) were transferred onto the silicon wafer by means of photolithography. The etching process of crystalline silicon in HF/AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution was studied as a function of the silicon resistivity, etching time and temperature. Controlled formation of silicon nanowire arrays in the unprotected areas was demonstrated for highly resistive silicon substrate, while silicon etching was observed on both gold protected and unprotected areas for moderately doped silicon. The resulting layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  12. Direct observation of breaking of the intramolecular H-bond, and slowing down of the proton motion and tuning its mechanism in an HBO derivative. (United States)

    Alarcos, Noemí; Gutiérrez, Mario; Liras, Marta; Sánchez, Félix; Moreno, Miquel; Douhal, Abderrazzak


    We report on spectroscopic and photodynamical behaviours of 5-amino-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (5A-HBO) in different solutions. The dye undergoes an ultrafast ICT reaction (hydrogen bond (IHB). 5A-HBO in n-heptane solution exhibits an irreversible and slow (20 ps) ESIPT reaction, while that of the parent compound, HBO, takes place in less than 150 fs. Compared to excited HBO behaviour, theoretical calculations on 5A-HBO suggest a higher energy barrier (∼4 kcal mol(-1)) between the relaxed enol and keto tautomers, in addition to a less stabilization of the latter, which is in agreement with experiments in n-heptane. On the other hand, in dichloromethane, after the ICT reaction a subsequent and reversible proton motion occurs in an extraordinary slower regime (ns-time scale). No isotopic effect (OH/OD exchange) was observed in this solvent reflecting that the reversible ESIPT reaction evolves along the IHB and solvent coordinates. Using tetrahydrofurane and acetonitrile, we observed a breaking of the IHB due to specific intermolecular interactions with solvent molecules. This leads to the formation of open-enol forms, which undergo an ICT reaction as it occurs in 5A-MBO. These results bring new findings in the coupled ICT and ESIPT reactions. The photobehaviour of this new dye remarkably changes with the solvent nature, opening up the window for further research and possible applications in sensing polarity or H-bonding of media similar to that of the biological ones.

  13. Surface modification of silicon dioxide, silicon nitride and titanium oxynitride for lactate dehydrogenase immobilization. (United States)

    Saengdee, Pawasuth; Chaisriratanakul, Woraphan; Bunjongpru, Win; Sripumkhai, Witsaroot; Srisuwan, Awirut; Jeamsaksiri, Wutthinan; Hruanun, Charndet; Poyai, Amporn; Promptmas, Chamras


    Three different types of surface, silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon nitride (Si3N4), and titanium oxynitride (TiON) were modified for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) immobilization using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) to obtain an amino layer on each surface. The APTES modified surfaces can directly react with LDH via physical attachment. LDH can be chemically immobilized on those surfaces after incorporation with glutaraldehyde (GA) to obtain aldehyde layers of APTES-GA modified surfaces. The wetting properties, chemical bonding composition, and morphology of the modified surface were determined by contact angle (CA) measurement, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. In this experiment, the immobilized protein content and LDH activity on each modified surface was used as an indicator of surface modification achievement. The results revealed that both the APTES and APTES-GA treatments successfully link the LDH molecule to those surfaces while retaining its activity. All types of tested surfaces modified with APTES-GA gave better LDH immobilizing efficiency than APTES, especially the SiO2 surface. In addition, the SiO2 surface offered the highest LDH immobilization among tested surfaces, with both APTES and APTES-GA modification. However, TiON and Si3N4 surfaces could be used as alternative candidate materials in the preparation of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) based biosensors, including lactate sensors using immobilized LDH on the ISFET surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits (United States)

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Grosso, Gabriele; Heuck, Mikkel; Furchi, Marco M.; Cao, Yuan; Zheng, Jiabao; Bunandar, Darius; Navarro-Moratalla, Efren; Zhou, Lin; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kong, Jing; Englund, Dirk; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo


    One of the current challenges in photonics is developing high-speed, power-efficient, chip-integrated optical communications devices to address the interconnects bottleneck in high-speed computing systems. Silicon photonics has emerged as a leading architecture, in part because of the promise that many components, such as waveguides, couplers, interferometers and modulators, could be directly integrated on silicon-based processors. However, light sources and photodetectors present ongoing challenges. Common approaches for light sources include one or few off-chip or wafer-bonded lasers based on III-V materials, but recent system architecture studies show advantages for the use of many directly modulated light sources positioned at the transmitter location. The most advanced photodetectors in the silicon photonic process are based on germanium, but this requires additional germanium growth, which increases the system cost. The emerging two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer a path for optical interconnect components that can be integrated with silicon photonics and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) processing by back-end-of-the-line steps. Here, we demonstrate a silicon waveguide-integrated light source and photodetector based on a p-n junction of bilayer MoTe2, a TMD semiconductor with an infrared bandgap. This state-of-the-art fabrication technology provides new opportunities for integrated optoelectronic systems.

  15. Iodine-Promoted Oxidative Cross-Coupling of Unprotected Anilines with Methyl Ketones: A Site-Selective Direct C-H Bond Functionalization to C4-Dicarbonylation of Anilines. (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Gao, Qinghe; Geng, Xiao; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Yan-Dong; Wu, An-Xin


    An unprecedented direct dual C-H bond functionalization of unprotected anilines and methyl ketones has been demonstrated. It is the first example of iodine-promoted highly chemo- and site-selective oxidative C-H/C-H cross-coupling of anilines and methyl ketones to furnish the C4-dicarbonylation of anilines in moderate to good yields. Moreover, coproduct HI acted as a catalyst in the reaction. The salient feature of this approach is unprecedented C-H functionalization rather than N-H functionalization of unprotected anilines.

  16. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez


    The bump-bonded silicon pixel detector, developed at CERN by the EP-MIC group, is shown here in its ceramic carrier. Both represent the ISPA-tube anode. The chip features between 1024 (called OMEGA-1) and 8196 (ALICE-1) active pixels.

  17. Ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. We present results for ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon clus- ters using the Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics with simulated annealing. We discuss the nature of bonding of hydrogen in these clusters. We find that hydrogen can form a bridge like Si–H–Si bond connecting two ...

  18. Heterogeneously integrated long-wavelength VCSEL using silicon high contrast grating on an SOI substrate. (United States)

    Ferrara, James; Yang, Weijian; Zhu, Li; Qiao, Pengfei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J


    We report an electrically pumped hybrid cavity AlGaInAs-silicon long-wavelength VCSEL using a high contrast grating (HCG) reflector on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. The VCSEL operates at silicon transparent wavelengths ~1.57 μm with >1 mW CW power outcoupled from the semiconductor DBR, and single-mode operation up to 65 °C. The thermal resistance of our device is measured to be 1.46 K/mW. We demonstrate >2.5 GHz 3-dB direct modulation bandwidth, and show error-free transmission over 2.5 km single mode fiber under 5 Gb/s direct modulation. We show a theoretical design of SOI-HCG serving both as a VCSEL reflector as well as waveguide coupler for an in-plane SOI waveguide, facilitating integration of VCSEL with in-plane silicon photonic circuits. The novel HCG-VCSEL design, which employs scalable flip-chip eutectic bonding, may enable low cost light sources for integrated optical links.

  19. Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathpour Sasan


    Full Text Available Silicon photonics has been established as a mature and promising technology for optoelectronic integrated circuits, mostly based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI waveguide platform. However, not all optical functionalities can be satisfactorily achieved merely based on silicon, in general, and on the SOI platform, in particular. Long-known shortcomings of silicon-based integrated photonics are optical absorption (in the telecommunication wavelengths and feasibility of electrically-injected lasers (at least at room temperature. More recently, high two-photon and free-carrier absorptions required at high optical intensities for third-order optical nonlinear effects, inherent lack of second-order optical nonlinearity, low extinction ratio of modulators based on the free-carrier plasma effect, and the loss of the buried oxide layer of the SOI waveguides at mid-infrared wavelengths have been recognized as other shortcomings. Accordingly, several novel waveguide platforms have been developing to address these shortcomings of the SOI platform. Most of these emerging platforms are based on heterogeneous integration of other material systems on silicon substrates, and in some cases silicon is integrated on other substrates. Germanium and its binary alloys with silicon, III–V compound semiconductors, silicon nitride, tantalum pentoxide and other high-index dielectric or glass materials, as well as lithium niobate are some of the materials heterogeneously integrated on silicon substrates. The materials are typically integrated by a variety of epitaxial growth, bonding, ion implantation and slicing, etch back, spin-on-glass or other techniques. These wide range of efforts are reviewed here holistically to stress that there is no pure silicon or even group IV photonics per se. Rather, the future of the field of integrated photonics appears to be one of heterogenization, where a variety of different materials and waveguide platforms will be used for

  20. Emerging heterogeneous integrated photonic platforms on silicon (United States)

    Fathpour, Sasan


    Silicon photonics has been established as a mature and promising technology for optoelectronic integrated circuits, mostly based on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide platform. However, not all optical functionalities can be satisfactorily achieved merely based on silicon, in general, and on the SOI platform, in particular. Long-known shortcomings of silicon-based integrated photonics are optical absorption (in the telecommunication wavelengths) and feasibility of electrically-injected lasers (at least at room temperature). More recently, high two-photon and free-carrier absorptions required at high optical intensities for third-order optical nonlinear effects, inherent lack of second-order optical nonlinearity, low extinction ratio of modulators based on the free-carrier plasma effect, and the loss of the buried oxide layer of the SOI waveguides at mid-infrared wavelengths have been recognized as other shortcomings. Accordingly, several novel waveguide platforms have been developing to address these shortcomings of the SOI platform. Most of these emerging platforms are based on heterogeneous integration of other material systems on silicon substrates, and in some cases silicon is integrated on other substrates. Germanium and its binary alloys with silicon, III-V compound semiconductors, silicon nitride, tantalum pentoxide and other high-index dielectric or glass materials, as well as lithium niobate are some of the materials heterogeneously integrated on silicon substrates. The materials are typically integrated by a variety of epitaxial growth, bonding, ion implantation and slicing, etch back, spin-on-glass or other techniques. These wide range of efforts are reviewed here holistically to stress that there is no pure silicon or even group IV photonics per se. Rather, the future of the field of integrated photonics appears to be one of heterogenization, where a variety of different materials and waveguide platforms will be used for different purposes with

  1. High-Q Wafer Level Package Based on Modified Tri-Layer Anodic Bonding and High Performance Getter and Its Evaluation for Micro Resonant Pressure Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Wang


    Full Text Available In order to achieve and maintain a high quality factor (high-Q for the micro resonant pressure sensor, this paper presents a new wafer level package by adopting cross-layer anodic bonding technique of the glass/silicon/silica (GSS stackable structure and integrated Ti getter. A double-layer structure similar to a silicon-on-insulator (SOI wafer is formed after the resonant layer and the pressure-sensitive layer are bonded by silicon direct bonding (SDB. In order to form good bonding quality between the pressure-sensitive layer and the glass cap layer, the cross-layer anodic bonding technique is proposed for vacuum package by sputtering Aluminum (Al on the combination wafer of the pressure-sensitive layer and the resonant layer to achieve electrical interconnection. The model and the bonding effect of this technique are discussed. In addition, in order to enhance the performance of titanium (Ti getter, the prepared and activation parameters of Ti getter under different sputtering conditions are optimized and discussed. Based on the optimized results, the Ti getter (thickness of 300 nm to 500 nm is also deposited on the inside of the glass groove by magnetron sputtering to maintain stable quality factor (Q. The Q test of the built testing system shows that the number of resonators with a Q value of more than 10,000 accounts for more than 73% of the total. With an interval of 1.5 years, the Q value of the samples remains almost constant. It proves the proposed cross-layer anodic bonding and getter technique can realize high-Q resonant structure for long-term stable operation.

  2. Crystallization behavior of silicon quantum dots in a silicon nitride matrix. (United States)

    Ha, Rin; Kim, Shinho; Kim, Hyun Jong; Lee, Jung Chul; Bae, Jong-Seong; Kim, Yangdo


    Silicon quantum dot superlattice was fabricated by alternating deposition of silicon rich nitride (SRN) and Si3N4 layers using RF magnetron co-sputtering. Samples were then annealed at temperatures between 800 and 1,100 degrees C and characterized by grazing incident X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). GIXRD and Raman analyses show that the formation of silicon quantum dots occurs with annealing above 1,100 degrees C for at least 60 minutes. As the annealing time increased the crystallization of silicon quantum dots was also increased. TEM images clearly showed SRN/Si3N4 superlattice structure and silicon quantum dots formation in SRN layers after annealing at 1,100 degrees C for more than 60 minutes. The changes in FTIR transmission spectra observed with annealing condition corresponded to the configuration of Si-N bonds. Crystallization of silicon quantum dots in a silicon nitride matrix started stabilizing after 60 minutes' annealing and approached completion after 120 minutes'. The systematic investigation of silicon quantum dots in a silicon nitride matrix and their properties for solar cell application are presented.

  3. Shear bond strength of a self‑etched resin cement to an indirect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 15, 2014 ... using a silicon mold (14 mm diameter, 20 mm height). Shear bond strength test. Shear bond ... inhibited superficial layer of composite monomers and increased the exposure of fillers.[18]. Surface ... self‑adhesive resin cements include monomers that are capable of etching and bonding to the dental surface ...

  4. Germanium epitaxy on silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ye


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of on-chip optical interconnects and optical computing in the past decade, silicon-based integrated devices for monolithic and hybrid optoelectronic integration have attracted wide attention. Due to its narrow pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si technology, epitaxial Ge-on-Si has become a significant material for optoelectronic device applications. In this paper, we describe recent research progress on heteroepitaxy of Ge flat films and self-assembled Ge quantum dots on Si. For film growth, methods of strain modification and lattice mismatch relief are summarized, while for dot growth, key process parameters and their effects on the dot density, dot morphology and dot position are reviewed. The results indicate that epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials will play a bigger role in silicon photonics.

  5. Assessment of shear bond strength of brackets bonded by direct and indirect techniques: an in vitro study Avaliação da resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados pelas técnicas direta e indireta: estudo in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hideo Shimizu


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS of orthodontic metal brackets bonded by direct and indirect techniques. METHODS: Thirty healthy human maxillary premolar teeth were used. The teeth were divided into three groups of 10 teeth each: Group I - indirect bonding with SondhiTM Rapid-Set system (3M/Unitek, Group II - indirect bonding with TransbondTM XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek and Group III - direct bonding with TransbondTM XT adhesive system (3M/Unitek. After bonding and obtaining the specimens for the study, the specimens were subjected to SBS testing in a universal testing machine (Emic, model DL-500. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to ascertain that the data had a normal distribution and the Bartlett test to check whether there was homogeneity of variance. One-factor analysis of variance was performed and, subsequently, Tukey's test for paired means. A 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS: The results of Group I were 67.6 (N and 5.9 (MPa; Group II, 68.9 (N and 6.1 (MPa and Group III (control, 92.5 (N and 8.1 (MPa. CONCLUSION: It can therefore be concluded that the means for Group III were significantly higher compared with Groups I and II in both Newton (N and Megapascal (MPa values. The means attained by the indirect bonding technique used in Groups I and II, however, exhibited no statistically significant differences.OBJETIVO: objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar, em um estudo realizado in vitro, a resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes metálicos ortodônticos colados pelas técnicas direta e indireta. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 30 dentes pré-molares superiores humanos hígidos. Os dentes foram divididos em três grupos de 10 dentes: Grupo I - colagem indireta com sistema Sondhi Rapid-Set (3M/Unitek; Grupo II - colagem indireta com sistema Transbond XT (3M/Unitek; e Grupo III - colagem direta com sistema Transbond XT (3M/Unitek. Após realização das colagens e confec

  6. Metal positioning on silicon surfaces using the etching of buried dislocation arrays. (United States)

    Bavard, A; Fournel, F; Eymery, J


    Large-area Si(001) nanopatterned surfaces obtained by etching dislocation line arrays have been used to drive the positioning of metallic islands. A method combining wafer bonding of (001) silicon on insulator layers and preferential chemical etching allows controlling the periodicity of square trench arrays in the 20-50 nm lateral periodicity range with an accuracy of less than 1 nm and a depth of about 4-5 nm. The interfacial area containing the dislocation line plane can be removed and a single crystal maintaining the morphological patterning can be obtained. It is shown that oxidized or deoxidized silicon nanopatterned surfaces can drive the positioning of Ni, Au and Ag islands for a 20 nm lateral periodicity and that a lateral long range order, directly transferred from the dislocation network, can be obtained in the Ni and Au cases.

  7. Infrared differential interference contrast microscopy for overlay metrology on 3D-interconnect bonded wafers (United States)

    Ku, Yi-sha; Shyu, Deh-Ming; Lin, Yeou-Sung; Cho, Chia-Hung


    Overlay metrology for stacked layers will be playing a key role in bringing 3D IC devices into manufacturing. However, such bonded wafer pairs present a metrology challenge for optical microscopy tools by the opaque nature of silicon. Using infrared microscopy, silicon wafers become transparent to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling metrology at the interface of bonded wafer pairs. Wafers can be bonded face to face (F2F) or face to back (F2B) which the stacking direction is dictated by how the stacks are carried in the process and functionality required. For example, Memory stacks tend to use F2B stacking enables a better managed design. Current commercial tools use single image technique for F2F bonding overlay measurement because depth of focus is sufficient to include both surfaces; and use multiple image techniques for F2B overlay measurement application for the depth of focus is no longer sufficient to include both stacked wafer surfaces. There is a need to specify the Z coordinate or stacking wafer number through the silicon when visiting measurement wafer sites. Two shown images are of the same (X, Y) but separate Z location acquired at focus position of each wafer surface containing overlay marks. Usually the top surface image is bright and clear; however, the bottom surface image is somewhat darker and noisier as an adhesive layer is used in between to bond the silicon wafers. Thus the top and bottom surface images are further processed to achieve similar brightness and noise level before merged for overlay measurement. This paper presents a special overlay measurement technique, using the infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy technique to measure the F2B wafer bonding overlay by a single shot image. A pair of thinned wafers at 50 and 150 μm thickness is bonded on top of a carrier wafer to evaluate the bonding overlay. It works on the principle of interferometry to gain information about the

  8. III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon III-V semiconductor devices integrated with silicon (United States)

    Hopkinson, Mark; Martin, Trevor; Smowton, Peter


    The integration of III-V semiconductor devices with silicon is one of the most topical challenges in current electronic materials research. The combination has the potential to exploit the unique optical and electronic functionality of III-V technology with the signal processing capabilities and advanced low-cost volume production techniques associated with silicon. Key industrial drivers include the use of high mobility III-V channel materials (InGaAs, InAs, InSb) to extend the performance of Si CMOS, the unification of electronics and photonics by combining photonic components (GaAs, InP) with a silicon platform for next-generation optical interconnects and the exploitation of large-area silicon substrates and high-volume Si processing capabilities to meet the challenges of low-cost production, a challenge which is particularly important for GaN-based devices in both power management and lighting applications. The diverse nature of the III-V and Si device approaches, materials technologies and the distinct differences between industrial Si and III-V processing have provided a major barrier to integration in the past. However, advances over the last decade in areas such as die transfer, wafer fusion and epitaxial growth have promoted widespread renewed interest. It is now timely to bring some of these topics together in a special issue covering a range of approaches and materials providing a snapshot of recent progress across the field. The issue opens a paper describing a strategy for the epitaxial integration of photonic devices where Kataria et al describe progress in the lateral overgrowth of InP/Si. As an alternative, Benjoucef and Reithmaier report on the potential of InAs quantum dots grown direct onto Si surfaces whilst Sandall et al describe the properties of similar InAs quantum dots as an optical modulator device. As an alternative to epitaxial integration approaches, Yokoyama et al describe a wafer bonding approach using a buried oxide concept, Corbett

  9. Direct, simple derivatization of disulfide bonds in proteins with organic mercury in alkaline medium without any chemical pre-reducing agents. (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; Ferrari, Carlo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia


    In this work we have studied the derivatization of protein disulfide bonds with p-Hydroxymercurybenzoate (pHMB) in strong alkaline medium without any preliminary reduction. The reaction has been followed by the determination of the protein-pHMB complex using size exclusion chromatography coupled to a microwave/UV mercury oxidation system for the on-line oxidation of free and protein-complexed pHMB and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (SEC-CVG-AFS) detection. The reaction has been optimized by an experimental design using lysozyme as a model protein and applied to several thiolic proteins. The proposed method reports, for the first time, that it is possible to label 75-100% cysteines of proteins and, thus, to determine thiolic proteins without the need of any reducing step to obtain reduced SH groups before mercury labelling. We obtained a detection limit of 100 nmol L(-1) based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for unbound and complexed pHMB, corresponding to a detection limit of proteins ranged between 3 and 360 nmol L(-1), depending on the number of cysteines in the protein sequence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial-purity aluminum by the direct-reduction process. Third annual technical report, 1980 January 1-1980 December 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, M.J.


    Progress on the program to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a pilot-sized Direct Reduction Process for producing aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloy is reported for Phase C. Progress is reported on reduction including the following tasks: supply burden material; burden beneficiation; effects of pilot operating parameters; pilot modifications; reactor scale-up design; calculating heat and mass balance; processing mathematical modeling; effects of process variables; information on supportive analytical, phase identification, and mechanical engineering data. Progress on alloy purification is reported in the following tasks: pilot unit installation; effects of pilot operating parameters; pilot unit modifications; and supportive mechanical engineering. Progress on purification to commercial grade aluminum is reported on: pilot unit installation; effects of pilot operating parameters; pilot unit modifications; support pilot operations; and supportive expended man-hours. Plans for Phase D are noted. (MCW)

  11. Wannier function analysis of silicon-carbon alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzhenry, P; Marks, N A; Cooper, N C; McKenzie, D R


    Maximally localized Wannier functions are the basis of a new technique for resolving ambiguous bonding issues for amorphous materials. Geometrical methods using the Wannier function representation provide an insightful chemical picture of local bonding and hybridization in disordered structures. Central to these methods is the notion of treating the Wannier function centres as a virtual atomic species with a well-defined degree of localization. Using Wannier function methods, we classify and quantify the types of bonding present in a sample of the ternary alloy hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide, C sub 2 sub 2 Si sub 2 sub 2 H sub 2 sub 0. In addition to the bonding previously observed for this material, we see three-centre bonding and flipping bonds. We identify a cluster defect in our sample associated with these flipping bonds, and observe a temperature dependence of the bond flipping. This effect may be observable using temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Highly fluorescent platinum(II) organometallic complexes of perylene and perylene monoimide, with Pt σ-bonded directly to the perylene core. (United States)

    Lentijo, Sergio; Miguel, Jesús A; Espinet, Pablo


    3-Bromoperylene (BrPer) or N-(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-9-bromo-perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (BrPMI) react with [Pt(PEt(3))(4)] to yield trans-[PtR(PEt(3))(2)Br] (R = Per, 1a; R = PMI, 1b). Neutral and cationic perylenyl complexes containing a Pt(PEt(3))X group have been prepared from 1a,b by substitution of the Br ligand by a variety of other ligands (NCS, CN, NO(3), CN(t)Bu, PyMe). The X-ray structures of trans-[PtR(PEt(3))(2)X] (R = Per, X = NCS (2a); R = PMI, X = NO(3) (4b); R = Per, X = CN(t)Bu (5a)) show that the perylenyl fragment remains nearly planar and is arranged almost orthogonal to the coordination plane: The three molecules appear as individual entities in the solid state, with no π-π stacking of perylenyl rings. Each platinum complex exhibits fluorescence associated to the perylene or PMI fragments with emission quantum yields, in solution at room temperature, in the range 0.30-0.80 and emission lifetimes ∼4 ns, but with significantly different emission maxima, by influence of the X ligands on Pt. The similarity of the overall luminescence spectra of these metalated complexes with the perylene or PMI strongly suggests a perylene-dominated intraligand π-π*emissive state, metal-perturbed by interaction of the platinum fragment mostly via polarization of the Ar-Pt bond.

  13. Quantum Coherent States and Path Integral Method to Stochastically Determine the Anisotropic Volume Expansion in Lithiated Silicon Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Boone


    Full Text Available This computational research study will analyze the multi-physics of lithium ion insertion into a silicon nanowire in an attempt to explain the electrochemical kinetics at the nanoscale and quantum level. The electron coherent states and a quantum field version of photon density waves will be the joining theories that will explain the electron-photon interaction within the lithium-silicon lattice structure. These two quantum particles will be responsible for the photon absorption rate of silicon atoms that are hypothesized to be the leading cause of breaking diatomic silicon covalent bonds that ultimately leads to volume expansion. It will be demonstrated through the combination of Maxwell stress tensor, optical amplification and path integrals that a stochastic analyze using a variety of Poisson distributions that the anisotropic expansion rates in the <110>, <111> and <112> orthogonal directions confirms the findings ascertained in previous works made by other research groups. The computational findings presented in this work are similar to those which were discovered experimentally using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and simulation models that used density functional theory (DFT and molecular dynamics (MD. The refractive index and electric susceptibility parameters of lithiated silicon are interwoven in the first principle theoretical equations and appears frequently throughout this research presentation, which should serve to demonstrate the importance of these parameters in the understanding of this component in lithium ion batteries.

  14. Development and testing of a planar, silicon mini-capillary pumped loop (United States)

    Yerkes, Kirk L.; Pettigrew, Kenneth; Smith, Brian; Gamlen, Carol; Liepmann, Dorian


    A planar, silicon mini-capillary pumped loop (CPL) was designed, built, and tested using recent MEMS technology to provide integral cooling and temperature control for electronics. This design featured three silicon fusion bonded wafers incorporating an evaporator, condenser, liquid line and vapor line, all of which were dry plasma etched. Grooves were etched in the condenser and evaporator to provide passive capillary pumping. The finished device was bonded to an external reservoir via a through hole and was filled with a working fluid of water. The evaporator was bonded directly to an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a calorimeter epoxied above the condenser to control the temperature and monitor heat removal by the CPL. The mini-CPL was operated with an input heat load ranging from 3 to 10 W resulting in the junction temperature of the IGBT being reduced approximately 15 degrees Celsius from that of a solid Si substrate. The mini-CPL also performed as a thermal diode, turning on or off depending on the reservoir temperature. Work is in progress to understand the dynamics observed in the CPL as well as improve the CPL's performance. .

  15. Silicon Photonics-Silicon Raman Lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 10. Silicon Photonics - Silicon Raman Lasers. P K Basu. General Article Volume 12 ... Keywords. Silicon photonics; Si Raman laser; semiconductor laser; light emitter; optical interconnect; optical communication; Indirect gap semiconductors.

  16. A MoTe2 based light emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits (United States)

    Bie, Ya-Qing; Heuck, M.; Grosso, G.; Furchi, M.; Cao, Y.; Zheng, J.; Navarro-Moratalla, E.; Zhou, L.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Kong, J.; Englund, D.; Jarillo-Herrero, P.

    A key challenge in photonics today is to address the interconnects bottleneck in high-speed computing systems. Silicon photonics has emerged as a leading architecture, partly because many components such as waveguides, interferometers and modulators, could be integrated on silicon-based processors. However, light sources and photodetectors present continued challenges. Common approaches for light source include off-chip or wafer-bonded lasers based on III-V materials, but studies show advantages for directly modulated light sources. The most advanced photodetectors in silicon photonics are based on germanium growth which increases system cost. The emerging two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer a path for optical interconnects components that can be integrated with the CMOS processing by back-end-of-the-line processing steps. Here we demonstrate a silicon waveguide-integrated light source and photodetector based on a p-n junction of bilayer MoTe2, a TMD semiconductor with infrared band gap. The state-of-the-art fabrication technology provides new opportunities for integrated optoelectronic systems.

  17. Charge-shift bonding--a class of electron-pair bonds that emerges from valence bond theory and is supported by the electron localization function approach. (United States)

    Shaik, Sason; Danovich, David; Silvi, Bernard; Lauvergnat, David L; Hiberty, Philippe C


    This paper deals with a central paradigm of chemistry, the electron-pair bond. Valence bond (VB) theory and electron-localization function (ELF) calculations of 21 single bonds demonstrate that along the two classical bond families of covalent and ionic bonds, there exists a class of charge-shift bonds (CS bonds) in which the fluctuation of the electron pair density plays a dominant role. In VB theory, CS bonding manifests by way of a large covalent-ionic resonance energy, RE(CS), and in ELF by a depleted basin population with large variances (fluctuations). CS bonding is shown to be a fundamental mechanism that is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium condition, namely the virial ratio of the kinetic and potential energy contributions to the bond energy. The paper defines the atomic propensity and territory for CS bonding: Atoms (fragments) that are prone to CS bonding are compact electronegative and/or lone-pair-rich species. As such, the territory of CS bonding transcends considerations of static charge distribution, and involves: a) homopolar bonds of heteroatoms with zero static ionicity, b) heteropolar sigma and pi bonds of the electronegative and/or electron-pair-rich elements among themselves and to other atoms (e.g., the higher metalloids, Si, Ge, Sn, etc), c) all hypercoordinate molecules. Several experimental manifestations of charge-shift bonding are discussed, such as depleted bonding density, the rarity of ionic chemistry of silicon in condensed phases, and the high barriers of halogen-transfer reactions as compared to hydrogen-transfers.

  18. Transient liquid-phase bonding of ODS steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noto, H., E-mail: [Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-ku, Hokkaido Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ukai, S.; Hayashi, S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N-13, W-8, Kita-ku, Hokkaido Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)


    The use of transient liquid-phase bonding of 9CrODS steels using Fe-3B-2Si-0.5C filler was investigated for bonding temperature of 1180 deg. C and hold times of 0.5-4.0 h. The sequential process, consisting of isothermal melting, solidification and homogenization, was confirmed for bonding the 9CrODS steel. The precipitation of chromium boride found in 19CrODS steel is avoided in 9CrODS steel due to the lower Cr content. Silicon tends to be slightly enriched inside the bonding zone. Agglomeration and coarsening of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in 9CrODS steel lead to softening inside the bonding zone formed by incipient melting of the foil bonding alloy, and in a diffusion affected zone (DAZ) adjacent to the bonding zone.

  19. Fabricating Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers with Wafer Bonding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil ARORA


    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer by wafer bonding technique. Membrane is transferred from SOI wafer to the prime wafer having silicon dioxide cavity. The thickness of cavity height depends on silicon dioxide grown on prime wafer by dry/wet oxidation. Thinning of device wafer of SOI by oxidation, controls membrane thickness. Two wafers are bonded in vacuum under optimized controlled parameters. Using this method, we can get single crystal silicon as membrane, whose mechanical and electrical parameters are well known. Silicon membrane is free from stress and density variation. Focused Ion Beam etching and laser Doppler Vibrometer were used to do structural and electrical characterization respectively. The measured resonance frequency of fabricated device i.e. 2.24 MHz is much closer to the designed value i.e. 2.35 MHz.

  20. Ru(II)-Catalyzed C-H Activation: Amide-Directed 1,4-Addition of the Ortho C-H Bond to Maleimides. (United States)

    Keshri, Puspam; Bettadapur, Kiran R; Lanke, Veeranjaneyulu; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah


    Maleimide has been used as a selective coupling partner to generate conjugate addition products exclusively. The typical Heck-type oxidative coupling that occurs when alkenes are used is avoided by choosing maleimide as an alkene, which cannot undergo β-hydride elimination due to the unavailability of a syn-periplanar β-hydrogen atom. The amide nitrogen, which is notorious for undergoing tandem reactions to generate spirocyclic or annulation products under cross-coupling conditions, remains innocent in this report. Along with the substrate scope, a robustness screen has been performed to analyze the performance of amide as a directing group in the presence of other directing groups and also to examine the tolerance of the reaction conditions for other frequently encountered functional groups.

  1. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria


    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  2. Understanding Bonds - Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Røhr


    a specified rate of interest during the life of the bond and to repay the face value of the bond (the principal) when it “matures,” or comes due. Among the types of bonds you can choose from are: Government securities, municipal bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage and asset-backed securities, federal agency...

  3. 1366 Project Silicon: Reclaiming US Silicon PV Leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Adam [1366 Technologies, Bedford, MA (United States)


    1366 Technologies’ Project Silicon addresses two of the major goals of the DOE’s PV Manufacturing Initiative Part 2 program: 1) How to reclaim a strong silicon PV manufacturing presence and; 2) How to lower the levelized cost of electricity (“LCOE”) for solar to $0.05-$0.07/kWh, enabling wide-scale U.S. market adoption. To achieve these two goals, US companies must commercialize disruptive, high-value technologies that are capable of rapid scaling, defensible from foreign competition, and suited for US manufacturing. These are the aims of 1366 Technologies Direct Wafer ™ process. The research conducted during Project Silicon led to the first industrial scaling of 1366’s Direct Wafer™ process – an innovative, US-friendly (efficient, low-labor content) manufacturing process that destroys the main cost barrier limiting silicon PV cost-reductions: the 35-year-old grand challenge of making quality wafers (40% of the cost of modules) without the cost and waste of sawing. The SunPath program made it possible for 1366 Technologies to build its demonstration factory, a key and critical step in the Company’s evolution. The demonstration factory allowed 1366 to build every step of the process flow at production size, eliminating potential risk and ensuring the success of the Company’s subsequent scaling for a 1 GW factory to be constructed in Western New York in 2016 and 2017. Moreover, the commercial viability of the Direct Wafer process and its resulting wafers were established as 1366 formed key strategic partnerships, gained entry into the $8B/year multi-Si wafer market, and installed modules featuring Direct Wafer products – the veritable proving grounds for the technology. The program also contributed to the development of three Generation 3 Direct Wafer furnaces. These furnaces are the platform for copying intelligently and preparing our supply chain – large-scale expansion will not require a bigger machine but more machines. SunPath filled the

  4. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof...

  5. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System (SPD)

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, Federico; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Dima, R; Elias, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, Marian; Librizzi, F; Manzari, Vito; Morel, M; Moretto, Sandra; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato De Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjo, H; Viesti, G; PH-EP


    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 detector modules (half-staves) each consisting of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors and one multi-chip read-out module. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so that the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈ 107. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The constraints on material budget and detector module dimensions are very demanding.

  6. Electro-optical properties of dislocations in silicon and their possible application for light emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arguirov, Tzanimir Vladimirov


    and annealing, (2) epitaxially grown SiGe buffer, and (3) direct wafer bonding. The most promising dislocation-based emitter appears the utilization of a dislocation network produced by wafer bonding. It is shown, that monochromatic D1 radiation (wavelength 1.5 {mu}m) can be generated in a well localised depth of the wafer. (orig.)

  7. A Novel Silicon Micromachined Integrated MCM Thermal Management System (United States)

    Kazmierczak, M. J.; Henderson, H. T.; Gerner, F. M.


    "Micromachining" is a chemical means of etching three-dimensional structures, typically in single- crystalline silicon. These techniques are leading toward what is coming to be referred to as MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems), where in addition to the ordinary two-dimensional (planar) microelectronics, it is possible to build three-dimensional n-ticromotors, electrically- actuated raicrovalves, hydraulic systems and much more on the same microchip. These techniques become possible because of differential etching rates of various crystallographic planes and materials used for semiconductor n-ticrofabfication. The University of Cincinnati group in collaboration with Karl Baker at NASA Lewis were the first to form micro heat pipes in silicon by the above techniques. Current work now in progress using MEMS technology is now directed towards the development of the next generation in MCM (Multi Chip Module) packaging. Here we propose to develop a complete electronic thermal management system which will allow densifica6on in chip stacking by perhaps two orders of magnitude. Furthermore the proposed technique will allow ordinary conu-nercial integrated chips to be utilized. Basically, the new technique involves etching square holes into a silicon substrate and then inserting and bonding commercially available integrated chips into these holes. For example, over a 100 1/4 in. by 1 /4 in. integrated chips can be placed on a 4 in. by 4 in. silicon substrate to form a Multi-Chip Module (MCM). Placing these MCM's in-line within an integrated rack then allows for three-diniensional stacking. Increased miniaturization of microelectronic circuits will lead to very high local heat fluxes. A high performance thermal management system will be specifically designed to remove the generated energy. More specifically, a compact heat exchanger with milli / microchannels will be developed and tested to remove the heat through the back side of this MCM assembly for moderate and high

  8. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca


    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  9. Chemical Bonds II (United States)

    Sanderson, R. T.


    The continuation of a paper discussing chemical bonding from a bond energy viewpoint, with a number of examples of single and multiple bonds. (Part I appeared in volume 1 number 3, pages 16-23, February 1972.) (AL)

  10. What Determines Bond Costs. Municipal Bonds Series. (United States)

    Young, Douglas; And Others

    Public officials in small towns who participate infrequently in the bond market need information about bond financing. This publication, one in a series of booklets published by the Western Rural Development Center using research gathered between 1967-77, discusses factors influencing the marketability and cost of bond financing for towns and…

  11. Continuing bonds from a discourse analytic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziółkowska Justyna


    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to contribute to the existing literature on continuing bonds with a deceased relative by exploration of discursive dimensions of the bonds through which the survivors construct their relationship with the person who died. The data come from five interviews with family members who survived the suicidal death of their relative. We argue that a focus upon the form and content of the survivors’ stories offers a complicated and heterogeneous picture of ‘bonding actions’. And so, assuming a constructionist view of discourse, we show two kinds of bonds. First, it is a bond related to social expectations of bereaved families. Second, it is a personal bond, part of which is a bond with a reverse direction, established and maintained by the deceased person.

  12. Silicon-based counterpart of alpha-graphyne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktürk, E., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, Aydin 09100 (Turkey); Gökoğlu, G., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Karabük University, 78050 Karabük (Turkey)


    We present the first principles density functional calculations of electronic structure and energetics of silicon-based counterpart of α-graphyne, labeled as α-silicyne. Both LDA and GGA functionals are applied for exchange–correlation potentials. We show that graphyne-like silicon in 2D buckled structure (equilibrium buckling δz≅0.73 and Δz≅1.45Å) has ≈2.33eV and ≈1.96eV lower energies than planar geometry for GGA and LDA functionals, respectively. The single and triple bond lengths of silicon are consistent with previously reported values. As a different case from graphyne, which is semimetallic, the electronic band structures of buckled α-silicyne do not show Dirac fermion indicating a metallic nature. The metallic character of the system is largely determined by p-electronic states of the triple bonded silicon atoms.

  13. Hydrogen isotopic substitution experiments in nanostructured porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, W.D. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura - (UNNE), Avenida Libertad 5500, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina); Koropecki, R.R. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)], E-mail:; Arce, R.D. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Busso, A. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura - (UNNE), Avenida Libertad 5500, 3400 Corrientes (Argentina)


    Nanostructured porous silicon is usually prepared by electrochemical anodization of monocrystalline silicon using a fluorine-rich electrolyte. As a result of this process, the silicon atoms conserve their original crystalline location, and many of the dangling bonds appearing on the surface of the nanostructure are saturated by hydrogen coming from the electrolyte. This work presents an IR study of the effects produced by partial substitution of water in the electrolytic solution by deuterium oxide. The isotopic effects on the IR spectra are analyzed for the as-prepared samples and for the samples subjected to partial thermal effusion of hydrogen and deuterium. We demonstrate that, although deuterium is chemically indistinguishable from hydrogen, it presents a singular behaviour when used in porous silicon preparation. We found that deuterium preferentially bonds forming Si-DH groups. A possible explanation of the phenomenon is presented, based on the different diffusivities of hydrogen and deuterium.

  14. LAMMPS Framework for Dynamic Bonding and an Application Modeling DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, Carsten


    We have extended the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) to support directional bonds and dynamic bonding. The framework supports stochastic formation of new bonds, breakage of existing bonds, and conversion between bond types. Bond formation can be controlled...... and bond types. When breaking bonds, all angular and dihedral interactions involving broken bonds are removed. The framework allows chemical reactions to be modeled, and use it to simulate a simplistic, coarse-grained DNA model. The resulting DNA dynamics illustrates the power of the present framework....... to limit the maximal functionality of a bead with respect to various bond types. Concomitant with the bond dynamics, angular and dihedral interactions are dynamically introduced between newly connected triplets and quartets of beads, where the interaction type is determined from the local pattern of bead...

  15. Experimental Characterization of a Thermopile with Aluminum-n-type Polysilicon Junctions as a Base for Multi-directional Flow Sensor Implemented in a Silicon Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Thamrin


    Full Text Available A multi-directional flow sensor has been realized. The essential part of the considered sensor is a thermopile configuration, which enables the measurement of the flow speed and the flow direction. The thermopile is a series arrangement of eight thermocouples. A thermocouple converts a difference in temperature into an electrical signal, by means of the Seebeck effect. The thermocouples are made of aluminum-N-type polysilicon junctions. The incoming flow is heated and the degree of heat transfer by convection to the flow, depends on the speed of the flow; the faster the flow the smaller the heat transfer, which leads to a smaller (Seebeck output voltage of the thermopiles. After signal conditioning - i.e., filtering and amplification by means of an amplification system - the electrical output signals of the thermopiles are further signal-processed by applying analog-to-digital signal conversion, so that finally the flow speed and flow direction can be properly displayed on a computer screen. The measured values of the thermopower were in the range of: 0.433 mV/K to 0.6754 mV/K, which are in good agreement with the values found in the literature: 0.5 to 0.7 mV/K. In addition it was found that the flow speed U is proportional to the reciprocal value of the square root of the output voltage of the outgoing thermopile.

  16. Design and Fabrication of Silicon-on-Silicon-Carbide Substrates and Power Devices for Space Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gammon P.M.


    Full Text Available A new generation of power electronic semiconductor devices are being developed for the benefit of space and terrestrial harsh-environment applications. 200-600 V lateral transistors and diodes are being fabricated in a thin layer of silicon (Si wafer bonded to silicon carbide (SiC. This novel silicon-on-silicon-carbide (Si/SiC substrate solution promises to combine the benefits of silicon-on-insulator (SOI technology (i.e device confinement, radiation tolerance, high and low temperature performance with that of SiC (i.e. high thermal conductivity, radiation hardness, high temperature performance. Details of a process are given that produces thin films of silicon 1, 2 and 5 μm thick on semi-insulating 4H-SiC. Simulations of the hybrid Si/SiC substrate show that the high thermal conductivity of the SiC offers a junction-to-case temperature ca. 4× less that an equivalent SOI device; reducing the effects of self-heating, and allowing much greater power density. Extensive electrical simulations are used to optimise a 600 V laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET implemented entirely within the silicon thin film, and highlight the differences between Si/SiC and SOI solutions.

  17. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Harman, George G


    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  18. Maxwell stress to explain the mechanism for the anisotropic expansion in lithiated silicon nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald C. Boone


    Full Text Available This computational research study attempts to explain the process that leads to volume expansion during insertion of lithium ions into a silicon nanowire. During lithiation, electrons flow through the nanowire in the opposing direction of lithium ions insertion. This causes an applied electromagnetic field which is described as being a quantum mechanical version of photon density wave theory. A series of events are calculated as the individual electrons and photons travels through the lithiated silicon nanowire. The hypothesis that will be presented employs the Maxwell stress tensor to calculate the refractive indices in three orthogonal directions during lithiation. The quantum harmonic oscillator and the electromagnetic intensity will be utilized in this presentation to calculate the energy of electrons and optical amplification of the electromagnetic field respectively. The main focus of this research study will use electron scattering theory, spontaneous and stimulated emission theory to model the breaking of cohesion bonds between silicon atoms that ultimately leads to excessive volume expansion that is witnessed during the lithiation process in Si nanowires.

  19. Microstructure Control of Columnar-Grained Silicon Substrate Solidified from Silicon Melts Using Gas Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Kyu Lee


    Full Text Available A silicon substrate with the dimensions of 100 × 140 × 0.3 mm was grown directly from liquid silicon with gas pressure. The silicon melt in the sealed melting part was injected into the growth part at applied pressure of 780–850 Torr. The solidified silicon substrate was then transferred by the pull of the cooled dummy bar. A desirable structure with a liquid-solid interface perpendicular to the pulling direction was formed when the mold temperature in the solidification zone of the growth part was much higher than that of the dummy bar, as this technique should be able to overcome thermal loss through the molds and the limited heat flux derived from the very narrow contact area between the silicon melt and the dummy bar. In addition, because the metallic impurities and expansion of volume during solidification are preferably moved to a liquid phase, a high-quality silicon substrate, without defects such as cracks and impurities in the substrate, could be manufactured in the interface structure. The present study reports the experimental findings on a new and direct growth system for obtaining silicon substrates characterized by high quality and productivity, as a candidate for alternate routes for the fabrication of silicon substrates.

  20. Bonding Strength of Ceromer with Direct Laser Sintered, Ni-Cr-Based, and ZrO2 Metal Infrastructures After Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG Laser Surface Treatments-A Comparative In Vitro Study. (United States)

    Gorler, Oguzhan; Ozdemir, Ali Kemal


    Laser modalities instead of conventional surface treatment techniques have been suggested to obtain an adequate micromechanical bonding between dental super- and infrastructures. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of surface treatment with Ho:YAG, Er:YAG, and Nd:YAG laser modalities on the shear bond strength (SBS) of ceromer to different types of metal infrastructures in in vitro settings. The study specimens consisted of 40 direct laser sintered (DLS), 40 Ni-Cr-based, and 40 zirconium oxide (ZrO2) infrastructures. In each infrastructure group, the specimens were divided randomly into five treatment modalities (n = 8): no treatment (controls), sandblasting, Er:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Ho:YAG lasers. The DLS, Ni-Cr-based, and ZrO2 infrastructures were prepared in the final dimensions of 7 mm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness in line with the ISO 11405 standard. Ceromer as superstructure was applied to all the infrastructures after their surface treatments according to the selected treatment modality. SBS test was performed to test the effectiveness of surface treatments. A stereomicroscope was used to determine the changes in the surface morphology of specimens. Among the laser modalities and sandblasting, Ho:YAG laser caused the most important increase in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures but sandblasting caused the most important increase in the ZrO2 infrastructure. In all the infrastructures, Nd:YAG laser has the least effectiveness, and Er:YAG laser makes an intermediate success. The stereomicroscopy images presented that the applications of laser surface treatments altered the surface in all the infrastructures. Overall, in current experimental settings, Ho:YAG, Nd:YAG, and Er:YAG lasers, in order of strength, are effective in improving the bonding of ceromer to all the infrastructures. Ho:YAG laser is more effective in the DLS and Ni-Cr-based infrastructures, but sandblasting is more effective in the ZrO2 infrastructure. The studied

  1. On The Nature of the Halogen Bond. (United States)

    Wang, Changwei; Danovich, David; Mo, Yirong; Shaik, Sason


    The wide-ranging applications of the halogen bond (X-bond), notably in self-assembling materials and medicinal chemistry, have placed this weak intermolecular interaction in a center of great deal of attention. There is a need to elucidate the physical nature of the halogen bond for better understanding of its similarity and differences vis-à-vis other weak intermolecular interactions, for example, hydrogen bond, as well as for developing improved force-fields to simulate nano- and biomaterials involving X-bonds. This understanding is the focus of the present study that combines the insights of a bottom-up approach based on ab initio valence bond (VB) theory and the block-localized wave function (BLW) theory that uses monomers to reconstruct the wave function of a complex. To this end and with an aim of unification, we studied the nature of X-bonds in 55 complexes using the combination of VB and BLW theories. Our conclusion is clear-cut; most of the X-bonds are held by charge transfer interactions (i.e., intermolecular hyperconjugation) as envisioned more than 60 years ago by Mulliken. This is consistent with the experimental and computational findings that X-bonds are more directional than H-bonds. Furthermore, the good linear correlation between charge transfer energies and total interaction energies partially accounts for the success of simple force fields in the simulation of large systems involving X-bonds.

  2. Reactions in silicon-nitrogen plasma. (United States)

    Kovačević, Goran; Pivac, Branko


    Reaction mechanisms that lead to creation of silicon-nitrogen bonds are studied in detail. These reactions are of fundamental importance for silicon nitride synthesis by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition from the gas mixture of silane (SiH4) and ammonia (NH3). All reactions in SiH4-NH3 plasma can be categorised as some of the basic types of reactions: bond dissociation, neutral nucleophilic substitution, radical neutralisation, neutral-radical addition, silylene addition, silylene rearrangement, radical nucleophilic addition or hydrogen abstraction reaction. Energetics of these reactions is analysed in detail for a great number of reactions belonging to these categories, by using theoretical modelling. Geometry optimisations are carried out with the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory and energetics is further determined with high level ab initio calculations at the CASPT2/aug-cc-pVTZ level, which enabled confirmation of relevance of several mechanisms as reactions that lead to silicon nitride growth from plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, as well as introduction of new, energetically favourable mechanisms. Besides amine radical assisted eliminative addition and proton transfer reactions, silylene addition reactions are thermodynamically and kinetically favourable since they lack energy barriers. A new reaction pathway for synthesis of silicon nitride from plasma is proposed. This pathway is enabled by the ability of silylene to create two weak dative bonds, which enables silylene-amine complexes to stick to the silicon nitride surface. Upon dissociation of amine from the surface-bound complex, silylene remains on the surface, available for reaction with other reactive species from plasma.

  3. Chemical Bond Activation Observed with an X-ray Laser. (United States)

    Beye, Martin; Öberg, Henrik; Xin, Hongliang; Dakovski, Georgi L; Dell'Angela, Martina; Föhlisch, Alexander; Gladh, Jörgen; Hantschmann, Markus; Hieke, Florian; Kaya, Sarp; Kühn, Danilo; LaRue, Jerry; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Minitti, Michael P; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan P; Ng, May Ling; Nilsson, Anders; Nordlund, Dennis; Nørskov, Jens; Öström, Henrik; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Persson, Mats; Schlotter, William F; Sellberg, Jonas A; Wolf, Martin; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Pettersson, Lars G M; Wurth, Wilfried


    The concept of bonding and antibonding orbitals is fundamental in chemistry. The population of those orbitals and the energetic difference between the two reflect the strength of the bonding interaction. Weakening the bond is expected to reduce this energetic splitting, but the transient character of bond-activation has so far prohibited direct experimental access. Here we apply time-resolved soft X-ray spectroscopy at a free-electron laser to directly observe the decreased bonding-antibonding splitting following bond-activation using an ultrashort optical laser pulse.

  4. Characterization of silicon carbide and diamond detectors for neutron applications (United States)

    Hodgson, M.; Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, P.; Thomas, D.


    The presence of carbon atoms in silicon carbide and diamond makes these materials ideal candidates for direct fast neutron detectors. Furthermore the low atomic number, strong covalent bonds, high displacement energies, wide bandgap and low intrinsic carrier concentrations make these semiconductor detectors potentially suitable for applications where rugged, high-temperature, low-gamma-sensitivity detectors are required, such as active interrogation, electronic personal neutron dosimetry and harsh environment detectors. A thorough direct performance comparison of the detection capabilities of semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC-SI), single crystal diamond (D-SC), polycrystalline diamond (D-PC) and a self-biased epitaxial silicon carbide (SiC-EP) detector has been conducted and benchmarked against a commercial silicon PIN (Si-PIN) diode, in a wide range of alpha (Am-241), beta (Sr/Y-90), ionizing photon (65 keV to 1332 keV) and neutron radiation fields (including 1.2 MeV to 16.5 MeV mono-energetic neutrons, as well as neutrons from AmBe and Cf-252 sources). All detectors were shown to be able to directly detect and distinguish both the different radiation types and energies by using a simple energy threshold discrimination method. The SiC devices demonstrated the best neutron energy discrimination ratio (E\\max (n=5 MeV)/E\\max (n=1 MeV)  ≈5), whereas a superior neutron/photon cross-sensitivity ratio was observed in the D-PC detector (E\\max (AmBe)/E\\max (Co-60)  ≈16). Further work also demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity ratios can be improved through use of a simple proton-recoil conversion layer. Stability issues were also observed in the D-SC, D-PC and SiC-SI detectors while under irradiation, namely a change of energy peak position and/or count rate with time (often referred to as the polarization effect). This phenomenon within the detectors was non-debilitating over the time period tested (> 5 h) and, as such, stable operation was

  5. Successful bonding in orthodontics: 1. (United States)

    Turner, P J


    Since it was first described in 1955, direct bonding of orthodontic attachments to the teeth has become routine in fixed appliance therapy. The technique used is deceptively simple: meticulous attention to detail and a thorough understanding of the factors involved are needed to ensure a successful outcome.

  6. Bottom-up silicon nanowire-based thermoelectric microgenerators (United States)

    Dávila, D.; Huber, R.; Hierold, C.


    In this work, bottom-up intrinsic crystalline Si nanowire arrays in combination with top-down microfabrication techniques and a vertical device architecture have been proposed to develop an all-silicon nanostructured thermoelectric generator. To fabricate this device, a suitable vertical integration of Si NWs on patterned microstructures, which define the thermoelectric legs of the generator, has been achieved by bonding top and bottom silicon structures through nanowires. The process has been proven to be a feasible approach that employs a regrowth process of the nanowires for bonding purposes.

  7. Chemical Bond Activation Observed with an X-ray Laser


    Beye, Martin; Öberg, Henrik; Kühn, Danilo; LaRue, Jerry; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Michael P. Minitti; Mitra, Ankush; Moeller, Stefan P.; Ng, May Ling; Nilsson, Anders; Nordlund, Dennis; Nørskov, Jens; Xin, Hongliang; Öström, Henrik; Ogasawara, Hirohito


    The concept of bonding and antibonding orbitals is fundamental in chemistry. The population of those orbitals and the energetic difference between the two reflect the strength of the bonding interaction. Weakening the bond is expected to reduce this energetic splitting, but the transient character of bond-activation has so far prohibited direct experimental access. Here we apply time-resolved soft X-ray spectroscopy at a free-electron laser to directly observe the decreased bonding–antibondin...

  8. Micro-miniature gas chromatograph column disposed in silicon wafers (United States)

    Yu, Conrad M.


    A micro-miniature gas chromatograph column is fabricated by forming matching halves of a circular cross-section spiral microcapillary in two silicon wafers and then bonding the two wafers together using visual or physical alignment methods. Heating wires are deposited on the outside surfaces of each wafer in a spiral or serpentine pattern large enough in area to cover the whole microcapillary area inside the joined wafers. The visual alignment method includes etching through an alignment window in one wafer and a precision-matching alignment target in the other wafer. The two wafers are then bonded together using the window and target. The physical alignment methods include etching through vertical alignment holes in both wafers and then using pins or posts through corresponding vertical alignment holes to force precision alignment during bonding. The pins or posts may be withdrawn after curing of the bond. Once the wafers are bonded together, a solid phase of very pure silicone is injected in a solution of very pure chloroform into one end of the microcapillary. The chloroform lowers the viscosity of the silicone enough that a high pressure hypodermic needle with a thumbscrew plunger can force the solution into the whole length of the spiral microcapillary. The chloroform is then evaporated out slowly to leave the silicone behind in a deposit.

  9. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces (United States)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.


    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  10. Solvent Bonding for Fabrication of PMMA and COP Microfluidic Devices. (United States)

    Wan, Alwin M D; Moore, Thomas A; Young, Edmond W K


    Thermoplastic microfluidic devices offer many advantages over those made from silicone elastomers, but bonding procedures must be developed for each thermoplastic of interest. Solvent bonding is a simple and versatile method that can be used to fabricate devices from a variety of plastics. An appropriate solvent is added between two device layers to be bonded, and heat and pressure are applied to the device to facilitate the bonding. By using an appropriate combination of solvent, plastic, heat, and pressure, the device can be sealed with a high quality bond, characterized as having high bond coverage, bond strength, optical clarity, durability over time, and low deformation or damage to microfeature geometry. We describe the procedure for bonding devices made from two popular thermoplastics, poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA), and cyclo-olefin polymer (COP), as well as a variety of methods to characterize the quality of the resulting bonds, and strategies to troubleshoot low quality bonds. These methods can be used to develop new solvent bonding protocols for other plastic-solvent systems.

  11. Hybrid vertical-cavity laser integration on silicon (United States)

    Haglund, Emanuel P.; Kumari, Sulakshna; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Haglund, Erik; Roelkens, Gunther; Baets, Roel G.; Larsson, Anders


    The hybrid vertical-cavity laser is a potential low current, high-efficiency, and small footprint light source for silicon photonics integration. As part of the development of such light sources we demonstrate hybrid-cavity VCSELs (HC-VCSELs) on silicon where a GaAs-based half-VCSEL is attached to a dielectric distributed Bragg reflector on silicon by adhesive bonding. HC-VCSELs at 850 nm with sub-mA threshold current, >2 mW output power, and 25 Gbit/s modulation speed are demonstrated. Integration of short-wavelength lasers will enable fully integrated photonic circuits on a silicon-nitride waveguide platform on silicon for applications in life science, bio-photonics, and short-reach optical interconnects.

  12. Intermediate order in tetrahedrally coordinated silicon: evidence for chainlike objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsu, D.V.; Chao, B.S.; Jones, S.J. [Energy Conversion Devices, Rochester Hills, MI (United States)


    In this report, we describe the nature of intermediate order in silicon as determined by recent measurements on thin films using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering. The TEM images show in addition to the expected continuous random network (CRN), the presence of highly ordered quasi-one-dimensional ''chain-like objects'' (CLOs) that are 1-2 nm wide and tens of nm long that meander and show some evidence of cross-linking with each other. The presence of these objects correlate to a Raman feature centered at 490 cm{sup -1} whose width is 35-40 cm{sup -1}, and is used to quantify the heterogeneity in terms of the CLO and CRN (=475 cm{sup -1} scattering) concentrations. The 490 and 35 cm{sup -1} values are consistent with bond angle deviations approaching 0{sup o}, and thus reinforces an association with the CLOs. We find that in reference quality a-Si:H (made using pure SiH{sub 4}), the CLO concentration is about 5 vol%, while in state-of-the-art material using high H{sub 2} levels of dilution during processing, it increases to about 15%. Increased stability of such material to light-soaking is thus not mediated by a direct volumetric replacement of poor with high-quality components. Rather, an important characteristic of intermediate order in silicon is the low-dimensional aspect of its order, which allows it to influence more total volume than which it is itself composed. Consistent with these and other recent findings, we propose a tensegrity model of amorphous silicon. (author)

  13. A decade of silicone hydrogel development: surface properties, mechanical properties, and ocular compatibility. (United States)

    Tighe, Brian J


    Since the initial launch of silicone hydrogel lenses, there has been a considerable broadening in the range of available commercial material properties. The very mobile silicon-oxygen bonds convey distinctive surface and mechanical properties on silicone hydrogels, in which advantages of enhanced oxygen permeability, reduced protein deposition, and modest frictional interaction are balanced by increased lipid and elastic response. There are now some 15 silicone hydrogel material variants available to practitioners; arguably, the changes that have taken place have been strongly influenced by feedback based on clinical experience. Water content is one of the most influential properties, and the decade has seen a progressive rise from lotrafilcon-A (24%) to efrofilcon-A (74%). Moduli have decreased over the same period from 1.4 to 0.3 MPa, but not solely as a result of changes in water content. Surface properties do not correlate directly with water content, and ingenious approaches have been used to achieve desirable improvements (e.g., greater lubricity and lower contact angle hysteresis). This is demonstrated by comparing the hysteresis value of the earliest (lotrafilcon-A, >40°) and most recent (delefilcon-A, silicone hydrogels. Although wettability is important, it is not of itself a good predictor of ocular response because this involves a much wider range of physicochemical and biochemical factors. The interference of the lens with ocular dynamics is complex leading separately to tissue-material interactions involving anterior and posterior lens surfaces. The biochemical consequences of these interactions may hold the key to a greater understanding of ocular incompatibility and end of day discomfort.

  14. CW laser induced crystallization of thin amorphous silicon films deposited by EBE and PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said-Bacar, Z., E-mail: [InESS (UMR 7163 CNRS-UDS), 23 rue de Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Prathap, P. [InESS (UMR 7163 CNRS-UDS), 23 rue de Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Cayron, C. [CEA, LITEN, DEHT, Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Cedex 9 (France); Mermet, F. [IREPA LASER, Pole API - Parc d' Innovation, 67400 Illkirch (France); Leroy, Y.; Antoni, F.; Slaoui, A.; Fogarassy, E. [InESS (UMR 7163 CNRS-UDS), 23 rue de Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of hydrogen in CW laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large hydrogen content results in decohesion of the films due to hydrogen effusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low hydrogen content or hydrogen free amorphous silicon film are suitable for crystallization induced by CW laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grains of size between 20 and 100 {mu}m in width and about 200 {mu}m in long in scanning direction are obtained with these latter films. - Abstract: This work presents the Continuous Wave (CW) laser crystallization of thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE) on low cost glass substrate. The films are characterized by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the hydrogen content. Analysis shows that the PECVD films contain a high hydrogen concentration ({approx}10 at.%) while the EBE films are almost hydrogen-free. It is found that the hydrogen is in a bonding configuration with the a-Si network and in a free form, requiring a long thermal annealing for exodiffusion before the laser treatment to avoid explosive effusion. The CW laser crystallization process of the amorphous silicon films was operated in liquid phase regime. We show by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) that polysilicon films with large grains can be obtained with EBE as well as for the PECVD amorphous silicon provided that for the latest the hydrogen content is lower than 2 at.%.

  15. Silicon takes a spin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.

    An efficient way to transport electron spins from a ferromagnet into silicon essentially makes silicon magnetic, and provides an exciting step towards integration of magnetism and mainstream semiconductor electronics.

  16. Silylation of C-H bonds in aromatic heterocycles by an Earth-abundant metal catalyst (United States)

    Toutov, Anton A.; Liu, Wen-Bo; Betz, Kerry N.; Fedorov, Alexey; Stoltz, Brian M.; Grubbs, Robert H.


    Heteroaromatic compounds containing carbon-silicon (C-Si) bonds are of great interest in the fields of organic electronics and photonics, drug discovery, nuclear medicine and complex molecule synthesis, because these compounds have very useful physicochemical properties. Many of the methods now used to construct heteroaromatic C-Si bonds involve stoichiometric reactions between heteroaryl organometallic species and silicon electrophiles or direct, transition-metal-catalysed intermolecular carbon-hydrogen (C-H) silylation using rhodium or iridium complexes in the presence of excess hydrogen acceptors. Both approaches are useful, but their limitations include functional group incompatibility, narrow scope of application, high cost and low availability of the catalysts, and unproven scalability. For this reason, a new and general catalytic approach to heteroaromatic C-Si bond construction that avoids such limitations is highly desirable. Here we report an example of cross-dehydrogenative heteroaromatic C-H functionalization catalysed by an Earth-abundant alkali metal species. We found that readily available and inexpensive potassium tert-butoxide catalyses the direct silylation of aromatic heterocycles with hydrosilanes, furnishing heteroarylsilanes in a single step. The silylation proceeds under mild conditions, in the absence of hydrogen acceptors, ligands or additives, and is scalable to greater than 100 grams under optionally solvent-free conditions. Substrate classes that are difficult to activate with precious metal catalysts are silylated in good yield and with excellent regioselectivity. The derived heteroarylsilane products readily engage in versatile transformations enabling new synthetic strategies for heteroaromatic elaboration, and are useful in their own right in pharmaceutical and materials science applications.

  17. Mechanism of the Hydrosilylation Reaction of Alkenes at Porous Silicon: Experimental and Computational Deuterium Labeling Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, de L.C.P.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Lie, L.H.; Houlton, A.; Horrocks, B.R.


    The mechanism of the formation of Si-C bonded monolayers on silicon by reaction of 1-alkenes with hydrogen-terminated porous silicon surfaces has been studied by both experimental and computational means. We propose that monolayer formation occurs via the same radical chain process as at

  18. Dislocation dynamics of web type silicon ribbon (United States)

    Dillon, O. W., Jr.; Tsai, C. T.; De Angelis, R. J.


    Silicon ribbon grown by the dendritic web process passes through a rapidly changing thermal profile in the growth direction. This rapidly changing profile induces stresses which produce changes in the dislocation density in the ribbon. A viscoplastic material response function (Haasen-Sumino model) is used herein to calculate the stresses and the dislocation density at each point in the silicon ribbon. The residual stresses are also calculated.

  19. Producing Silicon Carbide/Silicon Nitride Fibers (United States)


    Manufacturing process makes CxSiyNz fibers. Precursor fibers spun from extruding machine charged with polycarbosilazane resin. When pyrolyzed, resin converted to cross-linked mixture of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, still in fiber form. CxSiyNz fibers promising substitutes for carbon fibers in high-strength, low-weight composites where high electrical conductivity unwanted.

  20. Conductance, surface traps and passivation in doped Silicon Nanowires (United States)

    Fernandez-Serra, Marivi; Adessi, Christophe; Blase, Xavier


    By means of ab initio total energy and conductance calculations within the Landauer Formalism we investigate the structural, electronic and transport properties of doped silicon nanowires (SiNWs). We find that impurities always segregate at the surface of unpassivated wires, reducing dramatically the conductance of the surface states. Upon passivation, we show that for wires as large as a few nanometers in diameter, a large proportion of dopants will be trapped and electrically neutralized at surface dangling bond defects, significantly reducing the density of carriers. Impurities located in the core of the wire induce a strong resonant backscattering at the impurity bound state energies. Surface dangling bond defects have hardly any direct effect on conductance. Upon surface trapping, impurities become transparent to transport, as they are both electrically inactive and do not induce any resonant backscattering. *M. V. Fern'andez-Serra, Ch. Adessi and Xavier Blase, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 166805 (2006). *M. V. Fern'andez-Serra, Ch. Adessi and Xavier Blase, NanoLetters. (In press) 12, (2006)

  1. Austenite stabilization and high strength-elongation product of a low silicon aluminum-free hot-rolled directly quenched and dynamically partitioned steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiao-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xu, Yun-Bo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yang, Xiao-Long; Hu, Zhi-Ping; Peng, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ju, Xiao-Wei [Ceri Long Product Co., Ltd., Beijing 100176 (China); Wu, Di [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)


    Microstructures composed of lath martensite and retained austenite with volume fraction between 8.0 vol.% and 12.0 vol.% were obtained in a low-C low-Si Al-free steel through hot-rolling direct quenching and dynamical partitioning (HDQ&DP) processes. The austenite stabilization mechanism in the low-C low-Si Al-free steel under the special dynamical partitioning processes is investigated by analyzing the carbon partition behavior from martensite to austenite and the carbide precipitation-coarsening behavior in martensite laths combining with the possible hot rolling deformation inheritance. Results show that the satisfying retained austenite amount in currently studied low-Si Al-free HDQ&DP steel is caused by the high-efficiency carbon enrichment in the 30–80 nm thick regions of austenite near the interfaces in the hot-rolled ultra-fast cooled structure and the avoidance of serious carbides coarsening during the continuous cooling procedures. The excellent strength-elongation product reaching up to 26,000 MPa% shows that the involved HDQ&DP process is a promising method to develop a new generation of advanced high strength steel. - Highlights: • HDQ&DP processes were applied to a low-C low-Si Al-free steel. • Effective partitioning time during the continuous cooling processes is 1–220 s. • Retained austenite with volume fraction between 8.0 vol. % and 12.0 vol. % has been obtained. • The special austenite stabilization mechanism has been expounded.

  2. Silicon: electrochemistry and luminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst Stefan


    The electrochemistry of crystalline and porous silicon and the luminescence from porous silicon has been studied. One chapter deals with a model for the anodic dissolution of silicon in HF solution. In following chapters both the electrochemistry and various ways of generating visible

  3. Diamond, titanium dioxide, titanium silicon oxide, and barium strontium titanium oxide nanoparticles as matrixes for direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of carbohydrates in plant tissues. (United States)

    Gholipour, Yousef; Giudicessi, Silvana L; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa


    Nanoparticles (NPs) of diamond, titanium dioxide, titanium silicon oxide, barium strontium titanium oxide, and silver (Ag) were examined for their potential as MALDI matrixes for direct laser desorption/ionization of carbohydrates, especially fructans, from plant tissue. Two sample preparation methods including solvent-assisted and solvent-free (dry) NPs deposition were performed and compared. All examined NPs except for Ag could desorb/ionize standard sucrose and fructans in positive and in negative ion mode. Ag NPs yielded good signals only for nonsalt-doped samples that were measured in the negative ion mode. In the case of in vivo studies, except for Ag, all NPs studied could desorb/ionize carbohydrates from tissue in both the positive and negative ion modes. Furthermore, compared to the results obtained with soluble sugars extracted from plant tissues, fructans with higher molecular weight intact molecular ions could be detected when the plant tissues were directly profiled. The limit of detection (LOD) of fructans and the ratios between signal intensities and fructan concentrations were analyzed. NPs had similar LODs for standard fructan triose (1-kestose) in the positive ion mode and better LODs in the negative ion mode when compared with the common crystalline organic MALDI matrixes used for carbohydrates (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and nor-harmane) or carbon nanotubes. Solvent-free NP deposition on tissues partially improves the signal acquisition. Although lower signal-to-noise ratio sugar signals were acquired from the tissues when compared to the solvent-assisted method, the reproducibility averaged over all sample was more uniform.

  4. Halogen Bonding in Nucleic Acid Complexes. (United States)

    Kolář, Michal H; Tabarrini, Oriana


    Halogen bonding (X-bonding) has attracted notable attention among noncovalent interactions. This highly directional attraction between a halogen atom and an electron donor has been exploited in knowledge-based drug design. A great deal of information has been gathered about X-bonds in protein-ligand complexes, as opposed to nucleic acid complexes. Here we provide a thorough analysis of nucleic acid complexes containing either halogenated building blocks or halogenated ligands. We analyzed close contacts between halogens and electron-rich moieties. The phosphate backbone oxygen is clearly the most common halogen acceptor. We identified 21 X-bonds within known structures of nucleic acid complexes. A vast majority of the X-bonds is formed by halogenated nucleobases, such as bromouridine, and feature excellent geometries. Noncovalent ligands have been found to form only interactions with suboptimal interaction geometries. Hence, the first X-bonded nucleic acid binder remains to be discovered.

  5. Room-temperature intermediate layer bonding for microfluidic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, J.; Tiggelaar, Roald M.; Yang, Mengjong; Schlautmann, Stefan; Zuilhof, Han; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.


    In this work a novel room-temperature bonding technique based on chemically activated Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) sheet as an intermediate between chemically activated substrates is presented. Surfaces of silicon and glass substrates are chemically modified with APTES bearing amine terminal

  6. Sacrificial wafer bonding for planarization after very deep etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, V.L.; Spiering, Vincent L.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    A new technique is presented that provides planarization after a very deep etching step in silicon. This offers the possibility for as well resist spinning and layer patterning as realization of bridges or cantilevers across deep holes or grooves. The sacrificial wafer bonding technique contains a

  7. Silicon and matrix macromolecules: new research opportunities for old diseases from analysis of potential mechanisms of breast implant toxicity. (United States)

    Brawer, A E


    An understanding of the normal and essential integration of the element silicon in biosystems, as well as knowledge of its fundamental chemistry, are crucial to understanding its role in health and disease. Modern organosilicon chemistry, based in part on the artificial silicon-carbon bond, coincided with the emergence of the biomaterials and bioengineering fields fifty years ago, and was thought to be a fortunate coincidence according to conventional wisdom that high-molecular-weight polymeric siloxanes were chemically and biologically inert. These concepts have been challenged by reports of silicone migration and degradation following insertion of gel-filled breast implants, claims of a novel systemic illness appearing in many breast implant recipients, and investigations implicating varied and permeating immunotoxic mechanisms of disease causation by breast devices. The present study develops additional potential pathogenetic ideas based on alterations of cell biochemistry by silicon-containing compounds, and offers correlation of the patients' diverse clinical features with plausable disruption of basic biological processes. This in turn raises new questions concerning everyday environmental exposure, has broad implications for multiple other diseases, can provide alternative directions for future investigative research, and may contribute to the ongoing redefinition of immune dysfunction and inflammation.

  8. Photodissociation of metal-silicon clusters: encapsulated versus surface-bound metal. (United States)

    Jaeger, J B; Jaeger, T D; Duncan, M A


    Metal-silicon cluster cations of the form MSi(n)+ (M = Cu, Ag, Cr) are produced in a molecular beam with pulsed laser vaporization. These species are mass-selected in a reflectron time-of-flight spectrometer and studied with laser photodissociation at 532 and 355 nm. For the noble metals copper and silver, photodissociation of the n = 7 and 10 clusters proceeds primarily by the loss of metal atoms, indicating that the metal is not located within the interior of silicon cages, and that metal-silicon bonding is weaker than silicon-silicon bonding. Chromium-silicon clusters for n = 7 also lose primarily the metal atom, but at n = 15 and 16 these dissociate via the loss of silicon, producing smaller metal-silicon species. This behavior is consistent with stronger metal-silicon bonding and encapsulated metal structures, as suggested previously by theory. MSi6(+) cations are produced efficiently in all of these photodissociation processes, indicating that these species have enhanced stability compared to other small clusters. Improved values are obtained for the ionization potentials of Si7 and Si10.

  9. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler (United States)

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  10. Stretchable and foldable silicon-based electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Cavazos Sepulveda, Adrian Cesar


    Flexible and stretchable semiconducting substrates provide the foundation for novel electronic applications. Usually, ultra-thin, flexible but often fragile substrates are used in such applications. Here, we describe flexible, stretchable, and foldable 500-μm-thick bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100) “islands” that are interconnected via extremely compliant 30-μm-thick connectors made of silicon. The thick mono-crystalline segments create a stand-alone silicon array that is capable of bending to a radius of 130 μm. The bending radius of the array does not depend on the overall substrate thickness because the ultra-flexible silicon connectors are patterned. We use fracture propagation to release the islands. Because they allow for three-dimensional monolithic stacking of integrated circuits or other electronics without any through-silicon vias, our mono-crystalline islands can be used as a “more-than-Moore” strategy and to develop wearable electronics that are sufficiently robust to be compatible with flip-chip bonding.

  11. Sequential C-Si Bond Formations from Diphenylsilane: Application to Silanediol Peptide Isostere Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone; Skrydstrup, Troels


    and the first new carbon-silicon bond. The next step is the reduction of this hydridosilane with lithium metal providing a silyl lithium reagent, which undergoes a highly diastereoselective addition to an optically active tert-butanesulfinimine, thus generating the second C-Si bond. This method allows...

  12. Mapping strain fields in ultrathin bonded Si wafers by x-ray scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Poulsen, Mette; Bunk, Oliver


    X-ray scattering reveals the atomic displacements arising from rotational misalignment in ultrathin silicon bonded wafers. For a 4.3 nm top wafer, the strain field penetrates from the bonded interface to the surface and produces distinctive finite-size oscillations in x-ray data. Analytical...... calculations permit the atomic displacements throughout the thin top wafer to be modeled....

  13. The chemistry of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Rochow, E G; Emeléus, H J; Nyholm, Ronald


    Pergamon Texts in Organic Chemistry, Volume 9: The Chemistry of Silicon presents information essential in understanding the chemical properties of silicon. The book first covers the fundamental aspects of silicon, such as its nuclear, physical, and chemical properties. The text also details the history of silicon, its occurrence and distribution, and applications. Next, the selection enumerates the compounds and complexes of silicon, along with organosilicon compounds. The text will be of great interest to chemists and chemical engineers. Other researchers working on research study involving s

  14. Effect of Pre-heating on Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Dentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrahim Davari


    Full Text Available Direct composite resin restorations are widely used and the impact of different storage temperatures on composites is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin after different pre-curing temperatures.Occlusal surfaces of 44 human molars were ground with diamond burs under water coolant and polished with 600 grit silicon carbide papers to obtain flat dentin surfaces. The dentin was etched with 37% phosphoric acid and bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens were randomly divided into two groups (n=22 according to the composite resin applied: FiltekP60 and Filtek Z250. Each group included three subgroups of composite resin pre-curing temperatures (4°C, 23°C and 37°C. Composite resins were applied to the dentin surfaces in a plastic mold (8mm in diameter and 4mm in length incrementally and cured. Twenty-two composite-to-dentin hour-glass sticks with one mm(2 cross-sectional area per group were prepared. Microtensile bond strength measurements were made using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of one mm/min. For statistical analysis, t-test, one-way and two-way ANOVA were used. The level of significance was set at P<0.05.Filtek P60 pre-heated at 37ºC had significantly higher microtensile bond strength than Filtek Z250 under the same condition. The microtensile bond strengths were not significantly different at 4ºC, 23ºC and 37ºC subgroups of each composite resin group.Filtek P60 and Filtek Z250 did not have significantly different microtensile bond strengths at 4ºC and 23ºC but Filtek P60 had significantly higher microtensile bond strength at 37 ºC. Composite and temperature interactions had significant effects on the bond strength.

  15. Deriving the bond pricing equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša


    Full Text Available Given the recent focus on Eurozone debt crisis and the credit rating downgrade not only of US debt, but that of other countries and many UK major banking institutions, this paper aims to explain the concept of bond yield, its different measures and bond pricing equation. Yields on capital market instruments are rarely quoted on the same basis, which makes direct comparison between different as investment choices impossible. Some debt instruments are quoted on discount basis, whilst coupon-bearing ones accrue interest differently, offer different compounding opportunities, have different coupon payment frequencies, and manage non-business day maturity dates differently. Moreover, rules governing debt vary across countries, markets and currencies, making yield calculation and comparison a rather complex issue. Thus, some fundamental concepts applicable to debt instrument yield measurement, with focus on bond equation, are presented here. In addition, bond equation expressed in annuity form and used to apply Newton-Raphson algorithm to derive true bond yield is also shown.

  16. Quantification of Si in silicone oils by ICP-OES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Zhenyu


    A new simple and low cost method of quantification of trace amounts of silicon (Si) in silicone oils has been developed by combining the silicone emulsion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis. Silicone oils that contained phenyl groups in the viscosity...... range from 20 to 1000 mPa.s formed stable oil in water emulsions in the presence of Tween 80 surfactant and methylisobutylketone (MIBK). The Si in the emulsions was further quantified by ICP-OES. The calibration was performed using spiked inorganic silicon standard in the emulsions and the method...... (LOD) in the emulsion as 0.5 ppm Si. Compared to the Si determination by the direct organic solvent ICP-OES, this method is much more convenient, where a regular ICP-OES instrument can be directly used for the quantification of Si in the silicone oils obtained via extraction by organic solvents from...

  17. Effects of chlorhexidine on bonding durability of different adhesive systems using a novel thermocycling method. (United States)

    Deng, D; Huang, X; Huang, C; Yang, T; Du, X; Wang, Y; Ouyang, X; Pei, D


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of chlorhexidine on the bonding durability of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocycling method. Twenty freshly extracted intact human third molars were ground and bonded with either an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Single-Bond) or a self-etch adhesive (G-Bond). Specimens were either left untouched or placed in PCR tubes filled with three thermocycling mediums: water, chlorhexidine or silicone oil. Thermocycling (5000 cycles) was done using the PCR programme at temperatures of 5 °C and 55 °C. The microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was evaluated and interfacial nanoleakage was assessed by scanning electron microscopy before and after thermocycling. Significant differences were detected among groups kept in different media after thermocycling. For Single-Bond, both the chlorhexidine and silicone oil groups could preserve the μTBS (p Dental Association.

  18. Porous silicon gettering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Al-Jassim, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others


    We have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that utilizes the very large surface areas, produced by porous silicon etch on both front and back surfaces of the silicon wafer, as gettering sites. In this method, a simple and low-cost chemical etching is used to generate the porous silicon layers. Then, a high-flux solar furnace (HFSF) is used to provide high-temperature annealing and the required injection of silicon interstitials. The gettering sites, along with the gettered impurities, can be easily removed at the end the process. The porous silicon removal process consists of oxidizing the porous silicon near the end the gettering process followed by sample immersion in HF acid. Each porous silicon gettering process removes up to about 10 {mu}m of wafer thickness. This gettering process can be repeated so that the desired purity level is obtained.

  19. Demultiplexing Surface Waves With Silicon Nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, I.; Bogdanov, A.; Komissarenko, F.


    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin gold film with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation within extremely narrow spectral hand (! 50 nm), which is driven...

  20. Far-Infrared Signatures of Hydrogen Bonding in Phenol Derivatives. (United States)

    Bakker, Daniël J; Peters, Atze; Yatsyna, Vasyl; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Rijs, Anouk M


    One of the most direct ways to study the intrinsic properties of the hydrogen-bond interaction is by gas-phase far-infrared (far-IR) spectroscopy because the modes involving hydrogen-bond deformation are excited in this spectral region; however, the far-IR regime is often ignored in molecular structure identification due to the absence of strong far-IR light sources and difficulty in assigning the observed modes by quantum chemical calculations. Far-IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy using the free electron laser FELIX was applied to directly probe the intramolecular hydrogen-bond interaction in a family of phenol derivatives. Three vibrational modes have been identified, which are expected to be diagnostic for the hydrogen-bond strength: hydrogen-bond stretching and hydrogen-bond-donating and -accepting OH torsion vibrations. Their position is evaluated with respect to the hydrogen bond strength, that is, the length of the hydrogen-bonded OH length. This shows that the hydrogen bond stretching frequency is diagnostic for the size of the ring that is closed by the hydrogen bond, while the strength of the hydrogen bond can be determined from the hydrogen-bond-donating OH torsion frequency. The combination of these two normal modes allows the direct probing of intramolecular hydrogen-bond characteristics using conformation-selective far-IR vibrational spectroscopy.

  1. Stress-Free Bonding Technology with Pyrex for Highly Integrated 3D Fluidic Microsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Thoma


    Full Text Available In this article, a novel Pyrex reflow bonding technology is introduced which bonds two functional units made of silicon via a Pyrex reflow bonding process. The practical application demonstrated here is a precision dosing system that uses a mechanically actuated membrane micropump which includes passive membranes for fluid metering. To enable proper functioning after full integration, a technique for device assembly must be established which does not introduce additional stress into the system, but fulfills all other requirements, like pressure tolerance and chemical stability. This is achieved with a stress-free thermal bonding principle to bond Pyrex to silicon in a five-layer stack: after alignment, the silicon-Pyrex-silicon stack is heated to 730 °C. Above the glass transition temperature of 525 °C Pyrex exhibits viscoelastic behavior. This allows the glass layer to come into close mechanical contact with the upper and lower silicon layers. The high temperature and the close contact promotes the formation of a stable and reliable Si-O-Si bond, without introducing mechanical stress into the system, and without deformation upon cooling due to thermal mismatch.

  2. Indirect laminate veneers as an indirect bonding method. (United States)

    Miyazawa, Ken; Miwa, Hideyuki; Goto, Shigemi; Kondo, Takamasa


    Indirect bracket bonding methods that use individual tooth transfer trays offer several benefits compared to direct bonding techniques, as well as to indirect bonding systems that use transfer trays that include all of the teeth. Precise and correct bracket position presents the most significant advantage of all indirect bonding procedures, but this new indirect bracket bonding technique also provides unprecedented enamel protection and caries prevention. In addition, it provides accuracy for the recementation of any loose, broken, or lost brackets at their previous sites. This article presents the rationale and a step-by-step guide for implementing this indirect bracket bonding system.

  3. Nanosilica coating for bonding improvements to zirconia (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Chen, Gang; Xie, Haifeng; Dai, Wenyong; Zhang, Feimin


    Resin bonding to zirconia cannot be established from standard methods that are currently utilized in conventional silica-based dental ceramics. The solution–gelatin (sol–gel) process is a well developed silica-coating technique used to modify the surface of nonsilica-based ceramics. Here, we use this technique to improve resin bonding to zirconia, which we compared to zirconia surfaces treated with alumina sandblasting and tribochemical silica coating. We used the shear bond strength test to examine the effect of the various coatings on the short-term resin bonding of zirconia. Furthermore, we employed field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to characterize the zirconia surfaces. Water–mist spraying was used to evaluate the durability of the coatings. To evaluate the biological safety of the experimental sol–gel silica coating, we conducted an in vitro Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay (Ames mutagenicity test), cytotoxicity tests, and in vivo oral mucous membrane irritation tests. When compared to the conventional tribochemical silica coating, the experimental sol–gel silica coating provided the same shear bond strength, higher silicon contents, and better durability. Moreover, we observed no apparent mutagenicity, cytotoxicity, or irritation in this study. Therefore, the sol–gel technique represents a promising method for producing silica coatings on zirconia. PMID:24179333

  4. High Power Broadband Multispectral Source on a Hybrid Silicon Chip (United States)


    It is extracted from two similar lasers with different gain (g1 and g2), different gain-region lengths L1 and L2 , and a passive waveguide loss (αSi...process flow of the DFB QCLs following the grating and silicon waveguide definition . Figure 12. Simplified fabrication process flow: (a) Bond III

  5. Residual stress in silicon caused by Cu-Sn wafer-level packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taklo, M.M.V.; Vardøy, A.S.; Wolf, I. de; Simons, V.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Waal, A. van der; Lapadatu, A.; Martinsen, S.; Wunderle, B.


    The level of stress in silicon as a result of applying Cu-Sn SLID wafer level bonding to hermetically encapsulate a highperformance infrared bolometer device was studied. Transistors are present in the read out integrated circuit (ROIC) of the device and some are located below the bond frame. Test

  6. Acrylic mechanical bond tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouters, J.M.; Doe, P.J.


    The tensile strength of bonded acrylic is tested as a function of bond joint thickness. 0.125 in. thick bond joints were found to posses the maximum strength while the acceptable range of joints varied from 0.063 in. to almost 0.25 in. Such joints are used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  7. Phenylacetylene and H bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... all resembling H bonds. Non-linear H bonds due to secondary interactions. C-H stretching frequency shows blue shift. Heavy atom distances are longer than the sum of van der Waals radii. Formed a task group through IUPAC to come up with a modern definition of H bond. 15 international experts including Desiraju.

  8. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot


    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  9. A Ferroelectric Oxide Made Directly on Silicon (United States)


    SrTiO3 peak for the 8 ML sample. In (B) and (D), the intensity increases from white to red to blue to black . Fig. 3. PFM images (1 mm by 1 mm) of a 4 × 4...nonreactive (residual) carbon atoms in organic compounds. This reaction typically results in posi- tive correlations between the FeS2 andC* contents of...carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, amino acids, bitumen , and type I, II, and III kerogens). BSR is carried out by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), 1The NASA

  10. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Chemical Species in Silicon and Silicon-Rich Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill O. Bugaev


    Full Text Available Vibrational properties of hydrogenated silicon-rich nitride (SiN:H of various stoichiometry (0.6≤≤1.3 and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H films were studied using Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furnace annealing during 5 hours in Ar ambient at 1130∘C and pulse laser annealing were applied to modify the structure of films. Surprisingly, after annealing with such high-thermal budget, according to the FTIR data, the nearly stoichiometric silicon nitride film contains hydrogen in the form of Si–H bonds. From analysis of the FTIR data of the Si–N bond vibrations, one can conclude that silicon nitride is partly crystallized. According to the Raman data a-Si:H films with hydrogen concentration 15% and lower contain mainly Si–H chemical species, and films with hydrogen concentration 30–35% contain mainly Si–H2 chemical species. Nanosecond pulse laser treatments lead to crystallization of the films and its dehydrogenization.

  11. Comparison of effect of epoxy and silicone adhesive on the lifetime of plastic LED package (United States)

    Kim, Jemin; Ma, Byungjin; Lee, Kwanhun


    To compare the reliability of plastic LED packages based on different types of bonding adhesive, we designed two plastic LED package models using epoxy or silicone as bonding adhesive with normal refractive index (NRI) silicone, or high refractive index (HRI) silicone, as encapsulant. In addition, thermal acceleration tests were performed for 1,000 hours under three different temperatures, and optical characteristics were measured every 250 hours. Exponential decay of luminous flux of the plastic LED package was assumed and extrapolation was used to analyze the time-to-failure (TTF) of the plastic LED packages. From TTF data, statistical analysis was performed and reliability parameters such as acceleration factor (AF) and B10 lifetime at 40°C were estimated according to types of bonding adhesive and silicone encapsulant in plastic LED packages, with 90% confidence.

  12. Prospective bonding applications (United States)

    Ancenay, H.; Benazet, D.


    Adhesive bonding in industry and in the laboratory is surveyed and prospects for its wider utilization are assessed. The economic impact of bonding technology on industry is discussed. Research is reviewed, centering on the development of nondestructive testing and inspection techniques. Traditional (wood) as well as new materials susceptible to bonding are considered. Applications in construction and civil engineering, in aeronautics, and in the automobile industry are covered. The use of glues in mechanical constructions, in assembling cylindrical parts, and in metal-metal bonding are examined. Hybrid assembling and bonding of composite materials are included.

  13. Comparison of shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi S


    Full Text Available Amalgam′s non-adhesive characteristics necessitate cavity preparations incorporating retentive features, which often require the removal of non-carious tooth structure. Use of adhesives beneath amalgam restorations, would be helpful to overcome this disadvantage. This study was undertaken to compare the mean shear bond strength of amalgam bonded to primary and permanent dentin, to evaluate the efficacy of amalgam adhesives in pediatric dentistry.27 primary and 28 permanent posterior teeth with intact buccal or lingual surfaces were grounded to expose dentin and wet-polished with 400-grit silicone carbide paper. Scotchbond Multi Purpose Plus adhesive system was applied to the dentin surfaces and light cured. Amalgam was condensed onto the treated dentin through a plastic mold.shear bond strength testing was done using an Instron Universal testing machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min.The data were analyzed by independent samples t-test The difference among the two groups was not statistically significant (p>0.05 Bonded amalgam showed the same level of bond strength to primary and permanent dentin; so, application of amalgam bonding agents in pediatric dentistry can be recommended.

  14. Effects of different cavity disinfectants on shear bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite. (United States)

    Arslan, Soley; Yazici, A Ruya; Gorucu, Jale; Ertan, Atilla; Pala, Kansad; Ustun, Yakup; Antonson, Sibel A; Antonson, Donald E


    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different cavity disinfection agents on bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite. Thirty-six caries-free human third mandibular molars sectioned in mesio-distal direction were mounted in acrylic resin with their flat dentin surfaces exposed. After the dentin surfaces were wet ground with # 600 silicon carbide paper, the teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 12 each according to the cavity disinfection agents; chlorhexidine (CHX); sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), propolis, ozone, Er,Cr:YSGG laser and no treatment (control). After treatment of dentin surfaces with one of these cavity disinfection agents, Filtek Silorane adhesive system was applied. The silorane-based resin composite, Filtek Silorane was condensed into a mold and polymerized. After storage at 37°C for 24 hours, the specimens were tested in shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups (p>0.05). The use of the tested cavity disinfection agents, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, propolis, ozone and Er,Cr:YSGG laser did not significantly affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite, filtek supreme. Cavity disinfectant applications did not affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite.

  15. Facing the interaction of absorbed silicon nano-ribbons on silver (United States)

    Espeter, Philipp; Keutner, Christoph; Roese, Peter; Shamout, Karim; Berges, Ulf; Westphal, Carsten


    The atomic structure is one key property for any material. Despite great efforts during the last few years unveiling the internal structure of silicon nano-ribbons, analysis of the interfacial structure and bonding was neglected. We report on a comprehensive photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron diffraction study that reveals the weak interaction of silicon nano-ribbons with the underlying silver substrate identifying the specific locations of the individual silicon, as well as silver atoms. Furthermore, we provide unique experimental evidence that clarifies the origin of the two distinct chemically shifted components in the silicon photoelectron spectra.

  16. Liquid Silicon Pouch Anode (United States)


    Docket No. 300139 1 of 13 LIQUID SILICON POUCH ANODE STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured... silicon -based anodes during cycling, lithium insertion and deinsertion. Mitigation of this problem has long been sought and will result in improved...with other potential lithium alloy materials such as gallium and tin. Silicon -based solid state anodes are typically composed of small particles of

  17. Silicon spin communication


    Dery, Hanan; Song, Yang; Li, Pengke; Zutic, Igor


    Recent experimental breakthroughs have demonstrated that the electron spin in silicon can be reliably injected and detected as well as transferred over distances exceeding 1 mm. We propose an on-chip communication paradigm which is based on modulating spin polarization of a constant current in silicon wires. We provide figures of merit for this scheme by studying spin relaxation and drift-diffusion models in silicon.

  18. Handbook of silicon photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Pavesi, Lorenzo


    The development of integrated silicon photonic circuits has recently been driven by the Internet and the push for high bandwidth as well as the need to reduce power dissipation induced by high data-rate signal transmission. To reach these goals, efficient passive and active silicon photonic devices, including waveguide, modulators, photodetectors, multiplexers, light sources, and various subsystems, have been developed that take advantage of state-of-the-art silicon technology.

  19. Optimization of time–temperature schedule for nitridation of silicon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    compact on the basis of silicon and nitrogen reaction kinetics. J RAKSHIT and P K DAS*. Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Jadavpur, Calcutta 700 032, India. MS received 27 March 2000; revised 1 June 2000. Abstract. A time–temperature schedule for formation of silicon–nitride by direct nitridation of silicon ...

  20. Low cost routes to high purity silicon and derivatives thereof (United States)

    Laine, Richard M; Krug, David James; Marchal, Julien Claudius; Mccolm, Andrew Stewart


    The present invention is directed to a method for providing an agricultural waste product having amorphous silica, carbon, and impurities; extracting from the agricultural waste product an amount of the impurities; changing the ratio of carbon to silica; and reducing the silica to a high purity silicon (e.g., to photovoltaic silicon).

  1. Hydroxyapatite coating on silicon nitride surfaces using the biomimetic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Chaves Guedes e Silva


    Full Text Available Silicon nitride based ceramics are promising candidates for biomedical applications due to their chemical and dimensional stability associated to suitable mechanical strength and relatively high fracture toughness. However, the bioinert characteristics of these ceramics limit their application to situations where the formation of chemical bonds between the material and the tissue are not essential. A way to broaden the application field of these ceramics in medicine is promoting their bioactivity by means of a hydroxyapatite coating. Therefore, in this paper, samples of silicon nitride were coated with apatite using the biomimetic method. The treated silicon nitride surface was characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed, X ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that a layer of hydroxyapatite could be deposited by this method on silicon nitride samples surface.

  2. Experimental study on silicon micro-heat pipe arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, S.; Sartre, V.; Lallemand, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Villeurbanne (France). Centre de Thermique


    In this study, micro-heat pipe arrays etched into silicon wafers have been investigated for electronic cooling purposes. Micro-heat pipes of triangular cross-section and with liquid arteries were fabricated by wet anisotropic etching with a KOH solution. The microchannels (230 {mu}m wide) are closed by molecular bonding of a plain wafer with the grooved one. A test bench was developed for the micro-heat pipe filling and the thermal characterisation. The temperature profile on the silicon surface is deduced from experimental measurements. The results show that with the artery micro-heat pipe array, filled with methanol, the effective thermal conductivity of the silicon wafer is significantly improved compared to massive silicon. (author)

  3. Recent advances in C-S bond formation via C-H bond functionalization and decarboxylation. (United States)

    Shen, Chao; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Qiang; Bai, Shiqiang; Hor, T S Andy; Liu, Xiaogang


    The development of mild and general methods for C-S bond formation has received significant attention because the C-S bond is indispensable in many important biological and pharmaceutical compounds. Early examples for the synthesis of C-S bonds are generally limited to the condensation reaction between a metal thiolate and an organic halide. Recent chemical approaches for C-S bond formation, based upon direct C-H bond functionalization and decarboxylative reactions, not only provide new insights into the mechanistic understanding of C-S coupling reactions but also allow the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds from more effective synthetic routes with high atom economy. This review intends to explore recent advances in C-S bond formation via C-H functionalization and decarboxylation, and the growing opportunities they present to the construction of complex chemical scaffolds for applications encompassing natural product synthesis, synthetic methodology development, and functional materials as well as nanotechnology.

  4. Influence of light intensity on surface free energy and dentin bond strength of core build-up resins. (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Tsujimoto, A; Furuichi, T; Suzuki, T; Tsubota, K; Miyazaki, M; Platt, J A


    We examined the influence of light intensity on surface free energy characteristics and dentin bond strength of dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems. Two commercially available dual-cure direct core build-up resin systems, Clearfil DC Core Automix with Clearfil Bond SE One and UniFil Core EM with Self-Etching Bond, were studied. Bovine mandibular incisors were mounted in acrylic resin and the facial dentin surfaces were wet ground on 600-grit silicon carbide paper. Adhesives were applied to dentin surfaces and cured with light intensities of 0 (no irradiation), 200, 400, and 600 mW/cm(2). The surface free energy of the adhesives (five samples per group) was determined by measuring the contact angles of three test liquids placed on the cured adhesives. To determine the strength of the dentin bond, the core build-up resin pastes were condensed into the mold on the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces according to the methods described for the surface free energy measurement. The resin pastes were cured with the same light intensities as those used for the adhesives. Ten specimens per group were stored in water maintained at 37°C for 24 hours, after which they were shear tested at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Tukey-Kramer test were performed, with the significance level set at 0.05. The surface free energies of the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces decreased with an increase in the light intensity of the curing unit. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the type of core build-up system and the light intensity significantly influence the bond strength, although there was no significant interaction between the two factors. The highest bond strengths were achieved when the resin pastes were cured with the strongest light intensity for all the core build-up systems. When polymerized with a light intensity of 200 mW/cm(2) or less, significantly lower bond strengths were observed. CONClUSIONS: The

  5. Surface Modification by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Improved Bonding (United States)

    Williams, Thomas Scott

    An atmospheric pressure plasma source operating at temperatures below 150?C and fed with 1.0-3.0 volume% oxygen in helium was used to activate the surfaces of the native oxide on silicon, carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composite, stainless steel type 410, and aluminum alloy 2024. Helium and oxygen were passed through the plasma source, whereby ionization occurred and ˜10 16 cm-3 oxygen atoms, ˜1015 cm -3 ozone molecules and ˜1016 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecules (O21Deltag) were generated. The plasma afterglow was directed onto the substrate material located 4 mm downstream. Surface properties of the plasma treated materials have been investigated using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The work presented herein establishes atmospheric-pressure plasma as a surface preparation technique that is well suited for surface activation and enhanced adhesive bond strength in a variety of materials. Atmospheric plasma activation presents an environmentally friendly alternative to wet chemical and abrasive methods of surface preparation. Attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy was used to study the aging mechanism of the native oxide on silicon. During storage at ambient conditions, the water contact angle of a clean surface increased from peel ply. After oxygen plasma activation and joining the materials together with epoxy, one observes 100% cohesive failure within the cured film adhesive. Depending on the material, the lap shear strength can be increased several fold over that achieved by either solvent wiping or abrasion. The trends in adhesion with plasma exposure time do not correlate well with surface wetting or roughness; instead they correlate with the fraction of the polymer surface sites that are converted into carboxylic acid groups.

  6. Copper-assisted, anti-reflection etching of silicon surfaces (United States)

    Toor, Fatima; Branz, Howard


    A method (300) for etching a silicon surface (116) to reduce reflectivity. The method (300) includes electroless deposition of copper nanoparticles about 20 nanometers in size on the silicon surface (116), with a particle-to-particle spacing of 3 to 8 nanometers. The method (300) includes positioning (310) the substrate (112) with a silicon surface (116) into a vessel (122). The vessel (122) is filled (340) with a volume of an etching solution (124) so as to cover the silicon surface (116). The etching solution (124) includes an oxidant-etchant solution (146), e.g., an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The silicon surface (116) is etched (350) by agitating the etching solution (124) with, for example, ultrasonic agitation, and the etching may include heating (360) the etching solution (124) and directing light (365) onto the silicon surface (116). During the etching, copper nanoparticles enhance or drive the etching process.

  7. Recent Advances in Silicon Nanomaterial-Based Fluorescent Sensors. (United States)

    Wang, Houyu; He, Yao


    During the past decades, owing to silicon nanomaterials' unique optical properties, benign biocompatibility, and abundant surface chemistry, different dimensional silicon nanostructures have been widely employed for rationally designing and fabricating high-performance fluorescent sensors for the detection of various chemical and biological species. Among of these, zero-dimensional silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) and one-dimensional silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are of particular interest. Herein, we focus on reviewing recent advances in silicon nanomaterials-based fluorescent sensors from a broad perspective and discuss possible future directions. Firstly, we introduce the latest achievement of zero-dimensional SiNP-based fluorescent sensors. Next, we present recent advances of one-dimensional SiNW-based fluorescent sensors. Finally, we discuss the major challenges and prospects for the development of silicon-based fluorescent sensors.

  8. Weak bond screening system (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  9. Method to prevent recession loss of silica and silicon-containing materials in combustion gas environments (United States)

    Brun, Milivoj Konstantin; Luthra, Krishan Lal


    While silicon-containing ceramics or ceramic composites are prone to material loss in combustion gas environments, this invention introduces a method to prevent or greatly reduce the thickness loss by injecting directly an effective amount, generally in the part per million level, of silicon or silicon-containing compounds into the combustion gases.

  10. Kinetics of the Coupled Gas-Iron Reactions Involving Silicon and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kinetics of the Coupled Gas-Iron Reactions Involving Silicon and Carbon. ... proceeds as written for high initial carbon contents but proceeds in the reverse direction for high initial silicon contents. The rate-limiting factors seem to be the surface chemical reactions, with rate of supply of silicon monoxide probably contributing.

  11. Bond-Energy-Driven, Low- or High-Angle-Grain-Boundary-Movement-Mediated Synthesis of Porous Se-Te for Use in Water-Splitting Reactions. (United States)

    Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Nayak, Arpan Kumar; Kartikeya, Prashant; Pradhan, Debabrata; Pal, Tarasankar


    Herein, for the first time, we applied the metal-metal-bond-energy factor to the evolution of a porous Se-Te alloy. The porous Se-Te material has been prepared from the constituents' elemental states, through only a heating-cooling process in silicone oil without the use of any reagent, surfactant, or capping agent. Surprisingly, the reaction occurred at a much lower temperature (240 °C) than the mp (450 °C) of Te0. The reaction's nucleation and growth by means of varied bond energy have been clarified for the first time. A difference in the bond energies of a hetero metal-metal bond (Se-Te) and a homo metal-metal bond (Se-Se) directs nucleation and growth toward the fabrication of a porous structure, even from the constituents' elemental states, in which low-angle-grain-boundary (LAGB) and high-angle-grain-boundary (HAGB) movements play governing roles. Proper band-gap alignment of Se and Te makes the alloy composite applicable to water-splitting reactions under Xe-arc-lamp illumination. PEC efficiency of Se-Te was found to be higher than those reported for Se and other composite materials.

  12. High-contrast gratings for long-wavelength laser integration on silicon (United States)

    Sciancalepore, Corrado; Descos, Antoine; Bordel, Damien; Duprez, Hélène; Letartre, Xavier; Menezo, Sylvie; Ben Bakir, Badhise


    Silicon photonics is increasingly considered as the most promising way-out to the relentless growth of data traffic in today's telecommunications infrastructures, driving an increase in transmission rates and computing capabilities. This is in fact challenging the intrinsic limit of copper-based, short-reach interconnects and microelectronic circuits in data centers and server architectures to offer enough modulation bandwidth at reasonable power dissipation. In the context of the heterogeneous integration of III-V direct-bandgap materials on silicon, optics with high-contrast metastructures enables the efficient implementation of optical functions such as laser feedback, input/output (I/O) to active/passive components, and optical filtering, while heterogeneous integration of III-V layers provides sufficient optical gain, resulting in silicon-integrated laser sources. The latest ensure reduced packaging costs and reduced footprint for the optical transceivers, a key point for the short reach communications. The invited talk will introduce the audience to the latest breakthroughs concerning the use of high-contrast gratings (HCGs) for the integration of III-V-on-Si verticalcavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as Fabry-Perot edge-emitters (EELs) in the main telecom band around 1.55 μm. The strong near-field mode overlap within HCG mirrors can be exploited to implement unique optical functions such as dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM): a 16-λ100-GHz-spaced channels VCSEL array is demonstrated. On the other hand, high fabrication yields obtained via molecular wafer bonding of III-V alloys on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) conjugate excellent device performances with cost-effective high-throughput production, supporting industrial needs for a rapid research-to-market transfer.

  13. Sampling Artifacts from Conductive Silicone Tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timko, Michael T.; Yu, Zhenhong; Kroll, Jesse; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Liscinsky, David; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Holder, Amara L.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.


    We report evidence that carbon impregnated conductive silicone tubing used in aerosol sampling systems can introduce two types of experimental artifacts: 1) silicon tubing dynamically absorbs carbon dioxide gas, requiring greater than 5 minutes to reach equilibrium and 2) silicone tubing emits organic contaminants containing siloxane that adsorb onto particles traveling through it and onto downstream quartz fiber filters. The consequence can be substantial for engine exhaust measurements as both artifacts directly impact calculations of particulate mass-based emission indices. The emission of contaminants from the silicone tubing can result in overestimation of organic particle mass concentrations based on real-time aerosol mass spectrometry and the off-line thermal analysis of quartz filters. The adsorption of siloxane contaminants can affect the surface properties of aerosol particles; we observed a marked reduction in the water-affinity of soot particles passed through conductive silicone tubing. These combined observations suggest that the silicone tubing artifacts may have wide consequence for the aerosol community and should, therefore, be used with caution. Gentle heating, physical and chemical properties of the particle carriers, exposure to solvents, and tubing age may influence siloxane uptake. The amount of contamination is expected to increase as the tubing surface area increases and as the particle surface area increases. The effect is observed at ambient temperature and enhanced by mild heating (<100 oC). Further evaluation is warranted.

  14. Amorphous silicon passivation for 23.3% laser processed back contact solar cells (United States)

    Carstens, Kai; Dahlinger, Morris; Hoffmann, Erik; Zapf-Gottwick, Renate; Werner, Jürgen H.


    This paper presents amorphous silicon deposited at temperatures below 200 °C, leading to an excellent passivation layer for boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field areas in interdigitated back contact solar cells. A higher deposition temperature degrades the passivation of the boron emitter by an increased hydrogen effusion due to lower silicon hydrogen bond energy, proved by hydrogen effusion measurements. The high boron surface doping in crystalline silicon causes a band bending in the amorphous silicon. Under these conditions, at the interface, the intentionally undoped amorphous silicon becomes p-type conducting, with the consequence of an increased dangling bond defect density. For bulk amorphous silicon this effect is described by the defect pool model. We demonstrate, that the defect pool model is also applicable to the interface between amorphous and crystalline silicon. Our simulation shows the shift of the Fermi energy towards the valence band edge to be more pronounced for high temperature deposited amorphous silicon having a small bandgap. Application of optimized amorphous silicon as passivation layer for the boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field on the rear side of laser processed back contact solar cells, fabricated using four laser processing steps, yields an efficiency of 23.3%.

  15. [Effect of nano-silica coating on bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Fang; Zheng, Hu; Han, Dong-Wei


    To investigate the effect of silica coating by sol-gel process on bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin. Blocks of sintered zirconia ceramics were cut and randomly divided into 4 groups,16 slices in each group. Each group was subject to one of the 4 kinds of surface treatment (control group, sandblasting, sandblasting +silicone, sandblasting + silica coating + silicone) and then bonded to dentin with resin cement. After preservation in 37 degrees centigrade distilled water for 24 hours, the shear bonding strength of these specimens was tested and the data was analyzed with SAS6.12 software package for analysis of variance. The surface modality of the ceramics was observed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The group of sandblasting+ silica coating + silicone attained the highest shear bonding strength, which was significantly different from the other groups(P=0.000);There was no significant difference between the sandblasting and sandblasting + silicone group (P=0.827), which was significantly different from the control group(P=0.001). Silica coating by sol-gel process, coupled with silicone, can significantly increase the bonding strength of zirconia ceramics to dentin.

  16. The hydrogen bond in the solid state. (United States)

    Steiner, Thomas


    The hydrogen bond is the most important of all directional intermolecular interactions. It is operative in determining molecular conformation, molecular aggregation, and the function of a vast number of chemical systems ranging from inorganic to biological. Research into hydrogen bonds experienced a stagnant period in the 1980s, but re-opened around 1990, and has been in rapid development since then. In terms of modern concepts, the hydrogen bond is understood as a very broad phenomenon, and it is accepted that there are open borders to other effects. There are dozens of different types of X-H.A hydrogen bonds that occur commonly in the condensed phases, and in addition there are innumerable less common ones. Dissociation energies span more than two orders of magnitude (about 0.2-40 kcal mol(-1)). Within this range, the nature of the interaction is not constant, but its electrostatic, covalent, and dispersion contributions vary in their relative weights. The hydrogen bond has broad transition regions that merge continuously with the covalent bond, the van der Waals interaction, the ionic interaction, and also the cation-pi interaction. All hydrogen bonds can be considered as incipient proton transfer reactions, and for strong hydrogen bonds, this reaction can be in a very advanced state. In this review, a coherent survey is given on all these matters.

  17. Hydrogen Bonds and Life in the Universe. (United States)

    Vladilo, Giovanni; Hassanali, Ali


    The scientific community is allocating more and more resources to space missions and astronomical observations dedicated to the search for life beyond Earth. This experimental endeavor needs to be backed by a theoretical framework aimed at defining universal criteria for the existence of life. With this aim in mind, we have explored which chemical and physical properties should be expected for life possibly different from the terrestrial one, but similarly sustained by genetic and catalytic molecules. We show that functional molecules performing genetic and catalytic tasks must feature a hierarchy of chemical interactions operating in distinct energy bands. Of all known chemical bonds and forces, only hydrogen bonds are able to mediate the directional interactions of lower energy that are needed for the operation of genetic and catalytic tasks. For this reason and because of the unique quantum properties of hydrogen bonding, the functional molecules involved in life processes are predicted to have extensive hydrogen-bonding capabilities. A molecular medium generating a hydrogen-bond network is probably essential to support the activity of the functional molecules. These hydrogen-bond requirements constrain the viability of hypothetical biochemistries alternative to the terrestrial one, provide thermal limits to life molecular processes, and offer a conceptual framework to define a transition from a "covalent-bond stage" to a "hydrogen-bond stage" in prebiotic chemistry.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Gins


    Full Text Available Silicon is biologically important element that is necessary not only for plant, but for all living organisms. Silicon was discovered in all plant organs, where its much quantity accumulates in plan cell walls of leaf and root, giving them a mechanical durability and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses. Earlier, it was supposed that the silicon was absorbed by plants in form of monosilicic acid and then being deposited as phytoliths or accumulated in epidermal plant cells. Moreover the silicon is not only a basic structural element, but it controls many biological and chemical processes. Water soluble monosilicic acid enters into reaction with metals, organic compounds, showing properties of weak acid. Gels of silicic acid can be a catalyst and a matrix, on which the inner cellular synthesis of organic compounds occurs. In the present study the method to determinate three forms of silicon in plants, such as free, easily hydrolyzed and tightly combined is given. Thus, the part of silicon, 0.5-0.7% was observed in protein preparation of leaves of amaranth. Protein was divided into two fractions, albumins and globulins by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. After that each protein fraction was divided into two by Sephadex, where one of which come out in inner volume of gel, and second one come out in outer volume of gel (G-75. The gel distribution into fractions was of the same type characteristics. The tightly combined silicon was absent in high molecular fraction of albumins and globulins. Most of the silicon was discovered in high molecular fraction of globulins, where 80% of the element was represented by an easily hydrolyzed form. The silicon combined with proteins apparently is in a form of orthosilicic ester of hydroxy-amino acids; however it cannot be excluded that there is the formation of SiN bonds with free amino groups. Biophile silicon is a part of plant silicon (organogenic, which is basically in the form of orthosilicic

  19. Photoinduced phenomena in nanostructured porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce, R.D. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Koropecki, R.R. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Olmos, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, UNL, Sgo. Del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Gennaro, A.M. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Facultad de Bioquimica y Ciencias Biologicas, UNL, Paraje El Pozo S/N, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Schmidt, J.A. [INTEC (CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, UNL, Sgo. Del Estero 2829, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)


    In this work we study the evolution of porous silicon photoluminescence under illumination. Samples were obtained by electrochemical etching of crystalline silicon wafers of different types. For the p-type samples the evolution of the spectra is explained in terms of photoinduced oxidation of nanostructures, which in turns leads to a discrete change in the photoluminescence spectra, as we reported in previous works. For the n-type material, a progressive decrease of the luminescence intensity is observed, which is attributed to the photoinduced generation of dangling bond related defect states at the surface layer surrounding the nanostructures. This model explains qualitatively well the kinetics of the evolution of the measured photoluminescence. Preliminary results of electronic paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy agree with this model.

  20. Variance Risk Premia on Stocks and Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Philippe; Sabtchevsky, Petar; Vedolin, Andrea

    of correlation display distinct spikes in both directions and have been notably volatile since the financial crisis. Third $(i)$ short maturity TVRP predict excess returns on short maturity bonds; $(ii)$ long maturity TVRP and EVRP predict excess returns on long maturity bonds; and $(iii)$ while EVRP predict......-movement. We argue this result is consistent with an economy in which derivative markets embed fears about deflation....